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Sample records for vlt paranal chile

  1. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  2. ESO Council Decides to Continue VLT Project at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The Council [1] of the European Southern Observatory has met in extraordinary session at the ESO Headquarters in Garching near Munich on August 8 and 9, 1994. The main agenda items were concerned with the recent developments around ESO's relations with the host state, the Republic of Chile, as well as the status of the organisation's main project, the 16-metre equivalent Very Large Telescope (VLT) which will become the world's largest optical telescope. Council had decided to hold this special meeting [2] because of various uncertainties that have arisen in connection with the implementation of the VLT Project at Cerro Paranal, approx. 130 kilometres south of Antofagasta, capital of the II Region in Chile. Following continued consultations at different levels within the ESO member states and after careful consideration of all aspects of the current situation - including various supportive actions by the Chilean Government as well as the incessive attacks against this international organisation from certain sides reported in the media in that country - Council took the important decision to continue the construction of the VLT Observatory at Paranal, while at the same time requesting the ESO Management to pursue the ongoing studies of alternative solutions. THE COUNCIL DECISIONS In particular, the ESO Council took note of recent positive developments which have occurred since the May 1994 round of discussions with the Chilean authorities in Santiago. The confirmation of ESO's immunities as an International Organization in Chile, contained in a number of important statements and documents, is considered a significant step by the Chilean Government to insure to ESO the unhindered erection and later operation of the VLT on Paranal. Under these circumstances and in order to maintain progress on the VLT project, the ESO Council authorized the ESO Management to continue the on-site work at Paranal. Council also took note of the desire expressed by the Chilean Government

  3. The European Southern Observatory and VLT telescopes on Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Cerro Paranal is one of the most influential observing complexes in the world. In this overview lecture, an introduction to the ESO organization and VLT telescopes is presented, along with a small selection of scientific works. Particular attention is given to the importance of the VLT for the Russian scientific community, as well as to present and future perspectives for making use of ESO and VLT data.

  4. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  5. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  6. Data Mining for Double Stars on VLT Survey Telescope Image Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curelaru, Lucian

    2017-04-01

    The article presents a set of methods and tools used to identify and measure double stars on already existing images produced by the ESO VLT Survey Telescope in Paranal Chile. A precision analysis and a first set of measurements are included.

  7. "Clouds" above Paranal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    fulfilling the condition attached to the donation. The excavation work began at Paranal in 1992. When it was over in late 1993, a total of 300,000 m^3 of rock had been removed, creating a platform large enough for the extensive VLT installations at the top. In December 1993, ESO signed a contract with the Swedish firm SKANSKA-Belfry Ltd. for the construction of the VLT foundations and buildings. The team from this firm joined the other contractors (geological survey, installation of water tanks, etc.) at Paranal in January 1994. LEGAL PROBLEMS AROUND PARANAL However, in March 1993, the descendants of Admiral Juan Jose Latorre claimed that a part of the land which was donated to ESO and, in particular, the site upon which the VLT is to be constructed, had earlier been given to the admiral in return for his services to his fatherland during the Chilean wars of the late 19th century. The Latorre family introduced with the Court of Antofagasta a law suit against the State of Chile and against ESO, demanding that its property in this part of the land be recognized, that the land be returned and that damage be paid. The law suit and several legal actions of the Latorre family connected therewith have been brought to the attention of the public. Related public statements require that ESO makes the following comments and corrections. This is all the more the case since ESO enjoys in Chile a special legal status, the particulars of which are not well known there, apparently not even among members of the legal profession. The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere is an International Organisation which carries out its official activities in Chile on the basis of an international treaty that operates between the Government of Chile and ESO. The relations between the Organisation and the Republic of Chile are thus relations between two subjects of international law and they are as such exclusively governed by international law, in particular by the

  8. Happy Anniversary, VLT !

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Five years at the service of Europe's astronomers VLT 5 Years One of the world's most advanced astronomical research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama desert, celebrates an important anniversary today. On April 1, 1999, and following almost one year of extensive tests and careful trimming of its numerous high-tech parts, the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, Antu (UT1), was "handed over" to the astronomers. Since that date, science operations with this marvellous research tool have been continuous and intensive. Kueyen (UT2) started normal operations exactly one year later. Yepun (UT4) was offered to the scientific community in June 2001, while Melipal (UT3) followed in August 2001 [1]. Ever since, all four VLT Unit Telescopes, with an ever-growing suite of highly specialised, extremely powerful astronomical instruments have been in full operation, 365 nights a year. And this with unequalled success, as demonstrated by a long list of important scientific results, including a substantial number of exciting discoveries that are now opening new horizons in astrophysics. Moreover, thanks to heroic and persistent efforts by the dedicated teams of ESO scientists and engineers, the "downtime" due to technical problems has been very small, about 3 per cent, a number that is unequalled among the world's large telescope facilities. In addition, the weather conditions at the Paranal site in the dry Atacama desert in Northern Chile are truly excellent - this is indeed one of the best locations for astronomical observations on the surface of the Earth - and the corresponding "weather downtime" has only been around 10 per cent. This has resulted in an unbelievably low value of total downtime, most likely a new world record for ground-based 8-10 m class telescopes. VLT strong points The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the world's largest and most advanced optical telescope. It comprises four 8.2-m reflecting Unit

  9. The Paranal Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Some years ago, the Paranal mountain was still a remote and inhospitable site, some 12 km from the Pacific Coast in the dry Atacama desert in northern Chile. Few aircraft passengers flying along that coast would notice anything particular about this peak, except perhaps that it was one of the tallest in the steep coastal mountain range. Already in the early 1960's, pioneer astronomers crossed this desolate region in search of suitable sites for future observatories. One of them, Jürgen Stock , did notice the Paranal peak as a possible candidate. However, without any water in this extremely dry area, how could any people, even hardy scientists, ever live up there? He then went on to discover La Silla, where ESO decided to build its first observatory in 1964. ESO presence at Paranal from 1983 In the beginning of the 1980's, when the main construction phase at La Silla was over, ESO launched a thorough search for the best possible site for the next-generation telescope, already then known as the "Very Large Telescope", or VLT. During this campaign, the Paranal mountain was visited by a small search troupe from this organisation, including the ESO Director General (1975 - 1987), Lo Woltjer . The first test measurements indicated a great potential for astronomical observations, both in term of clear nights and low humidity, the latter being particularly important for infrared observations. From 1983, ESO maintained a small site testing station at the top of Paranal. The meteorological conditions were registered around the clock and the atmospheric transparency and stability were recorded each night. At that time, the mountain Vizcachas, a site near ESO's first observatory, La Silla, and some 600 km further south, was also considered a possible site for the VLT. The data from the two sites were therefore carefully compared over a period of several years. Paranal becomes the site for the VLT Following the decision in December 1987 by the ESO Council to embark upon the

  10. Commissioner Potočnik at Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    As part of his first official trip to Brazil and Chile, the European Science and Research Commissioner, Janez Potočnik, visited Europe's flagship for ground-based astronomy, the ESO Paranal Observatory. ESO PR Photo 48a/07 ESO PR Photo 48a/07 Commissioner Potočnik at the Control-Console of the VLT The major facility atop the 2600m high Paranal mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert is the Very Large Telescope (VLT), whose design, instrument complement and operating principles set the standard for ground-based optical and infrared astronomy. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) enhances the capabilities of this unique facility even further as do the survey telescopes VST (optical) and VISTA (infrared). Publication statistics show that the VLT provides data for a scientific paper every day, all year round. The Commissioner was accompanied, among others, by Jaime Pérez Vidal, Head of Delegation of the European Commission (EC) to Chile, Mary Minch and Cornelia Nauen, respectively Director and Principal Administrator of International Scientific Cooperation for the EC, and Hervé Peró, Head of EC Unit Research Infrastructures. The visitors were able to acquaint themselves with the VLT during an overnight stay at this remote site. The guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Felix Mirabel, and the Director of the Paranal Observatory, Andreas Kaufer, as well as ESO staff members of many nationalities. The visitors were shown the various frontline installations at the observatory, including many of the distinctive VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. The Commissioner was provided with a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. ESO PR Photo 48b/07 ESO PR Photo 48b/07 Commissioner Potočnik Visiting the ESO Observatory at Paranal Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean

  11. German Foreign Minister Visits Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    During his current tour of countries in South America, the Honourable Foreign Minister of Germany, Mr. Joschka Fischer, stopped over at the ESO Paranal Observatory Wednesday night (March 6 - 7, 2002). Arriving in Antofagasta, capital of the II Chilean region, the Foreign Minister and his suite was met by local Chilean officials, headed by Mr. Jorge Molina, Intendente of the Region, as well as His Excellency, the German Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Georg CS Dick and others. In the afternoon of March 6, the Foreign Minister, accompanied by a distinguished delegation from the German Federal Parliament as well as by businessmen from Germany, travelled to Paranal, site of the world's largest optical/infrared astronomical facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The delegation was welcomed by the Observatory Director, Dr. Roberto Gilmozzi, the VLT Programme Manager, Professor Massimo Tarenghi, the ESO Representative in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt and ESO staff members, and also by Mr. Reinhard Junker, Deputy Director General (European Co-operation) at the German Ministry for Education and Research. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at this remote desert site, some of which have been constructed by German firms. Moreover, most of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes, several of these in Germany. One of the latest arrivals to Paranal, the CONICA camera (cf. ESO PR 25/01 ), was built under an ESO contract by the Max-Planck-Institutes for Astronomy (MPIA, in Heidelberg) and Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE, in Garching). The guests had the opportunity to enjoy the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the terrace of the new Residencia building ( Photos 05/02 ). At the beginning of the night, the Minister was invited to the Control Room for the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) from where this unique new facility ( ESO PR 23/01 ) is now being thoroughly tested

  12. Obsolescence of electronics at the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüdepohl, Gerhard; Haddad, Juan-Pablo; Lucuix, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Observatory (VLT) at Cerro Paranal in Chile had its first light in 1998. Most of the telescopes' electronics components were chosen and designed in the mid 1990s and are now around 20 years old. As a consequence we are confronted with increasing failure rates due to aging and lack of spare parts, since many of the components are no longer available on the market. The lifetime of large telescopes is generally much beyond 25 years. Therefore the obsolescence of electronics components and modules becomes an issue sooner or later and forces the operations teams to upgrade the systems to new technology in order to avoid that the telescope becomes inoperable. Technology upgrade is a time and money consuming process, which in many cases is not straightforward and has various types of complications. This paper shows the strategy, analysis, approach, timeline, complications and progress in obsolescence driven electronics upgrades at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory.

  13. Violation of International Law on Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Yesterday, 30 March 1995 at 12:40 h Chilean time, a Chilean court official, Mr. Javier Jimenez, Receptor Indicial, accompanied by Chilean Carabinieros, forced an entry to the premises of ESO on Cerro Paranal without permission of ESO and without agreement between the Chilean Government and ESO, although warned that this act was in violation of the status of ESO as an international organization on the basis of the 1963 Convention and subsequent agreements between the Government of Chile and ESO. This action was taken on the basis of a decision by the Supreme Court in Chile on 28 March 1995 to enforce a previous court decision taken on 20 March 1995 in Antofagasta, applying a work stoppage for the VLT (Very Large Telescope) Observatory on Paranal and to assess the present state of constructions, any further construction work to be destroyed at the cost of ESO. This action is a very serious and unprecedented event in the relations between an international organization and its host state. It has occurred notwithstanding the fact that ESO had repeatedly requested the Chilean Government to ensure that the immunities of ESO be respected and had received assurances that the Government of Chile supported the ESO position. This includes the following points: first that the privileges and immunities granted to ESO by the 1963 Convention extend to the entire territory of Chile, second that the donation of the Paranal site by the Chilean Government to ESO in 1988, had been done in accordance with the rules of international law and under the condition that the construction of the VLT Observatory should be initiated within 5 years. This act raises to a new level the quality of the harassment to its activities in Chile, which ESO has experienced in the past year and will result in substantial financial damage to the VLT project. In view of the seriousness of the situation the President of the ESO Council, Dr. Peter Creola, in consultation with the Director General of ESO, Prof

  14. President of Czech Republic visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    On 6 April 2011, the ESO Paranal Observatory was honoured with a visit from the President of the Czech Republic, Václav Klaus, and his wife Livia Klausová, who also took the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones, the future site of the planned E-ELT. The distinguished visitor was shown the technical installations at the observatory, and was present when the dome of one of the four 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope opened for a night's observing at Cerro Paranal, the world's most advanced visible-light observatory. "I'm delighted to welcome President Klaus to the Paranal Observatory and to show him first-hand the world-leading astronomical facility that ESO has designed, has built, and operates for European astronomy," said ESO's Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. President Klaus replied, "I am very impressed by the remarkable technology that ESO has built here in the heart of the desert. Czech astronomers are already making good use of these facilities and we look forward to having Czech industry and its scientific community contribute to the future E-ELT." From the VLT platform, the President had the opportunity to admire Cerro Armazones as well as other spectacular views of Chile's Atacama Desert surrounding Paranal. Adjacent to Cerro Paranal, Armazones has been chosen as the site for the future E-ELT (see eso1018). ESO is seeking approval from its governing bodies by the end of 2011 for the go-ahead for the 1-billion euro E-ELT. Construction is expected to begin in 2012 and the start of operations is planned for early in the next decade. President Klaus was accompanied by the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, Karel Schwarzenberg, the Czech Ambassador in Chile, Zdenek Kubánek, dignitaries of the government, and a Czech industrial delegation. The group was hosted at Paranal by the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw, the ESO Representative in Chile, Massimo Tarenghi, the Director of Operations, Andreas Kaufer, and Jan Palous

  15. South America Delegation of the European Parliament Visits ESO's Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Chaired by Dr. Rolf Linkohr , Members of the European Parliament Delegation for Relations with the Countries of South America and MERCOSUR visited ESO's Paranal Observatory on October 29-30, 2003. As the world's most advanced optical/infrared astronomical facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal is the flagship of European astronomy and a powerful expression of Europe's ambitions in this important area of fundamental research. It is also an outstanding example of the capabilities of Europe's high-technology industries. At the same time, the Paranal Observatory provides a model for international, scientific co-operation between Europe and Latin America, based on agreements between ESO and the Republic of Chile. The deputies were accompanied by the ESO Representative in Chile, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt . Upon arrival Wednesday afternoon, the Delegation was welcomed by Dr. Roberto Gilmozzi , Director of ESO Paranal. The distinguished visitors were impressed by the instrumentation park available to astronomical research at Paranal. During a nightly visit to the Control Centre of the observatory, they met with visiting astronomers and ESO staff and experienced some of the exciting research programmes now being carried out with the VLT at the front line of human knowledge. For Dr. Linkohr , Astrophysics means high-tech today and it has many ramifications in other areas of Science and Technology. "Europe cannot be better represented in Latin America - and in Chile in particular - than by such an outstanding scientific and technical achievement as the VLT" , he said. ESO has received support from EU programmes. "Current interactions between ESO and the EU have shown that first-rate windows of opportunities exist in high-tech developments, indispensable for our continued exploration of the unknown" , indicated Dr. Gilmozzi . The deputies are leaving Paranal today (Thursday October 30th), continuing to La Serena before travelling back to Santiago de Chile. The

  16. With the VLT Interferometer towards Sharper Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre Opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) European science and technology will gain further strength when the new, front-line Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) this week. It is a joint venture of the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) (itself a collaboration between the Universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden, and Utrecht) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is concerned with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The Inauguration of the new Centre will take place on Friday, May 26, 2000, at the Gorlaeus Laboratory (Lecture Hall no. 1), Einsteinweg 55 2333 CC Leiden; the programme is available on the web. Media representatives who would like to participate in this event and who want further details should contact the Nova Information Centre (e-mail: jacques@astro.uva.nl; Tel: +31-20-5257480 or +31-6-246 525 46). The inaugural ceremony is preceded by a scientific workshop on ground and space-based optical interferometry. NEVEC: A Technology Centre of Excellence As a joint project of NOVA and ESO, NEVEC will develop in the coming years the expertise to exploit the unique interferometric possibilities of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) - now being built on Paranal mountain in Chile. Its primary goals are the * development of instrument modeling, data reduction and calibration techniques for the VLTI; * accumulation of expertise relevant for second-generation VLTI instruments; and * education in the use of the VLTI and related matters. NEVEC will develop optical equipment, simulations and software to enable interferometry with VLT [1]. The new Center provides a strong impulse to Dutch participation in the VLTI. With direct involvement in this R&D work, the scientists at NOVA will be in the front row to do observations with this unique research facility, bound to produce top-level research and many exciting new discoveries. The ESO VLTI at Paranal ESO PR Photo 14a/00

  17. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  18. VLT Data Flow System Begins Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Building a Terabyte Archive at the ESO Headquarters The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the sum of many sophisticated parts. The site at Cerro Paranal in the dry Atacama desert in Northern Chile is one of the best locations for astronomical observations from the surface of the Earth. Each of the four 8.2-m telescopes is a technological marvel with self-adjusting optics placed in a gigantic mechanical structure of the utmost precision, continuously controlled by advanced soft- and hardware. A multitude of extremely complex instruments with sensitive detectors capture the faint light from distant objects in the Universe and record the digital data fast and efficiently as images and spectra, with a minimum of induced noise. And now the next crucial link in this chain is in place. A few nights ago, following an extended test period, the VLT Data Flow System began providing the astronomers with a steady stream of high-quality, calibrated image and spectral data, ready to be interpreted. The VLT project has entered into a new phase with a larger degree of automation. Indeed, the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU, with the FORS1 and ISAAC instruments, has now become a true astronomy machine . A smooth flow of data through the entire system ESO PR Photo 25a/99 ESO PR Photo 25a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 292 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 584 pix - 264k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2189 pix - 1.5M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 25a/99 : Simplified flow diagramme for the VLT Data Flow System . It is a closed-loop software system which incorporates various subsystems that track the flow of data all the way from the submission of proposals to storage of the acquired data in the VLT Science Archive Facility. The DFS main components are: Program Handling, Observation Handling, Telescope Control System, Science Archive, Pipeline and Quality Control. Arrows indicate lines of feedback. Already from the start of this project more than ten years ago, the ESO Very Large Telescope was

  19. Paranal Impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The main construction phase at the ESO Paranal Observatory is now over and normal operations have begun with two of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes, ANTU and KUEYEN. The next major event will be the installation of the first astronomical instrument, VIMOS (VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph) , at the third telescope, MELIPAL. "First Light" for the fourth telescope, YEPUN will follow later this year. The present collection of 29 photos illustrates the current state of the VLT site. They have been divided by theme into five sections that may be accessed by clicking on the corresponding images above. Technical Information These photos were made by ESO photographer Hans Hermann Heyer in March 2000. They are available on the web in three formats: "preview" (about 400 pix), "normal" (about 800 pix) and "high-resolution" (3000 pix), serving the different needs for a quick view to high-quality reproduction. Depending on the nature of the subject as well as the properties of the available photographic films, Leica M6, Hasselblad SWC, Linhof Technika 6x9 or Sinar 4x5" cameras were used. The objective focal length ranged from 21mm to 280mm, resulting in viewing angles from approximately 10° to 115°. Various Fuji and Kodak colour slide films with speeds from 18°/50 to 36°/3200 ISO/ASA were used. The reproductions shown here were scanned from the original films and image processed by the author. This is the introductory caption to ESO PR Photos 15a-ac/00 . They may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  20. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  1. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  2. Coming Home at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    Unique "Residencia" Opens at the VLT Observatory Summary The Paranal Residencia at the ESO VLT Observatory is now ready and the staff and visitors have moved into their new home. This major architectural project has the form of a unique subterranean construction with a facade opening towards the Pacific Ocean , far below at a distance of about 12 km. Natural daylight is brought into the building through a 35-m wide glass-covered dome, a rectangular courtyard roof and various skylight hatches. Located in the middle of the Atacama Desert, one of the driest areas on Earth, the Residencia incorporates a small garden and a swimming pool, allowing the inhabitants to retreat from time to time from the harsh outside environment. Returning from long shifts at the VLT and other installations on the mountain, here they can breathe moist air and receive invigorating sensory impressions. With great originality of the design, it has been possible to create an interior with a feeling of open space - this is a true "home in the desert" . Moreover, with strict ecological power, air and water management , the Paranal Residencia has already become a symbol of innovative architecture in its own right. Constructed with robust, but inexpensive materials, it is an impressively elegant and utilitarian counterpart to the VLT high-tech facilities poised some two hundred meters above, on the top of the mountain. PR Photo 05a/02 : Aerial view of the Paranal Observatory area. PR Photo 05b/02 : Aerial view of the Paranal Residencia . PR Photo 05c/02 : Outside view of the Paranal Residencia . PR Photo 05d/02 : The Entry Hall (fisheye view). PR Photo 05e/02 : The Entry Hall with garden and pool. PR Photo 05f/02 : The Reception Area . PR Photo 05g/02 : The Reception Area - decoration. PR Photo 05h/02 : The Reception Area - decoration. PR Photo 05i/02 : The Reception Area - decoration. PR Photo 05j/02 : View towards the Cantine . PR Photo 05k/02 : View towards the Kitchen . PR Photo 05l/02 : View

  3. New Paranal Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Last year saw very good progress at ESO's Paranal Observatory , the site of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The third and fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescopes, MELIPAL and YEPUN had "First Light" (cf. PR 01/00 and PR 18/00 ), while the first two, ANTU and KUEYEN , were busy collecting first-class data for hundreds of astronomers. Meanwhile, work continued towards the next phase of the VLT project, the combination of the telescopes into the VLT Interferometer. The test instrument, VINCI (cf. PR 22/00 ) is now being installed in the VLTI Laboratory at the centre of the observing platform on the top of Paranal. Below is a new collection of video sequences and photos that illustrate the latest developments at the Paranal Observatory. The were obtained by the EPR Video Team in December 2000. The photos are available in different formats, including "high-resolution" that is suitable for reproduction purposes. A related ESO Video News Reel for professional broadcasters will soon become available and will be announced via the usual channels. Overview Paranal Observatory (Dec. 2000) Video Clip 02a/01 [MPEG - 4.5Mb] ESO PR Video Clip 02a/01 "Paranal Observatory (December 2000)" (4875 frames/3:15 min) [MPEG Video+Audio; 160x120 pix; 4.5Mb] [MPEG Video+Audio; 320x240 pix; 13.5 Mb] [RealMedia; streaming; 34kps] [RealMedia; streaming; 200kps] ESO Video Clip 02a/01 shows some of the construction activities at the Paranal Observatory in December 2000, beginning with a general view of the site. Then follow views of the Residencia , a building that has been designed by Architects Auer and Weber in Munich - it integrates very well into the desert, creating a welcome recreational site for staff and visitors in this harsh environment. The next scenes focus on the "stations" for the auxiliary telescopes for the VLTI and the installation of two delay lines in the 140-m long underground tunnel. The following part of the video clip shows the start-up of the excavation work for the 2.6-m VLT Survey

  4. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  5. MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    First Instruments for the VLT Interferometer Summary A few months from now, light from celestial objects will be directed for the first time towards ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). During this "First Light" event and the subsequent test phase, the light will be recorded with a special test instrument, VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument). The main components of this high-tech instrument are aptly named MONA (a system that combines the light beams from several telescopes by means of optical fibers) and LISA (the infrared camera). VINCI was designed and constructed within a fruitful collaboration between ESO and several research institutes and industrial companies in France and Germany . It is now being assembled at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will soon be ready for installation at the telescope on Paranal. With the VLTI and VINCI, Europe's astronomers are now entering the first, crucial phase of an exciting scientific and technology venture that will ultimately put the world's most powerful optical/IR interferometric facility in their hands . PR Photo 31/00 : VINCI during tests at the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) ESO Press Photo 31/00 ESO Press Photo 31/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 301; 43k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 602;208xk] [Full-Res; JPEG: 1923 x 1448; 2.2Mb] PR Photo 31/00 shows the various components of the complex VINCI instrument for the VLT Interferometer , during the current tests at the Optical Laboratory at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). It will later be installed in "clean-room" conditions within the Interferometric Laboratory at the Paranal Observatory. This electronic photo was obtained for documentary purposes. VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument) is the "First Light" instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Early in 2001, it will be used for the first tests

  6. MOSE: a feasibility study for optical turbulence forecasts with the Meso-Nh mesoscale model to support AO facilities at ESO sites (Paranal and Armazones)

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; 10.1117/12.925924

    2012-01-01

    We present very encouraging preliminary results obtained in the context of the MOSE project, an on-going study aiming at investigating the feasibility of the forecast of the optical turbulence and meteorological parameters (in the free atmosphere as well as in the boundary and surface layer) at Cerro Paranal (site of the Very Large Telescope - VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the European Extremely Large Telescope - E-ELT), both in Chile. The study employs the Meso-Nh atmospheric mesoscale model and aims at supplying a tool for optical turbulence forecasts to support the scheduling of the scientific programs and the use of AO facilities at the VLT and the E-ELT. In this study we take advantage of the huge amount of measurements performed so far at Paranal and Armazones by ESO and the TMT consortium in the context of the site selection for the E-ELT and the TMT to constraint/validate the model. A detailed analysis of the model performances in reproducing the atmospheric parameters (T, V, p, H, ...) near the g...

  7. The ESO Paranal instrumentation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca

    2016-08-01

    The Paranal Instrumentation Programme is responsible for planning and delivering the instruments and the associated infrastructure needed to keep the VLT and La Silla Observatories at the forefront of ground-based astronomy. The VLT second generation instruments KMOS, MUSE and SPHERE have been delivered and are in operations, GRAVITY is under commissioning at the renewed VLTI facility. The Adapative Optics Facility is moving towards completion, as well as the high resolution spectrograph ESPRESSO and the VLTI second generation instrument MATISSE. The mid-IR imager and spectrograph VISIR has been upgraded, and a major upgrade of the CRIRES spectrograph is under way. Finally, two new Multi Object Spectrographs projects have started, one for the VLT (MOONS), one for the 4M VISTA telescope (4MOST), and two new instruments for La Silla, (SOXS and NIRPS) fully funded by the community, are being agreed. The Programme follows a roadmap that foresees one new instrument/project or one upgrade starting every year. Active management, cost to completion and risk policy are in place.

  8. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved

  9. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    ESO Video Newsreel 15, released on March 14, 2005. It provides an introduction to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the two Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) now installed at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 07a/05 shows the impressive ensemble at the summit of Paranal. From left to right, the enclosure of VLT Antu, Kueyen and Melipal, AT1, the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) in the background, AT2 and VLT Yepun. Located at the summit of the 2,600-m high Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert (Chile), ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is at the forefront of astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The href="/instruments/vlti">VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The VLTI is arguably the world's most advanced optical device of this type. It has already demonstrated its powerful capabilities by addressing several key scientific issues, such as determining the size and the shape of a variety of stars (ESO PR 22/02, PR 14/03 and PR 31/03), measuring distances to stars (ESO PR 25/04), probing the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around young stars (ESO PR 27/04) or making the first detection by infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object (ESO PR 17/03). "Little Brothers" ESO PR Photo 07b/05 ESO PR Photo 07b/05 [Preview - JPEG: 597 x 400 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 1193 x 800 pix - 330k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3354 pix - 10.0M] ESO PR Photo 07c/05 ESO PR Photo 07c/05

  10. Multiple Eyes for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    First System of Deployable Multi-Integral Field Units Ready Summary The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory is being equipped with many state-of-the-art astronomical instruments that will allow observations in a large number of different modes and wavebands. Soon to come is the Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph (FLAMES) , a project co-ordinated by ESO. It incorporates several complex components, now being constructed at various research institutions in Europe and Australia. One of these, a true technological feat, is a unique system of 15 deployable fibre bundles, the so-called Integral Field Units (IFUs) . They can be accurately positioned within a sky field-of-view measuring no less that 25 arcmin in diameter, i.e., almost as large as the full Moon . Each of the IFUs looks like an insect's eye and images a small sky area (3 x 2 arcsec 2 ) with a multiple microlens. From each IFU, 20 narrow light beams are sent via optical fibres to an advanced spectrograph. All 300 spectra are recorded simultaneously by a sensitive digital camera. A major advantage of this technique is that, contrary usual spectroscopic observations in which spectral information is obtained along a (one-dimensional) line on the sky, it now allows (two-dimensional) area spectroscopy . This will permit extremely efficient spectral observations of many celestial objects, including faint galaxies, providing detailed information about their internal structure and motions. Such studies will have an important impact on our understanding, e.g., of the early evolution of galaxies , the main building blocks in the Universe. The IFUs have been developed by a team of astronomers and engineers [2] at the Observatoire de Paris-Meudon. All IFU components are now at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) where they are being checked and integrated into the instrument [3]. PR Photo 03a/02 : The GIRAFFE spectrograph in the ESO Assembly Hall (Garching, Germany) . PR Photo 03b/02

  11. OmegaCAM: the 16k × 16k Survey Camera for the VLT Survey Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deul, Erik; Kuijken, Konrad; Valentijn, Edwin A.; Tyson, J. Anthony; Wolff, Sidney

    2002-01-01

    OmegaCAM, a 16k×16k-pixel wide field optical camera, and the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) that is to host it, will constitute a major sky surveying machine that becomes operational in 2004 at ESO"s Paranal Observatory. It maps one square degree of sky with 0.21 arcsec sized pixels. Both individual pro

  12. Paranal maintenance and CMMS experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Nelson

    2004-10-01

    During the last four years of operations, low technical downtime has been one of the relevant records of the Paranal Observatory. From the beginning of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) project, European Southern Observatory (ESO) has considered the implementation of a proper maintenance strategy a fundamental point in order to ensure low technical down time and preserve the Observatory's assets. The implementation of the maintenance strategy was based on the following aspects: - Strong maintenance sense during the design stage. Line Replacement Unit (LRU) concept, standardization and modularity of the Observatory equipment - Creation of a dedicated team for Maintenance - The implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System After four operational years, the result of these aspects has exceeded the expectations; the Observatory has been operating with high availability under a sustainable strategy. The strengths of the maintenance strategy have been based on modern maintenance concepts applied by regular production companies, where any minute of down time involves high cost. The operation of the actual Paranal Maintenance System is based mainly on proactive activities, such as regular inspections, preventive maintenance (PM) and predictive maintenance (PdM) plans. Nevertheless, it has been necessary to implement a strong plan for corrective maintenance (CM). The Spare Parts Strategy has also been an important point linked to the Maintenance Strategy and CMMS implementation. At present, almost 4,000 items related to the Observatory spare parts are loaded into the CMMS database. Currently, we are studying the implementation of a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) project in one of our critical systems The following document presents the actual status of the Paranal Maintenance Strategy and which have been the motivations to implement the established strategy.

  13. VLT telescope control software: status, development, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirenstrand, Krister

    2003-02-01

    The four 8m VLT telescopes on Paranal are now in full science operation, and they all deliver good results with very small technical downtimes. Of course, many factors are contributing to these results, and also the telescope control software has its share. It has demonstrated to be robust and reliable and also flexible and expandable. In the four years since First Light of the first VLT telescope, this software has been continuously maintained and developed, for improvements on the 8m telescopes but also for use on other telescopes. In addition to the 8m ones, another three telescopes, using applicable parts of the same software, are in operation on Paranal: the 350- mm seeing monitor and two 400-mm siderostats. And the process continues: in the beginning of 2003 the first of three 1.8m Auxiliary Telescopes for the VLT Interferometer will be installed; the control software to 80% being the same as for the 8m telescopes, but with additional devices and control functionality. Another three ESO telescopes on La Silla are also using the same software, as well as two wide field telescopes for Paranal that are now in the design and manufacturing phase. In this development process, and in particular after first installation, we have learned lessons in many areas of software project work. System design and engineering, standardization, tools, testing: these are example areas where there is always room for improvement. Another lesson learned is the importance of the concept of Commissioning, i.e. the work to take the telescope from "integrated" to "working"! What the future of telescope control software will be, that we don't know, but we are working on it! And we try to keep an evolutionary approach, taking advantage of the lessons learned.

  14. New Vistas Open with MIDI at the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    "First Fringes" in Mid-Infrared Spectral Region with Two Giant Telescopes Summary Following several weeks of around-the-clock work, a team of astronomers and engineers from Germany, the Netherlands, France and ESO [2] has successfully performed the first observations with the MID-Infrared interferometric instrument (MIDI), a new, extremely powerful instrument just installed in the underground laboratory of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In the early morning of December 15, 2002, two of the 8.2 m VLT unit telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL) were pointed towards the southern star eta Carinae and the two light beams were directed via the complex intervening optics system towards MIDI. After a few hours of tuning and optimization, strong and stable interferometric fringes were obtained, indicating that all VLTI components - from telescopes to the new instrument - were working together perfectly. Two more stars were observed before sunrise, further proving the stability of the entire system. The first observations with MIDI mark one more important step towards full and regular operation of the VLT Interferometer [3] . They are a result of five years of determined efforts within a concerted technology project, based on a close collaboration between ESO and several European research institutes (see below). Now opening great research vistas, they also represent several "firsts" in observational astrophysics, together amounting to a real breakthrough in the field of astronomical interferometry . New views at mid-infrared wavelengths : MIDI is sensitive to light of a wavelength near 10 µm, i.e., in the mid-infrared spectral region ("thermal infrared"). This provides rich opportunities to study a wide range of otherwise inaccessible, crucial astrophysical phenomena, e.g., the formation of planets in dusty disks around newborn stars and the innermost regions around black holes. However, it is a great technical challenge to perform mid

  15. Quantification of non-LTE contributions to OH rotational temperatures based on VLT/X-shooter, VLT/UVES, and TIMED/SABER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Proxauf, Bastian; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Jones, Amy M.

    2016-04-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) airglow emission is very valuable for estimating atmospheric temperatures at about 87 km because it is relatively easy to measure. The usual approach is based on intensity ratios of OH lines with low rotational upper levels of a given band and the assumption of a Boltzmann distribution of the level populations consistent with the ambient temperature. However, this assumption can be unrealistic if the frequency of thermalising collisions is too low, which is most likely at the highest emission altitudes. We have investigated the amounts of possible non-LTE contributions to the measured OH rotational temperatures depending on the selected lines, band, and time of observation. For this, we used several hundred spectra from the echelle spectrograph X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data with a very wide wavelength coverage allowed us to simultaneously measure temperatures for 25 OH bands and two O2 bands. The latter were used to obtain reference temperatures, which is possible since the radiative lifetimes of the upper states are sufficiently long for establishing full thermalisation for the populations of the different rotational levels. For a comparison of the resulting temperatures, a correction of the different emission altitudes is required. Hence, we also used CO2-based temperature and OH and O2 emission profile data from the SABER multi-channel radiometer on the TIMED satellite. The altitude-corrected OH rotational temperatures show significant non-LTE effects for higher vibrational levels of the upper state v' and especially even v'. The maximum deviations of more than 10 K were found for v' = 8. The non-LTE effects can vary within a range of a few K. The studied nocturnal variations indicate that the non-LTE contributions increase when the emission layer rises. Finally, we will also present first results for several thousand spectra taken with the VLT high-resolution optical echelle spectrograph UVES

  16. The Dancing Sky: 6 years of night sky observations at Cerro Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Patat, F

    2008-01-01

    The present work provides the results of the first six years of operation of the systematic night-sky monitoring at ESO-Paranal (Chile). The UBVRI night-sky brightness was estimated on about 10,000 VLT-FORS1 archival images, obtained on more than 650 separate nights, distributed over 6 years and covering the descent from maximum to minimum of sunspot cycle n.23. Additionally, a set of about 1,000 low resolution, optical night-sky spectra have been extracted and analyzed. The unprecedented database discussed in this paper has led to the detection of a clear seasonal variation of the broad band night sky brightness in the VRI passbands, similar to the well known semi-annual oscillation of the NaI D doublet. The spectroscopic data demonstrate that this seasonality is common to all spectral features, with the remarkable exception of the OH rotational-vibrational bands. A clear dependency on the solar activity is detected in all passbands and it is particularly pronounced in the U band, where the sky brightness de...

  17. MOSE: a feasibility study for optical turbulence forecast with the Meso-Nh mesoscale model to support AO facilities at ESO sites (Paranal and Armazones)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciadri, Elena; Lascaux, Franck

    2012-07-01

    We present very encouraging preliminary results obtained in the context of the MOSE project, an on-going study aiming at investigating the feasibility of the forecast of the optical turbulence and meteorological parameters (in the free atmosphere as well as in the boundary and surface layer) at Cerro Paranal (site of the Very Large Telescope - VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the European Extremely Large Telescope - E-ELT), both in Chile. The study employs the Meso-Nh atmospheric mesoscale model and aims at supplying a tool for optical turbulence forecasts to support the scheduling of the scientific programs and the use of AO facilities at the VLT and the E-ELT. In this study we take advantage of the huge amount of measurements performed so far at Paranal and Armazones by ESO and the TMT consortium in the context of the site selection for the E-ELT and the TMT to constraint / validate the model. A detailed analysis of the model performances in reproducing the atmospheric parameters (T, V, p, H, ...) near the ground as well as in the free atmosphere, is critical and fundamental because the optical turbulence depends on most of these parameters. This approach permits us to provide an exhaustive and complete analysis of the model performances and to better define the model operational application. This also helps us to identify the sources of discrepancies with optical turbulence measurements (when they appear) and to discriminate between different origins of the problem: model parameterization, initial conditions, ... Preliminary results indicate a great accuracy of the model in reproducing most of the main meteorological parameters in statistical terms as well as in each individual night in the free atmosphere and in proximity of the surface. The study is co-funded by ESO and INAF-Arcetri (Italy).

  18. VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope no. 1 (as on September 7, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    ESO Press Photos 28-30/95; 13 September 1995 The construction of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) advances rapidly, both in Europe and in Chile. These three photos show some of the main mechanical parts of the first 8.2-metre telescope, as they presented themselves in Milan (Italy) on Thursday, September 7, 1995. Two versions of these photos, one smaller and one larger and with better image resolution, are accessible for convenient transfer over the networks. The mechanical structure of VLT Unit Telescope no. 1 is now in the process of being mounted at the Ansaldo Energia premises in Milan (Italy). The so-called main structure (i.e., telescope azimuth and altitude mechanical structure, including hydrostatic bearing system, direct drives and direct mounted encoding system) was designed and is being built by the Italian consortium AES, composed of Ansaldo Energia (Genova), SOIMI (Milan) and EIE (Venice). Already two months from now, in November 1995, the complete, enormous mechanical structures of this telescope will be moving on the azimuth hydrostatic bearing tracks, using the direct drive system designed and built by the PHASE Company (Genova, Italy). The thorough testing phase will start by the end of December 1995 or at the beginning of January 1996. ESO Press Photo 28/95 [54K] [248K] shows the lower part of the azimuth structure of the telescope (the fork) on the concrete pier on which the azimuth tracks (hydrostatic bearing journal) are mounted. The very high accuracy of this enormous structure (compare with the persons in the photo!) is illustrated by the fact that the "run-out" of the azimuth axis of the fork has been measured as only 80 microns (0.08 millimetres) on 90 degrees turning angle. This is a remarkable result, especially since the centering of the axis is done on a radial journal with a diameter of no less than 9 metres. When the fork is equipped with all auxiliary systems, it will weigh about 320 t, will be 18 metres long and 8 metres wide. It

  19. Maintenance management at La Silla Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Nelson

    2008-07-01

    From the beginning of the VLT project, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) considered the application of a competent maintenance strategy a fundamental aspect for future operations of the Paranal Observatory. For that purpose, a special maintenance philosophy was developed during the project stage and applied during the initial years of operations. The merging of the La Silla and Paranal Observatories in 2005 added a new managerial challenge to the regular operational requirements (high availability and reliability) which motivated ESO Management to develop a stronger strategy for the operations of the new merged Observatory. Part of the new strategy considered the creation of a dedicated department for the management of all maintenance activities, separating this support from the traditional scheme where the Engineering Department had the responsibility for the entire technical support to operations. In order to keep a competent level of maintenance operations for the new unified Observatory, the La Silla Paranal (LSP) Maintenance Department has been using a well known maintenance management model used in various industrial applications as a guide. Today the operations of the Maintenance Department are concentrated on developing and implementing practices regarding concepts such as Maintenance Tactics, Planning, Data Management, Performance Indicators and Material Management. In addition to that, advances related to Reliability Analysis been taken in order to reach a superior level of excellence. The results achieved by the LSP Maintenance Department are reflected in a reduced rate of functional failures, allowing uninterrupted operations of the Observation sites.

  20. Mapping of Ozone on Mars at Infrared Wavelengths Using Crires at VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeva, Y. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G.; Novak, R.; Hartogh, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Kaufl, H.; Smette, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present spatially resolved maps of ozone and water on Mars, acquired on 21 August 2009 using the ultra-high resolution infrared spectrometer CRIRES at ESO’s VLT (Paranal, Chile). On Mars, the season was mid-summer in the South (Ls = 325) and the latitudinal resolution was 10 degrees FWHM at disk center. Ozone is produced by recombination of photochemically produced O and O2. It is destroyed by UV photolysis (with O2 (a1Dg) as a principal product) but also by reaction with odd hydrogen species (especially, H - a product of H2O vapor photolysis). Thus, simultaneous measurements of water and ozone can test this relationship. We quantified ozone using spectral lines (near 1.27 mm) of O2 (a1Dg). The emission from O2 (a1Dg) serves as a tracer for O3 above 20 km, since at lower altitudes collisions with CO2 quench the excited O2 (a1Dg) molecules. We confirmed the vertical location of the O2 (a1Dg) emission by extracting rotational temperatures from line-by-line ratios, and comparing them with standard vertical temperature profiles for this season and location(s). On the same night, we also obtained 2-D (lat-long) maps of Martian water from multiple H2O lines detected in the 3.3 mm region. We compare our retrieved distributions for ozone (latitude and altitude) with predictions of Lefevre et al. [I] based on their comprehensive 3-D circulation and photochemical model for the Martian atmosphere. Acknowledgements: This work was funded by NASA’s R&A Programs in Astrobiology (344-53-51), Planetary Astronomy (344-32-51-96), and Planetary Atmospheres (NNX09AB65G). We gratefully acknowledge the Director and staff of the European Southern Observatory, for supporting these observations. References: [I] Lefevre et al. (2004), J. of Geophys. Res. 109, E07004

  1. Designing a common real-time controller for VLT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauvir, Bertrand; Wallander, Anders; Duhoux, Philippe; Huxley, Alexis; Karban, Robert

    2004-09-01

    The increasing number of digital control applications in the context of the VLT, and particularly the VLT Interferometer, brought the need to find a common solution to address the problems of performance and maintainability. Tools for Advanced Control (TAC) aims at helping both control and software engineers in the design and prototyping of real-time control applications by providing them with a set of standard functions and an easy way to combine them to create complex control algorithms. In this paper we describe the software architecture and design of TAC, the VLT standard for digital control applications. Algorithms are described at schematic level and take the form of a set of interconnected function blocks. Periodical execution of the algorithm as well as features like runtime modification of parameters and probing of internal data are also managed by TAC, allowing the application designers to avoid spending time writing low value software code and therefore focus on application-specific concerns. We also summarize the results achieved on the first actual applications using TAC, to manage real-time control or digital signal processing algorithms, currently deployed and being commissioned at Paranal Observatory.

  2. VLT Captures First Direct Spectrum of an Exoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    (University of Toronto, Canada), C. Bergfors, M. Goto, W. Brandner (Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany) and D. Lafrenière (University of Montreal, Canada). Preparatory data were taken with the IRCS instrument at the Subaru telescope. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory, and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  3. MOSE: zooming on the Meso-NH mesoscale model performances at the surface layer at ESO sites (Paranal and Armazones)

    CERN Document Server

    Lascaux, Franck; di Arcetri, INAF / Osservatorio Astrofisico; 10.1117/12.925934

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the MOSE project, in this contribution we present a detailed analysis of the Meso-NH mesoscale model performances and their dependency on the model and orography horizontal resolutions in proximity of the ground. The investigated sites are Cerro Paranal (site of the ESO Very Large Telescope - VLT) and Cerro Armazones (site of the ESO European Extremely Large Telescope - E-ELT), in Chile. At both sites, data from a rich statistical sample of different nights are available - from AWS (Automated Weather Stations) and masts - giving access to wind speed, wind direction and temperature at different levels near the ground (from 2 m to 30 m above the ground). In this study we discuss the use of a very high horizontal resolution (dX=0.1 km) numerical configuration that overcomes some specific limitations put in evidence with a standard configuration with dX=0.5 km. In both sites results are very promising. The study is co-funded by ESO and INAF.

  4. "First Light" for the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Excellent Fringes From Bright Stars Prove VLTI Concept Summary Following the "First Light" for the fourth of the 8.2-m telescopes of the VLT Observatory on Paranal in September 2000, ESO scientists and engineers have just successfully accomplished the next major step of this large project. On March 17, 2001, "First Fringes" were obtained with the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) - this important event corresponds to the "First Light" for an astronomical telescope. At the VLTI, it occurred when the infrared light from the bright star Sirius was captured by two small telescopes and the two beams were successfully combined in the subterranean Interferometric Laboratory to form the typical pattern of dark and bright lines known as " interferometric fringes ". This proves the success of the robust VLTI concept, in particular of the "Delay Line". On the next night, the VLTI was used to perform a scientific measurement of the angular diameter of another comparatively bright star, Alpha Hydrae ( Alphard ); it was found to be 0.00929±0.00017 arcsec . This corresponds to the angular distance between the two headlights of a car as seen from a distance of approx. 35,000 kilometres. The excellent result was obtained during a series of observations, each lasting 2 minutes, and fully confirming the impressive predicted abilities of the VLTI . This first observation with the VLTI is a monumental technological achievement, especially in terms of accuracy and stability . It crucially depends on the proper combination and functioning of a large number of individual opto-mechnical and electronic elements. This includes the test telescopes that capture the starlight, continuous and extremely precise adjustment of the various mirrors that deflect the light beams as well as the automatic positioning and motion of the Delay Line carriages and, not least, the optimal tuning of the VLT INterferometer Commissionning Instrument (VINCI). These initial observations prove the overall concept for the

  5. VLT Instruments Pipeline System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y.; Ballester, P.; Banse, K.; Hummel, W.; Izzo, C.; McKay, D. J.; Kiesgen, M.; Lundin, L. K.; Modigliani, A.; Palsa, R. M.; Sabet, C.

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the VLT operations in 1998, substantial effort has been put in the development of automatic data reduction tools for the VLT instruments. A VLT instrument pipeline is a complex system that has to be able to identify and classify each produced FITS file, optionally retrieve calibration files from a database, use an image processing software to reduce the data, compute and log quality control parameters, produce FITS images or tables with the correct headers, optionally display them in the control room and send them to the archive. Each instrument has its own dedicated pipeline, based on a common infrastructure and installed with the VLT Data Flow System (DFS). With the increase in the number and the complexity of supported instruments and in the rate of produced data, these pipelines are becoming vital for both the VLT operations and the users, and request more and more resources for development and maintenance. This paper describes the different pipeline tasks with some real examples. It also explains how the development process has been improved to both decrease its cost and increase the pipelines quality using the lessons learned from the first instruments pipelines development.

  6. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    First Polarimetric Detection of Explosion Asymmetry has Cosmological Implications Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has performed new and very detailed observations of a supernova in a distant galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). They show for the first time that a particular type of supernova, caused by the explosion of a "white dwarf", a dense star with a mass around that of the Sun, is asymmetric during the initial phases of expansion . The significance of this observation is much larger than may seem at a first glance . This particular kind of supernova, designated "Type Ia", plays a very important role in the current attempts to map the Universe. It has for long been assumed that Type Ia supernovae all have the same intrinsic brightness , earning them a nickname as "standard candles". If so, differences in the observed brightness between individual supernovae of this type simply reflect their different distances. This, and the fact that the peak brightness of these supernovae rivals that of their parent galaxy, has allowed to measure distances of even very remote galaxies . Some apparent discrepancies that were recently found have led to the discovery of cosmic acceleration . However, this first clearcut observation of explosion asymmetry in a Type Ia supernova means that the exact brightness of such an object will depend on the angle from which it is seen. Since this angle is unknown for any particular supernova, this obviously introduces an amount of uncertainty into this kind of basic distance measurements in the Universe which must be taken into account in the future. Fortunately, the VLT data also show that if you wait a little - which in observational terms makes it possible to look deeper into the expanding fireball - then it becomes more spherical. Distance determinations of supernovae that are performed at this later stage will therefore be more accurate. PR Photo 24a/03 : Spiral galaxy NGC

  7. The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Taylor, W.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.; Bonanos, A.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.; Izzard, R.; Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.; Stroud, V.; van Loon, J.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on

  8. Preserving Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Brennand, Charlotte P.

    2010-01-01

    The best way to preserve chile depends on how you plan to use it and your available storage space. Frozen or canned chile is best for chile rellenos and salsas. Stews can use frozen, canned or dried chile. Dried chile has minimal storage requirements and is light-weight for taking on camping trips. Pickled chiles can be used on a relish plate or as an ingredient in other dishes.

  9. AVES: an adaptive optics visual echelle spectrograph for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca; Delabre, Bernard; Avila, Gerardo; Bonaccini, Domenico

    1998-07-01

    We present the preliminary study of a low cost, high performance spectrograph for the VLT, for observations in the V, R and I bands. This spectrograph is meant for intermediate (R equals 16,000) resolution spectroscopy of faint (sky and/or detector limited) sources, with particular emphasis on the study of solar-type (F-G) stars belonging to the nearest galaxies and to distant (or highly reddened) galactic clusters. The spectrograph is designed to use the adaptive optics (AO) systems at the VLT Telescope. Even if these AO systems will not provide diffraction limited images in the V, R and I bands, the photon concentration will still be above approximately 60% of the flux in an 0.3 arcsecond aperture for typical Paranal conditions. This makes the construction of a compact, cheap and efficient echelle spectrograph possible. AVES will outperform comparable non adaptive optic instruments by more than one magnitude for sky- and/or detector-limited observations, and it will be very suitable for observations in crowded fields.

  10. ESPRESSO: the ultimate rocky exoplanets hunter for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Denis; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Cabral, Alexandre; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Amate, Manuel; Pepe, Francesco; Cristiani, Stefano; Rebolo, Rafael; Santos, Nuno C.; Dekker, Hans; Abreu, Manuel; Affolter, Michael; Avila, Gerardo; Baldini, Veronica; Bristow, Paul; Broeg, Christopher; Carvas, Pedro; Cirami, Roberto; Coelho, João.; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Coretti, Igor; Cupani, Guido; D'Odorico, Valentina; De Caprio, Vincenzo; Delabre, Bernard; Figueira, Pedro; Fleury, Michel; Fragoso, Ana; Genolet, Ludovic; Gomes, Ricardo; Gonzalez Hernandez, Jonay; Hughes, Ian; Iwert, Olaf; Kerber, Florian; Landoni, Marco; Lima, Jorge; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Lovis, Christophe; Maire, Charles; Mannetta, Marco; Martins, Carlos; Moitinho, André; Molaro, Paolo; Monteiro, Manuel; Rasilla, José Luis; Riva, Marco; Santana Tschudi, Samuel; Santin, Paolo; Sosnowska, Danuta; Sousa, Sergio; Spanò, Paolo; Tenegi, Fabio; Toso, Giorgio; Vanzella, Eros; Viel, Matteo; Zapatero Osorio, Maria Rosa

    2012-09-01

    ESPRESSO, the VLT rocky exoplanets hunter, will combine the efficiency of modern echelle spectrograph with extreme radial-velocity precision. It will be installed at Paranal on ESO's VLT in order to achieve a gain of two magnitudes with respect to its predecessor HARPS, and the instrumental radial-velocity precision will be improved to reach 10 cm/s level. We have constituted a Consortium of astronomical research institutes to fund, design and build ESPRESSO on behalf of and in collaboration with ESO, the European Southern Observatory. The project has passed the preliminary design review in November 2011. The spectrograph will be installed at the so-called "Combined Coudé Laboratory" of the VLT, it will be linked to the four 8.2 meters Unit Telescopes (UT) through four optical "Coudé trains" and will be operated either with a single telescope or with up to four UTs. In exchange of the major financial and human effort the building Consortium will be awarded with guaranteed observing time (GTO), which will be invested in a common scientific program. Thanks to its characteristics and the ability of combining incoherently the light of 4 large telescopes, ESPRESSO will offer new possibilities in many fields of astronomy. Our main scientific objectives are, however, the search and characterization of rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of quiet, near-by G to M-dwarfs, and the analysis of the variability of fundamental physical constants. In this paper, we present the ambitious scientific objectives, the capabilities of ESPRESSO, the technical solutions for the system and its subsystems, enlightening the main differences between ESPRESSO and its predecessors. The project aspects of this facility are also described, from the consortium and partnership structure to the planning phases and milestones.

  11. Successful "First Light" for VLT High-Resolution Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Great Research Prospects with UVES at KUEYEN A major new astronomical instrument for the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile), the UVES high-resolution spectrograph, has just made its first observations of astronomical objects. The astronomers are delighted with the quality of the spectra obtained at this moment of "First Light". Although much fine-tuning still has to be done, this early success promises well for new and exciting science projects with this large European research facility. Astronomical instruments at VLT KUEYEN The second VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope, KUEYEN ("The Moon" in the Mapuche language), is in the process of being tuned to perfection before it will be "handed" over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. The testing of the new giant telescope has been successfully completed. The latest pointing tests were very positive and, from real performance measurements covering the entire operating range of the telescope, the overall accuracy on the sky was found to be 0.85 arcsec (the RMS-value). This is an excellent result for any telescope and implies that KUEYEN (as is already the case for ANTU) will be able to acquire its future target objects securely and efficiently, thus saving precious observing time. This work has paved the way for the installation of large astronomical instruments at its three focal positions, all prototype facilities that are capable of catching the light from even very faint and distant celestial objects. The three instruments at KUEYEN are referred to by their acronyms UVES , FORS2 and FLAMES. They are all dedicated to the investigation of the spectroscopic properties of faint stars and galaxies in the Universe. The UVES instrument The first to be installed is the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) that was built by ESO, with the collaboration of the Trieste Observatory (Italy) for the control software. Complete tests of its optical and mechanical components, as well as of its CCD detectors and of the complex

  12. Evolution of operations for the Survey Telescope at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Cristian M.; Mieske, Steffen; Brillant, Stéphane; Pino, Andres; Cerda, Susana; Reyes, Claudia; La Fuente, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Since 2009, operations began at the Survey Telescopes at Paranal Observatory. The surveys aimed to observe using a large field of view targeting much fainter sources and covering wide areas of sky quickly. The first to enter operations was VISTA (Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) and then the VST Telescope (VLT Survey Telescope). The survey telescopes introduced a change into the operational model of the time. The observations were wholly conducted by the telescope and instrument operator without the aid of a support astronomer. This prompted the gradual and steady improvement of tools for the operation of the observatory both generally and in particular for the Survey Telescopes. Examples of these enhancements include control systems for image quality, selection of OBs, logging of evening activities, among others. However, the new generation instruments at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) posed a new challenge to the observatory from a scientific and operational point of view. As these new systems were more demanding and complex, they would be more complicated to operate and require additional support. Hence, the focus of this study is to explore the possible development and optimization of the operations of the Survey telescopes, which would give greater operational flexibility in regards to the new generation instruments. Moreover, we aim to evaluate the feasibility of redistributing of telescope operators during periods of increased demand from other VLT systems.

  13. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Querel, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 {\\mu}m) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5{\\deg} el...

  14. The VLT Unravels the Nature of the Fastest Binary Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    faintest star that can be seen by unaided eye (V-magnitude 21.1). Follow-up observations were carried out with several world class telescopes, including the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, and also the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) , the Italian 4-m class observatory at the Roche de Muchachos Observatory on La Palma in the Canary Islands. The nature of RX J0806.3+1527 ESO PR Photo 10b/02 ESO PR Photo 10b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 756 x 400 pix - 168] [Normal - JPEG: 1512 x 800 pix - 368k] Caption : PR Photo 10b/02 shows the spectrum of RX J0806.3+1527, obtained with the FORS1 multi-mode instrument on VLT ANTU. Many emission lines of ionized helium (He II) and some of doubly ionized carbon (C III) and nitrogen (N III) are seen. They testify to the very high surface temperature of the stars in this system. Technical information about the photo is available below. The observations in visible light also showed the same effect: RX J0806.3+1527 was getting dimmer once every 5 minutes, while no other periodic modulation was seen. By observing the spectrum of this faint object with the FORS1 multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope, the astronomers were able to determine the composition of RX J0806.3+1527 . It was found to contain large amounts of helium ; this is unlike most other stars, which are mainly made up of hydrogen. "At the outset, we thought that this was just another of the usual binary systems that emit X-rays", says Gianluca Israel . "None of us could imagine the real nature of this object. We finally solved the puzzle by eliminating all other possibilities one by one, while we kept collecting more data. As the famous detective said: when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth!". Current theory predicts that the two stars, which are bound together by gravity in this tight system, produce X rays when one of them acts as a giant "vacuum cleaner", drawing gas off its

  15. VIMOS - a Cosmology Machine for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Successful Test Observations With Powerful New Instrument at Paranal [1] Summary One of the most fundamental tasks of modern astrophysics is the study of the evolution of the Universe . This is a daunting undertaking that requires extensive observations of large samples of objects in order to produce reasonably detailed maps of the distribution of galaxies in the Universe and to perform statistical analysis. Much effort is now being put into mapping the relatively nearby space and thereby to learn how the Universe looks today . But to study its evolution, we must compare this with how it looked when it still was young . This is possible, because astronomers can "look back in time" by studying remote objects - the larger their distance, the longer the light we now observe has been underway to us, and the longer is thus the corresponding "look-back time". This may sound easy, but it is not. Very distant objects are very dim and can only be observed with large telescopes. Looking at one object at a time would make such a study extremely time-consuming and, in practical terms, impossible. To do it anyhow, we need the largest possible telescope with a highly specialised, exceedingly sensitive instrument that is able to observe a very large number of (faint) objects in the remote universe simultaneously . The VLT VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) is such an instrument. It can obtain many hundreds of spectra of individual galaxies in the shortest possible time; in fact, in one special observing mode, up to 6400 spectra of the galaxies in a remote cluster during a single exposure, augmenting the data gathering power of the telescope by the same proportion. This marvellous science machine has just been installed at the 8.2-m MELIPAL telescope, the third unit of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the ESO Paranal Observatory. A main task will be to carry out 3-dimensional mapping of the distant Universe from which we can learn its large-scale structure . "First light

  16. The VLT Real Time Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  17. VLT laser guide star facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccini, Domenico; Allaert, Eric; Araujo, Constanza; Brunetto, Enzo; Buzzoni, Bernard; Comin, Mauro; Cullum, Martin J.; Davies, Richard I.; Dichirico, Canio; Dierickx, Philippe; Dimmler, Martin; Duchateau, Michel; Egedal, Carsten; Hackenberg, Wolfgang K. P.; Hippler, Stefan; Kellner, Stefan; van Kesteren, Arno; Koch, Franz; Neumann, Udo; Ott, Thomas; Quattri, Marco; Quentin, Jutta; Rabien, Sebastian; Tamai, Roberto; Tapia, Mario; Tarenghi, Massimo

    2003-02-01

    We report on the ongoing VLT Laser Guide Star Facility project, which will allow the ESO UT4 telescope to produce an artificial reference star for the Adaptive Optics systems NAOS-CONICA and SINFONI. A custom developed dye laser producing >10W CW at 589nm is installed on-board of the UT4 telescope, then relayed by means of a single mode optical fiber behind the secondary mirror, where a 500mm diameter lightweight, f/1 launch telescope is projecting the laser beam at 90 km altitude. We described the design tradeoffs and provide some details of the chosen subsystems. This paper is an update including subsystems results, to be read together with our previous paper on LGSF design description.

  18. Sharpest Ever VLT Images at NAOS-CONICA "First Light"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Very Promising Start-Up of New Adaptive Optics Instrument at Paranal Summary A team of astronomers and engineers from French and German research institutes and ESO at the Paranal Observatory is celebrating the successful accomplishment of "First Light" for the NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility . With this event, another important milestone for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) project has been passed. Normally, the achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. However, with the Adaptive Optics (AO) technique, this drawback can be overcome and the telescope produces images that are at the theoretical limit, i.e., as sharp as if it were in space . Adaptive Optics works by means of a computer-controlled, flexible mirror that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence in real time. The larger the main mirror of the telescope is, and the shorter the wavelength of the observed light, the sharper will be the images recorded. During a preceding four-week period of hard and concentrated work, the expert team assembled and installed this major astronomical instrument at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN Unit Telescope (UT4). On November 25, 2001, following careful adjustments of this complex apparatus, a steady stream of photons from a southern star bounced off the computer-controlled deformable mirror inside NAOS and proceeded to form in CONICA the sharpest image produced so far by one of the VLT telescopes. With a core angular diameter of only 0.07 arcsec, this image is near the theoretical limit possible for a telescope of this size and at the infrared wavelength used for this demonstration (the K-band at 2.2 µm). Subsequent tests reached the spectacular performance of 0.04 arcsec in the J-band (wavelength 1.2 µm). "I am proud of this impressive achievement", says ESO Director General Catherine Cesarsky. "It shows the true potential of European science and technology and it provides a fine

  19. A Giant of Astronomy and a Quantum of Solace - James Bond filming at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Cerro Paranal, the 2600m high mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert that hosts ESO's Very Large Telescope, will be the stage for scenes in the next James Bond movie, "Quantum of Solace". ESO PR Photo 07a/08 ESO PR Photo 07a/08 The Paranal Residencia Looking akin to Mars, with its red sand and lack of vegetation, the Atacama Desert is thought to be the driest place on Earth. Cerro Paranal is home to ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), which, with its array of four giant 8.2-m individual telescopes, is the world's most advanced optical observatory. The high-altitude site and extreme dryness make excellent conditions for astronomical observations. "We needed a unique site for a unique set of telescopes, and we found it at Paranal," said Andreas Kaufer, ESO's Paranal Director. "We are very excited that the Bond production team have also chosen this location." The excellent astronomical conditions at Paranal come at a price, however. In this forbidding desert environment, virtually nothing can grow outside. The humidity drops below 10%, there are intense ultraviolet rays from the sun, and the high altitude leaves people short of breath. Living in this extremely isolated place feels like visiting another planet. To make it possible for people to live and work here, a hotel or "Residencia" was built in the base camp, allowing them to escape from the arid outside environment. Here, returning from long shifts at the VLT and other installations on the mountain, they can breathe moist air and relax, sheltered from the harsh conditions outside. The Residencia's award-winning design, including an enclosed tropical garden and pool under a futuristic domed roof, gives its interior a feeling of open space within the protective walls - this is a true "haven in the desert". It is this unique building that serves as the backdrop for the James Bond filming. View Larger Map QUANTUM OF SOLACE producer, Michael G. Wilson said: "The Residencia of Paranal Observatory caught the attention of

  20. Preliminary Results on VLT K-band Imaging Observations of GRB Host Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E. Le Floc’h; I. F. Mirabel; P.-A. Duc

    2002-03-01

    We have obtained -band imaging observations of Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) host galaxies with the near-infrared spectro-imager ISAAC installed on the Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile). The derived magnitudes, combined with other photometric data taken from the literature, are used to investigate the – colors of GRB hosts. We do not find any extremely reddened starbursts in our sample, despite the capability of GRBs to trace star formation even in dusty regions. The observed – colors are on the contrary typical of irregular and spiral blue galaxies at high redshift.

  1. Status and new operation modes of the versatile VLT/NACO

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, Julien H V; Quanz, Sascha P; Kenworthy, Matthew A; Rengaswamy, Sridharan; Schödel, Rainer; Gallenne, Alexandre; Gillessen, Stefan; Huerta, Nicolas; Kervella, Pierre; Kornweibel, Nick; Lenzen, Rainer; Mérand, Antoine; Montagnier, Guillaume; O'Neal, Jared; Zins, Gérard; IOT, the NACO; 10.1117/12.856799

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at giving an update on the most versatile adaptive optics fed instrument to date, the well known and successful NACO . Although NACO is only scheduled for about two more years at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), it keeps on evolving with additional operation modes bringing original astronomical results. The high contrast imaging community uses it creatively as a test-bench for SPHERE and other second generation planet imagers. A new visible wavefront sensor (WFS) optimized for Laser Guide Star (LGS) operations has been installed and tested, the cube mode is more and more requested for frame selection on bright sources, a seeing enhancer mode (no tip/tilt correction) is now offered to provide full sky coverage and welcome all kind of extragalactic applications, etc. The Instrument Operations Team (IOT) and Paranal engineers are currently working hard at maintaining the instrument overall performances but also at improving them and offering new capabilities, providing the community with a well tu...

  2. PRECIPITABLE WATER VAPOUR OVER LA SILLA PARANAL OBSERVATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kerber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En apoyo a la caracterización de sitios potenciales para el European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT, la ESO (European Southern Observatory, ISIS (Institute for Space Imaging Science y el grupo de Astrometeorología de la Universidad de Valparaío han establecido conjuntamente una mejor comprensión del PWV (precipitable water vapour sobre los Observatorio de ESO: La Silla y Paranal. Hasta ahora se han analizado estadísticamente 8 años válidos de espectros de alta resolución tomados con VLT-UVES para reconstruir la historia del PWV sobre Paranal. En el caso de La Silla se han usado 5 años de datos tomados con FEROS. En este análisis se utilizó un modelo de transferencia radiativa (BTRAM, desarrollado por ISIS. Tres campañas de medición fueron realizadas en mayo, agosto y noviembre de 2009 para entender mejor los errores sistemáticos presentes, y donde se validaron varios instrumentos y métodos con respecto a radiosondeos, que es la observación estándar en la investigación atmosférica. Después de corregirse los efectos sistemáticos, se encontró la mediana de PWV de 2.4 mm para Paranal mientras que el valor para La Silla es de 3.7 mm. Los resultados del estudio fueron presentados al Comité Asesor para la selección del sitio E-ELT en 2009. Se aprendieron lecciones valiosas para las operaciones del observatorio y ESO está planeando utilizar permanentemente un monitor de vapor de agua en Paranal como parte del proyecto para mejorar VISIR. Un monitor de PWV autónomo y de alta resolución será esencial para optimizar los resultados científicos de E-ELT.

  3. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Apellaniz, J; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both ste

  4. When VLT Meets HST : The HUGS Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontana, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Paris, D.; Targett, T.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Galametz, A.; Grazian, A.; McLure, R.; Merlin, E.; Pentericci, L.; Wuyts, S.; Almaini, O.; Caputi, K.; Chary, R.-R.; Cirasuolo, M.; Conselice, C.; Cooray, A.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Faber, S. M.; Fazio, G.; Ferguson, H.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Grogin, N.; Hathi, N.; Koekemoer, A.; Koo, D. C.; Lucas, R.; Nonino, M.; Rix, H.-W.; Renzini, A.; Rosario, D.; Santini, P.; Scarlata, C.; Sommariva, V.; Stark, D. P.; van der Wel, A.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Yan, H.; Zibetti, S.

    2014-01-01

    A new ultra-deep near-infrared imaging survey has been completed using the HAWK-I imager at the VLT. It is named HUGS (HAWK-I Ultra Deep Survey and GOODS Survey) and delivers the deepest, highest quality images ever collected in the K-band. HUGS complements the data delivered by the HST CANDELS surv

  5. VLT Detects First Superstorm on Exoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    , Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  6. Progress on the VLT Adaptive Optics Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Paufique, J.; Ströbele, S.; Pirard, J.-F.; Vernet, É.; Hackenberg, W.; Hubin, N.; Jochum, L.; Kuntschner, H.; Glindemann, A.; Amico, P.; Lelouarn, M.; Kolb, J.; Tordo, S.; Donaldson, R.; Sã¶Nke, C.; Bonaccini Calia, D.; Conzelmann, R.; Delabre, B.; Kiekebusch, M.; Duhoux, P.; Guidolin, I.; Quattri, M.; Guzman, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Comin, M.; Dupuy, C.; Quentin, J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Silber, A.; Jolly, P.; Manescau, A.; Hammersley, P.; Reyes, J.; Jost, A.; Duchateau, M.; Heinz, V.; Bechet, C.; Stuik, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) Adaptive Optics Facility is a project that will transform one of the VLT's Unit Telescopes into an adaptive telescope that includes a deformable mirror in its optical train. For this purpose the secondary mirror is to be replaced by a thin shell deformable mirror; it will be possible to launch four laser guide stars from the centrepiece and two adaptive optics modules are being developed to feed the instruments HAWK-I and MUSE. These modules implement innovative correction modes for seeing improvement through ground layer adaptive optics and, for high Strehl ratio performance, laser tomography adaptive correction. The performance of these modes will be tested in Europe with a custom test bench called ASSIST. The project has completed its final design phase and concluded an intense phase of procurement; the year 2011 will see the beginning of assembly, integration and tests.

  7. System-dependent earthquake inspection procedures at Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J.; Ramirez, A.

    2016-07-01

    Paranal Observatory is located near Antofagasta city, northern Chile, one of the most seismic regions in the world. Telescopes and scientific instruments are permanently exposed to the risk of damage caused by earthquake events, ranging from optical misalignment to complete cease of operations. A seismic monitor is installed on the site, providing real-time data to make rapid post-earthquake assessments of expected damage and determine the areas, type and level of inspections to be carried out before continuing with the regular operations. With more than ten years of seismic data and its correlation with reported issues, we show that the inspection and recovery strategy can be defined taking into account the characteristics of the seismic event and according to system-dependent criteria.

  8. ESO VLT laser guide star facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccini, Domenico; Hackenberg, Wolfgang K.; Cullum, Martin J.; Brunetto, Enzo; Ott, Thomas; Quattri, Marco; Allaert, Eric; Dimmler, Martin; Tarenghi, Massimo; Van Kersteren, A.; Di Chirico, C.; Buzzoni, Bernard; Gray, Peter; Tamai, R.; Tapia, M.

    2002-02-01

    We report in this paper on the design and progress of the ESO Laser Guide Star Facility. The project will create a user facility embedded in UT4, to produce in the Earth's Mesosphere Laser Guide Stars, which extend the sky coverage of Adaptive Optics systems on the VLT UT4 telescope. Embedded into the project are provisions for multiple LGS to cope with second generation MCAO instruments.

  9. Paranal Impressions: A Home in the Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The Basecamp The Basecamp is located below the Paranal mountain. It is centre of the daily life at Paranal, with the various service buildings, laboratories and offices, as well as dormitories for staff and visitors. The new Paranal Residencia is now being constructed on the slope south of the Basecamp. When ready in 2001, it will house the offices and sleeping quarters. Some of the containers in the Basecamp will then be removed.

  10. Two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Visitors at ANTU - Astronomical Images from KUEYEN The VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory is becoming a busy place indeed. From here, two specialist teams of ESO astronomers and engineers now operate two VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescopes in parallel, ANTU and KUEYEN (formerly UT1 and UT2, for more information about the naming and the pronunciation, see ESO Press Release 06/99 ). Regular science observations have just started with the first of these giant telescopes, while impressive astronomical images are being obtained with the second. The work is hard, but the mood in the control room is good. Insiders claim that there have even been occasions on which the groups have had a friendly "competition" about which telescope makes the "best" images! The ANTU-team has worked with the FORS multi-mode instrument , their colleagues at KUEYEN use the VLT Test Camera for the ongoing tests of this new telescope. While the first is a highly developed astronomical instrument with a large-field CCD imager (6.8 x 6.8 arcmin 2 in the normal mode; 3.4 x 3.4 arcmin 2 in the high-resolution mode), the other is a less complex CCD camera with a smaller field (1.5 x 1.5 arcmin 2 ), suited to verify the optical performance of the telescope. As these images demonstrate, the performance of the second VLT Unit Telescope is steadily improving and it may not be too long before its optical quality will approach that of the first. First KUEYEN photos of stars and galaxies We present here some of the first astronomical images, taken with the second telescope, KUEYEN, in late March and early April 1999. They reflect the current status of the optical, electronic and mechanical systems, still in the process of being tuned. As expected, the experience gained from ANTU last year has turned out to be invaluable and has allowed good progress during this extremely delicate process. ESO PR Photo 19a/99 ESO PR Photo 19a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 433 pix - 160k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 866 pix - 457k] [High

  11. VLT/X-Shooter spectroscopy of the afterglow of the Swift GRB 130606A. Chemical abundances and reionisation at z ~ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoog, O. E.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Goto, T.; Krühler, T.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; De Cia, A.; Xu, D.; Møller, P.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Goldoni, P.; Hjorth, J.; Jakobsson, P.; Krogager, J.-K.; Kaper, L.; Ledoux, C.; Levan, A. J.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Sollerman, J.; Sparre, M.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.; Wiersema, K.; Datson, J.; Salinas, R.; Mikkelsen, K.; Aghanim, N.

    2015-08-01

    Context. The reionisation of the Universe is a process that is thought to have ended around z ~ 6, as inferred from spectroscopy of distant bright background sources, such as quasars (QSO) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. Furthermore, spectroscopy of a GRB afterglow provides insight in its host galaxy, which is often too dim and distant to study otherwise. Aims: For the Swift GRB 130606A at z = 5.913 we have obtained a high S/N spectrum covering the full optical and near-IR wavelength region at intermediate spectral resolution with VLT/X-Shooter. We aim to measure the degree of ionisation of the intergalactic medium (IGM) between z = 5.02-5.84 and to study the chemical abundance pattern and dust content of its host galaxy. Methods: We estimated the UV continuum of the GRB afterglow using a power-law extrapolation, then measured the flux decrement due to absorption at Lyα,β, and γ wavelength regions. Furthermore, we fitted the shape of the red damping wing of Lyα. The hydrogen and metal absorption lines formed in the host galaxy were fitted with Voigt profiles to obtain column densities. We investigated whether ionisation corrections needed to be applied. Results: Our measurements of the Lyα-forest optical depth are consistent with previous measurements of QSOs, but have a much smaller uncertainty. The analysis of the red damping wing yields a neutral fraction xH i 5.6. GRBs are useful probes of the ionisation state of the IGM in the early Universe, but because of internal scatter we need a larger statistical sample to draw robust conclusions. The high [Si/Fe] in the host can be due to dust depletion, α-element enhancement, or a combination of both. The very high value of [ Al/Fe ] = 2.40 ± 0.78 might be due to a proton capture process and is probably connected to the stellar population history. We estimate the host metallicity to be -1.7 Telescope (VLT), Unit 2 - Kueyen, operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. Partly

  12. Density profile characterization and modeling at Paranal and Armazones 2k sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Julio C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA in the southern hemisphere will be installed at Armazones 2k site in northern Chile. Scarce atmospheric observations are available in the region, particularly radiosonde data. This study analyzes radiosondes launched at Paranal observatory, located at about 21 km from the CTA site, from 24 October and 4 November 2011, to understand the behavior of density in the atmosphere near the CTA site. High-resolution numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model are validated with Paranal radiosondes to quantify its ability to represent the atmospheric conditions in the region. In addition, the seasonal and diurnal evolution of atmospheric density at the CTA site were studied during 2011 using the high-resolution weather forecasts from the WRF model.

  13. VLT/SINFONI spectroscopy of the superantennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Reunanen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos los resultados de espectroscopia de campo integral en bandas H y K VLT/SINFONI de IRAS 19254-7245 (Superantennae, una ULRIG cercana con un AGN embebido. Los mapas de las líneas, campos de velocidades y mapas de dispersión de velocidades se presentan para varias líneas de emisión. Las proporciones de las líneas de emisión de H2 son consistentes con la excitación térmica, debida probablemente a choques.

  14. Data Flow System for the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, P.; Licha, T.; Percheron, I.; Sabet, C.

    2006-07-01

    A milestone on the accuracy of angular measurements is reached with each new instrument on the VLT interferometer: about 10 milliarcsec for MIDI (N Band), 1 milliarcsec for AMBER (JHK bands) and, later, the ultimate goal of 10 microarcsec for the PRIMA imaging and astrometry facility. Extracting the science information from these measurements requires a unified understanding of the data obtained by modelling, homogeneous calibration of large datasets and robust data reduction methods. We describe in this poster the operational tools provided for observation preparation, pipeline processing, and data quality control.

  15. ESO-VLT Science Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuschik, Reinhard; Data Processing; Quality Control Group

    2017-09-01

    "In the past three years the QC group at ESO has installed an efficient process to create science-grade data products from VLT instruments. With the focus on spectroscopic observations, these data products are complementary to the (externally provided) data products from the surveys. The production line combines efficient mass production (more than one million spectra have been generated so far), previews, and quality control. All data products are available to the community through the ESO archive interface. The talk will highlight the most recent addition, the MUSE datacubes."

  16. Beam combination modes of the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Fritz

    The optical configuration of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is based on a linear array of 4 independently mounted 8-m telescopes. This concept allows a flexible and versatile use of the telescopes. They can be operated either independently or in various combination schemes. In the latter case, the light collected with the unit telescopes is fed via beam combination optics to the combined focus. The incoherent combination with a combined coude focus offers the light collecting power approximately equivalent to a 16-m single dish telescope. The efficiency of the combined foci operation is only given if the losses in the combining train are minimized.

  17. VLT imaging of the β Pictoris gas disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Fathi, K.; Thébault, Ph.; Liseau, R.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Circumstellar debris disks older than a few Myr should be largely devoid of primordial gas remaining from the protoplanetary disk phase. Tracing the origin of observed atomic gas in Keplerian rotation in the edge-on debris disk surrounding the ~12 Myr old star β Pictoris requires more detailed information about its spatial distribution than has previously been acquired by limited slit spectroscopy. Especially indications of asymmetries and presence of Ca ii gas at high disk latitudes call for additional investigation to exclude or confirm its connection to observed dust structures or suggested cometary bodies on inclined eccentric orbits. Aims: We set out to recover a complete image of the Fe i and Ca ii gas emission around β Pic by spatially resolved, high-resolution spectroscopic observations to better understand the morphology and origin of the gaseous disk component. Methods: The multiple fiber facility FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), with the large integral-field-unit ARGUS, was used to obtain spatially resolved optical spectra (from 385.9 to 404.8 nm) in four regions covering the northeast and southwest side of the disk. Emission lines from Fe i (at 386.0 nm) and Ca ii (at 393.4 and 396.8 nm) were mapped and could be used to fit a parametric function for the disk gas distribution, using a gas-ionisation code for gas-poor debris disks. Results: Both Fe i and Ca ii emission are clearly detected, with the former dominating along the disk midplane, and the latter revealing vertically more extended gas. The surface intensity of the Fe i emission is lower but more extended in the northeast (reaching the 210 AU limit of our observations) than in the southwest, while Ca ii shows the opposite asymmetry. The modelled Fe gas disk profile shows a linear increase in scale height with radius, and a vertical profile that suggests dynamical interaction with the dust. We also qualitatively demonstrate that the Ca ii emission profile can be

  18. VLT Smashes the Record of the Farthest Known Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    gathering power of the VLT and the excellent sky conditions prevailing at Paranal. Searching for distant galaxies The hunt for such faint, elusive objects demands a particular approach. First of all, very deep images of a cluster of galaxies named Abell 1835 were taken using the ISAAC near-infrared instrument on the VLT. Such relatively nearby massive clusters are able to bend and amplify the light of background sources - a phenomenon called Gravitational Lensing and predicted by Einstein's theory of General Relativity. This natural amplification allows the astronomers to peer at galaxies which would otherwise be too faint to be seen. In the case of the newly discovered galaxy, the light is amplified approximately 25 to 100 times! Combined with the power of the VLT it has thereby been possible to image and even to take a spectrum of this galaxy. Indeed, the natural amplification effectively increases the aperture of the VLT from 8.2-m to 40-80 m. The deep near-IR images taken at different wavelengths have allowed the astronomers to characterise the properties of a few thousand galaxies in the image and to select a handful of them as potentially very distant galaxies. Using previously obtained images taken at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) on Mauna Kea and images from the Hubble Space Telescope, it has then been verified that these galaxies are indeed not seen in the optical. In this way, six candidate high redshift galaxies were recognised whose light may have been emitted when the Universe was less than 700 million years old. To confirm and obtain a more precise determination of the distance of one of these galaxies, the astronomers obtained Director's Discretionary Time to use again ISAAC on the VLT, but this time in its spectroscopic mode. After several months of careful analysis of the data, the astronomers are convinced to have detected a weak but clear spectral feature in the near-infrared domain. The astronomers have made a strong case that this feature is

  19. Performance of the VLT Planet Finder SPHERE I. Photometry and astrometry precision with IRDIS and IFS in laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Zurlo, A; Mesa, D; Gratton, R; Moutou, C; Langlois, M; Claudi, R U; Pueyo, L; Boccaletti, A; Baruffolo, A; Beuzit, J -L; Costille, A; Desidera, S; Dohlen, K; Feldt, M; Fusco, T; Henning, T; Kasper, M; Martinez, P; Moeller-Nilsson, O; Mouillet, D; Pavlov, A; Puget, P; Sauvage, J -F; Turatto, M; Udry, S; Vakili, F; Waters, R; Wildi, R F

    2014-01-01

    The new planet finder for the Very Large Telescope (VLT), the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE), just had its first light in Paranal. A dedicated instrument for the direct detection of planets, SPHERE, is composed of a polametric camera in visible light, the Zurich IMager POLarimeter (ZIMPOL), and two near-infrared sub-systems: the Infra-Red Dual-beam Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS), a multi-purpose camera for imaging, polarimetry, and long-slit spectroscopy, and the integral field spectrograph (IFS), an integral field spectrograph. We present the results obtained from the analysis of data taken during the laboratory integration and validation phase, after the injection of synthetic planets. Since no continuous field rotation could be performed in the laboratory, this analysis presents results obtained using reduction techniques that do not use the angular differential imaging (ADI) technique. To perform the simulations, we used the instrumental point spread function (PSF) and mod...

  20. Optical atmospheric extinction over Cerro Paranal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patat, F; Moehler, S; O'Brien, K; Pompei, E; Bensby, T; Carraro, G; Ugarte Postigo, de, A; Fox, A; Gavignaud, I; James, G; Korhonen, H; Ledoux, C; Randall, S; Sana, H.A.A; Smoker, J; Stefl, S; Szeifert, T

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The present study was conducted to determine the optical extinction curve for Cerro Paranal under typical clear-sky observing conditions, with the purpose of providing the community with a function...

  1. SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES ON THE VLT INTERFEROMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schöller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El interferómetro del VLT está desde hace varios años en operaciones científicas, con nuevas oportunidades disponibles cada vez que nuevas instalaciones están siendo integradas. La mayor parte de estos pasos son fácilmente visibles, pero algunas posibilidades se presentan a partir de mejoras simples. Detallo el potencial científico del VLTI, dando una descripción de la infraestructura y los modos ofrecidos por los instrumentos. Luego examino las limitaciones fijadas por la accesibilidad del cielo, flujo del objeto en el espectro visible e infrarrojo, o la morfología del objeto, seguida por una discusión de qué información se puede extraer de las mediciones del VLTI. Finalizo con una perspectiva en las mejoras futuras del VLTI.

  2. Direct exoplanet detection and characterization using the ANDROMEDA method: Performance on VLT/NaCo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalloube, F.; Mouillet, D.; Mugnier, L. M.; Milli, J.; Absil, O.; Gomez Gonzalez, C. A.; Chauvin, G.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Cornia, A.

    2015-10-01

    Context. The direct detection of exoplanets with high-contrast imaging requires advanced data processing methods to disentangle potential planetary signals from bright quasi-static speckles. Among them, angular differential imaging (ADI) permits potential planetary signals with a known rotation rate to be separated from instrumental speckles that are either statics or slowly variable. The method presented in this paper, called ANDROMEDA for ANgular Differential OptiMal Exoplanet Detection Algorithm, is based on a maximum likelihood approach to ADI and is used to estimate the position and the flux of any point source present in the field of view. Aims: In order to optimize and experimentally validate this previously proposed method, we applied ANDROMEDA to real VLT/NaCo data. In addition to its pure detection capability, we investigated the possibility of defining simple and efficient criteria for automatic point source extraction able to support the processing of large surveys. Methods: To assess the performance of the method, we applied ANDROMEDA on VLT/NaCo data of TYC-8979-1683-1 which is surrounded by numerous bright stars and on which we added synthetic planets of known position and flux in the field. In order to accommodate the real data properties, it was necessary to develop additional pre-processing and post-processing steps to the initially proposed algorithm. We then investigated its skill in the challenging case of a well-known target, β Pictoris, whose companion is close to the detection limit and we compared our results to those obtained by another method based on principal component analysis (PCA). Results: Application on VLT/NaCo data demonstrates the ability of ANDROMEDA to automatically detect and characterize point sources present in the image field. We end up with a robust method bringing consistent results with a sensitivity similar to the recently published algorithms, with only two parameters to be fine tuned. Moreover, the companion flux

  3. Surface composition of Europa based on VLT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, N.; Poulet, F.; Carter, J.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a global salty ocean under an 80-170 km thick outer layer consisting of an icy crust (Anderson et al. 1998). Meanwhile, the 10-50 My old surface, dated by cratering rates (Pappalardo et al. 1999) implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing that could result in tectonic activity (Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface could thus exhibit fingerprints of chemical species, as minerals characteristics of an ocean-mantle interaction and/or organics of exobiological interest, directly originating from the subglacial ocean. In order to re-investigate the composition of Europa's surface, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed with the near-infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) and large signal noise ratio in comparison to previous observations are adequate to detect sharp absorptions in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. In addition, the spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s ( 35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Several icy and non-icy compounds were detected and mapped at process likely engendered by the Io plasma torus, the crystalline form is found to be approximately twice as abundant as the amorphous ice based on the analysis of the 1.65 μm band. If the surface is dominated by small and mid-sized water ice grains (25-200 μm), crystalline water-ice grains exhibit spatial inhomogeneities in their distribution. The sulfuric acid hydrate distribution exhibits the typical "bullseye" feature on the trailing hemisphere. The presence of Mg-bearing chlorinated salts (chloride, chlorate, and perchlorate) is supported by linear spectral modeling of the data, while the presence of sulfate salts is challenged. The distribution of some of these species is

  4. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Eff-Darwich, A; Rodriguez-Losada, J A; de la Nuez, J; Hernandez-Gutierrez, L E; Romero-Ruiz, M C

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity was carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile) and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated to volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity was found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, in the island of La Palma.

  5. Status and new operation modes of the versatile VLT/NaCo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Julien H. V.; Kasper, Markus; Quanz, Sascha P.; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Rengaswamy, Sridharan; Schödel, Rainer; Gallenne, Alexandre; Gillessen, Stefan; Huerta, Nicolas; Kervella, Pierre; Kornweibel, Nick; Lenzen, Rainer; Mérand, Antoine; Montagnier, Guillaume; O'Neal, Jared; Zins, Gérard

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims at giving an update on the most versatile Adaptive Optics fed instrument to date, the well known and successful NACO*. Although NACO is only scheduled for about two more years† at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), it keeps on evolving with additional operation modes bringing original astronomical results. The high contrast imaging community uses it creatively as a test-bench for SPHERE‡ and other second generation planet imagers. A new visible wavefront sensor (WFS) optimized for Laser Guide Star (LGS) operations has been installed and tested, the cube mode is more and more required for frame selection on bright sources, a seeing enhancer mode (no tip/tilt correction) is now offered to provide full sky coverage and welcome all kind of extragalactic applications, etc. The Instrument Operations Team (IOT) and Paranal engineers are currently working hard at maintaining the instrument overall performances but also at improving them and offering new capabilities, providing the community with a well tuned and original instrument for the remaining time it is being used. The present contribution delivers a non-exhaustive overview of the new modes and experiments that have been carried out in the past months.

  6. Meridional variation in tropospheric methane on Titan observed with AO spectroscopy at Keck and VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Ádámkovics, Máté; Hayes, Alexander G; Rojo, Patricio M; Corlies, Paul; Barnes, Jason W; Ivanov, Valentin D; Brown, Robert H; Baines, Kevin H; Buratti, Bonnie J; Clark, Roger N; Nicholson, Philip D; Sotin, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the tropospheric methane on Titan was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Ground-based observations at 1.5$\\mu{\\rm m}$ (H-band) were performed during the same night using instruments with adaptive optics at both the W. M. Keck Observatory and at the Paranal Observatory on 17 July 2014 UT. The integral field observations with SINFONI on the VLT covered the entire H-band at moderate resolving power, $R=\\lambda/\\Delta\\lambda\\approx1,500$, while the Keck observations were performed with NIRSPAO near 1.55254$\\mu{\\rm m}$ at higher resolution, $R\\approx25,000$. The moderate resolution observations are used for flux calibration and for the determination of model parameters that can be degenerate in the interpretation of high resolution spectra. Line-by-line calculations of CH$_4$ and CH$_3$D correlated $k$ distributions from the HITRAN 2012 database were used, which incorporate revised line assignments near 1.5$\\mu{\\rm m}$. We fit the surface albedo and aerosol distributions in the ...

  7. A Deep Optical Luminosity Function of NGC 6712 with the VLT Evidence for Severe Tidal Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    De Marchi, G; Paresce, F; Pulonen, L E; Marchi, Guido De; Leibundgut, Bruno; Paresce, Francesco; Pulone, Luigi

    1999-01-01

    The VLT on Cerro Paranal was used to observe four fields located at 2.3' from the center of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6712 in the V and R bands. The resulting color-magnitude diagram shows a well defined main sequence reaching down to the 5 sigma detection limit at V~25, R~23.5 or approximately 4 mag below the main sequence turn-off, the deepest obtained so far on this cluster. This yields a main sequence luminosity function that peaks at M_R~4.5 and drops down to the 50% completeness limit at M_R~8.5. Transformation to a mass function via the latest mass-luminosity relation appropriate to this object indicates that the peak of the luminosity function corresponds to ~0.75 Msolar, a value significantly higher than the ~0.25 Msolar measured for most other clusters observed so far. Since this object, in its Galactic orbit, penetrates very deeply into the Galactic bulge with perigalactic distance of ~0.3 kpc, this result is the first strong evidence that tidal forces have stripped this cluster of a substa...

  8. The design of ERIS for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, P.; Marchetti, E.; Pedichini, F.; Baruffolo, A.; Delabre, B.; Duchateau, M.; Ekinci, M.; Fantinel, D.; Fedrigo, E.; Finger, G.; Frank, C.; Hofmann, R.; Jolley, P.; Lizon, J. L.; Le Louarn, M.; Madec, P.-Y.; Soenke, C.; Weisz, H.

    2012-09-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation instrument planned for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF)1. It is an AO assisted instrument that will make use of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF), and it is designed for the Cassegrain focus of the telescope UT4. The project just concluded its conceptual design phase and is awaiting formal approval to continue to the next phase. ERIS will offer 1-5 μm imaging and 1-2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with high Strehl performance. As such it will replace, with much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important and popular observing capabilities currently offered by NACO2 (diffraction limited imaging in JM band, Sparse Aperture Masking and APP coronagraphy) and by SINFONI3, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be re-used in ERIS. The Cassegrain location and the performance requirements impose challenging demands on the project, from opto-mechanical design to cryogenics to the operational concept. In this paper we describe the baseline design proposed for ERIS and discuss these technical challenges, with particular emphasis on the trade-offs and the novel solutions proposed for building ERIS.

  9. VLT spectroscopy of NGC3115 globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntschner, H; Sharples, R M; Worthey, G; Fricke, K J; Kuntschner, Harald; Ziegler, Bodo L.; Worthey, Guy; Fricke, Klaus J.

    2002-01-01

    We present results derived from VLT-FORS2 spectra of 24 different globular clusters associated with the lenticular galaxy NGC3115. A subsample of 17 globular clusters have sufficiently high signal-to-noise to allow precision measurements of absorption line-strengths. Comparing these indices to new stellar population models by Thomas et al. we determine ages, metallicities and element abundance ratios. Our data are also compared with the Lick/IDS observations of Milky Way and M31 globular clusters. Unpublished higher order Balmer lines (HgammaA,F and HdeltaA,F) from the Lick/IDS observations are given in the Appendix. Our best age estimates show that the observed clusters which sample the bimodal colour distribution of NGC3115 are coeval within our observational errors (2-3 Gyr). Our best calibrated age/metallicity diagnostic diagram (Hbeta vs [MgFe]) indicates an absolute age of 11-12 Gyr. We confirm with our accurate line-strength measurements that the (V-I) colour is a good metallicity indicator within the ...

  10. Optical atmospheric extinction over Cerro Paranal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patat, F.; Moehler, S.; O'Brien, K.; Pompei, E.; Bensby, T.; Carraro, G.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fox, A.; Gavignaud, I.; James, G.; Korhonen, H.; Ledoux, C.; Randall, S.; Sana, H.A.A.; Smoker, J.; Stefl, S.; Szeifert, T.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The present study was conducted to determine the optical extinction curve for Cerro Paranal under typical clear-sky observing conditions, with the purpose of providing the community with a function to be used to correct the observed spectra, with an accuracy of 0.01 mag airmass-1.

  11. VLT/VLTI Second-Generation Instrumentation: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmozzi, R.; Pasquini, L.; Russell, A.

    2016-12-01

    The five second-generation instruments already delivered for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) represent worthy successors to the first generation of instrumentation development. Despite this success, it is still possible to learn many lessons for the future. A review, preceded by a workshop, on the lessons learned from the second-generation instrumentation for the VLT and VLT Interferometer took place in November 2015, following a previous review twelve years ago on lessons learned from the first-generation instruments. The aim of the workshop was to identify lessons in order to help define/refine good practice and make recommendations for the future. This article briefly reports on the workshop and summarises the findings of the review panel, their recommendations and some of the steps to implement them.

  12. The 8.2 metre primary mirrors of the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, P.; Enard, D.; Merkle, F.; Noethe, L.; Wilson, R. N.

    1990-08-01

    The Very Large Telescope (VLT) presently being developed at ESO is described in terms of technological advances which make its use both technically effective and feasible. The VLT capitalizes on advances in materials, polishing techniques, and mirror support systems. The VLT consists of four 8-m alt-az telescopes and a 2-m auxiliary telescope in a single-dish configuration with Zerodur meniscus mirrors passively supported on a lateral system. A discussion of the tradeoffs between glass and metal mirrors is presented, and computerized polishing is described in relation to optical specifications. The mirror is supported with 150 axial and 60 lateral supports with electromechanical actuators to modulate applied force. The active optics concept is employed via the flexibility of the primary mirror, which generates elastomechanical deformations and the position and orientation of the secondary mirror.

  13. Applications of Tunable Imaging Filters for the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, H

    2001-01-01

    Tunable imaging filters have been used for a variety of science programmes on the Anglo-Australian and William Herschel Telescopes during the last five years. This contribution describes these novel devices and reviews the science (both Galactic and extragalactic) done with them. Possible strategies for implementing a tunable filter at the VLT are also discussed. Significant scientific potential exists for a tunable filter on the VLT, particularly in the years before such capability becomes available on 8 -- 10 m-class telescopes elsewhere.

  14. Installation and first results of FLAMES, the VLT multifibre facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Luca; Alonso, Jaime; Avila, Gerardo; Barriga, Pablo; Biereichel, Peter; Buzzoni, Bernard; Cavadore, Cyril; Cumani, Claudio; Dekker, Hans; Delabre, Bernard; Kaufer, Andreas; Kotzlowski, Heinz; Hill, Vanessa; Lizon, Jean-Luis; Nees, Walter; Santin, Paolo; Schmutzer, Ricardo; Kesteren, A. V.; Zoccali, Manuela

    2003-03-01

    FLAMES is the VLT Fibre Facility, installed and being commissioned at the Nasmyth A of UT2 (Kueyen Telescope). FLAMES has been built and assembled at the VLT telescope in about 4 years through an international collaboration between 10 institutes in 6 countries and 3 continents. It had first light with the fibre link to the red arm of UVES on April 1, and with the GIRAFFE spectrograph on July 3. We have not yet enough data to compare the observed vs. expected astronomical performances, although these first data are encouraging in many respects. We aim at proceeding soon with the remaining tests

  15. ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor for the fine measurement of quasi-static aberrations in coronagraphic systems: concept studies and results with VLT/SPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, M.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Fusco, T.; Blanchard, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Le Mignant, D.; Madec, F.; Moreaux, G.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Zins, G.

    2016-07-01

    The high-contrast imaging instruments VLT/SPHERE and GPI have been routinely observing gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars since 2013-2014. In these facilities, low-wind effects or differential aberrations between the extreme Adaptive Optics sensing path and the science path represent critical limitations for the observation of exoplanets orbiting their host star with a contrast ratio larger than 106 at small separations. To circumvent this problem, we proposed ZELDA, a Zernike wavefront sensor to measure these quasistatic aberrations at a nanometric level. A prototype was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its integration in Chile. We recently performed measurements on an internal source with ZELDA in the presence of Zernike or Fourier modes introduced with the deformable mirror of the instrument. In this communication, we present the results of our experiment and report on the contrast gain obtained with a first ZELDA-based wavefront correction. We finally discuss the suitability of such a solution for a possible upgrade of VLT/SPHERE and for its use with future E-ELT instruments or space missions with high-contrast capabilities (e.g. WFIRST-AFTA, HDST).

  16. SPHERE: A Planet Finder Instrument for the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuzit, J.L.; Feldt, M.; Dohlen, K.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Antichi, J.; Baudoz, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Carbillet, M.; Charton, J.; Claudi, R.; Fusco, T.; Gratton, R.; Henning, T.; Hubin, N.; Joos, F.; Kasper, M.; Langlois, M.; Moutou, C.; Pragt, J.; Rabou, P.; Saisse, M.; Schmid, H.M.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Waters, R.; Wildi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Direct detection and spectral characterization of extra-solar planets is one of the most exciting but also one of the most challenging areas in modern astronomy. For its second generation instrumentation on the VLT, ESO has supported two phase A studies for a so-called Planet Finder dedicated instru

  17. The design of the MOONS-VLT spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliva, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Garilli, B.; Gratton, R.; Lorenzetti, D.; Schipani, P.; Scuderi, S.; Vanzella, E.; Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Kaper, L.; Vanzi, L.; Baffa, C.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bruno, P.; Carbonaro, L.; Centrone, M.; Cresci, G.; De Caprio, V.; Del Vecchio, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Di Paola, A.; D'Alessio, F.; D'Alessandro, M.; D'Orsi, S.; Falcini, G.; Ferruzzi, D.; Fontana, A.; Foppiani, I.; Fumana, M.; Giani, E.; Leone, F.; Li Causi, G.; Lombini, M.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; Marty, L.; Miglietta, L.; Munari, M.; Navarro, R.; Origlia, L.; Paioro, L.; Pedichini, F.; Pragt, J.; Randich, S.; Scodeggio, M.; Spano, P.; Speziali, R.; Stuik, R.; Tozzi, A.; Vitali, F.

    2012-01-01

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a multi-object spectrograph for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) which will provide the ESO astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to serve a wide range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies. The instrument foresees 1000

  18. The science case of the CHEOPS planet finder for VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gratton, R.; Feldt, M.; Schmid, H.M.; Brandner, W.; Hippler, S.; Neuhauser, R.; Quirrenbach, A.; Desidera, S.; Turatto, M.; Stam, D.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The CHEOPS Planet Finder is one of the proposed second generation instruments for the VLT. Its purpose is to image and characterize giant extrasolar planets in different phases of their evolution: young, warm planets as well as old, cold ones. Imaging the last ones is the most challenging task becau

  19. The design of the MOONS-VLT spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliva, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Garilli, B.; Gratton, R.; Lorenzetti, D.; Schipani, P.; Scuderi, S.; Vanzella, E.; Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Kaper, L.; Vanzi, L.; Baffa, C.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bruno, P.; Carbonaro, L.; Centrone, M.; Cresci, G.; De Caprio, V.; Del Vecchio, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Di Paola, A.; D'Alessio, F.; D'Alessandro, M.; D'Orsi, S.; Falcini, G.; Ferruzzi, D.; Fontana, A.; Foppiani, I.; Fumana, M.; Giani, E.; Leone, F.; Li Causi, G.; Lombini, M.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; Marty, L.; Miglietta, L.; Munari, M.; Navarro, R.; Origlia, L.; Paioro, L.; Pedichini, F.; Pragt, J.; Randich, S.; Scodeggio, M.; Spano, P.; Speziali, R.; Stuik, R.; Tozzi, A.; Vitali, F.

    2012-01-01

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a multi-object spectrograph for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) which will provide the ESO astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to serve a wide range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies. The instrument foresees 1000 fi

  20. Spectral analysis of Uranus' 2014 bright storm with VLT/SINFONI

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Patrick G J; Read, Peter L; Tice, Dane; de Pater, Imke; Orton, Glenn S; Teanby, Nicholas A; Davis, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    An extremely bright storm system observed in Uranus' atmosphere by amateur observers in September 2014 triggered an international campaign to observe this feature with many telescopes across the world. Observations of the storm system in the near infrared were acquired in October and November 2014 with SINFONI on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. SINFONI is an Integral Field Unit spectrometer returning 64x64 pixel images with 2048 wavelengths. Image cubes in the H-band (1.43 - 1.87 microns) were obtained at spatial resolutions of ~0.1". The observations show that the centre of the storm feature shifts markedly with increasing altitude, moving in the retrograde direction and slightly poleward with increasing altitude. We also see a faint 'tail' of more reflective material to the immediate south of the storm, which again trails in the retrograde direction. The observed spectra were analysed with the radiative transfer and retrieval code, NEMESIS. We find that the storm is well-modelled using either two...

  1. Deep Impact High Resolution Optical Spectroscopy with the ESO VLT and the Keck 1 telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Jehin, E; Cochran, A L; Hutsemékers, D; Jackson, W M; Manfroid, J; Rauer, H; Schulz, R; Zucconi, J M

    2006-01-01

    We report on observations of comet 9P/Tempel 1 carried out before, during, and after the NASA DEEP IMPACT event (UT July 4), with the optical spectrometers UVES and HIRES mounted on the telescopes Kueyen of the ESO VLT (Chile) and Keck 1 on Mauna Kea (Hawaii), respectively. A total observing time of about 60 hours, distributed over 15 nights around the impact date, allowed us (i) to find a periodic variation of 1.709 +/- 0.009 day in the CN and NH flux, explained by the presence of two major active regions; (ii) to derive a lifetime > ~ 5 x 10^4 s for the parent of the CN radical from a simple modeling of the CN light curve after the impact; (iii) to follow the gas and dust spatial profiles evolution during the 4 hours following the impact and derive the projected velocities (400 m/s and 150 m/s respectively); (iv) to show that the material released by the impact has the same carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition as the surface material (12C/13C = 95 +/- 15 and 14N/15N = 145 +/- 20).

  2. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    Bolivia’s gas to Mexico and North America. Chile’s President Lagos likewise invited Bolivia to construct a plant in Chile to facilitate gas production at...tdf.htm>. Internet. Accessed 30 October 2004. 20 21 BIBLIOGRAPHY Barros, Van Buren Mario. Historia Diplomatica de Chile . Santiago: Editorial Andres

  3. VLT Observations Confirm that the Universe Was Hotter in the Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    UVES Measures the Cosmic Temperature 12 Billion Years Ago Summary A fundamental prediction of the Big Bang theory has finally been verified . For the first time, an actual measurement has been made of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation, at a time when the Universe was only about 2.5 billion years old . This fundamental and very difficult observation was achieved by a team of astronomers from India, France and ESO [1]. They obtained a detailed spectrum of a quasar in the distant Universe, using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) instrument at the ESO 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the Paranal Observatory. If the Universe was indeed formed in a Big Bang, as most astrophysicists believe, the glow of this primeval fireball should have been warmer in the past. This is exactly what is found by the new measurements. The analysis of the VLT spectrum of the distant quasar not only gives the definitive proof of the presence of the relict radiation in the early Universe, it also shows that it was indeed significantly warmer than it is today, as predicted by the theory. PR Photo 35/00 : VLT spectrum of the distant quasar PKS 1232+0815 , displaying lines of carbon atoms from an intervening cloud in which the cosmic temperature was measured. The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) One of the fundamental predictions of the Hot Big Bang theory for the creation of the Universe is the existence of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) . This relict radiation of the primeval fireball was discovered in 1964 by means of radio observations by American physicists Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson , who were rewarded with the Nobel Prize in 1978. Precision measurements by the COBE satellite later showed that this ancient radiation fills the Universe, with a present-day temperature of slightly less than 3 degrees above the absolute zero (2.7 K [Kelvin], or -270.4 °C). This radiation comes from all directions and is extremely uniform

  4. E-ELT turbulence profiling with stereo-SCIDAR at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, James; Wilson, Richard; Butterley, Tim; Morris, Tim; Dubbeldam, Marc; Dérie, Frédéric; Sarazin, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Vertical profiles of the atmospheric optical turbulence strength and velocity is of critical importance for simulating, designing, and operating the next generation of instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Many of these instruments are already well into the design phase meaning these profies are required immediately to ensure they are optimised for the unique conditions likely to be observed. Stereo-SCIDAR is a generalised SCIDAR instrument which is used to characterise the profile of the atmospheric optical turbulence strength and wind velocity using triangulation between two optical binary stars. Stereo-SCIDAR has demonstrated the capability to resolve turbulent layers with the required vertical resolution to support wide-field ELT instrument designs. These high resolution atmospheric parameters are critical for design studies and statistical evaluation of on-sky performance under real conditions. Here we report on the new Stereo-SCIDAR instrument installed on one of the Auxillary Telescope ports of the Very Large Telescope array at Cerro Paranal. Paranal is located approximately 20 km from Cerro Armazones, the site of the E-ELT. Although the surface layer of the turbulence will be different for the two sites due to local geography, the high-altitude resolution profiles of the free atmosphere from this instrument will be the most accurate available for the E-ELT site. In addition, these unbiased and independent profiles are also used to further characterise the site of the VLT. This enables instrument performance calibration, optimisation and data analysis of, for example, the ESO Adaptive Optics facility and the Next Generation Transit Survey. It will also be used to validate atmospheric models for turbulence forecasting. We show early results from the commissioning and address future implications of the results.

  5. The Paraná-Etendeka Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peate, David W.

    Stratigraphic data and 40Ar-39Ar ages for the Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts indicate that the main magmatic episode lasted for several m.y. (129-134 Ma) and was linked to the northward opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, but with some earlier magmatism (135-138 Ma) found inland far from the eventual oceanic rift. The regional distribution of distinct high-Ti/Y (Urubici, Pitanga, Paranapanema, Ribeira) and low-Ti/Y (Gramado, Esmeralda) magma types in the lavas and associated dyke swarms implies that magma generation occurred over a wide area and involved different mantle sources. Low MgO contents (3-7 wt%) indicate extensive fractional crystallisation, and upper crustal assimilation was important in the evolution of the Gramado magmas. However, Paraná basalts that are considered to be uncontaminated by crust have trace element and isotope characteristics (e.g. Nb/LaEsmeralda magma type is an exception, requiring a component from incompatible-element-depleted asthenosphere. The role of the Tristan mantle plume appears to have been largely passive, with conductive heating facilitating mobilisation of old lithospheric material. Significant rhyolitic eruptions (>1000 km3) that can be correlated across the Atlantic Ocean accompanied the final magmatic phase in the southeast Paraná and the Etendeka. The flood basalts post-date most estimates for the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, ruling out any link to a faunal extinction.

  6. Quantitative Characterisation of Sky Conditions on Paranal with the Microwave Radiometer LHATPRO – Five Years and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Florian; Querel, R.; Neureiter, B.; Hanuschik, R.

    2017-09-01

    "A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, optimized for measuring small amounts of atmospheric precipitable water vapour (PWV), has now been in use for more than five years to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory (median PWV 2.5 mm). We'll summarise the performance characteristics of the unit and the current applications of its data in scheduling observations in Service Mode to take advantage of favourable conditions for infrared observations. We'll elaborate on our improved understanding of PWV over Paranal, including an analysis of PWV homogeneity addressing an important calibration issue. In addition we'll describe how the capabilities of the LHATPRO can be used in the future to further strengthen science operations and calibration by also offering line-of-sight support for individual VLT observations. Using its IR data we developed a method for an automated classification of photometric observing conditions in a quantitative way, supporting high precision photometry. Its highly precise PWV measurements enable new low PWV science during episodes of extremely low water vapour that result in a strongly increased transmission also outside the standard atmospheric windows. A goal for the future is to combine various diagnostics measurements (altitude resolved profiles) by LHATPRO and other instruments and sophisticated atmospheric modeling to better characterize relevant properties of the atmosphere and to thus enable more precise, local short-term forecasting for optimised science operations."

  7. A drone flight over ESO’s experimental sites in Chile

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Paola Catapano, a member of CERN’s Communication Group, and Mike Struik, a member of the TE Department, were invited to visit ESO’s experimental sites – the ALMA observatory and the Very Large Telescope in Paranal, Chile. Enjoy some of the beautiful images they sent to the Bulletin.   Image courtesy Paola Catapano and Mike Struik. The 66 radio astronomy antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory at 5,000 m altitude on the Chajnantor highland in Chile. The ALMA array specialises in the cold, invisible Universe, catching radiation from millimetre and submillimetre radiowaves night and day. ALMA is an international partnership between the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan, together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile.   Image cour...

  8. Blockbuster starring ESO Paranal opens tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The 22nd James Bond adventure is due for release tomorrow, 31 October 2008, in the UK and a week later in the rest of the world. A key location in the movie is the Residencia, the hotel for astronomers and staff at ESO's Paranal Observatory. Blockbuster starring ESO Paranal opens tomorrow ESO PR Photo 38/08 The James Bond "Quantum of Solace" filmmakers Quantum of Solace is the latest film in one of most successful movie franchises -- that of renowned 007 Agent James Bond of the British Secret Service MI6. The agent "on Her Majesty's secret service" is once again played by Daniel Craig. Key scenes of the movie were filmed at Paranal, the home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, and the most advanced optical telescope in the world. Usually occupied by no more than 100 astronomers, engineers and technicians, Paranal welcomed the 300-strong film crew for several days of shooting at the end of March 2008. The crew travelled from their hotel base in Antofagasta for up to two hours each morning to reach the filming locations. "We are delighted to have a movie like this filmed at Paranal and it was extremely good to see how careful the crew were with the surroundings and how mindful they were of the fact that they were in an operating, working observatory", says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO Director General. "Paranal is a unique observatory in a unique setting and it is no real surprise that it plays a major part in a James Bond movie", he adds. The filmmakers were mostly interested in filming exterior scenes at the Paranal Residencia, the accommodation for staff operating the Very Large Telescope. In the movie, the Residencia is supposedly the "Perla de Las Dunas", a unique hotel in the desert. Cerro Paranal is a 2600 m high mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, perhaps the driest on Earth. The high altitude site and extreme dryness make excellent conditions for astronomical observations. To make it possible for people to live and work here, a hotel, or Residencia, was built at the

  9. Hubble and ESO's VLT provide unique 3D views of remote galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Astronomers have obtained exceptional 3D views of distant galaxies, seen when the Universe was half its current age, by combining the twin strengths of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope's acute eye, and the capacity of ESO's Very Large Telescope to probe the motions of gas in tiny objects. By looking at this unique "history book" of our Universe, at an epoch when the Sun and the Earth did not yet exist, scientists hope to solve the puzzle of how galaxies formed in the remote past. ESO PR Photo 10a/09 A 3D view of remote galaxies ESO PR Photo 10b/09 Measuring motions in 3 distant galaxies ESO PR Video 10a/09 Galaxies in collision For decades, distant galaxies that emitted their light six billion years ago were no more than small specks of light on the sky. With the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope in the early 1990s, astronomers were able to scrutinise the structure of distant galaxies in some detail for the first time. Under the superb skies of Paranal, the VLT's FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph (ESO 13/02) -- which obtains simultaneous spectra from small areas of extended objects -- can now also resolve the motions of the gas in these distant galaxies (ESO 10/06). "This unique combination of Hubble and the VLT allows us to model distant galaxies almost as nicely as we can close ones," says François Hammer, who led the team. "In effect, FLAMES/GIRAFFE now allows us to measure the velocity of the gas at various locations in these objects. This means that we can see how the gas is moving, which provides us with a three-dimensional view of galaxies halfway across the Universe." The team has undertaken the Herculean task of reconstituting the history of about one hundred remote galaxies that have been observed with both Hubble and GIRAFFE on the VLT. The first results are coming in and have already provided useful insights for three galaxies. In one galaxy, GIRAFFE revealed a region full of ionised gas, that is, hot gas composed of atoms that have been stripped of

  10. Image quality and high contrast improvements on VLT/NACO

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, Julien H V; Mawet, Dimitri; Kasper, Markus; Zins, Gérard; Neichel, Benoît; Kolb, Johann; Christiaens, Valentin; Tourneboeuf, Martin; 10.1117/12.925660

    2012-01-01

    NACO is the famous and versatile diffraction limited NIR imager and spectrograph with which ESO celebrated 10 years of Adaptive Optics at the VLT. Since two years a substantial effort has been put in to understanding and fixing issues that directly affect the image quality and the high contrast performances of the instrument. Experiments to compensate the non-common-path aberrations and recover the highest possible Strehl ratios have been carried out successfully and a plan is hereafter described to perform such measurements regularly. The drift associated to pupil tracking since 2007 was fixed in October 2011. NACO is therefore even better suited for high contrast imaging and can be used with coronagraphic masks in the image plane. Some contrast measurements are shown and discussed. The work accomplished on NACO will serve as reference for the next generation instruments on the VLT, especially those working at the diffraction limit and making use of angular differential imaging (i.e. SPHERE, VISIR, possibly ...

  11. New BVRI photometry results on KBOs from the ESO VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Santos-Sanz, P; Barrera, L; Boehnhardt, H

    2008-01-01

    Photometric surveys of transNeptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs have suggested possible correlations between some orbital parameters and surface colors of classical objects, scattered disk objects (SDOs), and Centaurs. However, larger sample sizes are needed in order to corroborate or rule out the possible correlations and find some possible new ones. We use VLT-FORS images through BVRI filters of 32 Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and obtain their colors after proper reduction and calibration. We study the possible correlations merging these new measurements with the VLT published results from the ESO large program and with the latest published results of the Meudon Multicolor Survey via non-parametric statistical tests. We obtain a large dataset of 116 objects (classical, SDOs and Centaurs) and, in addition to confirming most of the correlations and conclusions reached in the literature, some possible new correlations are found. The most interesting ones are some correlations of color vs. orbital parameters fo...

  12. Validation through simulations of a C_n^2 profiler for the ESO/VLT Adaptive Optics Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Guesalaga, A.; Kolb, J.; Le Louarn, M.; Madec, P.-Y.; Neichel, B.

    2015-04-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) project envisages transforming one of the VLT units into an adaptive telescope and providing its ESO (European Southern Observatory) second generation instruments with turbulence-corrected wavefronts. For MUSE and HAWK-I this correction will be achieved through the GALACSI and GRAAL AO modules working in conjunction with a 1170 actuators deformable secondary mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). Multiple wavefront sensors will enable GLAO (ground layer adaptive optics) and LTAO (laser tomography adaptive optics) capabilities, whose performance can greatly benefit from a knowledge about the stratification of the turbulence in the atmosphere. This work, totally based on end-to-end simulations, describes the validation tests conducted on a C_n^2 profiler adapted for the AOF specifications. Because an absolute profile calibration is strongly dependent on a reliable knowledge of turbulence parameters r0 and L0, the tests presented here refer only to normalized output profiles. Uncertainties in the input parameters inherent to the code are tested as well as the profiler response to different turbulence distributions. It adopts a correction for the unseen turbulence, critical for the GRAAL mode, and highlights the effects of masking out parts of the corrected wavefront on the results. Simulations of data with typical turbulence profiles from Paranal were input to the profiler, showing that it is possible to identify reliably the input features for all the AOF modes.

  13. Stronger Ties With Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chile was the first South American country to establish diplomatic relations with China. It was also the first Latin American country to support China’s entry into the WTO,recognize China’s full market

  14. Next VLT Instrument Ready for the Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    FORS2 Commissioning Period Successfully Terminated The commissioning of the FORS2 multi-mode astronomical instrument at KUEYEN , the second FOcal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope, was successfully finished today. This important work - that may be likened with the test driving of a new car model - took place during two periods, from October 22 to November 21, 1999, and January 22 to February 8, 2000. The overall goal was to thoroughly test the functioning of the new instrument, its conformity to specifications and to optimize its operation at the telescope. FORS2 is now ready to be handed over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. Observing time for a six-month period until October 1 has already been allocated to a large number of research programmes. Two of the images that were obtained with FORS2 during the commissioning period are shown here. An early report about this instrument is available as ESO PR 17/99. The many modes of FORS2 The FORS Commissioning Team carried out a comprehensive test programme for all observing modes. These tests were done with "observation blocks (OBs)" that describe the set-up of the instrument and telescope for each exposure in all details, e.g., position in the sky of the object to be observed, filters, exposure time, etc.. Whenever an OB is "activated" from the control console, the corresponding observation is automatically performed. Additional information about the VLT Data Flow System is available in ESO PR 10/99. The FORS2 observing modes include direct imaging, long-slit and multi-object spectroscopy, exactly as in its twin, FORS1 at ANTU . In addition, FORS2 contains the "Mask Exchange Unit" , a motorized magazine that holds 10 masks made of thin metal plates into which the slits are cut by means of a laser. The advantage of this particular observing method is that more spectra (of more objects) can be taken with a single exposure (up to approximately 80) and that the shape of the slits can be

  15. The AVES adaptive optics spectrograph for the VLT: status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallavicini, Roberto; Delabre, Bernard; Pasquini, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo M.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Comari, Maurizio; Conconi, Paolo; Mazzoleni, Ruben; Santin, Paolo; Damiani, Francesco; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Franchini, Mariagrazia; Spano, Paolo; Bonifacio, P.; Catalano, Santo; Molaro, Paolo P.; Randich, S.; Rodono, Marcello

    2003-03-01

    We report on the status of AVES, the Adaptive-optics Visual Echelle Spectrograph proposed for the secondary port of the Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System (NAOS) recently installed at the VLT. AVES is an intermediate resolution (R ≍ 16,000) high-efficiency fixed- format echelle spectrograph which operates in the spectral band 500 - 1,000 nm. In addition to a high intrinsic efficiency, comparable to that of ESI at Keck II, it takes advantage of the adaptive optics correction provided by NAOS to reduce the sky and detector contribution in background-limited observations of weak sources, thus allowing a further magnitude gain with respect to comparable non-adaptive optics spectrographs. Simulations show that the instrument will be capable of reaching a magnitude V = 22.5 at S/N > 10 in two hours, two magnitudes weaker than GIRAFFE at the same resolution and 3 magnitudes weaker than the higher resolution UVES spectrograph. Imaging and coronographic functions have also been implemented in the design. We present the results of the final design study and we dicuss the technical and operational issues related to its implementation at the VLT as a visitor instrument. We also discuss the possibility of using a scaled-up non-adaptive optics version of the same design as an element of a double- or triple-arm intermediate-resolution spectrograph for the VLT. Such an option looks attractive in the context of a high-efficiency large-bandwidth (320 - 1,500 nm) spectrograph ("fast-shooter") being considered by ESO as a 2nd-generation VLT instrument.

  16. Controlling Light Pollution in Chile A Status Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm G.; Sanhueza, P.; Schwarz, H. E.; Walker, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    In 1999, after 6 years of intense work wirh Chilean authoritie Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the then President of Chile signed into law Supreme Decree 686, the environmentally-linked "Norma Luminica". This, in effect, required that lighting in the three astronomically-sensitive Regions of Northern Chile (II Paranal,Armazones III Las Campanas IV La Silla, Tololo, Pachon) be directed downwards instead of into the sky. Various grace periods up to a maximum of five years were specified for different types of lighting. Street lighting was due to be fully compliant by 1st October, 2005. 70% of the street lighting in these 3 Regions now meets specifications and work continues towards full compliance. More sophisticated draft legislation is under consideration with several Chilean national authorities. This may include international lighting norms, energy-saving caps and measures to address energy-saving, environmental and human-health issues. With vigilance, these measures are likely to extend the useful life of all existing and major planned observatories in Chile by several decades.

  17. Protecting the Local Dark-Sky Areas around the International Observatories in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.

    2001-12-01

    This report covers efforts by IAU Commission 50's new Working Group on Light Pollution to slow or halt the spread of incipient light pollution near the VLT, the Magellan 6.5m telescopes, Gemini South, SOAR, Blanco and many smaller telescopes in Chile. An effort has just begun to protect the ALMA site in Northern Chile from RFI. Such work includes extensive outreach programs to the local population, schools and industry as well as to local, regional and national levels of government in Chile. The group is working internationally with such organizations as the IDA; one member has recently led the production of "The first world atlas of the artificial night-sky brightness". These efforts have resulted in the first national-level environmental legislation covering dark skies as part of a government effort to protect the environment. Chilean manufacturers are now producing competitive, full-cut-off, street lighting designed specifically to comply with the new legislation. The Chilean national tourism agency is supporting "Astronomical Tourism" based on the dark, clear skies of Chile. An international conference on Controlling Light Pollution and RFI will be held in La Serena, Chile on 5-7 March, 2002, backed up by a parallel meeting of Chilean amateur astronomers. Much work remains to be done. Most of this work is supported by funding from the US National Science Foundation through CTIO, and from ESO, OCIW and CONAMA.

  18. Workshop “Science with the VLT in the ELT Era”

    CERN Document Server

    Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings

    2008-01-01

    The Workshop ‘Science with the VLT in the ELT era’ was organised by ESO as a forum for the astronomical community to debate its expected future use of ESO’s Very Large Telescope ( and its VLTI interferometric mode) when other facilities such as ALMA, JWST and, hopefully, at least one extremely large 30-40m class telescope will be operating. VLT/I science highlights were presented, future science priorities argued, synergies between the VLT and the future facilities confirmed and specific new VLT/I instruments proposed.

  19. VLT/NACO observations of Neptune's ring arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S.; Sicardy, B.; Souami, D.; Dumas, C.

    2011-10-01

    We present NACO adaptative optics observations of Neptune's ring arcs at 2.2 μm (K band), taken with the VLT-Yepun telescope in August 2007. We give improved mean motion values for the arcs and Galatea, thus confirming the mismatch between the arcs' position and the location of the 42:43 corotation inclination resonance. We compare the photometry of the arcs with previous observations. We finally use the data to constrain the masses and positions of the coorbital satellites which could confine the arcs, while allowing a slow evolution of the system.

  20. VLT instrumentation control: the collaboration of OATs with ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, P.

    The collaboration of the Astrophysics Technology Group (ATG) of the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste with ESO will be presented. It may be considered as an example of a good practice in the collaboration of a peripheral Institute with ESO. Started in 1985, it spans almost all the time since Italy joined ESO in 1982. The Trieste Astrophysics Technology Group (ATG) participated in many technological enterprise of ESO, from Remote Observing to VLT instrumentation and to ALMA ACS, and is now looking for the challenging E-ELT.

  1. VLT spectroscopy of massive stars in NGC55

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Castro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the first spectroscopy study of massive stars in NGC55. The data, taken with VLT-FORS2 allow us to provide spectral classification for 200 objects located through- out the galaxy. From this sample, suitable B-type supergiants are chosen for subsequent higher resolution spectroscopic observations that will enable a quantitative study. The stellar abundances will be a key point in the study of galaxy chemical evolution. We also discuss how GTC-OSIRIS can be a valuable tool for similar studies.

  2. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, A.

    1990-12-01

    This report is a manual for the valiant little terminal. Information covered in this report is as follow: an introduction to VLT; installation; starting up; text screen menus; graphics screen menus; introduction to VLT's scripting facility; quick reference section; and troubleshooting.

  3. MOONS: the Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Cirasuolo; . et al.; L. Kaper; B. Lemasle

    2014-01-01

    MOONS is a new Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph selected by ESO as a third generation instrument for the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The grasp of the large collecting area offered by the VLT (8.2m diameter), combined with the large multiplex and wavelength coverage (optical to nea

  4. 3D shape of asteroid (6) Hebe from VLT/SPHERE imaging: Implications for the origin of ordinary H chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsset, M.; Carry, B.; Dumas, C.; Hanuš, J.; Viikinkoski, M.; Vernazza, P.; Müller, T. G.; Delbo, M.; Jehin, E.; Gillon, M.; Grice, J.; Yang, B.; Fusco, T.; Berthier, J.; Sonnett, S.; Kugel, F.; Caron, J.; Behrend, R.

    2017-08-01

    Context. The high-angular-resolution capability of the new-generation ground-based adaptive-optics camera SPHERE at ESO VLT allows us to assess, for the very first time, the cratering record of medium-sized (D 100-200 km) asteroids from the ground, opening the prospect of a new era of investigation of the asteroid belt's collisional history. Aims: We investigate here the collisional history of asteroid (6) Hebe and challenge the idea that Hebe may be the parent body of ordinary H chondrites, the most common type of meteorites found on Earth ( 34% of the falls). Methods: We observed Hebe with SPHERE as part of the science verification of the instrument. Combined with earlier adaptive-optics images and optical light curves, we model the spin and three-dimensional (3D) shape of Hebe and check the consistency of the derived model against available stellar occultations and thermal measurements. Results: Our 3D shape model fits the images with sub-pixel residuals and the light curves to 0.02 mag. The rotation period (7.274 47 h), spin (ECJ2000 λ, β of 343°, +47°), and volume-equivalent diameter (193 ± 6 km) are consistent with previous determinations and thermophysical modeling. Hebe's inferred density is 3.48 ± 0.64 g cm-3, in agreement with an intact interior based on its H-chondrite composition. Using the 3D shape model to derive the volume of the largest depression (likely impact crater), it appears that the latter is significantly smaller than the total volume of close-by S-type H-chondrite-like asteroid families. Conclusions: Our results imply that (6) Hebe is not the most likely source of H chondrites. Over the coming years, our team will collect similar high-precision shape measurements with VLT/SPHERE for 40 asteroids covering the main compositional classes, thus providing an unprecedented dataset to investigate the origin and collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory

  5. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  6. ESTIMATION OF THE OPTICAL TURBULENCE (C2 N AND SEEING FROM MM5 DATA IN PARANAL/ARMAZONES SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El modelo meteorológico MM5 se ha testeado como una buena herramienta de pronóstico de variables meteorológicas en el norte de Chile. Configurando el MM5 en alta resolución horizontal, vertical y temporal se probaron dos modelos para estimar el perfil vertical de la turbulenciaóptica (C2n y seeing en Paranal y Armazones. El modelo AFGL (M1 y el modelo de Masciadri (M2 calculan la estructura vertical de C2n usando en sus ecuaciones parámetros meteorológicos como la magnitud del viento, temperatura, presión, humedad, temperatura potencial y TKE. Se probaron diferentes parametrizaciones de los procesos físicos atmosféricos en el modelo MM5, donde la parametrización de capa límite Gayno-Seaman y el método M2 tienen el mejor resultado. Estos resultados fueron comparados con los datos registrados en las campañas de medición en Paranal entre noviembre y diciembre de 2007, donde se usaron simultáneamente los instrumentos SCIDAR y DIMM midiendo C2n y seeing. Los resultados muestran que el C2n simulado tiene muy buena correspondencia en casi todo el perfil comparado con las mediciones de SCIDAR, pero cerca de la superficie la diferencia es alta, porque los instrumentos toman en cuenta la turbulencia provocada por los edificios de los telescopios, y cerca del suelo el modelo MM5 tiene errores sistemáticos. En Paranal el RMSE de seeing en promedio sobre 12 días es 0.45 arcsec y en Armazones el RMSE de seeing promedio es 0.19 arcsec.

  7. [Euthanasia in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco M, Víctor Hugo; Crispi, Francisca

    2016-12-01

    Euthanasia is a complex medical procedure. Even though end of life decisions are common situations in health practice, there is a lack of consensus about their terminology. In this manuscript, the main concepts about this issue are defined and delimited; including active and passive euthanasia and limitation of therapeutic effort. Then, a revision is made about the international experience on euthanasia, to then go through the Chile’s history in euthanasia and the population’s opinion. In Chile, euthanasia is an act that has been removed from the social dialogue and legislation. In order to have an open discussion in our population about the issue, the debate has to be opened to the citizens, accompanied by clear medical information about the procedure.

  8. Chile exploits LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Simultaneously with its exploitation of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs Chile is developing the production and selling of LNG. Chile produces a large quantity of associated gas from its reservoirs at Megallanes and processes it at the Manantiales, Cullen and Posesion plants recovering propane, butane and natural gas liguids. The stripped gas is reinjected for pressure maintenance operations. With the completion of the LNG program full use of the gas will be achieved. It will totally meet the needs of combustible liquids for the central and northern parts of the country, a volume of 2200 million cu m/yr. For its treatment natural gas is sent through gas pipelines to the LNG plant at Cabo Negro. By means of a cooling process, the gas is cooled to -160 C where it becomes a liquid and its volume is reduced by a factor of 600. It is then stored in tanks at atmospheric pressure.

  9. Identidad Docente en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo invita a pensar el discurso identitario docente en Chile, desde la perspectiva de la tropología, entendida como ejes textuales sobre los cuales se figura la realidad y que son efecto de la interacción comunicativa entre integrantes de un colectivo social, que comparten una enciclopedia o repertorio de experiencias comunes que permiten asignar sentido a un mensaje.

  10. Chile: segundo tiempo Chile: Half-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT L FUNK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina el año político chileno, ofreciendo un análisis crítico del concepto de 'segundo tiempo' autoimpuesto por la presidenta Michelle Bachelet a comienzos del 2008. Resumiendo algunas de las políticas implementadas, el trabajo cuestiona si se logró marcar una linea y dejar atrás los dos primeros y difíciles años del cuarto gobierno de la Concertación. Analizando las medidas tomadas y las encuestas de opinión pública, se encuentra que el reenfoque de las prioridades del gobierno y una complicada coyuntura externa ayudó a levantar los niveles de apoyo de la presidenta y su gobierno.The article examines the political year in Chile, offering a critical analysis of the concept of 'Second Period' which President Michelle Bachelet defined at the beginning of 2008. Summarising some of the policies implemented, the piece asks whether the government was able to draw a line, leaving behind the first, difficult two years of the Concertación s fourth government. Analyzing the measures taken and public opinion polls, the paper finds that a re-focussing of the government's priorities together with a complicated external environment helped to raise support for the president as well as her government.

  11. Neptune's ring arcs: VLT/NACO near-infrared observations and a model to explain their stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, S.; Sicardy, B.; Souami, D.; Carry, B.; Dumas, C.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Neptune's incomplete ring arcs have been stable since their discovery in 1984 although these structures should be destroyed in a few months through differential Keplerian motion. Regular imaging data are needed to address the question of the arc stability. Aims: We present the first NACO observations of Neptune's ring arcs taken at 2.2 μm (Ks band) with the Very Large Telescope in August 2007, and propose a model for the arc stability based on co-orbital motion. Methods: The images were aligned using the ephemerides of the satellites Proteus and Triton and were suitably co-added to enhance ring or satellite signals. Resonance theory and N-body simulations were used to model the arcs' confinement. Results: We derive accurate mean motion values for the arcs and Galatea and confirm the mismatch between the arcs' position and the location of the 42:43 corotation inclination resonance. We propose a new confinement mechanism where small co-orbital satellites in equilibrium trap ring arc material. We constrain the masses and locations of these hypothetical co-orbital bodies. Collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile - 079.C-0682.

  12. The Paran\\'a Ra'anga expedition

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro; Vena, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Paran\\'a Ra'anga (the image of Paran\\'a, in Guaran\\'i) is the name of a cultural and scientific expedition that traveled the rivers: R\\'io de la Plata, Paran\\'a and Paraguay, from Buenos Aires to Asunci\\'on, during March 2010. The project brought together some forty scientists and artists from three countries in a slow and enriching cruise, putting in active contact actors from different backgrounds and disciplines -which usually run separately- in the framework of an unusual space-time experience. The project recovers the historical tradition of the trip as an instrument of knowledge and collaboration between the arts and sciences, necessary to build new ways of seeing and understanding the river and its banks. This article reports on the motivations of this project and its projection.

  13. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help...

  14. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  15. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  16. Calibration strategy of the pyramid wavefront sensor module of ERIS with the VLT deformable secondary mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, A.; Briguglio, R.; Pinna, E.; Agapito, G.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Esposito, S.

    2012-07-01

    ERIS is a new Adaptive Optics Instrument for the Adaptive Optics Facility of the VLT that foresees, in its design phase, a Pyramid Wavefront Sensor Module (PWM) to be used with the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror (VLT-DSM) as corrector. As opposite to the concave secondary mirrors currently in use (e.g. at LBT), VLT-DSM is convex and calibration of the interaction matrix (IM) between the PWM and the DSM is not foreseen on-telescope during day-time. In this paper different options of calibration are evaluated and compared with particular attention on the synthetic evaluation and on-sky calibration of the IM. A trade-off of the calibration options, the optimization techniques and the related validation with numerical simulations are also provided.

  17. Erosion of river banks along the Paraná de las Palmas River, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Bieman, J.; Van den Koppel, M.; Van Velzen, G.; Verbruggen, W.

    2010-01-01

    One of the branches of the Paraná delta is the Paraná de las Palmas River. This branch doesn’t have the biggest discharge but has the most navigation. The situation in the Paraná de las Palmas isn’t without problems though; the river banks show erosion over the whole length of the branch. This erosi

  18. Training telescope operators and support astronomers at Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Boffin, Henri M J; Anderson, Joe; Pino, Andres; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Girard, Julien H V

    2016-01-01

    The operations model of the Paranal Observatory relies on the work of efficient staff to carry out all the daytime and nighttime tasks. This is highly dependent on adequate training. The Paranal Science Operations department (PSO) has a training group that devises a well-defined and continuously evolving training plan for new staff, in addition to broadening and reinforcing courses for the whole department. This paper presents the training activities for and by PSO, including recent astronomical and quality control training for operators, as well as adaptive optics and interferometry training of all staff. We also present some future plans.

  19. Training telescope operators and support astronomers at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffin, Henri M. J.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Anderson, Joe; Pino, Andres; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Girard, Julien H. V.

    2016-07-01

    The operations model of the Paranal Observatory relies on the work of efficient staff to carry out all the daytime and nighttime tasks. This is highly dependent on adequate training. The Paranal Science Operations department (PSO) has a training group that devises a well-defined and continuously evolving training plan for new staff, in addition to broadening and reinforcing courses for the whole department. This paper presents the training activities for and by PSO, including recent astronomical and quality control training for operators, as well as adaptive optics and interferometry training of all staff. We also present some future plans.

  20. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  1. Biomasa en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  2. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  3. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  4. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  5. The VLT Adaptive Optics Facility Project: Telescope Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Robin; Hubin, Norbert; Stroebele, Stefan; Fedrigo, Enrico; Oberti, Sylvain; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Bacon, Roland; McDermid, Richard; Bonaccini-Calia, Domenico; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Riccardi, Armando; Donaldson, Rob; Lelouarn, Miska; Hackenberg, Wolfgang; Conzelman, Ralf; Delabre, Bernard; Stuik, Remko; Paufique, Jerome; Kasper, Markus; Vernet, Elise; Downing, Mark; Esposito, Simone; Duchateau, Michel; Franx, Marijn; Myers, Richard; Goodsell, Steven

    2006-03-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility is a project to convert UT4 into a specialised Adaptive Telescope. The present secondary mirror (M2) will be replaced by a new M2-Unit hosting a 1170-actuator deformable mirror. The three focal stations will be equipped with instruments adapted to the new capability of this UT. Two instruments have been identified for the two Nasmyth foci: Hawk-I with its AO module GRAAL allowing a Ground Layer Adaptive Optics correction and MUSE with GALACSI for GLAO correction and Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics correction. A future instrument still needs to be defined for the Cassegrain focus. Several guide stars are required for the type of adaptive corrections needed and a Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) is being developed in the scope of the AO Facility. Convex mirrors like the VLT M2 represent a major challenge for testing and a substantial effort is dedicated to this. ASSIST, is a test bench that will allow testing of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and both instruments with simulated turbulence. This article focusses on the telescope systems (Adaptive Secondary, Four Laser Guide Star Facility, RTC platform and ASSIST Test Bench). The following article describes the AO Modules GALACSI and GRAAL.

  6. VLT imaging of the {\\beta} Pictoris gas disk

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Olofsson, G; Fathi, K; Thébault, Ph; Liseau, R

    2012-01-01

    Circumstellar debris disks older than a few Myr should be largely devoid of primordial gas remaining from the protoplanetary disk phase. Tracing the origin of observed atomic gas in Keplerian rotation in the edge-on debris disk surrounding the ~12 Myr old star {\\beta} Pictoris requires more detailed information about its spatial distribution than has previously been acquired by limited slit spectroscopy. Especially indications of asymmetries and presence of Ca II gas at high disk latitudes call for additional investigation. We set out to recover a complete image of the Fe I and Ca II gas emission around {\\beta} Pic by spatially resolved, high-resolution spectroscopic observations to better understand the morphology and origin of the gaseous disk component. The multiple fiber facility FLAMES/GIRAFFE at the VLT, with the large IFU ARGUS, was used to obtain spatially resolved optical spectra in four regions covering the northeast and southwest side of the disk. Emission lines from Fe I and Ca II were mapped and ...

  7. VLT polarimetry observations of PSR B0656+14

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Shearer, A; Testa, V; Sowikowska, A; Rudak, B; Krzeszowki, K; Kanbach, G

    2015-01-01

    Optical polarisation measurements are key tests for different models of the pulsar magnetosphere. Furthermore, comparing the relative orientation of the phase-averaged linear polarisation direction and the pulsar proper motion vector may unveil a peculiar alignment, clearly seen in the Crab pulsar. Our goal is to obtain the first measurement of the phase-averaged optical linear polarisation of the fifth brightest optical pulsar, PSR\\, B0656+14, which has also a precisely measured proper motion, and verify a possible alignment between the polarisation direction and the proper motion vector. We carried out observations with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to measure the phase-averaged optical polarisation degree (P.D.) and position angle (P.A.) of PSR B0656+14. We measured a P.D. of $11.9\\%\\pm5.5\\%$ and a P.A. of $125.8\\degr\\pm13.2\\degr$, measured East of North. Albeit of marginal significance, this is the first measurement of the phase-averaged optical P. D. for this pulsar. Moreover, we found that the P.A. of ...

  8. Astrometric precision of observations at VLT/FORS2

    CERN Document Server

    Lazorenko, P F

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we test the astrometric precision of VLT/FORS2 observations using a serie of CCD frames taken in Galactic bulge area. A special reduction method based on symmetrization of reference fields was used to reduce the atmospheric image motion. Positional precision of unsaturated R=16 mag star images at 17 sec exposure and 0.55 arcsec seeing was found to be equal to 300 microarcsec. The total error of observations was decomposed into components. It was shown that astrometric error depends largely on the photon centroiding error of the target (250 microarcsec for 16 mag stars) while the image motion is much less (110 microarcsec). At galactic latitudes to about 20 degrees, precision for a serie of frames with a 10 min total exposure is estimated to be 30-50 microarcsec for 14-16 mag stars providing the images are not overexposed and the filter R "special" is used. Error estimates for fields with smaller sky star density are given. We conclude that astrometric observations with large telescopes, under op...

  9. MASSIVE STARS: FROM THE VLT TO THE ELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Evans

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro conocimiento de las estrellas masivas ha aumentado significativamente en los últimos 30 años gracias a las nuevas instalaciones y tecnologías. En esta contribución presento un gran survey de estrellas masivas que se ha realizado recientemente mediante el uso de VLT-FLAMES, mostrando los campos observados y remarcando la fracción de estrellas binarias que se ha encontrado. Estos datos se han utilizado para la primera comprobación empírica de la dependencia de la intensidad de los vientos estelares con la metalicidad, encontrándose un buen acuerdo con la teoría un resultado de gran importancia para los modelos de evolución estelar, que se utilizan para la interpretación de cúmulos lejanos, starburst y galaxias con formación estelar. Dando un paso más, comentaré como en la actualidad se están dedicando grandes esfuerzos al avance de los planes de actuación y desarrollo de los Telescopios de Gran Tamaño, que serán una realidad en un futuro próximo; este hecho nos ofrecerá una posibilidad más que interesante para obtener observaciones con resolución espacial de estrellas masivas más allá del Grupo Local.

  10. VLT spectroscopy of XTE J2123-058 during quiescence

    CERN Document Server

    Casares, J; Shahbaz, T; Zurita, C; Charles, P A

    2001-01-01

    We present VLT low resolution spectroscopy of the neutron star X-ray transient XTE J2123-058 during its quiescent state. Our data reveal the presence of a K7V companion which contributes 77 % to the total flux at 6300 A and orbits the neutron star at K_2 = 287 +/- 12 km/s. Contrary to other soft X-ray transients (SXTs), the Halpha emission is almost exactly in antiphase with the velocity curve of the optical companion. Using the light-center technique we obtain K_1 = 140 +/- 27 km/s and hence q=K_1/K_2=M_2/M_1= 0.49 +/- 0.10. This, combined with a previous determination of the inclination angle (i=73 +/- 4) yields M_1 = 1.55 +/- 0.31 Msun and M_2 = 0.76 +/- 0.22 Msun. M_2 agrees well with the observed spectral type. Doppler tomography of the Halpha emission shows a non-symmetric accretion disc distribution mimicking that seen in SW Sex stars. Although we find a large systemic velocity of -110 +/- 8 km/s this value is consistent with the galactic rotation velocity at the position of J2123-058, and hence a halo...

  11. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M E

    1998-01-01

    The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Chile's Program for Health Education (EPES) has developed HIV/AIDS and reproductive health education seminars for residents of working class neighborhoods in Santiago and Concepcion. A 1996 seminar on violence and AIDS, organized by EPES in collaboration with a network of area schools, health centers, and nongovernmental organizations, was attended by 250 women. Subsequent workshops have addressed homosexuality and lesbianism, women and AIDS, sex workers and AIDS, sex education, domestic violence, and child sex abuse. These workshops have included skills-building sessions on safer sex, prevention of domestic violence, stress management, women's self-defense, and AIDS education techniques. Workshop participants are urged to distribute AIDS educational materials and help the network organize exhibits at public events. In the future, EPES plans to conduct outreach to men as well as women.

  12. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. First light of the VLT planet finder SPHERE. II. The physical properties and the architecture of the young systems PZ Telescopii and HD 1160 revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, A.-L.; Bonnefoy, M.; Ginski, C.; Vigan, A.; Messina, S.; Mesa, D.; Galicher, R.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S.; Kopytova, T. G.; Millward, M.; Thalmann, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Ehrenreich, D.; Zurlo, A.; Chauvin, G.; Antichi, J.; Baruffolo, A.; Bazzon, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Blanchard, P.; Boccaletti, A.; de Boer, J.; Carle, M.; Cascone, E.; Costille, A.; De Caprio, V.; Delboulbé, A.; Dohlen, K.; Dominik, C.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Girard, J. H.; Giro, E.; Gisler, D.; Gluck, L.; Gry, C.; Henning, T.; Hubin, N.; Hugot, E.; Jaquet, M.; Kasper, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Langlois, M.; Le Mignant, D.; Llored, M.; Madec, F.; Martinez, P.; Mawet, D.; Milli, J.; Möller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Moulin, T.; Moutou, C.; Origné, A.; Pavlov, A.; Petit, C.; Pragt, J.; Puget, P.; Ramos, J.; Rochat, S.; Roelfsema, R.; Salasnich, B.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Schmid, H. M.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Wahhaj, Z.; Weber, L.; Wildi, F.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The young systemsPZ Tel and HD 1160, hosting known low-mass companions, were observed during the commissioning of the new planet finder of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) SPHERE with several imaging and spectroscopic modes. Aims: We aim to refine the physical properties and architecture of both systems. Methods: We use SPHERE commissioning data and dedicated Rapid Eye Mount (REM) observations, as well as literature and unpublished data from VLT/SINFONI, VLT/NaCo, Gemini/NICI, and Keck/NIRC2. Results: We derive new photometry and confirm the short-term (P = 0.94 d) photometric variability of the star PZ Tel A with values of 0.14 and 0.06 mag at optical and near-infrared wavelengths, respectively. We note from the comparison to literature data spanning 38 yr that the star also exhibits a long-term variability trend with a brightening of ~0.25 mag. The 0.63-3.8 μm spectral energy distribution of PZ Tel B (separation ~25 AU) allows us to revise its physical characteristics: spectral type M7 ± 1, Teff = 2700 ± 100 K, log(g) 0.66). For eccentricities below 0.9, the inclination, longitude of the ascending node, and time of periastron passage are well constrained. In particular, both star and companion inclinations are compatible with a system seen edge-on. Based on "hot-start" evolutionary models, we reject other brown dwarf candidates outside 0.25'' for both systems, and giant planet companions outside 0.5'' that are more massive than 3 MJ for the PZ Tel system. We also show that K1-K2 color can be used along with YJH low-resolution spectra to identify young L-type companions, provided high photometric accuracy (≤0.05 mag) is achieved. Conclusions: SPHERE opens new horizons in the study of young brown dwarfs and giant exoplanets using direct imaging thanks to high-contrast imaging capabilities at optical (0.5-0.9 μm) and near-infrared (0.95-2.3 μm) wavelengths, as well as high signal-to-noise spectroscopy in the near-infrared domain (0.95-2.3 μm) from low

  14. Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion) - II. High-dispersion VLT observations and microjet properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.

    2011-11-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of the LV 2 proplyd is presented taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FLAMES Argus array at an angular resolution of 0.31 × 0.31 arcsec2 and velocity resolutions down to 2 km s-1 pixel-1. Following subtraction of the local M42 emission, the spectrum of LV 2 is isolated from the surrounding nebula. We measured the heliocentric velocities and widths of a number of lines detected in the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd, as well as in the adjacent Orion nebula falling within a 6.6 × 4.2 arcsec2 field of view. It is found that far-ultraviolet to optical collisional lines with critical densities, Ncr, ranging from 103 to 109 cm-3 suffer collisional de-excitation near the rest velocity of the proplyd correlating tightly with their critical densities. Lines of low Ncr are suppressed the most. The bipolar jet arising from LV 2 is spectrally and spatially well detected in several emission lines. We compute the [O III] electron temperature profile across LV 2 in velocity space and measure steep temperature variations associated with the red-shifted lobe of the jet, possibly being due to a shock discontinuity. From the velocity-resolved analysis the ionized gas near the rest frame of LV 2 has Te= 9200 ± 800 K and Ne˜ 106 cm-3, while the red-shifted jet lobe has Te≈ 9000-104 K and Ne˜ 106-107 cm-3. The jet flow is highly ionized but contains dense semineutral clumps emitting neutral oxygen lines. The abundances of N+, O2 +, Ne2 +, Fe2 +, S+and S2 +are measured for the strong red-shifted jet lobe. Iron in the core of LV 2 is depleted by 2.54 dex with respect to solar as a result of sedimentation on dust, whereas the efficient destruction of dust grains in the fast microjet raises its Fe abundance to at least 30 per cent solar. Sulphur does not show evidence of significant depletion on dust, but its abundance both in the core and the jet is only about half solar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory

  15. Saturn's Doppler velocimetry wind measurements with VLT/UVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Miguel; Mota Machado, Pedro; Luz, David; Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo; Peralta, Javier

    2016-10-01

    We present Doppler wind velocity results of Saturn's zonal flow at ~0.4 mbar pressure level. Our aim is help to constrain the characterization of the equatorial jet at the referred altitude and the latitudinal variation of the zonal winds, to contribute to monitor the spatial and temporal variability in order to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of Saturn's zonal winds, which Sánchez-Lavega et al. (2003, Nature, 423, 623) have found to have strongly changed in recent years, as the planet approached southern summer solstice.The UVES/VLT instrument has been used, which simultaneously achieves high spectral resolving power and high spatial resolution. The field has been derotated in order to have the aperture aligned perpendicularly to Saturn's rotation axis. In this configuration, spatial information in the East-West direction is preserved in a set of spectra in the direction perpendicular to dispersion.The technique of absolute accelerometry (AA, Connes, 1985, ApSS 110, 211) has been applied to the backscattered solar spectrum in order to determine the Doppler shift associated with the zonal circulation. Our measurements have been made in the wavelength range of 480-680 nm. Previously we successfully adapted this Doppler velocimetry technique for measuring winds at Venus cloud tops (Machado et al. 2012).The observations consisted of 4 blocks of 15 exposures of 90 sec, plus two shorter blocks of 9 exposures, totalling 7.3 hours of telescope time. In order to cover the whole disk the aperture has been offset by 1 arcsec in the North-South direction between consecutive exposures. Most of the northern hemisphere was covered by the rings. Saturn's diameter was 17.4 arcsec, and the slit aperture was 0.3x25 arcsec. The aperture offset between consecutive exposures was 1 arcsec. Two observations blocks of 9 exposures only covered the central part of the disk, and four others covered the whole disk. The sub-terrestrial point was at -26.1 degrees South. The

  16. Toward accurate radial velocities with the fiber-fed GIRAFFE multi-object VLT spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Frederic; Blecha, Andre; North, Pierre; Simond, Gilles; Baratchart, Sebastien; Cayatte, Veronique; Chemin, Laurent; Palsa, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    We describe briefly the Data-Reduction of the VLT fiber-fed multi-object GIRAFFE spectrograph - part of the VLT FLAMES facility. We focus on specific features of GIRAFFE - the simultaneous wavelength calibration - and their impact on the data-reduction strategy. We describe the implementation of the global physical model and we compare the results obtained with the simulated, laboratory and preliminary data. We discuss the influence of critical parameters, the overall accuracy of the wavelength solution, and the stability and the robustness of the global model approach. We address the accuracy of radial velocity measurements illustrated by solar spectra obtained during the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe.

  17. [Chile: Standing up again].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2010-03-01

    One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more.

  18. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  19. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  20. The relationship between ENSO and Paraná River flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Cardoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies indicate that there is a relationship between the climatic variability in the South American continent and alterations of the position and intensity of the heat sources in the equatorial region. The El Niño phenomenon can influence the precipitation over some regions of South America such as the Brazilian Northeast, Amazonia, South of Brazil and Uruguay. Over 80% of Brazil's energy comes from hydropower, and decisions concerning future availability and pricing require forecasts of river flow, ideally several months in advance. In this work the relationship between the Paraná River flow and the ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation mode is investigated and statistical forecasts of river flow are tested. An evaluation of the relationship between the Pacific sea surface temperature and the Paraná River flow indicates an ENSO pattern over the equatorial Pacific. The time series of the ENSO mode obtained by applying principal components analysis on the sea surface temperature (SST were used as predictors for the Paraná River flow forecast. Improvement in the model forecast skill is also obtained by considering the lagged river flow time series as a predictor.

  1. It Pays to Invest in Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chile is the first country to establish coopera-tive relations with China in South America, and also the first one to support China's ac-cession to the World Trade Organization.In 2005, Chile and China signed a free trade agreement.After that, China has become Chile's largest trad-ing partner, and Chile become China's second largest partner in South America.

  2. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  3. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  4. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  5. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  6. Ten years maintaining MACAO-VLTI units in operation in the Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, F.; Hudepohl, G.

    2016-07-01

    More than 10 years have already passed since the first Multiple Application Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) facilities got the first light in UT2 the 18th of April, 2003, in the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal Observatory. The achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is normally limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. However, with Adaptive Optics (AO) techniques, this major drawback can be overcome so that the telescope produces images that are as sharp as theoretically possible, i.e., as if they were taken from space. [1] The intention of this document is summarize in few pages some highlights related with the activities needed to keep MACAO units in operation. Some statistics of problems based in Action Remedy tool is included, showing how through these years the number of problems has been reduced, even when there are still some unsolved ones. Some lessons have been learned and there are others one to learn. Corrective and predictive maintenance performed are shown too like the current measurements, transfer functions measurements, thermography pictures, health checks measuring interaction matrix and flat vectors to detect dead APDs or short circuits in the DM, etc. Some forced interventions are included as well like the removal of the cabinets from Coude rooms to avoid that acoustic noise and vibrations perturb the operations, the deformable mirrors reached by cooling leaks and a mirror that got rusty are shown too. Well knowledge of the system, good interaction between different disciplines groups to perform corrective and preventive maintenance seems to be key aspects of keeping it under control and operative during all these years leading to this good result.

  7. Da pseudociência paranóica à ciência da paranóia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Barnetche Barth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Antes mesmo de ter acesso às memórias do presidente Schreber, Freud buscava explicar metapsicologicamente a paranóia. Desenvolvido de forma ensaística, os autores deste artigo mostram como Schreber ofereceu seu conhecimento paranóico à ciência e como Freud teve de lidar com a paranóia no seio da comunidade psicanalítica, como atesta sua correspondência pessoal, lutando para não sucumbir, a exemplo de Fliess e Ferenczi, à tentação de uma teoria sexual delirante.From paranoid pseudo-science to the science of paranoia. Even before reading President Schreber's Memories, Freud was searching for a metapsychological explanation of paranoia. In this paper developed in essayistic form, the authors show us how Schreber offered his paranoid knowledge to science and how Freud had to struggle with paranoia in the bosom of the psychoanalytic society, as it certifies his personal correspondence, fighting in order not to surrender, as Fliess and Ferenczi, to the temptation of a delirious sexual theory.

  8. National and international astronomical activities in Chile 1849--2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.

    2003-03-01

    At all times and in many ways, Chilean astronomy has been influenced externally, either by astronomical expeditions from other parts of the world, or by astronomers that immigrated from other countries. We outline the history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht, Ristenpart to the middle of the 20th century, as well as the astronomical development at the Universidad Católica. In addition, various international expeditions, which aimed at observations of solar eclipses, the Venus transit of 1882, and the Mars opposition of 1907, were carried out. While a major photometric project of Harvard Observatory was active for only six weeks in the north of Chile, the spectroscopic Mills expedition of Lick Observatory in Santiago lasted several decades, and the solar observatory of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory near Calama even longer. Finally we give a brief overview of the evolution and the actual state of the international observatories Cerro Tololo, La Silla, Paranal, and Las Campanas.

  9. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  10. Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-22

    Since 1990, Chile has been the fastest growing economy in Latin America thanks to sound economic management and integration into the global economy. Chile can also be proud of its energy policy achievements. The pioneering privatisation and liberalisation of its electricity sector in the 1980s was the foundation for a competitive energy sector, which has sustained the rapid growth of the Chilean economy over the past two decades. Nonetheless, Chile faces the continuing challenge of finding additional energy supplies to fuel economic growth. Chile has limited fossil energy resources and depends on imports to meet three-quarters of its energy needs. The country's electricity sector has faced three periods of significant stress over the past decade. The last episode took place in 2007/2008, when the loss of natural gas imports from Argentina was further exacerbated by a drought in the central system, where hydropower normally accounts for over half of electricity generation. Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, the Review assesses Chile's major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile's long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs. This publication is essential reading for all who are interested in Chilean energy issues and in learning about the important role sound energy policy can play in developing a nation's economic and social welfare.

  11. Star on the Run - Speeding Star Observed with VLT hints at Massive Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers [1] have recorded a massive star moving at more than 2.6 million kilometres per hour. Stars are not born with such large velocities. Its position in the sky leads to the suggestion that the star was kicked out from the Large Magellanic Cloud, providing indirect evidence for a massive black hole in the Milky Way's closest neighbour. These results will soon be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters [2]. "At such a speed, the star would go around the Earth in less than a minute!", says Uli Heber, one of the scientists at the Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte (University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany) and the Centre for Astrophysics Research (University of Hertfordshire, UK) who conducted the study. The hot massive star was discovered in the framework of the Hamburg/ESO sky survey far out in the halo of the Milky Way, towards the Doradus Constellation ("the Swordfish"). "This is a rather unusual place for such a star: massive stars are ordinarily found in the disc of the Milky Way", explains Ralf Napiwotzki, another member of the team. "Our data obtained with the UVES instrument on the Very Large Telescope, at Paranal (Chile), confirm the star to be rather young and to have a chemical composition similar to our Sun." The data also revealed the high speed of the star, solving the riddle of its present location: the star did not form in the Milky Way halo, but happens to be there while on its interstellar - or intergalactic - travel. "But when we calculated how long it would take for the star to travel from the centre of our Galaxy to its present location, we found this to be more than three times its age", says Heber. "Either the star is older than it appears or it was born and accelerated elsewhere", he adds. As a matter of fact, HE0457-5439 - as the star is called - lies closer to one of the Milky Way satellite galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), located 160,000 light-years away from us. The astronomers find it likely

  12. zCOSMOS : A large VLT/VIMOS redshift survey covering 0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilly, S. J.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Silverman, J.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Caputi, K.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Daddi, E.; Feldmann, R.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Guzzo, L.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; McCracken, H. J.; Marinoni, C.; Pello, R.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scarlata, C.; Vergani, D.; Sanders, D. B.; Schinnerer, E.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Arnouts, S.; Aussel, H.; Bardelli, S.; Brusa, M.; Cappi, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Foucaud, S.; Franceschini, R.; Halliday, C.; Impey, C.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A.; Kurk, J.; Maccagni, D.; Maddox, S.; Marano, B.; Marconi, G.; Meneux, B.; Mobasher, B.; Moreau, C.; Peacock, J. A.; Porciani, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Scaramella, R.; Schiminovich, D.; Shopbell, P.; Smail, I.; Thompson, D.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

    2007-01-01

    zCOSMOS is a large-redshift survey that is being undertaken in the COSMOS field using 600 hr of observation with the VIMOS spectrograph on the 8mVLT. The survey is designed to characterize the environments of COSMOS galaxies from the 100 kpc scales of galaxy groups up to the 100 Mpc scale of the cos

  13. Motion control solution for new PLC-based standard development platform for VLT instrument control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, D.; Brast, R.; Di Lieto, N.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Lucuix, C.

    2014-07-01

    More than a decade ago, due to obsolescence issues, ESO initiated the design and implementation of a custom-made CANbus based motion controller (CAN-RMC) to provide, together with a tailor-made software library (motor library), the motion control capabilities for the VME platform needed for the second generation VLT/VLTI instruments. The CAN-RMC controller has been successfully used in a number of VLT instruments but it has high production costs compared to the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial solutions available on the market today. In the scope of the selection of a new PLC-based platform for the VLT instrument control systems, ESO has evaluated motion control solutions from the company Beckhoff. This paper presents the investigation, implementation and testing of the PLC/TwinCAT/EtherCAT motion controllers for DC and stepper motors and their adaptation and integration into the VLT instrumentation framework. It reports functional and performance test results for the most typical use cases of astronomical instruments like initialization sequences, tracking, switch position detections, backslash compensation, brake handling, etc. In addition, it gives an overview of the main features of TwinCAT NC/PTP, PLCopen MC, EtherCAT motion control terminals and the engineering tools like TwinCAT Scope that are integrated into the development environment and simplify software development, testing and commissioning of motorized instrument functions.

  14. The Cepheid Distance to NGC 5236 (M 83) with the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thim, F.; Tammann, G. A.; Saha, A.; Dolphin, A.; Sandage, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Labhardt, L.

    2003-01-01

    Published in: Astrophys. J. 590 (2003) 256-270 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: Cepheids have been observed in NGC 5236 (M 83) using the ANTU (UT1) 8.2 meter telescope of the ESO VLT with FORS1. Observations over 34 epochs in V and I have been made between January 2000 and Ju

  15. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - I. Clustering and dynamics of ≈1000 galaxies at z≈ 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielby, R. M.; Shanks, T.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Infante, L.; Crighton, N. H. M.; Bornancini, C.; Bouché, N.; Héraudeau, P.; Lambas, D. G.; Lowenthal, J.; Minniti, D.; Padilla, N.; Petitjean, P.; Theuns, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the initial imaging and spectroscopic data acquired as part of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) VIMOS Lyman-break galaxy Survey. UBR (or UBVI) imaging covers five ≈36 × 36 arcmin2 fields centred on bright z > 3 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), allowing ≈21 000 2

  16. MOONS: a multi-object optical and near-infrared spectrograph for the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Evans, C.; Kaper, L.; Oliva, Ernesto; Vanzi, Leonardo; Abreu, Manuel; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Babusiaux, Carine; Bauer, Franz E.; Best, Philip; Bezawada, Naidu; Bryson, Ian R.; Cabral, Alexandre; Caputi, Karina; Centrone, Mauro; Chemla, Fanny; Cimatti, Andrea; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Clementini, Gisella; Coelho, João.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dunlop, James S.; Feltzing, Sofia; Ferguson, Annette; Flores, Hector; Fontana, Adriano; Fynbo, Johan; Garilli, Bianca; Glauser, Adrian M.; Guinouard, Isabelle; Hammer, Jean-François; Hastings, Peter R.; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Ivison, Rob J.; Jagourel, Pascal; Jarvis, Matt; Kauffman, G.; Lawrence, A.; Lee, D.; Li Causi, G.; Lilly, S.; Lorenzetti, D.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; McLure, R.; Minniti, D.; Montgomery, D.; Muschielok, B.; Nandra, K.; Navarro, R.; Norberg, P.; Origlia, L.; Padilla, N.; Peacock, J.; Pedicini, F.; Pentericci, L.; Pragt, J.; Puech, M.; Randich, S.; Renzini, A.; Ryde, N.; Rodrigues, M.; Royer, F.; Saglia, R.; Sánchez, A.; Schnetler, H.; Sobral, D.; Speziali, R.; Todd, S.; Tolstoy, E.; Torres, M.; Venema, L.; Vitali, F.; Wegner, M.; Wells, M.; Wild, V.; Wright, G.

    2012-01-01

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope (VLT), selected by ESO for a Phase A study. The baseline design consists of ~1000 fibers deployable over a field of view of ~500 square arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey: I. Introduction and observational overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Taylor, W.D.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Sana, H.A.A.; de Koter, A.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Carraro, G.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.M.; Bonanos, A.Z.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.A.; Cantiello, M.; Clark, J.S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.R.; Friedrich, K.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Izzard, R.G.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.H.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) is an ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Here we introduce our scientific motivations and give an overview of the survey targets, includi

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. I. Introduction and observational overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Taylor, W.D.; de Koter, A.; Brott, I.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) is an ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Here we introduce our scientific motivations and give an overview of the survey targets, includi

  19. Alcohol affects video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Michael; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    People frequently combine alcohol use and gambling. However, our understanding of the effects of alcohol on gambling behavior is limited, both in terms of what the effects are and how they occur. The effects of a moderately intoxicating dose of alcohol (i.e., a blood alcohol concentration of .06 g%) on the video lottery terminal (VLT) gambling behaviors and cognitions of community-recruited nonpathological (n = 30) and probable pathological gamblers (n = 30) were compared. Alcohol increased the rate of double up betting (i.e., choosing to play a bonus game, after a winning video poker hand, which involves trying to pick a higher ranked card than the dealer's card from among 5 face down cards) of probable pathological gamblers, but did not influence their irrational beliefs about VLT play. Alcohol maintained the irrational beliefs about VLT play of nonpathological gamblers, but did not influence their gambling behaviors. Results are consistent with a growing body of research finding that gambling cognitions have an equivocal role in explaining actual gambling behaviors. Potential mechanisms for the observed effects are discussed. Applied implications discussed include: educating regular VLT players about the effects of alcohol on irrational gambling cognitions; reconsidering policies and practices that make alcohol available where machine gambling takes place; and targeting even moderate alcohol use in the treatment of gambling problems.

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunstall, P.R.; Dufton, P.L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C.J.; Howarth, I.D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal

  1. Athermal design of the optical tube assemblies for the ESO VLT four laser guidestar facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, R.; Nijkerk, M.D.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Rijnveld, N.; Kamphues, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    TNO is developing the Optical Tube Asssemblies (OTAs) for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility. The OTAs are Galilean 20x beam expanders, expanding a Ø15 mm input beam to a steerable Ø300 mm output beam with a wavefront quality requirement of 50 nm rms. The allowed defocus under the influence

  2. VIMOS-VLT and Spitzer observations of a radio galaxy at z=2.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villar-Martin, M; Sanchez, SF; De Breuck, C; Peletier, R; Vernet, J; Rettura, A; Seymour, N; Humphrey, A; Stern, D; Alighieri, SD; Fosbury, R

    2006-01-01

    We present: (i) a kinematic and morphological study of the giant Ly alpha nebula associated with the radio galaxy MRC 2104-242 (z = 2.49) based on integral field spectroscopic Visible Multiobject Spectrograph (VIMOS) data from the Very Large Telescope (VLT), and (ii) a photometric study of the host

  3. Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging instruments with a Zernike phase-mask sensor. II. Concept validation with ZELDA on VLT/SPHERE

    CERN Document Server

    N'Diaye, M; Dohlen, K; Sauvage, J -F; Caillat, A; Costille, A; Girard, J H V; Beuzit, J -L; Fusco, T; Blanchard, P; Merrer, J Le; Mignant, D Le; Madec, F; Moreaux, G; Mouillet, D; Puget, P; Zins, G

    2016-01-01

    Warm or massive gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars are now routinely observed by dedicated high-contrast imaging instruments on large, ground-based observatories. These facilities include extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) and state-of-the-art coronagraphy to achieve unprecedented sensitivities for exoplanet detection and spectral characterization. However, differential aberrations between the ExAO sensing path and the science path represent a critical limitation for the detection of giant planets with a contrast lower than a few $10^{-6}$ at very small separations (<0.3\\as) from their host star. In our previous work, we proposed a wavefront sensor based on Zernike phase contrast methods to circumvent this issue and measure these quasi-static aberrations at a nanometric level. We present the design, manufacturing and testing of ZELDA, a prototype that was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its reintegration in Chile. Using the internal light source of the instrument, we performed...

  4. XQ-100: A legacy survey of one hundred 3.5 ≲ z ≲ 4.5 quasars observed with VLT/X-shooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Ellison, S. L.; Becker, G. D.; Christensen, L.; Cupani, G.; Denney, K. D.; Pâris, I.; Worseck, G.; Berg, T. A. M.; Cristiani, S.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Haehnelt, M.; Hamann, F.; Hennawi, J.; Iršič, V.; Kim, T.-S.; López, P.; Lund Saust, R.; Ménard, B.; Perrotta, S.; Prochaska, J. X.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Vestergaard, M.; Viel, M.; Wisotzki, L.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the execution and data reduction of the European Southern Observatory Large Programme "Quasars and their absorption lines: a legacy survey of the high-redshift Universe with VLT/X-shooter" (hereafter "XQ-100"). XQ-100 has produced and made publicly available a homogeneous and high-quality sample of echelle spectra of 100 quasars (QSOs) at redshifts z ≃ 3.5-4.5 observed with full spectral coverage from 315 to 2500 nm at a resolving power ranging from R ~ 4000 to 7000, depending on wavelength. The median signal-to-noise ratios are 33, 25 and 43, as measured at rest-frame wavelengths 1700, 3000 and 3600 Å, respectively. This paper provides future users of XQ-100 data with the basic statistics of the survey, along with details of target selection, data acquisition and data reduction. The paper accompanies the public release of all data products, including 100 reduced spectra. XQ-100 is the largest spectroscopic survey to date of high-redshift QSOs with simultaneous rest-frame UV/optical coverage, and as such enables a wide range of extragalactic research, from cosmology and galaxy evolution to AGN astrophysics. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 189.A-0424.The XQ-100 raw data and the XQ-100 Science Data Products can be found at http://archive.eso.org/eso/eso_archive_main.html and http://archive.eso.org/wdb/wdb/adp/phase3_main/form, respectively.

  5. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  6. The biomethane potential in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiffert, M.; Miranda, J.A. [Institute for Energy and Environment gGmbH, German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Strasse 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Kaltschmitt, M. [Institute for Energy and Environment gGmbH, German Biomass Research Centre, Torgauer Strasse 116, 04347 Leipzig (Germany); Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Eissendorfer Strasse 40, D-21073 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-04-15

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  7. Women and Politics in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  8. VALIDATION OF THE VERTICAL PROFILES OF THREE METEOROLOGICAL MODELS USING RADIOSONDES FROM ANTOFAGASTA, PARANAL AND LLANO DE CHAJNANTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cortés

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación presenta una evaluación de tres modelos meteorológicos, el Global Forecast System (GFS, el European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF y el modelo mesoescalar WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting para tres sitios localizados en el norte de Chile. El Aeropuerto Cerro Moreno, el Observatorio Paranal y el Llano de Chajnantor estan ubicados a 25, 130 y 283 km de la ciudad de Antofagasta, respectivamente. Los resultados para los tres sitios, demuestran que la correlación más baja y los errores más altos se producen en superficie, donde el modelo ECMWF es el que presenta los mejores resultados en estos niveles para las dos horas analizadas. Esto podría ser por el hecho de que el modelo ECMWF cuenta con 91 niveles verticales, en comparación de los 64 y 27 niveles verticales que poseen los modelos GFS y WRF, respectivamente, por lo que puede representar mejor los procesos en la Capa Límite Planetaria (CLP. En relación a la tropósfera media-alta, los tres modelos presentan buenos resultados.

  9. La Triple Frontera del Paraná (Daniel Bello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Caro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available El libro que se presenta parte con un doble mérito. Por un lado, corresponde a una tesis de grado que obtuvo distinción máxima en el marco del Magíster en Estudios Sociales y Políticos Latinoamericanos, impartido por la Universidad Alberto Hurtado de Chile.

  10. Spasskyellina mandi n. sp. (Proteocephalidea: Monticelliidae, parasite of Pimelodus ornatus Kner, 1857 (Pisces: Pimelodidae of the Paraná River, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto C Pavanelli

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Spasskyellina mandi n. sp. (Proteocephalidea: Monticelliidae is described from the Siluriform fish Pimelodus ornatus Kner, 1857, caught in the Paraná River, Paraná, Brazil. The new species differs from other species of the same genus mainly by a fewer number of testes and by a larger osmoregulatory canal. This is the second species of proteocephalidean cestode collected in P. ornatus.

  11. First light of the VLT planet finder SPHERE. I. Detection and characterization of the substellar companion GJ 758 B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigan, A.; Bonnefoy, M.; Ginski, C.; Beust, H.; Galicher, R.; Janson, M.; Baudino, J.-L.; Buenzli, E.; Hagelberg, J.; D'Orazi, V.; Desidera, S.; Maire, A.-L.; Gratton, R.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Chauvin, G.; Thalmann, C.; Malo, L.; Salter, G.; Zurlo, A.; Antichi, J.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudoz, P.; Blanchard, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Carle, M.; Claudi, R.; Costille, A.; Delboulbé, A.; Dohlen, K.; Dominik, C.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Gluck, L.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Gry, C.; Henning, T.; Hubin, N.; Hugot, E.; Jaquet, M.; Kasper, M.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Langlois, M.; Le Mignant, D.; Llored, M.; Madec, F.; Martinez, P.; Mawet, D.; Mesa, D.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Moulin, T.; Moutou, C.; Origné, A.; Pavlov, A.; Perret, D.; Petit, C.; Pragt, J.; Puget, P.; Rabou, P.; Rochat, S.; Roelfsema, R.; Salasnich, B.; Schmid, H.-M.; Sevin, A.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Smette, A.; Stadler, E.; Suarez, M.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Vakili, F.; Wahhaj, Z.; Weber, L.; Wildi, F.

    2016-03-01

    GJ 758 B is a brown dwarf companion to a nearby (15.76%) solar-type, metal-rich (M / H = + 0.2 dex) main-sequence star (G9V) that was discovered with Subaru/HiCIAO in 2009. From previous studies, it has drawn attention as being the coldest (~600 K) companion ever directly imaged around a neighboring star. We present new high-contrast data obtained during the commissioning of the SPHERE instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The data was obtained in Y-, J-, H-, and Ks-bands with the dual-band imaging (DBI) mode of IRDIS, thus providing a broad coverage of the full near-infrared (near-IR) range at higher contrast and better spectral sampling than previously reported. In this new set of high-quality data, we report the re-detection of the companion, as well as the first detection of a new candidate closer-in to the star. We use the new eight photometric points for an extended comparison of GJ 758 B with empirical objects and four families of atmospheric models. From comparison to empirical object, we estimate a T8 spectral type, but none of the comparison objects can accurately represent the observed near-IR fluxes of GJ 758 B. From comparison to atmospheric models, we attribute a Teff = 600 ± 100 K, but we find that no atmospheric model can adequately fit all the fluxes of GJ 758 B. The lack of exploration of metal enrichment in model grids appears as a major limitation that prevents an accurate estimation of the companion physical parameters. The photometry of the new candidate companion is broadly consistent with L-type objects, but a second epoch with improved photometry is necessary to clarify its status. The new astrometry of GJ 758 B shows a significant proper motion since the last epoch. We use this result to improve the determination of the orbital characteristics using two fitting approaches: Least-Squares Monte Carlo and Markov chain Monte Carlo. We confirm the high-eccentricity of the orbit (peak at 0.5), and find a most likely semi-major axis of

  12. Shadows cast on the transition disk of HD 135344B. Multiwavelength VLT/SPHERE polarimetric differential imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolker, T.; Dominik, C.; Avenhaus, H.; Min, M.; de Boer, J.; Ginski, C.; Schmid, H. M.; Juhasz, A.; Bazzon, A.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Garufi, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Benisty, M.; Boccaletti, A.; Henning, Th.; Langlois, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Pinte, C.; Quanz, S. P.; Thalmann, C.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Carbillet, M.; Costille, A.; Dohlen, K.; Feldt, M.; Gisler, D.; Mouillet, D.; Pavlov, A.; Perret, D.; Petit, C.; Pragt, J.; Rochat, S.; Roelfsema, R.; Salasnich, B.; Soenke, C.; Wildi, F.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The protoplanetary disk around the F-type star HD 135344B (SAO 206462) is in a transition stage and shows many intriguing structures both in scattered light and thermal (sub-)millimeter emission which are possibly related to planet formation processes. Aims: We aim to study the morphology and surface brightness of the disk in scattered light to gain insight into the innermost disk regions, the formation of protoplanets, planet-disk interactions traced in the surface and midplane layers, and the dust grain properties of the disk surface. Methods: We have carried out high-contrast polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) observations with VLT/SPHERE and obtained polarized scattered light images with ZIMPOL in the R and I-bands and with IRDIS in the Y and J-bands. The scattered light images and surface brightness profiles are used to study in detail structures in the disk surface and brightness variations. We have constructed a 3D radiative transfer model to support the interpretation of several detected shadow features. Results: The scattered light images reveal with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity the spiral arms as well as the 25 au cavity of the disk. Multiple shadow features are discovered on the outer disk with one shadow only being present during the second observation epoch. A positive surface brightness gradient is observed in the stellar irradiation corrected (r2-scaled) images in southwest direction possibly due to an azimuthally asymmetric perturbation of the temperature and/or surface density by the passing spiral arms. The disk integrated polarized flux, normalized to the stellar flux, shows a positive trend towards longer wavelengths which we attribute to large (2πa ≳ λ) aggregate dust grains in the disk surface. Part of the non-azimuthal polarization signal in the Uφ image of the J-band observation can be attributed to multiple scattering in the disk. Conclusions: The detected shadow features and their possible variability

  13. Fingerprints of endogenous process on Europa through linear spectral modeling of ground-based observations (ESO/VLT/SINFONI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Carter, John; Poulet, François; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa harbors a very young surface dated, based on cratering rates, to 10-50 M.y (Zahnle et al. 1998, Pappalardo et al. 1999). This young age implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing, partially engendered by a global salty subsurface liquid ocean that could result in tectonic activity (Schmidt et al. 2011, Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and active plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface of Europa should contain important clues about the composition of this sub-surface briny ocean and about the potential presence of material of exobiological interest in it, thus reinforcing Europa as a major target of interest for upcoming space missions such as the ESA L-class mission JUICE. To perform the investigation of the composition of the surface of Europa, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow mineral signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Until recently, a large majority of studies only proposed sulfate salts along with sulfuric acid hydrate and water-ice to be present on Europa's surface. However, recent works based on Europa's surface coloration in the visible wavelength range and NIR spectral analysis support the hypothesis of the predominance of chlorine salts instead of sulfate salts (Hand & Carlson 2015, Fischer et al. 2015). Our linear spectral modeling supports this new hypothesis insofar as the use of Mg-bearing chlorines improved the fits whatever the region. As expected, the distribution of sulfuric acid hydrate is correlated to the Iogenic sulfur ion implantation flux distribution (Hendrix et al

  14. Comparison of VLT/X-shooter OH and O2 rotational temperatures with consideration of TIMED/SABER emission and temperature profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, S; Kimeswenger, S; Unterguggenberger, S; Jones, A M

    2016-01-01

    Rotational temperatures Trot derived from lines of the same OH band are an important method to study the mesopause region near 87 km. To measure realistic temperatures, the rotational level populations have to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). However, this might not be fulfilled, especially at high emission altitudes. In order to quantify possible non-LTE contributions to the OH Trot as a function of the upper vibrational level v', we studied a sample of 343 echelle spectra taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data allowed us to analyse 25 OH bands in each spectrum. Moreover, we could measure lines of O2b(0-1), which peaks at 94 to 95 km, and O2a(0-0) with an emission peak at about 90 km. Since the radiative lifetimes are relatively long, the derived O2 Trot are not significantly affected by non-LTE contributions. For a comparison with OH, the differences in the emission profiles were corrected by using OH emission, O2a(0-0) emission, a...

  15. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  16. A study of NIR atmospheric properties at Paranal Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Lombardi, G; Lidman, C; Jaunsen, A O; Smette, A

    2011-01-01

    In order to maximize the scientific return of the telescopes located at the Paranal Observatory, we analyse the properties of the atmosphere above Paranal in the near-infrared (NIR). We estimate atmospheric extinction in the spectral range 1.10-2.30 um (J, Js, H, and Ks) using standard stars that were observed during photometric and clear nights with ISAAC on the Very Large Telescope UT1 between 2000 and 2004. We have built a database consisting of hundreds of observations, which allows us to examine how extinction varies with airmass and the column density of water vapour. In addition, we use theoretical models of the atmosphere to estimate Rayleigh scattering and molecular absorption in order to quantify their fractional contribution to the total extinction in each filter. Finally, we have observed 8 bright red standard stars to evaluate filter color terms. We find that extinction coefficients are < 0.1 mag/airmass in all the considered bands. The extinction coefficient in the J-band strongly depends on ...

  17. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  18. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  19. Estimating phase errors from pupil discontinuities from simulated on sky data: examples with VLT and Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Masen; Correia, Carlos; Sauvage, Jean-François; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Andersen, David; Vigan, Arthur; Wizinowich, Peter; van Dam, Marcos; Mugnier, Laurent; Bond, Charlotte

    2016-07-01

    We propose and apply two methods for estimating phase discontinuities for two realistic scenarios on VLT and Keck. The methods use both phase diversity and a form of image sharpening. For the case of VLT, we simulate the `low wind effect' (LWE) which is responsible for focal plane errors in low wind and good seeing conditions. We successfully estimate the LWE using both methods, and show that using both methods both independently and together yields promising results. We also show the use of single image phase diversity in the LWE estimation, and show that it too yields promising results. Finally, we simulate segmented piston effects on Keck/NIRC2 images and successfully recover the induced phase errors using single image phase diversity. We also show that on Keck we can estimate both the segmented piston errors and any Zernike modes affiliated with the non-common path.

  20. [Chile: social protection in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, Rafael

    2006-10-01

    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  1. Qualea Aubl. from Paraná State, Brazil = Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results from a survey on Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil. in the State of Paraná are presented. The analysis was based on dried material from several regional herbaria as well as fresh material collected in different regions of the State. Four species were registered: Q. cordata Spreng.; Q. glaziovii Warm; Q. grandiflora Mart.; Q. multiflora Mart. spp. multiflora. A key to differentiate the species is presented and for each species, the botanical description, common names, phenology data, the geographic distribution, uses and illustrations are included.Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento das espécies de Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil. no Estado do Paraná, baseado em material depositado em herbários regionais e em material coletado em diversas regiões deste Estado. Foram registradas quatro espécies: Q. cordataSpreng.; Q. glaziovii Warm; Q. grandiflora Mart.; Q. multiflora Mart. spp. multiflora. Incluemse chave dicotômica para identificação, assim como descrições, nomes populares, usos, fenologia, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações, para cada espécie identificada.

  2. Vochysia Aubl. do Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Vochysia Aubl. from the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento florístico das espécies de Vochysia Aubl. (Vochysiaceae St. Hil. no Estado do Paraná, baseado em material fresco coletado nas diversas regiões fitogeográficas deste Estado e em material exsicatado, depositado em herbários nacionais e estrangeiros. Foram registradas três espécies: V. tucanorum Mart., V. bifalcata Warm. e V. magnifica Warm. Inclui-se chave dicotômica para identificação, assim como descrições, nomes populares, usos, fenologia, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações paracada espécie identificada.The results of a floristic survey of Vochysia Aubl in the state of Paraná are presented. The analysis was based on fresh material collected in different regions of the state as well as on dried material from several national and foreign herbaria. Three species were registered: V. tucanorum Mart., V. bifalcata Warm. and V. magnifica Warm. A key to differentiate the species is presented and for each species, the botanical description, common names, phenology data, the geographic distribution, uses and illustrations are included.

  3. Environmental education in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, municipality of Porto Rico (Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AT. Obara

    Full Text Available Since 2003, researchers, faculty, graduate and undergraduate students from the State University of Maringá have been working alongside teachers from the state and local schools in the municipality of Porto Rico (Paraná State, located on the banks of the Paraná River. Their objective is to outline actions and strategies with the purpose of building methodological paths to insert environmental education into the school curriculum. Based on the action-research methodology, the group has developed the following programs: a the Continuing Education Program in Environmental Education; b the Development of Interdisciplinary Projects; c the Insertion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs; and d the Production of Teaching Materials. The evaluations of the programs indicate that teachers have been able to gradually build a theoretical and methodological basis for environmental education while simultaneously growing into the role of teacher-researchers as they create the conditions to investigate their pedagogical practices, reflect upon them, share experiences, innovate, and make the teaching-learning process more significant. Allied to the advances in educational practices and with the aid of ICTs, the activities developed in the classroom, in the field and in the lab - all of which involve natural and cultural aspects of the region - have contributed to teachers' and students' better understanding of the ecological, cultural, social and economic value of the floodplain, and consequently, of the importance of preservation and management in order to maintain local biodiversity.

  4. Effects of a Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Banner on Gambling: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy; Nicki, Richard; Otteson, Amy; Elliott, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a warning banner, informing patrons of the randomness of Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) outcomes, on gambling behaviour and beliefs were tested in a field setting using a mixed-model 2 x 3 design over a six-week period with 27 problem and 27 non-problem gamblers recruited from bars in a Canadian city with a population of 85,000.…

  5. Velocity fields of distant galaxies with FORS2 at the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Bodo L; Da Rocha, Cristiano; Böhm, Asmus; Kapferer, Wolfgang; Kuntschner, Harald; Peletier, Reynier F; Schindler, Sabine; Verdugo, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method to efficiently obtain two-dimensional velocity fields of distant, faint and small, emission-line galaxies with FORS2 at the VLT. They are examined for kinematic substructure to identify possible interaction processes. Numerical simulations of tidal interactions and ram-pressure effects reveal distinct signatures observable with our method. We detect a significant fraction of galaxies with irregular velocity fields both in the field and cluster environments.

  6. MOONS: a Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Cirasuolo, M; Bender, R; Bonifacio, P; Evans, C; Kaper, L; Oliva, E; Vanzi, L; Abreu, M; Atad-Ettedgui, E; Babusiaux, C; Bauer, F; Best, P; Bezawada, N; Bryson, I; Cabral, A; Caputi, K; Centrone, M; Chemla, F; Cimatti, A; Cioni, M-R; Clementini, G; Coelho, J; Daddi, E; Dunlop, J; Feltzing, S; Ferguson, A; Flores, H; Fontana, A; Fynbo, J; Garilli, B; Glauser, A; Guinouard, I; Hammer, F; Hastings, P; Hess, A; Ivison, R; Jagourel, P; Jarvis, M; Kauffman, G; Lawrence, A; Lee, D; Licausi, G; Lilly, S; Lorenzetti, D; Maiolino, R; Mannucci, F; McLure, R; Minniti, D; Montgomery, D; Muschielok, B; Nandra, K; Navarro, R; Norberg, P; Origlia, L; Padilla, N; Peacock, J; Pedicini, F; Pentericci, L; Pragt, J; Puech, M; Randich, S; Renzini, A; Ryde, N; Rodrigues, M; Royer, F; Saglia, R; Sanchez, A; Schnetler, H; Sobral, D; Speziali, R; Todd, S; Tolstoy, E; Torres, M; Venema, L; Vitali, F; Wegner, M; Wells, M; Wild, V; Wright, G

    2012-01-01

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope (VLT), selected by ESO for a Phase A study. The baseline design consists of 1000 fibers deployable over a field of view of 500 square arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by the Nasmyth focus at the VLT. The total wavelength coverage is 0.8um-1.8um and two resolution modes: medium resolution and high resolution. In the medium resolution mode (R=4,000-6,000) the entire wavelength range 0.8um-1.8um is observed simultaneously, while the high resolution mode covers simultaneously three selected spectral regions: one around the CaII triplet (at R=8,000) to measure radial velocities, and two regions at R=20,000 one in the J-band and one in the H-band, for detailed measurements of chemical abundances. The grasp of the 8.2m Very Large Telescope (VLT) combined with the large multiplex and wavelength coverage of MOONS - extending into the near-IR - will provide the observational power necessary to...

  7. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user`s manual. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga`s usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC`s purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  8. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga's usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC's purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  9. Variations in VLT/UVES-based OH rotational temperatures for time scales from hours to 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Proxauf, Bastian; Kausch, Wolfgang; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Jones, Amy M.

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyl (OH) emission is an important tracer of the climate, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's mesopause region. However, the relation of intensity variations in different OH lines is not well understood yet. This is critical for the most popular use of OH lines: the estimate of ambient temperatures based on transitions at low rotational levels of the same band. It is possible that the measured variability of the derived rotational temperature does not coincide with changes in the ambient temperature. Such differences can be caused by varying deviations from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the population distribution over the considered rotational levels. The non-LTE effects depend on the ratio of the thermalising collisions (mostly related to molecular oxygen) and competing radiative transitions or collisions without thermalisation of the rotational level distribution. Therefore, significant changes in the vertical structure of excited OH and its main quenchers can affect the temperature measurements. We have investigated the variability of OH rotational temperatures and the corresponding contributions of non-LTE effects for different OH bands and time scales up to 15 years based on data of the high-resolution echelle spectrograph UVES at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. In order to link the measured rotational temperatures with the structure of the OH emission layer, we have also studied OH emission and kinetic temperature profiles from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite taken between 2002 and 2015. The results show that non-LTE contributions can significantly affect the OH rotational temperatures. Their variations can be especially strong during the night and for high upper vibrational levels of the transitions, where amplitudes of several Kelvins can be measured. They appear to be weak if long-term variations such as those caused by the solar cycle are investigated. These differences in the response

  10. Dairy cattle environmental impacts in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six larger producers of cow milk in the world. In 2010, the national milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE. Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for 71% production increase between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. Thus, this paper aims at assessing the adoption of good environmental practices in milk production, towards sustainable production. Practices included: plot rotation system; no-tillage technique; agroecology system; and practices for reducing water and energetic consumptions in milk cattle system. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, we could find that 95% of producers adopted at least one of those good environmental practices considered, mostly plot rotation system and no-tillage technique. According to literature, plot rotation favors soils quality and consequently increases forage availability, resulting in positive impact on natural resources. No-tillage agriculture, on its turn, causes less damage on

  11. Comunidade Menonita de Witmarsum (Paraná/Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joélcio Gonçalves Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of collective action and the use of common resources for tourism development in the Mennonite community of Witmarsum (Palmeira municipality, Paraná, Brazil. The research is divided in different phases: a bibliographical research on theories of agency and collective work; b bibliographical and documental research on Tourism in Witmarsum and the Parana Cooperative for Tourism (COOPTUR; and c interviews with local leaders involved in tourism development through cooperative action. Based on Ostrom’s principles (2011 for community studies with reference to collective actions that are making use of commons, it can be observed that Witmarsum has a vast potential for cooperative development activities due the fact that it is an ethnic -religious community with a shared migration history based on a religious fundament in Mennonite faith. It should be mentioned, however, that the dynamics of touristic cooperative activities are different from traditional agricultural cooperatives in Witmarsum.

  12. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  13. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  14. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  15. pVLT-EGFP载体构建及其在巴西固氮螺菌(Azospirillum brasilense)的表达研究%Construction of an Expression Vector pVLT-EGFP and Its Expression in Azospirillum brasilense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩涛; 王继雯; 杨文玲; 甄静; 刘莹莹; 李冠杰; 刘莉; 岳丹丹; 陈国参

    2015-01-01

    为了研究巴西固氮螺菌(Azospirillum brasilense)在植物体内的定殖,利用酶切连接的方法,以增强型绿色荧光蛋白(enhanced green fluorescent protein,EGFP)基因与表达栽体pVLT-33为基本元件,构建了重组表达载体pVLT-EGFP,电转巴西固氮螺菌R7细胞,并利用实时荧光定量PCR(qPCR)研究了不同温度、不同时间EGFP mRNA的表达情况.酶切及测序结果表明,成功构建了pVLT-EGFP载体,并在荧光显微镜下观察到绿色荧光蛋白表达;qPCR结果显示:30℃,诱导9hEGFP基因的表达水平最高.本研究成功构建了重组表达载体pVLT-EGFP,为实现pVLT-EGFP的可控表达及研究固氮菌在植物体内的定殖规律及促生长机理提供了一种有效的途径.

  16. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  17. Calibration of quasi-static aberrations in exoplanet direct-imaging instruments with a Zernike phase-mask sensor. II. Concept validation with ZELDA on VLT/SPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Diaye, M.; Vigan, A.; Dohlen, K.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Caillat, A.; Costille, A.; Girard, J. H. V.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Fusco, T.; Blanchard, P.; Le Merrer, J.; Le Mignant, D.; Madec, F.; Moreaux, G.; Mouillet, D.; Puget, P.; Zins, G.

    2016-08-01

    Warm or massive gas giant planets, brown dwarfs, and debris disks around nearby stars are now routinely observed by dedicated high-contrast imaging instruments that are mounted on large, ground-based observatories. These facilities include extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) and state-of-the-art coronagraphy to achieve unprecedented sensitivities for exoplanet detection and their spectral characterization. However, low spatial frequency differential aberrations between the ExAO sensing path and the science path represent critical limitations for the detection of giant planets with a contrast lower than a few 10-6 at very small separations (measure these quasi-static aberrations at a nanometric level. We present the design, manufacturing, and testing of ZELDA, a prototype that was installed on VLT/SPHERE during its reintegration in Chile. Using the internal light source of the instrument, we first performed measurements in the presence of Zernike or Fourier modes introduced with the deformable mirror. Our experimental results are consistent with the results in simulations, confirming the ability of our sensor to measure small aberrations (measurements and estimated a contrast gain of 10 in the coronagraphic image at 0.2'', reaching the raw contrast limit set by the coronagraph in the instrument. In addition to this encouraging result, the simplicity of the design and its phase reconstruction algorithm makes ZELDA an excellent candidate for the online measurements of quasi-static aberrations during the observations. The implementation of a ZELDA-based sensing path on the current and future facilities (ELTs, future space missions) could facilitate the observation of cold gaseous or massive rocky planets around nearby stars.

  18. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  19. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  20. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amado M. Padilla

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  1. VLT FORS2 comparative transmission spectral survey of clear and cloudy exoplanet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sing, David; Gibson, Neale; Evans, Thomas; Barstow, Joanna Katy; Kataria, Tiffany; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Transmission spectroscopy is a key to unlocking the secrets of close-in exoplanet atmospheres. Observations have started to unveil a vast diversity of irradiated giant planet atmospheres with clouds and hazes playing a definitive role across the entire mass and temperature regime. We have initiated a ground-based, multi-object transmission spectroscopy of a hand full of hot Jupiters, covering the wavelength range 360-850nm using the recently upgraded FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). These targets were selected for comparative follow-up as their transmission spectra showed evidence for alkali metal absorption, based on the results of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. This talk will discuss the first results from the programme, demonstrating excellent agreement between the transmission spectra measured from VLT and HST and further reinforce the findings of clear, cloudy and hazy atmospheres. More details will be discussed on the narrow alkali features obtained with FORS2 at higher resolution, revealing its high potential in securing optical transmission spectra. These FORS2 observations are the first ground-based detections of clear, cloudy and hazy hot-Jupiter atmosphere with a simultaneous detections of Na, K, and H2 Rayleigh scattering. Our program demonstrates the large potential of the instrument for optical transmission spectroscopy, capable of obtaining HST-quality light curves from the ground. Compared to HST, the larger aperture of VLT will allow for fainter targets to be observed and higher spectral resolution, which can greatly aid comparative exoplanet studies. This is important for further exploring the diversity of exoplanet atmospheres and is particularly complementary to the near- and mid-IR regime, to be covered by the upcoming James-Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and is readily applicable to less massive planets down to super-Earths.

  2. MOONS: A New Powerful Multi-Object Spectrograph for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirasuolo, M.; MOONS Consortium

    2016-10-01

    MOONS (the Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph) is a third-generation instrument for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The large collecting area offered by the VLT (8.2 m diameter), combined with the large multiplex and wavelength coverage (optical to near-IR: 0.64 μm - 1.8 μm) of MOONS will provide the European astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to pioneer a wide range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies, and the crucial follow-up for major facilities such as Gaia, VISTA, Euclid and LSST. MOONS has the observational power needed to unveil galaxy formation and evolution over the entire history of the Universe, from stars in our Milky Way, through the redshift desert, and up to the epoch of the very first galaxies and reionization of the Universe at redshifts of z > 8-9, just a few million years after the Big Bang. From five years of observations MOONS will provide high-quality spectra for >3 M stars in our Galaxy and the Local Group, and for 1-2 M galaxies at z >1 (for an SDSS-like survey), promising to revolutionize our understanding of the Universe. The baseline design consists of 1024 fibers, deployable over a field-of-view of ˜500 sq. arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by the Nasmyth focus at the VLT. The total wavelength coverage is 0.64 μm - 1.8 μm with two spectral resolving power settings: in the medium-resolution mode (R˜4,000-6,000) the entire wavelength range is observed simultaneously, while the high-resolution mode will cover simultaneously selected sub-regions: one region with R˜9,000 near the Ca II triplet to measure stellar radial velocities, and part of the H-band at R˜20,000 for precision measurements of chemical abundances.

  3. PC based PLCs and ethernet based fieldbus: the new standard platform for future VLT instrument control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Lucuix, Christian; Erm, Toomas M.; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zamparelli, Michele; Kern, Lothar; Brast, Roland; Pirani, Werther; Reiss, Roland; Popovic, Dan; Knudstrup, Jens; Duchateau, Michel; Sandrock, Stefan; Di Lieto, Nicola

    2014-07-01

    ESO is currently in the final phase of the standardization process for PC-based Programmable Logical Controllers (PLCs) as the new platform for the development of control systems for future VLT/VLTI instruments. The standard solution used until now consists of a Local Control Unit (LCU), a VME-based system having a CPU and commercial and proprietary boards. This system includes several layers of software and many thousands of lines of code developed and maintained in house. LCUs have been used for several years as the interface to control instrument functions but now are being replaced by commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems based on BECKHOFF Embedded PCs and the EtherCAT fieldbus. ESO is working on the completion of the software framework that enables a seamless integration into the VLT control system in order to be ready to support upcoming instruments like ESPRESSO and ERIS, that will be the first fully VLT compliant instruments using the new standard. The technology evaluation and standardization process has been a long and combined effort of various engineering disciplines like electronics, control and software, working together to define a solution that meets the requirements and minimizes the impact on the observatory operations and maintenance. This paper presents the challenges of the standardization process and the steps involved in such a change. It provides a technical overview of how industrial standards like EtherCAT, OPC-UA, PLCOpen MC and TwinCAT can be used to replace LCU features in various areas like software engineering and programming languages, motion control, time synchronization and astronomical tracking.

  4. VLT transit and occultation photometry for the bloated planet CoRoT-1b

    OpenAIRE

    Gillon, Michaël; Demory, B. -O.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Barman, T; Hebb, L.; Montalban Iglesias, Josefa; Maxted, P.; Queloz, D; Deleuil, M.; Magain, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    We present VLT eclipse photometry for the giant planet CoRoT-1b. We observed a transit in the R-band filter and an occultation in a narrow filter centered on 2.09 microns. Our analysis of this new photometry and published radial velocities, in combination with stellar-evolutionary modeling, leads to a planetary mass and radius of 1.07 (+0.13,-0.18) M_Jup and 1.45 (+0.07,-0.13) R_Jup, confirming the very low density previously deduced from CoRoT photometry. The large occultation depth that we ...

  5. Trends and developments in VLT data papers as seen through telbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, Dominic; Grothkopf, Uta; Meakins, Silvia; Sterzik, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The ESO Telescope Bibliography (telbib; http://telbib.eso.org) is a database of refereed papers published by the ESO users community. It links data in the ESO Science Archive with the published literature, and vice versa. Developed and maintained by the ESO library, telbib also provides insights into the organization's research output and impact as measured through bibliometric studies. Numerous reports, statistics, and visualizatons derived from telbib help to understand the way in which the user community uses ESO/VLT data in publications. Based on selected use cases, we will showcase recent trends and developments.

  6. Chile. A model mining country?; Chile. Ein Bergbau-Musterland?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Sven [Projektbuero der Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) und des chilenischen Geologie und Bergbaudienstes SERNAGEOMIN, Santiago de Chile (Chile). Projekt ' Grundlagen der Sanierung von Bergbaualtlasten in Chile' ; Dalheimer, Manfred [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany). Abt. Internationale Zusammenarbeit Amerika

    2009-03-19

    Chile is characterised economically and culturally by mining. The copper industry is highly important. In 2007 two thirds of export proceeds were generated solely by copper, copper concentrate and other minerals. With the increase in the price of raw materials since 2004 the state income rose considerably with the result that the national debt was offset. However, this increase was barely noticeable among the wider public. Further reasons for doubt with regards to the mining industry are that a new mining project generally not only creates jobs, but also changes local structures, competes with water utilisation and usually leaves contaminated sites. The responsible politicians and mining authorities are aware of these relationships and are drawing up corresponding laws and decrees. These include the Environmental Act, the bills for mine closures and the systematic redevelopment of old mining sites. At least voluntary commitments for current large-scale mining are in force until the bills are passed. (orig.)

  7. Is Mining Still the Wage of Chile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Valenzuela

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available – Historia de la minería del hierro en Chile, by Augusto Millán. Santiago: Editorial Universitaria, 1999. – Capital transnacional y trabajo. El desarrollo minero en Chile, by Rafael Agacino, Cristián González and Jorge Rojas. Santiago: Lom Ediciones, 1998. – Dilemas y debates en torno al cobre, by Patricio Meller. Santiago: Dolmen, 2002. – Royalty. Regalía o renta minera. Lo que solo Chile no cobra, by Jorge Lavandero Illanes. Santiago: Ediciones Lafken, 2003.

  8. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  9. Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr Isotopic Studies of Meteorite Kalahari 009: An Old VLT Mare Basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Bischoff, A.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Kalahari 009 is a fragmental basaltic breccia contain ing various very-low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt clasts embedded in a fine-g rained matrix of similar composition. This meteorite and lunar meteorite Kalahari 008, an anorthositic breccia, were suggested to be paired mainly due to the presence of similar fayalitic olivines in fragment s found in both meteorites. Thus, Kalahari 009 probably represents a VLT basalt that came from a locality near a mare-highland boundary r egion of the Moon, as compared to the typical VLT mare basalt samples collected at Mare Crisium during the Luna-24 mission. The concordant Sm-Nd and Ar-Ar ages of such a VLT basalt (24170) suggest that the extrusion of VLT basalts at Mare Crisium occurred 3.30 +/- 0.05 Ga ag o. Previous age results for Kalahari 009 range from approximately 4.2 Ga by its Lu-Hf isochron age to 1.70?0.04 Ga of its Ar-Ar plateau ag e. However, recent in-situ U-Pb dating of phosphates in Kalahari 009 defined an old crystallization age of 4.35+/- 0.15 Ga. The authors su ggested that Kalahari 009 represents a cryptomaria basalt. In this r eport, we present Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic results for Kalahari 009, discuss the relationship of its age and isotopic characteristics to t hose of other L-24 VLT mare basalts and other probable cryptomaria ba salts represented by Apollo 14 aluminous mare basalts, and discuss it s petrogenesis.

  10. A família Aristolochiaceae Juss. no estado do Paraná, Brasil The family Aristolochiaceae Juss. in Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilma Silva do Nascimento

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho trata do estudo taxonômico das espécies de Aristolochiaceae ocorrentes no Estado do Paraná. Por meio de estudos de levantamento em herbários, coletas e observações, foram constatados dez táxons pertencentes ao gênero Aristolochia L.: A. chamissonis (Klotzsch Duch., A. elegans Mast., A. fimbriata Cham. & Schltdl., A. gigantea Mart. & Zucc., A. melastoma Silva Manso ex Duch., A. odoratissima L., A. paulistana Hoehne, A. triangularis Cham., A. trilobata L. e A. wendeliana Hoehne. A. fimbriata é citada pela primeira vez para o Estado do Paraná. Chaves de identificação, descrições e ilustrações são também incluídas neste trabalho.A taxonomic treatment of the species of Aristolochiaceae from Paraná state is presented. The floristic survey revealed ten taxa of the genus Aristolochia L.: A. chamissonis (Klotzsch Duch., A. elegans Mast., A. fimbriata Cham. & Schltdl., A. gigantea Mart. & Zucc., A. melastoma Silva Manso ex Duch., A. odoratissima L., A. paulistana Hoehne, A. triangularis Cham., A. trilobata L. and A. wendeliana Hoehne. The first report of A. fimbriata is presented for Paraná state. An identification key, descriptions and illustrations of the Aristolochia species are also given.

  11. Vascular flora of the Upper Paraná River floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, M C; Kawakita, K; Slusarski, S R; Pereira, G F

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to update the floristic inventory found in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Floristic surveys were performed from February 2000 through March 2008, as part of the Brazilian Long-Term Ecological Research Program (PELD/CNPq-Site 6). The material collected was identified from 774 species, 442 genera, and 116 families. The ten families with high species richness were Leguminosae, Poaceae, Rubiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Myrtaceae, Cyperaceae, Solanaceae, Sapindaceae, and Orchidaceae, which contributed to 46.1% of the total number of species. Genera with high richness were Solanum, Cyperus, Panicum, Eugenia, Tillandsia, Serjania, Casearia, and Polygonum, which together contributed to 10.2% of the total number of species. These data, combined with information published in 1997, recorded 955 species, 575 genera, and 128 families. These organisms were from several riparian environments and were distributed as herbs, shrubs, trees, climbers and epiphytes. Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Ricinus communis, and Urochloa decumbens are considered weeds due to the wide distributions determined for these species. The results presented herein suggest the need to further investigate the control of these potential weed species.

  12. Resolving the inner regions of the HD 97048 circumstellar disk with VLT/NACO polarimetric differential imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanz, S. P.; Birkmann, S. M.; Apai, D.; Wolf, S.; Henning, T.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Circumstellar disks are the cradles of planetary systems and their physical and chemical properties directly influence the planet formation process. Because most planets supposedly form in the inner disk regions, i.e., within a few tens of AU, it is crucial to study circumstellar disks on these scales to constrain the conditions for planet formation. Aims: Our aims are to characterize the inner regions of the circumstellar disk around the young Herbig Ae/Be star HD 97048 in polarized light. Methods: We used VLT/NACO to observe HD 97048 in polarimetric differential imaging (PDI) mode in the H and Ks band. This technique offers high-contrast capabilities at very small inner working angles and probes the dust grains on the surface layer of the disk that act as the scattering surface. Results: We spatially resolve the disk around HD 97048 in polarized flux in both filters on scales between ~0.1″-1.0″ corresponding to the inner ~16-160 AU. Fitting isophots to the flux calibrated H-band image between 13-14 mag/arcsec2 and 14-15 mag/arcsec2, we derive an apparent disk inclination angle of 34° ± 5° and 47° ± 2°, respectively. The disk position angle in both brightness regimes is almost identical and roughly 80°. Along the disk major axis the surface brightness of the polarized flux drops from ~11 mag/arcsec2 at ~0.1″ (~16 AU) to ~15.3 mag/arcsec2 at ~ 1.0″ (~160 AU). The brightness profiles along the major axis are fitted with power-laws falling off as ∝ r - 1.78 ± 0.02 in H and ∝ r - 2.34 ± 0.04 in Ks. Because the surface brightness decreases more rapidly in Ks compared to H, the disks becomes relatively bluer at larger separations, possibly indicating changing dust grain properties as a function of radius. Conclusions: We imaged for the first time the inner ~0.1″-1.0″ (~16-160 AU) of the surface layer of the HD 97048 circumstellar disk in scattered light, which demonstrates the power of ground-based imaging polarimetry. Our data fill an

  13. CROMOS A cryogenic near-infrared, multi-object spectrometer for the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, R; Tomono, D; Thatte, N; Eisenhauer, F; Lehnert, M; Tecza, M; Bender, R

    2001-01-01

    We discuss a cryogenic, multi-object near-infrared spectrometer as a second generation instrument for the VLT. The spectrometer combines 20 to 40 independent integral eld units (IFUs), which can be positioned by a cryogenic robot over the entire unvignetted eld of the VLT (~7'). Each IFU consists of a contiguous cluster of 20 to 30 pixels (0.15 to 0.25" per pixel). The individual IFUs have cold fore-optics and couple into the spectrograph with integrated bers-microlenses. The spectrometer has lambda/d-lambda~4000 and simultaneously covers the J-, H-, and K-bands with three HAWAII 2 detectors. The system is designed for operation both in seeing limited and MCAO modes. Its speed is approximately 3500 times greater than that of ISAAC and 60 times greater than NIRMOS (in H-band). The proposed instrument aims at a wide range of science, ranging from studies of galaxies/clusters in the high-z Universe (dynamics and star formation in z>1 galaxies, evolution of ellipticals, properties of distant, obscured far-IR and ...

  14. High-precision astrometry on the VLT/FORS1 at time scales of few days

    CERN Document Server

    Lazorenko, P F; Dominik, M; Pepe, F; Ségransan, D; Udry, S

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of astrometric measurements with the VLT/FORS1 camera and consider potential applications. The study is based on two-epoch (2000 and 2002/2003) frame series of observations of a selected Galactic Bulge sky region that were obtained with FORS1 during four consecutive nights each. Reductions were carried out with a novel technique that eliminates atmospheric image motion and does not require a distinction between targets and reference objects. The positional astrometric precision was found to be limited only by the accuracy of the determination of the star photocentre, which is typically 200-300 microarcsec per single measurement for bright unsaturated stars B=18-19. Several statistical tests have shown that at time-scales of 1-4 nights the residual noise in measured positions is essentially a white noise with no systematic instrumental signature and no significant deviation from a Gaussian distribution. Some evidence of a good astrometric quality of the VLT for frames separated by t...

  15. Final binary star results from the ESO VLT Lunar occultations program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Road, Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Fors, O. [Departament Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB/IEEC), Martí i Franqués 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cusano, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Ivanov, V. D., E-mail: andrea4work@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory, Ave. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-03-01

    We report on 13 subarcsecond binaries, detected by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). They are all first-time detections except for the visual binary HD 158122, which we resolved for the first time in the near-infrared. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 4.5-10.0, and companions in the range K = 6.8-11.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.4, with the largest being 4.6. The projected separations are in the range of 4-168 mas, with a median of 13 mas. We discuss and compare our results with the available literature. With this paper, we conclude the mining for binary star detections in the 1226 occultations recorded at the VLT with the ISAAC instrument. We expect that the majority of these binaries may be unresolvable by adaptive optics on current telescopes, and they might be challenging for long-baseline interferometry. However, they constitute an interesting sample for future larger telescopes and for astrometric missions such as GAIA.

  16. VLT/FORS2 observations of the optical counterpart of the isolated neutron star RBS 1774

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Turolla, R; Haberl, F; Cropper, M; Motch, C; Treves, A; Zampieri, L

    2011-01-01

    X-ray observations performed with ROSAT led to the discovery of a group (seven to date) of X-ray dim and radio-silent middle-aged isolated neutron stars (a.k.a. XDINSs), which are characterised by pure blackbody spectra (kT~40-100 eV), long X-ray pulsations (P=3-12 s), and appear to be endowed with relatively high magnetic fields, (B~10d13-14 G). RBS 1774 is one of the few XDINSs with a candidate optical counterpart, which we discovered with the VLT. We performed deep observations of RBS 1774 in the R band with the VLT to disentangle a non-thermal power-law spectrum from a Rayleigh-Jeans, whose contributions are expected to be very much different in the red part of the spectrum. We did not detect the RBS 1774 candidate counterpart down to a 3 sigma limiting magnitude of R~27. The constraint on its colour, (B-R)<0.6, rules out that it is a background object, positionally coincident with the X-ray source. Our R-band upper limit is consistent with the extrapolation of the B-band flux (assuming a 3 sigma uncer...

  17. Probing unexplored territories with MUSE: a second generation instrument for the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Bacon, R; Böhm, P; Boudon, D; Brau-Nogue, S; Caillier, P; Capoani, L; Carollo, C M; Champavert, N; Contini, T; Daguise, E; Dalle, D; Delabre, B; Devriendt, J; Dreizler, S; Du Bois, J; Dupieux, M; Dupin, J P; Emsellem, E; Ferruit, P; Franx, M; Gallou, G; Gerssen, J; Guiderdoni, B; Hahn, T; Hofmann, D; Jarno, A; Kelz, A; Köhler, C; Kollatschny, W; Kosmalski, J; Laurent, F; Lilly, S J; Lizon, J; Loupias, M; Lynn, S; Manescau, A; McDermid, R M; Monstein, C; Nicklas, H; Pares, L; Pasquini, L; Pecontal-Rousset, A; Pécontal, E; Pellò, R; Petit, C; Picat, J P; Popow, E; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Reiss, R; Renault, E; Roth, M; Schaye, J; Soucail, G; Steinmetz, M; Stroebele, S; Stuik, R; Weilbacher, P; Wozniak, H; De Zeeuw, P T

    2006-01-01

    The Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) is a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph under preliminary design study. MUSE has a field of 1x1 arcmin**2 sampled at 0.2x0.2 arcsec**2 and is assisted by the VLT ground layer adaptive optics ESO facility using four laser guide stars. The simultaneous spectral range is 465-930 nm, at a resolution of R~3000. MUSE couples the discovery potential of a large imaging device to the measuring capabilities of a high-quality spectrograph, while taking advantage of the increased spatial resolution provided by adaptive optics. This makes MUSE a unique and tremendously powerful instrument for discovering and characterizing objects that lie beyond the reach of even the deepest imaging surveys. MUSE has also a high spatial resolution mode with 7.5x7.5 arcsec**2 field of view sampled at 25 milli-arcsec. In this mode MUSE should be able to obtain diffraction limited data-cubes in the 600-930 nm wavelength range. Although the MUSE design has been optimized f...

  18. Using the VLT to analyze the compact photoionized regions in NGC 3109

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Veinte nebulosas planetarias (NP y numerosas regiones HII compactas fueron detectadas en la galaxia irregular NGC3109, mediante imágenes \\en-línea" y \\fuera de línea" en [O III] 5007 obtenidas con el ESO VLT. Las NPs fueron seleccionadas como objetos estelares que no mostraran continuo estelar. Espectroscopia obtenida con el VLT FORS1 en modo multi-objeto ha permitido confirmar la naturaleza de NP para varias candidatas. Se ha obtenido también espectroscopia para varias regiones HII compactas. Los espectros son profundos de manera que muchos objetos muestran [O III] 4363 y se puede determinar la temperatura de las regiones, permitiendo analizar la composición química de NPs y regiones HII. Encontramos que las regiones HII muestran una composición química (O/H muy homogénea (en promedio 12 + log O/H = 7.79_0.10, en tanto que las NPs muestran variaciones grandes de composición química y un aparente enriquecimiento en oxígeno.

  19. VLT FORS2 comparative transmission spectral survey of clear and cloudy exoplanet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sing, David K.; Gibson, Neale; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Evans, Tom M.; Barstow, Joanna; Kataria, Tiffany; Wilson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Thousands of transiting exoplanets are known today but not many have been studied in transmission. While observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have started to reveal a diversity of atmosphere types, drawing robust conclusions about the underlying population is hampered by the small sample size. This can be greatly aided by ground-based telescopes, equipped with multi-object spectrographs by their unprecedented access to the abundance of fainter systems that HST cannot observe. We have initiated a ground-based, multi-object transmission spectroscopy of a handful of hot gas-giants, covering the wavelength range 360-850nm, using the recently upgraded FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). These exoplanets were selected for a comparative follow-up as their transmission spectra showed evidence for alkali metal absorption, based on the results of HST observations. Here we will discuss first results from the program, demonstrating an excellent agreement between the transmission spectra measured from VLT and HST and detections of Na and K absorption and scattering by clouds/hazes in the atmospheres of several exoplanets. More details will be discussed on the narrow alkali features obtained with FORS2 at higher resolution, revealing its high potential in obtaining optical transmission spectra, which can greatly aid comparative exoplanet studies.

  20. VLT/UVES constraints on the cosmological variability of the fine-structure constant

    CERN Document Server

    Levshakov, S A; Molaro, P; D'Odorico, S

    2004-01-01

    A differential many-multiplet (DMM) technique is developed to probe the variability of alpha. Applied to the FeII lines of the metal absorption line system at zabs = 1.839 in the spectrum of Q1101-264 obtained by means of the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), the DMM provides da/a = (4.3+/-7.8) 10^{-6}.The zabs = 1.15 FeII system toward HE0515-4414 has been re-analyzed by the DMM method thus obtaining for the combined sample da/a = (0.7+/-3.1) 10^{-6}. These values are shifted with respect to the Keck/HIRES mean da/a = (-5.7+/-1.1) 10^{-6} (Murphy et al. 2004) at very high confidence level (95%). The fundamental photon noise limitation in the da/a measurement with the VLT/UVES is discussed to figure the prospects for future observations. It is suggested that with a spectrograph of 10 times the UVES resolution coupled to a 100m class telescope the present Oklo level (da/a >= 4.5 10^{-8}) can be achieved along cosmological distances with differential measurements of da...

  1. VLT observations of the asymmetric Etched Hourglass Nebula, MyCn 18

    CERN Document Server

    Clyne, N; Lloyd, M; Matsuura, M; Singh, N; Meaburn, J

    2014-01-01

    Context. The mechanisms that form extreme bipolar planetary nebulae remain unclear. Aims. The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar planetary nebula, MyCn 18, are investigated in detail with the aim of understanding the shaping mechanism and evolutionary history of this object. Methods. VLT infrared images, VLT ISAAC infrared spectra, and long-slit optical Echelle spectra are used to investigate MyCn 18. Morpho-kinematic modelling was used to firmly constrain the structure and kinematics of the source. A timescale analysis was used to determine the kinematical age of the nebula and its main components. Results. A spectroscopic study of MyCn 18's central and offset region reveals the detailed make-up of its nebular composition. Molecular hydrogen, atomic helium, and Bracket gamma emission are detected from the central regions of MyCn 18. ISAAC spectra from a slit position along the narrow waist of the nebula demonstrate that the ionised gas resides closer to the centre of the nebula than ...

  2. Crecimiento pro pobre en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Contreras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Con datos de panel para el periodo 1996-2001 y datos de corte transversal para 1990 y 2003, este artículo evalúa si el crecimiento en Chile ha sido “pro pobre”. Se emplean dos metodos: i se estima la “curva de incidencia del crecimiento” y luego se estima paramétrica y no paramétricamente la relación entre el ingreso per capita de los hogares en 1996 y el cambio en el ingreso de 1996-2001. Los resultados indican que el crecimiento ha incidido significativamente en la reducción de pobreza. Por otra parte, existe evidencia de convergencia para la mitad más pobre de la distribución de ingresos.

  3. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  4. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since

  5. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  6. Barriers restricting postpartum depression treatment in Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rojas, Graciela; Santelices, María Pía; Martínez, Pablo; Tomicic, Alemka; Reinel, Mahaira; Olhaberry, Marcia; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    In Chile, postpartum depression is a prevalent and disabling condition. Universal screening is available but has not been translated into better treatment rates, suggesting the existence of access barriers...

  7. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  8. Area Handbook Series: Chile: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    Source: Based on information from Chile, Instituto Nacionrd de Estadisticas , Cornpendio Estadifstico, 1,981, Santiago, 1981, p. 68. Figure 6 Population by... Estadisticas . The journal Colecci6n Estu- dios CIEPLAN, from Santiago, offers well-researched articles that are often critical of government policies. (For...Source: Based on information from Chile, Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas , Compendio Estad istico, 1981, Santiago, 1981, pp. 38-39. Table 3. Labor

  9. Development, validity, and normative data study for the 12-word Philadelphia Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12] among older and very old Czech adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdicek, Ondrej; Libon, David J; Stepankova, Hana; Panenkova, Erika; Lukavsky, Jiri; Garrett, Kelly Davis; Lamar, Melissa; Price, Catherine C; Kopecek, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the validity of a 12-word Czech version of the Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [czP(r)VLT-12]. The construction of the czP(r)VLT-12 was modeled after the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) and the nine-word Philadelphia (repeatable) Verbal Learning Test [P(r)VLT]. The czP(r)VLT-12 was constructed from a large corpus of old (60-74) and very old (75-96) Czech adults (n = 540). Participants met strict inclusion criteria for the absence of any active or past neurodegenerative disorders and performed within normal limits on other neuropsychological measures. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlations between czP(r)VLT-12 factor structure and other memory tests were conducted. The czP(r)VLT-12 produced a four-factor solution, accounting for 70.90% of variance, with factors related to: (1) recall, (2) extra-list intrusion errors/recognition foils, (3) interference, and (4) acquisition rate; a solution similar to the CVLT and P(r)VLT. Increasing age resulted in a decline in most czP(r)VLT-12 indices, women outperformed men, and higher education led to higher scores. Memory performance in normal aging did not correlate with instrumental activities of daily living. Low, but significant, correlations were seen with other tests of cognitive performance (divergent validity). Appendices are available that provide normed percentile estimates of individual czP(r)VLT-12 performance stratified by age, education, and gender. In accordance with previous studies, these results demonstrate the usefulness of czP(r)VLT-12 in assessing declarative memory in older adults.

  10. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  11. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  12. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey :Evolution of the major merger rate since z~1 from spectroscopicaly confirmed galaxy pairs

    CERN Document Server

    de Ravel, L; Tresse, L; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; MacCagni, D; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Charlot, S; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Foucaud, S; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; Iovino, A; Lamareille, F; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Vergani, D; Zamorani, G; Zucca, E; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Brinchmann, J; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; Gregorini, L; Memeo, P; Pérez-Montero, E; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Temporin, S

    2008-01-01

    From the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey we use a sample of 6447 galaxies with I_{AB} 9.5 has been accreted through major merging events since z ~ 1, indicating that major mergers have contributed significantly to the growth in stellar mass density of bright galaxies over the last half of the life of the Universe.

  13. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy in the GOODS-South Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanzella, E; Cristiani, S; Dickinson, M; Kuntschner, H; Moustakas, LA; Nonino, M; Rosati, P; Stern, D; Cesarsky, C; Ettori, S; Ferguson, HC; Fosbury, RAE; Giavalisco, M; Haase, J; Renzini, A; Rettura, A; Serra, P

    2005-01-01

    We present the first results of the ESO/ GOODS program of spectroscopy of faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South ( CDF- S). 399 spectra of 303 unique targets have been obtained in service mode with the FORS2 spectrograph at the ESO/ VLT, providing 234 redshift determinations ( the median of

  14. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - I. Clustering and dynamics of approximate to 1000 galaxies at z approximate to 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bielby, R. M.; Shanks, T.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Infante, L.; Crighton, N. H. M.; Bornancini, C.; Bouche, N.; Heraudeau, P.; Lambas, D. G.; Lowenthal, J.; Minniti, D.; Padilla, N.; Petitjean, P.; Theuns, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the initial imaging and spectroscopic data acquired as part of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) VIMOS Lyman-break galaxy Survey. UBR (or UBVI) imaging covers five approximate to 36 x 36 arcmin(2) fields centred on bright z > 3 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), allowing approximate to 21 000 2 <

  15. X-shooter: UV-to-IR intermediate-resolution high-efficiency spectrograph for the ESO VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Odorico, S.; Andersen, M.I.; Conconi, P.; De Caprio, V.; Delabre, B.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Dekker, H.; Downing, M.D.; Finger, G.; Groot, P.; Hanenburg, H.H.; Hammer, F.; Horville, D.; Hjorth, J.; Kaper, L.; Klougart, J.; Kjaergaard-Rasmussen, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Marteaud, M.; Mazzoleni, R.; Michaelsen, N.; Pallavicini, R.; Rigal, F.; Santin, P.; Norup Soerensen, A.; Spano, P.; Venema, L.; Vola, P.; Zerbi, F.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    X-shooter is a single target spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs. It covers in a single exposure the spectral range from the UV to the H band with a possible extension into part of the K band. It is designed to maximize the sensitivity in this spectral range through the

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: O-stars in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (Ramirez-Agudelo+ 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabin-Sanjulian, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Grafener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maiz Apellaniz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-09-01

    Projected rotational velocity measurements of 216 O-type stars observed at multi-epochs as part as the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. We measured projected rotational velocities by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied on a set of isolated spectral lines. (2 data files).

  17. Design, analysis and testing of the Optical Tube Assemblies for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, R.; Nijkerk, M.D.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Rijnveld, N.; Kamphues, F.G.

    2012-01-01

    TNO has developed the Optical Tube Assemblies (OTAs) for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility. The OTAs are Galilean 20x beam expanders, expanding a ∅15 mm input beam (25W, 589 nm CW) to a steerable ∅300 mm output beam. TNO has recently successfully completed acceptance testing of the four uni

  18. A high-resolution VLT/FLAMES study of individual stars in the centre of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letarte, B.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Venn, K. A.; Spite, M.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; François, P.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.; Arimoto, N.; Sadakane, K.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time we show the detailed, late-stage, chemical evolution history of a small nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the Local Group. We present the results of a high-resolution (R ~ 20 000, λ = 5340-5620; 6120-6701) FLAMES/GIRAFFE abundance study at ESO/VLT of 81 photometrically selected, r

  19. A high-resolution VLT/FLAMES study of individual stars in the centre of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letarte, B.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Venn, K. A.; Spite, M.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; François, P.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.; Arimoto, N.; Sadakane, K.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time we show the detailed, late-stage, chemical evolution history of a small nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the Local Group. We present the results of a high-resolution (R similar to 20 000, lambda = 5340-5620; 6120-6701) FLAMES/GIRAFFE abundance study at ESO/VLT of 81 photometrical

  20. Contribution to knowledge of Palmas Grassland mammals, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Camargo Passos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The southern region of Paraná State is considered to be a priority area for mammal research in the state. This work aimed to present an inventory of the mammal species occurring in the locality known as Campos de Palmas, Paraná, Southern Brazil (26º34’59”S and 51º36’16”W, and to promote discussion about their importance for regional conservation. This assessment was carried out in two field stages, totaling 15 days. Thirty-five mammal species were recorded by direct observation, capture with mist nets, presence of feces and tracks, and identification of animals killed on the BR-280 highway. This inventory registered endangered species for Paraná and Brazil, as well as other important records of some mammal species at regional and national level.

  1. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  2. A doença de Chagas no Paraná Chagas disease in the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent speech in Curitiba (May 22nd, 1954, Dr. Mario Pinotti, Director, Serviço Nacional da Malaria, informed that his personnel started on February, 1953, a survey upon chagas Disease in 23 counties of the State of Paraná, South Brazil. out of 895 places surveyed, 678, or 75.7%, were infected by Triatoma infestans klug 1834 and in 234 out of those 678, or 34.5%, this vector was infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The general natural infection of the insects examined reached 18.86%. The serological survey (Machado-Guerreiro test was positive in 10.7% of the persons examined in jacarezinho and in 28.3% of those living in Bôa Vista. These data suggested the author to actualise the subject. During his control of severe outbreack of malaria in the North part of Paraná, from march to June 1917 he worked in 8 counties. March 1917 he photographed in Boa Vista four girls, severe cases of chronic malaria, two of which showed bi-palpebral oedema, later on considered by Dr. Pinho Simões (1943 as Romanã syndrome (created in 1935 and Prof. Salvador Mazza (1946 classified as typical cases of Chagas' Disease. now, being elapsed 36 years, the National Service of Malaria confirmed the discovery. The region surveyed was populated, in the beginning of this century, by immigrants from the State of Minas Gerais, from where the author believes that were imported the disease and its vectors. In April 1917 the A. discovered that the old town Jatahy was a big focus of Triatoma megista (now Panstrongylus megistus0. All its 43 houses were strongly infested by such hematophagus and amongst the 200 inhabitants seen many were suspicious cases of chronic cases of Chagas's Disease. In the Indians town (three tribes of S. Pedro D' Alcantara, situated in front of Jatahy, in the left side of the river Tibagy, there were no Triatomas nor suspicious cases of trypanosomiasis. In 1919 the author started the control of the endemics by destroying the foci of Triatomas and reforming

  3. O gênero Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae na planície de alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná, Brasil The genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae on the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Barion Romagnolo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento das espécies de Eugenia L. da planície alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná (22º40' a 22º55'S e 53º10' a 53º40'W. Esta área localiza-se no domínio da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e apresenta formações ripárias ao longo do rio Paraná, de suas ilhas e de seus tributários. As espécies registradas foram: Eugenia egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O. Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart. e E. uniflora L. Os meses que apresentaram o maior número de espécies em floração e frutificação foram respectivamente, setembro e novembro. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis e E. repanda apresentam ampla distribuição na área, enquanto que E. ramboi e E. sulcata foram encontradas somente na margem esquerda do rio Paraná. É fornecida uma chave para a identificação das espécies, acompanhada de ilustrações e descrições das mesmas, além de informações sobre o período de floração, frutificação e distribuição na área estudada.A floristic survey of Eugenia L. species of the Upper Paraná River floodplain in Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil (22º40'-22º55'S; 53º10'-53º40'W is presented. The study area is covered by Seasonal Semideciduous Forest, with riparian formations along the Paraná River and its islands and tributaries. The following species were identified: E. egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O.Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart., and E. uniflora L. The greatest number of species in flower or fruit was detected in September and November, respectively. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis and E. repanda are widely distributed in the study area, whereas E. ramboi and E. sulcata were observed only

  4. Developing an instrument simulator: experience feedback from the JWST/NIRSpec and VLT/MUSE simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarno, Aurélien; Piqueras, Laure; Bacon, Roland; Ferruit, Pierre; Legros, Emeline; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Gnata, Xavier; Streicher, Ole; Weilbacher, Peter

    2012-09-01

    The Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL) has recently developed two instrument simulators for spectrographic instruments. They are based on Fourier optics, and model the whole chain of acquisition, taking into account both optical aberrations and diffraction effects, by propagating a wavefront through the instrument, according to the Fourier optics concept. One simulates the NIRSpec instrument, a near-infrared multi-object spectrograph for the future James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The other one models the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument, a second-generation integral-field spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The two simulators have been developed in different contexts (subcontracted versus developed internally), and for very different instruments (space-based versus ground-based), which strengthen the CRAL experience. This paper describes the lessons learned while developing these simulators: development methods, phasing with the project, points to focus on, getting data, interacting with scientists and users, etc.

  5. Revealing deuterium Balmer lines in HII regions with VLT-UVES

    CERN Document Server

    Hébrard, G; Walsh, J R; Vidal-Madjar, A; Ferlet, R

    2000-01-01

    The search for deuterium Balmer lines with VLT-UVES is reported in HII regions of the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The DI lines appear as faint, narrow emission features in the blue wings of the HI Balmer lines and can be distinguished from high-velocity HI emission. The previous identification to deuterium is re-inforced beyond doubt. The detection of D-alpha and D-beta in Orion (Hebrard et al. 2000) is confirmed and deuterium lines are now detected up to at least D-eta. The UVES observations provide the first detection of Balmer DI lines in four new HII regions (M 8, M 16, M 20, and DEM S 103 in SMC), demonstrating that these lines are of common occurence.

  6. Validation Through Simulations of a Cn2 Profiler for the ESO/VLT Adaptive Optics Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Rissmann, A; Kolb, J; Louarn, M Le; Madec, P -Y; Neichel, B

    2015-01-01

    The Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) project envisages transforming one of the VLT units into an adaptive telescope and providing its ESO (European Southern Observatory) second generation instruments with turbulence corrected wavefronts. For MUSE and HAWK-I this correction will be achieved through the GALACSI and GRAAL AO modules working in conjunction with a 1170 actuators Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). Multiple wavefront sensors will enable GLAO and LTAO capabilities, whose performance can greatly benefit from a knowledge about the stratification of the turbulence in the atmosphere. This work, totally based on end-to-end simulations, describes the validation tests conducted on a Cn2 profiler adapted for the AOF specifications. Because an absolute profile calibration is strongly dependent on a reliable knowledge of turbulence parameters r0 and L0, the tests presented here refer only to normalized output profiles. Uncertainties in the input parameters inherent t...

  7. NIX, the imager for ERIS: the AO instrument for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David; Taylor, William; Davies, Ric; MacIntosh, Mike; Henry, David; Lunney, David; Waring, Chris; Gao, Xiaofeng; Lightfoot, John; Glauser, Adrian M.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meyer, Michael R.; Schmid, Hans Martin; March, Stephen; Bachmann, Walter; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elizabeth; Sturm, Eckhard; Biller, Beth; Hinckley, Sasha; Kenworthy, Matthew; Amico, Paola; Glindemann, Andreas; Kasper, Marcus; Kuntschner, Harald; Dorn, Reinhold; Egner, Sebastian

    2016-08-01

    ERIS will be the next-generation AO facility on the VLT, combining the heritage of NACO imaging, with the spectroscopic capabilities of an upgraded SINFONI. Here we report on the all-new NIX imager that will deliver diffraction-limited imaging from the J to M band. The instrument will be equipped with both Apodizing Phase Plates and Sparse Aperture Masks to provide high-angular resolution imagery, especially suited for exoplanet imaging and characterization. This paper provides detail on the instrument's design and how it is suited to address a broad range of science cases, from detailed studies of the galactic centre at the highest resolutions, to studying detailed resolved stellar populations.

  8. VLT transit and occultation photometry for the bloated planet CoRoT-1b

    CERN Document Server

    Gillon, M; Triaud, A H M J; Barman, T; Hebb, L; Montalban, J; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Deleuil, M; Magain, P

    2009-01-01

    We present VLT eclipse photometry for the giant planet CoRoT-1b. We observed a transit in the R-band filter and an occultation in a narrow filter centered on 2.09 microns. Our analysis of this new photometry and published radial velocities, in combination with stellar-evolutionary modeling, leads to a planetary mass and radius of 1.07 (+0.13,-0.18) M_Jup and 1.45 (+0.07,-0.13) R_Jup, confirming the very low density previously deduced from CoRoT photometry. The large occultation depth that we measure at 2.09 microns (0.278 (+0.043,-0.066) %) is consistent with thermal emission and is better reproduced by an atmospheric model with no redistribution of the absorbed stellar flux to the night side of the planet.

  9. Mid-IR observations of NGC 1068 with VLT/VISIR

    CERN Document Server

    Poncelet, A; Perrin, G; Sol, H; Lagage, P O

    2006-01-01

    We present a speckle analysis of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) inside the archetype Seyfert type 2 galaxy NGC 1068. This study is based on 12.8 microns images obtained with the burst mode of VISIR (the Very Large Telescope Imager and Spectrometer in the InfraRed). The interferometric processing allows to push the resolution far below the diffraction limit of a 8m telescope in the N-band and to trace two main contributions to the mid-IR flux inside the nucleus. It also allows to partially fill the lack of visibility points at low spatial frequencies. The confrontation with VLT/MIDI (the Mid-InfrareD Interferometer) data points helps to establish the link between dust in the vicinity of the central engine and inside the ionisation cone to get a multi-scale picture of mid-IR sources emitting in the nucleus of NGC 1068.

  10. The Space Missions WAXS/WFXT and SWIFT New Targets for the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Chincarini, G L

    1999-01-01

    At OAB we were, during the year 1998, deeply involved in planning two important space missions for which very large ground based telescopes, VLT in particular, would play a very large and important role in the optical followup. The study of the first mission, Wide Angle X-ray Survey using a Wide Field X-ray Telescope, was coordinated by the Observatory of Brera, involved mainly Italian industries and resulted in a proposal to the Italian Space Agency under the Small Satellite Program. The second mission, SWIFT, has been coordinated and directed by the Goddard Space Flight Center and resulted in the submission of a proposal to NASA under the MIDEX program. The science goal of this mission is the detection and study of the Gamma-ray bursts.

  11. Direct exoplanet detection and characterization using the ANDROMEDA method: Performance on VLT/NaCo data

    CERN Document Server

    Cantalloube, F; Mugnier, L M; Milli, J; Absil, O; Gonzalez, C A Gomez; Chauvin, G; Beuzit, J -L; Cornia, A

    2015-01-01

    Context. The direct detection of exoplanets with high-contrast imaging requires advanced data processing methods to disentangle potential planetary signals from bright quasi-static speckles. Among them, angular differential imaging (ADI) permits potential planetary signals with a known rotation rate to be separated from instrumental speckles that are either statics or slowly variable. The method presented in this paper, called ANDROMEDA for ANgular Differential OptiMal Exoplanet Detection Algorithm is based on a maximum likelihood approach to ADI and is used to estimate the position and the flux of any point source present in the field of view. Aims. In order to optimize and experimentally validate this previously proposed method, we applied ANDROMEDA to real VLT/NaCo data. In addition to its pure detection capability, we investigated the possibility of defining simple and efficient criteria for automatic point source extraction able to support the processing of large surveys. Methods. To assess the performan...

  12. The binarity status of stars with and without planets Probed with vlt/naco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Udry

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Las propiedades de los planetas en orbita alrededor de una componente de una estrella binaria o m ultiple son distintas a las de los planetas de las estrellas aisladas (Udry et al., 2004. Describimos un sondeo con la optica adaptativa VLT/NACO que intenta estudiar el efecto de la duplicidad estelar en la formaci on y evoluci on de los planetas, comparando la estad stica de las compa~neras d ebiles en muestras de estrellas con y sin planetas, seleccionadas en forma similar. Los resultados nos permitir an discriminar entre los modelos para la formaci on de planetas (acreci on o inestabilidad del disco. Los resultados preliminares son muy interesantes: el 20 7% de las estrellas \\sencillas" tienen compa~neras dentro de 1000, mientras que s olo el 3 3% de compa~neras equivalentes se encuentran cerca de las estrellas que albergan.

  13. Deep census of variable stars in a VLT/VIMOS field in Carina

    CERN Document Server

    Pietrukowicz, P; Fernández, J M; Pietrzynski, G; Ruiz, M T; Gieren, W; Diaz, R F; Zoccali, M; Hempel, M

    2009-01-01

    We have searched for variable stars in deep V-band images of a field towards the Galactic plane in Carina. The images were taken with VIMOS instrument at ESO VLT during 4 contiguous nights in April 2005. We detected 348 variables among 50897 stars in the magnitude range between V=15.4 and V=24.5 mag. Upon detection, we classified the variables by direct eye inspection of their light curves. All variable objects but 9 OGLE transits in the field are new discoveries. We provide a complete catalog of all variables which includes eclipsing/ellipsoidal binaries, miscellaneous pulsators (mostly delta Scuti-type variables), stars with flares and other (irregular and likely long-period) variables. Only two of the stars in our sample are known to host planets. Our result give some implications for future large variability surveys.

  14. Close Companions to Nearby Young Stars from Adaptive Optics Imaging on VLT and Keck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisch, Karl E.; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Mardones, Diego

    We report the results of VLT and Keck adaptive optics surveys of known members of the η Chamaeleontis, MBM 12, and TW Hydrae (TWA) associations to search for close companions. The multiplicity statistics of η Cha, MBM 12, and TWA are quite high compared with other clusters and associations, although our errors are large due to small number statistics. We have resolved S18 in MBM 12 and RECX 9 in η Cha into triples for the first time. The tight binary TWA 5Aab in the TWA offers the prospect of measuring the dynamical masses of both components as well as an independent distance to the system within a few years. The AO detection of the close companion to the nearby young star χ1 Orionis, previously inferred from radial velocity and astrometric observations, has already made it possible to derive the dynamical masses of that system without any astrophysical assumption.

  15. Close Companions to Nearby Young Stars from Adaptive Optics Imaging on VLT and Keck

    CERN Document Server

    Haisch, K E; Brandeker, A; Mardones, D; Jr., Karl E. Haisch; Jayawardhana, Ray; Brandeker, Alexis; Mardones, Diego

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of VLT and Keck adaptive optics surveys of known members of the Eta Chamaeleontis, MBM 12, and TW Hydrae (TWA) associations to search for close companions. The multiplicity statistics of Eta Cha, MBM 12, and TWA are quite high compared with other clusters and associations, although our errors are large due to small number statistics. We have resolved S18 in MBM 12 and RECX 9 in Eta Cha into triples for the first time. The tight binary TWA 5Aab in the TWA offers the prospect of measuring the dynamical masses of both components as well as an independent distance to the system within a few years. The AO detection of the close companion to the nearby young star Chi^1 Orionis, previously inferred from radial velocity and astrometric observations, has already made it possible to derive the dynamical masses of that system without any astrophysical assumption.

  16. A Partnership for a Community College in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Carmen L.; Whitford, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes the results of case study research on a partnership between a community college in the United States and a university in Chile that attempted to develop the first community college system in Chile.

  17. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  18. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  19. VLT/UVES constraints on the cosmological variability of the fine-structure constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshakov, S. A.; Centurión, M.; Molaro, P.; D'Odorico, S.

    2005-05-01

    We propose a new methodology for probing the cosmological variability of α from pairs of Fe II lines (SIDAM, single ion differential α measurement) observed in individual exposures from a high resolution spectrograph. By this we avoid the influence of the spectral shifts due to (i) ionization inhomogeneities in the absorbers; and (ii) non-zero offsets between different exposures. Applied to the Fe II lines of the metal absorption line system at z_abs = 1.839 in the spectrum of Q 1101-264 obtained by means of the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), SIDAM provides Δα/α = (2.4±3.8_stat)×10-6. The z_abs = 1.15 Fe II system toward HE 0515-4414 has been re-analyzed by this method thus obtaining for the combined sample Δα/α = (0.4±1.5_stat)×10-6. These values are shifted with respect to the Keck/HIRES mean Δα/α = (-5.7 ± 1.1_stat)×10-6 (Murphy et al. 2004) at very high confidence level (95%). The fundamental photon noise limitation in the Δα/α measurement with the VLT/UVES is discussed to figure the prospects for future observations. It is suggested that with a spectrograph of ~10 times the UVES dispersion coupled to a 100 m class telescope the present Oklo level (Δα/α ≥ 4.5 × 10-8) can be achieved along cosmological distances with differential measurements of Δα/α.

  20. RADIAL VELOCITIES FROM VLT-KMOS SPECTRA OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6388

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Origlia, L. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani, 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Valenti, E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Cirasuolo, M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh and STFC, UK Astronomy Technology Center Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, EH9 3HJ, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    We present new radial velocity measurements for 82 stars, members of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6388, obtained from ESO-VLT K-band Multi Object Spectrograph (KMOS) spectra acquired during the instrument Science Verification. The accuracy of the wavelength calibration is discussed and a number of tests of the KMOS response are presented. The cluster systemic velocity obtained (81.3 ± 1.5 km s{sup –1}) is in very good agreement with previous determinations. While a hint of ordered rotation is found between 9'' and 20'' from the cluster center, where the distribution of radial velocities is clearly bimodal, more data are needed before drawing any firm conclusions. The acquired sample of radial velocities has also been used to determine the cluster velocity dispersion (VD) profile between ∼9'' and 70'', supplementing previous measurements at r < 2'' and r > 60'' obtained with ESO-SINFONI and ESO-FLAMES spectroscopy, respectively. The new portion of the VD profile nicely matches the previous ones, better defining the knee of the distribution. The present work clearly shows the effectiveness of a deployable integral field unit in measuring the radial velocities of individual stars for determining the VD profile of Galactic GCs. It represents the pilot project for an ongoing large program with KMOS and FLAMES at the ESO-VLT, aimed at determining the next generation of VD and rotation profiles for a representative sample of GCs.

  1. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  2. Cisticercose em animais abatidos em Sabáudia, Estado do Paraná Cysticercosis in animals of Sabáudia, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Falavigna-Guilherme

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of bovine and swine cysticercosis in animals slaughtered at the Abatedouro Municipal de Sabáudia, Paraná State. The number of daily-abated animals, the number of animals with cysticercus and the number and location of the cysticercus in the animals in a period of twelve months were collected. From 1046 swines slaughtered none showed cysticercus, but 36/out of 389 bovines (9.3% were contaminated. Head was the most parasited region, followed by heart, tongue and liver. The absence of contamination observed in swines and the low contamination of the bovines reinforce the efficiency of the control measures accomplished in Paraná State.

  3. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 24. Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae from the nasal cavity of Salminus maxillosus (Osteichthyes, Characidae from the Rio Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Boeger

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. is described from the nose of Salminus maxillosus (Characidae collected in the basin of the rio Paraná, near the city of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from the other three species in the genus by the morphology of the copulatory complex, vagina, and ventral anchor. The sister group relationship of the known species of Rhinoxenus was determined using techniques of Phylogenetic Systematics (Cladism. The resulting cladogram (C.I.=100% indicates that the new species is most closely related to R. piranhus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988. The other two species of the genus, R. arietinus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988 and R. nyttus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988, both parasites of Anostomidae fishes, have a paraphyletic position in the cladogram, suggesting that the origin of at least one of them can not be associated to cospeciation.

  4. Digenea, Nematoda, Cestoda, and Acanthocephala, parasites in Potamotrygonidae (Chondrichthyes from the upper Paraná River floodplain, states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavanelli, G. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the first study on the endoparasitic fauna of Potamotrygon falkneri and P.motoro in the upper Paraná River floodplain. Fishes were collected by fishing rod and gillnetting in different stations ofthe floodplain, from March, 2005 to September, 2006. Parasites were sampled, fixed and preserved according tospecialized literature. About half of the analyzed fish were parasitized by at least one of the following species ofendoparasites: Clinostomum complanatum, Genarchella sp. and Tylodelphys sp. (metacercaria (Digenea;Acanthobothrium regoi, Rhinebothrium paratrygoni, Paroncomegas araya and Potamotrygonocestus travassosi(Cestoidea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (larva, Cucullanus sp., Echinocephalus sp. and Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda; andQuadrigyrus machadoi (Acanthocephala. Some species were already registered in Chondrichthyes and others werepreviously recorded in Osteichthyes from the study area. The study listed ten new records of parasites in the host P.falkneri, one new record in the host P. motoro and five new records in the locality upper Paraná River.

  5. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  7. O gênero Canistrum E. Morren (Bromeliaceae no Estado do Paraná The genus Canistrum E. Morren (Bromeliaceae in Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Capuano Tardivo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é um estudo taxonômico das espécies do gênero Canistrum no Estado do Paraná. Canistrum cyathiforme (Veil. Mez e C. lindenii (Regei Mez são as únicas espécies pertencentes ao gênero, encontradas na flora paranaense. C. lindenii está restrita a três variedades e quatro formas: C. lindenii (Regei Mez var. lindenii f. lindenii; C. lindenii var. viride (E. Morren Reitz f. magnum Reitz; C. lindenii var. roseum (E. Morren L. B. Sm. f. humile Reitz e C. lindenii var. roseum í.procerum Reitz. São apresentadas chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações e distribuição geográfica dos táxons estudados.This work is a taxonomic study of Canistrum species in the Paraná State. Canistrum cyathiforme (Veil. Mez and C. lindenii (Regel Mez are the only species of the genus found in the flora of Paraná. C. lindenii is delimitted to three varieties and four forms: C. lindenii var. lindenii f. lindenii; C. lindenii var. viride (E. Morren Reitz f. magnum Reitz; C. lindenii war. roseum (E. Morren L. B. Sm. f. humile Reitz and C. lindenii var. roseum f. procerum Reitz. Identification keys, descriptions and geographical distribution of the studied taxa are presented.

  8. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  9. Chile: the Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right political wing chilean political parties. During the last 20 years the Goverment of Chile was in the hands of the center left coalition, after the dictatorship period of Gral Augusto Pinochet end in 1990. During two decades the state aplied social policies in order two develop the indigenous comunities, specially the mapuche comunities of the south of Chile. During 2010 the research proyect named “Conmemoraciones y memorias subalternas” tried to understand the current situation of the comunities, the conflict and others aspects of the indigenous situation. This paper is part of those research.

  10. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Time variability of Neptune’s horizontal and vertical cloud structure revealed by VLT/SINFONI and Gemini/NIFS from 2009 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Patrick G.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Orton, Glenn S.; Teanby, Nicholas A.; Davis, Gary R.; Tice, Dane; Hurley, Jane; Owen, Stephanie J.

    2014-11-01

    New observations of Neptune’s clouds in the near infrared were acquired in October 2013 with SINFONI on ESO’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. SINFONI is an Integral Field Unit spectrometer returning a 64x64 pixel image with 2048 wavelengths. Image cubes in the J-band (1.1 - 1.41 micron) and H-band (1.43 - 1.87 micron) were obtained at spatial resolutions of 0.1” and 0.025” per pixel, while SINFONI’s adaptive optics provided an effective resolution of approximately 0.1”. Image cubes were obtained at the start and end of three successive nights to monitor the temporal development of discrete clouds both at short timescales (i.e. during a single night) as well as over the longer period of the three-day observing run. These observations were compared with similar H-band observations obtained in September 2009 with the NIFS Integral Field Unit spectrometer on the Gemini-North telescope in Hawaii and previously reported by Irwin et al., Icarus 216, 141-158, 2011. We find both similarities and differences between these observations, spaced by four years. The same overall cloud structure is seen with high, bright clouds visible at mid-latitudes (20-40°N, S); with slightly lower transient clouds at the equator; together with small discrete clouds seen circling the pole at a latitude of approximately 60°S. However, while discrete clouds were visible at this latitude at both the main cloud deck level (at 2-3 bars) and in the upper troposphere (100-500mb) in 2009, no clear deep, discrete circumpolar clouds were visible in 2013. The nature of these deep circumpolar discrete clouds is intriguing. While it is possible that in 2013 these deeper clouds were masked by faster moving, overlying features, we consider that it is unlikely that this should have happened in 2013, but not in 2009 when the upper cloud activity was generally similar. Hence, these observations may have detected a real temporal variation in the occurrence of Neptune’s deep clouds, pointing

  12. Discovery of concentric broken rings at sub-arcsec separations in the HD 141569A gas-rich, debris disk with VLT/SPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrot, C.; Boccaletti, A.; Pantin, E.; Augereau, J.-C.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Galicher, R.; Maire, A.-L.; Mazoyer, J.; Milli, J.; Rousset, G.; Gratton, R.; Bonnefoy, M.; Brandner, W.; Buenzli, E.; Langlois, M.; Lannier, J.; Mesa, D.; Peretti, S.; Salter, G.; Sissa, E.; Chauvin, G.; Desidera, S.; Feldt, M.; Vigan, A.; Di Folco, E.; Dutrey, A.; Péricaud, J.; Baudoz, P.; Benisty, M.; De Boer, J.; Garufi, A.; Girard, J. H.; Menard, F.; Olofsson, J.; Quanz, S. P.; Mouillet, D.; Christiaens, V.; Casassus, S.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Blanchard, P.; Carle, M.; Fusco, T.; Giro, E.; Hubin, N.; Maurel, D.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Sevin, A.; Weber, L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Transition disks correspond to a short stage between the young protoplanetary phase and older debris phase. Along this evolutionary sequence, the gas component disappears leaving room for a dust-dominated environment where already-formed planets signpost their gravitational perturbations. Aims: We endeavor to study the very inner region of the well-known and complex debris, but still gas-rich disk, around HD 141569A using the exquisite high-contrast capability of SPHERE at the VLT. Recent near-infrared (IR) images suggest a relatively depleted cavity within ~200 au, while former mid-IR data indicate the presence of dust at separations shorter than ~100 au. Methods: We obtained multi-wavelength images in the near-IR in J, H2, H3 and Ks-bands with the IRDIS camera and a 0.95-1.35 μm spectral data cube with the IFS. Data were acquired in pupil-tracking mode, thus allowing for angular differential imaging. Results: We discovered several new structures inside 1'', of which the most prominent is a bright ring with sharp edges (semi-major axis: 0.4'') featuring a strong north-south brightness asymmetry. Other faint structures are also detected from 0.4'' to 1'' in the form of concentric ringlets and at least one spiral arm. Finally, the VISIR data at 8.6 μm suggests the presence of an additional dust population closer in. Besides, we do not detect companions more massive than 1-3 mass of Jupiter. Conclusions: The performance of SPHERE allows us to resolve the extended dust component, which was previously detected at thermal and visible wavelengths, into very complex patterns with strong asymmetries; the nature of these asymmetries remains to be understood. Scenarios involving shepherding by planets or dust-gas interactions will have to be tested against these observations. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO programs 095.C-0381 and 095.C-0298.

  13. DETERMINANTES DE LA LECTURA EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Los lectores se forman principalmente leyendo libros. Numerosa evidencia muestra que en Chile los niveles de lectura son bajos, tanto en términos cuantitativos como cualitativos. Existe, además, un consenso respecto de la importancia de la habilidad y el hábito de lectura tanto para el individuo como para la sociedad y la economía. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los factores que afectan el nivel de lectura de libros en Chile. Para ello, se revisa el rol que desempeña la l...

  14. Chile: corrupción y poder

    OpenAIRE

    Gumucio, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Todo poder conlleva elementos de corrupción. Este artículo pretende establecer comparaciones históricas respecto de la perversión de las instituciones, en distintos períodos de nuestro pasado republicano. Si bien la tiranía de Pinochet va a ser recordada como la más criminal y  expoliadora de la historia de Chile, en menor grado y brutalidad,  la carencia de probidad existió a lo largo de nuestra historia. Este estudio pretende desmitificar la visión de un Chile republicano probo, es decir, c...

  15. DETERMINANTES DE LA LECTURA EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    COCIÑA VARAS, MATIAS PABLO

    2007-01-01

    Los lectores se forman principalmente leyendo libros. Numerosa evidencia muestra que en Chile los niveles de lectura son bajos, tanto en términos cuantitativos como cualitativos. Existe, además, un consenso respecto de la importancia de la habilidad y el hábito de lectura tanto para el individuo como para la sociedad y la economía. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar los factores que afectan el nivel de lectura de libros en Chile. Para ello, se revisa el rol que desempeña la l...

  16. Economic growth in border areas of the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Terezinha Michelon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a region is connected with economic growth and the movement of people and capital. The State of Paraná is bordered by São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso do Sul, Argentina, Paraguay and the port of Paranaguá which is the main gateway to the outside world. Mesoregions the State of Paraná define the object to be studied, because since its occupation in the sixteenth century to the present day, over and undergoes great changes in population location and in their productive matrix. The Paraná from a primarily agricultural situation for an industrialized State and services with gradual economic growth. In this regard the purpose of this paper is to analyze occupational changes and capital by inserting the three sectors, agricultural, industrial and commercial / services, in Paraná state border. The methodology used to study the growth of mesoregions were the locational quotient and structural-differential analysis. The secondary data were collected from the sources IPEADATA (2013 and RAIS (2013. The procedures have shown the region that had better growth in the state: the periphery of the state or border region. It was found that the region that stood out was that of Curitiba due to proximity to the Port of Paranaguá

  17. Population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Pintor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of demographic transition began with an effort of Frank Notestein (1945 to understand the demographic changes that were occurring in Western Europe since the late nineteenth century. The demographic transition is the transition between two scenarios of population growth, which changes the age structure of the population. The aim of the article is to discuss the evolution of population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010. The changes in the age structure of the Paraná indicate a reduction in the share of young population and increasing aging population, an increase in the relative weight of the elderly population. Public policies on education, health, social security and labor market should consider the current change in the age structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the change in the age structure of the population of the state of Paraná. For this we used data Censuses of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE on the age distribution of urban and rural Paraná and its Mesoregions. It was concluded that the change in structure occurs group widespread in all Mesoregions state. However, it occurs unevenly between urban and rural population.

  18. Native species indicated for degraded area recovery in Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Gris

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colonization in the State of Paraná has culminated in the devastation of large forest areas in the entire State. Degraded area recovery programs have emphasized the utilization of native species, but often the species indicated for local reforestation areas are unknown, as those areas are little known floristically. This study aimed to survey native species indicated for reforestation of areas in the Western region of the State of Paraná, classify those species as pioneer, secondary, or climactic, and indicate places of occurrence of matrices where seeds of those species could be collected. Bibliographic surveys in the specialized literature and research in the Herbarium Museu Botânico Municipal de Curitiba (MBM and Herbarium of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNOP were conducted to identify potential species for degraded area recovery in the study of Western region of Paraná. In all, 115 species were selected, of which 22 are pioneer, 73 are secondary, and 20 are climactic. The bibliographic surveys suggests that pioneer species are the most indicated for the initial processes in the degraded areas recovery, while secondary and climactic species play a major role in area enrichment.

  19. First records of Freshwater Bivalves of Ilha Grande National Park, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ragonha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ilha Grande National Park, Paraná, Brazil, is located in the Upper Paraná River and has characteristics typical of a floodplains. This protected area includes lagoons connected and disconnected to the Paraná River, although the latter also connect during periods of high water level, thus composing a heterogeneous group of lacustrine environments. The enormous potential the flora and fauna diversities are still little known to the region, as can be seen through benthic invertebrates, inclunding bivalves mollusks. The granulometric composition of these floodplain lagoons was formed mainly by mud and very fine sand. Furthermore, organic matter composition was predominantly of fine particulate. The other abiotic factors differed from lagoons located within the island of the park to those located in the left margin of Paraná River. The results demonstrated the importance of abiotic factors such as the physical composition of granulometric texture, organic matter and macrophyte banks, to the establishment of bivalves in these floodplain lagoons. We recorded bivalves of Pisidium (native, Diplodon (native, and Corbicula (invasive. The highest values of Diplodon sp. density were observed at São João/C lake, for Pisidium sterkianum (Pilsbry, 1897 at São João/M lake, and to Jatobá/C lagoon with high density of invasive species Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774. This study to obtain conduct the first records of freshwater bivalves in floodplains lagoon in the Ilha Grande National Park, and provides contributions to better understanding the ecology of these mollusks. The recording of native species in the region of Upper Paraná River floodplain after a lomg period without new records, demonstrated the importance of protecting the lagoons of the Ilha Grande National Park as they can be a possible refuge to some species of native freshwater bivalves.

  20. Intracluster light properties in the CLASH-VLT cluster MACS J1206.2-0847

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Nonino, M.; Mercurio, A.; Grillo, C.; Rosati, P.; Biviano, A.; Annunziatella, M.; Balestra, I.; Cui, W.; Sartoris, B.; Lemze, D.; Ascaso, B.; Moustakas, J.; Ford, H.; Fritz, A.; Czoske, O.; Ettori, S.; Kuchner, U.; Lombardi, M.; Maier, C.; Medezinski, E.; Molino, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Tozzi, P.; Ziegler, B.; Bartelmann, M.; Benitez, N.; Bradley, L.; Brescia, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Gobat, R.; Graves, G.; Kelson, D.; Koekemoer, A.; Melchior, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Merten, J.; Moustakas, L. A.; Munari, E.; Postman, M.; Regős, E.; Seitz, S.; Umetsu, K.; Zheng, W.; Zitrin, A.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: We aim constrain the assembly history of clusters by studying the intracluster light (ICL) properties, estimating its contribution to the fraction of baryons in stars, f∗, and understanding possible systematics or bias using different ICL detection techniques. Methods: We developed an automated method, GALtoICL, based on the software GALAPAGOS, to obtain a refined version of typical BCG+ICL maps. We applied this method to our test case MACS J1206.2-0847, a massive cluster located at z ~ 0.44, which is part of the CLASH sample. Using deep multiband Subaru images, we extracted the surface brightness (SB) profile of the BCG+ICL and studied the ICL morphology, color, and contribution to f∗ out to R500. We repeated the same analysis using a different definition of the ICL, SBlimit method, i.e., a SB cut-off level, to compare the results. Results: The most peculiar feature of the ICL in MACS1206 is its asymmetric radial distribution, with an excess in the SE direction and extending toward the second brightest cluster galaxy, which is a post starburst galaxy. This suggests an interaction between the BCG and this galaxy that dates back to τ ≤ 1.5 Gyr. The BCG+ICL stellar content is ~8% of M∗,500, and the (de-) projected baryon fraction in stars is f∗ = 0.0177(0.0116), in excellent agreement with recent results. The SBlimit method provides systematically higher ICL fractions and this effect is stronger at lower SB limits. This is due to the light from the outer envelopes of member galaxies that contaminate the ICL. Though more time consuming, the GALtoICL method provides safer ICL detections that are almost free of this contamination. This is one of the few ICL study at redshift z > 0.3. At completion, the CLASH/VLT program will allow us to extend this analysis to a statistically significant cluster sample spanning a wide redshift range: 0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.6. Based on data collected at the NASJ Subaru telescope, at the ESO VLT (prog.ID 186.A-0798), and the

  1. Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, David [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); The University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, WI-53706 (United States); Jara, Danilo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-05-15

    Bearing in mind the current and pressing need for an update of the existing Chilean power supply system - which has been remarkably influenced by new requirements - the search for new energy supply sources has become a top priority. The wind resource, vis-a-vis its associated mature technology features and its apparent availability throughout Chile, comes forward as a feasible option likely to play a more important role in any future national energy generation matrix. With a view to understanding the local wind resource, this document surveys a sample set of wind profiles available in the northern Chile area, thus becoming the first public survey of this kind. It also tackles theoretical energy production and capacity factors. Those became the basis of the wind modelling we undertook for Chile's participation in COP15. This paper shows wind generation is a suitable option for curbing down Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) in Chile. (author)

  2. Upward trend for Chile; Andenstaat im Aufwind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korneffel, Peter

    2010-03-15

    After an economic boom of 20 years, Chile may soon experience a change of paradigm in an economy based on renewable energy sources. Wind power is booming, and hydroelectric power is going strong as well. It will depend on the new government to see that the process of change continues. (orig.)

  3. Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, María L; Vergara, Juan A; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996.

  4. Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004

    OpenAIRE

    González-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, María L.; Vergara, Juan A.; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime; Espejo, Romilio T.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and in Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996.

  5. Republic of Chile : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Chile's public procurement system is considered generally free of corruption, supported by probity of the civil servants, decentralization, and good budgetary and control systems. However, it is affected by deficiencies that the government recognizes, and is taking action to overcome, particularly with respect to procurement of goods and services. There is no unified comprehensive, and pub...

  6. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  7. The OmegaCAM 16K x 16K CCD detector system for the ESO VLT Survey Telescope (VST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwert, Olaf; Baade, D.; Balestra, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Bortolussi, A.; Christen, F.; Cumani, C.; Deiries, S.; Downing, M.; Geimer, C.; Hess, G.; Hess, J.; Kuijken, K.; Lizon, J.; Muschielok, B.; Nicklas, H.; Reiss, R.; Reyes, J.; Silber, A.; Thillerup, J.; Valentijn, E.; Dorn, David A.; Holland, Andrew D.

    2006-01-01

    A 16K x 16K, 1 degree x 1 degree field, detector system was developed by ESO for the OmegaCAM instrument for use on the purpose built ESO VLT Survey Telescope (VST). The focal plane consists of an 8 x 4 mosaic of 2K x 4K 15um pixel e2v CCDs and four 2K x 4K CCDs on the periphery for the opto-mechani

  8. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  9. Professor Octávio de Silveira: the pioneer of neurology in the State of Paraná Professor Octávio da Silveira: o pioneiro da neurologia no Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a brief overview of the career of Professor Octávio da Silveira, the first neurologist and professor of neurology in the State of Paraná, as well as the first full professor of clinical neurology in the Federal University of Paraná.O autor apresenta de forma resumida os dados históricos que definem o professor Octávio da Silveira como o primeiro neurologista e professor de neurologia do Estado do Paraná, além do título de primeiro professor catedrático da clínica neurológica da Universidade Federal do Paraná.

  10. Party Change in Chile in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Angell

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article looks at the changes in party systems generally in modern democracies, and argues that many trends observed internationally - growing mistrust of parties, growing electoral de-alignment - are also observed in Chile. Hence any analysis of party change in Chile has to take into account what is happening in other countries with well-established party systems. The article argues that the comparison with the past tends to be limited to the exceptional 1964-1973 period and that a more extended analysis points to many continuities in the Chilean party system. Competing arguments over whether there is new party cleavage in Chile based on the opposition between support for authoritarianism or support for democracy are also examined*.Resumen Este artículo estudia los cambios generales en los sistemas de partidos en las democracias modernas y argumenta que muchas de las tendencias que se observan internacionalmente -como el aumento en la desconfianza en los partidos, o desalineaciones electorales cada vez mayores- también se observan en Chile. De esta forma, cualquier análisis de cambios en el sistema de partidos de Chile tiene que considerar lo que está sucediendo en otros países con sistemas de partidos bien establecidos. El artículo postula que la comparación del sistema de partidos chileno con el pasado reciente tiende a estar limitado al período excepcional 1964-1973 y que un análisis más extendido implicaría muchas más continuidades de las esperadas. También se cuestiona las nuevas discusiones sobre si existe o no una nueva fisura partidaria, basada en la oposición entre el apoyo y rechazo al sistema autoritario, o el apoyo a la democracia.

  11. Comparison of VLT/X-shooter OH and O2 rotational temperatures with consideration of TIMED/SABER emission and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Stefan; Kausch, Wolfgang; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Jones, Amy M.

    2016-04-01

    Rotational temperatures Trot derived from lines of the same OH band are an important method to study the dynamics and long-term trends in the mesopause region near 87 km. To measure realistic temperatures, the rotational level populations have to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). However, this might not be fulfilled, especially at high emission altitudes. In order to quantify possible non-LTE contributions to the OH Trot as a function of the upper vibrational level v', we studied a sample of 343 echelle spectra taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data allowed us to analyse 25 OH bands in each spectrum. Moreover, we could measure lines of O2b(0-1), which peaks at about 94 to 95 km, and O2a(0-0) with an emission peak at about 90 km. The latter altitude is reached in the second half of the night after a rise of several km because of the decay of a daytime population of excited O2. Since the radiative lifetimes for the upper levels of the two O2 bands are relatively long, the derived Trot are not significantly affected by non-LTE contributions. These bands are well suited for a comparison with OH if the differences in the emission profiles are corrected. For different sample averages, we made these corrections by using OH emission, O2a(0-0) emission, and CO2-based temperature profile data from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. The procedure relies on differences of profile-weighted SABER temperatures. For an O2a(0-0)-based reference profile at 90 km, we found a good agreement of the O2 with the SABER-related temperatures, whereas the OH temperatures, especially for the high and even v', showed significant excesses with a maximum of more than 10 K for v' = 8. The exact value depends on the selected lines and molecular parameters. We could also find a nocturnal trend towards higher non-LTE effects, particularly for high v'. The amplitude of these variations can be about 2 K

  12. He II emitters in the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: Population III star formation or peculiar stellar populations in galaxies at 2 < z < 4.6?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassata, P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; Cucciati, O.; Garilli, B.; Zamorani, G.; Adami, C.; Bardelli, S.; Le Brun, V.; Lemaux, B.; Maccagni, D.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Zucca, E.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to identify He II emitters at 2 Methods: We assembled a sample of 277 galaxies with a highly reliable spectroscopic redshift at 2 1200 km s-1), 3 active galactic nuclei (AGN), and an additional 12 possible He II emitters. The properties of the individual broad emitters are in agreement with expectations from a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) model. Instead, the properties of the narrow emitters are not compatible with this model, nor with predictions of gravitational cooling radiation produced by gas accretion, unless this is severely underestimated by current models by more than two orders of magnitude. Rather, we find that the EW of the narrow He II line emitters are in agreement with expectations for a Population III (PopIII) star formation, if the episode of star formation is continuous, and we calculate that a PopIII star formation rate (SFR) of 0.1-10 M⊙ yr-1 alone is enough to sustain the observed He II flux. Conclusions: We conclude that narrow He II emitters are powered either by the ionizing flux from a stellar population rare at z ~ 0 but much more common at z ~ 3, or by PopIII star formation. As proposed by Tornatore and collaborators, incomplete interstellar medium mixing may leave some small pockets of pristine gas at the periphery of galaxies from which PopIII may form, even down to z ~ 2 or lower. If this interpretation is correct, we measure at z ~ 3 a star formation rate density in PopIII stars of 10-6 M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3, higher than, but qualitatively comparable to the value predicted by Tornatore and collaborators. Figures 2-8, and 12 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgBased on data obtained with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Paranal, Chile, under Large Programs 070.A-9007 and 177.A-0837. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of

  13. Comparison of VLT/X-shooter OH and O2 rotational temperatures with consideration of TIMED/SABER emission and temperature profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noll

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rotational temperatures Trot derived from lines of the same OH band are an important method to study the dynamics and long-term trends in the mesopause region near 87 km. To measure realistic temperatures, a corresponding Boltzmann distribution of the rotational level populations has to be achieved. However, this might not be fulfilled, especially at high emission altitudes. In order to quantify possible non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE contributions to the OH Trot as a function of the upper vibrational level v', we studied a sample of 343 echelle spectra taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data allowed us to analyse 25 OH bands in each spectrum. Moreover, we could measure lines of O2b(0-1, which peaks at about 94 to 95 km, and O2a(0-0 with an emission peak at about 90 km. The latter altitude is reached in the second half of the night after a rise of several km because of the decay of a daytime population of excited O2. Since the radiative lifetimes for the upper levels of the two O2 bands are relatively long, the derived Trot are not significantly affected by non-LTE contributions. These bands are well suited for a comparison with OH if the differences in the emission profiles are corrected. For different sample averages, we made these corrections by using OH emission, O2a(0-0 emission, and CO2-based temperature profile data from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. The procedure relies on differences of profile-weighted SABER temperatures. For an O2a(0-0-based reference profile at 90 km, we found a good agreement of the O2 with the SABER-related temperatures, whereas the OH temperatures, especially for the high and even v', showed significant excesses with a maximum of more than 10 K for v' = 8. The exact value depends on the selected lines and molecular parameters. We could also find a nocturnal trend towards higher non-LTE effects, particularly

  14. Comércio de bromélias no Paraná Bromeliads production and trade in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, objetivando conhecer o perfil do produtor paranaense, com respectiva capacidade de atender às demandas de mercado, identificar e caracterizar os diferentes níveis da cadeia produtiva e detectar os principais pontos de estrangulamento do desenvolvimento desse setor. Para tanto, foram entrevistados 19 produtores, 160 varejistas e 18 atacadistas. A quantidade de bromélias oriundas da produção do Paraná e aptas ao mercado era de 5.340 plantas ao ano, inferior à demanda do Estado. As condições exigidas pelos varejistas (v e atacadistas (a para aquisição de bromélias dos produtores regionais eram: preço igual ou inferior ao praticado em São Paulo (exigido por: v = 134; a = 18, qualidade da produção condizente com a encontrada no mercado (v = 86; a = 16, capacidade de efetuar entregas periódicas (v = 81; a = 11 e capacidade de atendimento dos pedidos extras (v = 55; a = 7. Não foi encontrado produtor no Estado do Paraná que pudesse atender a todas as exigências de forma simultânea. Os principais entraves que impediam a inserção da produção no mercado regional eram decorrentes da inaplicabilidade dos modelos de gestão da produção rural, adotados pelos produtores, e das incongruências tecnológicas observadas na maioria dos viveiros de cultivo, que resultavam em produção de baixa qualidade.This paper is a prospective study about the bromeliads production and trade in Paraná State, Brazil, which aimed to know the producers' profile in Paraná State with the respective capacity of meeting market demands, identify and characterize the different levels of the bromeliads production chain, as well as detect the main bottlenecks to the development of this sector. A total of 19 producers were interviewed; 160 retailers and 18 wholesalers. The amount of bromeliads from the regional production and suitable to be the traded was 5340 plants per

  15. VLT/SPHERE deep insight of NGC 3603's core: Segregation or confusion?

    CERN Document Server

    Khorrami, Z; Vakili, F; Lagadec, E; Langlois, M; Brandner, W; Chesneau, O; Meyer, M R; Carbillet, M; Abe, L; Mouillet, D; Beuzit, JL; Boccaletti, A; Perrot, C; Thalmann, C; Schmid, H -M; Pavlov, A; Costille, A; Dohlen, K; Mignant, D Le; Petit, C; Sauvage, J F

    2016-01-01

    We present new near-infrared photometric measurements of the core of the young massive cluster NGC 3603 obtained with extreme adaptive optics. The data were obtained with the SPHERE instrument mounted on ESO Very Large Telescope, and cover three fields in the core of this cluster. We applied a correction for the effect of extinction to our data obtained in the J and K broadband filters and estimated the mass of detected sources inside the field of view of SPHERE/IRDIS, which is 13.5"x13.5". We derived the mass function (MF) slope for each spectral band and field. The MF slope in the core is unusual compared to previous results based on Hubble space telescope (HST) and very large telescope (VLT) observations. The average slope in the core is estimated as -1.06^{+0.26}_{-0.26} for the main sequence stars with 3.5 Msun < M < 120 Msun.Thanks to the SPHERE extreme adaptive optics, 814 low-mass stars were detected to estimate the MF slope for the pre-main sequence stars with 0.6 Msun< M < 3.5 Msun , Gam...

  16. VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of Red Giant Branch stars in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemasle, B; Tolstoy, E; Venn, K A; Shetrone, M D; Irwin, M J; de Boer, T J L; Starkenburg, E; Salvadori, S

    2011-01-01

    The ages of individual Red Giant Branch stars (RGB) can range from 1 Gyr old to the age of the Universe, and it is believed that the abundances of most chemical elements in their photospheres remain unchanged with time (those that are not affected by the 1st dredge-up). This means that they trace the ISM in the galaxy at the time the star formed, and hence the chemical enrichment history of the galaxy. CMD analysis has shown the Carina dwarf spheroidal (dSph) to have had an unusually episodic star formation history (SFH) which is expected to be reflected in the abundances of different chemical elements. We use the VLT-FLAMES spectrograph in HR mode (R~20000) to measure the abundances of several chemical elements in a sample of 35 RGB stars in Carina. We also combine these abundances with photometry to derive age estimates for these stars. This allows us to determine which of two distinct star formation (SF) episodes the stars in our sample belong to, and thus to define the relationship between SF and chemical...

  17. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - IV. Gas and galaxies at z~3 in observations and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tummuangpak, P; Bielby, R; Crighton, N H M; Francke, H; Infante, L; Theuns, T

    2013-01-01

    We use observations and simulations to study the relationship between star-forming galaxies and the IGM at z~3. We use redshift data taken from the VLT LBG Redshift Survey (VLRS) and Keck surveys in fields centred on bright background QSOs, whilst the simulated data is taken from GIMIC. In the simulations, we find that the dominant peculiar velocities are in the form of large-scale coherent motions of gas and galaxies. Gravitational infall of galaxies towards each other is also seen, consistent with linear theory. Peculiar velocity pairs with separations smaller than 1Mpc have a smaller dispersion and better explain the simulated z-space correlations. Lyman-alpha auto- and cross-correlations in the simulations appear to show smaller infall than implied by the expected beta_Lyman-alpha ~ 1.3. Galaxy-wide outflows implemented in the simulations may contribute to this effect. When velocity errors are taken into account, the LBG correlation function prefers the high clustering amplitude shown by higher mass galax...

  18. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - V. Characterising the z = 3.1 Lyman Alpha Emitter Population

    CERN Document Server

    Bielby, R M; Shanks, T; Francke, H; Crighton, N H M; Bañados, E; González-López, Jorge; Infante, L; Orsi, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a survey of Ly$\\alpha$ emitting galaxies in the fields of the VLT LBG Redshift Survey, incorporating the analysis of narrow band number counts, the rest frame UV luminosity function and the two-point correlation function of Ly$\\alpha$ emitters at $z\\approx3.1$. Our photometric sample consists of 750 LAE candidates, over an area of 1.07 deg$^2$, with estimated equivalent widths of $\\gtrsim65$ \\AA, from 5 fields based on deep Subaru Suprime-Cam imaging data. Added to this we have obtained spectroscopic follow-up observations, which successfully detected Ly$\\alpha$ emission in 35 galaxies. Based on the spectroscopic results, we refined our photometric selection constraints, with the resulting sample having a success rate of $78\\pm18\\%$. We calculate the narrow band number counts for our photometric sample and find these to be consistent with previous studies of LAEs at this redshift. We find the $R$-band continuum luminosity function to be $\\sim10\\times$ lower than the equivalent luminosity function o...

  19. VLT Suzaku observations of the Fermi pulsar PSR J1028-5819

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Esposito, P; De Luca, A; Marelli, M; Oates, S R; Saz-Parkinson, P

    2012-01-01

    We used optical images taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in the B and V bands to search for the optical counterpart of PSR J1028-5819 or constrain its optical brightness. At the same time, we used an archival Suzaku observation to confirm the preliminary identification of the pulsar's X-ray counterpart obtained by Swift. Due to the large uncertainty on the pulsar's radio position and the presence of a bright (V = 13.2) early F-type star at < 4", we could not detect its counterpart down to flux limits of B~25.4 and V ~25.3, the deepest obtained so far for PSR J1028-5819. From the Suzaku observations, we found that the X-ray spectrum of the pulsar's candidate counterpart is best-fit by a power-law with spectral index 1.7 +/- 0.2 and an absorption column density NH < 10^21 cm-2, which would support the proposed X-ray identification. Moreover, we found possible evidence for the presence of diffuse emission around the pulsar. If real, and associated with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN), its surface bright...

  20. Discovery of a z = 6.17 galaxy from CFHT and VLT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Cuby, J G; McCracken, H; Cuillandre, J C; Magnier, E; Meneux, B

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of a galaxy at a redshift z = 6.17 identified from deep narrow band imaging and spectroscopic follow-up in one of the CFHT-VIRMOS deep survey fields at 0226-04. In addition to the existing deep BVRI images of this field, we obtained a very deep narrow band image at 920 nm with the aim of detecting Ly alpha emission at redshift ~ 6.5. Spectroscopic follow-up of some of the candidates selected on the basis of their excess flux in the NB920 filter was performed at the VLT-UT4 with the FORS2 instrument. For one object a strong and asymmetric emission line associated with a strong break in continuum emission is identified as Ly alpha at z = 6.17. This galaxy was selected from its continuum emission in the 920 nm filter rather than for its Ly alpha emission, in effect performing a Lyman Break detection at z = 6.17. We estimate a star formation rate of ~ 10 M/yr for this object, with a velocity dispersion \\~ 400 km/s. Similarly to other objects at redshifts ~ 5--6, this galaxy presents the ch...

  1. VLT/FLAMES spectroscopy of red giant branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemasle, B; Hill, V; Tolstoy, E; Irwin, M; Jablonka, P; Venn, K; Battaglia, G; Starkenburg, E; Shetrone, M; Letarte, B; Francois, P; Helmi, A; Primas, F; Kaufer, A; Szeifert, T

    2014-01-01

    Fornax is one of the most massive dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. The Fornax field star population is dominated by intermediate age stars but star formation was going on over almost its entire history. It has been proposed that Fornax experienced a minor merger event. Despite recent progress, only the high metallicity end of Fornax field stars ([Fe/H]>-1.2 dex) has been sampled in larger number via high resolution spectroscopy. We want to better understand the full chemical evolution of this galaxy by better sampling the whole metallicity range, including more metal poor stars. We use the VLT-FLAMES multi-fibre spectrograph in high-resolution mode to determine the abundances of several alpha, iron-peak and neutron-capture elements in a sample of 47 individual Red Giant Branch stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy. We combine these abundances with accurate age estimates derived from the age probability distribution from the colour-magnitude diagram of Fornax. Similar to other dwarf spheroid...

  2. VLT\\/UVES Abundances in Four Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies I. Nucleosynthesis and Abundance Ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Shetrone, M; Tolstoy, E; Primas, F; Hill, V; Kaufer, A

    2003-01-01

    We have used UVES on VLT-UT2 to take spectra of 15 red giants in the Sculptor, Fornax, Carina and Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We measure the abundances of alpha, iron peak, s and r-process elements. No dSph giants in our sample show the deep mixing abundance pattern seen in nearly all globular clusters. At a given metallicity, the dSph giants exhibit lower [el/Fe] abundance ratios for the alpha elements than stars in the Galactic halo. This can be caused by a slow star formation rate and contribution from Type Ia SN, and/or a small star formation event (low total mass) and mass dependent Type II SN yields. Differences in the even-Z [el/Fe] ratios between these galaxies, as well as differences in the evolution of the s&r-process elements are interpreted in terms of their star formation histories. Comparison of the dSph abundances with those of the Galactic halo reveals some consistencies. In particular, we find stars that mimic the abundance pattern found by Nissen & Shuster (1997) for metal-rich,...

  3. VLT/MUSE discovers a jet from the evolved B[e] star MWC 137

    CERN Document Server

    Mehner, A; Groh, J H; Oudmaijer, R D; Baade, D; Rivinius, T; Selman, F; Boffin, H M J; Martayan, C

    2016-01-01

    Not all stars exhibiting the optical spectral characteristics of B[e] stars share the same evolutionary stage. The Galactic B[e] star MWC 137 is a prime example of an object with uncertain classification, with previous work suggesting pre- and post-main sequence classification. Our goal is to settle this debate and provide reliable evolutionary classification. Integral field spectrograph observations with VLT MUSE of the cluster SH 2-266 are used to analyze the nature of MWC 137. A collimated outflow is discovered that is geometrically centered on MWC 137. The central position of MWC 137 in the cluster SH 2-266 within the larger nebula suggests strongly that it is a member of this cluster and that it is both at the origin of the nebula and the newly discovered jet. Comparison of the color-magnitude diagram of the brightest cluster stars with stellar evolutionary models results in a distance of about 5.2$\\pm$1.4 kpc. We estimate that the cluster is at least 3 Myr old. The jet extends over 66" (1.7 pc) projecte...

  4. VLT Phase Resolved Optical Spectroscopy of the Ultra-Compact Binary HM Cnc

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Elena; Dall'Osso, S; Stella, L; Munari, U; Marconi, G; O'Brian, K; Covino, S; Fugazza, D

    2010-01-01

    A 321.5 s modulation was discovered in 1999 in the X-ray light curve of HM Cnc. In 2001 and 2002, optical photometric and spectroscopic observations revealed that HM Cnc is a very blue object with no intrinsic absorptions but broad (FWHM 1500 km s^-1) low equivalent width emission lines (EW 1-6A), which were first identified with the HeII Pickering series. The combination of X-ray and optical observations pictures HM Cnc as a double degenerate binary hosting two white dwarfs, and possibly being the shortest orbital period binary discovered so far. The present work is aimed at studying the orbital motion of the two components by following the variations of the shape, centroid and intensity of the emission lines through the orbit. In February 2007, we carried out the first phase resolved optical spectroscopic study with the VLT/FORS2 in the High Time Resolution (HIT) mode, yielding five phase bins in the 321 s modulation. Despite the low SNR, the data show that the intensity of the three most prominent emission...

  5. VLT Observations of Turnoff stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 6397

    CERN Document Server

    Thévenin, F; De Pacheco, J A F; Idiart, T P; Jasniewicz, G; De Laverny, P; Plez, B

    2001-01-01

    VLT-UVES high resolution spectra of seven turnoff stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 have been obtained. Atmospheric parameters and abundances of several elements (Li, Na, Mg, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn and Ba) were derived for program stars. The mean iron abundance is [Fe/H] = -2.02, with no star-to-star variation. The mean abundances of the alpha-elements (Ca, Ti) and of the iron-peak elements (Sc, Cr, Ni) are consistent with abundances derived for field stars of similar metallicity. Magnesium is also almost solar, consistent with the values found by Idiart & Th\\'evenin (2000) when non-LTE effects (NLTE hereafter) are taken into account. The sodium abundance derived for five stars is essentially solar, but one object (A447) is clearly Na deficient. These results are compatible with the expected abundance range estimated from the stochastic evolutionary halo model by Argast et al. (2000) when at the epoch of [Fe/H] $\\sim$ -2 the interstellar medium is supposed to become well-mixed.

  6. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXI. Stellar spin rates of O-type spectroscopic binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; de Mink, S E; Hénault-Brunet, V; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Tramper, F; Gräfener, G; Evans, C J; Vink, J S; Dufton, P L; Taylor, W D

    2015-01-01

    The initial distribution of spin rates of massive stars is a fingerprint of their elusive formation process. It also sets a key initial condition for stellar evolution and is thus an important ingredient in stellar population synthesis. So far, most studies have focused on single stars. Most O stars are however found in multiple systems. By establishing the spin-rate distribution of a sizeable sample of O-type spectroscopic binaries and by comparing the distributions of binary sub-populations with one another as well as with that of presumed single stars in the same region, we aim to constrain the initial spin distribution of O stars in binaries, and to identify signatures of the physical mechanisms that affect the evolution of the massive stars spin rates. We use ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) to establish the projected equatorial rotational velocities (\\vrot) for components of 114 spectroscopic binaries in 30 Doradus. The \\vrot\\ values a...

  7. Spectroscopic confirmation of high-redshift supernovae with the ESO VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Lidman, C E; Folatelli, G; Garavini, G; Nobili, S; Aldering, G; Amanullah, R; Antilogus, P; Astier, Pierre; Blanc, G; Burns, M S; Conley, A; Deustua, S E; Doi, M; Ellis, R; Fabbro, S; Fadeev, V; Gibbons, R; Goldhaber, G; Goobar, A; Groom, D E; Hook, I; Kashikawa, N; Kim, A G; Knop, R A; Lee Byung Cheol; Méndez, J; Morokuma, T; Motohara, K; Nugent, P; Pain, R; Perlmutter, S; Prasad, V; Quimby, R; Raux, J; Regnault, N; Ruiz-Lapuente, P; Sainton, G; Schaefer, B E; Schahmaneche, K; Smith, E; Spadafora, A L; Stanishev, V; Walton, N A; Wang, L; Wood-Vasey, W M; Yasuda, N

    2004-01-01

    We present VLT FORS1 and FORS2 spectra of 39 candidate high-redshift supernovae that were discovered as part of a cosmological study using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) over a wide range of redshifts. From the spectra alone, 20 candidates are spectrally classified as SNe Ia with redshifts ranging from z=0.212 to z=1.181. Of the remaining 19 candidates, 1 might be a Type II supernova and 11 exhibit broad supernova-like spectral features and/or have supernova-like light curves. The candidates were discovered in 8 separate ground-based searches. In those searches in which SNe Ia at z ~ 0.5 were targeted, over 80% of the observed candidates were spectrally classified as SNe Ia. In those searches in which SNe Ia with z > 1 were targeted, 4 candidates with z > 1 were spectrally classified as SNe Ia and later followed with ground and space based observatories. We present the spectra of all candidates, including those that could not be spectrally classified as supernova.

  8. Upper limits for mass and radius of objects around Proxima Cen from SPHERE/VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, D.; Zurlo, A.; Milli, J.; Gratton, R.; Desidera, S.; Langlois, M.; Vigan, A.; Bonavita, M.; Antichi, J.; Avenhaus, H.; Baruffolo, A.; Biller, B.; Boccaletti, A.; Bruno, P.; Cascone, E.; Chauvin, G.; Claudi, R. U.; De Caprio, V.; Fantinel, D.; Farisato, G.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Hagelberg, J.; Incorvaia, S.; Janson, M.; Kral, Q.; Lagadec, E.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lessio, L.; Meyer, M.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Salasnich, B.; Schlieder, J.; Schmid, H.-M.; Scuderi, S.; Sissa, E.; Thalmann, C.; Turatto, M.

    2017-03-01

    The recent discovery of an earth-like planet around Proxima Centauri has drawn much attention to this star and its environment. We performed a series of observations of Proxima Centauri using Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE), the planet-finder instrument installed at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT) UT3, using its near-infrared modules, InfraRed Dual-band Imager and Spectrograph (IRDIS) and IFS. No planet was detected directly, but we set upper limits on the mass up to 7 au by exploiting the AMES-COND models. Our IFS observations reveal that no planet more massive than ∼6-7 MJup can be present within 1 au. The dual-band imaging camera IRDIS also enables us to probe larger separations than other techniques such as radial velocity or astrometry. We obtained mass limits of the order of 4 MJup at separations of 2 au or larger, representing the most stringent mass limits at separations larger than 5 au available at the moment. We also made an attempt to estimate the radius of possible planets around Proxima using the reflected light. Since the residual noise for the observations is dominated by photon noise and thermal background, longer exposures in good observing conditions could improve the achievable contrast limit further.

  9. VLT/VIMOS integral field spectroscopy of luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies: 2D kinematic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Bellocchi, Enrica; Colina, Luis; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We present and discuss the 2D kinematic properties of the ionized gas (Halpha) in a sample of 38 local (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] (31 LIRGs and 7 ULIRGs) observed with VIMOS at the VLT using integral field spectroscopy. This sample covers well the less studied LIRG luminosity range and includes isolated disks, interacting systems, and mergers. The majority of the galaxies have two main kinematically distinct components. One component (i.e., narrow or systemic) extends over the whole line-emitting region and is characterized by small to intermediate velocity dispersions (i.e., sigma from 30 to 160 km s^-1). It traces the overall velocity field. The second component (broad) has in general a larger velocity dispersion (up to 320 km s^-1), mainly found in the inner regions and generally blueshifted with respect to the systemic component. Most of the objects (76%) are dominated by rotation, more relevant in LIRGs than in ULIRGs. Isolated disks, interacting galaxies, and merging systems define a ...

  10. Design of a Full-Stokes Polarimeter for VLT/X-shooter

    CERN Document Server

    Snik, Frans; Navarro, Ramon; Groot, Paul; Kaper, Lex; de Wijn, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    X-shooter is one of the most popular instruments at the VLT, offering instantaneous spectroscopy from 300 to 2500 nm. We present the design of a single polarimetric unit at the polarization-free Cassegrain focus that serves all three spectrograph arms of X-shooter. It consists of a calcite Savart plate as a polarizing beam-splitter and a rotatable crystal retarder stack as a "polychromatic modulator". Since even "superachromatic" wave plates have a wavelength range that is too limited for X-shooter, this novel modulator is designed to offer close-to-optimal polarimetric efficiencies for all Stokes parameters at all wavelengths. We analyze the modulator design in terms of its polarimetric performance, its temperature sensitivity, and its polarized fringes. Furthermore, we present the optical design of the polarimetric unit. The X-shooter polarimeter will furnish a myriad of science cases: from measuring stellar magnetic fields (e.g., Ap stars, white dwarfs, massive stars) to determining asymmetric structures a...

  11. Testing intermediate-age stellar evolution models with VLT photometry of LMC clusters. I. The data

    CERN Document Server

    Gallart, C; Bertelli, G; Chiosi, C; Demarque, P; Girardi, L; Nasi, E; Woo, J H; Yi, S

    2003-01-01

    This is the first of a series of three papers devoted to the calibration of a few parameters of crucial importance in the modeling of the evolution of intermediate-mass stars, with special attention to the amount of convective core overshoot. To this end we acquired deep V and R photometry for three globular clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), namely NGC 2173, SL 556 and NGC 2155, in the age interval 1-3 Gyr. In this first paper, we describe the aim of the project, the VLT observations and data reduction, and we make preliminary comparisons of the color-magnitude diagrams with both Padova and Yonsei-Yale isochrones. Two following papers in this series present the results of a detailed analysis of these data, independently carried out by members of the Yale and Padova stellar evolution groups. This allows us to compare both sets of models and discuss their main differences, as well as the systematic effects that they would have to the determination of the ages and metallicities of intermediate-age si...

  12. A nearby GRB host galaxy: VLT/X-shooter observations of HG 031203

    CERN Document Server

    Guseva, N G; Fricke, K J; Henkel, C; 10.1051/0004-6361/201116765

    2011-01-01

    (abridged) Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) occur in galaxies of generally low metallicity. We aim at a spectroscopic analysis of HG 031203, the host galaxy of a LRGB burst, to obtain its properties. Based on VLT/X-shooter spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range 3200-24000A, we use standard direct methods to evaluate physical conditions and element abundances. The resolving power of the instrument also allowed us to trace the kinematics of the ionised gas. We derive an interstellar oxygen abundance of 12+logO/H=8.20+/-0.03. The observed fluxes of hydrogen lines correspond to the theoretical recombination values after correction for extinction with a single value C(Hbeta)=1.67. We produce the CLOUDY photoionisation HII region model that reproduces observed emission-line fluxes of different ions in the optical range. This model also predicts emission-line fluxes in the near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) ranges that agree well with the observed ones. This implies that the star-forming re...

  13. Mid-infrared imaging of 25 local AGN with VLT-VISIR

    CERN Document Server

    Horst, Hannes; Gandhi, Poshak; Smette, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Aims. High angular resolution N-band imaging is used to discern the torus of active galactic nuclei (AGN) from its environment in order to allow a comparison of its mid-infrared properties to the expectations of the unified scenario for AGN. Methods. We present VLT-VISIR images of 25 low-redshift AGN of different Seyfert types, as well as N-band SEDs of 20 of them. In addition, we compare our results for 19 of them to Spitzer IRS spectra. Results. We find that at a resolution of ~ 0.35", all the nuclei of our observed sources are point-like, except for 2 objects whose extension is likely of instrumental origin. For 3 objects, however, we observed additional extended circumnuclear emission, even though our observational strategy was not designed to detect it. Comparison of the VISIR photometry and Spitzer spectrophotometry indicates that the latter is affected by extended emission in at least 7 out of 19 objects and the level of contamination is (0.20 ~ 0.85) * F_IRS. In particular, the 10 um silicate emission...

  14. CLASH-VLT: Testing the Nature of Gravity with Galaxy Cluster Mass Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzuti, L; Borgani, S; Amendola, L; Umetsu, K; Biviano, A; Girardi, M; Rosati, P; Balestra, I; Caminha, G B; Frye, B; Koekemoer, A; Grillo, C; Lombardi, M; Mercurio, A; Nonino, M

    2016-01-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at $z=0.44$ to estimate the value of the ratio $\\eta=\\Psi/\\Phi$ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric.[...] Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only $\\Phi$), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum $\\Phi+\\Psi$). We thus express $\\eta$ as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range $0.5\\,Mpc\\le r\\le r_{200}=1.96\\,Mpc$. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain $...

  15. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XIV. The O-Type Stellar Content of 30 Doradus

    CERN Document Server

    Walborn, N R; Simon-Diaz, S; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Taylor, W D; Evans, C J; Markova, N; Lennon, D J; de Koter, A

    2014-01-01

    Detailed spectral classifications are presented for 352 O-B0 stars in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, of which 213 O-type are of sufficient quality for further morphological analysis. Among them, six subcategories of special interest are distinguished. (1) Several new examples of the earliest spectral types O2-O3 have been found. (2) A group of extremely rapidly rotating main-sequence objects has been isolated, including the largest $v\\sin i$ values known, the spatial and radial-velocity distributions of which suggest ejection from the two principal ionizing clusters. (3) Several new examples of the evolved, rapidly rotating Onfp class show similar evidence. (4) No fewer than 48 members of the Vz category, hypothesized to be on or near the ZAMS, are found in this sample; in contrast to the rapid rotators, they are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters, supporting their interpretation as very young objects, as do their relatively faint absolute magnitudes. (5) A surprisingly large fraction of the mai...

  16. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O H; Sana, H; de Koter, A; Sabín-Sanjulían, C; de Mink, S E; Dufton, P L; Gräfener, G; Evans, C J; Herrero, A; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellániz, J Maíz; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Taylor, W D; Vink, J S

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Using ground based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Doradus (30 Dor). Methods. We measured projected rotational velocities, \\vrot, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied on a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, $\\rm{P(\\veq)}$, of the equatorial rotational velocity, \\veq. Results. The distribution of \\vrot\\ shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 \\kms\\ and a high-velocity tail extending up to $\\sim$600 \\kms. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution $\\rm{P(\\veq)}$ with around 80% of the sample having 0 $<$ \\veq\\, $\\leq\\, 300$ \\kms\\ and the other 20% distributed in the high-velocity region. Conclusions. Most of the stars in our sample rotate with a rate less than 20%\\...

  17. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey I: Introduction and observational overview

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, C J; Henault-Brunet, V; Sana, H; de Koter, A; Simon-Diaz, S; Carraro, G; Bagnoli, T; Bastian, N; Bestenlehner, J M; Bonanos, A Z; Bressert, E; Brott, I; Campbell, M A; Cantiello, M; Clark, J S; Costa, E; Crowther, P A; de Mink, S E; Doran, E; Dufton, P L; Dunstall, P R; Friedrich, K; Garcia, M; Gieles, M; Graefener, G; Herrero, A; Howarth, I D; Izzard, R G; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Ramirez, O H; Sabin, C; Smartt, S J; Stroud, V E; van Loon, J Th; Vink, J S; Walborn, N R

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) is an ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Here we introduce our scientific motivations and give an overview of the survey targets, including optical and near-infrared photometry and comprehensive details of the data reduction. One of the principal objectives was to detect massive binary systems via variations in their radial velocities, thus shaping the multi-epoch observing strategy. Spectral classifications are given for the massive emission-line stars observed by the survey, including the discovery of a new Wolf-Rayet star (VFTS 682, classified as WN5h), 2' to the northeast of R136. To illustrate the diversity of objects encompassed by the survey, we investigate the spectral properties of sixteen targets identified by Gruendl & Chu from Spitzer photometry as candidate young stellar objects or stars with notable mid-infrared excesses. Detailed ...

  18. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey II: R139 revealed as a massive binary system

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, W D; Sana, H; Walborn, N R; de Mink, S E; Stroud, V E; Alvarez-Candal, A; Barbá, R H; Bestenlehner, J M; Bonanos, A Z; Brott, I; Crowther, P A; de Koter, A; Friedrich, K; Gräfener, G; Hénault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Kaper, L; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellániz, J Maíz; Markova, N; Morrell, N; Monaco, L; Vink, J S

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery that R139 in 30 Doradus is a massive spectroscopic binary system. Multi-epoch optical spectroscopy of R139 was obtained as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, revealing a double-lined system. The two components are of similar spectral types; the primary exhibits strong C III 4650 emission and is classified as an O6.5 Iafc supergiant, while the secondary is an O6 Iaf supergiant. The radial-velocity variations indicate a highly eccentric orbit with a period of 153.9 days. Photometry obtained with the Faulkes Telescope South shows no evidence for significant variability within an 18 month period. The orbital solution yields lower mass limits for the components of M1sin^3 i = 78 \\pm 8 Msun and M2sin^3 i = 66 \\pm 7 Msun. As R139 appears to be the most massive binary system known to contain two evolved Of supergiants, it will provide an excellent test for atmospheric and evolutionary models.

  19. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    CERN Document Server

    Dunstall, P R; Sana, H; Evans, C J; Howarth, I D; Simón-Díaz, S; de Mink, S E; Langer, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Taylor, W D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal absorption lines for each of our targets. Objects with significant radial-velocity variations (and with an amplitude larger than 16 km/s) are classified as spectroscopic binaries. We find an observed spectroscopic binary fraction (defined by periods of 0.1) for the B-type stars, f_B(obs) = 0.25 +/- 0.02, which appears constant across the field of view, except for the two older clusters (Hodge 301 and SL 639). These two clusters have significantly lower fractions of 0.08 +/- 0.08 and 0.10 +/- 0.09, respectively. Using synthetic populations and a model of our observed epochs and their potential biases, we constrain the intrinsic multiplicity properties of the dwarf and giant (i.e. relatively unevolved) B-type stars ...

  20. VLT/X-shooter survey of near-infrared diffuse interstellar bands

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, N L J; Kaper, L; Ehrenfreund, P; Foing, B H; Ochsendorf, B B; van Hooff, S H M; Salama, F

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a spectral survey of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the NIR range, from 0.9 to 2.5 micron. The observations were designed to detect new DIBs, confirm previously proposed NIR DIBs, and characterise their behaviour with respect to known line-of-sight properties (including the optical DIBs present in our spectra). X-shooter at the VLT was used to obtained medium-resolution spectra of eight known DIB targets and one telluric reference star. In addition to the known 9577, 9632, 11797, and 13175 Angstroms NIR DIBs, we confirm 9 out of the 13 NIR DIBs that were presented by Geballe and co-workers in 2011. Furthermore, we report 12 new NIR DIB candidates. The strengths of the strongest NIR DIBs show a general correlation with reddening, E(B-V), but with a large scatter. Several NIR DIBs are more strongly correlated with the 5780 Angstroms DIB strength than with E(B-V); this is especially the case for the 15268 Angstroms DIB. The NIR DIBs are strong: the summed equivalent widths of the five s...

  1. VLT/ISAAC H-band spectroscopy of embedded massive YSOs

    CERN Document Server

    Kendall, T R; Yun, J L

    2003-01-01

    We have performed intermediate resolution (R = 5000), high signal-to-noise H-band spectroscopy of a small, initial sample of three massive embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), using VLT/ISAAC. The sample has been selected from sources characterised in previous literature as being likely of OB spectral type, to be unambiguously associated with bright (H < 14) single point sources in the 2MASS database, and to have no optical counterparts. Of the targets observed, one object shows a ~B3 spectrum, similar to a main sequence object of the same spectral type. A second object exhibits weak HeI and H emission, indicating an early-type source: we detect HeII absorption, which supports a previous indirect derivation of the spectral type as mid-O. The third object does not show absorption lines, so no spectral type can de derived. It does, however, exhibit a rich spectrum of strong, broad emission lines and is likely to be surrounded by dense circumstellar material and at a very early evolutionary stage. Our resul...

  2. A VLT/FORS2 spectroscopic survey of individual stars in a transforming dwarf galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Battaglia, G; Rejkuba, M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the properties of dwarf galaxies is important not only to put them in their proper cosmological context, but also to understand the formation and evolution of the most common type of galaxies. Dwarf galaxies are divided into two main classes, dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) and dwarf spheroidals (dSphs), which differ from each other mainly because the former are gas-rich objects currently forming stars, while the latter are gas-deficient with no on-going star formation. Transition types (dT) are thought to represent dIs in the process of losing their gas, and can therefore shed light into the possible process of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) becoming gas-deficient, passively evolving galaxies. Here we present preliminary results from our wide-area VLT/FORS2 MXU spectroscopic survey of the Phoenix dT, from which we obtained line-of-sight velocities and metallicities from the nIR Ca II triplet lines for a large sample of individual Red Giant Branch stars.

  3. Design, fabrication, integration and commissioning of an upgraded guiding probe for the VLT unit telescope 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Christoph; Hammersley, Peter; Buzzoni, Bernard; Manescau, Antonio; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Birkmann, Martin; Mueller, Michael; Salgado, Fernando; Guisard, Stephane; Kroedel, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    As part of the preparation for the arrival of the MUSE instrument to the VLT, it was required to adapt the hosting telescope (UT4) guide probe, to increase its back focal length. This is to allow enough space for the later deployment of the MUSE Adaptive Optics module GALACSI, in-between the telescope adapter rotator and the instrument itself. The UT guide probe is a critical component for the successful operation of the telescope, so its modification to increase the telescope's back focal length, while maintaining full compatibility with the existing operation model and other hardware, was rather demanding. The design, manufacture, assembly and test for the new supporting arm in the UT guiding probe is presented. It mixes the use of novel materials (HB-CESIC® for the mirrors substrates) and state of the art manufacturing techniques (3D printing mould production and rapid casting for the support structure), which allow producing easily a high performance subsystem. Characterization of the system prior delivery to the telescope, its integration in the UT and results after commissioning is presented. Its successful implementation has validated new manufacturing techniques that may prove very useful for future instruments development.

  4. An extensive VLT/X-shooter library of photospheric templates of pre-main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, C. F.; Frasca, A.; Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Stelzer, B.; Testi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Studies of the formation and evolution of young stars and their disks rely on knowledge of the stellar parameters of the young stars. The derivation of these parameters is commonly based on comparison with photospheric template spectra. Furthermore, chromospheric emission in young active stars impacts the measurement of mass accretion rates, a key quantity for studying disk evolution. Aims: Here we derive stellar properties of low-mass (M⋆≲ 2 M⊙) pre-main sequence stars without disks, which represent ideal photospheric templates for studies of young stars. We also use these spectra to constrain the impact of chromospheric emission on the measurements of mass accretion rates. The spectra are reduced, flux-calibrated, and corrected for telluric absorption, and are made available to the community. Methods: We derive the spectral type for our targets by analyzing the photospheric molecular features present in their VLT/X-shooter spectra by means of spectral indices and comparison of the relative strength of photospheric absorption features. We also measure effective temperature, gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity from our spectra by fitting them with synthetic spectra with the ROTFIT tool. The targets have negligible extinction (AVhttp://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/605/A86

  5. VLT\\/UVES Abundances in Four Nearby Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies II. Implications for Understanding Galaxy Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstoy, E; Shetrone, M; Primas, F; Hill, V; Szeifert, A K T; Tolstoy, Eline

    2003-01-01

    We have used UVES on VLT-UT2 to take spectra of 15 individual red giant stars in the centers of four nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Sculptor, Fornax, Carina and Leo I. We measure the abundance variations of numerous elements in these low mass stars with a range of ages (1-15Gyr old). This means that we can effectively measure the chemical evolution of these galaxies WITH TIME. Our results show a significant spread in metallicity with age, but an overall trend consistent with what might be expected from a closed (or perhaps leaky) box chemical evolution scenario over the last 10-15Gyr. We notice that each of these galaxies show broadly similar abundance patterns for all elements measured. This suggests a fairly uniform progression of chemical evolution with time, despite quite a large range of star formation histories. It seems likely that these galaxies had similar initial conditions, and evolve in a similar manner with star formation occurring at a uniformly low rate, even if at different times. With our ...

  6. A VLT/NACO Study of Star Formation in the Massive Embedded Cluster RCW 38

    CERN Document Server

    DeRose, K L; Gutermuth, R A; Wolk, S J; Megeath, S T; Alves, J; Nürnberger, D

    2009-01-01

    We present adaptive optics (AO) near-infrared (JHKs) observations of the deeply embedded massive cluster RCW 38 using NACO on the VLT. Narrowband AO observations centered at wavelengths of 1.28, 2.12, and 2.17 micron were also obtained. The area covered by these observations is about 0.5 pc square, centered on the O star RCW 38 IRS2. We use the JHKs colors to identify young stars with infrared excess. Through a detailed comparison to a nearby control field, we find that most of the 337 stars detected in all three infrared bands are cluster members (~317), with essentially no contamination due to background or foreground sources. Five sources have colors suggestive of deeply embedded protostars, while 53 sources are detected at Ks only; their spatial distribution with respect to the extinction suggests they are highly reddened cluster members. Detectable Ks-band excess is found toward 29 +/- 3 % of the stars. For comparison to a similar area of Orion observed in the near-infrared, mass and extinction cuts are ...

  7. VLT/UVES Observations of Interstellar Molecules and Diffuse Bands in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Welty, D E; Gredel, R; Lambert, D L; Thorburn, J A

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the abundances of interstellar CH, CH+, and CN in the Magellanic Clouds (MC), derived from spectra of 7 SMC and 13 LMC stars obtained (mostly) with the VLT/UVES. CH and/or CH+ are detected toward 3 SMC and 9 LMC stars; CN is detected toward 2 stars. In the MC, the CH/H2 ratio is comparable to that found for diffuse Galactic molecular clouds in some sight lines, but is lower by factors up to 10-15 in others. The abundance of CH in the MC thus appears to depend on local physical conditions -- and not just on metallicity. The observed relationships between the column density of CH and those of CN, CH+, Na I, and K I in the MC are generally consistent with the trends observed in our Galaxy. Using existing data for the rotational populations of H2, we estimate temperatures, radiation field strengths, and local hydrogen densities for the diffuse molecular gas. Densities estimated from N(CH), assuming that CH is produced via steady-state gas-phase reactions, are considerably higher; much better agreement ...

  8. Good agricultural practices in broiler chicken production in the state of Paraná: focus on animal welfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, Ana Paula Oliveira; Molento, Carla Forte Maiolino

    2015-01-01

    Broiler chicken welfare regulation at farm level is scarce in Brazil. This research aimed to study good agricultural practices at farm level adopted by broiler chicken companies in the state of Paraná...

  9. Extrativismo de bromélias no Estado do Paraná Bromeliads wild harvesting in State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando a contribuir para o melhor entendimento da participação da atividade extrativista no âmbito da comercialização de bromélias no Brasil, apresentou-se resultado de pesquisa que buscou: a identificar e caracterizar os extrativistas de bromélias formalmente registrados e os informais no Estado do Paraná; b identificar e caracterizar as metodologias de coleta, o preparo e vias de comercialização das plantas coletadas; c levantar a opinião dos extrativistas sobre facilidades e dificuldades desta atividade. O extrativismo de bromélias no Paraná foi identificado em 12 municípios, englobando 31 famílias extratoras, predominantemente concentradas no litoral do Paraná (n=10 e Município de Ortigueira (n=7. Foram identificados dois tipos básicos de extrativistas: residente e oportunista, com diferenças marcantes entre estes, especialmente no que se refere a volume e forma de extração. Foram identificadas 21 espécies submetidas ao extrativismo, sendo as mais frequentemente coletadas: Vriesea incurvata Gaudich. comercializada por 90% dos entrevistados, Nidularium innocentii Lem. (77%, Vriesea platynema Gaudich. (67%, Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl. (55% e Vriesea carinata Lem. (55%.Aiming to contribute to the better understanding of the wild harvesting participation in the context of the bromeliads trade, the results from a study focused on: a identifying and to characterizing the bromeliads wild harvesters (formally and not formally registered in the State of the Paraná; b identifying and characterizing the harvesting methodologies, preparation and trade routes, and c surveying the harvesters opinion on the facilities and difficulties of bromeliads wild harvesting are presented. The bromeliads wild harvesting was detected in 12 municipalities at Parana State, involving 31 harvester families, most of them concentrated at the coastal zone (n=10 and Ortigueira Mun. (7. Two basic harvester types were identified: resident and

  10. Cost Management Practices and Strategic Perspectives: a study in the construction industry of the State of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida,Lauro Brito de; Machado, Esmael Almeida; Panhoca, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cost management practices of building industry companies of Paraná that follow the typology of Porter´s strategies. The sample comprises member companies of the Association of Construction Industries of the State of Paraná (PR-SINDUSCON) operating in the segment of residential buildings. The data were collected by means of questionnaires sent to 317 SINDUSCON members. 69 were returned and 54 used for our research. Exploratory Factorial Analysis ...

  11. A new species and notes on Perlidae (Plecoptera) from Paraná and Santa Catarina States, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-02-20

    Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) deposited in the Entomological Collection "Padre Jesus S. Moure" of the Universidade Federal do Paraná and additional material recently collected in Paraná and Santa Catarina states, Brazil were studied. Six previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. cathia Froehlich, 2002, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. trimacula Jewett, 1959, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacoson and Bianchi, 1905) and K. colossica (Navás, 1934). Additionally, a new species, Anacroneuria iguazu n. sp is described.

  12. Incidences of poisonings due to Chlorophyllum molybdites in the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André August Remi de Meijer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Three recent cases of poisoning by Chlorophyllum molybdites, including the first one known from Brazil, have been reported from the state of Paraná. A morphological description of the material causing the first poisoning was provided and the associated case history has been described in detail. An overview of this species' distribution in Brazil is given.Três casos recentes de envenenamento por Chlorophyllum molybdites, incluindo o primeiro caso conhecido para o Brasil, são relatados do Estado do Paraná. Uma descrição morfológica do material que causou o primeiro envenenamento é apresentada, assim como uma narrativa detalhada do respectivo caso clínico. É, ainda, fornecido um panorama da distribuição desta espécie no Brasil.

  13. A new mix of power for the ESO installations in Chile: greener, more reliable, cheaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Tamai, R.; Kalaitzoglou, D.; Wild, W.; Delorme, A.; Rioseco, D.

    2016-07-01

    The highest sky quality demands for astronomical research impose to locate observatories often in areas not easily reached by the existing power infrastructures. At the same time, availability and cost of power is a primary factor for sustainable operations. Power may also be a potential source for CO2 pollution. As part of its green initiatives, ESO is in the process of replacing the power sources for its own, La Silla and Paranal-Armazones, and shared, ALMA, installations in Chile in order to provide them with more reliable, affordable, and smaller CO2 footprint power solutions. The connectivity to the Chilean interconnected power systems (grid) which is to extensively use Non-Conventional Renewable Energy (NCRE) as well as the use of less polluting fuels wherever self-generation cannot be avoided are key building blocks for the solutions selected for every site. In addition, considerations such as the environmental impact and - if required - the partnership with other entities have also to be taken into account. After years of preparatory work to which the Chilean Authorities provided great help and support, ESO has now launched an articulated program to upgrade the existing agreements/facilities in i) the La Silla Observatory, from free to regulated grid client status due to an agreement with a Solar Farm private initiative, in ii) the Paranal-Armazones Observatory, from local generation using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to connection to the grid which is to extensively use NCRE, and last but not least, in iii) the ALMA Observatory where ESO participates together with North American and East Asian partners, from replacing the LPG as fuel for the turbine local generation system with the use of less polluting natural gas (NG) supplied by a pipe connection to eliminate the pollution caused by the LPG trucks (currently 1 LPG truck from the VIII region, Bio Bio, to the II region, ALMA and back every day, for a total of 3000km). The technologies used and the status

  14. Sedimentation problems in a lateral dock on the Paraná River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latessa, Gaston; Sabarots Gerbec, Martin; Arecco, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The Paraná River is one of the largest water courses in the world and along its reach in the Argentine territory, it receives a large load of sediments from the Pilcomayo and Bermejo Rivers, through the Paraguay River, in the upper basin at the North of Argentina and South of Bolivia. The suspended sediment load is estimated in 100 Million ton/year. This unique characteristic drives the Paraná River morphology downstream, as well as the Paraná delta morphodynamics. On top of its natural behaviour, the Paraná-Paraguay river system is an important inland waterway transport corridor, with a significant amount of sea going vessels and inland barges navigating throughout stretches of more than 3000 Km. Consequently, there are numerous port complexes and terminals along the river banks. The typical wet infrastructure of these terminals is usually composed by jetties and quay walls, and occasionally with side or lateral docks. Whereas, the case included within this study presents all these components. This study presents a hydrodynamic and sedimentology 3D model to predict the velocity fields and the associated shear stresses that will drive morphological processes in the lateral dock. The terminal layout, side dock configuration, and sedimentation issues will be analyzed from multidisciplinary point of view, under different hydrological events and considering the correlated sediment loads. Recent bathymetry studies had been carried out and this set of data will be implemented to build the domain geometry. The flow series is as well extended with the up to date gauged flows and levels, to carry out statistical analysis and identify the design flows for different probabilities. The main objective of this analysis will be to understand and identify the scour and deposition processes and the possible problems to the structures safety and the operation of the docks, and introduce variations to the baseline design, if necessary. Results will be contrasted and validated

  15. Potencial desenvolvimento da indústria de alimentos do Norte Pioneiro do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Orientador : João Carlos da Cunha Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração. Defesa: Curitiba,27/02/2009 Inclui bibliografia Área de concentração: Estratégia e organizações

  16. A new species of the genus Notozothecium (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae parasitizing the gills of Rhaphiodon vulpinus (Cynodontidae, Characiformes from the Paraná River, State of Paraná, Brazil Una especie nueva del género Notozothecium (Monogenea, Dactylogyridae, parásita de Rhaphiodon vulpinus (Cynodontidae, Characiformes del río Paraná, estado de Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone C. Cohen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During parasitological studies on different localities along the Paraná River, State of Paraná, Brazil, a new species of Notozothecium (Dactylogyridae was found parasitizing gills of the freshwater fish Rhaphiodon vulpinus (Cynodontidae. The new species is allocated to Notozothecium based on the presence of a ventral bar with anteromedial projection, a copulatory complex comprising a coiled male copulatory organ (MCO with a counterclockwise incomplete ring and accessory piece with proximal articulation process and a dextrodorsal vagina, looping the right intestinal caecum. Notozothecium lamotheargumedoi n. sp. is similar to Notozothecium janauachensis, by the absence of terminal flabellate plate on the accessory piece, but differs from it in the shape of the bars, the copulatory complex and the difference of the size-ratio between ventral and dorsal anchors, which in N. janauachensis is larger.Durante varios estudios en diversas localidades del río Paraná, estado de Paraná, Brasil, una especie nueva de Notozothecium fue encontrada en los filamentos branquiales de Rhaphiodon vulpinus, peces de agua dulce pertenecientes a Cynodontidae. La especie nueva se asigna a Notozothecium con base en la barra ventral, que está provista de una proyección anteromedial, un complejo copulador que abarca un órgano copulador en espiral a la izquierda, una pieza accessoria con proceso proximal y la vagina dextrodorsal, dando la vuelta en el ciego intestinal derecho. Notozothecium lamotheargumedoi n. sp. se asemeja a Notozothecium janauachensis por la ausencia de placa flabelada terminal en la pieza accesoria; no obstante, difieren por la forma de las barras, por el complejo copulador y por la relación entre las anclas ventrales y dorsales, que en N. janauachensis es mayor.

  17. Postavenie Chile v medzinárodnom cestovnom ruchu

    OpenAIRE

    Beňadiková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    This diploma thesis analyses the position of Chile in international tourism. The main purpose is to evaluate Chile´s status in international tourism based on the competitiveness of the country. At the begining of the thesis, the theory is defined. Then, the economy and political backgroud of Chile is specified, followed by the description of the preconditions for tourism development and its competitiveness in the tourism industry. Moreover, inbound, outbound and domestic tourism are analysed ...

  18. Weak recognition: Indigenous rights in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After seventeen years of debate, the Chilean Congress approved the ilo 169 Convention on indigenous rights that compels the State to consult indigenous communities on issues that directly affect them. As the political and economic conditions were unfavourable, this political outcome is surprising. Indeed, the legal status of the indigenous people in Chile is weaker than in the rest of Latin America. This article explains this outcome through a detailed description of institutional changes as well as social pressures from the indigenous movement. These factors made right-wing sectors to adapt their discourses in order to accept Chile as a multicultural society. Moreover, a relevant part of the story is related to territorial differences among legislators. Discourse adaptation toward a soft recognition of indigenous rights is a likely outcome in a very conservative environmental setting.

  19. Thermoluminescence properties of Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)]. E-mail: gkitis@auth.gr; Cruz Zaragoza, E. [Institute of Nuclear Science, UNAM, PO Box 70-753, Mexico DF (Mexico); Furetta, C. [Physics Department, University La Sapienza, P.le A. Moro 2. 00187 Rome (Italy)

    2005-08-01

    The thermoluminescence properties of the inorganic dust extracted from the Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano, were studied in order to verify the possibility of using the TL technique to discriminate between irradiated and non irradiated peppers. The inorganic dust was found to consist of quartz 60%, albite (NaAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) 30%, and ortose (KAlSi{sub 3}O{sub 8}) 10%. Its thermoluminescence dose response covers the wide dose range of 1Gy-10kGy, which was attributed mainly to feldspars. Its high sensitivity and its stability over 10 irradiation-readout cycles allow the application of a single grain-single aliquot regeneration dosimetry in Chile Guajillo (paprika). Evaluations based on trapping parameters show that thermal fading at room temperature for glow-peaks above 180 deg.. C, is not a problem in the dosimetry of paprika.

  20. Letras e silêncio: a escrita de autoria feminina no Paraná = Letters and silence: the writing of female authorship in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nincia Cecilia Ribas Borges Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A escrita de autoria feminina hoje se insere no universo da crítica literária de uma forma que não permite a associação entre valores de ordem estética e outros medidos pela questão do gênero. A presente pesquisa analisa a escrita de autoria feminina na obra da escritora paranaense contemporânea Lindsey Rocha. A teoria literária feminista aponta para a importância da escrita de autoria feminina e reconhece o valor de tal produção diante do cânone literário formado quase que exclusivamente por homens. O estudo pretende proporcionar visibilidade acadêmica às escritoras paranaenses, (reconstruindo, de certa forma, o cânone literário contemporâneo.Women’s writing is today inserted in the realm of literary criticism in a way that does not allow the association between aesthetic values and other measured by the question of gender. This research analyzes women’s writing in the work of the contemporary writer Lindsey Rocha from Paraná. The feminist literary theory points to the importance of women’s writing and recognizes the value of such production before the literary canon composed almost exclusively by men. The study aims to provide academic visibility to writers from Paraná, (rebuilding, in a way, the contemporary literary canon.

  1. Occurrence of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in Leopoldo's inlet (Ressaco do Leopoldo, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bialetzki

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the occurrence, temporal distribution and nychthemeral variation of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 were undertaken in Leopoldo's Inlet, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil. Seventeen thousand and sixty specimens (11,786 larvae and 5,274 juveniles were captured with a conicalcylindrical plankton net of mesh 0.5mm in monthly samples between February 1991 and February 1992. Results show that the greatest densities of larvae (301.83 larvae/10m³ and juveniles (168.8/10m³ of this species were caught in December 1991. Largest captures were made during the night. With regard to abiotic factors water temperature ranged from 20º to 30ºC, pH ranged from 5.66 to 7.37 and electric conductivity ranged from 51.83 to 65.33µS/cm. Relationship between the density of larvae and juveniles and abiotic factors was calculated by the Principal Components Analysis (PCA which revealed the influence of some limnological variables especially on the distribution of larvae.

  2. Impact of vaccination in the reduction of hepatitis B in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila PUDELCO

    Full Text Available This study identified the impact of hepatitis B vaccine over reducing incidence of this disease in Paraná State, between 2001 and 2011, and discussed the role of nursing in immunization. Descriptive documental and quantitative research. Utilized secondary data of hepatitis B, between 2001 and 2011 and vaccination coverage of hepatitis B vaccine between 1995 and 2011 in Paraná State, available in DATASUS, SINAN and Immunization Programs. Data has been collected from May to July 2012. Included cases of hepatitis B confirmed by laboratory testing. Of the 14,434 selected cases, 81,8% was in urban residents, 86,5% belonged to 20 to 59 age group and 45,3% were infected by sexual transmission. In the correlation of vaccine coverage with the incidence, was identified reducing this rate in the range of 0 to 9 years old, in places with vaccination coverage's above 95%. It concludes that hepatitis B vaccination had impact over disease reduction in Paraná State.

  3. Level of social economic development of municipalities of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Paz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the level of development of municipalities in the state of Paraná, through factor analysis. To this end, an index of development for the 399 municipalities in the state was calculated , 21 variables were selected , which , after being rotated four factors converged to analysis , which together explained 84.70 % of the total variance of this variables . The results show that stood out positively in the first positions , the cities of Curitiba , Araucaria , São José dos Pinhais and Carambeí. Moreover, in the last positions were the municipalities of Nova Tebas, Mato Rico, Laranjal and Altamira do Paraná, among other small municipalities. In the first positions in the ranking, there was a relatively uniform spatial distribution of the various areas of the state, while in the latter settings, there was a tendency to concentrate around the center of the state. It was also possible to detect a trend towards larger cities occupy the top positions, as most developed cities in the state of Paraná.

  4. Mapeamento Geomorfológico do Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo José Cordeiro Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O mapeamento geomorfológico do estado do Paraná procurou seguir  em grande parte a metodologia adotada por Ross(1977 para o estado de São Paulo, a fim de dar sequência a uma sistematização de uma cartografia geomorfológica regional. A escala adotada, 1: 250000, permitiu a utilização dos três primeiros taxons, ou seja, representação cartográfica das Unidades Morfoestruturais, Unidades Morfoesculturais e Sub-unidades Morfoesculturais. No 1º taxon foram identificadas  as unidades morfoestruturais:Cinturão Orogênico do Atlântico; Bacia Sedimentar do Paraná e Bacias Sedimentares Cenozóicas e Depressões Tectônicas. No 2º taxon foram identificadas as unidades morfoesculturais: Serra do Mar e Morros Isolados e Primeiro Planalto Paranaense; Segundo Planalto  e Terceiro Planalto; Planície Litorânea e Flúvio-Marinhas e Planícies Fluviais. No 3º taxon foram mapeadas cinquenta sub-unidades morfoesculturais. Este trabalho objetiva atender a demanda por uma base geomorfológica sistemática para informar ao sistema de planejamento do Estado do Paraná, bem como aos estudos de geologia, zoneamento ecológico-econômico e recursos hídricos, entre outros.

  5. Sexual violence in college students in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Lehrer, Vivian L.; Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian; Oyarzun, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    Young women's experiences of sexual victimization can have far-reaching consequences, including unwanted pregnancy and increased risk of psychological, sexual, and reproductive health difficulties; these experiences can also limit young women's ability to achieve their educational potential. To date, no quantitative studies have examined sexual violence among college students in Chile. To address this gap, an anonymous survey was administered to students enrolled in General Education courses ...

  6. Volby v Chile 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Twenty years has passed from dissolution of authoritarian regime of Augusto Pinochet and in the presidential election 2009/2010 in Chile the right-wing candidate won. The era of continuous government of centre-leftist coalition, that administrated country from the period of transition, was ended off. The thesis focuses on the analysis of presidential and parliamentary elections, in the first place on the question what was the matter of triumph of the opposite candidate in the presidential ele...

  7. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    document dated June 30, 1973, instructing all Communist Party members in Santiago to secure arms and to evacuate the upper class barrio alto in case of...loans. (Other reports indicated a figure of $100 million.) It was also announced in Santiago that the Soviet Union had granted $108 million for long-term...Chile at Rojo, Santiago : Universidad Tecnica del Estado, 1971. See also Luis Corvalan, El Camino de Victoria, Santiago : Impresova Horizonte, 1971, pp

  8. Tackling Social Exclusion: Evidence from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies an innovative welfare program in Chile that combines a period of frequent home visits to households in extreme poverty, with guaranteed access to social services. Program impacts are identified using a regression discontinuity design, exploring the fact that program eligibility is a discontinuous function of an index of family income and assets. The analysis finds strong and lasting impacts of the program on the take-up of subsidies and employment services. These impacts ar...

  9. Wind measurements in Saturn's atmosphere with UVES/VLT ground-based Doppler velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Pedro; Silva, Miguel; Peralta, Javier; Luz, David; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustin; Hueso, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    We will present preliminary Doppler wind velocity results of Saturn's zonal flow at cloud level. Our aim is help to constrain the characterization of the equatorial jet at cloud level and the latitudinal variation of the zonal winds, to measure its spatial and temporal variability, to contribute to monitor the variability in order to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of Saturn's zonal winds, whose equatorial jet has a complex vertical structure and temporal variability (Sanchez-Lavega et al., Nature, 423, 623, 3003; Garcia-Melendo et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L22204. 2010). Finally, the complementarity with Cassini, providing an independent set of observations. The UVES/VLT instrument has been used, which simultaneously achieves high spectral resolving power and high spatial resolution. The field has been derotated in order to have the aperture aligned perpendicularly to Saturn's rotation axis. In this configuration, spatial information in the East-West direction is preserved in a set of spectra in the direction perpendicular to dispersion. The technique of absolute accelerometry (AA, Connes, 1985, ApSS 110, 211) has been applied to the backscattered solar spectrum in order to determine the Doppler shift associated with the zonal circulation. Our measurements have been made in the wavelength range of 480-680 nm. Previously we successfully adapted this Doppler velocimetry technique for measuring winds at Venus cloud tops (Machado et al. 2012). In the present study we will show the adaptation of this method for Saturn's case. Since the AA technique only allows to compare spectra where the line shifts are within the line width, in fast rotating atmospheres (as is the case of Saturn) the spectra must be compared by pairs from adjacent areas of the disk (adjacent pixels in the slit). We will use coordinated observations from the Cassini's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS), in order to compare with the Doppler winds obtained from the UVES/VLT

  10. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Chile's tuberculosis morbidity notification statistics suggest that there has been a 3% average annual decrease in tuberculosis cases in the last 5 years (1978-82). In addition, over the period 1974-83, there was a 50% decline in the number of deaths from tuberculosis. In 1982, there were 6941 recorded cases of tuberculosis in Chile, only 6.5% of which involved children under 15 years of age; in that same year, there were 984 deaths from tuberculosis, 14.4% of which occurred in children. The majority of cases reported (78%) involve pulmonary tuberculosis. Over 90% of children under 15 years of age are covered by Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination. This was achieved by immunizing 91% of all newborns, 83% of children in their first year of school, and 98% of those in their final year. Laboratories capable of case-finding now cover 95% of Chile's total area. Since 1975, an average of 47 bacilloscopies have been performed per 1000 consultations. Abandonment of treatment has been reduced to 12% and fewer than 20% of cases require hospitalization. Finally, the introduction of shortened rifampicin treatment has reduced the case-fatality rate from 6% to 3%.

  11. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  12. Spectral mapping of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with VLT/MUSE and SINFONI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurelie; Besse, Sebastien; Snodgrass, Colin; Yang, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Comets are supposedly the most primitive objects in the solar system, preserving the earliest record of material from the nebula out of which our Sun and planets were formed, and thus holding crucial clues on the early phases of the solar system formation and evolution. For most small bodies in the solar system we can only access the surface properties, whereas active comet nuclei lose material from their subsurface, so that understanding cometary activity represents an unique opportunity to assess their internal composition, and by extension the composition, the temperature and pressure conditions of the protoplanetary disk at their place of formation.The ESA/Rosetta mission is performing the most thorough investigation of a comet ever made. Rosetta is measuring properties of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at distances between 5 and hundreds of km from the nucleus. However, it is unable to make any measurement over the thousands of km of the rest of the coma. Fortunately, the outer coma is accessible from the ground. In addition, we currently lack an understanding of how the very detailed information gathered from space-based observations can be extrapolated to the many ground-based observations that we can potentially perform. Combining parallel in situ observations with observations from the ground therefore gives us a great opportunity, not only to understand the behavior of 67P, but also to other comets observed exclusively from Earth. As part of the many observations taken from the ground, we have performed a spectral mapping of 67's coma using two IFU instruments mounted on the VLT: MUSE in the visible, and SINFONI in the near-infrared. The observations, carried out in March 2016, will be presented and discussed.

  13. Perú-Chile: imágenes mutuas (Perú-Chile: mutual images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González Riesle

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: A partir de los enfoques sobe Expansionismo-Revanchismo de Elizondo y las Imágenes en Espejo de Scott, se analizaron los contenidos de blogs referentes a imágenes mutuas entre Perú y Chile, comprendidos a partir de la fecha (16-01-2008 de presentación por parte del Perú de la Demanda ante el Tribunal de la Haya para la solución del Diferendo Limítrofe con Chile, hasta el 30-03-2011. Se han registrado intensas y variadas manifestaciones de hostilidad mutua, que respaldan la vigencia de la dinámica Expansionismo-Revanchismo en las imágenes mutuas entre Chile y Perú en los blogs analizados. Paralelamente, se detectaron contenidos correspondientes a actitudes integracionistas entre ambos países. Los resultados fundamentan la utilidad del enfoque de las Imágenes en Espejo como instrumento para el análisis de contenido de blogs portadores de mensajes de hostilidad e integración entre ambos países. Se propone una estrategia psicosocial binacional para desactivar la dinámica Expansionismo- revanchismo que contribuiría a producir catastróficas consecuencias para las generaciones actuales y futuras de ambos países; y, promover la integración fronteriza entre Tacna (Perú y Arica (Chile. ABSTRACT: The contents of blogs relating to mutual images between Peru and Chile were analyzed from the approaches about Expansionism – Revanchism of Elizondo, and The images on the mirror of Scott, included the date of the presentation (January 16th, 2008 by Peru of the demand before the International Court of Justice at the Hague for the solution of the border dispute with Chile until March 30th, 2011. There have been intense and varied manifestations of mutual hostility that support the validity of Expansionism-Revanchism dynamics in the mutual images between Chile and Peru in the analyzed blogs. At the same time, it was detected content corresponding to integrationist attitudes between the two countries. The results underlie the utility

  14. On-sky results of the adaptive optics MACAO for the new IR-spectrograph CRIRES at VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Paufique, J; Delabre, B; Donaldson, R; Esteves, R; Fedrigo, E; Gigan, P; Gojak, D; Hubin, N; Kasper, M; Kaeufl, U; Lizon, J L; Marchetti, E; Oberti, S; Pirard, J F; Pozna, E; Santos, J; Stroebele, S; Tordo, S; Lizon, JL.; Pirard, JF.

    2006-01-01

    The adaptive optics MACAO has been implemented in 6 focii of the VLT observatory, in three different flavors. We present in this paper the results obtained during the commissioning of the last of these units, MACAO-CRIRES. CRIRES is a high-resolution spectrograph, which efficiency will be improved by a factor two at least for point-sources observations with a NGS brighter than R=15. During the commissioning, Strehl exceeding 60% have been observed with fair seeing conditions, and a general description of the performance of this curvature adaptive optics system is done.

  15. The Stellar Mass Functions of the CLASH-VLT Clusters MACS J1206-0847 and Abell 209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziatella, M.; Biviano, A.; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Girardi, M.; Grillo, C.

    The study of the galaxy stellar mass function, and in particular its dependence from the environment, represents a key observable to discriminate between different models of galaxy evolution. We determined the stellar mass function (SMF) of passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies in different regions of two clusters in the CLASH-VLT sample, MACS J1206.2-0847 and Abell 209. Since these two clusters are at different redshifts, the comparison between the results obtained in the two cases can inform us about the evolution of the SMF with cosmic time.

  16. VLT optical observations of V821 Ara(=GX339-4) in an extended "off" state

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbaz, T; Charles, P A

    2001-01-01

    We report on low-resolution spectroscopy of GX339-4 during its current, extended X-ray `off' state in May 2000 (r=20.1) obtained with the VLT Focal Reducer/low dispersion Spectrograph (FORS1). Although we do not positively detect the secondary star in GX339-4 we place an upper limit of 30 percent on the contribution of a ``normal'' K-type secondary star spectrum to the observed flux. Using this limit for the observed magnitude of the secondary star, we find a lower limit for the distance of GX339-4 to be 5.6 kpc.

  17. NGC 6302: high-ionization permitted lines. Applying X-SSN synthesis to VLT-UVES spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Pequignot, Daniel; Casassus, Simon

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary VLT-UVES spectrum of NGC 6302 (Casassus et al. 2002, MN), which hosts one of the hottest PN nuclei known (Teff ~ 220000 K; Wright et al. 2011, MN), has been recently analysed by means of X-SSN, a spectrum synthesis code for nebulae (Morisset and P\\'equignot). Permitted recombination lines from highly-ionized species are detected/identified for the first time in a PN, and some of them probably for the first time in (Astro)Physics. The need for a homogeneous, high signal-to-noise UVES spectrum for NGC 6302 is advocated.

  18. Revisiting the North Chile seismic gap segmentation using GPS-derived interseismic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métois, M.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.; Carrizo, D.; Peyrat, S.; Delorme, A.; Maureira, E.; Valderas-Bermejo, M.-C.; Ortega, I.

    2013-09-01

    No major earthquake occurred in North Chile since the 1877 Mw 8.6 subduction earthquake that produced a huge tsunami. However, geodetic measurements conducted over the last decade in this area show that the upper plate is actually deforming, which reveals some degree of locking on the subduction interface. This accumulation of elastic deformation is likely to be released in a future earthquake. Because of the long elapsed time since 1877 and the rapid accumulation of deformation (thought to be 6-7 cm yr-1), many consider this area is a mature seismic gap where a major earthquake is due and seismic hazard is high. We present a new Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity field, acquired between 2008 and 2012, that describes in some detail the interseismic deformation between 18°S and 24°S. We invert for coupling distribution on the Nazca-South America subduction interface using elastic modelling. Our measurements require that, at these latitudes, 10 to 12 mm yr-1 (i.e. 15 per cent of the whole convergence rate) are accommodated by the clockwise rotation of an Andean block bounded to the East by the subandean fold-and-thrust belt. This reduces the accumulation rate on the subduction interface to 56 mm yr-1 in this area. Coupling variations on the subduction interface both along-strike and along-dip are described. We find that the North Chile seismic gap is segmented in at least two highly locked segments bounded by narrow areas of weak coupling. This coupling segmentation is consistent with our knowledge of the historical ruptures and of the instrumental seismicity of the region. Intersegment zones (Iquique, Mejillones) correlate with high background seismic rate and local tectonic complexities on the upper or downgoing plates. The rupture of either the Paranal or the Loa segment alone could easily produce a Mw 8.0-8.3 rupture, and we propose that the Loa segment (from 22.5°S to 20.8°S) may be the one that ruptured in 1877.

  19. Using fear appeals in warning labels to promote responsible gambling among VLT players: the key role of depth of information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Suissa, Jacob Amnon

    2010-12-01

    Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous. Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was used to test our model based on both Elaboration Likelihood Model and Protection Motivation Theory. 258 VLT adult players (58% males, 42% females) with various degrees of problem gambling were exposed to three threat levels (plus a control condition) from two different sources (i.e., either a medical source or a source related to the provider of VLT's). Our results show that both higher threat warnings and the medical source of warnings enhance Depth of Information Processing. It was also found that Depth of Information Processing affects positively attitude change and compliance intentions. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  20. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  1. [A scientometric view of Revista Médica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauskopf, Manuel; Krauskopf, Erwin

    2008-08-01

    During the last decade Revista Médica de Chile increased its visibility, measured on citations and impact factor. To perform a scientometric analysis to assess the performance of Revista Médica de Chile. Thomson's-ISI Web of Science and Journal Citation Reports QCR) were consulted for performance indicators of Revista Médica de Chile and Latin American journals whose subject is General and Internal Medicine. We also report the h-index of the journal, which infers quality linked to the quantity of the output. According to the h-index, Revista Médica de Chile ranks 4 among the 36 journals indexed and published by Argentina, Brazil, Chile and México. The top ten articles published by Revista Médica de Chile and the institutions with the higher contribution to the journal, were identified using citations. In the Latin American region, Brazil relevantly increased its scientific output. However, Argentina, Chile and México maintain a plateau during the last decade. Revista Médica de Chile increased notoriously its performance. Its contribution to the Chilean scientific community dedicated to Medicine appears to be of central value.

  2. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Society for Microbiology, Chapter 16. 10. Medina E, Yrarrazaval M. (1983) Fiebre tifoidea en Chile: Consideraciones epideniologicas. Revista Medica de... panamericana .’ Santiago, Chile. 12. Morris JG Jr., Ferreccio C, Garcia J, Lobcs H, Black RE, Rodriguez H, Levine MM. (1984) TypAhoid fever in Santiago

  3. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  4. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  5. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  6. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  7. Report on the ESO Fellows Days in Chile 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M.; Emsellem, E.

    2012-03-01

    The 2011 ESO Fellows Days were held in Chile and brought together over 30 ESO Fellows from Garching and Chile. As well as presentations of research and social activities, the Fellows Days included a visit to San Pedro de Atacama and the ALMA site.

  8. Chile, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Wilhelmy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Text of a presentation in the Colloquium Chile and the World, organized by the Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies, May 6, 2005, in honor of Professor Paul E.Sigmund. The views expressed have not been reviewed or endorsed by the Chile Pacific Foundation. Manfred Wilhelmy holds a Ph.D. in Politics (1973 from Princeton University

  9. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  10. Determinants of Paraná´s exports between 2000 and 2012: An application of gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisiane Michelle da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paraná's exports, between 2000 and 2012, grew by 302,27%. This increase in exports may lead to higher growth in the state. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the determinants of exports Paraná between 2000 and 2012 through the Gravity Model. The gravity equation was estimated with panel data and used as the dependent variable exports of Paraná and as independent variables the Gross Domestic Product (GDP and the state's population, GDP and population of importing countries Paraná and the distance in kilometers between the state capital and capital importing country. We conclude that the GDP and population of the importing countries, and the distance between the state capital and capital importing country, were crucial to the state's exports. These variables were statistically significant, while the GDP and population of Paraná were not statistically significant and therefore were not determinants of the state's exports in this period.

  11. CLASH-VLT: testing the nature of gravity with galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Amendola, L.; Umetsu, K.; Biviano, A.; Girardi, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Caminha, G. B.; Frye, B.; Koekemoer, A.; Grillo, C.; Lombardi, M.; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.

    2016-04-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 to estimate the value of the ratio η=Ψ/Φ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric. An accurate measurement of this ratio, called anisotropic stress, could show possible, interesting deviations from the predictions of the theory of General Relativity, according to which Ψ should be equal to Φ. Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only Φ), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum Φ+Ψ). We thus express η as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range 0.5 MpcFrenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain η(r200)=1.01 -0.28+0.31 at the 68% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied f(R) modified gravity model, the constraint on η translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the f(R) interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic effects.

  12. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  13. Regionalização da agricultura do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Agriculture regionalization of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fuentes Llanillo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma caracterização da agricultura do estado do Paraná com base em trinta e cinco variáveis extraídas do Censo Agropecuário de 1995/96 e duas variáveis extraídas do Mapa de Aptidão Agrícola das Terras. As mesmas dizem respeito ao acesso à terra, uso da terra, uso de tecnologias químicas e mecânicas, uso de capital, relações de trabalho, terceirização, fertilidade natural dos solos e possibilidade de mecanização. A Análise Fatorial com trinta e sete variáveis permitiu descrever os sete fatores principais que explicaram 66,7% da variância. A Análise de Agrupamento dos valores dos sete fatores permitiu classificar dez tipos de municípios, organizados em nove mesorregiões.This work presents a characterization of the agriculture of Paraná State based on thirty-five variables extracted from Agricultural Census of 1995/96 and two variables from the Map of Soil Aptitude. These are related to land access, land use, utilization of chemical and mechanical technologies, use of capital assets, labor relationships and tercerization, soil fertility and mechanization suitability. The Factor analysis with thirty-seven variables enabled to describe seven main factors, which explained 66.7% of variance. The Cluster analysis of the seven factor’s values allowed to classify ten types of municipalities organized in nine regions.

  14. Fiebre manchada por rickettsias en el Delta del Paraná: Una enfermedad emergente Rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta: An emerging disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se comunica un caso de fiebre manchada por rickettsia autóctono del delta del Paraná correspondiente a la provincia de Buenos Aires. Luego de cinco días de haber permanecido en una región cercana a la localidad de ingeniero Otamendi, partido de Campana, el paciente presentó un síndrome febril agudo caracterizado por hipertermia con escalofríos y sudoración, mialgias, cefalea, astenia y discreta odinofagia, seguido a las 72 horas por un exantema maculopapuloso congestivo con elementos purpúricos, de distribución universal. En la región preauricular izquierda se observaba una lesión papuloerosiva, producida cinco días antes de iniciada la fiebre por una garrapata adquirida en el lugar. El cuadro clínico remitió rápidamente con la administración de doxiciclina. Por inmunofluorescencia indirecta se identificaron anticuerpos reactivos contra el grupo de rickettsias causantes de fiebres manchadas (CDC, Atlanta, EE.UU.. Se realizan consideraciones sobre la especie de rickettsia, el vector involucrado y la posibilidad que la enfermedad fuera debida a Rickettsia parkeri.We describe a case of rickettsial spotted fever in the Paraná Delta region of Buenos Aires province in Argentina. The patient developed an acute febrile syndrome characterized by myalgias, headache, asthenia and moderate odynophagia, followed by a diffuse macular, papular, and purpuric exanthema. The patient had been bitten recently by a tick on the left preauricular region and an erosive papular lesion was evident at the bite site. An indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay identified antibodies reactive with spotted fever group rickettsiae in the patient's serum. The patient improved rapidly with doxycycline. Several considerations relating to the identity of the rickettsial species and tick vector are discussed, including the possibility that this patient's illness may have been caused by Rickettsia parkeri.

  15. Análise prospectiva do agronegócio gengibre no estado do Paraná Prospective analysis of the ginger agrobusiness in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R.B. Negrelle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se resultados de estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva do gengibre no estado do Paraná (Brasil, englobando panorama mundial, brasileiro e paranaense de produção e comercialização; caracterização da comunidade produtora agrícola paranaense; identificação, caracterização e detecção dos principais pontos de estrangulamento de outros níveis da cadeia produtiva.A prospective analysis of the ginger trade chain in Paraná State (Brazil is presented, including an overview of the production and commercialization at both international and national levels as well as the characterization of the agricultural community and of the others levels of the trade chain in Paraná State, and the main strangulation points at these levels.

  16. Distribuição da leishmaniose tegumentar por imagens de sensoreamento remoto orbital, no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Tegumentary leishmaniasis distribution by satellite remote sensing imagery, in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Pereira Lima

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A leishmaniose tegumentar (LT tem sua epidemiologia pouco conhecida no Estado do Paraná. OBJETIVOS: Verificar a distribuição geográfica dos casos de LT em quatro municípios do Paraná, usando imagens por sensoriamento remoto orbital (ISRO, correlacionando-a com a presença de vegetação remanescente e cursos d'água. MÉTODOS: A distribuição de 4.416 casos no Paraná, de 1993 a 1998, foi feita com informações da ficha de notificação da Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Paraná. Por ISRO verificou-se a distribuição de 231 casos de LT e a correlação destes com as matas residuais e o grau de antropia nos municípios de Cianorte, Japurá, Jussara e São Tomé. RESULTADOS: Houve concentração de casos no Norte e Oeste do Paraná. As ISRO mostram que há relação muito íntima da LT com as áreas de mata nativa modificada, pequenas matas ciliares ou resquícios destas, nos municípios de Cianorte, Japurá, Jussara e São Tomé. CONCLUSÃO: Em Cianorte, Japurá, Jussara e São Tomé a LT tem íntima relação com áreas de mata nativa modificada, pequenas matas ciliares ou resquícios de ambas. Possivelmente, as áreas onde há mais casos de LT no Paraná guardam semelhanças com as desses municípios.BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL is poorly known in the State of Paraná. OBJECTIVES: To verify the geographical distribution of TL cases in four municipalities in the State of Paraná and correlate the notified TL cases with the presence of the remaining vegetation and water streams, using images by satellite monitoring. METHODS: The distribution of 4,416 cases of TL in the State of Paraná, from 1993 to 1998, was done according to the notification records used by the State of Paraná Health Secretariat. The distribution of 231 cases of TL and the correlation between these cases and the remaining forest, as well as the extent to which man has influenced the environment in Cianorte, Japur

  17. VST telescope dynamic analisys and position control algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Schipani, P

    2001-01-01

    The VST (VLT Survey Telescope) is a 2.6 m class Alt-Az telescope to be installed on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile, in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) site. The VST is a wide-field imaging facility planned to supply databases for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) science and carry out stand-alone observations in the UV to I spectral range. So far no telescope has been dedicated entirely to surveys; the VST will be the first survey telescope to start the operation, as a powerful survey facility for the VLT observatory. This paper will focus on the axes motion control system. The dynamic model of the telescope will be analyzed, as well as the effect of the wind disturbance on the telescope performance. Some algorithms for the telescope position control will be briefly discussed.

  18. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  19. Time variability of Neptune's horizontal and vertical cloud structure revealed by VLT/SINFONI and Gemini/NIFS from 2009 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Fletcher, L. N.; Tice, D.; Owen, S. J.; Orton, G. S.; Teanby, N. A.; Davis, G. R.

    2016-06-01

    New observations of Neptune's clouds in the near infrared were acquired in October 2013 with SINFONI on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. SINFONI is an Integral Field Unit spectrometer returning a 64 × 64 pixel image with 2048 wavelengths. Image cubes in the J-band (1.09-1.41 μm) and H-band (1.43-1.87 μm) were obtained at spatial resolutions of 0.1″and 0.025″per pixel, while SINFONI's adaptive optics provided an effective resolution of approximately 0.1″. Image cubes were obtained at the start and end of three successive nights to monitor the temporal development of discrete clouds both at short timescales (i.e. during a single night) as well as over the longer period of the three-day observing run. These observations were compared with similar H-band observations obtained in September 2009 with the NIFS Integral Field Unit spectrometer on the Gemini-North telescope in Hawaii, previously reported by Irwin et al. (2011) [Icarus, 216, 141-158], and previously unreported Gemini/NIFS observations at lower spatial resolution made in 2011. We find both similarities and differences between these observations, spaced over four years. The same overall cloud structure is seen with high, bright clouds visible at mid-latitudes (30-40°N,S), with slightly lower clouds observed at lower latitudes, together with small discrete clouds seen circling the pole at a latitude of approximately 60°S. However, while discrete clouds were visible at this latitude at both the main cloud deck level (at 2-3 bar) and in the upper troposphere (100-500 mb) in 2009, no distinct deep (2-3 bar), discrete circumpolar clouds were visible in 2013, although some deep clouds were seen at the southern edge of the main cloud belt at 30-40°S, which have not been observed before. The nature of the deep sub-polar discrete clouds observed in 2009 is intriguing. While it is possible that in 2013 these deeper clouds were masked by faster moving, overlying features, we consider that it is

  20. VLT/X-shooter observations of the low-metallicity blue compact dwarf galaxy PHL 293B including a luminous blue variable star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Guseva, N. G.; Fricke, K. J.; Henkel, C.

    2011-09-01

    Context. We present VLT/X-shooter spectroscopic observations in the wavelength range λλ3000-23 000 Å of the extremely metal-deficient blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy PHL 293B containing a luminous blue variable (LBV) star and compare them with previous data. Aims: This BCD is one of the two lowest-metallicity galaxies where LBV stars were detected, allowing us to study the LBV phenomenon in the extremely low metallicity regime. Methods: We determine abundances of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, sulfur, argon, and iron by analyzing the fluxes of narrow components of the emission lines using empirical methods and study the properties of the LBV from the fluxes and widths of broad emission lines. Results: We derive an interstellar oxygen abundance of 12+log O/H = 7.71 ± 0.02, which is in agreement with previous determinations. The observed fluxes of narrow Balmer, Paschen and Brackett hydrogen lines correspond to the theoretical recombination values after correction for extinction with a single value C(Hβ) = 0.225. This implies that the star-forming region observed in the optical range is the only source of ionisation and there is no additional source of ionisation that is seen in the NIR range but is hidden in the optical range. We detect three v = 1-0 vibrational lines of molecular hydrogen. Their flux ratios and non-detection of v = 2-1 and 3-1 emission lines suggest that collisional excitation is the main source producing H2 lines. For the LBV star in PHL 293B we find broad emission with P Cygni profiles in several Balmer hydrogen emission lines and for the first time in several Paschen hydrogen lines and in several He i emission lines, implying temporal evolution of the LBV on a time scale of 8 years. The Hα luminosity of the LBV star is by one order of magnitude higher than the one obtained for the LBV star in NGC 2363 ≡ Mrk 71 which has a slightly higher metallicity 12+logO/H = 7.87. The terminal velocity of the stellar wind in the low-metallicity LBV of PHL293

  1. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey VLT/FORS2 Spectroscopy in the GOODS-South Field: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzella, E; Dickinson, M; Kuntschner, H; Nonino, M; Rettura, A; Rosati, P; Vernet, J; Césarsky, C J; Ferguson, H C; Fosbury, R A E; Giavalisco, M; Haase, J; Moustakas, L A; Popesso, P; Renzini, A; Stern, D; Team, the GOODS

    2006-01-01

    We present the second campaign of the ESO/GOODS program of spectroscopy of faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). Objects were selected as candidates for VLT/FORS2 observations primarily based on the expectation that the detection and measurement of their spectral features would benefit from the high throughput and spectral resolution of FORS2. The reliability of the redshift estimates is assessed using diagnostic diagrams and comparing the results with public data. 807 spectra of 652 individual targets have been obtained in service mode with the FORS2 spectrograph at the ESO/VLT, providing 501 redshift determinations. The typical redshift uncertainty is estimated to be sigma_z ~ 0.0009. Galaxies have been color selected in a way that the resulting redshift distribution typically spans two redshift domains: from z=0.5 to 2 and z=3.5 to 6.2. In particular, 94 B435-,V606-,i775-"dropout" Lyman break galaxies have been observed, yielding redshifts for 64 objects in the interval 3.4

  2. CLASH-VLT: Substructure in the galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 from kinematics of galaxy populations

    CERN Document Server

    Girardi, M; Balestra, I; Nonino, M; Biviano, A; Grillo, C; Rosati, P; Annunziatella, M; Demarco, R; Fritz, A; Gobat, R; Lemze, D; Presotto, V; Scodeggio, M; Tozzi, P; Caminha, G Bartosch; Brescia, M; Coe, D; Kelson, D; Koekemoer, A; Lombardi, M; Medezinski, E; Postman, M; Sartoris, B; Umetsu, K; Zitrin, A; Boschin, W; Czoske, O; De Lucia, G; Kuchner, U; Maier, C; Meneghetti, M; Monaco, P; Monna, A; Munari, E; Seitz, S; Verdugo, M; Ziegler, B

    2015-01-01

    In the effort to understand the link between the structure of galaxy clusters and their galaxy populations, we focus on MACS J1206.2-0847, at z~0.44, probing its substructure in the projected phase space through the spectrophotometric properties of a large number of galaxies from the CLASH-VLT survey. Our analysis is mainly based on an extensive spectroscopic dataset of 445 member galaxies, mostly acquired with VIMOS@VLT as part of our ESO Large Programme, sampling the cluster out to a radius ~2R200 (4 Mpc). We classify 412 galaxies as: passive, with strong Hdelta absorption (red and blue ones), and with emission lines from weak to very strong ones. A number of tests for substructure detection is applied to analyze the galaxy distribution in the velocity space, in the 2D space, and in the (3D) projected phase-space. Studied in its entirety, the cluster appears as a large-scale relaxed system with a few, secondary, minor overdensities in 2D distribution. We detect no velocity gradient or evidence of deviations...

  3. Is Fear to Intervene with Problem Gamblers Related to Interveners' Gender and Status? A Study with VLT Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, Alexander; Zumwald, Coralie

    2017-03-01

    We assess how video lottery terminal (VLT) operators' self-perceive their ability to recognize a problem gambler, to what extent they are approached by problem gamblers seeking for assistance, how many detections and interventions they report, and the reasons they give for not intervening with clients who show signs of problem gambling. We also examine how these variables are related to the operators' gender and status in the establishment. 177 VLT operators anonymously completed a structured questionnaire at the beginning of a responsible gambling training class held in different French-speaking Swiss towns. The operators felt confident in their ability to detect problem gambling behaviors, were rarely approached by problem gamblers seeking assistance, and reported fewer interventions compared to the number of detections. This reluctance to intervene was mainly attributed to the fear of potential negative reactions from the client. Female staff were the most reluctant to intervene and the most fearful of potential negative reactions from the client. Responsible gambling training programs should include coping strategies for dealing with potential negative reactions from clients. Our findings suggest that staff gender and status are two individual characteristics that should be taken into account when planning responsible gambling trainings.

  4. The VLT observations of the HDF-S NICMOS field photometric catalog and high redshift galaxy candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, A; Fosbury, R A E; Giallongo, E; Hook, R N; Poli, F; Renzini, A; Rosati, P; Viezzer, R

    1999-01-01

    We present the deep UBVRI observations of the HDF-S NICMOS field obtained as part of the Science Verification of the VLT Unit 1 telescope. The images have been used to construct object catalogs and to obtain photometric redshifts. The effective field of view is $\\simeq 70\\times70$ arcsec$^2$, and the formal $5\\sigma$ limiting magnitudes (in a 2 FWHM aperture) are 26.3, 27.8, 27.5, 26.9, 25.2 in the $U$, $B$, $V$, $R$ and $I$ bands, respectively. Thanks to the sub-arcsecond image quality, relatively long exposure time, and large collecting area of the VLT, this is the deepest set of multicolor images ever obtained from a ground-based telescope. Galaxy counts have been derived independently in each band, and show no significant departures from previous data from wider areas. A multicolor photometric catalog of all the galaxies selected in the $R$ band has also been obtained and used to derive photometric redshifts for all galaxies with $R \\leq 26.5 $, using also the J,H and K magnitudes from the NICMOS deep obs...

  5. CLASH-VLT: Strangulation of cluster galaxies in MACSJ0416.1-2403 as seen by their chemical enrichment

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, C; Ziegler, B L; Verdugo, M; Balestra, I; Girardi, M; Mercurio, A; Rosati, P; Fritz, A; Grillo, C; Nonino, M; Sartoris, B

    2016-01-01

    (abridged) We explore the Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 at z=0.3972 with VIMOS/VLT spectroscopy from the CLASH-VLT survey covering a region which corresponds to almost three virial radii. We measure fluxes of 5 emission lines of 76 cluster members enabling us to unambiguously derive O/H gas metallicities, and also SFRs from Halpha. For intermediate massses we find a similar distribution of cluster and field galaxies in the MZR and mass vs. sSFR diagrams. Bulge-dominated cluster galaxies have on average lower sSFRs and higher O/Hs compared to their disk-dominated counterparts. We use the location of galaxies in the projected velocity vs. position phase-space to separate our cluster sample into a region of objects accreted longer time ago and a region of recently accreted and infalling galaxies. We find a higher fraction of accreted metal-rich galaxies (63%) compared to the fraction of 28% of metal-rich galaxies in the infalling regions. Intermediate mass galaxies falling into the cluster for the fi...

  6. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Jesen, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve......We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... precursor signal 62 s prior to trigger. The afterglow was detected in ESO VLT, NTT, and DK1.54m follow-up observations. Broad-band and spectroscopic observations of the spectral energy distribution reveals a sharp break at optical wavelengths which is interpreted as a Ly alpha absorption edge at 6700...

  7. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Pedersen, H.

    2000-01-01

    Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve......We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... precursor signal 62 s prior to trigger. The afterglow was detected in ESO VLT, NTT, and DK1.54m follow-up observations. Broad-band and spectroscopic observations of the spectral energy distribution reveals a sharp break at optical wavelengths which is interpreted as a Ly alpha absorption edge at 6700...

  8. ESPRESSO instrument control electronics: a PLC based distributed layout for a second generation instrument at ESO VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.; Mégevand, D.; Zerbi, F.

    2014-07-01

    ESPRESSO is an ultra-stable fiber-fed spectrograph designed to combine incoherently the light coming from up to 4 Unit Telescopes of the ESO VLT. From the Nasmyth focus of each telescope the light, through an optical path, is fed by the Coudé Train subsystems to the Front End Unit placed in the Combined Coudé Laboratory. The Front End is composed by one arm for each telescope and its task is to convey the incoming light, after a calibration process, into the spectrograph fibers. To perform these operations a large number of functions are foreseen, like motorized stages, lamps, digital and analog sensors that, coupled with dedicated Technical CCDs (two per arms), allow to stabilize the incoming beam up to the level needed to exploit the ESPRESSO scientific requirements. The Instrument Control Electronics goal is to properly control all the functions in the Combined Coudé Laboratory and the spectrograph itself. It is fully based on a distributed PLC architecture, abandoning in this way the VME-based technology previously adopted for the ESO VLT instruments. In this paper we will describe the ESPRESSO Instrument Control Electronics architecture, focusing on the distributed layout and its interfaces with the other ESPRESSO subsystems.

  9. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Pedersen, H.

    2000-01-01

    Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve......We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... precursor signal 62 s prior to trigger. The afterglow was detected in ESO VLT, NTT, and DK1.54m follow-up observations. Broad-band and spectroscopic observations of the spectral energy distribution reveals a sharp break at optical wavelengths which is interpreted as a Ly alpha absorption edge at 6700...

  10. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Jesen, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve......We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... precursor signal 62 s prior to trigger. The afterglow was detected in ESO VLT, NTT, and DK1.54m follow-up observations. Broad-band and spectroscopic observations of the spectral energy distribution reveals a sharp break at optical wavelengths which is interpreted as a Ly alpha absorption edge at 6700...

  11. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. I.; Hjorth, J.; Pedersen, H.

    2000-01-01

    . This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was approximately 10^54 erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha=2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve), however......We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... precursor signal 62 s prior to trigger. The afterglow was detected in ESO VLT, NTT, and DK1.54m follow-up observations. Broad-band and spectroscopic observations of the spectral energy distribution reveals a sharp break at optical wavelengths which is interpreted as a Ly-alpha absorption edge at 6700 A...

  12. The VLT LBG Redshift Survey - III. The clustering and dynamics of Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 3

    CERN Document Server

    Bielby, R; Shanks, T; Crighton, N H M; Infante, L; Bornancini, C G; Francke, H; Heraudeau, P; Lambas, D G; Metcalfe, N; Minniti, D; Padilla, N; Theuns, T; Tummuangpak, P; Weilbacher, P

    2012-01-01

    We present a survey of 2,148 galaxy redshifts from the VLT LBG Redshift Survey (VLRS), a spectroscopic survey of z ~ 3 galaxies in wide fields centred on background QSOs made using the VLT VIMOS instrument. To make a definitive LBG clustering analysis, we have combined the VLRS redshifts with the 813 Keck LBG redshifts of Steidel et al, with the statistical power of VLRS at large scales complementing the accuracy of the Keck sample at small scales. From the semi-projected correlation function for the VLRS and combined surveys, we find that the results are well fit with a single power law model for the real space correlation function with clustering scale lengths of respectively r0 = 3.32 \\pm 0.41 and 3.75 \\pm 0.24 Mpc/h. We note that the corresponding combined slope is flatter than for local galaxies at {\\gamma} = 1.55 \\pm 0.09. This flat slope is confirmed by the z-space correlation function and in the range 10 < s < 100 Mpc/h the VLRS shows a 2.5{\\sigma} excess over the {\\Lambda}CDM linear prediction....

  13. The ESO/VLT 3rd year Type Ia supernova data set from the Supernova Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Balland, C; Basa, S; Mouchet, M; Howell, D A; Astier, P; Carlberg, R G; Conley, A; Fouchez, D; Guy, J; Hardin, D; Hook, I M; Pain, R; Perrett, K; Pritchet, C J; Regnault, N; Rich, J; Sullivan, M; Antilogus, P; Arsenijevic, V; Du, J Le; Fabbro, S; Lidman, C; Mourao, A; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pécontal, E; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V

    2009-01-01

    We present 139 spectra of 124 Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) that were observed at the ESO/VLT during the first three years of the Canada-France-Hawai Telescope (CFHT) Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This homogeneous data set is used to test for redshift evolution of SNeIa spectra, and will be used in the SNLS 3rd year cosmological analyses. Spectra have been reduced and extracted with a dedicated pipeline that uses photometric information from deep CFHT Legacy Survey (CFHT-LS) reference images to trace, at sub-pixel accuracy, the position of the supernova on the spectrogram as a function of wavelength. It also separates the supernova and its host light in 60% of cases. The identification of the supernova candidates is performed using a spectrophotometric SNIa model. A total of 124 SNeIa, roughly 50% of the overall SNLS spectroscopic sample, have been identified using the ESO/VLT during the first three years of the survey. Their redshifts range from z=0.149 to z=1.031. The average redshift of the sample is z=0.63...

  14. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  15. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  16. Pobreza Multidimensional en Chile: 1990-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Sanhueza; Angela Denis; Francisca Gallegos

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una propuesta de medición multidimensional de la pobreza para Chile. Siguiendo el enfoque conceptual de Amartya Sen, pobreza no es meramente insuficiencia de ingresos, sino se define como privación de capacidades para la realización de funcionamientos valiosos en la vida. Medimos carencias individuales en tres grupos de la población: niños, población económicamente activa y adultos mayores, y en cinco dimensiones: educación, salud, vivienda, empleo e ingresos. La justifi...

  17. EFECTOS DEL EMBARAZO ADOLESCENTE EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    LOYOLA HEUFEMANN, AMANDA

    2014-01-01

    Los efectos del embarazo adolescente en Chile han sido poco estudiados aun cuando existe diversa literatura para el resto del mundo, en especial para países desarrollados. Este trabajo estima el efecto del embarazo adolescente sobre la asistencia o completitud de la educación secundaria, años de escolaridad y participación laboral. Usando datos de corte transversal del a˜no 2012 y un enfoque de variable instrumental a trav´es del uso de la entrega comunal de la píldora anticoncept...

  18. Pentecostalism and Politics in Neoliberal Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindhardt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga las relaciones históricas y contemporáneas entre el Pentecostalismo y la política en Chile. La primera parte del artículo provee un resumen histórico del crecimiento y consolidación de la religión Pentecostal en relación a diferentes ambientes políticos. En este artículo se esclarecen además las diferentes posturas Pentecostales hacia la esfera política. En particular hago hincapié, en cómo surge una cultura de desencanto político en el Chile post-dictatorial que crea un vacío simbólico, el cual trae como consecuencia el nacimiento de movimientos religiosos. En la segunda parte de este artículo se discute las posibles afinidades entre el Pentecostalismo, como una cultura religiosa, y los principios democráticos. El argumento es que a pesar de que el Pentecostalismo puede contener algunas cualidades democráticas, también existe una compatibilidad notable entre la visión teísta e individualista Pentecostal acerca de los cambios sociales, y un orden social neoliberal, en donde la indolencia política se expande y en donde predomina un sentido de progreso individual y no colectivo. English: This article explores historical and contemporary relationships between Pentecostalism and politics in Chile. The first part of the article provides an historical account of the growth and consolidation of Pentecostal religion within changing political environments and sheds light on Pentecostal stances to and involvements with the political sphere. In particular, it focuses on how a culture of political disenchantment has emerged in post-dictatorial neo-liberal Chile, creating a symbolic void that can be filled by religious movements. The second part of the article discusses possible affinities between Pentecostalism as a religious culture and democratic principles and values. It argues that although Pentecostalism may contain certain democratic qualities, there is also a striking compatibility between, on the one

  19. The Death of Socialism in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    him to return. During his absence Chile was ruled by a junta lead by General Carlos Ibanez del Campo . Welcomed back in March 1925, Alessandri kept...dictatorship of Colonel (later General) Carlos Ibanez del Campo in 1931-32. The first two were the product of divisions within the political community; the last...the Investigaciones detachment, and tanks were lined up in front of the palace. At 1:30 P.M. shortly after the Air Force bombed the presidential palace

  20. Recent IBA setup improvements in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile)]. E-mail: pmiranda@fisica.ciencias.uchile.cl; Chesta, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Cancino, S.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Morales, J.R. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Dinator, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Wachter, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago 1 (Chile); Tenreiro, C. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Campus Curico, Universidad de Talca (Chile)

    2006-07-15

    This paper describes the main characteristics of the ion beam facility based on a 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator model KN3750 of HVE at University of Chile. Recent setup improvements on three beam lines available, one dedicated for PIXE analyzes, one designed for RBS-PESA analyzes and a multipurpose vacuum chamber, as well as beam energy calibration experiments of the accelerator will be summarized. Current research activities are focused on the application of the different IBA techniques for the material, biological and environmental analysis. In addition, nuclear activation analysis and the study of nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest has begun to be developed as basic research.

  1. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research conducted in Chile on reading, reading proficiency and reading news on politics shows that negative values around 50. These data add to the forty million illiterates in Latin America, so this article rejects the death of the book and the frivolous faith in the replacement of the book by the use of information technology and communication (schools full of computers Instead, he insists on paying serious attention to the links between reason, book, and reading in the development of the individual and society

  2. Judicial demand of medications through the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Possebom, Ana Carolina; Borges, Luiza de Martino Cruvinel; Shwetz, Ana Claudia Athanasio; Bettes, Fernanda Francis Benevides

    2017-01-01

    To describe the profile of lawsuits related to drug requests filled at the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná. A cross-sectional study, and the data were obtained through consulting the lawsuits at the online system of the Federal Justice of Paraná. Out of 347 lawsuits included in the study, 55% of plaintiffs were women, with a median age of 56 years. Oncology was the field with more requests (23.6%), and the highest mean costs. A wide variety of diseases and broad variety of requested drugs were found in the lawsuits. Approximately two-thirds of them were requested by the brand name, and the most often requested drugs were palivizumab and tiotropium bromide. Only 14.5% of the requested medicines were registered in the National Medication Register. The Public Defender's Office filled actions in 89.6% of cases and all lawsuits had an interim relief. The mean time for approval was 35 days and 70% of requests were granted. Oncology was the field with the highest demand for medicines at the Federal Justice of Paraná in 2014. A great variety of medications was requested. The Public Defender´s Office represented most lawsuits. All demands had an interim relief, and the majority of requests were granted, within an average of 35 days. Descrever o perfil das ações que solicitam medicamentos ajuizadas na Justiça Federal do Paraná. Estudo transversal descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos por meio de consulta aos processos no sistema on-line da Justiça Federal do Paraná. Dentre os 347 processos incluídos no estudo, 55% dos autores eram mulheres, com mediana da idade de 56 anos, sendo a área mais procurada a oncologia (23,6%). A área oncológica também foi a que apresentou maiores custos médios. Foi ampla a variedade de doenças geradoras das ações e também foi consequentemente grande a variedade de medicamentos solicitados. Cerca de dois terços dos fármacos foram solicitados pelo nome comercial, e os mais requeridos foram o palivizumabe e brometo de

  3. Estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva do capim-limão: estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Carneiro Gomes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de prospectiva para cadeias produtivas engloba várias etapas como a segmentação de cada elo, a análise do ambiente institucional e organizacional que envolve a cadeia, a identificação das necessidades e aspirações de cada segmento da cadeia e dos fatores críticos para a melhoria do desempenho. Desta forma, considerando a importância econômica da produção, industrialização e comercialização do capim-limão, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf, e visando uma ação integrada do setor agrícola envolvido, este trabalho propõe o estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva desta espécie no estado do Paraná, identificando também fatores e condicionantes de qualidade em cada segmento desta cadeia. Para isto, o presente estudo apresenta o panorama da produção agroindustrial e da comunidade produtora agrícola paranaense de capim-limão; identifica e caracteriza os outros segmentos que integram a respectiva cadeia produtiva no Paraná e, por fim, identifica e analisa os principais gargalos, elos faltantes e pontos de estrangulamento. Evidenciaram-se como principais componentes da cadeia produtiva: a unidade produtiva, a agroindústria, a indústria (alimentícia, farmacêutica e química e o mercado consumidor interno (atacadista e varejista e externo. Com esse estudo prospectivo, espera-se contribuir para a implementação de medidas político-organizacionais, entre os agentes econômicos dos setores público e privado, que fazem parte da cadeia produtiva do capim-limão, possibilitando-lhes desenvolver estratégias que aumentem a competitividade e conduzam à expansão do mercado.The application of a prospective study to productive chains incorporates several stages like the segmentation of each link, the analysis of institutional and organizational environments to include the chain, the identification of necessities and aspirations of each chain segment and the critical factors for the improvement of performance. Thus

  4. Detection and identification of TMV infecting tomato under protected cultivation in Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martins da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available During an inspection in plastic houses in Sapopema, Paraná, 90% of tomato plants showed leaf abnormalities, probably associated with herbicide toxity. However, virus like symptoms developed in selected hosts after mechanical inoculatation. RT-PCR reactions using primers for an internal region within the movement protein gene of TMV and ToMV resulted in the amplification of a 409 bp cDNA fragment only by TMV primers. Deduced amino acids showed 100% identity when compared to TMV movement protein and 94% with ToMV. The RT-PCR protocol was efficient for quick and conclusive determination of virus species. The virus was purified and a polyclonal antiserum was raised for future surveys in tomato crops of Paraná. The partial genomic sequence obtained for TMV-Sapopema has been deposited under the accession number DQ173945, which is the first partial genomic sequence of an isolate of TMV from Brazil in the GenBank, and the first tomato virus isolate from Paraná to have some of its biological and molecular properties determined.Durante uma inspeção em cultivos protegidos de tomate em Sapopema, Paraná, foram observadas anormalidades foliares em 90% das plantas, indicando possivelmente a existência de um problema de fitotoxidade causada por herbicidas. Todavia, os sintomas manifestados nas hospedeiras após os ensaios de inoculação mecânica revelaram que os sintomas estariam relacionados a uma infecção por Tobamovirus. As reações de RT-PCR com oligonucleotídeos específicos para uma região interna da proteína de movimento de dois vírus comuns em tomate, TMV e ToMV, resultaram na amplificação de um fragmento de 409 pares de bases, apenas com os oligonucleotídeos específicos para o TMV. Após o sequenciamento, os aminoácidos deduzidos apresentaram identidade de 100% quando comparados com as seqüências das proteínas de movimento de outros isolados do TMV, e 94% de identidade com seqüências do ToMV. A RT-PCR demonstrou ser um m

  5. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  6. Perfil dos idosos que sofreram trauma em Londrina - Paraná Perfil de los ancianos que sufrieron traumas en Londrina - Paraná Profile of elderly patients who suffered trauma im Londrina - Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damares Tomasin Biazin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi caracterizar os idosos que sofreram trauma e foram internados nos três hospitais terciários, da cidade de Londrina - Paraná. Pesquisa quantitativa através de um estudo observacional, transversal, com 121 idosos de 60 a 74 anos e seus cuidadores, realizada durante um período de seis meses, por meio de entrevistas e visita domiciliar. Os resultados evidenciaram que a maioria dos idosos era do sexo masculino, com média de idade de 67,7 anos. Os traumas sofridos foram: 62,0% quedas, 25,6% acidentes de transporte e 10,4% outras causas. Como conseqüência ao trauma houveram de uma a três lesões, e 11 idosos (9,1%, foram a óbito. A queda foi a principal causa de trauma, a qual pode ser evitada observando os fatores intrínsecos e os extrínsecos que a predispõem, com o intuito de estabelecer estratégias de prevenção desse tipo de trauma.El objetivo fue caracterizar a los ancianos que sufrieron traumas y fueron internados en los tres hospitales terciarios, de la ciudad de Londrina, Paraná. Investigación cuantitativa a través de un estudio observacional, transversal, realizado en 121 ancianos de 60 a 74 años y sus cuidadores, realizada durante un período de seis meses, por medio de entrevistas y visitas a domicilio. Los resultados colocaron en evidencia que la mayoría de los ancianos era de sexo masculino, con promedio de edad de 67,7 años. Los traumas sufridos fueron: 62,0% caídas, 25,6% accidentes de transporte y 10,4% otras causas. Como consecuencia del trauma tuvieron de una a tres lesiones y 11 ancianos (9,1%, murieron. La caída fue la principal causa del trauma, la cual puede ser evitada observando los factores intrínsecos y los extrínsecos que la predisponen, con la finalidad de establecer estrategias de prevención para este tipo de trauma.The objective of this study is to characterize elderly victims of traumas admitted to three tertiary hospitals in Londrina, Paraná State. This quantitative

  7. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson V. Guilherme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0% has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167 tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7, increased serum IgE levels (6/7 and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7. The presence of pets (dogs or cats at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  8. Histopathological and molecular characterization of encephalitic listeriosis in small ruminants from northern Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Bodnar, Lívia; Fritzen, Juliana T T; Bronkhorst, Dalton Evert; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Okano, Werner; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is a disease primarily of ruminants caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Ruminants either demonstrate manifestations of the encephalitic, septicemic, or reproductive form of listeriosis. The pathological and molecular findings with encephalitic listeriosis in a 5.5-month-old, male, mixed-breed goat and a 3-year-old Texel-crossed sheep from northern Paraná, Brazil are described. Clinically, the kid demonstrated circling, lateral protrusion of the tongue, head tilt, and convulsions; the ewe presented ataxia, motor incoordination, and lateral decumbency. Brainstem dysfunctions were diagnosed clinically and listeriosis was suspected. Necropsy performed on both animals did not reveal remarkable gross lesions; significant histopathological alterations were restricted to the brainstem (medulla oblongata; rhombencephalitis) and were characterized as meningoencephalitis that consisted of extensive mononuclear perivascular cuffings, neutrophilic and macrophagic microabscesses, and neuroparenchymal necrosis. PCR assay and direct sequencing, using genomic bacterial DNA derived from the brainstem of both animals, amplified the desired 174 base pairs length amplicon of the listeriolysin O gene of L. monocytogenes. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the strains associated with rhombencephalitis during this study clustered with known strains of L. monocytogenes lineage I from diverse geographical locations and from cattle of the state of Paraná with encephalitic listeriosis. Consequently, these strains should be classified as L. monocytogenes lineage I. These results confirm the active participation of lineage I strains of L. monocytogenes in the etiopathogenesis of the brainstem dysfunctions observed during this study, probably represent the first characterization of small ruminant listeriosis by molecular techniques in Latin America, and suggest that ruminants within the state of Paraná were infected by the strains of the same lineage

  9. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Edson V; Marchioro, Ariella A; Araujo, Silvana M; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Adami, Carolina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Gustavo; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0%) has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP) from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167) tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7), increased serum IgE levels (6/7) and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7). The presence of pets (dogs or cats) at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  10. Comércio de bromélias no Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, objetivando conhecer o perfil do produtor paranaense, com respectiva capacidade de atender às demandas de mercado, identificar e caracterizar os diferentes níveis da cadeia produtiva e detectar os principais pontos de estrangulamento do desenvolvimento desse setor. Para tanto, foram entrevistados 19 produtores, 160 varejistas e 18 atacadistas. A quantidade de bromélias oriundas da produção do Paraná e aptas ao mercado era de 5.340 plantas ao ano, inferior à demanda do Estado. As condições exigidas pelos varejistas (v e atacadistas (a para aquisição de bromélias dos produtores regionais eram: preço igual ou inferior ao praticado em São Paulo (exigido por: v = 134; a = 18, qualidade da produção condizente com a encontrada no mercado (v = 86; a = 16, capacidade de efetuar entregas periódicas (v = 81; a = 11 e capacidade de atendimento dos pedidos extras (v = 55; a = 7. Não foi encontrado produtor no Estado do Paraná que pudesse atender a todas as exigências de forma simultânea. Os principais entraves que impediam a inserção da produção no mercado regional eram decorrentes da inaplicabilidade dos modelos de gestão da produção rural, adotados pelos produtores, e das incongruências tecnológicas observadas na maioria dos viveiros de cultivo, que resultavam em produção de baixa qualidade.

  11. Changes in a large regulated tropical river: The Paraná River downstream from the Porto Primavera Dam, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevaux, José C.; Martins, Débora P.; Meurer, M.

    2009-12-01

    Dams disturb in the fluvial dynamics by changing the natural cycle of the rivers, interfering with the transport-deposition processes and affecting river ecology. The Brazilian part of the Paraná Basin has the largest hydrometrical power potential of the country with more than 150 hydroelectric power dams that transformed the Paraná River and its tributaries in a succession of lakes. This research aims to analyze the changes in certain fluvial variables in the last natural downstream reach of the Upper Paraná River after closure of the Porto Primavera Dam. Data acquired before and after dam construction showed changes in water discharge, bank erosion, flood pulse, bed load grain size discharge, concentration of suspended load and bedform morphology and size. Those alterations generated changes in river ecology especially on fish reproduction, benthic community, and rotifers variety and density. A review of the obscure regional literature, generally in Portuguese, is also presented.

  12. Integration of the instrument control electronics for the ESPRESSO spectrograph at ESO-VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, V.; Calderone, G.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Cristiani, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Mégevand, D.; Riva, M.; Santin, P.

    2016-07-01

    ESPRESSO, the Echelle SPectrograph for Rocky Exoplanet and Stable Spectroscopic Observations of the ESO - Very Large Telescope site, is now in its integration phase. The large number of functions of this complex instrument are fully controlled by a Beckhoff PLC based control electronics architecture. Four small and one large cabinets host the main electronic parts to control all the sensors, motorized stages and other analogue and digital functions of ESPRESSO. The Instrument Control Electronics (ICE) is built following the latest ESO standards and requirements. Two main PLC CPUs are used and are programmed through the TwinCAT Beckhoff dedicated software. The assembly, integration and verification phase of ESPRESSO, due to its distributed nature and different geographical locations of the consortium partners, is quite challenging. After the preliminary assembling and test of the electronic components at the Astronomical Observatory of Trieste and the test of some electronics and software parts at ESO (Garching), the complete system for the control of the four Front End Unit (FEU) arms of ESPRESSO has been fully assembled and tested in Merate (Italy) at the beginning of 2016. After these first tests, the system will be located at the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland) until the Preliminary Acceptance Europe (PAE) and finally shipped to Chile for the commissioning. This paper describes the integration strategy of the ICE workpackage of ESPRESSO, the hardware and software tests that have been performed, with an overall view of the experience gained during these project's phases.

  13. [Reflections about the historical development of biomedical sciences in Chile and the role of Revista Médica de Chile: an homage on 130-years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Fernández, Luis

    2002-12-01

    When Revista Médica de Chile turns to be 130 years old, the author reflects about the difficulties that scientific and technological creativity faces in Chile, considering that there was a 70 years gap between its historical origin in Chile compared to developed countries. The scientific progress erases the boundaries between Biomedicine and science and technology. This progress has resulted in an improvement in the quality of scientific publications in Revista Medica de Chile. The editorial work has also contributed to this improvement. Revista Medica de Chile has obtained international recognition and stands in a good position as a medical journal in Latin America and Chile.

  14. Explaining the thick crust in Paraná basin, Brazil, with satellite GOCE gravity observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Patrizia; Braitenberg, Carla; Ussami, Naomi

    2013-08-01

    Seismologic observations in the last decades have shown that the crustal thickness in Paraná basin locally is over 40 km thick, which is a greater value than expected by the simple isostatic model considering the topographic load. The goal of this work is to explain this apparent discrepancy by modeling the internal crustal density anomalies through the gravity field. We use the latest Earth Gravity Model derived from the observations of the GOCE satellite mission, to retrieve the gravity anomaly and correct it for topographic effects, thus obtaining the Bouguer field. We then model the gravity effect of known stratigraphic units and of the seismological crustal thickness. The large Paraná basin comprises over 3500 m of Paleozoic sedimentary sequence with density between 2400 and 2600 kg/m3. During the Early Cretaceous the same basin was affected by a large amount of igneous activity with a volume of over 0.1 Mkm3. The flood basalt volcanism is known as the Serra Geral Formation, and has a maximum thickness of 1500 m. The stratigraphic units of the basin are topped by post-volcanic deposits of the Bauru Group, of about 300 m thickness, located in the northern part of the basin. The density and thickness of the sedimentary sequence are constrained by sonic logs of drill-holes and exploration seismic. We use the crustal thickness estimated from the newest seismological results for South America to calculate its gravity effect. Further we model the isostatic crustal thickness variation, allowing the comparison between a seismological Moho, an isostatic Moho, and a gravity-based Moho. We find that there is a clear positive Bouguer residual anomaly located in the northern and southern part of the Paraná basin, indicating the presence of a hidden mass, not considered up to now. We propose a model that explains this mass as magmatic rock, probably gabbro in lower crust, with density contrast of 200 kg/m3 and thickness of more than 10 km, thus demonstrating that the

  15. O primeiro ano de Nicolau: "Nós do Paraná"

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    Eduard Marquardt

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Sob patrocínio do Governo do Estado do Paraná e responsabilidade da Imprensa Oficial, lança-se em Curitiba, julho de 1987, o primeiro número de Nicolau, publicação cultural sob coordenação de Wilson Bueno, com o objetivo de suprir algumas lacunas regionais: a necessidade de a produção literária recente divulgar seus textos, bem como registrar a história do Estado e de suas gentes e personalidades, sob a marca da "pluralidade de pensamento".

  16. Cisticercose em animais abatidos em Sabáudia, Estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Falavigna-Guilherme, A.L.; de Silva, K.; Araújo, S. M.; Tobias, M.L.; D.L.M. Falavigna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to verify the occurrence of bovine and swine cysticercosis in animals slaughtered at the Abatedouro Municipal de Sabáudia, Paraná State. The number of daily-abated animals, the number of animals with cysticercus and the number and location of the cysticercus in the animals in a period of twelve months were collected. From 1046 swines slaughtered none showed cysticercus, but 36/out of 389 bovines (9.3%) were contaminated. Head was the most parasited region, followed by...

  17. [Germination of soybeans BR-13 and Paraná: effects on mineral constituents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, M L; Ida, E I; de Oliveira, M C

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of germination on the minerals constituents (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc) of soybean. For the assays the soybean cultivars-Glycine max (L) Merril-BR-13 and Paraná were used. These were germinated in camera of germination at 25 degrees C and 100% of moisture, from 0 to 72 hours, collecting the samples in intervals of 6 hours. The analysis of variance and comparison among the means indicated that the minerals constituents remained constant up to 72 hours of germination.

  18. A new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

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    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    Full Text Available Microglanis garavelloi, new species, collected in tributaries of rio Paranapanema and rio Tietê, is the first species of the genus described from upper rio Paraná basin. The new species can be distinguished from other species of Microglanis on morphometric characters, color pattern, caudal-fin shape, pectoral-spine morphology and lateral line development. Characters used specifically to distinguish M. garavelloi from M. cottoides (laguna dos Patos and rio Uruguay basins and M. parahybae (rio Paraíba do Sul basin include morphometrics, color pattern and pectoral-spine serration.

  19. Integrative Games for Special Education Schools in the City of Paraná

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    Alberto Ricardo Canavelli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Autonomous University of Entre Rios (UADER together with the Ministry of Science, Technology and Productive Innovation of Argentina (MINCyT, using their line of funding called "Technology Projects for Social Inclusion" financed a project to design and construct integrative games for public squares. The idea not only included the building of the units but also sought to coordinate actions between the MINCyT, the UADER a Technical Secondary School and two Special Education Schools of the City of Paraná.     

  20. Pesquisa de aglutininas antileptospira em diferentes grupos profissionais na cidade de Londrina, Paraná

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    L.M. Vasconcelos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento soroepidemiológico na cidade de Londrina - Paraná, para leptospirose, em 49 indivíduos não expostos a risco, 75 trabalhadores da limpeza pública, 55 indivíduos com atividade em ambiente hospitalar e 29 trabalhadores do Departamento de Água e Esgoto. Dos 208 soros analisados pela reação de soroaglutinação microscópica, 28,4% apresentaram aglutininas antileptospira. A maior positividade foi encontrada nos soros dos trabalhadores da limpeza pública (46,7%.

  1. Perfil de adolescentes gestantes de um município do interior do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira; Claudia Silveira Viera; Juliene Flávia Noris Almeida Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio planteó como objetivo identificar el perfil de adolescentes embarazadas, en un municipio de Paraná, teniendo en cuenta la influencia de factores biológicos, psicológicos y sociales, para apoyar las acciones preventivas del embarazo precoz. Investigación cuantitativa con datos obtenidos mediante entrevista. y análisis estadístico descriptivo. Se analizaron: edad de la menarqula, ginecológica y al quedar embarazada, uso de anticonceptivos antes del embarazo, relación familiar, acep...

  2. Panstrongylus megistus em ecótopos artificiais de ilhas do Alto Rio Paraná

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    Guilherme Ana Lucia Falavigna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em resposta a denúncias de triatomíneos em ilhas do Alto Rio Paraná foram investigados 145 ecótopos artificiais e 4 (2,8% deles encontravam-se infestados: residência, "clube", ex-escola e monte de madeira. Foram analisados 17 de 35 P. megistus coletados; 12 (70,6% apresentavam-se infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi. Ave e roedor constituíram as fontes alimentares mais comuns. Todos os exames sorológicos (56 de humanos, 18 de cães e 10 de gatos foram negativos.

  3. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  4. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

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    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  5. [The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Judith; Cancino, Anselmo; Pezoa, Sergio; Salamanca, Fernando; Soto, Marina

    2007-01-01

    The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is evident in the advances made through its National Plan for Health Promotion (Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud) and the Vida Chile National Council for Health Promotion (Consejo Nacional para la Promoción de la Salud Vida Chile). Chaired by the minister of health, Vida Chile is made up of 28 public and private institutions from around the country. Vida Chile has a network of local councils that have been established in the country's comunas (communes, or local-level divisions of the country's provinces) and that include government officials and representatives of local societal and community organizations and private businesses. This report details the methods used to evaluate the National Plan as well as provides a preliminary assessment of the technical and financial results for the 1998-2006 period. Coverage indicators (number of participants; number of accredited health-promoting schools, workplaces, and universities; and number of health promotion events) and the extent of strategy implementation were used to measure the success of the program. Health promotion activities grew markedly during this period. Among the notable accomplishments were the following four: (1) 98% of the communes now have their own community health promotion plan and intersectoral Vida Chile committee to implement the plan, (2) there has been an increase in societal and community groups involved in the health promotion strategies, (3) 34% of the primary and secondary schools have become accredited health-promoting schools, and (4) approximately 20% of the total population benefited directly from community-health-plan activities in 2006. The average per capita cost of the community health plans' activities in 2006 was US$ 6.60. The two most important factors that facilitated the operation of the local health promotion plans were participation by community and societal groups and having an adequate

  6. A ideação paranóide na adolescência : um enfoque comunitário

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Vera Lúcia do Couto

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Psicologia da Educação (Contextos Comunitários). O alargamento do conceito da paranóia à população normal constitui o tema principal do presente trabalho. Cada vez mais se observam estudos que evidenciam, tal como verificado na presente investigação, que a paranóia consiste num fenómeno de cariz social, existente entre a população normal e relacionado com o contexto ambiental onde o indivíduo se insere. A literatura defende, no âmbito do ranking social, e tendo c...

  7. Harttia absaberi, a new species of loricariid catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Loricariinae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

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    Osvaldo Takeshi Oyakawa

    Full Text Available A new species of Harttia, tribe Harttiini, is described from tributaries of upper portions of rio Paraná drainage. The new species, the smallest known species of the genus, attaining up to 74.0 mm of standard length, can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: abdomen completely covered by plates, a single preanal plate, plates of the gular area in broad contact with the canal plate. Harttia absaberi is the second species of the genus known from the upper portion of rio Paraná drainage.

  8. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  9. ACCESO A LA SALUD EN CHILE ACESSO À SAÚDE NO CHILE ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE IN CHILE

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    Mauricio Olavarría Gambi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile presenta una pronunciada reducción en la incidencia de la pobreza y los indicadores del estado de salud de la población se acercan a los de los países desarrollados. Este artículo se pregunta por el acceso efectivo de los pobres a la atención de salud y analiza el estado de salud de las personas de más bajos ingresos: si cuando están enfermos acceden a atención médica y dental, si cuando reciben atención de salud la reciben oportunamente, con demora o de manera tardía, y si disponen de cobertura de sistemas de protección de saludCostatamos que o Chile apresenta uma redução significada na incidencia da pobreza e que os indicadores do estado de saúde da população se aproximam dos países desenvolvidos. Neste artígo se pergunta pelo acesso efetivo dos pobres aos cuidados de saúde. O trabalho analiza o estado de sáude das pessoas de mais baixa renda. Quando estas adoecem tem acesso à atenção médica e odontológica? Recebem cuidados de saúde no momento necessário, com demora ou tardiamente? Além disso discorre a respeito da cobertura de sistemas de proteção de saúdeChile presents a remarkable lessening of its poverty; indicators show that people's healthcare conditions are close to those of the developed countries. This paper analyses the healthcare conditions of people with the lowest incomes, if they have access to medical and dental care when they are sick, if this care is readily obtained or with delay or when it is already late, and if they get coverage from the healthcare protective systems

  10. FORS2/VLT survey of Milky Way globular clusters. II. Fe and Mg abundances of 51 Milky Way globular clusters on a homogeneous scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, B.; Barbuy, B.; Saviane, I.; Held, E. V.; Da Costa, G. S.; Ortolani, S.; Gullieuszik, M.; Vásquez, S.

    2016-05-01

    clusters, and the available metallicity for NGC 6426 was based on integrated spectroscopy and photometry. Two other clusters, HP 1 and NGC 6558, are confirmed as candidates for the oldest globular clusters in the Milky Way. Conclusions: Stellar spectroscopy in the visible at R ~ 2000 for a large sample of globular clusters is a robust and efficient way to trace the chemical evolution of the host galaxy and to detect interesting objects for follow-up at higher resolution and with forthcoming giant telescopes. The technique used here can also be applied to globular cluster systems in nearby galaxies with current instruments and to distant galaxies with the advent of ELTs. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory/Paranal, Chile, under programmes 68.B-0482(A), 69.D-0455(A), 71.D-0219(A), 077.D-0775(A), and 089.D-0493(B).Full Tables 1 and A.2 with the derived average parameters for the 758 red giant stars are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A9

  11. VLT/ISAAC infrared spectroscopy of embedded high-mass YSOs in the Large Magellanic Cloud: Methanol and the 3.47 μm band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonishi, T.; Dartois, E.; Onaka, T.; Boulanger, F.

    2016-01-01

    only marginally lower than those of the Galactic sources. Conclusions: We propose that grain surface reactions at a relatively high dust temperature (warm ice chemistry) are responsible for the observed characteristics of ice chemical compositions in the LMC; i.e., the low abundance of solid CH3OH presented in this work as well as the high abundance of solid CO2 reported in previous studies. We suggest that this warm ice chemistry is one of the important characteristics of interstellar and circumstellar chemistry in low metallicity environments. The low abundance of CH3OH in the solid phase implies that formation of complex organic molecules from methanol-derived species is less efficient in the LMC. For the 3.47 μm band, the observed difference in the water ice threshold may suggest that a more shielded environment is necessary for the formation of the 3.47 μm band carrier in the LMC. On the one hand, in well-shielded regions of the LMC, our results suggest that the lower metallicity and different interstellar environment of the LMC have little effect on the abundance ratio of the 3.47 μm band carrier and water ice. Based on observations with the Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programme ID 090.C-0497).

  12. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VIII. Multiplicity properties of the O-type star population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dunstall, P. R.; Evans, C. J.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Taylor, W. D.; Walborn, N. R.; Clark, J. S.; Crowther, P. A.; Herrero, A.; Gieles, M.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-02-01

    Context. The Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud is our closest view of a starburst region and is the ideal environment to investigate important questions regarding the formation, evolution and final fate of the most massive stars. Aims: We analyze the multiplicity properties of the massive O-type star population observed through multi-epoch spectroscopy in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. With 360 O-type stars, this is the largest homogeneous sample of massive stars analyzed to date. Methods: We use multi-epoch spectroscopy and variability analysis to identify spectroscopic binaries. We also use a Monte-Carlo method to correct for observational biases. By modeling simultaneously the observed binary fraction, the distributions of the amplitudes of the radial velocity variations and the distribution of the time scales of these variations, we constrain the intrinsic current binary fraction and period and mass-ratio distributions. Results: We observe a spectroscopic binary fraction of 0.35 ± 0.03, which corresponds to the fraction of objects displaying statistically significant radial velocity variations with an amplitude of at least 20 km s-1. We compute the intrinsic binary fraction to be 0.51 ± 0.04. We adopt power-laws to describe the intrinsic period and mass-ratio distributions: f(log 10P/d) ~ (log 10P/d)π (with log 10P/d in the range 0.15-3.5) and f(q) ~ qκ with 0.1 ≤ q = M2/M1 ≤ 1.0. The power-law indexes that best reproduce the observed quantities are π = -0.45 ± 0.30 and κ = -1.0 ± 0.4. The period distribution that we obtain thus favours shorter period systems compared to an Öpik law (π = 0). The mass ratio distribution is slightly skewed towards low mass ratio systems but remains incompatible with a random sampling of a classical mass function (κ = -2.35). The binary fraction seems mostly uniform across the field of view and independent of the spectral types and luminosity classes. The binary fraction in the outer

  13. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabín-Sanjulían, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, also known as the Tarantula nebula, is the nearest starburst region. It contains the richest population of massive stars in the Local Group, and it is thus the best possible laboratory to investigate open questions on the formation and evolution of massive stars. Aims: Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Dor. The sample is large enough to obtain statistically significant information and to search for variations among subpopulations - in terms of spectral type, luminosity class, and spatial location - in the field of view. Methods: We measured projected rotational velocities, νesini, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied to a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, P(νe), of the equatorial rotational velocity, νe. Results: The distribution of νesini shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 kms-1 and a high-velocity tail extending up to ~600 kms-1. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution P(νe) with around 80% of the sample having 0 low-velocity peak is consistent with what has been found in other studies for late O- and early B-type stars. Conclusions: Most of the stars in our sample rotate with a rate less than 20% of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. If massive-star formation results in stars rotating at birth with a large portion of their break-up velocities, an alternative braking mechanism, possibly magnetic fields, is thus required to explain the present

  14. [The laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Paraná State, southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, T G; Arraes, S M; Bertolini, D A; Teodoro, U; Lonardoni, M V; Roberto, A C; Ramos, M; Nerilo Sobrinho, A; Ishikawa, E; Shaw, J

    1999-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1997 a total of 1418 patients were examined at the Clinical Analysis Teaching and Research Laboratory of Maringá State University (LEPAC/UEM) for cutaneous leishmaniasis by direct examination of stained smears made from the lesions, the Montenegro skin test and the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Nine hundred and fifty five patients (67.3%) were positive for at least one of the three tests and of these 804 (84.2%) were considered to have contracted the disease in Paraná State; 665 (69.6%) were between 15 and 49 years old; 658 (68.9%) were males; 523 (54.8%) sought medical advice during the first three months of their infections and 74 (7.7%) had mucosal lesions. Of the 83 counties of Paraná State, where the patients had most probably acquired their infections, 44.7% were from the counties of São Jorge do Ivaí (10.2%), Doutor Camargo (9.8%), Terra Boa (7.3%), Maringá (7.3%), Jussara (6.0%) and Cianorte (4.5%). Seventy seven strains of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were isolated and 63.6% of these strains belong to serodema 1.

  15. Dyke Swarms of the Paraná Triple Junction, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacyr Vianna Coutinho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This work intends primarily to survey the field, mineralogical and petrographic characters of the mafic dykes which occuron a stretch of 650 km along the Southeastern coast of Brazil, between the city of São Sebastião, and the island of SantaCatarina. New chemical and geochronological data are also presented. The coastal dyke swarms are envisaged as the northernand southern arms of a plume-generated triple junction system centered on the Paraná State coast, and related to the initialopening of the South Atlantic. Mafic magma intruded as dyke swarms along three directions: N-S (the southern arm, along theParaná-Santa Catarina coast, NW-SE (Ponta Grossa arch and NE-SW (the northern arm along the São Paulo coast. Fiftytwo dykes, almost all tholeiitic diabases, were mapped and sampled along the south arm coast. The Ponta Grossa arch dykes are chiefly composed of tholeiitic diabases and lesser intrusions of andesitic to rhyolitic composition. Over 240 dykes were sampled and identified along the north arm west of São Sebastião. Lamprophyres are here abundant, followed by diabases, microdiorite porphyries and lesser amounts of trachy-andesite, carbonatite and Precambrian dykes. Special attention was given to the study of lamprophyres, their field appearance relative abundance, mineral and chemical composition, enclaves and relations to neighboring alkaline intrusions.

  16. Regional economic development: an inquiry into the micro-region of Cornelio Procopio, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Vinicius Bernardelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This present study has the purpose of treating about understanding the Norte Pioneiro economic development of Paraná in the micro region of Cornélio Procópio. First, we discuss economic development theories emphasizing the importance of actions that promote local development in a recessionary macroeconomic environment. Through a detailed analysis of the 14 municipalities covered in this study, it can be seen the socioeconomic status of these focusing on the city of Cornelius, from 1991 to 2012. It was noted also that the coffee was the first milestone in the formation of the economy of this region of Paraná. This converged analysis to demonstrate the challenges of building a local development schedule, as well as a proposal for strategies to improve the quality of life of the population of this region. The results of this study are significant and contribute to complement the current discussion about the new directions of local policies in the face of the world economy.

  17. Enzootic instability for bovine anaplasmosis on family farms located in southwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Sott

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the occurence of animals seropositive for Anaplasma marginale in the municipality of Realeza, Paraná State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 344 cows on 18 small farms in the municipality of Realeza-PR. The animals’serum samples were forwarded to the Federal University of Fronteira do Sul, in order to investigate the occurrence of anti-A. marginale IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay commercial kit. IgG antibodies to A. marginale were detected in cattle from 77.7% of the farms. To the best author's knowledge, this is the first report of occurrence of A. marginale in cattle in southwestern Paraná. The serological assay showed that 24.4% of the animals were seropositive, thus characterizing the location investigated as an area of enzootic instability for the disease. The family farms located in the municipality of Realeza-PR showed enzootic instability for bovine anaplasmosis. It is necessary to conduct disease monitoring programs in association with preventive measures in order to ensure the sanitary quality of the herds and to reduce economic losses for the farmers. In addition, it is essential to implement educational extension actions that allow farmers to acquire knowledge, attitudes and perceptions regarding the risk factors that contribute towards herd A. marginale-infection.

  18. Revisiting the history of immigration and colonization in provincial Paraná

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    Joseli Maria Nunes Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits two established themes in the historiography of Paraná: immigration and colonization. Studies dedicated to these themes had a general tendency to focus on the narrow relationship between these two historical experiences, appointing that, in Paraná, colonization was made effective by means of small land owners of foreign origin (the colonials who farmed their land for general supply agriculture. Using sources that have also been largely explored by researchers of regional history – reports from province presidents and legislation – but prioritizing a less-studied period – the years 1850 and 1860 – and presenting questions related to the definition of public politics for the recently-constituted province, the research made evident that the proletarianization was a common experience for the immigrants in that period and that the so-called “nationals” were fundamental agents in the colonization projects then being implemented. The article, therefore, shows the problems of the synonymy constituted by the historiography between the words immigration and colonization, giving evidence to a context of ruptures, indeterminations and multiple expectations.

  19. An Analysis of health conditions in municipalities of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovídio Cesar Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to analyze the health conditions in the municipal districts checking which of them best optimize the available resources, consequently offering more and better services to the population. In this approach, first was characterized the public health in Brazil, in the state of Paraná and in its municipalities. We build a Performance Indicator for each county in the state (PI and used variables representing mortality and longevity - infant mortality, mortality up to five years, life expectancy and probability of achieving 60 years. Regarding variables, those relating to health spending, the analysis period was from 2007 to 2010, the population information refer to the 2010 Census and the related infrastructure and health of the population, were collected at the DATASUS. The work includes all municipalities in the state of Paraná. By analyzing the results it was found that there are municipalities that can equate better their inputs and thus provide better service to its population, consequently your ID is better. Another aspect to consider is that the municipalities considered Big City are less dependent on current transfers both the state and the Union, which also have better PI. The city of Colombo was the one with the best performance indicator, while the municipalities of Cruzmaltina and Cantagalo have the worst state ID.

  20. Zoneamento agroclimático para a cultura do abacateiro no Estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Cristina Zaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O abacateiro apresenta grande diversidade de tolerância a baixas temperaturas devido às suas regiões de origem. As raças mexicanas são mais tolerantes, as raças antilhanas são mais sensíveis e as guatemalenses têm comportamento intermediário. Neste trabalho o zoneamento de riscos climáticos fundamentou-se na severidade das geadas, por meio da análise de séries históricas de temperaturas mínimas em um ambiente de Sistema de Informação Geográfica. Foram identificadas quatro zonas distintas de risco, caracterizando geadas muito fortes e frequentes, onde não se recomenda o cultivo; geadas fortes, onde somente a cultivar Fuerte é recomendada; geadas moderadas, onde somente as cultivares Primavera e Margarida não são recomendadas, e uma zona de baixo risco, no norte e oeste do Paraná, onde todas as cultivares são indicadas. As diversidades de climas no Paraná e as exigências térmicas das cultivares possibilitam a colheita em grande parte do ano por meio da combinação de diferentes cultivares e regiões de plantio.

  1. Low titanium magmatism in northwest region of Paraná continental flood basalts (Brazil: volcanological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. B. Machado

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The early Cretaceous Paraná Continental Flood Basalts (PCFB is considered as one of the largest volcanic provinces in the world. In Brazil, it completes the last sequence of the sedimentary Paraná Basin (Serra Geral Fm.. The geological unit is contemporary to desert sandstones of Botucatu Fm. and precedes the continental sediments of the Bauru Basin. This Large Igneous Province (LIP is divided into different types of geochemical magmas which basically are based on TiO2 content (higher – HTi or lower LTi than 2 wt.% in TiO2 and incompatible trace elements ratio. Therefore, we studied the magma LTi (TiO2 2 > 2.0 wt.%. Based on rheology data considering anhydrous environment and the composition of plagioclase (An(42–67 and clinopyroxene (Wo(30–40En(34–46Fs(17–32 showed that the LTi magma is hotter than HTi, with temperatures that range from 1069 °C to 1248 °C while for the second range from 1020 °C to 1201 °C.

  2. Structural framework and Mesozoic Cenozoic evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, Paraná Basin, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa

    2007-09-01

    The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.

  3. Marketing verde e práticas socioambientais nas indústrias do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Neder Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação das empresas com o meio ambiente e com todas as questões sociais envolvidas em seu processo tem se tornado uma constante nos últimos tempos. Devido a isso, estão surgindo novas formas de administrar os recursos disponíveis. Nesse contexto, enquadra-se o marketing verde que deve estar pautado em práticas ambientalmente corretas, com o intuito de gerar produtos e serviços mais sustentáveis, fortalecendo a imagem das empresas e diferenciando suas marcas no mercado. O intuito neste trabalho foi verificar se as grandes indústrias do Paraná estão se utilizando das práticas de marketing verde e se mantêm projetos de gestão socioambiental. Para atender a tais objetivos, elaborou-se uma pesquisa descritiva e quantitativa com 48 grandes empresas cadastradas na Federação das Indústrias do Paraná. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a maior parte das empresas possui departamento de marketing formalizado, mantém sistemas de gestão ambiental e utiliza moderadamente práticas de marketing verde.

  4. Faunistic survey of Hydromedusae (Cnidaria, Medusozoa) from the coast of Paraná State, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Renato Mitsuo; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Haddad, Maria Angélica

    2014-02-26

    This study is the first faunistic inventory of hydromedusae from the inner continental shelf of Paraná State. We describe the composition of hydromedusae species, collected with bottom-trawl and Hensen nets, in campaigns carried out from 1997 to 2006. We analyzed 17,797 specimens from 578 samples, and provide descriptions, photographs, and information about the biology of the 22 species found. All species had previous records from the Brazilian coast; however, this is the first record of Bougainvillia frondosa, Ectopleura dumortieri, Cirrholovenia tetranema, Eucheilota maculata, Gossea brachymera, Solmaris corona, and Amphogona apsteini for the coast of Paraná. Most species are typical of tropical and subtropical coastal waters from the South Brazilian Bight. However, Turritopsis nutricula, Niobia dendrotentaculata, Solmaris corona, and Aglaura hemistoma are abundant in oceanic waters, and Olindias sambaquiensis and Solmaris corona are associated with colder waters (<20°C). The current number of species known for the state is 26. Additional collection effort is needed in regions not sampled in this work, such as bays and offshore waters.

  5. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

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    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  6. Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

  7. Estudo taxonômico das espécies nativas de Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Taxonomy of native species of Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rodrigues Slusarski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o estudo taxonômico de Hypericum no Estado do Paraná. Este gênero inclui cerca de 350 espécies nas regiões temperadas e subtropicais de todo o mundo. No Brasil, ocorrem 17 espécies, 12 das quais confirmadas para o Estado do Paraná, além de três subespécies, distribuídas em todas as regiões fitogeográficas do Estado, principalmente na estepe gramíneo-lenhosa. Apresenta-se chave de identificação dos táxons, descrições, ilustrações, dados ecológicos e de distribuição geográfica.A taxonomic study of the genus Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae in the state of Paraná was carried out. This genus includes about 350 species, mostly cosmopolitan, occurring in temperate and subtropical regions worldwide. Seventeen species are found in Brazil, with twelve species and three subspecies in Paraná, in all phytogeographic regions of the state, mainly in grasslands. An identification key for the taxa, descriptions, illustrations and data on geographic distribution and ecology are provided.

  8. Serial and subjective clustering on a verbal learning test (VLT) in children aged 5-15: the nature of subjective clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijs, Celeste; Hurks, Petra; Rozendaal, Nico; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated which strategies children aged 5-15 years (N = 408) employ while performing a multitrial free recall test of semantically unrelated words. Serial clustering (i.e., a relatively passive strategy) is an index of the sequential consistency of recall order. Subjective clustering (i.e., a more active strategy) is based on similar word groupings in successive trials. Previously, Meijs et al. (2009) found that the level of (serial and subjective) clustering increases with age. At all ages, the level of serial clustering correlates positively with the ability to recall information on VLT trials. However, subjective clustering is more predictive of VLT performance than serial clustering after ≥ 3 trials, but only in children aged 8+. Knowledge on how children organize words (based on, for example, sound or meaning) and how this relates to developmental stage is still lacking. This study revealed that the level of subjective clustering is primarily determined by the position of words in a VLT list. More specifically, primacy (i.e., recall of words 1-3 of the VLT list - whether recalled in the same order or reversed) and recency (i.e., recall of words 14-15) effects primarily determine level subjective organization over successive trials. Thus, older children still organize words based on the serial position of the VLT list and are much less likely to organize them based on any other feature of the words, for example, sound or meaning. This indicates that the most important information to be learned needs to be presented first or last, even in older children and even with repeated presentations.

  9. Fluxo gênico em soja na Região Oeste do Paraná Soybean gene flow in the Western Region of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o fluxo gênico em soja, na Região Oeste do Paraná. Foram semeados cinco círculos concêntricos, com a cultivar CD 219RR, que contém o gene CP4 EPSPS. Os círculos foram espaçados em 50 cm, com círculo interno de diâmetro de 50 cm. Externamente a estes, foi semeada a cultivar CD 211 (convencional, também em cinco círculos concêntricos, espaçados em 1 m. As plantas da cultivar CD 211 foram colhidas e trilhadas individualmente, e as sementes semeadas novamente no campo. Após a emergência, foram obtidas 151.772 plântulas, as quais, com 15 dias, foram pulverizadas com 900 g ha-1 de i.a. de glifosato. Após uma semana, plantas sobreviventes foram submetidas à análise de PCR, para verificar a presença do gene CP4 EPSPS. A taxa de fecundação cruzada foi de 0,61, 0,29, 0,23, 0,22 e 0,23% respectivamente a 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 m de distância das plantas geneticamente modificadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate soybean gene flow in the Western Region of Paraná. Five concentric circles were sowed with the CD 219RR cultivar, which contains the CP4 EPSPS gene. The circles were spaced in 50 cm and the central circle had 50 cm in diameter. Externally to the CD 219RR circles, five concentric circles were sowed with CD 211 cultivar, a no genetically modified soybean, spaced of 1 m. The CD 211 plants were harvested and threshed separately and the seeds were sowed again. After the emergency, 151,772 seedlings were obtained, which with 15 days were sprayed with 900 g ha-1 a.i. of glyphosate. After one week, the surviving plants were analysed by PCR to verify the CP4 EPSPS gene presence. The cross-pollinating rate was 0.61, 0.29, 0.23, 0.22 and 0.23% in 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m distance of the genetically modified plants, respectively.

  10. Morfometria de raias continentais (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae do alto rio Paraná, Brasil = Morphometry of upper Paraná river freshwater stingrays (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guilherme Cândido da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Potamotrygonidae constitui o único grupo recente de Chondrichthyes cujo habitat está restrito, exclusivamente, a águas continentais. Na planície de inundação do Alto rio Paraná, espécies desta família estabeleceram-se após o fechamento das comportas da usina hidrelétrica de Itaipu, a jusante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, utilizando medidas corporais, identificar diferenças morfométricas entre indivíduos de Potamotrygon cf. motoro (Natterer in Müller & Henle, 1841 e Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963 capturadosnesta região, bem como estimar o tamanho com que machos destas espécies atingem a maturidade gonadal. Machos de P. falkneri e P. cf. motoro das populações avaliadas atingem a maturidade gonadal com largura do disco variando em torno de 26 cm e 23 cm, respectivamente. Na comparação das espécies, P. cf. motoro apresentou maior distânciaproporcional entre as narinas e maior comprimento proporcional da cauda e dos espiráculos. Identificou-se dimorfismo sexual secundário para P. falkneri, consistindo da presença de fileiras laterais de espinhos na cauda das fêmeas. Estudos futuros de morfologiafuncional e ecomorfologia poderão esclarecer o significado das diferenças morfométricas para o modo de vida destas espécies.Potamotrygonidae is the only extant chondrichthyan group restricted exclusively to freshwater. This family invaded the UpperParaná river system after the closing of Itaipu Dam. This study aimed to identify morphometric differences between Potamotrygon cf. motoro (Natterer in Müller & Henle, 1841 and Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963 sampled in that area, and estimate male size at gonadal maturation. P. falkneri and P. cf. motoro males reach gonadal maturation at 26 cm and 23 cm disc width, respectively. Comparing both species, P. cf. motoro presented larger tail, spiracles and distance between nostrils. Lateral small stings on tails ofP. falkneri females were observed as secondary

  11. The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey: Tracing the galaxy stellar mass assembly history over the last 8Gyr

    CERN Document Server

    Vergani, D; Pozzetti, L; Iovino, A; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Zamorani, G; MacCagni, D; Lamareille, F; Le Fèvre, O; Charlot, S; Contini, T; Bottini, D; Le Brun, V; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Arnouts, S; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Ciliegi, P; Foucaud, S; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Paltani, S; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Radovich, M; Zucca, E; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Brinchmann, J; Cucciati, O; De la Torre, S; Gregorini, L; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Temporin, S; Walcher, C J

    2007-01-01

    We select a mass limited sample of 4048 objects from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) in the redshift interval 0.51.3) that continues efficiently down to the local Universe. The underlying stellar ages of LT galaxies apparently do not show evolution, most likely as a result of a continuous and efficient formation of new stars. The activity and efficiency of forming stars are mechanisms depending on galaxy stellar mass, resulting in a largely inefficient stellar mass assembly in massive systems up to z=1.3. The concepts of downsizing in star formation and in mass (or archaeological downsizing) describe a single s cenario which has a top-down evolutionary pattern in star formation as well as in mass assembly. The role of (dry) merging events seems to be only marginal at z<1.3, as our estimated efficiency in stellar mass assembly can account for the progressive accumulation of observed passively evolving galaxies.

  12. VLT FORS2 comparative transmission spectroscopy: Detection of Na in the atmosphere of WASP-39b from the ground

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Gibson, Neale P; Fortney, J J; Evans, Thomas M; Barstow, Joanna K; Kataria, Tiffany; Wilson, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    We present transmission spectroscopy of the warm Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b made with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) across the wavelength range 411-810nm. The transit depth is measured with a typical precision of 240 parts per million (ppm) in wavelength bins of 10nm on a V = 12.1 magnitude star. We detect the sodium absorption feature (3.2-sigma) and find evidence for potassium. The ground-based transmission spectrum is consistent with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical spectroscopy, strengthening the interpretation of WASP-39b having a largely clear atmosphere. Our results demonstrate the great potential of the recently upgraded FORS2 spectrograph for optical transmission spectroscopy, obtaining HST-quality light curves from the ground.

  13. Particle Accelerators in the Hot Spots of the Radio Galaxy 3C445 Imaged With the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, M A; Mack, K H; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Mack, Karl-Heinz

    2002-01-01

    Hot spots (HSs) are regions of enhanced radio emission produced by supersonic jets at the tip of the radio lobes of powerful radiosources. Obtained with the Very Large Telescope (VLT), images of the HSs in the radio galaxy 3C445 show bright knots embedded in diffuse optical emission distributed along the post shock region created by the impact of the jet into the intergalactic medium. The observations reported here confirm that relativistic electrons are accelerated by Fermi-I acceleration processes in HSs. Furthermore, both the diffuse emission tracing the rims of the front shock and the multiple knots demonstrate the presence of additional continuous re-acceleration processes of electrons (Fermi-II).

  14. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey VI: Evidence for rotation of the young massive cluster R136

    CERN Document Server

    Hénault-Brunet, V; Evans, C J; Sana, H; Bastian, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Taylor, W D; Markova, N; Bressert, E; de Koter, A; van Loon, J Th

    2012-01-01

    Although it has important ramifications for both the formation of star clusters and their subsequent dynamical evolution, rotation remains a largely unexplored characteristic of young star clusters (few Myr). Using multi-epoch spectroscopic data of the inner regions of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, we search for rotation of the young massive cluster R136. From the radial velocities of 36 apparently single O-type stars within a projected radius of 10 pc from the centre of the cluster, we find evidence, at the 95% confidence level, for rotation of the cluster as a whole. We use a maximum likelihood method to fit simple rotation curves to our data and find a typical rotational velocity of ~3 km/s. When compared to the low velocity dispersion of R136, our result suggests that star clusters may form with at least ~20% of the kinetic energy in rotation.

  15. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XV. VFTS\\,822: a candidate Herbig B[e] star at low metallicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kalari, V M; Dufton, P L; Evans, C J; Dunstall, P R; Sana, H; Clark, J S; Ellerbroek, L; de Koter, A; Lennon, D J; Taylor, W D

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of the B[e] star VFTS 822 in the 30 Doradus star-forming region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, classified by optical spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey and complementary infrared photometry. VFTS 822 is a relatively low-luminosity (log $L$ = 4.04 $\\pm$ 0.25 $L_{\\odot}$) B8[e] star. In this Letter, we evaluate the evolutionary status of VFTS 822 and discuss its candidacy as a Herbig B[e] star. If the object is indeed in the pre-main sequence phase, it would present an exciting opportunity to measure mass accretion rates at low metallicity spectroscopically, to understand the effect of metallicity on accretion rates.

  16. Polarimetry in Planetary Science—A Step Forward with the VLT and a Need for the ELTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Tozzi, G. P.; Sterzik, M.; Bagnulo, S.; Kolokolova, L.; Muinonen, K.

    2009-09-01

    We present a brief review of polarimetric measurements of solar system objects, both linear and circular, obtained with the FORS1 instrument at the Very Large Telescope VLT over the past years. A number of first and new results have been obtained by using this unique observing mode at an 8 m class telescope, among them polarimetry of faint planetary bodies like near-Earth asteroids, Kuiper Belt objects and cometary nuclei, spectropolarimetry of cometary coma material and of the Earthshine of the Moon (in order to verify that life exists on Earth!). We outline the science cases for planetary polarimetry at a future Extremely Large Telescope ELT and provide high level requirements for polarimetric equipment to be used at the ELTs for the study of the science cases described.

  17. Ground-based astrometry with wide field imagers. V. Application to near-infrared detectors: HAWK-I@VLT/ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libralato, M.; Bellini, A.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Platais, I.; Kissler-Patig, M.; Milone, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    High-precision astrometry requires accurate point-spread function modeling and accurate geometric-distortion corrections. This paper demonstrates that it is possible to achieve both requirements with data collected at the high acuity wide-field K-band imager (HAWK-I), a wide-field imager installed at the Nasmyth focus of UT4/VLT ESO 8 m telescope. Our final astrometric precision reaches ~3 mas per coordinate for a well-exposed star in a single image with a systematic error less than 0.1 mas. We constructed calibrated astro-photometric catalogs and atlases of seven fields: the Baade's window, NGC 6656, NGC 6121, NGC 6822, NGC 6388, NGC 104, and the James Webb Space Telescope calibration field (in the Large Magellanic Cloud). We make these catalogs and images electronically available to the community. Furthermore, as a demonstration of the efficacy of our approach, we combined archival material taken with the optical wide-field imager at the MPI/ESO 2.2 m with HAWK-I observations. We showed that we are able to achieve an excellent separation between cluster members and field objects for NGC 6656 and NGC 6121 with a time base-line of about 8 years. Using both HST and HAWK-I data, we also study the radial distribution of the SGB populations in NGC 6656 and conclude that the radial trend is flat within our uncertainty. We also provide membership probabilities for most of the stars in NGC 6656 and NGC 6121 catalogs and estimate membership for the published variable stars in these two fields. Catalogs, fortran code, and distortion maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A80Based on observations with the 8 m VLT ESO telescope.

  18. TRANSPARENCIA Y LEYES SECRETAS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Contreras V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza el problema de constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas en Chile, en razón de las modificaciones introducidas a la Constitución en el 2005. Primero, describe brevemente el fundamento sobre la publicidad de la ley en el Estado Democrático. Luego, se analiza el nuevo principio constitucional de publicidad establecido en el artículo 8º de la Constitución. Adicionalmente, se examina la constitucionalidad de las leyes secretas desde dos puntos de vista: confrontando la compatibilidad con el principio general de transparencia -como base de la institucionalidad- y analizando la afectación en el contenido esencial del derecho fundamental de acceso a la información pública.

  19. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  20. Los valores del urbanismo en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo López Moya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el mes de junio de 2004 fue presentado al Senado de Chile un proyecto de ley destinado a modificar la Ley General de Urbanismo y Construcciones (LGUC, con el fin de adecuarla para permitir la formación y edificación de «áreas urbanas condicionadas» (AUC. Esto es, conjuntos residenciales urbanos, construidos fuera del límite urbano convencional. Unos, en áreas rurales ubicadas inmediatamente adyacentes al mismo, llamadas «áreas de extensión urbana condicionada» (AEUC, y otros, ubicados en áreas rurales segregadas, denominadas «áreas de desarrollo urbano condicionado» (ADUC.

  1. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Grínor Rojo

    2011-01-01

    Los estudios de los últimos años realizados en Chile sobre lectura, competencia de lectura y lectura de noticias sobre política, revelan valores negativos que rondan el 50. Estos datos, a los que se suman los cuarenta millones de analfabetos en América Latina, están en la base del rechazo en este artículo de la afirmación de la muerte del libro y de la frívola fe en el reemplazo del libro por el uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (llenar de computadoras las escuelas), ...

  2. [From clinical to social bioethics in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León Correa, Francisco Javier

    2008-08-01

    The scope of clinical bioethics must be broadened to a social bioethics that tackles institutional and public health ethical problems and those related to the health system reform. The superficial application of the four bioethical principles is not enough to face these problems and assure a complete respect of individual rights. Using a qualitative research in bioethics, we will be able to deal with those problems that rise from health care in Chile and propose solutions to avoid inequities, to promote a humane care of patients, develop an institutional ethics and provide an efficient protection to people 's rights. We propose to incorporate these social issues to the academic bioethical discussion and to develop a bioethics with complementary principles that can be used to solve cases and in decision making. We should use the means incorporated in our legislation such as Assistance Ethics Committees, Research Ethics Committees and the National Bioethics Commission, to pursue our objectives).

  3. [Ectoparasitosis of clinical importance in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno M, Claudia

    2011-10-01

    Several parasitic diseases affect the skin and appendages in humans, the most common are head lice and scabies. Both diseases have worldwide distribution with geographical variations. In Chile, the reported prevalence of head lice is 20-25% and of scabies 1-5%. Other ectoparasites include fleas and mite, causing transient parasitosis related to human and animal contact. These parasites are associated with various factors such as poor personal hygiene, promiscuity, long hair, crowding, and sharing of combs, among others. Various effective pharmacological therapies are available, which base on several active compounds. Important therapeutic options include topical treatments with pyrethroids, lindane, crotamiton, and malathion as well as oral medications such as ivermectin, which is used in case of drug intolerance, poor treatment response, infections with multiple parasites or concomitant bacterial infections. For some drugs, resistance has been reported in patients received multiple dosis.

  4. Sobre lectura y escritura en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grínor Rojo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de los últimos años realizados en Chile sobre lectura, competencia de lectura y lectura de noticias sobre política, revelan valores negativos que rondan el 50. Estos datos, a los que se suman los cuarenta millones de analfabetos en América Latina, están en la base del rechazo en este artículo de la afirmación de la muerte del libro y de la frívola fe en el reemplazo del libro por el uso de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (llenar de computadoras las escuelas, insistiendo en cambio en atender seriamente a los lazos entre razón, libro y lectura en el desarrollo individual y de la sociedad

  5. Crenicichla gillmorlisi, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Paraná river drainage in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Sven O; De Lucena, Carlos A Santos

    2013-01-01

    Crenicichla gillmorlisi, new species, is described from the río Acaray, a right bank tributary to the río Paraná. It is most similar to C. mandelburgeri in proportional measurements and meristics, but differs in colour pattern, adults having the body covered with small spots.

  6. Condition factor in nine species of fish of the Characidae family in the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIZAMA M. DE LOS A. P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The condition factor for nine species of tropical freshwater fish of the Characidae family in the upper Paraná River floodplain is described. Fish were caught over a period of 12 months (February 1993 to March 1994. Knowledge of the nine species is important for adequate management and maintenance of the biological equilibrium of the ecosystem.

  7. Genetic variability of a population of Aedes aegypti from Paraná, Brazil, using the mitochondrial ND4 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L. Twerdochlib

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability of a population of Aedes aegypti from Paraná, Brazil, using the mitochondrial ND4 gene. To analyze the genetic variability of populations of Aedes aegypti, 156 samples were collected from 10 municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. A 311 base pairs (bp region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 mitochondrial gene was examined. An analysis of this fragment identified eight distinct haplotypes. The mean genetic diversity was high (h = 0.702; p = 0.01556. AMOVA analysis indicated that most of the variation (67% occurred within populations and the F ST value (0.32996 was highly significant. F ST values were significant in most comparisons among cities. The isolation by distance was not significant (r = -0.1216 and p = 0, 7550, indicating that genetic distance is not related to geographic distance. Neighbor-joining analysis showed two genetically distinct groups within Paraná. The DNA polymorphism and AMOVA data indicate a decreased gene flow in populations from Paraná, which can result in increased vectorial competence.

  8. Sustentabilidad empresarial, seguridad energetica y etica ambiental en Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suarez, Andres

    2013-01-01

    ... de una economia internacionalizada como la chilena. Asimismo, analiza conflictos recientes originados en Chile para la provision de energia y las dificultades en la definicion de una matriz energetica, y, finalmente, la influencia de la etica...

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA DIABETES MELLITUS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sapunar Z., MD, MSC, FACP

    2016-03-01

    Finalmente, la frecuencia, morbilidad y mortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, se suman para explicar que el manejo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones consuma el 10,2% del presupuesto en salud de Chile.

  10. Clivajes partidarios y cambios en preferencias distributivas en Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Castillo, Juan; Madero-Cabib, Ignacio; Salamovich, Alan

    2013-01-01

    .... El presente articulo cuestiona este supuesto, proponiendo que procesos de desestructuracion ideologica han llevado a que la identificacion con partidos no constituya actualmente un elemento de clivaje politico en Chile...

  11. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  12. O ensino de jornalismo no Paraná: desafios para o século XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Otávio Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo apresenta as primeiras reflexões sobre projeto de pesquisa que tem como objetivo analisar o ensino do jornalismo no estado do Paraná, na região sul do Brasil. Esse estudo está em andamento no programa de doutorado em Educação da Universidade Federal do Paraná e dará importante contribuição à atividade acadêmica desenvolvida em conjunto com a Universidade de Lyon II, na França, cujo  tema é o das Novas Práticas Jornalísticas. Pretende-se com a proposta esboçar as características do ensino de jornalismo das universidades públicas e particulares, considerando as práticas pedagógicas frente às Novas Tecnologias da Informação e da Comunicação e a formação do profissional para o século XXI. Isso tem exigido cada vez preparado do jornalista  para um mercado de trabalho de multiplataformas, com novas possibilidades de publicações e acesso ilimitado de leitores à informação. Nessa fase inicial, a pesquisa concentra-se em problemas-chave, como analisar as matrizes curriculares dos cursos de jornalismo das universidades; identificar disciplinas que preparem o aluno para atuar em um ambiente tecnológico; domínio de técnicas e ferramentas do jornalismo digital; e observar as práticas jornalísticas no cotidiano das empresas de comunicação paranaenses. Considera-se, ainda, que a presente pesquisa encontra um cenário de incertezas e inquietações, no momento em que as instituições de ensino superior enfrentam a difícil tarefa de elaborar um projeto pedagógico de acordo com as novas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para o curso de graduação em Jornalismo. Tais diretrizes foram homologadas pelo Ministério da Educação, em setembro de 2013, com prazo de implantação até 2015.   Palavras-chave: Jornalismo. Comunicação. Tecnologias. Currículo.Universidades.                             ABSTRACT This article presents the first reflections on a research project that aims to

  13. O ensino de jornalismo no Paraná: desafios para o século XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Otávio Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo apresenta as primeiras reflexões sobre projeto de pesquisa que tem como objetivo analisar o ensino do jornalismo no estado do Paraná, na região sul do Brasil. Esse estudo está em andamento no programa de doutorado em Educação da Universidade Federal do Paraná e dará importante contribuição à atividade acadêmica desenvolvida em conjunto com a Universidade de Lyon II, na França, cujo  tema é o das Novas Práticas Jornalísticas. Pretende-se com a proposta esboçar as características do ensino de jornalismo das universidades públicas e particulares, considerando as práticas pedagógicas frente às Novas Tecnologias da Informação e da Comunicação e a formação do profissional para o século XXI. Isso tem exigido cada vez preparado do jornalista  para um mercado de trabalho de multiplataformas, com novas possibilidades de publicações e acesso ilimitado de leitores à informação. Nessa fase inicial, a pesquisa concentra-se em problemas-chave, como analisar as matrizes curriculares dos cursos de jornalismo das universidades; identificar disciplinas que preparem o aluno para atuar em um ambiente tecnológico; domínio de técnicas e ferramentas do jornalismo digital; e observar as práticas jornalísticas no cotidiano das empresas de comunicação paranaenses. Considera-se, ainda, que a presente pesquisa encontra um cenário de incertezas e inquietações, no momento em que as instituições de ensino superior enfrentam a difícil tarefa de elaborar um projeto pedagógico de acordo com as novas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para o curso de graduação em Jornalismo. Tais diretrizes foram homologadas pelo Ministério da Educação, em setembro de 2013, com prazo de implantação até 2015.   Palavras-chave: Jornalismo. Comunicação. Tecnologias. Currículo.Universidades.                             ABSTRACT This article presents the first reflections on a research project that aims to

  14. Desertificação no Norte do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Madaleno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available DESERTIFICATION IN NORTHERN CHILE. The paper evaluates how human intervention over millennia in extreme northern Chilean areas led to natural resources depredation observed and registered during 2003 and 2004 Portuguese Tropical Research Institute scientific missions. Shrinking and recently even depleted water resources are obviously fundamental for Aymara Indian communities survival; contributing to damage all together extensive Tarapacá and Antofagasta regions in Chile; known for tracts of extreme aridity.

  15. Wirtschaftliche Stellung deutscher Unternehmen in Chile: Ergebnisse einer empirischen Analyse

    OpenAIRE

    Kassai, László B.

    2014-01-01

    Die Abschätzung der wirtschaftlichen Bedeutung deutscher Unternehmen in Chile anhand der Auswertung von 14 schriftlichen Interviews mit deutschen Tochtergesellschaften im Jahre 1987 ist der Inhalt dieses Beitrages. Die Einordnung erfolgt vor dem Hintergrund sowohl der wirtschaftlichen Situation der ganzen Region (Lateinamerika) als auch der industriellen Entwicklung in Chile bis 1987. Die Analyse kommt zum Schluß, daß die im Durchschnitt lang ansässigen Unternehmen a) eine rege Innovations...

  16. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-30

    Enfermedades Infecciosas (the Infectious Disease Hospital) of Santiago. She has been collecting the names and addresses of women admitted with typhoid fever at...Santiago, Chile 3. Hospital de Enfermedades Infecciosas , Santiago, Chile 4. Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201...PRESUNTIVO: 7-7 FIEBRE TIFOIDEA III. ANTECEDENTES PR.EVIOS AL EXAMEN: FIEBRE SI r7 NO P1 DURACION . CONSTIPACION’ SI T-7 NO P1 DIARREA S I P_7 NO r7

  17. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-12

    Chile: Country Report,” Economist Intelligence Unit, December 2008. 32 Eva Vergara, “Bachelet Crea Comisión para Enfrenter Desempleo por Crisis...sexual and labor exploitation. The U.S. Department of State’s 2008 Trafficking in Persons (TIP) Report states that Chile does not fully comply with the...minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking because it’s statutory framework does not specifically prohibit labor trafficking. However

  18. Taphonomy of Condensed Shell Storm beds of the Teresina Formation in Rio Preto (State of Paraná, Middle Permian, Paraná Basin: Paleoenvironmental Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Peixoto Neves

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The deposits of the Permian Teresina Formation are mainly characterized by fi ne-grained siliciclastic rocks and centimetricintercalations of tempestites (bioclastic sandstones and coquinas. Despite the relevance of the bivalve-rich carbonate bedsof the Teresina Formation to paleoenvironmental studies, their taphonomy is still poorly studied. The fossil concentrationstudied in this work was found in a quarry in the city of Irati, Rio Preto district, Paraná State. The fossil concentration is locatedin the middle/upper portion of the unit, far from the top. The studied bed is a bioclastic, intraclastic, peloidal, grainstone/packstone, with abundant bivalve shell fragments, pelitic and micritic intraclasts, peloids, rare ooids and oncoids, as well aspermineralized of Lycophyta microphylles and fi sh scales. The grains of this carbonate concentration show: high degree oftime-averaging, variable degree of packing (dense to disperse, no sorting and chaotic orientation. Notably, the concentrationincludes a mixture of elements which are indicative of: a restrictive, low energy, carbonate environment (peloids, ooidsand oncoids; b subaerial environment surrounding the main body of water (Lycophyta microphylles and c quiet-waterenvironment punctuated by storm events, where the suspension-feeding bivalves thrived. At least four depositional eventscaused by storm fl ows were recorded. The amalgamated nature of the bed is a result of storm events in an intracratonic basinwith very low seafl oor slope and low rates of sedimentation and subsidence.

  19. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  20. Gallbladder cancer and nutritional risk factors in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2016-02-16

    Gallbladder cancer is the most malign neoplasm of the biliary tract. Chile presents the third highest prevalence of gallbladder cancer in the Americas, being Chilean women from the city of Valdivia the ones with the highest prevalence. The main risk factors associated with gallbladder cancer are: sex, cholelithiasis, obesity, ethnicity, chronic inflammation, history of infection diseases such as Helicobacter pyloriand Salmonellaand family history of gallbladder cancer. In Chile gallbladder cancer mortality is close to prevalence level. This is related to the silent symptomatology of this cancer, as well as the lack of specific symptoms. The high prevalence of obesity and infectious diseases present in Chile are two of the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer and Chile has prevalence of obesity close to 30%. The aim of this literary review is to inform and summarize the main risk factors of gallbladder cancer that are prevalent in Chile, in order to be able to focus preventive and management interventions of this risk factor for the reduction in prevalence and mortality of gallbladder cancer in Chile.