WorldWideScience

Sample records for vlt paranal chile

  1. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This has been a busy, but also a very successful and rewarding week for the European Southern Observatory and its staff. While "First Light" was achieved at the second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope (UT2) ahead of schedule, UT1 produced its sharpest image so far. This happened at a moment of exceptional observing conditions in the night between March 4 and 5, 1999. During a 6-min exposure of the majestic spiral galaxy, NGC 2997 , stellar images of only 0.25 arcsec FWHM (full-width half-maximum) were recorded. This and two other frames of nearly the same quality have provided the base for the beautiful colour-composite shown above. At this excellent angular resolution, individual star forming regions are well visible along the spiral arms. Of particular interest is the peculiar, twisted shape of the long spiral arm to the right. The Paranal Inauguration The official inauguration of the Paranal Observatory took place in the afternoon of March 5, 1999, in the presence of His Excellency, the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, and ministers of his cabinet, as well the Ambassadors to Chile of the ESO member states and many other distinguished guests. The President of the ESO Council, Mr. Henrik Grage, and the ESO Director General, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, were the foremost representatives of the ESO organisation; most members of the ESO Council and ESO staff also participated. A substantial number of media representatives from Europe and Chile were present and reported - often live - from Paranal during the afternoon and evening. The guests were shown the impressive installations at the new observatory, including the first and second 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes; the latter having achieved "First Light" just four days before. A festive ceremony took place in the dome of UT2, under the large telescope structure that had been tilted towards the horizon to make place for the numerous participants. After an introductory address by the ESO Director

  2. Happy Anniversary, VLT !

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Five years at the service of Europe's astronomers VLT 5 Years One of the world's most advanced astronomical research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory in the Chilean Atacama desert, celebrates an important anniversary today. On April 1, 1999, and following almost one year of extensive tests and careful trimming of its numerous high-tech parts, the first 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, Antu (UT1), was "handed over" to the astronomers. Since that date, science operations with this marvellous research tool have been continuous and intensive. Kueyen (UT2) started normal operations exactly one year later. Yepun (UT4) was offered to the scientific community in June 2001, while Melipal (UT3) followed in August 2001 [1]. Ever since, all four VLT Unit Telescopes, with an ever-growing suite of highly specialised, extremely powerful astronomical instruments have been in full operation, 365 nights a year. And this with unequalled success, as demonstrated by a long list of important scientific results, including a substantial number of exciting discoveries that are now opening new horizons in astrophysics. Moreover, thanks to heroic and persistent efforts by the dedicated teams of ESO scientists and engineers, the "downtime" due to technical problems has been very small, about 3 per cent, a number that is unequalled among the world's large telescope facilities. In addition, the weather conditions at the Paranal site in the dry Atacama desert in Northern Chile are truly excellent - this is indeed one of the best locations for astronomical observations on the surface of the Earth - and the corresponding "weather downtime" has only been around 10 per cent. This has resulted in an unbelievably low value of total downtime, most likely a new world record for ground-based 8-10 m class telescopes. VLT strong points The Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the world's largest and most advanced optical telescope. It comprises four 8.2-m reflecting Unit

  3. "Clouds" above Paranal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    fulfilling the condition attached to the donation. The excavation work began at Paranal in 1992. When it was over in late 1993, a total of 300,000 m^3 of rock had been removed, creating a platform large enough for the extensive VLT installations at the top. In December 1993, ESO signed a contract with the Swedish firm SKANSKA-Belfry Ltd. for the construction of the VLT foundations and buildings. The team from this firm joined the other contractors (geological survey, installation of water tanks, etc.) at Paranal in January 1994. LEGAL PROBLEMS AROUND PARANAL However, in March 1993, the descendants of Admiral Juan Jose Latorre claimed that a part of the land which was donated to ESO and, in particular, the site upon which the VLT is to be constructed, had earlier been given to the admiral in return for his services to his fatherland during the Chilean wars of the late 19th century. The Latorre family introduced with the Court of Antofagasta a law suit against the State of Chile and against ESO, demanding that its property in this part of the land be recognized, that the land be returned and that damage be paid. The law suit and several legal actions of the Latorre family connected therewith have been brought to the attention of the public. Related public statements require that ESO makes the following comments and corrections. This is all the more the case since ESO enjoys in Chile a special legal status, the particulars of which are not well known there, apparently not even among members of the legal profession. The European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere is an International Organisation which carries out its official activities in Chile on the basis of an international treaty that operates between the Government of Chile and ESO. The relations between the Organisation and the Republic of Chile are thus relations between two subjects of international law and they are as such exclusively governed by international law, in particular by the

  4. Coming Home at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    form bridges between the surrounding Paranal desert and the interior. Simple, but elegant furnishing and specially manufactured carpeting complement a strong design of perspectives. The Republic of Chile, the host state for the ESO Paranal Observatory, is present with its emblematic painter Roberto Matta . Additional space is also provided for a regional art and activity display. The staff moved out of the containers and into their new home in mid-January 2002. Today, the Paranal Residencia has already become a symbol of innovative architecture in its own right, an impressively elegant and utilitarian counterpart to the VLT high-tech facilities poised some two hundred meters above, on the top of the mountain. Some building characteristics * Construction initiated in 1998 * Area: 10000 m 2 * Total cost: 12 Million Euro (less than 2% of the total cost of the VLT project), approx. 1200 Euro/m 2 * 108 bedrooms, each with 16 m 2 * Cantine capacity for 200 persons * 22 offices * 5 terraces/viewpoints * 70-seat cinema room * Multiple meeting areas * Double room library * Building management control for the environment and the lighting * Swimming pool; water treatment and grey water recirculation * Modular concept with potential for extension to 200 rooms * Completely light-tight and with a high level of sound insulation * Communication network with phone and TV-set in each room * Main contractors: Vial y Vives, Petricio Industrial, Koch The Paranal Residencia: A Photo Collection

  5. The VLT Opening Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Scientists Meet in Antofagasta to Discuss Front-Line Astrophysics To mark the beginning of the VLT era, the European Southern Observatory is organizing a VLT Opening Symposium which will take place in Antofagasta (Chile) on 1-4 March 1999, just before the start of regular observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope on April 1, 1999. The Symposium occupies four full days and is held on the campus of the Universidad Catolica del Norte. It consists of plenary sessions on "Science in the VLT Era and Beyond" and three parallel Workshops on "Clusters of Galaxies at High Redshift" , "Star-way to the Universe" and "From Extrasolar Planets to Brown Dwarfs" . There will be many presentations of recent work at the major astronomical facilities in the world. The meeting provides a very useful forum to discuss the latest developments and, in this sense, contributes to the planning of future research with the VLT and other large telescopes. The symposium will be opened with a talk by the ESO Director General, Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , on "Paranal - an observatory for the 21st century". It will be followed by reports about the first scientific results from the main astronomical instruments on VLT UT1, FORS1 and ISAAC. The Symposium participants will see the VLT in operation during special visits to the Paranal Observatory. Press conferences are being arranged each afternoon to inform about the highlights of the conference. After the Symposium, there will be an Official Inauguration Ceremony at Paranal on 5 March Contributions from ESO ESO scientists will make several presentations at the Symposium. They include general reviews of various research fields as well as important new data and results from the VLT that show the great potential of this new astronomical facility. Some of the recent work is described in this Press Release, together with images and spectra of a large variety of objects. Note that all of these data will soon become publicly available via the VLT Archive

  6. VLT Data Flow System Begins Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Building a Terabyte Archive at the ESO Headquarters The ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the sum of many sophisticated parts. The site at Cerro Paranal in the dry Atacama desert in Northern Chile is one of the best locations for astronomical observations from the surface of the Earth. Each of the four 8.2-m telescopes is a technological marvel with self-adjusting optics placed in a gigantic mechanical structure of the utmost precision, continuously controlled by advanced soft- and hardware. A multitude of extremely complex instruments with sensitive detectors capture the faint light from distant objects in the Universe and record the digital data fast and efficiently as images and spectra, with a minimum of induced noise. And now the next crucial link in this chain is in place. A few nights ago, following an extended test period, the VLT Data Flow System began providing the astronomers with a steady stream of high-quality, calibrated image and spectral data, ready to be interpreted. The VLT project has entered into a new phase with a larger degree of automation. Indeed, the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope, ANTU, with the FORS1 and ISAAC instruments, has now become a true astronomy machine . A smooth flow of data through the entire system ESO PR Photo 25a/99 ESO PR Photo 25a/99 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 292 pix - 104k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 584 pix - 264k] [High-Res - JPEG: 3000 x 2189 pix - 1.5M] Caption to ESO PR Photo 25a/99 : Simplified flow diagramme for the VLT Data Flow System . It is a closed-loop software system which incorporates various subsystems that track the flow of data all the way from the submission of proposals to storage of the acquired data in the VLT Science Archive Facility. The DFS main components are: Program Handling, Observation Handling, Telescope Control System, Science Archive, Pipeline and Quality Control. Arrows indicate lines of feedback. Already from the start of this project more than ten years ago, the ESO Very Large Telescope was

  7. Software and control system for the VLT Survey Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipani, P; Marty, L; Dall'Ora, M; D'Orsi, S; Argomedo, J; Arcidiacono, C; Farinato, J; Magrin, D; Ragazzoni, R; Umbriaco, G

    2013-01-01

    The VLT Survey Telescope (VST) has started the regular operations in 2011 after a successful commissioning at Cerro Paranal (Chile), the site which hosts the best facilities for optical astronomy operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). After a short description of the instrument, this paper mainly focuses on the telescope control software, which is in charge of the real-time control of the hardware and of the overall coordination of the operations, including pointing and tracking, active optics and presets. We describe the main features of the software implementation in the context of the ESO observatory standards, and the goals reached during the commissioning phase and in the first year of operations.

  8. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  9. With the VLT Interferometer towards Sharper Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre Opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) European science and technology will gain further strength when the new, front-line Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) opens in Leiden (The Netherlands) this week. It is a joint venture of the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) (itself a collaboration between the Universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden, and Utrecht) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is concerned with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). The Inauguration of the new Centre will take place on Friday, May 26, 2000, at the Gorlaeus Laboratory (Lecture Hall no. 1), Einsteinweg 55 2333 CC Leiden; the programme is available on the web. Media representatives who would like to participate in this event and who want further details should contact the Nova Information Centre (e-mail: jacques@astro.uva.nl; Tel: +31-20-5257480 or +31-6-246 525 46). The inaugural ceremony is preceded by a scientific workshop on ground and space-based optical interferometry. NEVEC: A Technology Centre of Excellence As a joint project of NOVA and ESO, NEVEC will develop in the coming years the expertise to exploit the unique interferometric possibilities of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) - now being built on Paranal mountain in Chile. Its primary goals are the * development of instrument modeling, data reduction and calibration techniques for the VLTI; * accumulation of expertise relevant for second-generation VLTI instruments; and * education in the use of the VLTI and related matters. NEVEC will develop optical equipment, simulations and software to enable interferometry with VLT [1]. The new Center provides a strong impulse to Dutch participation in the VLTI. With direct involvement in this R&D work, the scientists at NOVA will be in the front row to do observations with this unique research facility, bound to produce top-level research and many exciting new discoveries. The ESO VLTI at Paranal ESO PR Photo 14a/00

  10. First Images from VLT Science Verification Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Two Weeks of Intensive Observations Successfully Concluded After a period of technical commissioning tests, the first 8.2-m telescope of the ESO VLT (UT1) has successfully performed an extensive series of "real science" observations , yielding nearly 100 hours of precious data. They concern all possible types of astronomical objects, from distant galaxies and quasars to pulsars, star clusters and solar system objects. This intensive Science Verification (SV) Programme took place as planned from August 17 to September 1, 1998, and was conducted by the ESO SV Team at the VLT Observatory on Paranal (Chile) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). The new giant telescope lived fully up to the high expectations and worked with spectacular efficiency and performance through the entire period. All data will be released by September 30 via the VLT archive and the web (with some access restrictions - see below). The Science Verification period Just before the beginning of the SV period, the 8.2-m primary mirror in its cell was temporarily removed in order to install the "M3 tower" with the tertiary mirror [1]. The reassembly began on August 15 and included re-installation at the Cassegrain focus of the VLT Test Camera that was also used for the "First Light" images in May 1998. After careful optical alignment and various system tests, the UT1 was handed over to the SV Team on August 17 at midnight local time. The first SV observations began immediately thereafter and the SV Team was active 24 hours a day throughout the two-week period. Video-conferences between Garching and Paranal took place every day at about noon Garching time (6 o'clock in the morning on Paranal). Then, while the Paranal observers were sleeping, data from the previous night were inspected and reduced in Garching, with feedback on what was best to do during the following night being emailed to Paranal several hours in advance of the beginning of the observations. The campaign ended in the

  11. VLT instruments: industrial solutions for non-scientific detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, P.; Knudstrup, J.; Lilley, P.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Mannetta, M.

    2014-07-01

    . ESPRESSO is a fiber-fed, cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph that will be located in the Combined-Coudé Laboratory of the VLT in the Paranal Observatory in Chile. It will be able to operate either using the light of any of the UT's or using the incoherently combined light of up to four UT's. The stabilization of the incoming beam is achieved by dedicated piezo systems controlled via active loops closed on 4 + 4 dedicated TCCD's for the stabilization of the pupil image and of the field with a frequency goal of 3 Hz on a 2nd to 3rd magnitude star. An additional 9th TCCD system shall be used as an exposure-meter. In this paper we will present the technical CCD solution for future VLT instruments.

  12. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    the litigation in Chilean courts about the ownership of the Paranal lands, has repeatedly expressed that the European Organisation is not party of the juridical proceedings. At the same time, the Chilean Government has assured ESO that it will attempt to arrive in the shortest possible time at a solution which definitively resolves the question of ownership and enables ESO to continue its activities at Paranal and all its properties in Chile, without external interference of any type. Concerning ESO's juridical immunity on all of the territory of Chile, the Government of Chile has indicated to ESO that these immunities are clearly stipulated in the 1963 Convention and that it is applicable to all properties and possessions of the Organisation, wherever they are located in Chile. Those properties, according to the Convention, should only be used by the Organisation in Chile for scientific and official purposes. In this spirit of good will and cooperation with the Government and the people of Chile, ESO has expressed its inclination to begin a dialogue with the appropriate Chilean authorities about the use of a major part of its property around Cerro Paranal for activities of scientific character or any others that do not adversely influence the astronomical quality of this site. The Government of Chile and ESO wish to express publicly their desire to continue to work towards the resolution of common problems in a spirit of mutual respect and full collaboration. The signing of this Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement initiates a new era of relations between Chile and ESO in the conviction that the Chilean and European scientific communities will henceforth share the important scientific discoveries which will be done with the VLT facility at Cerro Paranal. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European

  13. ESO Council Visits First VLT Unit Telescope Structure in Milan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    ), Luigi Guiffrida (SOIMI), Gianpietro Marchiori (EIE) and Prof. Massimo Tarenghi (ESO), describing the very successful implementation of this major VLT contract that was awarded by ESO in September 1991 [2]. All speakers praised the good collaboration between ESO and its industrial partners and Prof. Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO, expressed his satisfaction `with the splendid performance of the ESO-Industry team which was bringing us close to the realisation of the premier telescope array in optical ground-based astronomy in the world'. The participants were also pleased to listen to several of the Italian engineers present who commented on the very positive experience of being personally involved in the world's largest telescope project. The VLT telescope structures incorporate many new technological concepts. Thanks to these and careful planning of the many components and their integration, it has been possible to achieve, among others, light weight construction, high mechanical stiffness, good thermal equilibrium with the ambient air (of importance for the seeing during the observations), low electromagnetic emissitivity (i.e. low interference with the sensitive astronomical instruments) and easy maintainability. Of particular interest is also the giant, direct drive system with a diameter of 9 metres and the sophisticated, innovative laser encoder system. In this way, there is no direct contact between the moving parts and the friction during the rotation is kept at an absolute minimum. The Next Steps The ESO VLT project is now entering into a decisive phase and the next years will see an increasing number of telescope parts and instruments from the scientific and industrial laboratories of Europe converging towards the VLT observatory at Cerro Paranal in Chile. It is gratifying that, despite its high degree of complexity and incorporation of a substantial number of new technologies, the project is within schedule and budget. There will be several

  14. Solar Games at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Cerro Paranal, home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, is certainly one of the best astronomical sites on the planet. Stunning images, obtained by ESO staff at Paranal, of the green and blue flashes, as well as of the so-called 'Gegenschein', are real cases in point. Green Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 12a/08 Green Flash at Paranal The Earth's atmosphere is a gigantic prism that disperses sunlight. In the most ideal atmospheric conditions, such as those found regularly above Cerro Paranal, this will lead to the appearance of so-called green and blue flashes at sunset. The phenomenon is so popular on the site that it is now the tradition for the Paranal staff to gather daily on the telescope platform to observe the sunset and its possible green flash before starting their long night of observations. The green and blue flashes are fleeting events that require an unobstructed view of the setting Sun, and a very stable atmosphere. These conditions are very often met at Paranal, a 2635m high mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, where the sky is cloudless more than 300 days a year. Paranal is home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, an ensemble of four 8.2-m telescopes and four 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes that together form the world's most advanced optical telescope. Blue Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 12b/08 Blue Flash at Paranal ESO staff Stéphane Guisard has been chasing green flashes for many years and has been able to capture them on many occasions. The picture shown above is one of many examples from his collection. "The most challenging is to capture the green flash while still seeing the rest of the Sun with all its colours," says Guisard. His colleague Guillaume Blanchard was even luckier. On Christmas Eve, as he was one of the few to follow the tradition of looking at the sunset, he had the chance to immortalise a blue flash using his hobby telescope. ESO astronomer Yuri Beletsky also likes to take photographs from Paranal, but he prefers the night views. This allows

  15. Multiple Eyes for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    gravitationally. Notes [1]: This is a joint Press Release of ESO and the Observatoire de Paris (cf. http://www.obspm.fr/actual/nouvelle/jan02/flames.shtml ). [2]:The GIRAFFE team at the Observatoire de Paris that has developed the Integral Field Units (IFUs) discussed in this Press Release includes Jean-Pierre Aoustin, Sebastien Baratchart, Patrice Barroso, Veronique Cayatte, Laurent Chemin, Florence Cornu, Jean Cretenet, Jean-Paul Danton, Hector Flores, Francoise Gex, Fabien Guillon, Isabelle Guinouard, Francois Hammer, Jacques Hammes, David Horville, Jean-Michel Huet, Laurent Jocou, Pierre Kerlirzin, Serge Lebourg, Hugo Lenoir, Claude Lesqueren, Regis Marichal, Michel Marteaud, Thierry Melse, Fabrice Peltier, Francois Rigaud, Frederic Sayede and Pascal Vola . [3]: It is expected to ship the various components of the FLAMES instrument to the VLT Observatory at Paranal (Chile) during the next month. "First Light" is scheduled to take place some weeks thereafter, following installation at the telescope and extensive system tests. ESO will issue another Press Release with more details on that occasion.

  16. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  17. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  18. Expectations Increase as VLT First Light Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Two weeks before the moment of "First Light" of Unit Telescope no. 1 of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) , the ESO Team at the Paranal Observatory reports good progress of the preparatory work. The crucial optimization of the world's first, thin 8.2-metre mirror proceeds according to the established plan. It is thus expected that this important event will take place as foreseen, i.e. during the night of May 25-26, 1998 . If no unforeseen obstacles are encountered, the first scientific images will then be presented during a series of near-simultaneous Press Conferences in the ESO member countries on May 27 . The photos will be published on the WWW the same day, together with explanatory texts. In preliminary optical tests at the first VLT Unit Telescope (UT1), the initial adjustment of the active optics system that controls the telescope optics has demonstrated excellent results. In particular, the first tests have verified the fine optical performance of the 8.2-m primary mirror and of the complex control system that maintains the shape of this thin and flexible Zerodur mirror. In short test exposures with the guide probe (the technical device that is used to steer the telescope) - i.e., not yet with the scientific CCD-camera that will be used for the First Light images - the telescope has been following the external seeing provided by the Paranal site. Image quality of better than 0.5 arcsec has been achieved routinely. "We are pleased with the progress and confident that the telescope will live up to the expectations", says Riccardo Giacconi , Director General of ESO. "The team at Paranal is doing a great job." For more details about the various media activities surrounding the VLT First Light event, please consult the First Light homepage. A list of locations, times and contact addresses for the Press Conferences is available on the web. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http

  19. New Paranal Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Last year saw very good progress at ESO's Paranal Observatory , the site of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The third and fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescopes, MELIPAL and YEPUN had "First Light" (cf. PR 01/00 and PR 18/00 ), while the first two, ANTU and KUEYEN , were busy collecting first-class data for hundreds of astronomers. Meanwhile, work continued towards the next phase of the VLT project, the combination of the telescopes into the VLT Interferometer. The test instrument, VINCI (cf. PR 22/00 ) is now being installed in the VLTI Laboratory at the centre of the observing platform on the top of Paranal. Below is a new collection of video sequences and photos that illustrate the latest developments at the Paranal Observatory. The were obtained by the EPR Video Team in December 2000. The photos are available in different formats, including "high-resolution" that is suitable for reproduction purposes. A related ESO Video News Reel for professional broadcasters will soon become available and will be announced via the usual channels. Overview Paranal Observatory (Dec. 2000) Video Clip 02a/01 [MPEG - 4.5Mb] ESO PR Video Clip 02a/01 "Paranal Observatory (December 2000)" (4875 frames/3:15 min) [MPEG Video+Audio; 160x120 pix; 4.5Mb] [MPEG Video+Audio; 320x240 pix; 13.5 Mb] [RealMedia; streaming; 34kps] [RealMedia; streaming; 200kps] ESO Video Clip 02a/01 shows some of the construction activities at the Paranal Observatory in December 2000, beginning with a general view of the site. Then follow views of the Residencia , a building that has been designed by Architects Auer and Weber in Munich - it integrates very well into the desert, creating a welcome recreational site for staff and visitors in this harsh environment. The next scenes focus on the "stations" for the auxiliary telescopes for the VLTI and the installation of two delay lines in the 140-m long underground tunnel. The following part of the video clip shows the start-up of the excavation work for the 2.6-m VLT Survey

  20. MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    First Instruments for the VLT Interferometer Summary A few months from now, light from celestial objects will be directed for the first time towards ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). During this "First Light" event and the subsequent test phase, the light will be recorded with a special test instrument, VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument). The main components of this high-tech instrument are aptly named MONA (a system that combines the light beams from several telescopes by means of optical fibers) and LISA (the infrared camera). VINCI was designed and constructed within a fruitful collaboration between ESO and several research institutes and industrial companies in France and Germany . It is now being assembled at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will soon be ready for installation at the telescope on Paranal. With the VLTI and VINCI, Europe's astronomers are now entering the first, crucial phase of an exciting scientific and technology venture that will ultimately put the world's most powerful optical/IR interferometric facility in their hands . PR Photo 31/00 : VINCI during tests at the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) ESO Press Photo 31/00 ESO Press Photo 31/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 301; 43k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 602;208xk] [Full-Res; JPEG: 1923 x 1448; 2.2Mb] PR Photo 31/00 shows the various components of the complex VINCI instrument for the VLT Interferometer , during the current tests at the Optical Laboratory at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). It will later be installed in "clean-room" conditions within the Interferometric Laboratory at the Paranal Observatory. This electronic photo was obtained for documentary purposes. VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument) is the "First Light" instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Early in 2001, it will be used for the first tests

  1. Fourth Light at Paranal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    VLT YEPUN Joins ANTU, KUEYEN and MELIPAL It was a historical moment last night (September 3 - 4, 2000) in the VLT Control Room at the Paranal Observatory , after nearly 15 years of hard work. Finally, four teams of astronomers and engineers were sitting at the terminals - and each team with access to an 8.2-m telescope! From now on, the powerful "Paranal Quartet" will be observing night after night, with a combined mirror surface of more than 210 m 2. And beginning next year, some of them will be linked to form part of the unique VLT Interferometer with unparalleled sensitivity and image sharpness. YEPUN "First Light" Early in the evening, the fourth 8.2-m Unit Telescope, YEPUN , was pointed to the sky for the first time and successfully achieved "First Light". Following a few technical exposures, a series of "first light" photos was made of several astronomical objects with the VLT Test Camera. This instrument was also used for the three previous "First Light" events for ANTU ( May 1998 ), KUEYEN ( March 1999 ) and MELIPAL ( January 2000 ). These images served to evaluate provisionally the performance of the new telescope, mainly in terms of mechanical and optical quality. The ESO staff were very pleased with the results and pronounced YEPUN fit for the subsequent commissioning phase. When the name YEPUN was first given to the fourth VLT Unit Telescope, it was supposed to mean "Sirius" in the Mapuche language. However, doubts have since arisen about this translation and a detailed investigation now indicates that the correct meaning is "Venus" (as the Evening Star). For a detailed explanation, please consult the essay On the Meaning of "YEPUN" , now available at the ESO website. The first images At 21:39 hrs local time (01:39 UT), YEPUN was turned to point in the direction of a dense Milky Way field, near the border between the constellations Sagitta (The Arrow) and Aquila (The Eagle). A guide star was acquired and the active optics system quickly optimized the

  2. First Giant Mirror for the ESO VLT Ready at REOSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    with a replacement value of about 20 million DEM, was transported from Mainz to Saint Pierre du Perray in July 1993. The shaping and polishing phases lasted two years and were completed in October 1995. After one month's hard work, dedicated to optical and mechanical verifications by ESO and REOSC, the mirror's various characteristics have now been found to be in accordance with the contract specifications. Following the technical acceptance, the first mirror was re-installed in its transport container on November 13, 1995. It will thereafter be formally handed over to ESO during a ceremony at REOSC on Tuesday, November 21, 1995. The mirror will be stored at the REOSC facility until its future departure to ESO's VLT Observatory on Cerro Paranal, a 2650 m high summit in the Andean Cordillera in northern Chile. Here it will be installed in the first VLT unit telescope, soon after the assembly of the mechanical parts has been completed. Future Plans at REOSC The polishing of the second VLT mirror, as well as the grinding of the third mirror which was transported from Mainz to Saint Pierre du Perray at the beginning of October 1995, have already started. The transport of the fourth blank will take place in March 1996. With the construction, in a subsequent phase, of a workshop of more than 6000 square metres and mostly dedicated to space and astronomy, the SFIM group will have invested more than 50 million French Francs at the Saint Pierre du Perray site alone. The group is also involved in the contract related to the actuator support system; this is a clear indication of its determination to maintain its position within this scientific-technological market. In addition to the ESO VLT mirrors, REOSC will also polish the two 8.2-metre diameter mirrors of the Gemini programme of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) in the United States. This important work was entrusted REOSC, following an international call for tenders, in which also US firms

  3. New Vistas Open with MIDI at the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    "First Fringes" in Mid-Infrared Spectral Region with Two Giant Telescopes Summary Following several weeks of around-the-clock work, a team of astronomers and engineers from Germany, the Netherlands, France and ESO [2] has successfully performed the first observations with the MID-Infrared interferometric instrument (MIDI), a new, extremely powerful instrument just installed in the underground laboratory of the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). In the early morning of December 15, 2002, two of the 8.2 m VLT unit telescopes (ANTU and MELIPAL) were pointed towards the southern star eta Carinae and the two light beams were directed via the complex intervening optics system towards MIDI. After a few hours of tuning and optimization, strong and stable interferometric fringes were obtained, indicating that all VLTI components - from telescopes to the new instrument - were working together perfectly. Two more stars were observed before sunrise, further proving the stability of the entire system. The first observations with MIDI mark one more important step towards full and regular operation of the VLT Interferometer [3] . They are a result of five years of determined efforts within a concerted technology project, based on a close collaboration between ESO and several European research institutes (see below). Now opening great research vistas, they also represent several "firsts" in observational astrophysics, together amounting to a real breakthrough in the field of astronomical interferometry . New views at mid-infrared wavelengths : MIDI is sensitive to light of a wavelength near 10 µm, i.e., in the mid-infrared spectral region ("thermal infrared"). This provides rich opportunities to study a wide range of otherwise inaccessible, crucial astrophysical phenomena, e.g., the formation of planets in dusty disks around newborn stars and the innermost regions around black holes. However, it is a great technical challenge to perform mid

  4. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved

  5. The "+" for CRIRES: enabling better science at infrared wavelength and high spectral resolution at the ESO VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Bristow, Paul; Cumani, Claudio; Eschbaumer, Siegfried; Grunhut, Jason; Haimerl, Andreas; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Hinterschuster, Renate; Ives, Derek J.; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Klein, Barbara; Lavaila, Alexis; Lizon, Jean Louis; Löwinger, Tom; Molina-Conde, Ignacio; Nicholson, Belinda; Marquart, Thomas; Oliva, Ernesto; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jérôme; Piskunov, Nikolai; Reiners, Ansgar; Seemann, Ulf; Stegmeier, Jörg; Stempels, Eric; Tordo, Sebastien

    2016-08-01

    The adaptive optics (AO) assisted CRIRES instrument is an IR (0.92 - 5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrograph was in operation from 2006 to 2014 at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) observatory. CRIRES was a unique instrument, accessing a parameter space (wavelength range and spectral resolution) up to now largely uncharted. It consisted of a single-order spectrograph providing long-slit (40 arcsecond) spectroscopy with a resolving power up to R=100 000. However the setup was limited to a narrow, single-shot, spectral range of about 1/70 of the central wavelength, resulting in low observing efficiency for many scientific programmes requiring a broad spectral coverage. The CRIRES upgrade project, CRIRES+, transforms this VLT instrument into a cross-dispersed spectrograph to increase the simultaneously covered wavelength range by a factor of ten. A new and larger detector focal plane array of three Hawaii 2RG detectors with 5.3 μm cut-off wavelength will replace the existing detectors. For advanced wavelength calibration, custom-made absorption gas cells and an etalon system will be added. A spectro-polarimetric unit will allow the recording of circular and linear polarized spectra. This upgrade will be supported by dedicated data reduction software allowing the community to take full advantage of the new capabilities offered by CRIRES+. CRIRES+ has now entered its assembly and integration phase and will return with all new capabilities by the beginning of 2018 to the Very Large Telescope in Chile. This article will provide the reader with an update of the current status of the instrument as well as the remaining steps until final installation at the Paranal Observatory.

  6. VLTI First Fringes with Two Auxiliary Telescopes at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    ESO Video Newsreel 15, released on March 14, 2005. It provides an introduction to the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) and the two Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) now installed at Paranal. ESO PR Photo 07a/05 shows the impressive ensemble at the summit of Paranal. From left to right, the enclosure of VLT Antu, Kueyen and Melipal, AT1, the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) in the background, AT2 and VLT Yepun. Located at the summit of the 2,600-m high Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert (Chile), ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) is at the forefront of astronomical technology and is one of the premier facilities in the world for optical and near-infrared observations. The VLT is composed of four 8.2-m Unit Telescope (Antu, Kueyen, Melipal and Yepun). They have been progressively put into service together with a vast suite of the most advanced astronomical instruments and are operated every night in the year. Contrary to other large astronomical telescopes, the VLT was designed from the beginning with the use of interferometry as a major goal. The href="/instruments/vlti">VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes, dramatically increasing the spatial resolution and showing fine details of a large variety of celestial objects. The VLTI is arguably the world's most advanced optical device of this type. It has already demonstrated its powerful capabilities by addressing several key scientific issues, such as determining the size and the shape of a variety of stars (ESO PR 22/02, PR 14/03 and PR 31/03), measuring distances to stars (ESO PR 25/04), probing the innermost regions of the proto-planetary discs around young stars (ESO PR 27/04) or making the first detection by infrared interferometry of an extragalactic object (ESO PR 17/03). "Little Brothers" ESO PR Photo 07b/05 ESO PR Photo 07b/05 [Preview - JPEG: 597 x 400 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 1193 x 800 pix - 330k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3354 pix - 10.0M] ESO PR Photo 07c/05 ESO PR Photo 07c/05

  7. Britain Approaches ESO about Installation of Major New Telescope at Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    The Executive Board of the UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) project announced today [1] that it is aiming at the installation of a new and powerful astronomical telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). This 4-metre telescope is a specialised wide-angle facility equipped with powerful cameras and efficient detectors that will enable it to obtain deep images of large sky areas in short time. These survey observations will be made in several wavebands in the optical and, in particular, the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. VISTA will become the largest and most effective telescope of its type when it enters into operation in 2004. It is a project of a consortium of 18 UK universities [2]. Construction is expected to start in spring 2000. Funding of the project was announced in May 1999, as one of the first allocations from the "Joint Infrastructure Fund (JIF)", an initiative of the UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry, the Wellcome Trust, and the Higher Education Funding Council for England. ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , is very pleased with this decision. She received a mandate from the ESO Council in December 1999 to negotiate a contract with the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , acting on behalf of the VISTA Executive Board, for the installation of VISTA at Paranal and now looks forward to settle the associated legal and operational details with her British counterparts at good pace. "The installation of VISTA at Paranal will be of great benefit to all European astronomers", she says. "The placement of a survey telescope of this size next to ESO's VLT, the world's largest optical telescope, opens a plethora of exciting opportunities for joint research projects. Deep observations with VISTA, especially in infrared wavebands, will provide a most valuable, first census of large regions of space. This will most certainly lead to the discoveries of many new and

  8. VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope no. 1 (as on September 7, 1995)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    ESO Press Photos 28-30/95; 13 September 1995 The construction of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) advances rapidly, both in Europe and in Chile. These three photos show some of the main mechanical parts of the first 8.2-metre telescope, as they presented themselves in Milan (Italy) on Thursday, September 7, 1995. Two versions of these photos, one smaller and one larger and with better image resolution, are accessible for convenient transfer over the networks. The mechanical structure of VLT Unit Telescope no. 1 is now in the process of being mounted at the Ansaldo Energia premises in Milan (Italy). The so-called main structure (i.e., telescope azimuth and altitude mechanical structure, including hydrostatic bearing system, direct drives and direct mounted encoding system) was designed and is being built by the Italian consortium AES, composed of Ansaldo Energia (Genova), SOIMI (Milan) and EIE (Venice). Already two months from now, in November 1995, the complete, enormous mechanical structures of this telescope will be moving on the azimuth hydrostatic bearing tracks, using the direct drive system designed and built by the PHASE Company (Genova, Italy). The thorough testing phase will start by the end of December 1995 or at the beginning of January 1996. ESO Press Photo 28/95 [54K] [248K] shows the lower part of the azimuth structure of the telescope (the fork) on the concrete pier on which the azimuth tracks (hydrostatic bearing journal) are mounted. The very high accuracy of this enormous structure (compare with the persons in the photo!) is illustrated by the fact that the "run-out" of the azimuth axis of the fork has been measured as only 80 microns (0.08 millimetres) on 90 degrees turning angle. This is a remarkable result, especially since the centering of the axis is done on a radial journal with a diameter of no less than 9 metres. When the fork is equipped with all auxiliary systems, it will weigh about 320 t, will be 18 metres long and 8 metres wide. It

  9. Paranal maintenance and CMMS experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Nelson

    2004-10-01

    During the last four years of operations, low technical downtime has been one of the relevant records of the Paranal Observatory. From the beginning of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) project, European Southern Observatory (ESO) has considered the implementation of a proper maintenance strategy a fundamental point in order to ensure low technical down time and preserve the Observatory's assets. The implementation of the maintenance strategy was based on the following aspects: - Strong maintenance sense during the design stage. Line Replacement Unit (LRU) concept, standardization and modularity of the Observatory equipment - Creation of a dedicated team for Maintenance - The implementation of a Computerized Maintenance Management System After four operational years, the result of these aspects has exceeded the expectations; the Observatory has been operating with high availability under a sustainable strategy. The strengths of the maintenance strategy have been based on modern maintenance concepts applied by regular production companies, where any minute of down time involves high cost. The operation of the actual Paranal Maintenance System is based mainly on proactive activities, such as regular inspections, preventive maintenance (PM) and predictive maintenance (PdM) plans. Nevertheless, it has been necessary to implement a strong plan for corrective maintenance (CM). The Spare Parts Strategy has also been an important point linked to the Maintenance Strategy and CMMS implementation. At present, almost 4,000 items related to the Observatory spare parts are loaded into the CMMS database. Currently, we are studying the implementation of a Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) project in one of our critical systems The following document presents the actual status of the Paranal Maintenance Strategy and which have been the motivations to implement the established strategy.

  10. A Milestone for the VLT Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Less than one month after "First Light" for the fourth 8.2-m YEPUN telescope ( ESO PR 18/00 ), another special moment occurred at ESO's Paranal Observatory. This time, it was the first truly "underground" event, in the 168-metre long Interferometric Tunnel that has been dug beneath the platform at the top of the mountain. As one staff member remarked on this occasion, it was something like "the first scheduled trip of the Paranal metro"! With the successful integration of the first Delay Line on Monday, September 25th, 2000, ESO has accomplished another important step towards the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). It will be followed by the integration of the second Delay Line by the end of November and the third is scheduled for February 2001; both are now in their final development phase in Europe. "VLTI First Light" is then expected to take place soon thereafter, by means of two small special telescopes ("siderostats"). The combination of the light beams from two of the 8.2-m Unit Telescopes will happen in mid-2001. The VLTI Delay Lines The VLTI Delay Lines form essential parts of this very complicated optical system. They serve to ensure that the light beams from several telescopes arrive in phase at the common interferometric focus. Details about how they function may be found in ESO PR 04/98. In order to achieve the necessary performance, ESO has worked with two Dutch contractors, Fokker Space and TNO-TPD - Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research - Institute of Applied Physics , to arrive at a totally new Delay Line concept. Another Dutch participant in the VLTI project is the Nova-ESO VLTI Expertise Centre (NEVEC) , cf. ESO PR 14/00. The installation at Paranal The last twelve months have been very busy for the integration team, with much preparatory work at the VLTI buildings for the final installation of the Delay Line systems. The assembly of the translation mechanisms for the first two Delay Lines in the tunnel started in mid-2000. This included

  11. The VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Taylor, W.; Sana, H.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Bagnoli, T.; Bastian, N.; Bestenlehner, J.; Bonanos, A.; Bressert, E.; Brott, I.; Campbell, M.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, S.; Costa, E.; Crowther, P.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.; Dunstall, P.; Garcia, M.; Gieles, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.; Izzard, R.; Köhler, K.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Ramirez, O.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Smartt, S.; Stroud, V.; van Loon, J.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the VLT FLAMES Tarantula Survey, an ESO Large Programme from which we have obtained optical spectroscopy of over 800 massive stars in the spectacular 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. A key feature is the use of multi-epoch observations to provide strong constraints on

  12. The VLT Measures the Shape of a Type Ia Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    First Polarimetric Detection of Explosion Asymmetry has Cosmological Implications Summary An international team of astronomers [2] has performed new and very detailed observations of a supernova in a distant galaxy with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). They show for the first time that a particular type of supernova, caused by the explosion of a "white dwarf", a dense star with a mass around that of the Sun, is asymmetric during the initial phases of expansion . The significance of this observation is much larger than may seem at a first glance . This particular kind of supernova, designated "Type Ia", plays a very important role in the current attempts to map the Universe. It has for long been assumed that Type Ia supernovae all have the same intrinsic brightness , earning them a nickname as "standard candles". If so, differences in the observed brightness between individual supernovae of this type simply reflect their different distances. This, and the fact that the peak brightness of these supernovae rivals that of their parent galaxy, has allowed to measure distances of even very remote galaxies . Some apparent discrepancies that were recently found have led to the discovery of cosmic acceleration . However, this first clearcut observation of explosion asymmetry in a Type Ia supernova means that the exact brightness of such an object will depend on the angle from which it is seen. Since this angle is unknown for any particular supernova, this obviously introduces an amount of uncertainty into this kind of basic distance measurements in the Universe which must be taken into account in the future. Fortunately, the VLT data also show that if you wait a little - which in observational terms makes it possible to look deeper into the expanding fireball - then it becomes more spherical. Distance determinations of supernovae that are performed at this later stage will therefore be more accurate. PR Photo 24a/03 : Spiral galaxy NGC

  13. Modelling telluric line spectra in the optical and infrared with an application to VLT/X-Shooter spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, N.; Günther, H. M.; Schneider, P. C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Earth's atmosphere imprints a large number of telluric absorption and emission lines on astronomical spectra, especially in the near infrared, that need to be removed before analysing the affected wavelength regions. Aims: These lines are typically removed by comparison to A- or B-type stars used as telluric standards that themselves have strong hydrogen lines, which complicates the removal of telluric lines. We have developed a method to circumvent that problem. Methods: For our IDL software package tellrem we used a recent approach to model telluric absorption features with the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM). The broad wavelength coverage of the X-Shooter at VLT allows us to expand their technique by determining the abundances of the most important telluric molecules H2O, O2, CO2, and CH4 from sufficiently isolated line groups. For individual observations we construct a telluric absorption model for most of the spectral range that is used to remove the telluric absorption from the object spectrum. Results: We remove telluric absorption from both continuum regions and emission lines without systematic residuals for most of the processable spectral range; however, our method increases the statistical errors. The errors of the corrected spectrum typically increase by 10% for S/N ~ 10 and by a factor of two for high-quality data (S/N ~ 100), I.e. the method is accurate on the percent level. Conclusions: Modelling telluric absorption can be an alternative to the observation of standard stars for removing telluric contamination. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, 085.C-0764(A) and 60.A-9022(C).The tellrem package is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A113

  14. VLT enclosures: design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneermann, Michael W.; Marchiori, Gianpietro; Dimichino, Francesco

    1997-03-01

    The VLT enclosures main functions are to protect the telescopes during operational as well as non-operational phases from any adverse weather conditions and to provide optimal conditions for observation. An adequate design of a ventilation and wind protection system is important for the performance of the enclosures with respect to the minimization of the corresponding seeing effects. The VLT enclosures are equipped with ventilation doors on the azimuth platform level, with louvers on the rotating part and with a windscreen at the observing slit. Extensive qualification tests of the louvers and windscreen mechanical assemblies have been performed during the enclosures development phase. This paper gives an overview over the general layout of the enclosures and the major subsystems, summarizes the main functional specifications and gives the main results and conclusions of the functional performance tests. Presently the first enclosure erection is nearing its completion and pre- commissioning of all systems will commence. The status of the site erection of the enclosures is presented and the planning for the next phases of the erection is presented.

  15. Successful "First Light" for VLT High-Resolution Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Great Research Prospects with UVES at KUEYEN A major new astronomical instrument for the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile), the UVES high-resolution spectrograph, has just made its first observations of astronomical objects. The astronomers are delighted with the quality of the spectra obtained at this moment of "First Light". Although much fine-tuning still has to be done, this early success promises well for new and exciting science projects with this large European research facility. Astronomical instruments at VLT KUEYEN The second VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope, KUEYEN ("The Moon" in the Mapuche language), is in the process of being tuned to perfection before it will be "handed" over to the astronomers on April 1, 2000. The testing of the new giant telescope has been successfully completed. The latest pointing tests were very positive and, from real performance measurements covering the entire operating range of the telescope, the overall accuracy on the sky was found to be 0.85 arcsec (the RMS-value). This is an excellent result for any telescope and implies that KUEYEN (as is already the case for ANTU) will be able to acquire its future target objects securely and efficiently, thus saving precious observing time. This work has paved the way for the installation of large astronomical instruments at its three focal positions, all prototype facilities that are capable of catching the light from even very faint and distant celestial objects. The three instruments at KUEYEN are referred to by their acronyms UVES , FORS2 and FLAMES. They are all dedicated to the investigation of the spectroscopic properties of faint stars and galaxies in the Universe. The UVES instrument The first to be installed is the Ultraviolet Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) that was built by ESO, with the collaboration of the Trieste Observatory (Italy) for the control software. Complete tests of its optical and mechanical components, as well as of its CCD detectors and of the complex

  16. 40+ Years of Instrumentation for the La Silla Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, S.

    2018-03-01

    As ESO Period 100 comes to a close, I look back at the development of ESO's instrumentation programme over more than 40 years. Instrumentation and detector activities were initially started by a small group of designers, engineers, technicians and astronomers while ESO was still at CERN in Geneva in the late 1970s. They have since led to the development of a successful suite of optical and infrared instruments for the La Silla Paranal Observatory, as testified by the continuous growth in the number of proposals for observing time and in the publications based on data from ESO telescopes. The instrumentation programme evolved significantly with the VLT and most instruments were developed by national institutes in close cooperation with ESO. This policy was a cornerstone of the VLT programme from the beginning and a key to its success.

  17. The Panchromatic High-Resolution Spectroscopic Survey of Local Group Star Clusters. I. General data reduction procedures for the VLT/X-shooter UVB and VIS arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönebeck, Frederik; Puzia, Thomas H.; Pasquali, Anna; Grebel, Eva K.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Kuntschner, Harald; Lyubenova, Mariya; Perina, Sibilla

    2014-12-01

    -shooter systematics can be reliably modeled and corrected for. This offers the possibility of comparing observations on different nights and with different telescope pointings and instrumental setups, thereby facilitating a robust statistical analysis of large datasets. Based on observations collected under program 084.D-1061 with X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope of the Paranal Observatory in Chile, operated by the European Southern Observatory (ESO).Member of the International Max-Planck Research School (IMPRS) for Astronomy & Cosmic Physics at Heidelberg University and the Heidelberg Graduate School of Fundamental Physics (HGSFP).

  18. Chandra and the VLT Jointly Investigate the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Summary Important scientific advances often happen when complementary investigational techniques are brought together . In the present case, X-ray and optical/infrared observations with some of the world's foremost telescopes have provided the crucial information needed to solve a 40-year old cosmological riddle. Very detailed observations of a small field in the southern sky have recently been carried out, with the space-based NASA Chandra X-Ray Observatory as well as with several ground-based ESO telescopes, including the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Together, they have provided the "deepest" combined view at X-ray and visual/infrared wavelengths ever obtained into the distant Universe. The concerted observational effort has already yielded significant scientific results. This is primarily due to the possibility to 'identify' most of the X-ray emitting objects detected by the Chandra X-ray Observatory on ground-based optical/infrared images and then to determine their nature and distance by means of detailed (spectral) observations with the VLT . In particular, there is now little doubt that the so-called 'X-ray background' , a seemingly diffuse short-wave radiation first detected in 1962, in fact originates in a vast number of powerful black holes residing in active nuclei of distant galaxies . Moreover, the present investigation has permitted to identify and study in some detail a prime example of a hitherto little known type of object, a distant, so-called 'Type II Quasar' , in which the central black hole is deeply embedded in surrounding gas and dust. These achievements are just the beginning of a most fruitful collaboration between "space" and "ground". It is yet another impressive demonstration of the rapid progress of modern astrophysics, due to the recent emergence of a new generation of extremely powerful instruments. PR Photo 09a/01 : Images of a small part of the Chandra Deep Field South , obtained with ESO telescopes

  19. Sharpest Ever VLT Images at NAOS-CONICA "First Light"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Very Promising Start-Up of New Adaptive Optics Instrument at Paranal Summary A team of astronomers and engineers from French and German research institutes and ESO at the Paranal Observatory is celebrating the successful accomplishment of "First Light" for the NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics facility . With this event, another important milestone for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) project has been passed. Normally, the achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. However, with the Adaptive Optics (AO) technique, this drawback can be overcome and the telescope produces images that are at the theoretical limit, i.e., as sharp as if it were in space . Adaptive Optics works by means of a computer-controlled, flexible mirror that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence in real time. The larger the main mirror of the telescope is, and the shorter the wavelength of the observed light, the sharper will be the images recorded. During a preceding four-week period of hard and concentrated work, the expert team assembled and installed this major astronomical instrument at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN Unit Telescope (UT4). On November 25, 2001, following careful adjustments of this complex apparatus, a steady stream of photons from a southern star bounced off the computer-controlled deformable mirror inside NAOS and proceeded to form in CONICA the sharpest image produced so far by one of the VLT telescopes. With a core angular diameter of only 0.07 arcsec, this image is near the theoretical limit possible for a telescope of this size and at the infrared wavelength used for this demonstration (the K-band at 2.2 µm). Subsequent tests reached the spectacular performance of 0.04 arcsec in the J-band (wavelength 1.2 µm). "I am proud of this impressive achievement", says ESO Director General Catherine Cesarsky. "It shows the true potential of European science and technology and it provides a fine

  20. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, W.D.; Evans, C.J.; Henault-Brunet, V.; Bastian, N.; Beletsky, Y.; Bestenlehner, J.; Brott, I.; Cantiello, M.; Carraro, G.; Clark, J.S.; Crowther, P.A.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S.E.; Doran, E.; Dufton, P.L.; Dunstall, P.; Gieles, M.; Grafener, G.; Herrero, A.; Howarth, I.D.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D.J.; Maiz-Apellaniz, J; Markova, N.; Najarro, P.; Puls, J.; Sana, H.A.A.; Simon-Diaz, S.; Smartt, S.J.; Stroud, V.E.; van Loon, J.T.; Vink, J.S.; Walborn, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey is an ESO Large Programme that has provided multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1000 stars in the 30 Doradus region in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Armed with this unique dataset the assembled consortium is now addressing a broad range of fundamental questions in both

  1. Spotting high-z molecular absorbers using neutral carbon. Results from a complete spectroscopic survey with the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterdaeme, P.; Ledoux, C.; Zou, S.; Petitjean, P.; Srianand, R.; Balashev, S.; López, S.

    2018-04-01

    While molecular quasar absorption systems provide unique probes of the physical and chemical properties of the gas as well as original constraints on fundamental physics and cosmology, their detection remains challenging. Here we present the results from a complete survey for molecular gas in thirty-nine absorption systems selected solely upon the detection of neutral carbon lines in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra, without any prior knowledge of the atomic or molecular gas content. H2 is found in all twelve systems (including seven new detections) where the corresponding lines are covered by the instrument setups and measured to have logN(H2) ≳ 18, indicating a self-shielded regime. We also report seven CO detections (7/39) down to logN(CO) 13.5, including a new one, and put stringent constraints on N(CO) for the remaining 32 systems. N(CO) and N(C I) are found to be strongly correlated with N(CO)/N(C I) 1/10. This suggests that the C I-selected absorber population is probing gas deeper than the H I–H2 transition in which a substantial fraction of the total hydrogen in the cloud is in the form of H2. We conclude that targeting C I-bearing absorbers is a very efficient way to find high-metallicity molecular absorbers. However, probing the molecular content in lower-metallicity regimes as well as high-column-density neutral gas remains to be undertaken to unravel the processes of gas conversion in normal high-z galaxies. Based on observations and archival data from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) prog. IDs 060.A-9024, 072.A-0346, 278.A-5062, 080.A-0482, 080.A-0795, 081.A-0242, 081.A-0334, 082.A-0544, 082.A-0569, 083.A-0454, 084.A-0699, 086.A-0074 and 086.A-0643 using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) and X-shooter at the Very Large Telescope (VLT), on Cerro Paranal, Chile.

  2. VLT Detects First Superstorm on Exoplanet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    , Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  3. Scientific planning for the VLT and VLTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibundgut, B.; Berger, J.-P.

    2016-07-01

    An observatory system like the VLT/I requires careful scientific planning for operations and future instruments. Currently the ESO optical/near-infrared facilities include four 8m telescopes, four (movable) 1.8m telescopes used exclusively for interferometry, two 4m telescopes and two survey telescopes. This system offers a large range of scientific capabilities and setting the corresponding priorities depends good community interactions. Coordinating the existing and planned instrumentation is an important aspect for strong scientific return. The current scientific priorities for the VLT and VLTI are pushing for the development of the highest angular resolution imaging and astrometry, integral field spectroscopy and multi-object spectroscopy. The ESO 4m telescopes on La Silla will be dedicated to time domain spectroscopy and exo-planet searches with highly specialized instruments. The next decade will also see a significant rise in the scientific importance of massive ground and space-based surveys. We discuss how future developments in astronomical research could shape the VLT/I evolution.

  4. E-ELT Site Chosen - World's Biggest Eye on the Sky to be Located on Armazones, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    parameters had to be taken into account as well, such as the costs of construction and operations, and the operational and scientific synergy with other major facilities (VLT/VLTI, VISTA, VST, ALMA and SKA etc). In March 2010, the ESO Council was provided with a preliminary report with the main conclusions from the E-ELT Site Selection Advisory Committee [1]. These conclusions confirmed that all the sites examined in the final shortlist (Armazones, Ventarrones, Tolonchar and Vizcachas in Chile, and La Palma in Spain) have very good conditions for astronomical observing, each one with its particular strengths. The technical report concluded that Cerro Armazones, near Paranal, stands out as the clearly preferred site, because it has the best balance of sky quality for all the factors considered and can be operated in an integrated fashion with ESO's Paranal Observatory. Cerro Armazones and Paranal share the same ideal conditions for astronomical observations. In particular, over 320 nights are clear per year. Taking into account the very clear recommendation of the Site Selection Advisory Committee and all other relevant aspects, especially the scientific quality of the site, Council has now endorsed the choice of Cerro Armazones as the E-ELT baseline site [2]. "Adding the transformational scientific capabilities of the E-ELT to the already tremendously powerful integrated VLT observatory guarantees the long-term future of Paranal as the most advanced optical/infrared observatory in the world and further strengthens ESO's position as the world-leading organisation for ground-based astronomy," says de Zeeuw. In anticipation of the choice of Cerro Armazones as the future site of the E-ELT and to facilitate and support the project, the Chilean Government has agreed to donate to ESO a substantial tract of land contiguous to ESO's Paranal property and containing Armazones in order to ensure the continued protection of the site against all adverse influences, in particular light

  5. Surface composition of Europa based on VLT observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, N.; Poulet, F.; Carter, J.

    2016-12-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa may harbor a global salty ocean under an 80-170 km thick outer layer consisting of an icy crust (Anderson et al. 1998). Meanwhile, the 10-50 My old surface, dated by cratering rates (Pappalardo et al. 1999) implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing that could result in tectonic activity (Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface could thus exhibit fingerprints of chemical species, as minerals characteristics of an ocean-mantle interaction and/or organics of exobiological interest, directly originating from the subglacial ocean. In order to re-investigate the composition of Europa's surface, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed with the near-infrared integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) and large signal noise ratio in comparison to previous observations are adequate to detect sharp absorptions in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. In addition, the spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s ( 35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Several icy and non-icy compounds were detected and mapped at <100 km resolution. They are unevenly distributed on the moon's surface. Amorphous and crystalline water ice are both present and, in spite of a particularly strong amorphization process likely engendered by the Io plasma torus, the crystalline form is found to be approximately twice as abundant as the amorphous ice based on the analysis of the 1.65 μm band. If the surface is dominated by small and mid-sized water ice grains (25-200 μm), crystalline water-ice grains exhibit spatial inhomogeneities in their distribution. The sulfuric acid hydrate distribution exhibits the typical "bullseye" feature on the trailing hemisphere. The presence of Mg-bearing chlorinated salts (chloride

  6. VLT-MAD Observations of Trumpler 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochau, B.; Brandner, W.; Stolte, A.; Henning, T.; da Rio, N.; Gennaro, M.; Hormuth, F.; Marchetti, E.; Amico, P.

    We present H and KS observations of the young massive cluster Trumpler 14 obtained with the MCAO system VLT-MAD which provides homogeneous Strehl ratios over a large field of view. We derived maximum Strehl ratios of 9.8% and 12.6% with mean Strehl ratios of 6.0% and 5.9% with in H and K_S, respectively, revealing significant improvement of the spatial PSF stability compared to SCAO systems. We detected 2-3 times more sources than comparable seeing-limited observations, and comparison of the colour-magnitude diagram with isochrones reveals a very young cluster that originated in a starburst-like event 1 ± 0.5 Myr ago. We also tentatively detect hints for an older population of 3 Myr. The mass function between 0.25 Msun and 3.2 Msun appears as a broken power law with a change of the power law slope at m_c ˜ 0.53+0.12-0.10 Msun. Shallow power law slopes are found to be Gamma_{PD,PMS1} = ˜ 0.48 ± 0.11 above m_c and Gamma_{PD,PMS2} = 0.68 ± 0.30 below m_c.

  7. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga's usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T E X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC's purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains

  8. The science case of the CHEOPS planet finder for VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gratton, R.; Feldt, M.; Schmid, H.M.; Brandner, W.; Hippler, S.; Neuhauser, R.; Quirrenbach, A.; Desidera, S.; Turatto, M.; Stam, D.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The CHEOPS Planet Finder is one of the proposed second generation instruments for the VLT. Its purpose is to image and characterize giant extrasolar planets in different phases of their evolution: young, warm planets as well as old, cold ones. Imaging the last ones is the most challenging task

  9. Evolution of the VLT instrument control system toward industry standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Knudstrup, Jens; Popovic, Dan; Zins, Gerard

    2010-07-01

    The VLT control system is a large distributed system consisting of Linux Workstations providing the high level coordination and interfaces to the users, and VME-based Local Control Units (LCU's) running the VxWorks real-time operating system with commercial and proprietary boards acting as the interface to the instrument functions. After more than 10 years of VLT operations, some of the applied technologies used by the astronomical instruments are being discontinued making it difficult to find adequate hardware for future projects. In order to deal with this obsolescence, the VLT Instrumentation Framework is being extended to adopt well established Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components connected through industry standard fieldbuses. This ensures a flexible state of the art hardware configuration for the next generation VLT instruments allowing the access to instrument devices via more compact and simpler control units like PC-based Programmable Logical Controllers (PLC's). It also makes it possible to control devices directly from the Instrument Workstation through a normal Ethernet connection. This paper outlines the requirements that motivated this work, as well as the architecture and the design of the framework extension. In addition, it describes the preliminary results on a use case which is a VLTI visitor instrument used as a pilot project to validate the concepts and the suitability of some COTS products like a PC-based PLCs, EtherCAT8 and OPC UA6 as solutions for instrument control.

  10. The design of the MOONS-VLT spectrometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliva, E.; Diolaiti, E.; Garilli, B.; Gratton, R.; Lorenzetti, D.; Schipani, P.; Scuderi, S.; Vanzella, E.; Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Kaper, L.; Vanzi, L.; Baffa, C.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bruno, P.; Carbonaro, L.; Centrone, M.; Cresci, G.; De Caprio, V.; Del Vecchio, C.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Di Paola, A.; D'Alessio, F.; D'Alessandro, M.; D'Orsi, S.; Falcini, G.; Ferruzzi, D.; Fontana, A.; Foppiani, I.; Fumana, M.; Giani, E.; Leone, F.; Li Causi, G.; Lombini, M.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; Marty, L.; Miglietta, L.; Munari, M.; Navarro, R.; Origlia, L.; Paioro, L.; Pedichini, F.; Pragt, J.; Randich, S.; Scodeggio, M.; Spano, P.; Speziali, R.; Stuik, R.; Tozzi, A.; Vitali, F.

    2012-01-01

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a multi-object spectrograph for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) which will provide the ESO astronomical community with a powerful, unique instrument able to serve a wide range of Galactic, Extragalactic and Cosmological studies. The instrument foresees 1000

  11. The VLT-FLAMES survey of massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Langer, N.; Brott, I.; Hunter, I.; Smartt, S.J.; Lennon, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The VLT-FLAMES Survey of Massive Stars was an ESO Large Programme to understand rotational mixing and stellar mass loss in different metallicity environments, in order to better constrain massive star evolution. We gathered high-quality spectra of over 800 stars in the Galaxy and in the Magellanic

  12. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  13. ESPRESSO: projecting a rocky exoplanet hunter for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégevand, Denis; Herreros, José-Miguel; Zerbi, Filippo; Cabral, Alexandre; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Cristiani, Stefano; Rebolo, Rafael; Santos, Nuno C.

    2010-07-01

    ESPRESSO is a high-resolution, highly stable spectrograph for the VLT. It will inherit and enhance most capabilities from HARPS and UVES, combining both stability and efficiency. The main science driver will be the detection and characterization of Earth-like planets, but many additional science cases will benefit from its highly stable spectroscopic observations. The facility will be installed at the combined Coudé focus of the VLT and may be linked with any of the four UT telescopes, enabling thus a great flexibility for the efficient use of telescope time. This particularity makes the interface with the VLT more complex than for an instrument fed by a single telescope. It impacts on the complexity of the relationship between the consortium providing the instrument and ESO, the customer. The targeted high RV accuracy requires very high performances in stability and resolution, which in turn require adequate technical solutions at several levels. This paper describes the instrument system and subsystems, enlightening the most valuable differences between ESPRESSO and it's predecessors, the details of the project, entering now the design phases, the ESPRESSO consortium, composed of Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and Swiss institutes, and the relationship between the consortium and ESO.

  14. VLT deformable secondary mirror: integration and electromechanical tests results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, R.; Andrighettoni, M.; Angerer, G.; Mair, C.; Pescoller, D.; Lazzarini, P.; Anaclerio, E.; Mantegazza, M.; Gallieni, D.; Vernet, E.; Arsenault, R.; Madec, P.-Y.; Duhoux, P.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.; Manetti, M.; Morandini, M.

    2012-07-01

    The VLT Deformable secondary is planned to be installed on the VLT UT#4 as part of the telescope conversion into the Adaptive Optics test Facility (AOF). The adaptive unit is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the forthcoming ELT-generation adaptive correctors, like the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been recently assembled after the completion of the manufacturing and modular test phases. In this paper, we present the most relevant aspects of the system integration and report the preliminary results of the electromechanical tests performed on the unit. This test campaign is a typical major step foreseen in all similar systems built so far: thanks to the metrology embedded in the system, that allows generating time-dependent stimuli and recording in real time the position of the controlled mirror on all actuators, typical dynamic response quality parameters like modal settling time, overshoot and following error can be acquired without employing optical measurements. In this way the system dynamic and some aspect of its thermal and long term stability can be fully characterized before starting the optical tests and calibrations.

  15. Tourism in Chile | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » Tourism » Tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Map of

  16. Workshop “Science with the VLT in the ELT Era”

    CERN Document Server

    Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings

    2008-01-01

    The Workshop ‘Science with the VLT in the ELT era’ was organised by ESO as a forum for the astronomical community to debate its expected future use of ESO’s Very Large Telescope ( and its VLTI interferometric mode) when other facilities such as ALMA, JWST and, hopefully, at least one extremely large 30-40m class telescope will be operating. VLT/I science highlights were presented, future science priorities argued, synergies between the VLT and the future facilities confirmed and specific new VLT/I instruments proposed.

  17. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, A.

    1990-12-01

    This report is a manual for the valiant little terminal. Information covered in this report is as follow: an introduction to VLT; installation; starting up; text screen menus; graphics screen menus; introduction to VLT's scripting facility; quick reference section; and troubleshooting.

  18. Spectral and atmospheric characterization of 51 Eridani b using VLT/SPHERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samland, M.; Mollière, P.; Bonnefoy, M.; Maire, A.-L.; Cantalloube, F.; Cheetham, A. C.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Biller, B. A.; Wahhaj, Z.; Bouwman, J.; Brandner, W.; Melnick, D.; Carson, J.; Janson, M.; Henning, T.; Homeier, D.; Mordasini, C.; Langlois, M.; Quanz, S. P.; van Boekel, R.; Zurlo, A.; Schlieder, J. E.; Avenhaus, H.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; Bonavita, M.; Chauvin, G.; Claudi, R.; Cudel, M.; Desidera, S.; Feldt, M.; Fusco, T.; Galicher, R.; Kopytova, T. G.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Le Coroller, H.; Martinez, P.; Moeller-Nilsson, O.; Mouillet, D.; Mugnier, L. M.; Perrot, C.; Sevin, A.; Sissa, E.; Vigan, A.; Weber, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. 51 Eridani b is an exoplanet around a young (20 Myr) nearby (29.4 pc) F0-type star, which was recently discovered by direct imaging. It is one of the closest direct imaging planets in angular and physical separation ( 0.5'', 13 au) and is well suited for spectroscopic analysis using integral field spectrographs. Aims: We aim to refine the atmospheric properties of the known giant planet and to constrain the architecture of the system further by searching for additional companions. Methods: We used the extreme adaptive optics instrument SPHERE at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to obtain simultaneous dual-band imaging with IRDIS and integral field spectra with IFS, extending the spectral coverage of the planet to the complete Y- to H-band range and providing additional photometry in the K12-bands (2.11, 2.25 μm). The object is compared to other known cool and peculiar dwarfs. The posterior probability distributions for parameters of cloudy and clear atmospheric models are explored using MCMC. We verified our methods by determining atmospheric parameters for the two benchmark brown dwarfs Gl 570D and HD 3651B. We used archival VLT-NACO (L') Sparse Aperture Masking data to probe the innermost region for additional companions. Results: We present the first spectrophotometric measurements in the Y and K bands for the planet and revise its J-band flux to values 40% fainter than previous measurements. Cloudy models with uniform cloud coverage provide a good match to the data. We derive the temperature, radius, surface gravity, metallicity, and cloud sedimentation parameter fsed. We find that the atmosphere is highly super-solar ([Fe/H] = 1.0 ± 0.1 dex), and the low fsed = 1.26+0.36-0.29 value is indicative of a vertically extended, optically thick cloud cover with small sized particles. The model radius and surface gravity estimates suggest higher planetary masses of Mgravity = 9.1+4.9-3.3 MJ. The evolutionary model only provides a lower mass limit of > 2 MJ

  19. An extensive VLT/X-shooter library of photospheric templates of pre-main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, C. F.; Frasca, A.; Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Stelzer, B.; Testi, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Studies of the formation and evolution of young stars and their disks rely on knowledge of the stellar parameters of the young stars. The derivation of these parameters is commonly based on comparison with photospheric template spectra. Furthermore, chromospheric emission in young active stars impacts the measurement of mass accretion rates, a key quantity for studying disk evolution. Aims: Here we derive stellar properties of low-mass (M⋆≲ 2 M⊙) pre-main sequence stars without disks, which represent ideal photospheric templates for studies of young stars. We also use these spectra to constrain the impact of chromospheric emission on the measurements of mass accretion rates. The spectra are reduced, flux-calibrated, and corrected for telluric absorption, and are made available to the community. Methods: We derive the spectral type for our targets by analyzing the photospheric molecular features present in their VLT/X-shooter spectra by means of spectral indices and comparison of the relative strength of photospheric absorption features. We also measure effective temperature, gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity from our spectra by fitting them with synthetic spectra with the ROTFIT tool. The targets have negligible extinction (AVpresented in our previous publication. We perform synthetic photometry on the spectra to derive the typical colors of young stars in different filters. We measure the luminosity of the emission lines present in the spectra and estimate the noise due to chromospheric emission in the measurements of accretion luminosity in accreting stars. Results: We provide a calibration of the photospheric colors of young pre-main sequence stars as a function of their spectral type in a set of standard broad-band optical and near-infrared filters. The logarithm of the noise on the accretion luminosity normalized to the stellar luminosity is roughly constant and equal to -2.3 for targets with masses larger than 1 solar

  20. Optical atmospheric extinction over Cerro Paranal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patat, F.; Moehler, S.; O'Brien, K.; Pompei, E.; Bensby, T.; Carraro, G.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fox, A.; Gavignaud, I.; James, G.; Korhonen, H.; Ledoux, C.; Randall, S.; Sana, H.A.A.; Smoker, J.; Stefl, S.; Szeifert, T.

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The present study was conducted to determine the optical extinction curve for Cerro Paranal under typical clear-sky observing conditions, with the purpose of providing the community with a function to be used to correct the observed spectra, with an accuracy of 0.01 mag airmass-1.

  1. Development of a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an open-path optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, S.; Manap, H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper describes about a visible light transmission (VLT) measurement system using an optical method. VLT rate plays an important role in order to determine the visibility of a medium. Current instrument to measure visibility has a gigantic set up, costly and mostly fails to function at low light condition environment. This research focuses on the development of a VLT measurement system using a simple experimental set-up and at a low cost. An open path optical technique is used to measure a few series of known-VLT thin film that act as sample of different visibilities. This measurement system is able to measure the light intensity of these thin films within the visible light region (535-540 nm) and the response time is less than 1s.

  2. Petrology and geochemistry of VLT glasses from double drive tube 79001/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Susan J.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Martinez, R. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of more general studies of soils from Apollo 17 double drive tube 79001/2, glasses from the 79001/2 core are being analyzed by a multidisciplinary approach including SEM/EDS and INAA. Efforts are currently focused on VLT (very low-Ti; TiO2 less than 1 wt%) mare glasses, which are common in 79001/2 and have also been found in other Apollo 17 soils. One of the primary objectives is to determine whether any or all of the Apollo 17 VLT glasses represent pristine volcanic compositions. In addition, the range of VLT glass compositions and possible relationships between the glasses and VLT lithic samples, for which some geochemical data have been obtained previously, is being defined.

  3. 15 years of VLT/UVES OH intensities and temperatures in comparison with TIMED/SABER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Proxauf, Bastian; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Kausch, Wolfgang; Jones, Amy M.

    2017-10-01

    The high-resolution echelle spectrograph UVES of the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile has been regularly operated since April 2000. Thus, UVES archival data originally taken for astronomical projects but also including sky emission can be used to study airglow variations on a time scale longer than a solar cycle. Focusing on OH emission and observations until March 2015, we considered about 3000 high-quality spectra from two instrumental set-ups centred on 760 and 860 nm, which cover about 380 nm each. These data allowed us to measure line intensities for several OH bands in order to derive band intensities and rotational temperatures for different upper vibrational levels as a function of solar activity and observing date. The results were compared with those derived from emission and temperature profile data of the radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite taken in the Cerro Paranal area between 2002 and 2015. In agreement with the SABER data, the long-term variations in OH intensity and temperature derived from the UVES data are dominated by the solar cycle, whereas secular trends appear to be negligible. Combining the UVES and SABER results, the solar cycle effects for the OH intensity and temperature are about 12-17% and 4-5 K per 100 sfu and do not significantly depend on the selected OH band. The data also reveal that variations of the effective OH emission layer height and air density can cause significant changes in the OH rotational temperatures due to a varying ratio of OH thermalising collisions by air molecules and OH radiation, deactivation, and destruction processes which impede the rotational relaxation. However, this effect appears to be of minor importance for the explanation of the rotational temperature variations related to the solar activity cycle, which causes only small changes in the OH emission profile.

  4. Optical calibration and test of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2013-12-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT (ESO) represents the state-of-art of the large-format deformable mirror technology with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on actuator co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the results of the optical characterization of the mirror unit with the ASSIST facility located at ESO-Garching and executed in a collaborative effort by ESO, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.). The main purposes of the tests are the optical characterization of the shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions. The results are used for the optical acceptance of the DSM and to allow the next test phase coupling the DSM with the wave-front sensor modules of the new Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) of ESO.

  5. Imaging Red Supergiants with VLT/SPHERE/ZIMPOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Emily

    2018-04-01

    In the red supergiant (RSG) phase of evolution massive stars show powerful stellar winds, which strongly influence the supernova (progenitor) properties and control the nature of the compact object that is left behind. Material that is lost in the stellar wind, together with that ejected in the final core collapse, contributes to the chemical enrichment of the local interstellar medium. The mass-loss properties of RSGs are however poorly constrained. Moreover, little is known about the wind driving mechanism. To provide better constraints on both mass-loss rates and physics, high angular resolution observations are needed to unveil the inner regions of the circumstellar environment, where the mass loss is triggered. Using the VLT-SPHERE/ZIMPOL adaptive optics imaging polarimeter, spatially resolved images of four nearby RSGs were obtained in four filters. From these data, we obtain information on geometrical structures in the inner wind, the onset radius and spatial distribution of dust grains, and dust properties such as grain size. As dust grains may play a role in initiating and/or driving the outflow, this could provide us with clues as to the wind driving mechanism.

  6. Blockbuster starring ESO Paranal opens tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    The 22nd James Bond adventure is due for release tomorrow, 31 October 2008, in the UK and a week later in the rest of the world. A key location in the movie is the Residencia, the hotel for astronomers and staff at ESO's Paranal Observatory. Blockbuster starring ESO Paranal opens tomorrow ESO PR Photo 38/08 The James Bond "Quantum of Solace" filmmakers Quantum of Solace is the latest film in one of most successful movie franchises -- that of renowned 007 Agent James Bond of the British Secret Service MI6. The agent "on Her Majesty's secret service" is once again played by Daniel Craig. Key scenes of the movie were filmed at Paranal, the home of ESO's Very Large Telescope, and the most advanced optical telescope in the world. Usually occupied by no more than 100 astronomers, engineers and technicians, Paranal welcomed the 300-strong film crew for several days of shooting at the end of March 2008. The crew travelled from their hotel base in Antofagasta for up to two hours each morning to reach the filming locations. "We are delighted to have a movie like this filmed at Paranal and it was extremely good to see how careful the crew were with the surroundings and how mindful they were of the fact that they were in an operating, working observatory", says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO Director General. "Paranal is a unique observatory in a unique setting and it is no real surprise that it plays a major part in a James Bond movie", he adds. The filmmakers were mostly interested in filming exterior scenes at the Paranal Residencia, the accommodation for staff operating the Very Large Telescope. In the movie, the Residencia is supposedly the "Perla de Las Dunas", a unique hotel in the desert. Cerro Paranal is a 2600 m high mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, perhaps the driest on Earth. The high altitude site and extreme dryness make excellent conditions for astronomical observations. To make it possible for people to live and work here, a hotel, or Residencia, was built at the

  7. A drone flight over ESO’s experimental sites in Chile

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    Paola Catapano, a member of CERN’s Communication Group, and Mike Struik, a member of the TE Department, were invited to visit ESO’s experimental sites – the ALMA observatory and the Very Large Telescope in Paranal, Chile. Enjoy some of the beautiful images they sent to the Bulletin.   Image courtesy Paola Catapano and Mike Struik. The 66 radio astronomy antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory at 5,000 m altitude on the Chajnantor highland in Chile. The ALMA array specialises in the cold, invisible Universe, catching radiation from millimetre and submillimetre radiowaves night and day. ALMA is an international partnership between the European Southern Observatory (ESO), the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan, together with NRC (Canada), NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile.   Image cour...

  8. Protecting the Local Dark-Sky Areas around the International Observatories in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. G.

    2001-12-01

    This report covers efforts by IAU Commission 50's new Working Group on Light Pollution to slow or halt the spread of incipient light pollution near the VLT, the Magellan 6.5m telescopes, Gemini South, SOAR, Blanco and many smaller telescopes in Chile. An effort has just begun to protect the ALMA site in Northern Chile from RFI. Such work includes extensive outreach programs to the local population, schools and industry as well as to local, regional and national levels of government in Chile. The group is working internationally with such organizations as the IDA; one member has recently led the production of "The first world atlas of the artificial night-sky brightness". These efforts have resulted in the first national-level environmental legislation covering dark skies as part of a government effort to protect the environment. Chilean manufacturers are now producing competitive, full-cut-off, street lighting designed specifically to comply with the new legislation. The Chilean national tourism agency is supporting "Astronomical Tourism" based on the dark, clear skies of Chile. An international conference on Controlling Light Pollution and RFI will be held in La Serena, Chile on 5-7 March, 2002, backed up by a parallel meeting of Chilean amateur astronomers. Much work remains to be done. Most of this work is supported by funding from the US National Science Foundation through CTIO, and from ESO, OCIW and CONAMA.

  9. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    occupied by Morocco). SENEGAL. GUINEA BISSAU. CHILE. Santiago. %. 0. 300 km. ARGENTINA. BOLIVIA. PERU. Arica. Punta Arenas . Puerto Montt . South. Pacific. Ocean. South. Atlantic. Ocean. Antofagasta. Coquimbo. Valparaiso. Concepcíon.

  10. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  11. New high-sensitivity, milliarcsecond resolution results from routine observations of lunar occultations at the ESO VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richichi, A.; Fors, O.; Chen, W.-P.; Mason, E.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Lunar occultations (LO) are a very efficient and powerful technique that achieves the best combination of high angular resolution and sensitivity possible today at near-infrared wavelengths. Given that the events are fixed in time, that the sources are occulted randomly, and that the telescope use is minimal, the technique is very well suited for service mode observations. Aims: We have established a program of routine LO observations at the VLT observatory, especially designed to take advantage of short breaks available in-between other programs. We have used the ISAAC instrument in burst mode, capable of producing continuous read-outs at millisecond rates on a suitable subwindow. Given the random nature of the source selection, our aim has been primarily the investigation of a large number of stellar sources at the highest angular resolution in order to detect new binaries. Serendipitous results such as resolved sources and detection of circumstellar components were also anticipated. Methods: We have recorded the signal from background stars for a few seconds, around the predicted time of occultation by the Moon's dark limb. At millisecond time resolution, a characteristic diffraction pattern can be observed. Patterns for two or more sources superimpose linearly, and this property is used for the detection of binary stars. The detailed analysis of the diffraction fringes can be used to measure specific properties such as the stellar angular size and the presence of extended light sources such as a circumstellar shell. Results: We present a list of 191 stars for which LO data could be recorded and analyzed. Results include the detection of 16 binary and 2 triple stars, all but one of which were previously unknown. The projected angular separations are as small as 4 milliarcsec and magnitude differences as high as Δ K = 5.8 mag. Additionally we derive accurate angular diameters for 2 stars and resolve circumstellar emission around another one, also all

  12. The VLT/X-shooter GRB afterglow legacy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Lex; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Pugliese, Vanna; van Rest, Daan

    2017-11-01

    The Swift satellite allows us to use gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to peer through the hearts of star forming galaxies through cosmic time. Our open collaboration, representing most of the active European researchers in this field, builds a public legacy sample of GRB X-shooter spectroscopy while Swift continues to fly. To date, our spectroscopy of more than 100 GRB afterglows covers a redshift range from 0.059 to about 8 (Tanvir et al. 2009, Nature 461, 1254), with more than 20 robust afterglow-based metallicity measurements (over a redshift range from 1.7 to 5.9). With afterglow spectroscopy (throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-rays to the sub-mm) we can hence characterize the properties of star-forming galaxies over cosmic history in terms of redshift, metallicity, molecular content, ISM temperature, UV-flux density, etc.. These observations provide key information on the final evolution of the most massive stars collapsing into black holes, with the potential of probing the epoch of the formation of the first (very massive) stars. VLT/X-shooter (Vernet et al. 2011, A&A 536, A105) is in many ways the ideal GRB follow-up instrument and indeed GRB follow-up was one of the primary science cases behind the instrument design and implementation. Due to the wide wavelength coverage of X-shooter, in the same observation one can detect molecular H2 absorption near the atmospheric cut-off and many strong emission lines from the host galaxy in the near-infrared (e.g., Friis et al. 2015, MNRAS 451, 167). For example, we have measured a metallicity of 0.1 Z ⊙ for GRB 100219A at z = 4.67 (Thöne et al. 2013, MNRAS 428, 3590), 0.02 Z ⊙ for GRB 111008A at z = 4.99 (Sparre et al. 2014, ApJ 785, 150) and 0.05 Z ⊙ for GRB 130606A at z = 5.91 (Hartoog et al. 2015, A&A 580, 139). In the latter, the very high value of [Al/Fe]=2.40 +/- 0.78 might be due to a proton capture process and may be a signature of a previous generation of massive (perhaps even the first) stars

  13. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XXII. Multiplicity properties of the B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunstall, P.R.; Dufton, P.L.; Sana, H.; Evans, C.J.; Howarth, I.D.; Simón-Díaz, S.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the multiplicity properties of 408 B-type stars observed in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud with multi-epoch spectroscopy from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS). We use a cross-correlation method to estimate relative radial velocities from the helium and metal

  14. Low-resolution VLT spectroscopy of GRBs 991216, 011211 and 021211

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, P.M.; Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Palazzi, E.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kaper, L.; Pian, E.; Masetti, N.; Frontera, F.; Hjorth, J.; Gorosabel, J.; Piro, L.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Jakobsson, P.; Watson, D.; O'Brien, P.T.; Ledoux, C.

    2006-01-01

    We present low-resolution VLT spectroscopy of the afterglow of the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) 991216, 011211 and 021211. Our spectrum of GRB 991216 is the only optical spectrum for this afterglow. It shows two probable absorption systems at z=0.80 and z=1.02, where the highest redshift most likely

  15. Performances of X-shooter, the new wide-band intermediate resolution spectrograph at the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernet, J.; Dekker, H.; D'Odorico, S.; Mason, E.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Downing, M.; Elswijk, E.; Finger, G.; Fischer, G.; Kerber, F.; Kern, L.; Lizon, J.-L.; Lucuix, C.; Mainieri, V.; Modigliani, A.; Patat, F.; Ramsay, S.; Santin, P.; Vidali, M.; Groot, P.; Guinouard, I.; Hammer, F.; Kaper, L.; Kjærgaard-Rasmussen, P.; Navarro, R.; Randich, S.; Zerbi, F.

    2010-01-01

    X-shooter is the first second-generation instrument newly commissioned a the VLT. It is a high efficiency single target intermediate resolution spectrograph covering the range 300 - 2500 nm in a single shot. We summarize the main characteristics of the instrument and present its performances as

  16. A VLT spectroscopic study of the ultracompact HII region G29.96-0.02

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, NL; Bik, A; Kaper, L; Tielens, AGGM; Hanson, MM

    A high quality, medium-resolution K-band spectrum has been obtained of the ultracompact H II region G29.96-0.02 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The slit was positioned along the symmetry axis of the cometary shaped nebula. Besides the spectrum of the embedded ionizing O star, the long-slit

  17. MOONS: a multi-object optical and near-infrared spectrograph for the VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirasuolo, M.; Afonso, J.; Bender, R.; Bonifacio, P.; Evans, C.; Kaper, L.; Oliva, Ernesto; Vanzi, Leonardo; Abreu, Manuel; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Babusiaux, Carine; Bauer, Franz E.; Best, Philip; Bezawada, Naidu; Bryson, Ian R.; Cabral, Alexandre; Caputi, Karina; Centrone, Mauro; Chemla, Fanny; Cimatti, Andrea; Cioni, Maria-Rosa; Clementini, Gisella; Coelho, João.; Daddi, Emanuele; Dunlop, James S.; Feltzing, Sofia; Ferguson, Annette; Flores, Hector; Fontana, Adriano; Fynbo, Johan; Garilli, Bianca; Glauser, Adrian M.; Guinouard, Isabelle; Hammer, Jean-François; Hastings, Peter R.; Hess, Hans-Joachim; Ivison, Rob J.; Jagourel, Pascal; Jarvis, Matt; Kauffman, G.; Lawrence, A.; Lee, D.; Li Causi, G.; Lilly, S.; Lorenzetti, D.; Maiolino, R.; Mannucci, F.; McLure, R.; Minniti, D.; Montgomery, D.; Muschielok, B.; Nandra, K.; Navarro, R.; Norberg, P.; Origlia, L.; Padilla, N.; Peacock, J.; Pedicini, F.; Pentericci, L.; Pragt, J.; Puech, M.; Randich, S.; Renzini, A.; Ryde, N.; Rodrigues, M.; Royer, F.; Saglia, R.; Sánchez, A.; Schnetler, H.; Sobral, D.; Speziali, R.; Todd, S.; Tolstoy, E.; Torres, M.; Venema, L.; Vitali, F.; Wegner, M.; Wells, M.; Wild, V.; Wright, G.

    MOONS is a new conceptual design for a Multi-Object Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph for the Very Large Telescope (VLT), selected by ESO for a Phase A study. The baseline design consists of ~1000 fibers deployable over a field of view of ~500 square arcmin, the largest patrol field offered by

  18. Astro Tourism in Chile | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Program PIA Program GO-FAAR Program Other Opportunities Tourism Visits to Tololo Astro tourism in Chile Tourism in Chile Information for travelers Visit Tololo Media Relations News Press Release Publications ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » Tourism » Astro Tourism in Chile Astro Tourism in

  19. Space standard of formal employment in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Cericatto da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the spatial profile of the location of formal employment in the Paraná State in Brazil, between 2002 and 2011. For the analysis we used the measures of location for analysis of economic sectors between the regions and among them was elected Location Quotient and redistribution coefficient, using data from the Annual Report of Social Information (RAIS Ministry of Labor and Employment (MTE. The results showed that agriculture presents greater dispersion of formal employment in almost all regions of Paraná State, with the exception of the middle region of Curitiba´s city. Thus, agriculture accounts for a major source of employment and income in the state of Paraná. For the industrial sector, it is observed that the Traditional Industry presents greater dispersion between the Paraná regions, while the Non-Traditional Industry and Industry dynamics are more concentrated.

  20. El IDRC en Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    prácticas para promover la innovación ... Estudios para Latino américa sentaron las ... Argentina, Brasil, Canadá, Chile y Colombia. ... soluciones locales innovadoras y duraderas que apuntan a proporcionar opciones y cambios a aquellos ...

  1. The new VLT-DSM M2 unit: construction and electromechanical testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallieni, Daniele; Biasi, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    We present the design, construction and validation of the new M2 unit of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror. In the framework of the Adaptive Optics Facility program, ADS and Microgate designed a new secondary unit which replaces the current Dornier one. The M2 is composed by the mechanical structure, a new hexapod positioner and the Deformable Secondary Mirror unit.The DSM is based on the well proven contactless, voice coil motor technology that has been already successfully implemented in the MMT, LBT and Magellan adaptive secondaries, and is considered a promising technical choice for the E-ELT M4 and the GMT ASM. The VLT adaptive unit has been fully integrated and, before starting the optical calibration, has completed the electromechanical characterization, focused on the dynamic performance. With respect to the previous units we introduced several improvements, both in hardware and control architecture that allowed achieving a significant enhancement of the system dynamics and reduction of power consumption.

  2. Effects of a Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) Banner on Gambling: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy; Nicki, Richard; Otteson, Amy; Elliott, Heather

    2011-01-01

    The effects of a warning banner, informing patrons of the randomness of Video Lottery Terminal (VLT) outcomes, on gambling behaviour and beliefs were tested in a field setting using a mixed-model 2 x 3 design over a six-week period with 27 problem and 27 non-problem gamblers recruited from bars in a Canadian city with a population of 85,000.…

  3. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga's usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC's purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  4. A valiant little terminal: A VLT user`s manual. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, A.

    1992-08-01

    VLT came to be used at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center), because SLAC wanted to assess the Amiga`s usefulness as a color graphics terminal and T{sub E}X workstation. Before the project could really begin, the people at SLAC needed a terminal emulator which could successfully talk to the IBM 3081 (now the IBM ES9000-580) and all the VAXes on the site. Moreover, it had to compete in quality with the Ann Arbor Ambassador GXL terminals which were already in use at the laboratory. Unfortunately, at the time there was no commercial program which fit the bill. Luckily, Willy Langeveld had been independently hacking up a public domain VT100 emulator written by Dave Wecker et al. and the result, VLT, suited SLAC`s purpose. Over the years, as the program was debugged and rewritten, the original code disappeared, so that now, in the present version of VLT, none of the original VT100 code remains.

  5. Fingerprints of endogenous process on Europa through linear spectral modeling of ground-based observations (ESO/VLT/SINFONI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligier, Nicolas; Carter, John; Poulet, François; Langevin, Yves; Dumas, Christophe; Gourgeot, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's moon Europa harbors a very young surface dated, based on cratering rates, to 10-50 M.y (Zahnle et al. 1998, Pappalardo et al. 1999). This young age implies rapid surface recycling and reprocessing, partially engendered by a global salty subsurface liquid ocean that could result in tectonic activity (Schmidt et al. 2011, Kattenhorn et al. 2014) and active plumes (Roth et al. 2014). The surface of Europa should contain important clues about the composition of this sub-surface briny ocean and about the potential presence of material of exobiological interest in it, thus reinforcing Europa as a major target of interest for upcoming space missions such as the ESA L-class mission JUICE. To perform the investigation of the composition of the surface of Europa, a global mapping campaign of the satellite was performed between October 2011 and January 2012 with the integral field spectrograph SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile. The high spectral binning of this instrument (0.5 nm) is suitable to detect any narrow mineral signature in the wavelength range 1.45-2.45 μm. The spatially resolved spectra we obtained over five epochs nearly cover the entire surface of Europa with a pixel scale of 12.5 by 25 m.a.s (~35 by 70 km on Europa's surface), thus permitting a global scale study. Until recently, a large majority of studies only proposed sulfate salts along with sulfuric acid hydrate and water-ice to be present on Europa's surface. However, recent works based on Europa's surface coloration in the visible wavelength range and NIR spectral analysis support the hypothesis of the predominance of chlorine salts instead of sulfate salts (Hand & Carlson 2015, Fischer et al. 2015). Our linear spectral modeling supports this new hypothesis insofar as the use of Mg-bearing chlorines improved the fits whatever the region. As expected, the distribution of sulfuric acid hydrate is correlated to the Iogenic sulfur ion implantation flux distribution (Hendrix et al

  6. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  7. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  8. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  9. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  10. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  11. VLT FORS2 comparative transmission spectral survey of clear and cloudy exoplanet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Nikolay; Sing, David; Gibson, Neale; Evans, Thomas; Barstow, Joanna Katy; Kataria, Tiffany; Wilson, Paul A.

    2016-10-01

    Transmission spectroscopy is a key to unlocking the secrets of close-in exoplanet atmospheres. Observations have started to unveil a vast diversity of irradiated giant planet atmospheres with clouds and hazes playing a definitive role across the entire mass and temperature regime. We have initiated a ground-based, multi-object transmission spectroscopy of a hand full of hot Jupiters, covering the wavelength range 360-850nm using the recently upgraded FOcal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS2) mounted on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO). These targets were selected for comparative follow-up as their transmission spectra showed evidence for alkali metal absorption, based on the results of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. This talk will discuss the first results from the programme, demonstrating excellent agreement between the transmission spectra measured from VLT and HST and further reinforce the findings of clear, cloudy and hazy atmospheres. More details will be discussed on the narrow alkali features obtained with FORS2 at higher resolution, revealing its high potential in securing optical transmission spectra. These FORS2 observations are the first ground-based detections of clear, cloudy and hazy hot-Jupiter atmosphere with a simultaneous detections of Na, K, and H2 Rayleigh scattering. Our program demonstrates the large potential of the instrument for optical transmission spectroscopy, capable of obtaining HST-quality light curves from the ground. Compared to HST, the larger aperture of VLT will allow for fainter targets to be observed and higher spectral resolution, which can greatly aid comparative exoplanet studies. This is important for further exploring the diversity of exoplanet atmospheres and is particularly complementary to the near- and mid-IR regime, to be covered by the upcoming James-Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and is readily applicable to less massive planets down to super-Earths.

  12. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  14. Variations in VLT/UVES-based OH rotational temperatures for time scales from hours to 15 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Stefan; Kimeswenger, Stefan; Proxauf, Bastian; Kausch, Wolfgang; Unterguggenberger, Stefanie; Jones, Amy M.

    2017-04-01

    Hydroxyl (OH) emission is an important tracer of the climate, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's mesopause region. However, the relation of intensity variations in different OH lines is not well understood yet. This is critical for the most popular use of OH lines: the estimate of ambient temperatures based on transitions at low rotational levels of the same band. It is possible that the measured variability of the derived rotational temperature does not coincide with changes in the ambient temperature. Such differences can be caused by varying deviations from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the population distribution over the considered rotational levels. The non-LTE effects depend on the ratio of the thermalising collisions (mostly related to molecular oxygen) and competing radiative transitions or collisions without thermalisation of the rotational level distribution. Therefore, significant changes in the vertical structure of excited OH and its main quenchers can affect the temperature measurements. We have investigated the variability of OH rotational temperatures and the corresponding contributions of non-LTE effects for different OH bands and time scales up to 15 years based on data of the high-resolution echelle spectrograph UVES at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. In order to link the measured rotational temperatures with the structure of the OH emission layer, we have also studied OH emission and kinetic temperature profiles from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite taken between 2002 and 2015. The results show that non-LTE contributions can significantly affect the OH rotational temperatures. Their variations can be especially strong during the night and for high upper vibrational levels of the transitions, where amplitudes of several Kelvins can be measured. They appear to be weak if long-term variations such as those caused by the solar cycle are investigated. These differences in the response

  15. The deformable secondary mirror of VLT: final electro-mechanical and optical acceptance test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Biasi, Roberto; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Angerer, Gerald; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2014-07-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT ended the stand-alone electro-mechanical and optical acceptance process, entering the test phase as part of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the ESO Headquarter (Garching). The VLT-DSM currently represents the most advanced already-built large-format deformable mirror with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the final results of the electro-mechanical and optical characterization of the DSM executed in a collaborative effort by the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.), INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and ESO. The electro-mechanical acceptance tests have been performed in the company premises and their main purpose was the dynamical characterization of the internal control loop response and the calibration of the system data that are needed for its optimization. The optical acceptance tests have been performed at ESO (Garching) using the ASSIST optical test facility. The main purpose of the tests are the characterization of the optical shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions.

  16. VLT: a sustainable solution to urban mobility, in João Pessoa-PB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Uiara Wasconcelos; Silva, Glaucia Wasconcelos

    2012-01-01

    The changes happen quickly in today's world, simultaneously interacting with technological advances in the sciences and new paradigms socio-political and economic, in search of a sustainable future and a present with emergency strategies for the preservation of humanity and the planet "Earth ". Currently, the mobility of people in the intra-urban space is being threatened by congestion, pollution resulting from the appreciation of the culture of personal transport and the precariousness of public transportation. In the city of João Pessoa (PB), the subject of this finding for these disorders. Workers suffer the consequences of daily stress takes to access home-work, difficulty in arriving at the right time to the workplace and adverse reactions caused by pollution. The VLT (Light Rail Vehicle) has been presented as a viable solution to the problems of public transport, with several experiments that can be seen as positive in the world. This work involves the implementation of a public transport system based on VLT Corridor along the Avenue Dom Pedro II, in João Pessoa (PB), aiming to acquire a good transport network for use of the population, reduce the number of vehicles on process, minimize pollution and optimize urban mobility.

  17. Final binary star results from the ESO VLT Lunar occultations program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richichi, A. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, 191 Siriphanich Bldg., Huay Kaew Road, Suthep, Muang, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Fors, O. [Departament Astronomia i Meteorologia and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (UB/IEEC), Martí i Franqués 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Cusano, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Ivanov, V. D., E-mail: andrea4work@gmail.com [European Southern Observatory, Ave. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile)

    2014-03-01

    We report on 13 subarcsecond binaries, detected by means of lunar occultations in the near-infrared at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). They are all first-time detections except for the visual binary HD 158122, which we resolved for the first time in the near-infrared. The primaries have magnitudes in the range K = 4.5-10.0, and companions in the range K = 6.8-11.1. The magnitude differences have a median value of 2.4, with the largest being 4.6. The projected separations are in the range of 4-168 mas, with a median of 13 mas. We discuss and compare our results with the available literature. With this paper, we conclude the mining for binary star detections in the 1226 occultations recorded at the VLT with the ISAAC instrument. We expect that the majority of these binaries may be unresolvable by adaptive optics on current telescopes, and they might be challenging for long-baseline interferometry. However, they constitute an interesting sample for future larger telescopes and for astrometric missions such as GAIA.

  18. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. El proceso emprendedor en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Benavente

    2004-01-01

    Este estudio analiza los factores que afectan en forma positiva y negativa el proceso de creación de emprendimientos dinámicos en Chile. Se basa en una encuesta a 200 empresas jóvenes, la cual es parte de una muestra de casi 2000 empresas de América Latina. El presente estudio se enfoca básicamente en el segmento de nuevos emprendimientos existentes en Chile.

  20. A high-resolution VLT/FLAMES study of individual stars in the centre of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letarte, B.; Hill, V.; Tolstoy, E.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Venn, K. A.; Spite, M.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Primas, F.; François, P.; Kaufer, A.; Szeifert, T.; Arimoto, N.; Sadakane, K.

    2010-01-01

    For the first time we show the detailed, late-stage, chemical evolution history of a small nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxy in the Local Group. We present the results of a high-resolution (R similar to 20 000, lambda = 5340-5620; 6120-6701) FLAMES/GIRAFFE abundance study at ESO/VLT of 81

  1. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XVIII. Classifications and radial velocities of the B-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.J.; Kennedy, M.B.; Dufton, P.L.; Howarth, I.D.; Walborn, N.R.; Markova, N.; Clark, J.S.; de Mink, S.E.; de Koter, A.; Dunstall, P.R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; McEvoy, C.M.; Sana, H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W.D.; Vink, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are

  2. X-shooter: UV-to-IR intermediate-resolution high-efficiency spectrograph for the ESO VLT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Odorico, S.; Andersen, M.I.; Conconi, P.; De Caprio, V.; Delabre, B.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Dekker, H.; Downing, M.D.; Finger, G.; Groot, P.; Hanenburg, H.H.; Hammer, F.; Horville, D.; Hjorth, J.; Kaper, L.; Klougart, J.; Kjaergaard-Rasmussen, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Marteaud, M.; Mazzoleni, R.; Michaelsen, N.; Pallavicini, R.; Rigal, F.; Santin, P.; Norup Soerensen, A.; Spano, P.; Venema, L.; Vola, P.; Zerbi, F.M.; Hasinger, G.; Turner, M.J.L.

    2004-01-01

    X-shooter is a single target spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of one of the VLT UTs. It covers in a single exposure the spectral range from the UV to the H band with a possible extension into part of the K band. It is designed to maximize the sensitivity in this spectral range through the

  3. A tip / tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and

  4. NAOMI: a low-order adaptive optics system for the VLT interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonté, Frédéric Yves J.; Alonso, Jaime; Aller-Carpentier, Emmanuel; Andolfato, Luigi; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Cortes, Angela; Delplancke-Strobele, Françoise; Donaldson, Rob; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Dupuy, Christophe; Egner, Sebastian E.; Huber, Stefan; Hubin, Norbert; Kirchbauer, Jean-Paul; Le Louarn, Miska; Lilley, Paul; Jolley, Paul; Martis, Alessandro; Paufique, Jérôme; Pasquini, Luca; Quentin, Jutta; Ridings, Robert; Reyes, Javier; Shchkaturov, Pavel; Suarez, Marcos; Phan Duc, Thanh; Valdes, Guillermo; Woillez, Julien; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Beuzit, Jean-Luc; Rochat, Sylvain; Vérinaud, Christophe; Moulin, Thibaut; Delboulbé, Alain; Michaud, Laurence; Correia, Jean-Jacques; Roux, Alain; Maurel, Didier; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves

    2016-08-01

    The New Adaptive Optics Module for Interferometry (NAOMI) will be developed for and installed at the 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs) at ESO Paranal. The goal of the project is to equip all four ATs with a low-order Shack- Hartmann adaptive optics system operating in the visible. By improving the wavefront quality delivered by the ATs for guide stars brighter than R = 13 mag, NAOMI will make the existing interferometer performance less dependent on the seeing conditions. Fed with higher and more stable Strehl, the fringe tracker(s) will achieve the fringe stability necessary to reach the full performance of the second-generation instruments GRAVITY and MATISSE.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLT/SINFONI observations of MIPSGAL "bubbles" (Silva+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K. M.; Flagey, N.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Carey, S.; Ingallinera, A.

    2018-04-01

    Data were acquired in service mode during UT 2014 May 23-June 7 using VLT/SINFONI observations. We used two of SINFONI's four gratings providing spectral resolutions R=3000 and 4000 in the H and K bands, respectively, with the field of view of 8" by 8" (without adaptive optics). The targets are 55 MIPSGAL "bubbles" (MBs) that have not been previously classified as PNe, whose central sources were unidentified at the time of the Period 93 Call for Proposals (UT 2013 October 01), and appeared to contain at least one potential central source detected in the near-IR images of the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS, Skrutskie et al. 2006, Cat. VII/233) or the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS, Warren et al. 2007MNRAS.381.1400W). (5 data files).

  6. RADIAL VELOCITIES FROM VLT-KMOS SPECTRA OF GIANT STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6388

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Origlia, L.; Valenti, E.; Cirasuolo, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present new radial velocity measurements for 82 stars, members of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6388, obtained from ESO-VLT K-band Multi Object Spectrograph (KMOS) spectra acquired during the instrument Science Verification. The accuracy of the wavelength calibration is discussed and a number of tests of the KMOS response are presented. The cluster systemic velocity obtained (81.3 ± 1.5 km s –1 ) is in very good agreement with previous determinations. While a hint of ordered rotation is found between 9'' and 20'' from the cluster center, where the distribution of radial velocities is clearly bimodal, more data are needed before drawing any firm conclusions. The acquired sample of radial velocities has also been used to determine the cluster velocity dispersion (VD) profile between ∼9'' and 70'', supplementing previous measurements at r < 2'' and r > 60'' obtained with ESO-SINFONI and ESO-FLAMES spectroscopy, respectively. The new portion of the VD profile nicely matches the previous ones, better defining the knee of the distribution. The present work clearly shows the effectiveness of a deployable integral field unit in measuring the radial velocities of individual stars for determining the VD profile of Galactic GCs. It represents the pilot project for an ongoing large program with KMOS and FLAMES at the ESO-VLT, aimed at determining the next generation of VD and rotation profiles for a representative sample of GCs

  7. [Protomedicato in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Olea, J

    1991-09-01

    In 1566 Alonso de Villadiego was nominated by the Chilean Cabildo as "Adviser and Examiner in Surgery". By means of this edict, the Spanish Crown paralleled its classical health organization, inspired in rules coming from XIIIth century. The Hospital del Socorro was the focal point of these activities. It turned to be prosperous under the administration of "San Juan de Dios" monks (1617), who rebaptized the Hospital with their name. During the administration of the "Universidad de San Felipe" (1738-1839), the Protomedicato followed the standards imposed by the Cahir of Prima Medicina. Domingo Nevin, Frenchman, and José Antonio Ríos, Chilean, were the first and the last doctors in charge of this task. Ríos conducted the antivariolic campaign, supervised the "Midwifery Law" and controlled the medical and paramedical practice. Afterwards, the Institution plunged into a profound crisis to reflourish in 1833 when it was incorporated within the structure of the School of Medicine. Blest, Cox, Bustillos and Moran were the architects of its splendour. With the foundation of the Universidad de Chile in 1842, its Faculty of Medicine took over the Protomedicato functions. The Institution came to an end in 1892.

  8. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  9. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  10. Modernitet og forbrugskultur i Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2012-01-01

    I de sidste årtier er Chile blevet et egentligt forbrugersamfund. Udbredelsen af forbrugskulturen og forbrugerismen er centrale fænomener i chilenernes dagligliv og har nået et omfang, som har konsekvenser for de borgere, der ikke kan deltage fuldt ud heri, noget som er typisk for et samfund med en...... ujævn økonomisk udvikling og med store sociale forskelle. Denne proces er ikke et produkt af en stille, fredelig og naturlig samfundsudvikling, således som magteliten og de toneangivende intellektuelle i Chile har fremstillet det. Som jeg vil vise, er skabelsen af et egentlig forbrugssamfund knyttet til...... til i dag. Ifølge disse er Chile blevet et moderne samfund netop i kraft af, at Chile er et ægte forbrugersamfund med alt, hvad dette indebærer, såvel materielt som symbolsk. For det tredje er billedet af Chile som en ”supermoderne” nation i den latinamerikanske kontekst en udbredt forestilling hos...

  11. Internationalization of SMES: business opportunities in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, João Filipe Amado

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to identify the main business opportunities in Chile, legal advantages in the business perspective and entry strategies for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The methodology used was qualitative, by conducting several interviews with chamber of commerce representative from Portugal in Chile and Chile in Portugal, several young entrepreneurs from different nations operating in Chile, the CEO of a Spanish company that decided to not internationalize to...

  12. Chile Energy Policy Review 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-22

    Since 1990, Chile has been the fastest growing economy in Latin America thanks to sound economic management and integration into the global economy. Chile can also be proud of its energy policy achievements. The pioneering privatisation and liberalisation of its electricity sector in the 1980s was the foundation for a competitive energy sector, which has sustained the rapid growth of the Chilean economy over the past two decades. Nonetheless, Chile faces the continuing challenge of finding additional energy supplies to fuel economic growth. Chile has limited fossil energy resources and depends on imports to meet three-quarters of its energy needs. The country's electricity sector has faced three periods of significant stress over the past decade. The last episode took place in 2007/2008, when the loss of natural gas imports from Argentina was further exacerbated by a drought in the central system, where hydropower normally accounts for over half of electricity generation. Drawing on the experience of IEA member countries, the Review assesses Chile's major energy challenges and provides recommendations. Six main themes emerge: the successful liberalisation of the power sector in the 1980s; the essential role played by the state in ensuring energy security; the re-formulation of Chile's long-term energy policy; the proposed reorganisation of the institutional framework; greater independence for the system operators; and the need for a clear framework of regulation so that long-term investment decisions integrate social and environmental costs. This publication is essential reading for all who are interested in Chilean energy issues and in learning about the important role sound energy policy can play in developing a nation's economic and social welfare.

  13. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  14. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiffert, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.; Miranda, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  15. Forest nursery management in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.

    2002-01-01

    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  16. Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loba, P; Stewart, S H; Klein, R M; Blackburn, J R

    2001-01-01

    The present study was conducted to identify game parameters that would reduce the risk of abuse of video lottery terminals (VLTs) by pathological gamblers, while exerting minimal effects on the behavior of non-pathological gamblers. Three manipulations of standard VLT game features were explored. Participants were exposed to: a counter which displayed a running total of money spent; a VLT spinning reels game where participants could no longer "stop" the reels by touching the screen; and sensory feature manipulations. In control conditions, participants were exposed to standard settings for either a spinning reels or a video poker game. Dependent variables were self-ratings of reactions to each set of parameters. A set of 2(3) x 2 x 2 (game manipulation [experimental condition(s) vs. control condition] x game [spinning reels vs. video poker] x gambler status [pathological vs. non-pathological]) repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on all dependent variables. The findings suggest that the sensory manipulations (i.e., fast speed/sound or slow speed/no sound manipulations) produced the most robust reaction differences. Before advocating harm reduction policies such as lowering sensory features of VLT games to reduce potential harm to pathological gamblers, it is important to replicate findings in a more naturalistic setting, such as a real bar.

  17. Small vs. large dust grains in transitional disks: do different cavity sizes indicate a planet?. SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) in polarized light with VLT/NACO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Avenhaus, H.; Buenzli, E.; Dominik, C.; Meru, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Pinilla, P.; Schmid, H. M.; Wolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Transitional disks represent a short stage of the evolution of circumstellar material. Studies of dust grains in these objects can provide pivotal information on the mechanisms of planet formation. Dissimilarities in the spatial distribution of small (μm-size) and large (mm-size) dust grains have recently been pointed out. Aims: Constraints on the small dust grains can be obtained by imaging the distribution of scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We aim at resolving structures in the surface layer of transitional disks (with particular emphasis on the inner 10-50 AU), thus increasing the scarce sample of high-resolution images of these objects. Methods: We obtained VLT/NACO near-IR high-resolution polarimetric differential imaging observations of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). This technique allows one to image the polarized scattered light from the disk without any occulting mask and to reach an inner working angle of ~0.1″. Results: A face-on disk is detected in H and Ks bands between 0.1″ and 0.9″. No significant differences are seen between the H and Ks images. In addition to the spiral arms, these new data allow us to resolve for the first time an inner disk cavity for small dust grains. The cavity size (≃28 AU) is much smaller than what is inferred for large dust grains from (sub-)mm observations (39 to 50 AU). This discrepancy cannot be ascribed to any resolution effect. Conclusions: The interaction between the disk and potential orbiting companion(s) can explain both the spiral arm structure and the discrepant cavity sizes for small and large dust grains. One planet may be carving out the gas (and, thus, the small grains) at 28 AU, and generating a pressure bump at larger radii (39 AU), which holds back the large grains. We analytically estimate that, in this scenario, a single giant planet (with a mass between 5 and 15 MJ) at 17 to 20 AU from the star is consistent with the observed cavity sizes. Based on observations collected at the

  18. An atlas of L-T transition brown dwarfs with VLT/XShooter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocco, F.; Day-Jones, A. C.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pinfield, D. J.

    In this contribution we present the first results from a large observing campaign we are carrying out using VLT/Xshooter to obtain spectra of a large sample (˜250 objects) of L-T transition brown dwarfs. Here we report the results based on the first ˜120 spectra already obtained. The large sample, and the wide spectral coverage (300-2480 nm) given by Xshooter, will allow us to do a new powerful analysis, at an unprecedent level. By fitting the absorption lines of a given element (e.g. Na) at different wavelengths we can test ultracool atmospheric models and draw for the first time a 3D picture of stellar atmospheres at temperatures down to 1000K. Determining the atmospheric parameters (e.g. temperature, surface gravity and metallicity) of a big sample of brown dwarfs, will allow us to understand the role of these parameters on the formation of their spectra. The large number of objects in our sample also will allow us to do a statistical significant test of the birth rate and initial mass function predictions for brown dwarfs. Determining the shape of the initial mass function for very low mass objects is a fundamental task to improve galaxy models, as recent studies tep{2010Natur.468..940V} have shown that low-mass objects dominate in massive elliptical galaxies.

  19. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  20. Environmental education in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, municipality of Porto Rico (Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AT. Obara

    Full Text Available Since 2003, researchers, faculty, graduate and undergraduate students from the State University of Maringá have been working alongside teachers from the state and local schools in the municipality of Porto Rico (Paraná State, located on the banks of the Paraná River. Their objective is to outline actions and strategies with the purpose of building methodological paths to insert environmental education into the school curriculum. Based on the action-research methodology, the group has developed the following programs: a the Continuing Education Program in Environmental Education; b the Development of Interdisciplinary Projects; c the Insertion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs; and d the Production of Teaching Materials. The evaluations of the programs indicate that teachers have been able to gradually build a theoretical and methodological basis for environmental education while simultaneously growing into the role of teacher-researchers as they create the conditions to investigate their pedagogical practices, reflect upon them, share experiences, innovate, and make the teaching-learning process more significant. Allied to the advances in educational practices and with the aid of ICTs, the activities developed in the classroom, in the field and in the lab - all of which involve natural and cultural aspects of the region - have contributed to teachers' and students' better understanding of the ecological, cultural, social and economic value of the floodplain, and consequently, of the importance of preservation and management in order to maintain local biodiversity.

  1. Dairy cattle environmental impacts in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Schiavi Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six larger producers of cow milk in the world. In 2010, the national milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE. Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for 71% production increase between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. Thus, this paper aims at assessing the adoption of good environmental practices in milk production, towards sustainable production. Practices included: plot rotation system; no-tillage technique; agroecology system; and practices for reducing water and energetic consumptions in milk cattle system. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, we could find that 95% of producers adopted at least one of those good environmental practices considered, mostly plot rotation system and no-tillage technique. According to literature, plot rotation favors soils quality and consequently increases forage availability, resulting in positive impact on natural resources. No-tillage agriculture, on its turn, causes less damage on

  2. Hikoma Udihara: um imigrante colonizador inaugura o cinema no norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Boni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For nearly three decades, from 30‘s to 50‘s in the twentieth century, the immigrant Hikoma Udihara recorded the settlement and development of the northern of Paraná. Autodidact, produced about ten hours of footage that, due to its documentary relevance, constitute an essential research‘s resource for the historical recovery, memory preservation and construction of the identity in northern of Paraná, and also for the rescue of the Paraná‘s cinema.

  3. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De...... socialistiske regeringer har accepteret et begrænset demokrati og videreført en nyliberal økonomisk politik, der har bragt dem på konfrontationskurs med massebevægelserne og isoleret Chile fra de andre lande i regionen, der søger integration og gensidig støøte. Udgivelsesdato: Februar...

  4. Bromélias do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Anacleto, Adilson

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Apresentam-se resultados de pesquisa sobre as bromélias no Paraná, um grupo de espécies de plantas ornamentais nativas no Estado e que apresentam relevante valor comercial. Realizou-se inicialmente um diagnóstico do sistema de produção de bromélias, evidenciando as particularidades e discrepâncias em relação aos modelos de produção descritos na literatura. Procedeu-se estudo de viabilidade econômica de implantação de novos cultivos. Foi também quantificado o sistema sócio econômico do...

  5. Geochemistry of HASP, VLT, and other glasses from double drive tube 79001/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Wentworth, S. J.; Martinez, R. R.; Mckay, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 double drive tube 79001/2 (station 9, Van Serg Crater) is distinctive because of its extreme maturity, abundance, and variety of glass clasts. It contains mare glasses of both high Ti and very low Ti (VLT) compositions, and highland glasses of all compositions common in lunar regolith samples: highland basalt (feldspathic; Al2O3 greater than 23 wt percent), KREEP (Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O greater than 0.25 wt percent), and low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM; Al2O3 less than 23 wt percent, K2O less than 0.25 wt percent). It also contains rare specimens of high-alumina, silica-poor (HASP), and ultra Mg glasses. HASP glasses contain insufficient SiO2 to permit the calculation of a standard norm, and are thought to be the product of volatilization during impact melting. They have been studied by electron microprobe major-element analysis techniques but have not previously been analyzed for trace elements. The samples analyzed for this study were polished grain mounts of the 90-160 micron fraction of four sieved samples from the 79001/2 core (depth range 2.3-11.5 cm). A total of 80 glasses were analyzed by SEM/EDS and electron microprobe, and a subset of 33 of the glasses, representing a wide range of compositional types, was chosen for high-sensitivity INAA. A microdrilling device removed disks (mostly 50-100 micron diameter, weighing approx. 0.1-0.5 micro-g) for INAA. Preliminary data reported here are based only on short counts done within two weeks of irradiation.

  6. Evolution of galaxies clustering in the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneux, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The recent surveys of the Universe highlighted the presence of structures in the matter distribution, such as filaments and voids. To study the evolution of the galaxy spatial distribution, it is necessary to know their accurate position in a three dimensional space. This thesis took place within the framework of the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). Its goal is to measure some 100000 redshifts to study the formation and evolution of the galaxies and large scale structures of the Universe up to z∼5. After having made a review of our knowledge of the galaxies distribution, then introduced the VVDS, I present the measurement and the evolution of the real-space two-point correlation function from the first epoch data of the VVDS, the largest sample of 10759 spectra ever acquired up to I_A_B = 24. I developed a whole set of programs made available to the VVDS consortium to easily measure the clustering length of galaxies in a given redshift range, with its associated errors, correcting the effects of the VVDS observing strategy. This tool enabled to measure the evolution of the real space correlation function of the global galaxies population up to z=2. I then extended this study dividing the full galaxies sample by spectral type and color. Finally, combining the GALEX data to the VVDS has allowed me to measure the clustering of an ultraviolet-selected sample of galaxies up to z∼1. This is the first time that such measurements are carried out on such a so long range of cosmic time. The results presented in this thesis are thus establishing a new reference in the field. (author) [fr

  7. Larval fish in the surf zone of Pontal do Sul beach, Pontal do Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santiago Godefroid

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6,575 larvae in the preflexion, flexion and post-flexion stages of 15 families, 26 genera and 29 species were captured in the surf zone of Pontal do Sul beach, Paraná, Brazil. Samples of the families Gerreidae and Scianidae predominated and larvae of Eucinostomus argenteus (Baird&Girard, 1854, Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823, Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier, 1830, Menticirrhus ameri-canus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Anchoa tricolor (Agassiz, 1829 were the most dominant species. Greater abundance of larvae was observed during the summer, followed by winter and in a less extent during spring and autumn. The number of species was greater in the summer, and there were no significant differences in the rest of the seasons.

  8. [Poles of American tegumentary leishmaniasis production in northern Paraná State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Neitzke, Herintha Coeto; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Teodoro, Ueslei; Ferreira, Maria Eugênia Moreira Costa

    2009-05-01

    American tegumentary leishmaniasis is endemic in the State of Paraná, with 99.3% of the cases reported in the South of Brazil. Spatial distribution of the disease in northern Paraná was verified, identifying the most relevant geographic areas in epidemiological terms. The study used data recorded on epidemiological forms from the Teaching and Research Clinical Test Laboratory of the State University in Maringá, from 1987 to 2004. The study only included individuals that were infected in the municipalities (counties) in northern Paraná. Identification of the epidemiological units (poles and circuits) was based on spatial density of cases, according to the model proposed by the National Health Foundation, considering the most likely infection sites. Considering 1,933 reported cases, 1,611 were infected in northern Paraná. American tegumentary leishmaniasis distribution in Paraná State suggests two circuits for production of the disease: Paraná-Paranapanema, highlighting the Cinzas-Laranjinha, Tibagi, Ivaí-Pirapó, Piquiri, and Baixo Iguaçu poles, and Ribeira, highlighting the Alto Ribeira pole.

  9. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Jesen, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve...

  10. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Pedersen, H.

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve...

  11. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  12. Comparison of VLT/X-shooter OH and O2 rotational temperatures with consideration of TIMED/SABER emission and temperature profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rotational temperatures Trot derived from lines of the same OH band are an important method to study the dynamics and long-term trends in the mesopause region near 87 km. To measure realistic temperatures, the rotational level populations have to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE. However, this might not be fulfilled, especially at high emission altitudes. In order to quantify possible non-LTE contributions to the OH Trot as a function of the upper vibrational level v′, we studied a sample of 343 echelle spectra taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope at Cerro Paranal in Chile. These data allowed us to analyse 25 OH bands in each spectrum. Moreover, we could measure lines of O2b(0-1, which peaks at about 94 to 95 km, and O2a(0-0 with an emission peak at about 90 km. The latter altitude is reached in the second half of the night after a rise of several km because of the decay of a daytime population of excited O2. Since the radiative lifetimes for the upper levels of the two O2 bands are relatively long, the derived Trot are not significantly affected by non-LTE contributions. These bands are well suited for a comparison with OH if the differences in the emission profiles are corrected. For different sample averages, we made these corrections by using OH emission, O2a(0-0 emission, and CO2-based temperature profile data from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. The procedure relies on differences of profile-weighted SABER temperatures. For an O2a(0-0-based reference profile at 90 km, we found a good agreement of the O2 with the SABER-related temperatures, whereas the OH temperatures, especially for the high and even v′, showed significant excesses with a maximum of more than 10 K for v′ = 8. The exact value depends on the selected lines and molecular parameters. We could also find a nocturnal trend towards higher non-LTE effects, particularly for high v′. The amplitude

  13. Using fear appeals in warning labels to promote responsible gambling among VLT players: the key role of depth of information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Yaromir; Chebat, Jean-Charles; Suissa, Jacob Amnon

    2010-12-01

    Video lottery terminals (VLT) are a highly lucrative gambling format, but at the same time they are among the most hazardous. Previous research has shown that threatening warnings may be an appropriate approach for promoting protective behavior. The present study explores the potential benefits of threatening warnings in the fight against compulsive gambling. A 4 × 2 factorial design experiment was used to test our model based on both Elaboration Likelihood Model and Protection Motivation Theory. 258 VLT adult players (58% males, 42% females) with various degrees of problem gambling were exposed to three threat levels (plus a control condition) from two different sources (i.e., either a medical source or a source related to the provider of VLT's). Our results show that both higher threat warnings and the medical source of warnings enhance Depth of Information Processing. It was also found that Depth of Information Processing affects positively attitude change and compliance intentions. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  14. CLASH-VLT: testing the nature of gravity with galaxy cluster mass profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Girardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Amendola, L. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Umetsu, K. [5 Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Biviano, A.; Balestra, I.; Nonino, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Rosati, P. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Mu\\' nchen (Germany); Caminha, G.B. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Frye, B. [Steward Observatory/Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lombardi, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Mercurio, A., E-mail: pizzuti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: barbara.sartoris@gmail.com, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uniheidelberg.de [Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    We use high-precision kinematic and lensing measurements of the total mass profile of the dynamically relaxed galaxy cluster MACS J1206.2-0847 at z=0.44 to estimate the value of the ratio η=Ψ/Φ between the two scalar potentials in the linear perturbed Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metric. An accurate measurement of this ratio, called anisotropic stress, could show possible, interesting deviations from the predictions of the theory of General Relativity, according to which Ψ should be equal to Φ. Complementary kinematic and lensing mass profiles were derived from exhaustive analyses using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (CLASH-VLT). Whereas the kinematic mass profile tracks only the time-time part of the perturbed metric (i.e. only Φ), the lensing mass profile reflects the contribution of both time-time and space-space components (i.e. the sum Φ+Ψ). We thus express η as a function of the mass profiles and perform our analysis over the radial range 0.5 Mpc≤ r≤ r{sub 200}=1.96 Mpc. Using a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White mass profile, which well fits the data, we obtain η(r{sub 200})=1.01 {sub −0.28}{sup +0.31} at the 68% C.L. We discuss the effect of assuming different functional forms for mass profiles and of the orbit anisotropy in the kinematic reconstruction. Interpreting this result within the well-studied f(R) modified gravity model, the constraint on η translates into an upper bound to the interaction length (inverse of the scalaron mass) smaller than 2 Mpc. This tight constraint on the f(R) interaction range is however substantially relaxed when systematic uncertainties in the analysis are considered. Our analysis highlights the potential of this method to detect deviations from general relativity, while calling for the need of further high-quality data on the total mass distribution of clusters and improved control on systematic

  15. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  16. The Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey II - Planetary Nebulae kinematics within 200 kpc of the cluster core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiniello, C.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Tortora, C.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Gerhard, O.; Iodice, E.; Spavone, M.; Cantiello, M.; Peletier, R.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.

    2018-06-01

    We present the largest and most spatially extended planetary nebulae (PNe) catalogue ever obtained for the Fornax cluster. We measured velocities of 1452 PNe out to 200 kpc in the cluster core using a counter-dispersed slitless spectroscopic technique with data from FORS2 on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). With such an extended spatial coverage, we can study separately the stellar haloes of some of the cluster main galaxies and the intracluster light. In this second paper of the Fornax Cluster VLT Spectroscopic Survey, we identify and classify the emission-line sources, describe the method to select PNe, and calculate their coordinates and velocities from the dispersed slitless images. From the PN 2D velocity map, we identify stellar streams that are possibly tracing the gravitational interaction of NGC 1399 with NGC 1404 and NGC 1387. We also present the velocity dispersion profile out to ˜200 kpc radii, which shows signatures of a superposition of the bright central galaxy and the cluster potential, with the latter clearly dominating the regions outside R ˜ 1000 arcsec (˜100 kpc).

  17. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  18. Paraná School Games: Competition analysis in Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Plociniak Costa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo procura estabelecer a participação dos estudantes da cidade de Curitiba nos Jogos Escolares do Paraná, com o objetivo de discutir a efetividade da competição enquanto política pública ou apenas uma política de governo. A pesquisa caracteriza-se por ser documental exploratória e descritiva e tem por base os dados e informações, disponibilizados pelo Núcleo Regional de Educação de Curitiba, entre os anos de 2004 a 2013, com exceção dos anos 2010 e 2012 nas modalidades coletivas. Observa-se a predominância dos esportes futsal e voleibol, com destaque no futsal que é a preferência dos estudantes. Assim, é importante compreender que os Jogos Escolares não realiza uma política pública efetiva, devido à diferença dos seus objetivos propostos com o que acontece na prática.

  19. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a

  20. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  1. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. XII. Rotational velocities of the single O-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Sabín-Sanjulían, C.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Gräfener, G.; Evans, C. J.; Herrero, A.; Langer, N.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Markova, N.; Najarro, F.; Puls, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The 30 Doradus (30 Dor) region of the Large Magellanic Cloud, also known as the Tarantula nebula, is the nearest starburst region. It contains the richest population of massive stars in the Local Group, and it is thus the best possible laboratory to investigate open questions on the formation and evolution of massive stars. Aims: Using ground-based multi-object optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to establish the (projected) rotational velocity distribution for a sample of 216 presumably single O-type stars in 30 Dor. The sample is large enough to obtain statistically significant information and to search for variations among subpopulations - in terms of spectral type, luminosity class, and spatial location - in the field of view. Methods: We measured projected rotational velocities, νesini, by means of a Fourier transform method and a profile fitting method applied to a set of isolated spectral lines. We also used an iterative deconvolution procedure to infer the probability density, P(νe), of the equatorial rotational velocity, νe. Results: The distribution of νesini shows a two-component structure: a peak around 80 kms-1 and a high-velocity tail extending up to ~600 kms-1. This structure is also present in the inferred distribution P(νe) with around 80% of the sample having 0 rate less than 20% of their break-up velocity. For the bulk of the sample, mass loss in a stellar wind and/or envelope expansion is not efficient enough to significantly spin down these stars within the first few Myr of evolution. If massive-star formation results in stars rotating at birth with a large portion of their break-up velocities, an alternative braking mechanism, possibly magnetic fields, is thus required to explain the present-day rotational properties of the O-type stars in 30 Dor. The presence of a sizeable population of fast rotators is compatible with recent population synthesis computations that

  2. Mujeres inmigrantes peruanas en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stefoni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona en torno a la situación de la migración peruana en Chile, en particular sobre la situación de exclusión social y laboral que enfrentan las mujeres inmigrantes en Santiago. La migración peruana se caracteriza por ser eminentemente femenina y con una alta concentración laboral de este grupo en el trabajo doméstico. ¿Por qué se han vuelto las labores la fuente principal de trabajo para estas mujeres?, ¿basta con señalar que se debe a mano de obra más barata o existen otros argumentos de tipo cultural y social que explican por qué empleadores/as chilenos contratan y prefieren a mujeres peruanas?

  3. Intercultural bilingual education in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Ibarra Figueroa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on analysis of the actions of public bodies and institutions that are being created in Chile to meet demand in Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE. The aim is to analyze the practical training of students in initial teacher training in intercultural basic education at the Catholic University of Temuco. In addition, reveal the working methods of collaborative field between family-school- community partnership in key initial identification and subsequent components and devices in the proper relationship of individuals, in order to establish criteria by biopsychosocial processes from the identity the Other and You as host in the plural diversity of human beings, with aim is to recommend  a public policy with an emphasis on multicultural values of each community, enriching the human condition and biopolitics regarding the integration from the educational training and the role that fits the state.

  4. Chile: perspectives in school health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L

    1990-09-01

    The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions.

  5. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  6. The Panchromatic High-Resolution Spectroscopic Survey of Local Group Star Clusters. I. General data reduction procedures for the VLT/X-shooter UVB and VIS arm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönebeck, Frederik; Puzia, Thomas H.; Pasquali, Anna; Grebel, Eva K.; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Kuntschner, Harald; Lyubenova, Mariya; Perina, Sibilla

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Our dataset contains spectroscopic observations of 29 globular clusters in the Magellanic Clouds and the Milky Way performed with VLT/X-shooter over eight full nights. To derive robust results instrument and pipeline systematics have to be well understood and properly modeled. We aim at a

  7. Pythiosis in sheep from Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio D. Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reports pythiosis in a sheep from southwestern Paraná, Brazil, confirmed by indirect ELISA (Enzime-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and immunohistochemistry, as well as it describes the macro and microscopic injuries, in order to understand the pathogenicity. A 4-year-old ewe from a flock of 30 Santa Inês sheep, raised semi-extensively with access to a weir, showed cachexia, bilateral enlargement in nasal region, a serous and bloody secretion with a fetid odor from its nose and swollen submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Blood collection was performed trough jugular vein puncture in order to make complete blood cell count (CBC and to obtain serum for the subsequent serological examination. As the hematological counts were within the normal range for sheep, the animal was euthanized and submitted to necropsy. Indirect ELISA resulted positive for pythiosis. Necropsy revealed necrosis of the hard palate with a diameter of 3.5cm and extending up to the nasal cavity, forming a fistula. Submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes were enlarged and edematous on section. Microscopic findings for submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes consisted in moderate infiltration of eosinophils mainly in the subcapsular sinus, characterizing reactive eosinophilic lymphadenitis. The nasal cavity revealed rhinitis and oral cavity stomatitis with necro-eosinophilic and pronounced multifocal granulomatous infiltration and presence of hyphae. Hyphae found in palate and nasal cavity were positive for Pythium insidiosum by Grocott's method and immunohistochemistry, the last one considered to be confirmatory for the pathogen diagnostic. This report has an important epidemiological aspect, as it is the first case of pythiosis in sheep confirmed by serology in South Brazil and an alert of possible infection by the pathogen in floodplains.

  8. Chile and Mercosur: One Strategic Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oviedo, Humberto

    2000-01-01

    ... a big free trade area. Chile has been proactive to open its economy unilaterally and now is looking for creating the best conditions to participate in some important economic blocks, as a NAFTA, MERCOSUR, the Asian-Pacific...

  9. A decade towards better health in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmke, Irene

    2011-10-01

    In 1990, after 17 years of dictatorship, Chile started rebuilding its political system with a focus on improving social conditions and health. A recent study of the last 10 years shows some positive results. Irene Helmke reports.

  10. May 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  11. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  12. Paraná fala inglês” na UEPG: experiência extensionista com foco na mobilidade internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Vollet Marson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-0221.2015v12n20p73 O projeto “Paraná Fala Inglês” é uma proposta da SETI (Secretaria da Ciência, Tecnologia e Ensino Superior junto às universidades estaduais do Paraná, para impulsionar a mobilidade internacional de alunos de graduação e pós-graduação, docentes e agentes universitários. O projeto iniciou-se em 2014, sendo a primeira etapa do programa da SETI “O Paraná Fala Línguas Estrangeiras”. Sete universidades participam do programa: Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Universidade Estadual do Norte do Paraná, Universidade Estadual do Paraná, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná e Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste do Paraná. Esse artigo apresenta os resultados parciais desse programa na UEPG sob a forma do curso de extensão, aprovado e registrado pela Pró-Reitoria de Extensão e Assuntos Culturais, “Paraná Fala Inglês – Curso preparatório intermediário e pós-intermediário do TOEFL-iBT”. Ainda, objetiva-se discutir as perspectivas do projeto para sua finalização em 2016.

  13. Contribution to knowledge of Palmas Grassland mammals, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Camargo Passos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The southern region of Paraná State is considered to be a priority area for mammal research in the state. This work aimed to present an inventory of the mammal species occurring in the locality known as Campos de Palmas, Paraná, Southern Brazil (26º34’59”S and 51º36’16”W, and to promote discussion about their importance for regional conservation. This assessment was carried out in two field stages, totaling 15 days. Thirty-five mammal species were recorded by direct observation, capture with mist nets, presence of feces and tracks, and identification of animals killed on the BR-280 highway. This inventory registered endangered species for Paraná and Brazil, as well as other important records of some mammal species at regional and national level.

  14. Chile ushers in new hydro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, S.

    1997-01-01

    The planned construction of two hydroelectric power plants at Peuchen and Mampil, will help to meet Chile's growing electricity demand. Securing finance for the project has been straight forward thanks to the optimal hydrological conditions, rivers with a very strong flow providing a large head of water over short distance. Hydropower plays a central role in Chile's generating capacity providing 70% of total energy consumption. Thus, the future of these projects will be highly successful, it is argued. (UK)

  15. Paracoccidioidomycosis mortality in the State of Paraná, Brazil, 1980/1998 Mortalidade por paracoccidiodomicose no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, 1980/1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Izabel Margraf Bittencourt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The paracoccidioidomycosis mortality rate in the State of Paraná, Brazil (1980/1998 was analyzed using the death registry data from the Brazilian Mortality Information System and the estimated population from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. To qualify the deaths, we deployed ICD-9 for 1980/1995 and ICD-10 for the more recent years. During this period there were 551 deaths from paracoccidioidomycosis in the State of Paraná. Most of the deaths were in male in the 30-59-year age group. The average annual mortality rate was 3.48 per million inhabitants, showing a tendency to stabilize during the study period. Paracoccidioidomycosis was the fifth cause of mortality among the predominantly chronic infectious diseases and had the highest mortality rate among the systemic mycoses. Paracoccidioidomycosis was observed in 184 counties in the State of Paraná. Most deaths were recorded in the North-Central meso-region, and the highest mortality rate occurred in the West meso-region.Foi conduzido um estudo de mortalidade por paracoccidioidomicose no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, no período de 1980 a 1998, utilizando-se como fonte de dados os registros de óbitos do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade e a população estimada pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Para classificação dos óbitos, empregou-se a CID-9 para os anos de 1980 a 1995 e a CID-10 para os anos mais recentes. Nesse período, no Paraná, ocorreram 551 óbitos por paracoccidioidomicose, com prevalência do sexo masculino, na faixa etária compreendida ente 30 a 59 anos. A taxa de mortalidade média anual foi de 3,48 por milhão de habitantes, demonstrando estabilidade no período de estudo. Destacou-se como a quinta causa de mortalidade entre as doenças infecciosas e parasitárias redominantemente crônicas, apresentando a mais alta taxa de mortalidade entre as micoses sistêmicas. Foi observada em 184 municípios, verificando-se, no estudo por

  16. A doença de Chagas no Paraná Chagas disease in the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1954-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent speech in Curitiba (May 22nd, 1954, Dr. Mario Pinotti, Director, Serviço Nacional da Malaria, informed that his personnel started on February, 1953, a survey upon chagas Disease in 23 counties of the State of Paraná, South Brazil. out of 895 places surveyed, 678, or 75.7%, were infected by Triatoma infestans klug 1834 and in 234 out of those 678, or 34.5%, this vector was infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. The general natural infection of the insects examined reached 18.86%. The serological survey (Machado-Guerreiro test was positive in 10.7% of the persons examined in jacarezinho and in 28.3% of those living in Bôa Vista. These data suggested the author to actualise the subject. During his control of severe outbreack of malaria in the North part of Paraná, from march to June 1917 he worked in 8 counties. March 1917 he photographed in Boa Vista four girls, severe cases of chronic malaria, two of which showed bi-palpebral oedema, later on considered by Dr. Pinho Simões (1943 as Romanã syndrome (created in 1935 and Prof. Salvador Mazza (1946 classified as typical cases of Chagas' Disease. now, being elapsed 36 years, the National Service of Malaria confirmed the discovery. The region surveyed was populated, in the beginning of this century, by immigrants from the State of Minas Gerais, from where the author believes that were imported the disease and its vectors. In April 1917 the A. discovered that the old town Jatahy was a big focus of Triatoma megista (now Panstrongylus megistus0. All its 43 houses were strongly infested by such hematophagus and amongst the 200 inhabitants seen many were suspicious cases of chronic cases of Chagas's Disease. In the Indians town (three tribes of S. Pedro D' Alcantara, situated in front of Jatahy, in the left side of the river Tibagy, there were no Triatomas nor suspicious cases of trypanosomiasis. In 1919 the author started the control of the endemics by destroying the foci of Triatomas and reforming

  17. Profile of employed persons in Paraná labor market for 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clécia Ivânia Rosa Satel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to outline the profile of employed persons in Paraná labor market in the period 2003-2012 from the microdata of the Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD. The results showed that Paraná's labor market predominantly occupied by male individuals, belonging to the formal market and with white skin. The participation of women, non-young people and skilled individuals among the employed has increased. Skilled individuals usually perform activities in sectors related to the sciences and arts, while the unskilled are related to production or service sector.

  18. Comércio de bromélias no Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Anacleto,Adilson; Negrelle,Raquel Rejane Bonato

    2013-01-01

    Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, objetivando conhecer o perfil do produtor paranaense, com respectiva capacidade de atender às demandas de mercado, identificar e caracterizar os diferentes níveis da cadeia produtiva e detectar os principais pontos de estrangulamento do desenvolvimento desse setor. Para tanto, foram entrevistados 19 produtores, 160 varejistas e 18 atacadistas. A quantidade de bromélias oriundas da produção do Paraná e apta...

  19. O gênero Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae na planície de alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná, Brasil The genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae on the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Barion Romagnolo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento das espécies de Eugenia L. da planície alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná (22º40' a 22º55'S e 53º10' a 53º40'W. Esta área localiza-se no domínio da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e apresenta formações ripárias ao longo do rio Paraná, de suas ilhas e de seus tributários. As espécies registradas foram: Eugenia egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O. Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart. e E. uniflora L. Os meses que apresentaram o maior número de espécies em floração e frutificação foram respectivamente, setembro e novembro. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis e E. repanda apresentam ampla distribuição na área, enquanto que E. ramboi e E. sulcata foram encontradas somente na margem esquerda do rio Paraná. É fornecida uma chave para a identificação das espécies, acompanhada de ilustrações e descrições das mesmas, além de informações sobre o período de floração, frutificação e distribuição na área estudada.A floristic survey of Eugenia L. species of the Upper Paraná River floodplain in Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil (22º40'-22º55'S; 53º10'-53º40'W is presented. The study area is covered by Seasonal Semideciduous Forest, with riparian formations along the Paraná River and its islands and tributaries. The following species were identified: E. egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O.Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart., and E. uniflora L. The greatest number of species in flower or fruit was detected in September and November, respectively. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis and E. repanda are widely distributed in the study area, whereas E. ramboi and E. sulcata were observed only

  20. Diversidad de la familia Carabidae (Coleoptera en Chile Diversity of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO ROIG-JUÑENT

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Carabidae constituye dentro de los coléopteros chilenos, la cuarta familia en importancia por su cantidad de especies. El presente trabajo incluye una breve compilación acerca de la historia de la familia y de las primeras expediciones realizadas en Chile. También se realizan comparaciones de la diversidad de carábidos chilenos con respecto a otros países y el Neotrópico. Para Chile, se conocen 21 tribus, con 95 géneros y 365 especies, que representan el 38,8, 28,8 y 7,9 % de la fauna del Neotrópico, respectivamente. Chile posee un bajo número de tribus comparado con otros países, sin embargo, constituye un área importante por la presencia de seis tribus relictuales, principalmente pangeicas o gondwánicas. Chile posee 18 géneros endémicos (18,5 % de su fauna de Carabidae, 28 cuya distribución está restringida a Chile y Argentina y seis restringidos a Chile, Argentina y Uruguay. La cantidad de especies presentes en Chile es inferior a la que poseen otros países de América del Sur, pero la cantidad de especies endémicas es muy alta (204 y representa el 55,8 % de su fauna de carábidos. El alto grado de endemismo que posee Chile con respecto a otros países de América del Sur puede deberse a su condición de aislamiento, siendo las barreras más importantes la región desértica del norte y la cordillera de Los Andes. Este hecho también se vislumbra por la ausencia de importantes tribus neotropicales como Galeritini, Scaritini y Brachinini. También se incluyen en este trabajo claves para la identificación de todas las tribus y géneros presentes en Chile, como así también una breve descripción acerca de la diversidad y ambientes en los que se encuentra cada géneroThe family Carabidae is the fourth largest Coleoptera family in Chile. The present work includes a brief compilation on the taxonomic history of the family and the first expeditions to Chile. In addition, knowledge of carabid diversity in Chile is compared with

  1. Where Do Mexico and Chile Stand on Inclusive Education? Short Title: Inclusion in Mexico and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cedillo, Ismael; Romero-Contreras, Silvia; Ramos-Abadie, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, current situation and challenges of educational integration and inclusive education in Mexico and Chile. These countries obtained similar low results on the academic achievement of their students (Mexico last and Chile second last) among OECD countries; and above average scores, among Latin-American countries.…

  2. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 24. Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. (Dactylogyridae, Ancyrocephalinae from the nasal cavity of Salminus maxillosus (Osteichthyes, Characidae from the Rio Paraná, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Boeger

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoxenus bulbovaginatus n. sp. is described from the nose of Salminus maxillosus (Characidae collected in the basin of the rio Paraná, near the city of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. The new species can be differentiated from the other three species in the genus by the morphology of the copulatory complex, vagina, and ventral anchor. The sister group relationship of the known species of Rhinoxenus was determined using techniques of Phylogenetic Systematics (Cladism. The resulting cladogram (C.I.=100% indicates that the new species is most closely related to R. piranhus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988. The other two species of the genus, R. arietinus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988 and R. nyttus Kritsky, Boeger and Thatcher, 1988, both parasites of Anostomidae fishes, have a paraphyletic position in the cladogram, suggesting that the origin of at least one of them can not be associated to cospeciation.

  3. Digenea, Nematoda, Cestoda, and Acanthocephala, parasites in Potamotrygonidae (Chondrichthyes from the upper Paraná River floodplain, states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavanelli, G. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents the first study on the endoparasitic fauna of Potamotrygon falkneri and P.motoro in the upper Paraná River floodplain. Fishes were collected by fishing rod and gillnetting in different stations ofthe floodplain, from March, 2005 to September, 2006. Parasites were sampled, fixed and preserved according tospecialized literature. About half of the analyzed fish were parasitized by at least one of the following species ofendoparasites: Clinostomum complanatum, Genarchella sp. and Tylodelphys sp. (metacercaria (Digenea;Acanthobothrium regoi, Rhinebothrium paratrygoni, Paroncomegas araya and Potamotrygonocestus travassosi(Cestoidea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (larva, Cucullanus sp., Echinocephalus sp. and Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda; andQuadrigyrus machadoi (Acanthocephala. Some species were already registered in Chondrichthyes and others werepreviously recorded in Osteichthyes from the study area. The study listed ten new records of parasites in the host P.falkneri, one new record in the host P. motoro and five new records in the locality upper Paraná River.

  4. Quirópteros de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera Chiropterus of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information concerning mammals in the North of Paraná State, Brazil. a preliminary survey of bat species of the region of Londrina is presented. Three hundred and thirty four individuais of 18 species belonging to Phyllostomidae, Desmodontidae, Vespertilionidae and Molossidae families were collected. Data were gathered related to threir feeding habits, reproduction and time of achvity.

  5. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile

  6. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  7. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs.

  8. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galetovic, Alexander; Munoz, Cristian M.

    2011-01-01

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  9. [Anti-Leptospira agglutinins in different professional groups in the city of Londrina, Paraná].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, L M; Cisalpino, E O; Vieira, M N; Koury, M C

    1992-01-01

    Serum samples were obtained from 208 individuals in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The serum were analysed for leptospiral agglutinins by agglutination microscopic tests and 28.4% were positive. The highest positivity was found for the serum of garbage collector (46.7%).

  10. Spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Helen Aline; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2017-01-01

    The geographic distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) makes it a disease of major clinical importance in Brazil, where it is endemic in the state of Paraná. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of CL in Paraná between 2001 and 2015, based on data from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases) regarding autochthonous CL cases. Spatial autocorrelation was performed using Moran's Global Index and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA). The construction of maps was based on categories of association (high-high, low-low, high-low, and low-high). A total of 4,557 autochthonous cases of CL were registered in the state of Paraná, with an annual average of 303.8 (± 135.2) and a detection coefficient of 2.91. No correlation was found between global indices and their respective significance in 2001 (I = -0.456, p = 0.676), but evidence of spatial autocorrelation was found in other years (pCinzas-Laranjinha, and Ribeira areas. The state of Paraná should keep a constant surveillance over CL due to the prominent presence of socioeconomic and environmental factors such as the favorable circumstances for the vectors present in peri-urban and agriculture áreas.

  11. Population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Pintor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of demographic transition began with an effort of Frank Notestein (1945 to understand the demographic changes that were occurring in Western Europe since the late nineteenth century. The demographic transition is the transition between two scenarios of population growth, which changes the age structure of the population. The aim of the article is to discuss the evolution of population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010. The changes in the age structure of the Paraná indicate a reduction in the share of young population and increasing aging population, an increase in the relative weight of the elderly population. Public policies on education, health, social security and labor market should consider the current change in the age structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the change in the age structure of the population of the state of Paraná. For this we used data Censuses of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE on the age distribution of urban and rural Paraná and its Mesoregions. It was concluded that the change in structure occurs group widespread in all Mesoregions state. However, it occurs unevenly between urban and rural population.

  12. Economic growth in border areas of the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Terezinha Michelon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a region is connected with economic growth and the movement of people and capital. The State of Paraná is bordered by São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Mato Grosso do Sul, Argentina, Paraguay and the port of Paranaguá which is the main gateway to the outside world. Mesoregions the State of Paraná define the object to be studied, because since its occupation in the sixteenth century to the present day, over and undergoes great changes in population location and in their productive matrix. The Paraná from a primarily agricultural situation for an industrialized State and services with gradual economic growth. In this regard the purpose of this paper is to analyze occupational changes and capital by inserting the three sectors, agricultural, industrial and commercial / services, in Paraná state border. The methodology used to study the growth of mesoregions were the locational quotient and structural-differential analysis. The secondary data were collected from the sources IPEADATA (2013 and RAIS (2013. The procedures have shown the region that had better growth in the state: the periphery of the state or border region. It was found that the region that stood out was that of Curitiba due to proximity to the Port of Paranaguá

  13. All projects related to chile | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthen the use of scientific evidence to inform climate policy, negotiations ... Evaluating the impact of digital tools to teach math and science in Chile ... Business Cooperation and Regional Productive Development in Chile, El Salvador, ...

  14. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.

    1994-01-01

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  15. The peculiar isolated neutron star in the Carina Nebula. Deep XMM-Newton and ESO-VLT observations of 2XMM J104608.7-594306

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. M.; Motch, C.; Turolla, R.; Schwope, A.; Pilia, M.; Treves, A.; Popov, S. B.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2012-08-01

    these new results in the light of the observed properties of the currently known neutron star population, in particular those of standard rotation-powered pulsars, recycled objects, and CCOs. We find that none of these scenarios can satisfactorily explain the collective properties of 2XMM J104608.7-594306, although it may be related to the still poorly known class of Galactic anti-magnetars. Future XMM-Newton data, granted for the next cycle of observations (AO11), will help us to improve our currentobservational interpretation of the source, enabling us to significantly constrain the rate of pulsar spin down. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA (Target 2XMM J104608.7-594306, obsid 0650840101). Optical observations were performed at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, under programme IDs 382.D-0687(A) and 385.D-0209(A).

  16. Zahraničně obchodní politika Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The Diploma thesis focuses on foreign trade policy of Chile. The first part is a brief summary of socio-economic characteristics of the country. The following section deals with the individual strategies in the approach to foreign trade policy applied in Chile since independence to the present. It exams the determinants of changes in foreign trade policy of Chile and monitors changes in territorial and commodity structure of the foreign trade of Chile. In the final section assesses the curren...

  17. [Beginning of the Microbiology education in Chile: formation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    The first Chair of Microbiology in Chile was created in the School of Medicine of the Cañadilla at the University of Chile in 1892. Dr. Alejandro del Río Soto Aguilar was its first Professor. For almost three decades it was the only educational center for microbiologists in Chile. Among them were the first Professors of the new School of Medicine of the Catholic University of Chile and of the University of Concepción.

  18. Chile; Staff Report for the 2003 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    Chile has successfully resisted contagion from neighboring countries difficulties. Chile's inflation targeting framework has successfully anchored inflation expectations and increased the economy's resilience to external shocks while maintaining price stability. The floating exchange rate regime is an essential part of the macroeconomic policy framework and continues to serve Chile well. The interest in recapitalizing the central bank is welcomed. Executive Directors commend Chile for the tra...

  19. Retail Bank Interest Rate Pass-Through; Is Chile Atypical?

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Rebucci; Marco A Espinosa-Vega

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the pass-through of money market interest rates to retail banking interest rates in Chile, the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and five European countries. Overall, Chile's pass-through does not appear atypical. Based on a standard error-correction model, we find that, as in most countries considered, Chile's measured pass-through is incomplete. But Chile's pass-through is also faster than in many other countries considered and is comparable ...

  20. First records of Freshwater Bivalves of Ilha Grande National Park, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ragonha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ilha Grande National Park, Paraná, Brazil, is located in the Upper Paraná River and has characteristics typical of a floodplains. This protected area includes lagoons connected and disconnected to the Paraná River, although the latter also connect during periods of high water level, thus composing a heterogeneous group of lacustrine environments. The enormous potential the flora and fauna diversities are still little known to the region, as can be seen through benthic invertebrates, inclunding bivalves mollusks. The granulometric composition of these floodplain lagoons was formed mainly by mud and very fine sand. Furthermore, organic matter composition was predominantly of fine particulate. The other abiotic factors differed from lagoons located within the island of the park to those located in the left margin of Paraná River. The results demonstrated the importance of abiotic factors such as the physical composition of granulometric texture, organic matter and macrophyte banks, to the establishment of bivalves in these floodplain lagoons. We recorded bivalves of Pisidium (native, Diplodon (native, and Corbicula (invasive. The highest values of Diplodon sp. density were observed at São João/C lake, for Pisidium sterkianum (Pilsbry, 1897 at São João/M lake, and to Jatobá/C lagoon with high density of invasive species Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774. This study to obtain conduct the first records of freshwater bivalves in floodplains lagoon in the Ilha Grande National Park, and provides contributions to better understanding the ecology of these mollusks. The recording of native species in the region of Upper Paraná River floodplain after a lomg period without new records, demonstrated the importance of protecting the lagoons of the Ilha Grande National Park as they can be a possible refuge to some species of native freshwater bivalves.

  1. Expedition Atacama - project AMOS in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, J.; Kaniansky, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Slovak Video Meteor Network operates since 2009 (Tóth et al., 2011). It currently consists of four semi-automated all-sky video cameras, developed at the Astronomical Observatory in Modra, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia. Two new generations of AMOS (All-sky Meteor Orbit System) cameras operate fully automatically at the Canary Islands, Tenerife and La Palma, since March 2015 (Tóth et al., 2015). As a logical step, we plan to cover the southern hemisphere from Chile. We present observational experiences in meteor astronomy from the Atacama Desert and other astronomical sites in Chile. This summary of the observations lists meteor spectra records (26) between Nov.5-13, 2015 mostly Taurid meteors, single and double station meteors as well as the first light from the permanent AMOS stations in Chile.

  2. A VLT Large Programme to Study Galaxies at z ~ 2: GMASS — the Galaxy Mass Assembly Ultra-deep Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurk, Jaron; Cimatti, Andrea; Daddi, Emanuele; Mignoli, Marco; Bolzonella, Micol; Pozzetti, Lucia; Cassata, Paolo; Halliday, Claire; Zamorani, Gianni; Berta, Stefano; Brusa, Marcella; Dickinson, Mark; Franceschini, Alberto; Rodighiero, Guilia; Rosati, Piero; Renzini, Alvio

    2009-03-01

    We report on the motivation, sample selection and first results of our VLT FORS2 Large Programme (173.A-0687), which has obtained the longest targeted spectra of distant galaxies obtained so far with the VLT. These long exposures, up to 77 hours for objects included in three masks, were required to detect spectral features of extremely faint galaxies, such as absorption lines of passive galaxies at z > 1.4, a population that had previously escaped attention due to its faintness in the optical wavelength regime, but which represents a critical phase in the evolution of massive galaxies. The ultra-deep spectroscopy allowed us to estimate the stellar metallicity of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2, to trace colour bimodality up to z = 2 and to characterise a galaxy cluster progenitor at z = 1.6. The approximately 200 spectra produced by GMASS constitute a lasting legacy, populating the “redshift desert” in GOODS-S.

  3. Socioeconomic determinants of disability in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitko Melo, Pedro; Cabieses Valdes, Báltica

    2011-10-01

    Disability is a worldwide public health priority. A shift from a biomedical perspective of dysfunction to a broader social understanding of disability has been proposed. Among many different social factors described in the past, socioeconomic position remains as a key multidimensional determinant of health. The study goal was to analyze the relationship between disability and different domains of socioeconomic position in Chile. Cross-sectional analysis of an anonymized population-based survey conducted in Chile in 2006. Any disability (dichotomous variable) and 6 different types of disability were analyzed on the bases of their relationship with income quintiles, occupational status, educational level, and material living standards (quality of the housing, overcrowding rate and sanitary conditions). Confounding and interaction effects were explored using R statistical program. Income, education, occupation, and material measures of socioeconomic position, along with some sociodemographic characteristics of the population, were independently associated with the chance of being disabled in Chile. Interestingly, classic measures of socioeconomic position (income, education, and occupation) were consistently associated with any disability in Chile, whereas material living conditions were partially confounded by these classic measures. In addition to this, each type of disability showed a particular pattern of related social determinants, which also varied by age group. This study contributed to the understanding of disability in Chile and how different domains of socioeconomic position might be associated with this prevalent condition. Disability remains a complex multidimensional public health problem in Chile that requires the inclusion of a wide range of risk factors, of which socioeconomic position is particularly relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Medical specialization in Chile. A centralized vision].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouet-Huerta, Diego E; González, Bárbara; Correa, Katherine

    2017-11-01

    Medical graduates face different postgraduate training options, but their priority is to obtain a primary medical specialty, defined as a specialty that does not derive from other. There are different specialty training programs in Chile, which can be dependent or independent of the Ministry of Health. The information about these programs is available in different Internet sites. However a centralized information service that groups and synthetize these programs is lacking, hampering graduate choice decisions. This article aims to review all specialization program modalities, providing a general vision of the institutional structure and implications that govern the specialization process in Chile.

  5. The Tarantula Nebula as a template for extragalactic star forming regions from VLT/MUSE and HST/STIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Paul A.; Caballero-Nieves, Saida M.; Castro, Norberto; Evans, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    We present VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 2070, the dominant ionizing nebula of 30 Doradus in the LMC, plus HST/STIS spectroscopy of its central star cluster R136. Integral Field Spectroscopy (MUSE) and pseudo IFS (STIS) together provides a complete census of all massive stars within the central 30×30 parsec2 of the Tarantula. We discuss the integrated far-UV spectrum of R136, of particular interest for UV studies of young extragalactic star clusters. Strong He iiλ1640 emission at very early ages (1-2 Myr) from very massive stars cannot be reproduced by current population synthesis models, even those incorporating binary evolution and very massive stars. A nebular analysis of the integrated MUSE dataset implies an age of ~4.5 Myr for NGC 2070. Wolf-Rayet features provide alternative age diagnostics, with the primary contribution to the integrated Wolf-Rayet bumps arising from R140 rather than the more numerous H-rich WN stars in R136. Caution should be used when interpreting spatially extended observations of extragalactic star-forming regions.

  6. A VLT/FLAMES STUDY OF THE PECULIAR INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 1846. I. KINEMATICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present high-resolution VLT/FLAMES observations of red giant stars in the massive intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1846, which, on the basis of its extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO), possesses an internal age spread of ≈300 Myr. We describe in detail our target selection and data reduction procedures, and construct a sample of 21 stars possessing radial velocities indicating their membership of NGC 1846 at high confidence. We consider high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula Mo-17, and conclude that this object is also a member of the cluster. Our measured radial velocities allow us to conduct a detailed investigation of the internal kinematics of NGC 1846, the first time this has been done for an EMSTO system. The key result of this work is that the cluster exhibits a significant degree of systemic rotation, of a magnitude comparable to the mean velocity dispersion. Using an extensive suite of Monte Carlo models we demonstrate that, despite our relatively small sample size and the substantial fraction of unresolved binary stars in the cluster, the rotation signal we detect is very likely to be genuine. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of simulations modeling the formation of multiple populations of stars in globular clusters, where a dynamically cold, rapidly rotating second generation is a common feature. NGC 1846 is less than one relaxation time old, so any dynamical signatures encoded during its formation ought to remain present.

  7. Opto-mechanical design of a new cross dispersion unit for the CRIRES+ high resolution spectrograph for the VLT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizon, Jean Louis; Klein, Barbara; Oliva, Ernesto; Löwinger, Tom; Anglada Escude, Guillem; Baade, Dietrich; Bristow, Paul; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Follert, Roman; Grunhut, Jason; Hatzes, Artie; Heiter, Ulrike; Ives, Derek; Jung, Yves; Kerber, Florian; Lockhart, Matt; Marquart, Thomas; Origlia, Livia; Pasquini, Luca; Paufique, Jerome; Piskunov, N.; Pozna, Eszter; Reiners, Ansgar; Smette, Alain; Smoker, Jonathan; Seemann, Ulf; Stempels, Eric; Valenti, Elena

    2014-07-01

    CRIRES is one of the few IR (0.92-5.2 μm) high-resolution spectrographs in operation at the VLT since 2006. Despite good performance it suffers a limitation that significantly hampers its ability: a small spectral coverage per exposure. The CRIRES upgrade (CRIRES+) proposes to transform CRIRES into a cross-dispersed spectrograph while maintaining the high resolution (100000) and increasing the wavelength coverage by a factor 10 compared to the current capabilities. A major part of the upgrade is the exchange of the actual cryogenic pre-disperser module by a new cross disperser unit. In addition to a completely new optical design, a number of important changes are required on key components and functions like the slit unit and detectors units. We will outline the design of these new units fitting inside a predefined and restricted space. The mechanical design of the new functions including a description and analysis will be presented. Finally we will present the strategy for the implementation of the changes.

  8. A Mini-BAL Outflow at 900 pc from the Central Source: VLT/X-shooter Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinfeng; Arav, Nahum; Miller, Timothy; Benn, Chris

    2018-05-01

    We determine the physical conditions and location of the outflow material seen in the mini-BAL quasar SDSS J1111+1437 (z = 2.138). These results are based on the analysis of a high S/N, medium-resolution VLT/X-shooter spectrum. The main outflow component spans the velocity range ‑1500 to ‑3000 km s‑1 and has detected absorption troughs from both high-ionization species: C IV, N V, O VI, Si IV, P V, and S IV; and low-ionization species: H I, C II, Mg II, Al II, Al III, Si II, and Si III. Measurements of these troughs allow us to derive an accurate photoionization solution for this absorption component: a hydrogen column density, {log}({N}{{H}})={21.47}-0.27+0.21 cm‑2 and ionization parameter, {log}({U}{{H}})=-{1.23}-0.25+0.20. Troughs produced from the ground and excited states of S IV combined with the derived {U}{{H}} value allow us to determine an electron number density of {log}({n}{{e}})={3.62}-0.11+0.09 cm‑3 and to obtain the distance of the ionized gas from the central source: R={880}-260+210 pc.

  9. A tip/tilt mirror with large dynamic range for the ESO VLT Four Laser Guide Star Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnveld, N.; Henselmans, R.; Nijland, B.

    2011-09-01

    One of the critical elements in the Four Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF) for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) is the Optical Tube Assembly (OTA), consisting of a stable 20x laser beam expander and an active tip/tilt mirror, the Field Selector Mechanism (FSM). This paper describes the design and performance testing of the FSM. The driving requirement for the FSM is its large stroke of +/-6.1 mrad, in combination with less than 1.5 μrad RMS absolute accuracy. The FSM design consists of a Zerodur mirror, bonded to a membrane spring and strut combination to allow only tip and tilt. Two spindle drives actuate the mirror, using a stiffness based transmission to increase resolution. Absolute accuracy is achieved with two differential inductive sensor pairs. A prototype of the FSM is realized to optimize the control configuration and measure its performance. Friction in the spindle drive is overcome by creating a local velocity control loop between the spindle drives and the shaft encoders. Accuracy is achieved by using a cascaded low bandwidth control loop with feedback from the inductive sensors. The pointing jitter and settling time of the FSM are measured with an autocollimator. The system performance meets the strict requirements, and is ready to be implemented in the first OTA.

  10. The dynamic of the “Coffee Quality Paraná” contest in the production of specialty coffees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorian Voigt-Gair

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Paraná, the concentration of efforts of various organizations have collaborated to improve the image of coffee. This work aims to study the coffee samples, through the sensory attributes scored in the “Test Cup” Contest of “Coffee Quality Paraná” from 2004 to 2009 and to prove the qualification of rural extension technicians and producers in order to obtain a differentiated with high quality product, linked to the methodology of marketing strategy. The study was conducted with 570 samples from 55 municipalities and analyzed in state steps of this contest. It was concluded that the methodology used in the Contest “Coffee Quality Paraná” encourages constant improvement and disseminates technical and scientific innovations in various links in the productive chain, having as the final result the increasing of the amount of coffee produced in Paraná with excellent quality drink.

  11. Meningite por Haemophilus influenzae tipo b em cidades do estado do Paraná, Brasil Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia S. Takemura

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: no segundo semestre de 1996, os municípios de Londrina e Curitiba (Paraná iniciaram a vacinação contra Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib, aproximadamente trinta meses antes de sua introdução no Programa Nacional de Imunização. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a incidência da meningite por Hib, entre crianças, em Londrina, Curitiba e nos demais municípios do estado do Paraná, antes e após a introdução da vacina nessas duas cidades. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo observacional retrospectivo de todos os casos de meningite por Hib, entre menores de 5 anos, diagnosticados pelo sistema de vigilância epidemiológica de Londrina e pela Secretaria de Estado da Saúde do Paraná, de 1992 a 1999. Taxas de incidência da meningite por Hib foram calculadas por 100.000 menores de cinco anos. RESULTADOS: comparando com o período anterior à vacinação, houve redução importante do coeficiente de incidência da meningite por Hib em Londrina, passando de 23,91, em 1996, para 2,79 por 100.000 menores de cinco anos, em 1999. Redução semelhante foi observada em Curitiba, enquanto nos demais municípios do Paraná, que não dispunham da vacina até meados de 1999, o coeficiente se manteve praticamente inalterado. CONCLUSÃO: a vacinação contra Hib foi efetiva na redução da incidência da meningite entre menores de cinco anos em Londrina e Curitiba. Para a manutenção dessa baixa incidência devem ser garantidas adequada cobertura vacinal e boa qualidade do serviço de vigilância epidemiológica.OBJECTIVE: during the second half of 1996, the municipalities of Londrina and Curitiba (State of Paraná, Brazil included Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccine into their routine vaccination regimen, approximately 30 months before its introduction into the National Immunization Program. The present study aimed at verifying the incidence of meningitis caused by Hib among children in Londrina, Curitiba, and in the remaining

  12. Comércio de bromélias no Paraná Bromeliads production and trade in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, objetivando conhecer o perfil do produtor paranaense, com respectiva capacidade de atender às demandas de mercado, identificar e caracterizar os diferentes níveis da cadeia produtiva e detectar os principais pontos de estrangulamento do desenvolvimento desse setor. Para tanto, foram entrevistados 19 produtores, 160 varejistas e 18 atacadistas. A quantidade de bromélias oriundas da produção do Paraná e aptas ao mercado era de 5.340 plantas ao ano, inferior à demanda do Estado. As condições exigidas pelos varejistas (v e atacadistas (a para aquisição de bromélias dos produtores regionais eram: preço igual ou inferior ao praticado em São Paulo (exigido por: v = 134; a = 18, qualidade da produção condizente com a encontrada no mercado (v = 86; a = 16, capacidade de efetuar entregas periódicas (v = 81; a = 11 e capacidade de atendimento dos pedidos extras (v = 55; a = 7. Não foi encontrado produtor no Estado do Paraná que pudesse atender a todas as exigências de forma simultânea. Os principais entraves que impediam a inserção da produção no mercado regional eram decorrentes da inaplicabilidade dos modelos de gestão da produção rural, adotados pelos produtores, e das incongruências tecnológicas observadas na maioria dos viveiros de cultivo, que resultavam em produção de baixa qualidade.This paper is a prospective study about the bromeliads production and trade in Paraná State, Brazil, which aimed to know the producers' profile in Paraná State with the respective capacity of meeting market demands, identify and characterize the different levels of the bromeliads production chain, as well as detect the main bottlenecks to the development of this sector. A total of 19 producers were interviewed; 160 retailers and 18 wholesalers. The amount of bromeliads from the regional production and suitable to be the traded was 5340 plants per

  13. Cost Management Practices and Strategic Perspectives: a study in the construction industry of the State of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Lauro Brito de; Machado, Esmael Almeida; Panhoca, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cost management practices of building industry companies of Paraná that follow the typology of Porter´s strategies. The sample comprises member companies of the Association of Construction Industries of the State of Paraná (PR-SINDUSCON) operating in the segment of residential buildings. The data were collected by means of questionnaires sent to 317 SINDUSCON members. 69 were returned and 54 used for our research. Exploratory Factorial Analysis ...

  14. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  15. Extrativismo de bromélias no Estado do Paraná Bromeliads wild harvesting in State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando a contribuir para o melhor entendimento da participação da atividade extrativista no âmbito da comercialização de bromélias no Brasil, apresentou-se resultado de pesquisa que buscou: a identificar e caracterizar os extrativistas de bromélias formalmente registrados e os informais no Estado do Paraná; b identificar e caracterizar as metodologias de coleta, o preparo e vias de comercialização das plantas coletadas; c levantar a opinião dos extrativistas sobre facilidades e dificuldades desta atividade. O extrativismo de bromélias no Paraná foi identificado em 12 municípios, englobando 31 famílias extratoras, predominantemente concentradas no litoral do Paraná (n=10 e Município de Ortigueira (n=7. Foram identificados dois tipos básicos de extrativistas: residente e oportunista, com diferenças marcantes entre estes, especialmente no que se refere a volume e forma de extração. Foram identificadas 21 espécies submetidas ao extrativismo, sendo as mais frequentemente coletadas: Vriesea incurvata Gaudich. comercializada por 90% dos entrevistados, Nidularium innocentii Lem. (77%, Vriesea platynema Gaudich. (67%, Tillandsia stricta Sol. ex Ker Gawl. (55% e Vriesea carinata Lem. (55%.Aiming to contribute to the better understanding of the wild harvesting participation in the context of the bromeliads trade, the results from a study focused on: a identifying and to characterizing the bromeliads wild harvesters (formally and not formally registered in the State of the Paraná; b identifying and characterizing the harvesting methodologies, preparation and trade routes, and c surveying the harvesters opinion on the facilities and difficulties of bromeliads wild harvesting are presented. The bromeliads wild harvesting was detected in 12 municipalities at Parana State, involving 31 harvester families, most of them concentrated at the coastal zone (n=10 and Ortigueira Mun. (7. Two basic harvester types were identified: resident and

  16. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Quintana; R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  17. Doing Business 2014 Economy Profile : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2013-01-01

    This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Chile In a series of annual reports, Doing Business assesses regulations affecting domestic firms in 189 economies and ranks the economies in 10 areas of business regulation, such as starting a business, resolving insolvency and trading across borders. This year's report data cover regulations measured from June 2012 through M...

  18. A solar radiation database for Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Alejandra; Falvey, Mark; Rondanelli, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Chile hosts some of the sunniest places on earth, which has led to a growing solar energy industry in recent years. However, the lack of high resolution measurements of solar irradiance becomes a critical obstacle for both financing and design of solar installations. Besides the Atacama Desert, Chile displays a large array of "solar climates" due to large latitude and altitude variations, and so provides a useful testbed for the development of solar irradiance maps. Here a new public database for surface solar irradiance over Chile is presented. This database includes hourly irradiance from 2004 to 2016 at 90 m horizontal resolution over continental Chile. Our results are based on global reanalysis data to force a radiative transfer model for clear sky solar irradiance and an empirical model based on geostationary satellite data for cloudy conditions. The results have been validated using 140 surface solar irradiance stations throughout the country. Model mean percentage error in hourly time series of global horizontal irradiance is only 0.73%, considering both clear and cloudy days. The simplicity and accuracy of the model over a wide range of solar conditions provides confidence that the model can be easily generalized to other regions of the world.

  19. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  20. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period.

  1. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    critical stance to the USSR for much of the rest of the decade. Along with Castro’s efforts to establish the Cuban experience of a rural guerrilla-based...Neresidades de Financamento Externo parea el Desarrollo de Chile, January 28. 1974, p. V-9. 17. New aid loans from the United States declined to $S.5 million

  2. Pesquisa de aglutininas antileptospira em diferentes grupos profissionais na cidade de Londrina, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Vasconcelos

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um levantamento soroepidemiológico na cidade de Londrina - Paraná, para leptospirose, em 49 indivíduos não expostos a risco, 75 trabalhadores da limpeza pública, 55 indivíduos com atividade em ambiente hospitalar e 29 trabalhadores do Departamento de Água e Esgoto. Dos 208 soros analisados pela reação de soroaglutinação microscópica, 28,4% apresentaram aglutininas antileptospira. A maior positividade foi encontrada nos soros dos trabalhadores da limpeza pública (46,7%.Serum samples were obtained from 208 individuals in Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The serum were analysed for leptospiral agglutinins by agglutination microscopic tests and 28.4 % were positive. The highest positivity was found for the serum of garbage collector (46.7%.

  3. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  4. Spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Aline Melo

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL makes it a disease of major clinical importance in Brazil, where it is endemic in the state of Paraná. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of CL in Paraná between 2001 and 2015, based on data from the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Information System for Notifiable Diseases regarding autochthonous CL cases. Spatial autocorrelation was performed using Moran's Global Index and the Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA. The construction of maps was based on categories of association (high-high, low-low, high-low, and low-high. A total of 4,557 autochthonous cases of CL were registered in the state of Paraná, with an annual average of 303.8 (± 135.2 and a detection coefficient of 2.91. No correlation was found between global indices and their respective significance in 2001 (I = -0.456, p = 0.676, but evidence of spatial autocorrelation was found in other years (p< 0.05. In the construction and analysis of the cluster maps, areas with a high-high positive association were found in the Ivaí-Pirapó, Tibagi, Cinzas-Laranjinha, and Ribeira areas. The state of Paraná should keep a constant surveillance over CL due to the prominent presence of socioeconomic and environmental factors such as the favorable circumstances for the vectors present in peri-urban and agriculture áreas.

  5. Sedimentation problems in a lateral dock on the Paraná River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latessa, Gaston; Sabarots Gerbec, Martin; Arecco, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The Paraná River is one of the largest water courses in the world and along its reach in the Argentine territory, it receives a large load of sediments from the Pilcomayo and Bermejo Rivers, through the Paraguay River, in the upper basin at the North of Argentina and South of Bolivia. The suspended sediment load is estimated in 100 Million ton/year. This unique characteristic drives the Paraná River morphology downstream, as well as the Paraná delta morphodynamics. On top of its natural behaviour, the Paraná-Paraguay river system is an important inland waterway transport corridor, with a significant amount of sea going vessels and inland barges navigating throughout stretches of more than 3000 Km. Consequently, there are numerous port complexes and terminals along the river banks. The typical wet infrastructure of these terminals is usually composed by jetties and quay walls, and occasionally with side or lateral docks. Whereas, the case included within this study presents all these components. This study presents a hydrodynamic and sedimentology 3D model to predict the velocity fields and the associated shear stresses that will drive morphological processes in the lateral dock. The terminal layout, side dock configuration, and sedimentation issues will be analyzed from multidisciplinary point of view, under different hydrological events and considering the correlated sediment loads. Recent bathymetry studies had been carried out and this set of data will be implemented to build the domain geometry. The flow series is as well extended with the up to date gauged flows and levels, to carry out statistical analysis and identify the design flows for different probabilities. The main objective of this analysis will be to understand and identify the scour and deposition processes and the possible problems to the structures safety and the operation of the docks, and introduce variations to the baseline design, if necessary. Results will be contrasted and validated

  6. Hepatitis A: the costs and benefits of the disease prevention by vaccine, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribas Zahdi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the epidemiological behavior of the hepatitis A in Paraná state and compared the costs of the disease and the vaccination. This is an epidemiological descriptive study including a pharmacoeconomy analysis. We collected information in the national database reported cases (SINAN, in the mortality information system (SIM and in the hospital information system (AIH among 2000/2003 (Paraná State Public Health Department. We estimated the probability of one cohort of children to acquire hepatitis A during their lifetime and the costs with their treatment. We compared those costs with the cost of vaccinating the children. 14,682 hepatitis A cases were registered during the period studied, and 12,102 (82.4% occurred in the 0-15 years-old age group. The annual incidence in the general population was 37.5/100,000. We observed 20 deaths caused by this disease; 7 of those occurred by liver failure. The estimated costs with the disease included the hospital costs, liver transplantation, liver failure treatment, and laboratory tests were high. The price of the vaccine is 10 USD/dose. Two doses are necessary to get the protection. The results showed a positive cost - benefit relation when we vaccinate children. We save 2.26 USD in treatment for each dollar invested in the vaccine. Paraná record high number of hepatitis A cases each year. We confirmed the positive cost - benefit relation when we vaccinate children against hepatitis A, reducing suffering, hospitalization, death and social costs. Vaccination against hepatitis A should be recommended in the routine of immunization program in Paraná state.

  7. Comparison of six green chile (capsicum annum) cultivars for efficiency of Etgar® machine harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    As U.S. demand for fresh market green chile rises green chile acreage in the U.S. is declining due to limited availability and high cost of hand labor to harvest it. Many farmers are opting to grow crops other than green chile. Green chile is a New Mexican pod-type chile that is harvested when the...

  8. Impact of vaccination in the reduction of hepatitis B in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila PUDELCO

    Full Text Available This study identified the impact of hepatitis B vaccine over reducing incidence of this disease in Paraná State, between 2001 and 2011, and discussed the role of nursing in immunization. Descriptive documental and quantitative research. Utilized secondary data of hepatitis B, between 2001 and 2011 and vaccination coverage of hepatitis B vaccine between 1995 and 2011 in Paraná State, available in DATASUS, SINAN and Immunization Programs. Data has been collected from May to July 2012. Included cases of hepatitis B confirmed by laboratory testing. Of the 14,434 selected cases, 81,8% was in urban residents, 86,5% belonged to 20 to 59 age group and 45,3% were infected by sexual transmission. In the correlation of vaccine coverage with the incidence, was identified reducing this rate in the range of 0 to 9 years old, in places with vaccination coverage's above 95%. It concludes that hepatitis B vaccination had impact over disease reduction in Paraná State.

  9. Judicial demand of medications through the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Possebom, Ana Carolina; Borges, Luiza de Martino Cruvinel; Shwetz, Ana Claudia Athanasio; Bettes, Fernanda Francis Benevides

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the profile of lawsuits related to drug requests filled at the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná. Methods A cross-sectional study, and the data were obtained through consulting the lawsuits at the online system of the Federal Justice of Paraná. Results Out of 347 lawsuits included in the study, 55% of plaintiffs were women, with a median age of 56 years. Oncology was the field with more requests (23.6%), and the highest mean costs. A wide variety of diseases and broad variety of requested drugs were found in the lawsuits. Approximately two-thirds of them were requested by the brand name, and the most often requested drugs were palivizumab and tiotropium bromide. Only 14.5% of the requested medicines were registered in the National Medication Register. The Public Defender’s Office filled actions in 89.6% of cases and all lawsuits had an interim relief. The mean time for approval was 35 days and 70% of requests were granted. Conclusion Oncology was the field with the highest demand for medicines at the Federal Justice of Paraná in 2014. A great variety of medications was requested. The Public Defender´s Office represented most lawsuits. All demands had an interim relief, and the majority of requests were granted, within an average of 35 days. PMID:28444095

  10. Letras e silêncio: a escrita de autoria feminina no Paraná = Letters and silence: the writing of female authorship in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nincia Cecilia Ribas Borges Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A escrita de autoria feminina hoje se insere no universo da crítica literária de uma forma que não permite a associação entre valores de ordem estética e outros medidos pela questão do gênero. A presente pesquisa analisa a escrita de autoria feminina na obra da escritora paranaense contemporânea Lindsey Rocha. A teoria literária feminista aponta para a importância da escrita de autoria feminina e reconhece o valor de tal produção diante do cânone literário formado quase que exclusivamente por homens. O estudo pretende proporcionar visibilidade acadêmica às escritoras paranaenses, (reconstruindo, de certa forma, o cânone literário contemporâneo.Women’s writing is today inserted in the realm of literary criticism in a way that does not allow the association between aesthetic values and other measured by the question of gender. This research analyzes women’s writing in the work of the contemporary writer Lindsey Rocha from Paraná. The feminist literary theory points to the importance of women’s writing and recognizes the value of such production before the literary canon composed almost exclusively by men. The study aims to provide academic visibility to writers from Paraná, (rebuilding, in a way, the contemporary literary canon.

  11. Occurrence of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in Leopoldo's inlet (Ressaco do Leopoldo, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bialetzki

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the occurrence, temporal distribution and nychthemeral variation of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 were undertaken in Leopoldo's Inlet, upper Paraná River, Porto Rico, Paraná, Brazil. Seventeen thousand and sixty specimens (11,786 larvae and 5,274 juveniles were captured with a conicalcylindrical plankton net of mesh 0.5mm in monthly samples between February 1991 and February 1992. Results show that the greatest densities of larvae (301.83 larvae/10m³ and juveniles (168.8/10m³ of this species were caught in December 1991. Largest captures were made during the night. With regard to abiotic factors water temperature ranged from 20º to 30ºC, pH ranged from 5.66 to 7.37 and electric conductivity ranged from 51.83 to 65.33µS/cm. Relationship between the density of larvae and juveniles and abiotic factors was calculated by the Principal Components Analysis (PCA which revealed the influence of some limnological variables especially on the distribution of larvae.

  12. Estrutura populacional de Callinectes ornatus Ordway (Crustacea, Portunidae no Balneário Shangri-Lá, Pontal do Paraná, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptista Cassiana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Swimming crabs are commonly found in the otter-trawl shrimp fishery by-catch, which operate intensively in the Coastal Plain of Leste Beach, where is located Shangri-lá Beach (25°37'30"S and 48°25'08"W, Paraná State. This work aimed to study the population structure of Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863, the most abundant swimming crab in this beach. Between March 2000 and April 2001, fortnightly visits were accomplished in Shangri-lá at the fish market, where all swimming crabs of one otter-trawl were collected. The following data from each individual of C. ornatus were obtained: sex, carapace width (excluding lateral spines, weight, and the gonadal maturation stage, based on its color and size. Juveniles and mature males were dominant, mean sexual proportion was 2.2:1 (males:females. Two recruitment periods were detected, but few ovigerous females were obtained. Size at sexual maturation was estimated at 55mm for males, and 48 mm for females. Both sexes presented positives allometric growths. The results indicate that an important portion of C. ornatus population is captured in the otter-trawl shrimp fishery in Shangri-lá Beach (Paraná. Such information is important for futures plans of by-catch management in that area.

  13. A new mix of power for the ESO installations in Chile: greener, more reliable, cheaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Tamai, R.; Kalaitzoglou, D.; Wild, W.; Delorme, A.; Rioseco, D.

    2016-07-01

    The highest sky quality demands for astronomical research impose to locate observatories often in areas not easily reached by the existing power infrastructures. At the same time, availability and cost of power is a primary factor for sustainable operations. Power may also be a potential source for CO2 pollution. As part of its green initiatives, ESO is in the process of replacing the power sources for its own, La Silla and Paranal-Armazones, and shared, ALMA, installations in Chile in order to provide them with more reliable, affordable, and smaller CO2 footprint power solutions. The connectivity to the Chilean interconnected power systems (grid) which is to extensively use Non-Conventional Renewable Energy (NCRE) as well as the use of less polluting fuels wherever self-generation cannot be avoided are key building blocks for the solutions selected for every site. In addition, considerations such as the environmental impact and - if required - the partnership with other entities have also to be taken into account. After years of preparatory work to which the Chilean Authorities provided great help and support, ESO has now launched an articulated program to upgrade the existing agreements/facilities in i) the La Silla Observatory, from free to regulated grid client status due to an agreement with a Solar Farm private initiative, in ii) the Paranal-Armazones Observatory, from local generation using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to connection to the grid which is to extensively use NCRE, and last but not least, in iii) the ALMA Observatory where ESO participates together with North American and East Asian partners, from replacing the LPG as fuel for the turbine local generation system with the use of less polluting natural gas (NG) supplied by a pipe connection to eliminate the pollution caused by the LPG trucks (currently 1 LPG truck from the VIII region, Bio Bio, to the II region, ALMA and back every day, for a total of 3000km). The technologies used and the status

  14. [Haiti, new immigrant community in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez P, Katherin; Valderas J, Jaime; Messenger C, Karen; Sánchez G, Carolina; Barrera Q, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    Migration is a growing phenomenon in Latin America influenced by several factors such as economic stability, employment, social welfare, education and health system. Currently Chile has a positive migration flow rate. Particularly, a significant number of Haitian immigrants has been observed du ring the last years, especially after earthquake of 2010. These immigrants present a different cultural background expressed in relevant aspects of living including parenting and healthcare. Knowing the Haitian culture and its health situation is relevant for a better understanding of their health needs. Haitian people come to Chile looking for a cordial reception and willing to find a place with better perspectives of wellbeing in every sense. Immigration represents a major challenge for Chilean health system that must be embraced. Integration efforts in jobs, health, education system and community living should be enhanced to ensure a prosper settlement in our country. A new immigration law is crucial to solving major problems derived from current law created in 1975.

  15. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta

    2011-10-01

    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  16. UPDATE: MAJOR EARTHQUAKE IN CHILE (II) | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preserving the Dark Skies La Oficina de Protección de la Calidad del Cielo del Norte de Chile - OPCC Light el acceso a ambas cumbres. Los tanques de agua sobre Tololo fueron dañados causando una fuga importante, y las líneas de control se cortaron poniendo fuera de operación las bombas de agua. Las

  17. The Neutral Interest Rate: Estimates for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Fuentes S; Fabián Gredig U.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the neutral real interest rate for Chile, we use a variety of methods that can be classified into three categories: those derived from economic theory, the neutral rate implicit in financial assets, and statistical procedures using macroeconomic data. We conclude that the neutral rate is not constant over time, but it is closely related with—though not equivalent to—the potential GDP growth rate. The application of the different methods yields fairly similar results. The neutral r...

  18. Chile's pipelines - who's out in the cold?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellhouse, G.

    1998-01-01

    There is a battle on in Northern Chile to supply the region with gas and electricity. Two pipelines and a transmission line are being built, but there is insufficient demand to merit the construction of all of these projects. It is widely believed that the first pipeline to be finished will be the overall winner, but the situation is not that simple. A more sensible conclusion could be the merger of the two pipeline projects, rationalising supply of gas to the region. (Author)

  19. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile.

  20. Chile: Civil-Military Relations and Democratic Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Publishers, 1992), 41. 26 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile The Great Transformation (Harrisonburg, Virginia: The Brookings Institution, 1996...the world economy, by means of technological advancements, makes it necessary to reduce 32 Javier Martinez and Alvaro Diaz , Chile the Great...disapproves the executive’s budget. There is no 60 Alicia Frohman, "Chile: External Actors and the Transition to Democracy," in Beyond Sovereignty

  1. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Leyton, F.A.; Farias, E.; Silva, A.M.; Vano, E.; Oyarzun, C.; Gamarra, J.; Ortiz, P.

    2001-01-01

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  2. Registro nuevo de Amphipyrinae en Chile A new record of Amphipyrinae from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania S. Olivares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en Chile la especie Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson, entre las latitudes 18° 29' S 70° 20' O hasta 29° 54' S 71° 16' O (I-IV regiones en Chile. Se redescriben los genitales del macho y de la hembra y se presentan algunos aspectos taxonómicos de la especie.The species Agrotisia subhyalina Hampson is recorded for the first time from Chile (18° 29' S 70° 20' W to 29° 54' S 71° 16' W, I to IV Chilean regions. Redescriptions of male and female are presented, along with some taxonomic aspects of the species.

  3. [Who finances medical research in Chile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A

    1995-10-01

    To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support

  4. Desigualdades na saúde reprodutiva das mulheres no Paraná Inequalities in the reproductive health of women in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Muniz Néquer Soares

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available As desigualdades sociais afetam especialmente as mulheres no mundo em desenvolvimento, com reflexos sobre a saúde das mulheres e sobre os indicadores de saúde reprodutiva. Este estudo objetiva identificar as desigualdades sociais e em saúde reprodutiva das mulheres no Estado do Paraná. Desenvolveu-se estudo ecológico cujas unidades de análise foram os municípios paranaenses agregados em áreas homogêneas segundo indicadores socioeconômicos gerais e da inserção social feminina com base nas técnicas de análise multivariada. Foram calculados os indicadores sociais de gênero a partir do banco de dados do Censo/IBGE 2000 e de saúde reprodutiva (qüinqüênio 1998-2002 construídos a partir dos dados dos sistemas de informação do SUS, para estes agrupamentos. Calculou-se a Razão entre Taxas para medir as desigualdades sociais de gênero e a Variância das Médias Brutas para medir as desigualdades em saúde reprodutiva das mulheres entre os grupos de municípios. Verificou-se dentre os resultados que existem profundas diferenças nos indicadores de saúde reprodutiva das mulheres entre os municípios, tanto na tipologia socioeconômica como na inserção social das mulheres. Os agrupamentos socioeconômicos 4 e 5 apresentaram em geral indicadores de saúde reprodutiva feminino mais desfavoráveis. Estes dois grupos envolvem 160 municípios (40% do total do Estado e uma população de 1,4 milhões de pessoas. Estes municípios estão concentrados em 9 das 22 regionais de saúde do Estado. Foram identificadas diferenças sociais de gênero com desvantagens para as mulheres. O permanente dimensionamento das desigualdades em saúde reprodutiva no Paraná poderá auxiliar na tomada de decisões no sentido de revertê-las.Social inequalities affect specially women in the developing world, with effects on reproductive and sexual health indicators. This study aims to identify both social and women's reproductive health inequalities in the

  5. Análise prospectiva do agronegócio gengibre no estado do Paraná Prospective analysis of the ginger agrobusiness in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R.B. Negrelle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se resultados de estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva do gengibre no estado do Paraná (Brasil, englobando panorama mundial, brasileiro e paranaense de produção e comercialização; caracterização da comunidade produtora agrícola paranaense; identificação, caracterização e detecção dos principais pontos de estrangulamento de outros níveis da cadeia produtiva.A prospective analysis of the ginger trade chain in Paraná State (Brazil is presented, including an overview of the production and commercialization at both international and national levels as well as the characterization of the agricultural community and of the others levels of the trade chain in Paraná State, and the main strangulation points at these levels.

  6. Ensino Fundamental do Paraná: revisitando a qualidade e a avaliação Elementary Schools of Paraná State: revisiting quality and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralice Aparecida Paranzini Gorni

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um estudo comparativo do rendimento dos alunos das 4as séries do Ensino Fundamental do Paraná nas avaliações levadas a efeito pela Secretaria de Educação em 1997 e 1998. O estudo foi realizado a partir dos percentuais de acerto dos alunos nas diferentes provas. Os resultados apontam evidências de melhora no desempenho em Matemática, Ciências e Redação e queda apenas em Português. Apesar disto, esses resultados não atingem níveis satisfatórios, pois em aproximadamente 50% das provas um número elevado de alunos alcançou percentuais inferiores à média. Esta tendência revela a necessidade de realização de uma avaliação do sistema para além do rendimento do aluno, com vistas à identificação e superação das suas reais fragilidades e deficiências.This article presents the results of a comparative study on the evaluations of 4th grade students of Elementary Schools from Paraná State. The evaluations were carried out by the Education Department in 1997 and 1998. The study was accomplished based on the percentile of the students achievement in the different tests. The results show improvement in mathematics, sciences and composition and a decline only in Portuguese. In spite of this, the results do not reach satisfactory levels, because in approximately 50% of the tests a high number of students reached percentile inferior to the average. This tendency reveals the need of a review on the system itself, an evaluation beyond the student's performance, with views to the identification and solution of their real deficiencies and vulnerability.

  7. Regionalização da agricultura do Estado do Paraná, Brasil Agriculture regionalization of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Fuentes Llanillo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma caracterização da agricultura do estado do Paraná com base em trinta e cinco variáveis extraídas do Censo Agropecuário de 1995/96 e duas variáveis extraídas do Mapa de Aptidão Agrícola das Terras. As mesmas dizem respeito ao acesso à terra, uso da terra, uso de tecnologias químicas e mecânicas, uso de capital, relações de trabalho, terceirização, fertilidade natural dos solos e possibilidade de mecanização. A Análise Fatorial com trinta e sete variáveis permitiu descrever os sete fatores principais que explicaram 66,7% da variância. A Análise de Agrupamento dos valores dos sete fatores permitiu classificar dez tipos de municípios, organizados em nove mesorregiões.This work presents a characterization of the agriculture of Paraná State based on thirty-five variables extracted from Agricultural Census of 1995/96 and two variables from the Map of Soil Aptitude. These are related to land access, land use, utilization of chemical and mechanical technologies, use of capital assets, labor relationships and tercerization, soil fertility and mechanization suitability. The Factor analysis with thirty-seven variables enabled to describe seven main factors, which explained 66.7% of variance. The Cluster analysis of the seven factor’s values allowed to classify ten types of municipalities organized in nine regions.

  8. CLASH-VLT: constraints on f (R) gravity models with galaxy clusters using lensing and kinematic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, L.; Sartoris, B.; Borgani, S.; Girardi, M., E-mail: pizzuti@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: sartoris@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: borgani@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: girardi@oats.inaf.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2017-07-01

    We perform a maximum likelihood kinematic analysis of the two dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters MACS J1206.2-0847 at z =0.44 and RXC J2248.7-4431 at z =0.35 to determine the total mass profile in modified gravity models, using a modified version of the MAMPOSSt code of Mamon, Biviano and Bou and apos;e. Our work is based on the kinematic and lensing mass profiles derived using the data from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (hereafter CLASH) and the spectroscopic follow-up with the Very Large Telescope (hereafter CLASH-VLT). We assume a spherical Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW hereafter) profile in order to obtain a constraint on the fifth force interaction range λ for models in which the dependence of this parameter on the environment is negligible at the scale considered (i.e. λ= const ) and fixing the fifth force strength to the value predicted in f (R) gravity. We then use information from lensing analysis to put a prior on the other NFW free parameters. In the case of MACSJ 1206 the joint kinematic+lensing analysis leads to an upper limit on the effective interaction range λ≤1.61 mpc at Δχ{sup 2}=2.71 on the marginalized distribution. For RXJ 2248 instead a possible tension with the ΛCDM model appears when adding lensing information, with a lower limit λ≥0.14 mpc at Δχ{sup 2}=2.71. This is consequence of the slight difference between the lensing and kinematic data, appearing in GR for this cluster, that could in principle be explained in terms of modifications of gravity. We discuss the impact of systematics and the limits of our analysis as well as future improvements of the results obtained. This work has interesting implications in view of upcoming and future large imaging and spectroscopic surveys, that will deliver lensing and kinematic mass reconstruction for a large number of galaxy clusters.

  9. The VLT/MUSE view of the central galaxy in Abell 2052. Ionized gas swept by the expanding radio source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmaverde, Barbara; Capetti, Alessandro; Marconi, Alessandro; Venturi, Giacomo

    2018-04-01

    We report observations of the radio galaxy 3C 317 (at z = 0.0345) located at the center of the Abell cluster A2052, obtained with the VLT/MUSE integral field spectrograph. The Chandra images of this cluster show cavities in the X-ray emitting gas, which were produced by the expansion of the radio lobes inflated by the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Our exquisite MUSE data show with unprecedented detail the complex network of line emitting filaments enshrouding the northern X-ray cavity. We do not detect any emission lines from the southern cavity, with a luminosity asymmetry between the two regions higher than 75. The emission lines produced by the warm phase of the interstellar medium (WIM) enable us to obtain unique information on the properties of the emitting gas. We find dense gas (up to 270 cm-3) that makes up part of a global quasi spherical outflow that is driven by the radio source, and obtain a direct estimate of the expansion velocity of the cavities (265 km s-1). The emission lines diagnostic rules out ionization from the AGN or from star-forming regions, suggesting instead ionization from slow shocks or from cosmic rays. The striking asymmetric line emission observed between the two cavities contrasts with the less pronounced differences between the north and south sides in the hot gas; this represents a significant new ingredient for our understanding of the process of the exchange of energy between the relativistic plasma and the external medium. We conclude that the expanding radio lobes displace the hot tenuous phase of the interstellar medium (ISM), but also impact the colder and denser ISM phases. These results show the effects of the AGN on its host and the importance of radio mode feedback. The reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/A19

  10. The OmegaCAM 16K x 16K CCD detector system for the ESO VLT Survey Telescope (VST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwert, Olaf; Baade, D.; Balestra, A.; Baruffolo, A.; Bortolussi, A.; Christen, F.; Cumani, C.; Deiries, S.; Downing, M.; Geimer, C.; Hess, G.; Hess, J.; Kuijken, K.; Lizon, J.; Muschielok, B.; Nicklas, H.; Reiss, R.; Reyes, J.; Silber, A.; Thillerup, J.; Valentijn, E.

    2006-06-01

    A 16K x 16K, 1 degree x 1 degree field, detector system was developed by ESO for the OmegaCAM instrument for use on the purpose built ESO VLT Survey Telescope (VST). The focal plane consists of an 8 x 4 mosaic of 2K x 4K 15um pixel e2v CCDs and four 2K x 4K CCDs on the periphery for the opto-mechanical control of the telescope. The VST is a single instrument telescope. This placed stringent reliability requirements on the OmegaCAM detector system such as 10 years lifetime and maximum downtime of 1.5 %. Mounting at Cassegrain focus required a highly autonomous self-contained cooling system that could deliver 65 W of cooling power. Interface space for the detector head was severely limited by the way the instrument encloses the CCD cryostat. The detector system features several novel ideas tailored to meet these requirements and described in this paper: Key design drivers of the detector head were the easily separable but precisely aligned connections to the optical field flattener on the top and the cooling system at the bottom. Material selection, surface treatment, specialized coatings and in-situ plasma cleaning were crucial to prevent contamination of the detectors. Inside the cryostat, cryogenic and electrical connections were disentangled to keep the configuration modular, integration friendly and the detectors in a safe condition during all mounting steps. A compact unit for logging up to 125 Pt100 temperature sensors and associated thermal control loops was developed (ESO's new housekeeping unit PULPO 2), together with several new modular Pt100 packaging and mounting concepts. The electrical grouping of CCDs based on process parameters and test results is explained. Three ESO standardized FIERA CCD controllers in different configurations are used. Their synchronization mechanism for read-out is discussed in connection with the CCD grouping scheme, the shutter, and the integrated guiding and image analysis facility with four independent 2K x 4K CCDs. An

  11. UVES/VLT high resolution spectroscopy of GRB 050730 afterglow: probing the features of the GRB environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elia, V.; Fiore, F.; Piranomonte, S.; Sbordone, L.; Stella, L.; Antonelli, L.A.; Fontana, A.; Giannini, T.; Guetta, D.; Israel, G.; Testa, V.; Meurs, E.J.A.; Vergani, S.D.; Ward, P.; Chincarini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; Molinari, E.; Moretti, A.; Chincarini, G.; Melandri, A.; Norci, L.; Vergani, S.D.; Pellizza, L.; Filliatre, P.; Perna, R.; Lazzati, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this paper is to study the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) environment through the analysis of the optical absorption features due to the gas surrounding the GRB. Methods. To this purpose we analyze high resolution spectroscopic observations (R = 20000-45000, corresponding to 14 kms -1 at 4200 Angstroms and 6.6 kms -1 at 9000 Angstroms of the optical afterglow of GRB050730, obtained with UVES-VLT ∼ 4 h after the GRB trigger. Results. The spectrum shows that the ISM of the GRB host galaxy at z = 3.967 is complex, with at least five components contributing to the main absorption system. We detect strong CII*, SiII*, OI* and FeII* fine structure absorption lines associated to the second and third component. Conclusions. For the first three components we derive information on the relative distance from the site of the GRB explosion. Component 1, which has the longest wavelength, highest positive velocity shift, does not present any fine structure nor low ionization lines; it only shows very high ionization features, such as C IV and O VI, suggesting that this component is very close to the GRB site. From the analysis of low and high ionization lines and fine structure lines, we find evidences that the distance of component 2 from the site of the GRB explosion is 10-100 times smaller than that of component 3. We evaluated the mean metallicity of the z = 3.967 system obtaining values approximate to 10 -2 of the solar metallicity or less. However, this should not be taken as representative of the circum-burst medium, since the main contribution to the hydrogen column density comes from the outer regions of the galaxy while that of the other elements presumably comes from the ISM closer to the GRB site. Furthermore, difficulties in evaluating dust depletion correction can modify significantly these values. The mean [C/Fe] ratio agrees well with that expected by single star-formation event models. Interestingly the [C/Fe] of component 2 is smaller than that of

  12. Detection and identification of TMV infecting tomato under protected cultivation in Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martins da Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available During an inspection in plastic houses in Sapopema, Paraná, 90% of tomato plants showed leaf abnormalities, probably associated with herbicide toxity. However, virus like symptoms developed in selected hosts after mechanical inoculatation. RT-PCR reactions using primers for an internal region within the movement protein gene of TMV and ToMV resulted in the amplification of a 409 bp cDNA fragment only by TMV primers. Deduced amino acids showed 100% identity when compared to TMV movement protein and 94% with ToMV. The RT-PCR protocol was efficient for quick and conclusive determination of virus species. The virus was purified and a polyclonal antiserum was raised for future surveys in tomato crops of Paraná. The partial genomic sequence obtained for TMV-Sapopema has been deposited under the accession number DQ173945, which is the first partial genomic sequence of an isolate of TMV from Brazil in the GenBank, and the first tomato virus isolate from Paraná to have some of its biological and molecular properties determined.Durante uma inspeção em cultivos protegidos de tomate em Sapopema, Paraná, foram observadas anormalidades foliares em 90% das plantas, indicando possivelmente a existência de um problema de fitotoxidade causada por herbicidas. Todavia, os sintomas manifestados nas hospedeiras após os ensaios de inoculação mecânica revelaram que os sintomas estariam relacionados a uma infecção por Tobamovirus. As reações de RT-PCR com oligonucleotídeos específicos para uma região interna da proteína de movimento de dois vírus comuns em tomate, TMV e ToMV, resultaram na amplificação de um fragmento de 409 pares de bases, apenas com os oligonucleotídeos específicos para o TMV. Após o sequenciamento, os aminoácidos deduzidos apresentaram identidade de 100% quando comparados com as seqüências das proteínas de movimento de outros isolados do TMV, e 94% de identidade com seqüências do ToMV. A RT-PCR demonstrou ser um m

  13. Judicial demand of medications through the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisihara, Renato Mitsunori; Possebom, Ana Carolina; Borges, Luiza de Martino Cruvinel; Shwetz, Ana Claudia Athanasio; Bettes, Fernanda Francis Benevides

    2017-01-01

    To describe the profile of lawsuits related to drug requests filled at the Federal Justice of the State of Paraná. A cross-sectional study, and the data were obtained through consulting the lawsuits at the online system of the Federal Justice of Paraná. Out of 347 lawsuits included in the study, 55% of plaintiffs were women, with a median age of 56 years. Oncology was the field with more requests (23.6%), and the highest mean costs. A wide variety of diseases and broad variety of requested drugs were found in the lawsuits. Approximately two-thirds of them were requested by the brand name, and the most often requested drugs were palivizumab and tiotropium bromide. Only 14.5% of the requested medicines were registered in the National Medication Register. The Public Defender's Office filled actions in 89.6% of cases and all lawsuits had an interim relief. The mean time for approval was 35 days and 70% of requests were granted. Oncology was the field with the highest demand for medicines at the Federal Justice of Paraná in 2014. A great variety of medications was requested. The Public Defender´s Office represented most lawsuits. All demands had an interim relief, and the majority of requests were granted, within an average of 35 days. Descrever o perfil das ações que solicitam medicamentos ajuizadas na Justiça Federal do Paraná. Estudo transversal descritivo, cujos dados foram obtidos por meio de consulta aos processos no sistema on-line da Justiça Federal do Paraná. Dentre os 347 processos incluídos no estudo, 55% dos autores eram mulheres, com mediana da idade de 56 anos, sendo a área mais procurada a oncologia (23,6%). A área oncológica também foi a que apresentou maiores custos médios. Foi ampla a variedade de doenças geradoras das ações e também foi consequentemente grande a variedade de medicamentos solicitados. Cerca de dois terços dos fármacos foram solicitados pelo nome comercial, e os mais requeridos foram o palivizumabe e brometo de

  14. Estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva do capim-limão: estado do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Carneiro Gomes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de prospectiva para cadeias produtivas engloba várias etapas como a segmentação de cada elo, a análise do ambiente institucional e organizacional que envolve a cadeia, a identificação das necessidades e aspirações de cada segmento da cadeia e dos fatores críticos para a melhoria do desempenho. Desta forma, considerando a importância econômica da produção, industrialização e comercialização do capim-limão, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf, e visando uma ação integrada do setor agrícola envolvido, este trabalho propõe o estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva desta espécie no estado do Paraná, identificando também fatores e condicionantes de qualidade em cada segmento desta cadeia. Para isto, o presente estudo apresenta o panorama da produção agroindustrial e da comunidade produtora agrícola paranaense de capim-limão; identifica e caracteriza os outros segmentos que integram a respectiva cadeia produtiva no Paraná e, por fim, identifica e analisa os principais gargalos, elos faltantes e pontos de estrangulamento. Evidenciaram-se como principais componentes da cadeia produtiva: a unidade produtiva, a agroindústria, a indústria (alimentícia, farmacêutica e química e o mercado consumidor interno (atacadista e varejista e externo. Com esse estudo prospectivo, espera-se contribuir para a implementação de medidas político-organizacionais, entre os agentes econômicos dos setores público e privado, que fazem parte da cadeia produtiva do capim-limão, possibilitando-lhes desenvolver estratégias que aumentem a competitividade e conduzam à expansão do mercado.The application of a prospective study to productive chains incorporates several stages like the segmentation of each link, the analysis of institutional and organizational environments to include the chain, the identification of necessities and aspirations of each chain segment and the critical factors for the improvement of performance. Thus

  15. Tentang Manusia Dalam Tembang Palaran Dhandhanggula Nyi Tjondrolukito: Kajian Filsafat Sangkan-Paran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Pramujiono

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Perspektif filsafat sangkan-paran dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis manusia dalam tembang Palaran Dhandhanggula Nyi Tjondrolukito (PDNT yang mencakup apa dan siapa manusia, bagaimana hendaknya manusia berperilaku dalam hidup, dan apa sebenarnya tujuan hidup manusia. Secara materialistik, manusia terbentuk atas unsur-unsur yang sama dengan unsur alam, yaitu api, angin, tanah, dan air yang dilambangkan dengan warna merah, kuning, hitam, dan putih. Secara spiritual, sebagai siapa, manusia terdiri atas empat unsur yang dilambangkan dengan empat warna tersebut. Keempatnya merupakan sedulur papa manusia yang merupakan hawa nafsu manusia yang melengkapi rasa/ruh yang bersemayam dalam manusia. Berkaitan dengan perilaku hidup, hendaknya manusia memiliki keimanan, ketawadukan, kesungguhan, dan mampu menjaga keselarasan dengan alam, keseimbangan jagad cilik yang ada dalam dirinya dengan jagad gedhe yang berupa alam semesta. Sebagai bagian akhir, manusia harus menyadari tujuan hidupnya. Abstract: The Sangkan Paran philosophical perspective can be employed to analyze human beings in the traditional Javanese song Palaran Dhandhanggula Nyi Tjondrolukito (PDNT covering who and what human matters are, how they should behave and achieve their goals in living their lives. Materialistically speaking, on one hand, a human being is composed of elements that are similar to the natural elements, namely, fire, wind, soil, and water that are symbolized by red, yellow, black, and white color. Spiritually speaking, on the other hand, human beings are believed to be composed of the four natural elements. Those elements are considered to be the four “siblings” of human beings. They constitute their passions that enrich their souls. In relation to behavior, human should have faith, loyalty, persistence, ability to keep in harmony of the “small world’ within themselves and “the gigantic world”, that is the whole universe. Last but not least, they should be aware

  16. Comércio de bromélias no Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo prospectivo da cadeia produtiva de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, objetivando conhecer o perfil do produtor paranaense, com respectiva capacidade de atender às demandas de mercado, identificar e caracterizar os diferentes níveis da cadeia produtiva e detectar os principais pontos de estrangulamento do desenvolvimento desse setor. Para tanto, foram entrevistados 19 produtores, 160 varejistas e 18 atacadistas. A quantidade de bromélias oriundas da produção do Paraná e aptas ao mercado era de 5.340 plantas ao ano, inferior à demanda do Estado. As condições exigidas pelos varejistas (v e atacadistas (a para aquisição de bromélias dos produtores regionais eram: preço igual ou inferior ao praticado em São Paulo (exigido por: v = 134; a = 18, qualidade da produção condizente com a encontrada no mercado (v = 86; a = 16, capacidade de efetuar entregas periódicas (v = 81; a = 11 e capacidade de atendimento dos pedidos extras (v = 55; a = 7. Não foi encontrado produtor no Estado do Paraná que pudesse atender a todas as exigências de forma simultânea. Os principais entraves que impediam a inserção da produção no mercado regional eram decorrentes da inaplicabilidade dos modelos de gestão da produção rural, adotados pelos produtores, e das incongruências tecnológicas observadas na maioria dos viveiros de cultivo, que resultavam em produção de baixa qualidade.

  17. Genetic characterization of the 28 maize landraces in Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Regina Silvestrin Rovaris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of maize landraces is extremely important in breeding programs for use of these genotypes as sources of genetic variability. The objective of this study was to quantitatively characterize 28 populations of maize landraces from the state of Paraná using the estimates of the effects of varieties and heterosis parents and the general combining ability, thereby assessing the main agronomic traits. In the crop of 2008/09, 56 inter-varietal hybrids, obtained through a topcross, 28 populations of maize landraces and three check varieties were evaluated for female flowering (FF, plant height (PH, ear height (EH and grain mass (GY. The treatments were evaluated in a randomized block design, with two replications, at three Paraná State locations: the Experimental Center of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná in Londrina (IAPAR and the experimental units of Pato Branco and Ponta Grossa. The data were submitted to an analysis of variance, considering a fixed model for genotypes and a random model for environments; the averages grouped by the Scott-Knott test, along with intersections of topcrosses, were analyzed according to a readapted model proposed by Oliveira et al. (1997. According to estimates of the parental effects, the GI 133 population showed the most promising estimates for all characteristics. The GI 088 and GI 173 populations stood out with promising estimates of the effects of heterosis. The conclusion is that the populations GI 133 and GI 173 may be indicated for recurrent selection programs or participation in obtaining composites.

  18. New records of three hippoboscid species on newly captured birds from nature in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Fontanelli Vaz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of this study was to provide new records of hippoboscid flies collected over an one-year period on newly captured birds from nature in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The birds were received by a wildlife center in Tijucas do Sul and the hippoboscid flies were collect by hand or by tweezers, generating a prevalence of 0.7% (16/2232 of parasitized birds. New information about distribution of hippoboscid flies on Asio clamator, Rupornis magnirostris and Athene cunicularia was reported in the state of Paraná. The Caracara plancus, Falco peregrinus and Penelope obscura are new host species for Ornithoctona erythrocephala in the state of Paraná, and the Asio stygius for Icosta rufiventris and Ornithoica vicina in Brazil. This study provided new information about hosts and distribution of hippoboscid flies in Brazilian birds.

  19. A massive invasion of fish species after eliminating a natural barrier in the upper rio Paraná basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Ferreira Júlio Júnior

    Full Text Available Based on long-term studies in the upper rio Paraná basin, in addition to a broad review of literature and other information, we were able to identify 33 species of native fishes in the lower rio Paraná basin that successfully colonized the upper rio Paraná after Itaipu impoundment, that flooded the natural geographic barrier constituted by the Sete Quedas Falls. These species belong to six Orders, encompassing two of Myliobatiformes, six of Characiformes, 17 of Siluriformes, six of Gymnotiformes, one of Perciformes, and one of Pleuronectiformes. Extensive remarks regarding each species, including their influence upon the native assemblage, in addition to comments on other non-indigenous species, are also provided. We conclude that, in spite of its widespread neglected by environmental impact studies, massive invasion of species is a real possibility when natural barriers are suppressed by reservoirs.

  20. Parasitism by Monogenoidea in Piaractus mesopotamicus (Characiformes, Characidae cultivated in Paraná River (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. L. Leão

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the occurrence, prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity of monogenoidean parasites in Piaractus mesopotamicus farmed in cages in the reservoir of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Power Station, Paraná River, Brazil. The parasite distribution pattern and the correlation of prevalence and abundance with the total length of hosts were also investigated. Four monogenoidean species were collected: Anacanthorus penilabiatus, A. toledoensis, Mymarothecium ianwhitingtoni and M. viatorum. All the parasites collected in P. mesopotamicus showed the typical aggregated distribution pattern, and the abundance and the prevalence did not shown any correlation with the total length of hosts.

  1. Panstrongylus megistus em ecótopos artificiais de ilhas do Alto Rio Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ana Lucia Falavigna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em resposta a denúncias de triatomíneos em ilhas do Alto Rio Paraná foram investigados 145 ecótopos artificiais e 4 (2,8% deles encontravam-se infestados: residência, "clube", ex-escola e monte de madeira. Foram analisados 17 de 35 P. megistus coletados; 12 (70,6% apresentavam-se infectados por Trypanosoma cruzi. Ave e roedor constituíram as fontes alimentares mais comuns. Todos os exames sorológicos (56 de humanos, 18 de cães e 10 de gatos foram negativos.

  2. Registro de Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) no Estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Leonardo Rodrigues; Santos, Franciele; Wilcken, Carlos F.; Soliman, Everton P.

    2010-01-01

    It is recorded the occurrence of Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) in eucalyptus trees in the State of Parana, Brazil. The insect was observed in June at 2009, in Curitiba region.

    doi: 10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.75

    É registrada a ocorrência de Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellapé, 2006 (Hemiptera, Thaumastocoridae) em árvores de eucalipto no Estado do Paraná. Infestações foram o...

  3. Extrativismo de bromélias no Estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Negrelle,Raquel Rejane Bonato; Anacleto,Adilson

    2012-01-01

    Visando a contribuir para o melhor entendimento da participação da atividade extrativista no âmbito da comercialização de bromélias no Brasil, apresentou-se resultado de pesquisa que buscou: a) identificar e caracterizar os extrativistas de bromélias formalmente registrados e os informais no Estado do Paraná; b) identificar e caracterizar as metodologias de coleta, o preparo e vias de comercialização das plantas coletadas; c) levantar a opinião dos extrativistas sobre facilidades e dificuldad...

  4. New species of Poecilocloeus Bruner, 1910 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Proctolabinae) from Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DA Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti; Fianco, Marcos; Martins, Fernando DE Farias; Prasniewski, Victor Mateus; Szinwelski, Neucir; Zefa, Edison

    2017-10-30

    In this study, we describe a new species of the genus Poecilocloeus from Renascença municipality, Paraná State, Brazil. Poecilocloeus renascensis n. sp. inhabits the Atlantic Semideciduous Forest edges of Renascença and adjacent areas, and our study is the first record of this genus from southern Brazil. The species belongs to the group bullatus (Rehn, 1908), and the descriptions are based on morphological characters, mainly from male genitalia. Morphological descriptions are provided together with illustrations emphasizing the most significant diagnostic features of external morphology and male genitalia. Information is given about type specimens, examined material and geographic distribution.

  5. A new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    Full Text Available Microglanis garavelloi, new species, collected in tributaries of rio Paranapanema and rio Tietê, is the first species of the genus described from upper rio Paraná basin. The new species can be distinguished from other species of Microglanis on morphometric characters, color pattern, caudal-fin shape, pectoral-spine morphology and lateral line development. Characters used specifically to distinguish M. garavelloi from M. cottoides (laguna dos Patos and rio Uruguay basins and M. parahybae (rio Paraíba do Sul basin include morphometrics, color pattern and pectoral-spine serration.

  6. Perfil de adolescentes gestantes de um município do interior do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira; Claudia Silveira Viera; Juliene Flávia Noris Almeida Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio planteó como objetivo identificar el perfil de adolescentes embarazadas, en un municipio de Paraná, teniendo en cuenta la influencia de factores biológicos, psicológicos y sociales, para apoyar las acciones preventivas del embarazo precoz. Investigación cuantitativa con datos obtenidos mediante entrevista. y análisis estadístico descriptivo. Se analizaron: edad de la menarqula, ginecológica y al quedar embarazada, uso de anticonceptivos antes del embarazo, relación familiar, acep...

  7. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  8. Nuclear public information activities in Chile; Programa de educacion publica de la energia nuclear en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Quintana, R [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper.

  9. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables…

  10. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Society for Microbiology, Chapter 16. 10. Medina E, Yrarrazaval M. (1983) Fiebre tifoidea en Chile: Consideraciones epideniologicas. Revista Medica de...epidesiologia de la fiebre tifoidea . Boletin de !a Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia universidad catolica de Chile. 30:113-119. 14. Reyes H, Olea M, Hernandez

  11. Primer registro de Heliotropium amplexicaule (Heliotropiaceae) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ibáñez, Sergio; Luebert, Federico; Gómez, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the commonly known weed Heliotropium amplexicaule (Heliotropiaceae) is reported for Chile first time, from a collection recently made in Santiago. Its potential as weed in Chile is discussed in the context of the experience of other countries where the species has become naturalised.

  12. Adapting to climate variability and change in Chile's Maipo basin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... Given the region's role in Chile's national economy, a strategy for adapting to ... to Chile's economy, and may be threatened by future water stress. ... for the project, with the goal of bringing together government, business, and ...

  13. The Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Fraude Electoral Designada por la Facultad de Derecho de la Pontifica Universidad de Chile," in Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno de Chile, Editorial...Chilean law, could not be invaded by the police. The MIR never became a formal political party. It completely rejected the electoral process

  14. All projects related to Chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. ... Region: Brazil, Chile, Colombia, India ... Enhancing Women's Economic Empowerment Through Better Policies in Latin America ... Program: Employment and Growth ... Understanding Think Tank-University Relationships in Latin America.

  15. Childcare in Chile. The role of ethnicity and socioeconomic inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárcamo Leiva, Rodrigo Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chile has embarked on a road that must lead to the reduction of inequality gaps for the population. A public policy called Chile Growths With You has focused on an increase in the breadth of coverage of non-maternal care through childcare centers to provide equal opportunities in early childhood and

  16. [Health inequality gap in inmigrant versus local children in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Chepo, Macarena; Oyarte, Marcela; Markkula, Niina; Bustos, Patricia; Pedrero, Víctor; Delgado, Iris

    2017-12-01

    Children and young international migrants face different health challenges compa red with the local population, particularly if they live in insecure environments or adverse social conditions. This study seeks to identify gaps in health outcomes of children between immigrant and local population in Chile. This study analyses data from three sources: (i) Born in Chile: Electronic records of antenatal visits from all municipal antenatal clinics of Recoleta in 2012; (ii) Growing up in Chile: Population survey "National Socioeconomic Characterization" (CASEN) from 2013 and (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Data of all hospital discharges in 2012, provided by the department of statistics and health information (DEIS) of the Ministry of Health. (I) Born in Chile: Im migrants more frequently have psychosocial risk (62.3% vs 50.1% in Chileans) and enter later into the program (63.1% vs 33.4% enter later than 14 weeks of pregnancy). All birth outcomes were better among immigrants (e.g. caesarean sections rates: 24.2% immigrants vs % Chileans). (ii) Growing up in Chile: A higher proportion of migrant children is outside the school system and lives in multidi mensional poverty (40% immigrants vs 23.2% Chileans). (iii) Getting sick in Chile: Injuries and other external causes were more frequent cause of hospitalisation among migrants (23.6%) than the local population (16.7%) aged between 7 and 14 years. Addressing the needs of the children in Chile, regardless of their immigration status, is an ethical, legal and moral imperative.

  17. Harttia absaberi, a new species of loricariid catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Loricariinae from the upper rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Takeshi Oyakawa

    Full Text Available A new species of Harttia, tribe Harttiini, is described from tributaries of upper portions of rio Paraná drainage. The new species, the smallest known species of the genus, attaining up to 74.0 mm of standard length, can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: abdomen completely covered by plates, a single preanal plate, plates of the gular area in broad contact with the canal plate. Harttia absaberi is the second species of the genus known from the upper portion of rio Paraná drainage.

  18. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for

  19. A catalog of Acroceridae (Diptera) from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GonzÁlez, Christian R; Elgueta, Mario; Ramirez, Francisco

    2018-01-18

    A catalog of the Acroceridae from Chile is provided. All valid names and synonyms are presented, totaling 33 species and nine genera for the country. All references known to us from the taxonomic and biological literature, including information about name, author, year of publication, page number, type species, type locality and references are given. Type material of different authors was revised. The species Lasia cuprea is revalidated. The geographical distribution of the different species is recorded from the revised collections and bibliographic data. Holops cyaneus Philippi, 1865 is designated as type species of Holops Philippi, 1865.

  20. EFECTOS DEL EMBARAZO ADOLESCENTE EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola Heufemann, AMANDA

    2014-01-01

    Los efectos del embarazo adolescente en Chile han sido poco estudiados aun cuando existe diversa literatura para el resto del mundo, en especial para países desarrollados. Este trabajo estima el efecto del embarazo adolescente sobre la asistencia o completitud de la educación secundaria, años de escolaridad y participación laboral. Usando datos de corte transversal del a˜no 2012 y un enfoque de variable instrumental a trav´es del uso de la entrega comunal de la píldora anticoncept...

  1. FORESIGHT TEST CASE CHILE: UNIACC UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nicolás Vizcaya Carrillo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available it is true that all human activities today are capable of analysis and prospective projection, confirmed there are a number of areas of knowledge which are considered key to the development of mankind and therefore of each company in each country is to see the evolution of the relevant future. It is true that today there are hundreds of professional disciplines that are studied and are performed as day to day and that play important roles in the welfare and development of society and in particular if this trial will be analyzed in the development of techniques current looking for Chile.

  2. Pentecostalism and Politics in Neoliberal Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lindhardt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga las relaciones históricas y contemporáneas entre el Pentecostalismo y la política en Chile. La primera parte del artículo provee un resumen histórico del crecimiento y consolidación de la religión Pentecostal en relación a diferentes ambientes políticos. En este artículo se esclarecen además las diferentes posturas Pentecostales hacia la esfera política. En particular hago hincapié, en cómo surge una cultura de desencanto político en el Chile post-dictatorial que crea un vacío simbólico, el cual trae como consecuencia el nacimiento de movimientos religiosos. En la segunda parte de este artículo se discute las posibles afinidades entre el Pentecostalismo, como una cultura religiosa, y los principios democráticos. El argumento es que a pesar de que el Pentecostalismo puede contener algunas cualidades democráticas, también existe una compatibilidad notable entre la visión teísta e individualista Pentecostal acerca de los cambios sociales, y un orden social neoliberal, en donde la indolencia política se expande y en donde predomina un sentido de progreso individual y no colectivo. English: This article explores historical and contemporary relationships between Pentecostalism and politics in Chile. The first part of the article provides an historical account of the growth and consolidation of Pentecostal religion within changing political environments and sheds light on Pentecostal stances to and involvements with the political sphere. In particular, it focuses on how a culture of political disenchantment has emerged in post-dictatorial neo-liberal Chile, creating a symbolic void that can be filled by religious movements. The second part of the article discusses possible affinities between Pentecostalism as a religious culture and democratic principles and values. It argues that although Pentecostalism may contain certain democratic qualities, there is also a striking compatibility between, on the one

  3. Monetary Policy in Chile: a black box?

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Cabrera; Luis Felipe Lagos

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies monetary policy in Chile during the 1986-1997 period. We concentrate in understanding the monetary transmission mechanism by which the Central Bank instrument—the real interest rate—affects total expenditure, output and the inflation rate. The methodology used is structural VARS. We find a weak effect of the interest rate on all the variables. The interest rate has a significant effect on the expenditure-output gap. Both the interest rate and the expenditure-output gap have...

  4. Center for oceanographic research opens in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Carina B.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    The Humboldt Current System, with its coastal upwelling ecosystem off Peru and Chile, is one of the most productive marine systems in the world. Here, significant exchange of heat and CO2 takes place between the ocean and the atmosphere due to upwelling of sub-surface, cold, nutrient-rich, CO2-saturated waters. In addition, the eastern South Pacific holds one of the three most important oxygen minimum zones of the global ocean. Through the biologically mediated process of denitrification, the oxygen minimum zone contributes to the global sink of nitrogen in the ocean and as a source of the greenhouse gas N2O to the atmosphere.

  5. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  6. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  7. Revisiting the history of immigration and colonization in provincial Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Maria Nunes Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits two established themes in the historiography of Paraná: immigration and colonization. Studies dedicated to these themes had a general tendency to focus on the narrow relationship between these two historical experiences, appointing that, in Paraná, colonization was made effective by means of small land owners of foreign origin (the colonials who farmed their land for general supply agriculture. Using sources that have also been largely explored by researchers of regional history – reports from province presidents and legislation – but prioritizing a less-studied period – the years 1850 and 1860 – and presenting questions related to the definition of public politics for the recently-constituted province, the research made evident that the proletarianization was a common experience for the immigrants in that period and that the so-called “nationals” were fundamental agents in the colonization projects then being implemented. The article, therefore, shows the problems of the synonymy constituted by the historiography between the words immigration and colonization, giving evidence to a context of ruptures, indeterminations and multiple expectations.

  8. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild animals in State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEW K. SPRENGER

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from wild birds and mammals from the State of Paraná. In total, 220 stool samples were sent to Parasitic Diseases Laboratory of the Federal University of Paraná during 13 months (Jan/2013-Jan/2014. A total of 52.7% (116/220 of the animals were positive for cysts, oocysts, eggs and/or trophozoites. In birds, the positivity rate was 37.9% (25/66 and mammals was 59.1% (91/154. Strongyloidea superfamily eggs were observed in 37.3% (82/220 of the samples, Eimeria spp. in 10% (22/220, and Trichuris spp. in 4.5% (10/220. The most frequent mammal species were llamas (Lama glama, and dromedaries (Camelus bactrianus with infection rate of 70.1% (54/77 and 60.8% (14/23, respectively. In other hand, cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus and ring necks (Psittacula krameri, were the most researched birds, with infection rate of 20% (40/50 and 100% (6/6, respectively. A high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was observed in most of wildlife animals. Further investigations should be conducted focusing on parasite control strategies and the conservation measurements for harmonizing the human-animal interaction on the long-term, reducing associated health risks.

  9. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in wild animals in State of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Lew K; Yoshitani, Ursula Y; Buzatti, Andreia; Molento, Marcelo B

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from wild birds and mammals from the State of Paraná. In total, 220 stool samples were sent to Parasitic Diseases Laboratory of the Federal University of Paraná during 13 months (Jan/2013-Jan/2014). A total of 52.7% (116/220) of the animals were positive for cysts, oocysts, eggs and/or trophozoites. In birds, the positivity rate was 37.9% (25/66) and mammals was 59.1% (91/154). Strongyloidea superfamily eggs were observed in 37.3% (82/220) of the samples, Eimeria spp. in 10% (22/220), and Trichuris spp. in 4.5% (10/220). The most frequent mammal species were llamas (Lama glama), and dromedaries (Camelus bactrianus) with infection rate of 70.1% (54/77) and 60.8% (14/23), respectively. In other hand, cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and ring necks (Psittacula krameri), were the most researched birds, with infection rate of 20% (40/50) and 100% (6/6), respectively. A high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites was observed in most of wildlife animals. Further investigations should be conducted focusing on parasite control strategies and the conservation measurements for harmonizing the human-animal interaction on the long-term, reducing associated health risks.

  10. Marketing verde e práticas socioambientais nas indústrias do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Neder Lopes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação das empresas com o meio ambiente e com todas as questões sociais envolvidas em seu processo tem se tornado uma constante nos últimos tempos. Devido a isso, estão surgindo novas formas de administrar os recursos disponíveis. Nesse contexto, enquadra-se o marketing verde que deve estar pautado em práticas ambientalmente corretas, com o intuito de gerar produtos e serviços mais sustentáveis, fortalecendo a imagem das empresas e diferenciando suas marcas no mercado. O intuito neste trabalho foi verificar se as grandes indústrias do Paraná estão se utilizando das práticas de marketing verde e se mantêm projetos de gestão socioambiental. Para atender a tais objetivos, elaborou-se uma pesquisa descritiva e quantitativa com 48 grandes empresas cadastradas na Federação das Indústrias do Paraná. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a maior parte das empresas possui departamento de marketing formalizado, mantém sistemas de gestão ambiental e utiliza moderadamente práticas de marketing verde.

  11. An Analysis of health conditions in municipalities of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovídio Cesar Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to analyze the health conditions in the municipal districts checking which of them best optimize the available resources, consequently offering more and better services to the population. In this approach, first was characterized the public health in Brazil, in the state of Paraná and in its municipalities. We build a Performance Indicator for each county in the state (PI and used variables representing mortality and longevity - infant mortality, mortality up to five years, life expectancy and probability of achieving 60 years. Regarding variables, those relating to health spending, the analysis period was from 2007 to 2010, the population information refer to the 2010 Census and the related infrastructure and health of the population, were collected at the DATASUS. The work includes all municipalities in the state of Paraná. By analyzing the results it was found that there are municipalities that can equate better their inputs and thus provide better service to its population, consequently your ID is better. Another aspect to consider is that the municipalities considered Big City are less dependent on current transfers both the state and the Union, which also have better PI. The city of Colombo was the one with the best performance indicator, while the municipalities of Cruzmaltina and Cantagalo have the worst state ID.

  12. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. LANSAC-TÔHA

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  13. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LANSAC-TÔHA F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  14. Regional economic development: an inquiry into the micro-region of Cornelio Procopio, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Vinicius Bernardelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This present study has the purpose of treating about understanding the Norte Pioneiro economic development of Paraná in the micro region of Cornélio Procópio. First, we discuss economic development theories emphasizing the importance of actions that promote local development in a recessionary macroeconomic environment. Through a detailed analysis of the 14 municipalities covered in this study, it can be seen the socioeconomic status of these focusing on the city of Cornelius, from 1991 to 2012. It was noted also that the coffee was the first milestone in the formation of the economy of this region of Paraná. This converged analysis to demonstrate the challenges of building a local development schedule, as well as a proposal for strategies to improve the quality of life of the population of this region. The results of this study are significant and contribute to complement the current discussion about the new directions of local policies in the face of the world economy.

  15. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey . XXIV. Stellar properties of the O-type giants and supergiants in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Agudelo, O. H.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Tramper, F.; Grin, N. J.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Langer, N.; Puls, J.; Markova, N.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Castro, N.; Crowther, P. A.; Evans, C. J.; García, M.; Gräfener, G.; Herrero, A.; van Kempen, B.; Lennon, D. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Najarro, F.; Sabín-Sanjulián, C.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-04-01

    Context. The Tarantula region in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) contains the richest population of spatially resolved massive O-type stars known so far. This unmatched sample offers an opportunity to test models describing their main-sequence evolution and mass-loss properties. Aims: Using ground-based optical spectroscopy obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we aim to determine stellar, photospheric and wind properties of 72 presumably single O-type giants, bright giants and supergiants and to confront them with predictions of stellar evolution and of line-driven mass-loss theories. Methods: We apply an automated method for quantitative spectroscopic analysis of O stars combining the non-LTE stellar atmosphere model fastwind with the genetic fitting algorithm pikaia to determine the following stellar properties: effective temperature, surface gravity, mass-loss rate, helium abundance, and projected rotational velocity. The latter has been constrained without taking into account the contribution from macro-turbulent motions to the line broadening. Results: We present empirical effective temperature versus spectral subtype calibrations at LMC-metallicity for giants and supergiants. The calibration for giants shows a +1kK offset compared to similar Galactic calibrations; a shift of the same magnitude has been reported for dwarfs. The supergiant calibrations, though only based on a handful of stars, do not seem to indicate such an offset. The presence of a strong upturn at spectral type O3 and earlier can also not be confirmed by our data. In the spectroscopic and classical Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams, our sample O stars are found to occupy the region predicted to be the core hydrogen-burning phase by state-of-the-art models. For stars initially more massive than approximately 60 M⊙, the giant phase already appears relatively early on in the evolution; the supergiant phase develops later. Bright giants, however, are not

  16. Estudo taxonômico das espécies nativas de Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Taxonomy of native species of Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rodrigues Slusarski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o estudo taxonômico de Hypericum no Estado do Paraná. Este gênero inclui cerca de 350 espécies nas regiões temperadas e subtropicais de todo o mundo. No Brasil, ocorrem 17 espécies, 12 das quais confirmadas para o Estado do Paraná, além de três subespécies, distribuídas em todas as regiões fitogeográficas do Estado, principalmente na estepe gramíneo-lenhosa. Apresenta-se chave de identificação dos táxons, descrições, ilustrações, dados ecológicos e de distribuição geográfica.A taxonomic study of the genus Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae in the state of Paraná was carried out. This genus includes about 350 species, mostly cosmopolitan, occurring in temperate and subtropical regions worldwide. Seventeen species are found in Brazil, with twelve species and three subspecies in Paraná, in all phytogeographic regions of the state, mainly in grasslands. An identification key for the taxa, descriptions, illustrations and data on geographic distribution and ecology are provided.

  17. Prevalência da mastite bovina causada por Prototheca zopfii em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná Prevalence of bovine mastitis due to Prototheca zopfii in dairy cattle in north Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laerte Francisco Filippsen

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Algas do gênero Prototheca têm sido relacionadas como agente etiológico na ocorrência de mastite bovina, entretanto, nenhum caso foi relatado no estado do Paraná. O presente trabalho objetivou determinar a prevalência desta alga, enquanto agente etiológico nas mastites bovinas, em rebanhos leiteiros, na região norte do Paraná. Foram visitadas 20 propriedades produtoras de leite e realizados exames clínicos e teste do CMT (California Mastitis Test em todos os animais em lactação. A alga Prototheca zopfii foi isolada de dois animais de uma das propriedades. Todas as cepas isoladas de Prototheca zopfii mostraram-se resistentes aos antimicrobianos testados.Prototheca has been reported as an etiological agent in the occurrence of bovine mastitis, although no case has been noticed in Paraná. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of this algae as an etiological agent of the bovine mastitis in dairy cattle in north Paraná. Clinical exams and CMT (California Mastitis Test were done in all lactation animals raised in 20 dairy farms. The algae Prototheca zopfii was found in two animals of one farm. All the Prototheca zopfii strains were resistent against the antimicrobial agents tested.

  18. Silencio y memoria: Nocturno de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iniesta Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, sostenido por el Trabajo de Fin de Grado Representación y ficción: Nocturno de Chile y Sostiene Pereira (2015, se introduce en la construcción literaria articulada en la obra Nocturno de Chile, de Roberto Bolaño, examinando y evaluando sus fronteras, fronteras que resultan tan movedizas como las de cualquier construcción inserta en el marco de la ficción. Las implicaciones históricas y políticas del relato hacen que su impronta testimonial cobre una fuerza inusitada, y nociones como la memoria, la violencia o el silencio ayudan a vertebrar una obra de arte verbal que logra, en el decurso de su propia narración, asediar al lector con las angustiosas imágenes de un pasado hecho presente en el camino de un tiempo político que se subyuga a la propia creación artística.

  19. Morfometria de raias continentais (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae do alto rio Paraná, Brasil = Morphometry of upper Paraná river freshwater stingrays (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Guilherme Cândido da Silva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Potamotrygonidae constitui o único grupo recente de Chondrichthyes cujo habitat está restrito, exclusivamente, a águas continentais. Na planície de inundação do Alto rio Paraná, espécies desta família estabeleceram-se após o fechamento das comportas da usina hidrelétrica de Itaipu, a jusante. O objetivo deste trabalho foi, utilizando medidas corporais, identificar diferenças morfométricas entre indivíduos de Potamotrygon cf. motoro (Natterer in Müller & Henle, 1841 e Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963 capturadosnesta região, bem como estimar o tamanho com que machos destas espécies atingem a maturidade gonadal. Machos de P. falkneri e P. cf. motoro das populações avaliadas atingem a maturidade gonadal com largura do disco variando em torno de 26 cm e 23 cm, respectivamente. Na comparação das espécies, P. cf. motoro apresentou maior distânciaproporcional entre as narinas e maior comprimento proporcional da cauda e dos espiráculos. Identificou-se dimorfismo sexual secundário para P. falkneri, consistindo da presença de fileiras laterais de espinhos na cauda das fêmeas. Estudos futuros de morfologiafuncional e ecomorfologia poderão esclarecer o significado das diferenças morfométricas para o modo de vida destas espécies.Potamotrygonidae is the only extant chondrichthyan group restricted exclusively to freshwater. This family invaded the UpperParaná river system after the closing of Itaipu Dam. This study aimed to identify morphometric differences between Potamotrygon cf. motoro (Natterer in Müller & Henle, 1841 and Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963 sampled in that area, and estimate male size at gonadal maturation. P. falkneri and P. cf. motoro males reach gonadal maturation at 26 cm and 23 cm disc width, respectively. Comparing both species, P. cf. motoro presented larger tail, spiracles and distance between nostrils. Lateral small stings on tails ofP. falkneri females were observed as secondary

  20. Fluxo gênico em soja na Região Oeste do Paraná Soybean gene flow in the Western Region of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Schuster

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o fluxo gênico em soja, na Região Oeste do Paraná. Foram semeados cinco círculos concêntricos, com a cultivar CD 219RR, que contém o gene CP4 EPSPS. Os círculos foram espaçados em 50 cm, com círculo interno de diâmetro de 50 cm. Externamente a estes, foi semeada a cultivar CD 211 (convencional, também em cinco círculos concêntricos, espaçados em 1 m. As plantas da cultivar CD 211 foram colhidas e trilhadas individualmente, e as sementes semeadas novamente no campo. Após a emergência, foram obtidas 151.772 plântulas, as quais, com 15 dias, foram pulverizadas com 900 g ha-1 de i.a. de glifosato. Após uma semana, plantas sobreviventes foram submetidas à análise de PCR, para verificar a presença do gene CP4 EPSPS. A taxa de fecundação cruzada foi de 0,61, 0,29, 0,23, 0,22 e 0,23% respectivamente a 1, 2, 3, 4 e 5 m de distância das plantas geneticamente modificadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate soybean gene flow in the Western Region of Paraná. Five concentric circles were sowed with the CD 219RR cultivar, which contains the CP4 EPSPS gene. The circles were spaced in 50 cm and the central circle had 50 cm in diameter. Externally to the CD 219RR circles, five concentric circles were sowed with CD 211 cultivar, a no genetically modified soybean, spaced of 1 m. The CD 211 plants were harvested and threshed separately and the seeds were sowed again. After the emergency, 151,772 seedlings were obtained, which with 15 days were sprayed with 900 g ha-1 a.i. of glyphosate. After one week, the surviving plants were analysed by PCR to verify the CP4 EPSPS gene presence. The cross-pollinating rate was 0.61, 0.29, 0.23, 0.22 and 0.23% in 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m distance of the genetically modified plants, respectively.

  1. Drift of ichthyoplankton in two channels of the Paraná River, between Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bialetzki

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of drift of ichthyoplankton in two channels in the River Paraná, Brazil, were made. Sampling was undertaken from October 1995 to April 1996 during nychthemeral cycles. Water samples were collected to determine several environmental variables. Eggs densities largely differed to layers, times of day and months. In both the channels, highest occurrence of eggs was detected between January and March; greater concentrations at the bottom, during night. With regard to larvae, densities were significantly different in channels, times of days and months. Maximum occurrences were seen in the right channel, in both layers, with largest capture between January and March. Surface of the both channels presented highest density of larvae during night. Water temperature, electrical conductivity and flux velocity were different in the two channels, however, these variables and larvae density didn't showed correlations. This indicates that there was another possible factor, might be influencing the distribution of ichthyoplankton.Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a deriva do ictioplâncton em dois canais com diferentes condições de topografia e velocidade de fluxo, entre os estados do Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul (Brasil. As amostragens foram realizadas no período de outubro de 1995 a abril de 1996, durante ciclos nictemerais. Amostras de água foram coletadas para determinação de algumas variáveis ambientais. A densidade de ovos diferiu significativamente entre os estratos, horários e meses; sendo que em ambos os canais, as maiores ocorrências de ovos foram verificadas entre janeiro e março, com maiores concentrações no fundo durante o período noturno. Com relação as larvas, as densidades diferiram entre os canais, horários e meses. As maiores ocorrências foram observas no canal direito, em ambos estratos, com maior período de captura entre janeiro e março. A superfície dos canais apresentou as maiores densidades de larvas

  2. Genetic dissimilarity among jabuticaba trees native to southwestern Paraná, Brazil Dissimilaridade genética entre jabuticabeiras nativas do sudoeste do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic diversity within and between genotype groups is of great importance for breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among 36 native jabuticaba trees (Plinia cauliflora from five sites in the southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Sixteen fruit traits were analyzed, based on multivariate techniques (canonical variables, Tocher and UPGMA, using Mahalanobis' distance as dissimilarity measure. By the techniques of clustering and graphic dispersion, together with the comparison of means, the genetic diversity among native jabuticaba trees was efficiently identified, indicating a high potential of these genotypes for breeding programs. The traits of greatest importance for dissimilarity were percentage of pulp and of skin, which are easily measured. The clustering structure is related to the collection sites and for breeding programs, genotypes from different sites should be crossed to generate progenies to be tested. Genotypes 'CV5' and 'VT3' should be conserved in genebanks, due to its important agronomic traits.O conhecimento da variabilidade genética dentro e entre grupos de genótipos é de grande importância para programas de melhoramento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a dissimilaridade genética entre 36 plantas nativas de jabuticabeira (Plinia cauliflora, de cinco locais da região sudoeste do Paraná. Foram avaliados 16 caracteres de frutos e aplicadas técnicas de análise multivariada (variáveis canônicas, Tocher e UPGMA, utilizando a distância generalizada de Mahalanobis como medida de dissimilaridade. As técnicas de agrupamento e dispersão gráfica utilizadas, juntamente com a comparação de médias, permitiram identificar de modo eficiente a variabilidade genética entre as jabuticabeiras nativas, indicando elevado potencial para programas de melhoramento genético. Os caracteres de maior importância para a dissimilaridade foram o percentual de polpa e

  3. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the

  4. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2015-10-01

    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversity and genetic distance in populations of Steindachnerina in the upper Paraná river floodplain of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A V; Prioli, A J; Prioli, S M A P; Pavanelli, C S; Júlio, H F; Panarari, R S

    2002-08-01

    Whereas four species of the genus Steindachnerina occur in the Paraná river basin, S. insculpta was the only endemic species of the region under analysis, which is the third lower section of the upper Paraná river. Among other factors, this species has been characterised by the absence of spots in the basal region of the dorsal fin. However, various specimens with this characteristic appeared in the region after the construction of the Itaipu Hydroelectric Plant in 1982. An analysis of the genetic variability of Steindachnerina populations with or without spots is provided. Specimens were collected in different sites of the floodplain of the upper Paraná river and samples were compared by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique and morphological analyses. Ninety-eight amplified loci with nine random primers were analysed in 19 specimens of each phenotype. Data for genetic distance showed great divergences between the two phenotypes and indicate two different species. Spotted specimens may be identified as S. brevipinna, found in the region downstream Sete Quedas Falls. The species must have overcome the geographical barrier during the building of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam that submerged the waterfalls and which became an obstacle between the upper and middle Paraná river some 150 km downstream. Since phenotypes do not share dominant alleles, absence of gene flow has been suggested.

  6. Genetic variability of a population of Aedes aegypti from Paraná, Brazil, using the mitochondrial ND4 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana L. Twerdochlib

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability of a population of Aedes aegypti from Paraná, Brazil, using the mitochondrial ND4 gene. To analyze the genetic variability of populations of Aedes aegypti, 156 samples were collected from 10 municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. A 311 base pairs (bp region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4 mitochondrial gene was examined. An analysis of this fragment identified eight distinct haplotypes. The mean genetic diversity was high (h = 0.702; p = 0.01556. AMOVA analysis indicated that most of the variation (67% occurred within populations and the F ST value (0.32996 was highly significant. F ST values were significant in most comparisons among cities. The isolation by distance was not significant (r = -0.1216 and p = 0, 7550, indicating that genetic distance is not related to geographic distance. Neighbor-joining analysis showed two genetically distinct groups within Paraná. The DNA polymorphism and AMOVA data indicate a decreased gene flow in populations from Paraná, which can result in increased vectorial competence.

  7. Helminths of freshwater fishes in the reservoir of the Hydroelectric Power Station of Itaipu, Paraná, Brazil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohn, A.; Moravec, František; Cohen, S.C.; Canzi, C.; Takemoto, R.M.; Fernandes, B. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 5 (2011), 681-690 ISSN 1809-127X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Helminths * fish * Paraná River Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  8. Analýza obchodných vzťahov medzi EU a Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Chabová, Zuzana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my bachelor thesis is to particularly charakterize Chile's economy and to analyze its position in international trade. The main part of my whole work is the analysis of business relationship between European Union and Chile, which I also describe in point of law. The work has five main chapters. The first chapter describes the economical situation of Chile. The second chapter is concerned with Chile's whole foreign trade. The third chapter analyze Chile's foreign trade legally thro...

  9. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  10. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-30

    Bol. Inst. Bacteriol. Chile 1976; 18:33-37. 30. Escaff, M, Urbina, A, Mary, J. Contaminacion de repollos regados con aguas servidas. Agricultura...Tecnica 1979; 39:59-62. - 31. Lobos, H, Greive, R, Quijada, M, Brandt, H. Pesquisa del genero Vibrio en aguas servidas. Bol. Inst. Bact. Chile 1974; 16:40...REPORT #2 0") STUDIES TO CONTROL ENDEMIC TYPHOID N FEVER IN CHILE 0) ANNUAL REPORT U’ Contract Period 1/1/82-12/31/82 • I REPORT PREPARED BY: L

  11. [Ecology and health in Chile: present and future development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, M

    1997-09-01

    In response to the progressive environmental deterioration, the Ecological Society of America has made a proposal, called "Sustainable Biosphere Initiative", to do research, teaching and decision making processes on biodiversity, global change and the effects of human activities on environment. The goal of appropriate environmental protection and welfare for mankind includes health and quality of life. Presently, Chile faces a number of environmental problems such as pollution, excessive urban growth, loss of agricultural areas, disposal of solid waste and species extinction. The lack of education and information in Chile, on these problems, is worrisome. The role of universities to overcome this deficit should be crucial in the future sustainable development of Chile.

  12. Morcegos (Chiroptera da área urbana de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil Bats (Chiroptera of the urban area of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélio Roberto dos Reis

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Study carried out within the urban perimeter of Londrina, which is located in the North of the state of Paraná. The objectives were the identification of urban species of bats and diurnal roosts used by them and the verification of the problems they can cause to the population. The fire brigade, the Autarquia Municipal do Ambiente de Londrina (Municipal Environment Autarchy of Londrina, the Biology Department of the Universidade Estadual de Londrina (State University of Londrina and local residents helped spot the roosts. The collections were carried out in regular intervals between April 1998 and March 1999. By the end of them, 815 bats of 23 different species had been captured. Among these, 12 were found near or inside human constructions: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818; Artibeits lituratus (Olfers, 1818; Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810; Eptesicus brasiliensis Desmarest 1819; Lasiurus bore-alls (Muller 1776; Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856; Eumops glaucinus (Wagner, 1843; Molossus rufus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766; Nyctinomops laticaudatus (E. Geoffroy, 1805; Nyctinomops macrotis (Gray, 1840 e Tadarida brasiliensis (i. Geoffroy, 1824. Roost sites comprised expansion joints, roofs, attics and parks, among others. It can be concluded that bats are treated as undesirable animals by the population due to the lack of knowledge about the subject.

  13. Etiological profile of bovine mastitis from dairy farms in the Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Gazzoni Jardim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Jardim J.G., Deminicis B.B., Peixoto E.C.T.M., Heinzen E.L. & Domingues P.F. [Etiological profile of bovine mastitis from dairy farms in the Western Paraná, Brazil.] Perfil etiológico da mastite bovina na bacia leiteira do oeste paranaense, Paraná, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(1:65-70, 2014. Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Av. Alberto Lamego, 2000, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ 28013-600, Brasil. E-mail: jugazzoni@hotmail.com The aim of this study was evaluate the occurrence, infectious etiology and risk factors associated with mastitis in 331 dairy cows from sixteen farms located in the region of Marechal Cândido Rondon in the State of Paraná, Brazil. Both cows as the properties were selected of a non-random form and being selected 20% of lactation cows from each farm. The test for identification of subclinical mastitis was the California Mastitis Test and the diagnosis of the clinical mastitis was carried out by the observation of signs of inflammation in the udder and macroscopic changes in milk. Of lactating cows, 195 (60.77% were positive for mastitis and 93,75% of the farms analyzed had at least one positive animal. The etiologic agents isolated in a total of three hundred twenty-nine samples were Staphylococcus aureus (47.2%, Staphylococcus sp. (29.2%, Streptococcus dysgalactiae (18.1%, Streptococcus uberis (16,7%, Corynebaterium spp. (11,1% and Streptococcus intermedius (1.39%. Besides, was evaluated the interaction of the type of mechanical milking in function of the mastitis degree and the use of the disinfection of teats before and after milking was not interference in mastitis incidence, however, the accomplishment of the disinfection of teats before and after -dipping favored in the control of subclinical mastitis. We conclude that the significant occurrence of mastitis in herds is due to improper management conditions

  14. Intestinal parasites in ecotourism region of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lúcia Morais Falavigna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To determine the indices of prevalence of intestinal parasites and commensals in the residents of ecotourism region of Paraná State, a retrospective study was conducte, from January/2003 to December/2004 on 3,764 fecal parasitological examinations performed by a private laboratory of Ubiratã using the Baermann-Moraes, water-sedimentation and Willis methods. Among the individuals aged eight months to 89 years, 522 (13.9% cases were positive. Giardia lamblia (175/522; 24.2% was the most prevalent parasite (pA prevalência de enteroparasitas e comensais, de janeiro/2003 a dezembro/2004, foi determinada em residentes de região de ecoturismo do Paraná por meio de estudo retrospectivo. Foram examinados os resultados de 3.764 exames coproparasitológicos efetuados em laboratório privado de Ubiratã Entre indivíduos de 8 meses a 89 anos, 522 (13,9% exames foram positivos. Giardia intestinalis (175/522; 24,2% foi o parasita prevalente (p<0,000. Entamoeba coli mostrou-se o commensal mais comum, com 238/552 (32,9% casos (p<0,000, encontrando-se frequentemente associado com outras espécies, parasitas ou comensais. Crianças em idade pré-escolar (2-6 anos e escolar (7-14 anos apresentaram-se mais parasitados (66,0% de positividade; p<0,0000. A maioria dos indivíduos encontrava-se parasitado por uma única espécie (233; 44.6% do que por várias espécies (169; 32.4%. Estes resultados indicam um grau significativo de contaminação ambiental em cidades do Paraná, principalmente aquelas de médio e pequeno porte, representando fonte de preocupação em vista do crescimento do ecoturismo na região.

  15. Waste reuse and disposal practices in milk production in Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Istvan Bánkuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is among the six largest producers of milk cow in the world. In 2010, Brazilian milk production reached 30.7 billion liters, corresponding to 4.8% of total world production, according to official data from IBGE. As stated by an IPARDES report in 2010, Paraná state has 114,488 milk producers, being responsible for an increased production of 71% between 1997 and 2006. Besides such remarkable figures, there are still important challenges to be surpassed in milk chain, which includes environmental adequation of livestock production. According to a study published by Banco do Brasil Foundation and Interamerican Institute for Agricultural Cooperation – IICA in 2010, social and environmental sustainability are among factors restricting milk chain competitiveness. The aim of this paper is to verify waste reuse and disposal in dairy cattle farming in Paraná. Methodological procedures in this research comprised: (a literature review on milk agribusiness system and environmental adequation; (b formulation of semi-structured questionnaires, including questions about environmental practices in 2011; (c data analysis through descriptive statistics. Random sampling included milk producers in Santa Izabel do Oeste and Marechal Candido Rondon, in southwestern Paraná. Eighty producers were interviewed, equally sampled in both places, resulting in 79 valid interviews. As results, 79.4% of milk producers informed they have day-to-day practices to reuse wastes internally produced in farming. Main practice highlighted was the use of manure waste in agriculture. Only one producer in the sample adopted the use of poultry manure. Considering correct disposal of pesticide packaging, 84.4% of producers are in accordance to legal requirements; 10.1% of total interviewed producers do not follow legal requirement for packaging disposal, and 5% do not use pesticides at all, so not being concerned to that practice. Concerning appropriate disposal of medical

  16. Los valores del urbanismo en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo López Moya

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En el mes de junio de 2004 fue presentado al Senado de Chile un proyecto de ley destinado a modificar la Ley General de Urbanismo y Construcciones (LGUC, con el fin de adecuarla para permitir la formación y edificación de «áreas urbanas condicionadas» (AUC. Esto es, conjuntos residenciales urbanos, construidos fuera del límite urbano convencional. Unos, en áreas rurales ubicadas inmediatamente adyacentes al mismo, llamadas «áreas de extensión urbana condicionada» (AEUC, y otros, ubicados en áreas rurales segregadas, denominadas «áreas de desarrollo urbano condicionado» (ADUC.

  17. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (young subducting lithosphere also has the potential to carry much larger amounts of water to the mantle than has previously been appreciated.

  18. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI.

  19. Giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) infections in dogs from Northern Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tizianne Larissa Duim Ribeiro; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro; dos Reis, Antônio Carlos Faria; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi; Headley, Selwyn Arlington

    2007-04-30

    This article describes the pathological observations of Dioctophyma renale in dogs from the northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil. A female, 6-year-old dog, Fila Brasileiro breed and a 16-year-old, male Poodle were diagnosed positive for D. renale during routine necropsy. Clinically, both dogs demonstrated hematuria, and the Poodle had a radiographic diagnosis of prostatic tumor, but neither had a clinical diagnosis of this infection prior to necropsy. Three giant worms were observed in the urinary bladder of the first case and one within the renal pelvis of the other dog. Histological findings were similar in both cases and represented compressive atrophy due to the presence of the nematode. Additionally, aspects of the life cycle, pathogenesis and epidemiology associated with this parasitism in Brazil are also discussed.

  20. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Methods The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. Results The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. Conclusion A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. PMID:26408369

  1. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa A. Antes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

  2. Stirring, charging, and picking: hunting tactics of potamotrygonid rays in the upper Paraná River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Garrone-Neto

    Full Text Available Hunting tactics of potamotrygonid freshwater rays remain unreported under natural conditions. Three main foraging tactics of Potamotrygon falkneri and P. motoro are described here based on underwater observations in the upper Paraná River. Both species displayed similar behaviors. The most common tactic was to undulate the disc margins close to, or on, the bottom and thus stirring the substrate and uncovering hidden preys. Another tactic was to charge upon prey concentrated in the shallows. The least common tactic was to pick out prey adhered to the substrate. The first tactic is widespread in several species of marine rays in the Dasyatidae, whereas the remainder (especially picking up prey on substrata above water surface may be restricted to the Potamotrygonidae.

  3. A new species of Amaralia Fowler (Siluriformes: Aspredinidae) from the Paraná-Paraguay River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, John P; Carvalho, Tiago P

    2016-03-11

    A new species of the banjo catfish genus Amaralia is described from the Paraná-Paraguay River Basin in central-western Brazil, Paraguay and northern Argentina. Amaralia oviraptor is distinguished from its single and allopatric congener, Amaralia hypsiura, by the greater number of dorsal-fin rays (3 vs. 2); by the absence of lateral contact between middle and posterior nuchal plates (vs. middle and posterior nuchal plates contacting each other laterally); and by a longer cleithral process (17.4-19.5 % of SL, mean 18.2 % vs. 14.0-17.2 % of SL, mean=15.5 %). Comments on the peculiar oophagic diet of Amaralia and an extended diagnosis of the genus are provided.

  4. Occurrence of female sexual hormones in the Iguazu river basin, Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Scurupa Machado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual hormones have attracted the attention of the scientific community due to the effects that they cause by interfering in the endocrine system. Many contemporary studies have sought to monitor some of the main female sexual hormones in surface waters in Brazil. Current article evaluates the presence of 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone and progesterone in the surface waters of Curitibaand the surrounding metropolitan area in the state of Paraná, Brazil, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, performed at 7 different sites. The study revealed that a range of concentrations between 0.07 and 13.45 µg L-1 of female sexual hormones was extant; higher values than these were found in other regions ofBrazil and in other countries. Higher concentrations have been attributed to the region´s sanitation due to large sewage amounts. Sewage discharge has also been confirmed by results of limnological parameters.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGÍA DE LA DIABETES MELLITUS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sapunar Z., MD, MSC, FACP

    2016-03-01

    Finalmente, la frecuencia, morbilidad y mortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, se suman para explicar que el manejo de la enfermedad y sus complicaciones consuma el 10,2% del presupuesto en salud de Chile.

  6. All projects related to Chile | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... complex knowledge economy demands economic, social and environmental data ... Region: Brazil, South America, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, North and Central ... Labour Market Regulations, Outcomes and Income Distribution in Colombia ...

  7. Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Book cover Science, Technology, and Innovation in Chile ... With this in mind, and following a conversation between Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  8. Discovering Chile's hidden water treasures – rock glaciers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... This means the research methods for investigating rock glaciers are ... group advising Chile's national environmental protection agency on ... Communities' perception of climate change risks in South America's Atlantic coasts.

  9. CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture .... For example, the National Corporation for Indigenous Development (CONADI) ... Institute for Agriculture Development (INDAP), and applied research on ...

  10. Evictions and the Right to Housing: Experience from Canada, Chile ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Experience from Canada, Chile, the Dominican Republic, South Africa, and South Korea ... all of whom are working to defend and advance the right to housing. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  11. All projects related to Chile | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Maipo River Basin in central Chile is home to six million people, most residing in the city of ... Program: Climate Change ... Program: Governance and Justice ... Rethinking Political Legitimacy: Citizen Inclusion and Social Digital Media.

  12. Occurrence and fate of pesticides in the Argentine stretch of the Paraguay-Paraná basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegoyen, M A; Ronco, A E; Almada, P; Abelando, M; Marino, D J

    2017-02-01

    The Argentine stretch of the del Plata basin crosses regions devoted to extensive and intensive agriculture mostly with chemical pest control. The utilization of pesticides in the region has increased 900% in the last two decades associated with the introduction of biotech crops and direct-seeding techniques. Our objective was to study the occurrence, concentration, and fate of pesticides in surface water and bottom sediments of the principal tributaries and main watercourse of the Paraguay-Paraná River. We sampled 22 sites in the distal positions of the main affluents and main watercourse of the Paraná and report here results from two monitoring campaigns (2010-2012). Surface water and bottom sediments were analyzed according to standardized methods by matrix-solid-phase dispersion and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Twenty-three pesticide compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results from both campaigns indicated a generalized but variable distribution in the concentrations detected throughout the basin. The ranges of total measured pesticide concentrations in water and sediments were, respectively, 0.004-6.62 μg/l and 0.16-221.3 μg/kg dry weight. Endosulfans, cypermethrin, and chlorpyrifos were ubiquitous compounds in both environmental compartments and quantitatively the most relevant. All concentrations detected in water were over the recommended guidelines for the protection of aquatic biota. The partitioning indicated a higher affinity for the sediments. Agricultural activity is the source of pesticide-pollution loads, transported by tributaries that reach the main watercourse and alter the quality of the aquatic ecosystem.

  13. Estudios sobre la vegetación del estado de Paraná (Brasil meridional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bolòs, Oriol

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Contribution to knowledge about the vegetation of the state of Paraná in southern Brazil (Serra do Mar, Planaltos, Iguaçu Valley. Numerous plant associations are described and grouped together in the following classes: Pistio-Eichhornietea (communities of floating cormophytes Xyrido-Typhetea (helophytic herbaceous vegetation Polypodio-Tillandsietea (epiphytic and comophytic vegetation Ruderali-Manihotetea (ruderal and segetal vegetation Andropogono-Baccharidetea (savanoid vegetation Rhizophoretea (mangroves Lantano-Chusqueetea (woody marginal communities of the forest Cedrelo-Ocoteetea (rain and mesophilous forest. Special attention is paid to the study of the physiognomy, structure and dynamism of the vegetation and its biogeographical significance.

    Aportación al conocimiento de la vegetación del estado de Paraná en el Brasil meridional (Serra do Mar, Planaltos, valle del Iguaçu. Se describen numerosas asociaciones vegetales agrupadas en las clases siguientes: Pistio-Eichhornietea (comunidades de cormófitos flotantes. Xyrido-Typhetea (vegetación herbácea helofítica. Polypodio-Tillandsietea (vegetación epifítica y comofítica. Ruderali-Manihotetea (vegetación ruderal, viaria y arvense. Andropogono-Baccharidetea (vegetación sabanoide. Rhizophoretea (manglar. Lantano-Chusqueetea (manto marginal leñoso de la selva. Cedrelo-Ocoteetea (selva pluvial y mesófila. Se dedica atención especial al estudio de la fisionomía, estructura y dinamismo de la vegetación y a su significación biogeográfica.

  14. HIV subtype, epidemiological and mutational correlations in patients from Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Monica Maria Gomes da; Telles, Flavio Queiroz; da Cunha, Clovis Arns; Rhame, Frank S

    2010-01-01

    Analyze patients with HIV infection from Curitiba, Paraná, their epidemiological characteristics and HIV RAM. Patients regularly followed in an ID Clinic had their medical data evaluated and cases of virological failure were analyzed with genotypic report. Patients with complete medical charts were selected (n = 191). Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared. One hundred thirty two patients presented with subtype B infection (69.1%), 41 subtype C (21.5%), 10 subtype F (5.2%), 7 BF (3.7%) and 1 CF (0.5%). Patients with subtype B infection had been diagnosed earlier than patients with subtype non-B. Also, subtype B infection was more frequent in men who have sex with men, while non-B subtypes occurred more frequently in heterosexuals and women. Patients with previous history of three classes of ARVs (n = 161) intake were selected to evaluate resistance. For RT inhibitors, 41L and 210W were more frequently observed in subtype B than in non-B strains. No differences between subtypes and mutations were observed to NNTRIs. Mutations at 10, 32 and 63 position of protease were more observed in subtype B viruses than non-B, while positions 20 and 36 of showed more amino acid substitutions in subtype non-B viruses. Patients with history of NFV intake were evaluated to resistance pathway. The 90M pathway was more frequent in subtypes B and non-B. Mutations previously reported as common in non-B viruses, such as 65R and 106M, were uncommon in our study. Mutations 63P and 36I, previously reported as common in HIV-1 subtypes B and C from Brazil, respectively, were common. There is a significant frequency of HIV-1 non-B infections in Paraná state, with isolates classified as subtypes C, F, BF and BC. Patients with subtype C infection were more frequently female, heterosexual and had a longer average time of HIV diagnosis.

  15. Seasonal variation in larval density of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae in the Iguaçu and Paraná rivers, in the region of Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The larval density of the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae was monitored from January 2005 to February 2006 at two points along the Paraná and the Iguaçu Rivers, near Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brazil. The results indicated two density peaks in the Paraná River: a lower peak between March and June and a higher peak in October. In the Iguaçu River, the values were much lower, yet they also showed a peak between September and October. A reduction in the reproductive activity was observed in both the rivers between July and August. The average larval density at the collection point in the Paraná reached 948.5 larvae/m³, with a peak of 2,999.5 larvae/m³ in October. The present study represented the first quantification of the larval density of L. fortunei in the lower reaches of the Iguaçu River, downstream of the Iguaçu falls.A densidade larval do molusco invasor Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae foi monitorada entre janeiro de 2005 e fevereiro de 2006 em dois pontos dos rios Paraná e Iguaçu, na região de Foz do Iguaçu, PR. Os resultados registraram dois picos de densidade no rio Paraná: entre março e junho e um maior em outubro. No rio Iguaçu, os valores foram muito inferiores, mas também com um pico entre setembro-outubro. Em ambos os rios foi verificada uma pausa reprodutiva entre os meses de julho-agosto. A densidade média de larvas de L. fortunei no ponto amostrado no rio Paraná chegou a 948.5 larvas/m³, com pico de 2.999,5 larvas/m³ em outubro. O presente estudo representa a primeira quantificação da densidade larval de L. fortunei no rio Iguaçu, a jusante das Cataratas do Iguaçu.

  16. Decades lost and found: Mexico and Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, yet Chile recovered much faster than Mexico. This study analyzes four possible explanations for this difference and rules out three, explanations based on money supply expansion, real wage and real exchange rate declines, and foreign debt overhangs. The fourth explanation is based on government policy reforms in the two countries. Using growth accounting and a calibrated growth model, the study determines that the on...

  17. Bullfighting at Santiago de Chile during the Colonial Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escardiel González Estévez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that in Chile there is no bullfighting and that people have forgotten it, bulls existed in this territory as in any other Spanish colony, with critical social implications. Although follow the Iberian trend, from ritual to a spectacle, some local factors made that bullfighting had special features in Chile, as is the case of the permanence of chivalrous bullfighting in the context of military training at the frontier with mapuche people.

  18. Illegitimate patients: Undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nanette Paz Liberona Concha; Miguel Angel Mansilla

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services – particularly the public health system – at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed ...

  19. Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caris Luis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.

  20. Effects of different management systems on porosity of oxisols in Paraná, Brazil Porosidade de latossolos do paraná influenciada por diferentes manejos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils play a fundamental role in the production of human foods. The Oxisols in the state of Paraná are among the richest and most productive soils in Brazil, but degradation and low porosity are frequently documented, due to intensive farming involving various management strategies and the application of high-tech solutions. This study aims to investigate changes in the porosity of two Red Oxisols (Latossolos Vermelhos, denoted LVef (eutroferric and LVdf (dystroferric under conventional and no-tillage soil management, with a succession of annual crops of soybean, maize and wheat over a continuous period of more than 20 years. After describing the soil profiles under native forest, no-tillage management and conventional tillage using the crop profile method, deformed and non-deformed soil samples were collected from the volumes most compacted by human intervention and the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties analyzed. The various porosity classes (total pore volume, inter-aggregate porosity between channels and biological cavities and intra-aggregate porosity (determined in 10 cm³ saturated clods subjected to a pressure of -10 kPa to obtain a pore volume with a radius (r eq, > 15 μm and 15 μm were affected by farming whereas in the LVef soil, pores with a radius of Sabe-se que os solos têm função primordial na produção de alimentos para a humanidade. No Estado do Paraná, os Latossolos Vermelhos estão entre os mais produtivos do Brasil; devido à utilização intensa deles com diferentes práticas culturais e a uma agricultura altamente tecnificada, são comuns relatos de sua degradação física, com redução da porosidade. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste trabalho consistiu em estudar a modificação da porosidade de Latossolos Vermelho eutroférrico (LVef e distroférrico (LVdf cultivados sob plantio direto e convencional, com sucessão das culturas anuais soja, milho e trigo por mais de 20 anos consecutivos. Após uma

  1. Culicídeos do lago de Itaipu, no rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil Culicidae of Itaipu lake, Paraná River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available De janeiro a dezembro de 1991 foram realizadas capturas mensais de culicídeos, no Município de Guaíra, Estado do Paraná (Brasil, na margem esquerda do lago de Itaipu, ao lado da via de acesso que conduzia aos Saltos das Sete Quedas, usando-se armadilha luminosa de Shannon, e isca humana em área urbanizada. Obtiveram-se informações sobre a fauna culicidiana, as espécies prevalentes, a variação sazonal, o horário de maior densidade e a afinidade dos mosquitos em relação ao hospedeiro humano. Foram identificadas 41 espécies de culicídeos dos gêneros Anopheles, Aedes, Aedomyia, Coquillettidia, Culex, Mansonia, Psorophora e Uranotaenia. Capturaram-se 21.280 mosquitos em armadilha de Shannon e 1.010 em isca humana. As espécies mais freqüentes em armadilha de Shannon - Coquillettidia shannoni, Mansonia humeralis, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes scapularis e Anopheles albitarsis - perfizeram 82,78% dos mosquitos capturados. Em isca humana Aedes scapularís, Mansonia humeralis e Anopheles albitarsis, somaram 91,21% dos insetos capturados. Em armadilha de Shannon o horário de maior atividade das espécies prevalentes foi entre 19 e 22 h. Em isca humana Aedes scapularis teve maior densidade das 20 às 21 h, enquanto Mansonia humeralis e Anopheles albitarsis prevaleceram das 18 às 19 h. Dentre as espécies prevalentes em armadilha de Shannon, Coquillettidia shannoni, Mansonia humeralis e Anopheles albitarsis tiveram pico de atividade no mês de abril, Anopheles triannulatus em janeiro e Aedes scapularis em fevereiro.Mosquito catches were made in Guaíra county, Paraná State, southern Brazil, in the vicinity of Itaipu dam, from January to December 1991. The catches were made with a Shannon light trap and human bait. The Shannon light trap was installed beside the highway that used, formerly, to lead to the Sete Quedas cataracts and the human bait was used in the urban area. Data about the Culicidae fauna were obtained as to predominant

  2. Chemostratigraphy and evolution of the Paraná Igneous Province volcanism in the central portion of the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Allan Silva; Licht, Otavio Augusto Boni; Vasconcellos, Eleonora Maria Gouvêa; Soares, Jan Savaris

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of borehole samples offers the potential to investigate the chemostratigraphic variations of a large igneous province in subsurface. New geochemical data based on multielement analyses of 829 chip samples that were obtained during the drilling of seven deep boreholes is presented for the central area of the Paraná Igneous Province (PIP). In order to detail the compositional variations found within the two main types from the Central-Northern Subprovince (CNSP), simple statistical treatment was carried out for part this database. Thus, the combination of low (L) and high (H) contents of Th, Nb, La and Yb was used as a means to create 16 geochemical subtypes for the Type 4 (LSi-LZr-HTi-HP) sequence. Likewise, other four elements (Cr, Ni, Cu and Pd) were selected with the same intention for the Type 1 (Central-Northern) (LSi-LZr-LTi-LP) sequence. When subtypes are plotted in the cross section, it is possible to observe that those with similar characteristics tend to be associated in groups (cycles). This analysis showed that the volcanic pile can be divided into at least eleven different cycles and also that they are laterally continuous throughout the section. The compositional changes observed in these volcanic cycles also display correlations with Mg#, Zr, Ti/Y and La/SmN ratios, for example. Therefore, since the reservoir is marked by periods of injection of more differentiated or more mafic magmas, it could be suggested that it was periodically recharged with batches of magma from the parental source.

  3. Phytoplankton diversity in the Upper Paraná River floodplain during two years of drought (2000 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAF. Borges

    Full Text Available Floodplain lakes and lotic environments of the High Paraná River floodplain present notable biodiversity, especially in relation to phytoplanktonic community. The goal of this work was to evaluate phytoplankton diversity (alpha, beta and gamma in three subsystems during two years of drought (2000 and 2001. We sampled 33 habitats at the pelagic zone subsurface during February and August. Due to low hydrometric levels of the Paraná and Ivinhema Rivers, there was no clear distinction between the potamophase and limnophase periods for the two hydrosedimentological cycles analysed. We recorded 366 taxa. The values obtained for gamma diversity estimators ranged from 55.5-87.8%. DCA and variance analyses revealed only spatial differences in the phytoplankton composition. The mean values of species richness, evenness and Shannon diversity were low, especially when compared to those obtained in previous periods for Baía subsystem. The highest mean values of species richness were verified in the connected floodplain lakes. The highest beta diversity was obtained from the Paraná subsystem and lotic environments in 2001. In general, we observed that the Upper Paraná River floodplain has the highest values of species richness, evenness and H' during the potamophase period, when the flood facilitates dispersion. However, this pattern was not observed in 2000 and 2001, years influenced by La Niña. Besides the low precipitation observed during that period, we must consider the influence of the Porto Primavera impoundment, which also altered the discharge regime of the Paraná River by decreasing the degree of connectivity between fluvial channels and the lentic environments of the floodplain. Thus, the prevalence of conditions characterising the limnophase during 2000 and 2001 explains the lack of significant variability registered for most components of phytoplankton diversity over the study period. We conclude that variations in phytoplankton diversity

  4. A new population of the endangered Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806) (Primates: Atelidae) in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ingberman, Bianca; Kaminski, Nicholas; Fusco-Costa, Roberto; Monteiro-Filho, Emygdio

    2016-01-01

    The endangered southern muriqui or mono [Brachyteles arachnoides (É. Geoffroy, 1806)], is a primate endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. One known extant population is found at the southern limit of its distribution, in the state of Paraná, where it is regionally classified as Critically Endangered. Here, we report on a new population in southern Brazil. Additionally, we express our concern about the conservation status of this species in Paraná, because both populations are in small, is...

  5. Remanescentes populacionais nas ilhas do rio Paraná: aspectos sociais e econômicos = Population remnants in the islands of the Paraná river: social and economic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinéia Almeida da Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A moderna acepção de ecologia compreende o ser humano e a sociedade como parte da natureza. No Brasil, esta concepção está longe da realidade, sobretudo quanto às populações tradicionais que são expulsas de seus ambientes naturais, para favorecer o poderpolítico de grupos econômicos hegemônicos. Muitas vezes, esta exclusão é justificada pela idéia de preservação do ambiente natural. Neste contexto, estudamos as relações de uma população de ilhéus residentes próximos ao rio Paraná, habitantes de uma Área de ProteçãoAmbiental (APA. Utilizamos questionários abertos para obter informações quanto a aspectos sociais e econômicos do grupo remanescente em cinco ilhas do rio Paraná, próximas das cidades de Porto Rico, Querência do Norte e São Pedro do Paraná. Resultadosobtidos em 2005 demonstraram que as estratégias de sobrevivência dos ilhéus estão voltadas a agricultura de subsistência e pesca. Entretanto, na Área de Proteção Ambiental das Ilhas e Várzeas do rio Paraná (APAIV, estes dois modos de sobrevivência local estão sendoinviabilizados pela fiscalização dos órgãos responsáveis pela execução da política ambiental brasileira. A baixa renda obtida pelos ilhéus em suas atividades, aliada as inúmeras restrições do uso da terra, contribui para a dizimação de sua cultura.The modern ecology meaning understands the people and the societyas part of the nature. In Brazil, that conception is still far away from our reality. Traditional populations are expelled of their habitat, to favor the political power of the groups economical. Usually, that exclusion is justified by the idea of preservation of the habitat and reduction of environmental impacts. We studied the relationships of a population of close resident islanders to the Paraná river, inhabitants of a Protected Area (APA. We utilizedquestionnaires to obtain information as for the social and economical aspects of the remaining group. Five

  6. O ensino de jornalismo no Paraná: desafios para o século XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Otávio Dias

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo apresenta as primeiras reflexões sobre projeto de pesquisa que tem como objetivo analisar o ensino do jornalismo no estado do Paraná, na região sul do Brasil. Esse estudo está em andamento no programa de doutorado em Educação da Universidade Federal do Paraná e dará importante contribuição à atividade acadêmica desenvolvida em conjunto com a Universidade de Lyon II, na França, cujo  tema é o das Novas Práticas Jornalísticas. Pretende-se com a proposta esboçar as características do ensino de jornalismo das universidades públicas e particulares, considerando as práticas pedagógicas frente às Novas Tecnologias da Informação e da Comunicação e a formação do profissional para o século XXI. Isso tem exigido cada vez preparado do jornalista  para um mercado de trabalho de multiplataformas, com novas possibilidades de publicações e acesso ilimitado de leitores à informação. Nessa fase inicial, a pesquisa concentra-se em problemas-chave, como analisar as matrizes curriculares dos cursos de jornalismo das universidades; identificar disciplinas que preparem o aluno para atuar em um ambiente tecnológico; domínio de técnicas e ferramentas do jornalismo digital; e observar as práticas jornalísticas no cotidiano das empresas de comunicação paranaenses. Considera-se, ainda, que a presente pesquisa encontra um cenário de incertezas e inquietações, no momento em que as instituições de ensino superior enfrentam a difícil tarefa de elaborar um projeto pedagógico de acordo com as novas Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para o curso de graduação em Jornalismo. Tais diretrizes foram homologadas pelo Ministério da Educação, em setembro de 2013, com prazo de implantação até 2015.   Palavras-chave: Jornalismo. Comunicação. Tecnologias. Currículo.Universidades.                             ABSTRACT This article presents the first reflections on a research project that aims to

  7. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos First "Training in Clinical Research Methodologies in Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Psychoeducational foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" is an academic project developed in Chile during 2008 to train health professionals in clinical research. The purpose of this initiative was to improve the quality of research projects that are submitted to apply for public funding. The aim of this article is to describe the psycho-educative theories that supported this training program, its structure, methods and evaluation. Firstly, the program is described in detail. Secondly, psycho-educative theories are described, with special emphasis of social learning theory and education for adults. Finally, implications of EMIC-Chile are stated, in order to improve future research training experiences in Chile. It is expected that this article enhance other research experts

  8. Observations on female sterilization in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, D

    1982-01-01

    Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical

  9. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;; Montealegre Klenner, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban dev...

  10. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity; Chile detiene el aumento de la obesidad infantil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa [International Atomic Energy Agency, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure.

  11. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Lulo C

    2009-01-01

    Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación d...

  12. Mortalidad por enfermedades respiratorias en Chile durante 1999 MORTALITY DUE TO RESPIRATORY DISEASES, CHILE-1999

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE SZOT M.

    2003-01-01

    Se trata de un estudio descriptivo que presenta características sobre la mortalidad por causas respiratorias (CR) en Chile durante 1999. Se muestra que las CR constituyen la tercera causa de muerte en el país. La "neumonía por agente no especificado" (NANE) es la primera causa aislada de muerte respiratoria en ambos sexos con un 64%, seguida de enfermedades respiratorias crónicas que originan un 30% de las defunciones. Por lo anterior se hace necesario prevenir la ocurrencia de la NANE, asegu...

  13. Perfil del paciente con tuberculosis que abandona el tratamiento en Chile: profile of patients in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES G, ZULEMA; HERRERA M, TANIA

    2015-01-01

    El abandono del tratamiento de la tuberculosis es uno de los factores más importantes que disminuyen la eficiencia de la terapia. Dentro de sus causas se observan factores relacionados con el paciente, con los fármacos y con el sistema de salud. En Chile, el porcentaje de abandono se ha mantenido en torno al 7%, a pesar de las distintas estrategias implementadas para su prevención. Este estudio corresponde al análisis de las auditorías que se realizan en los casos de abandono y busca definir ...

  14. Costs Systems: Relevance, Feasibility And Usefulness According To Public Officials In The State Of Paraná (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Gonçalves Franco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this study is to get to know the level of understanding and adoption of cost systems in cities in the State of Paraná. A descriptive study with a qualitative approach was undertaken. Data were collected through the application of a questionnaire in 67 cities in the State of Paraná. Descriptive analysis was used and Spearman’s correlation coefficient was applied to achieve the research objective. Among the study results, the following stand out: the incipient nature of knowledge about the relevance, feasibility and usefulness of a cost system; resulting from public officials’ limited knowledge, mainly about topics related to the budgetary and financial feasibility of adopting cost systems; an environment for the cost system, implemented costs systems and operating systems; although the answers obtained to proposals about cost information and control were significantly coherent.

  15. The implantation and the consolidation of the industry of confection in the southwestern mesoregion of the Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mar dos Santos Migliorini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The confection industry was one of the precursory industriesof the process of industrialization of Southwestern Mesoregionof Paraná. This industry began its activities in Mesoregion inthe end of the 1970’s and beginning of the 1980’s. Startingfrom the 1990’s, the number of industrial units have grownimmensely in terms of increase of jobs and income, being partof the industrial sectors with larger economical importance ofthe region. The present article aims at identifying the factorsthat conditioned the implantation of the confection industry inSouthwest Mesoregion of Paraná and their perspectives. Inconclusion, it presents a group of factors that have influencedthe implantation and consolidation of the confection industryin Mesoregion and it evaluates the perspectives of thatregional industry based upon in the study of their competitiveadvantages.

  16. [Consumption of antidepressants in Chile from 1992 to 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirón, Marcela; Machado, Márcio; Ruiz, Inés

    2008-09-01

    Data from the Ministry of Health show that in Chile in 2004, 17% of the population had some form of depression, and mood disorders are the tenth cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALY) loss. To determine consumption of antidepressants (ADs) in Chile from 1992 to 2004. National sales data were obtained from the company IMS Health Chile and converted into defined daily doses (DDDs) per 1,000 inhabitants per day. Available ADs were classified in four pharmacological groups (i.e., serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, SNRLs; selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors, SSRLs; tricyclic antidepressants, TCAs; and others). Total economic burden of ADs utilization and cost per DDDs were also calculated. Trends over time were analyzed using Pearson-R2. Total ADs consumption in Chile measured by DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DHD) increased linearly (y =0.901x + 1.9129; R2 =0.9296; p economic burden of ADs in Chile (total cost of DDDs consumed) increased from US$65.4 million in 2001 to US$74.6 million in 2004 (14% increase). Average cost per DDD of all AD increased linearly, however not significantly from US$ 0.94 in 2001 to US$ 1.04 in 2004 (y =0.0362x + 0.8784; R2 =0.7382; p =0,262). DDDs per 1,000 inhabitants per day increased linearly over 470% from 1992-2004. SSRLs were the most commonly consumed drugs in Chile. Future research should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of antidepressants in Chile, comparing the results with drug utilization, and determining if unnecessary expenditures have been paid out.

  17. A review on late Paleozoic ice-related erosional landforms in the Paraná Basin: origin and paleogeographical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Menozzo da Rosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Late Paleozoic Ice Age is recorded in the Paraná Basin as glacial deposits, deformational features and ice-related erosional landforms of the Itararé Group. Erosional landforms are often employed to build paleogeographic models that depict the location of ice masses and paleo ice-flow directions. This paper provides a review of the literature and new data on micro- to meso-scale ice-related, erosional landforms of the Paraná Basin. Examined landforms can be placed into four broad categories based on their mode of origin. Subglacial landforms on rigid substrates occur on the Precambrian basement or on older units in the Paraná Basin. They include streamlined landforms and striated pavements formed by abrasion and/or plucking beneath advancing glaciers. Subglacial landforms on soft beds are intraformational surfaces generated by erosion and deformation of unconsolidated deposits when overridden by glaciers. Ice-keel scour marks are soft-sediment striated/grooved landforms developed by the scouring of free-floating ice masses on underlying sediments. Striated clast pavements are horizons containing aligned clasts that are abraded subglacially due to the advance of glaciers on unconsolidated deposits. Only those erosional landforms formed subglacially can be used as reliable paleo ice-flow indicators. Based on these data, the paleogeography of the Paraná Basin during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age fits into a model of several glacial lobes derived from topographically-controlled ice spreading centers located around the basin instead of a single continental ice sheet.

  18. Ruiniform relief in sandstones: the examples of Vila Velha, Carboniferous of the Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    DE MELO, M.S.; COIMBRA, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Vila Velha is a remarkable group of natural sculptures in Palaeozoicsandstones of the Paraná. Basin in Southern Brazil. The sculptures,which resemble the ruins of an old stone city, have resulted from thecombination of Cenozoic weathering and erosive processes with the existing attributes of the sedimentary rocks (texture, cementing oxides,sedimentary and brittle structures). A particular geomorphologic settingwith eroded inselbergs, and a differential iron and manganese cementationduring lat...

  19. Flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae) in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Luciana B.; Anjos, Luiz dos

    2006-01-01

    We investigated flower morphology, nectar features, and hummingbird visitation to Palicourea crocea (Rubiaceae), a common ornithophilous shrub found in the riparian forest understory in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil. Flowers are distylous and the style-stamen dimorphism is accompanied by other intermorph dimorphisms in corolla length, anther length, and stigma lobe length and form. We did not observe strict reciprocity in the positioning of stigma and anthers between floral morphs...

  20. Brasacanthus sphoeroides gen. n., sp. n. (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae from a coastal marine fish of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon E. Thatcher

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Brasacanthus sphoeroides gen. n.. sp. n. is described from the marine fish, Sphoeroides greeleyi (Steindachner, taken in Paranaguá Bay, Paraná State, Brazil. The new genus differs from Acanthocephalus Koelreuter, 1771, the nearest genus in the family Echinorhynchidae, by having very flat and variable lemnisci in both sexes and a uterine egg reservoir in the female. The species is characterized by its spherical body form and in having parallel or diagonal testes.

  1. Psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Páez, Dario

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzed psychosocial variables of sexual satisfaction in Chile using data from the COSECON survey. Participants were 5,407 subjects (2,244 min and 3,163 women, aged 18-69 years). We used a cross-sectional questionnaire with a national probability sample. Data were collected using a thorough sexual behavior questionnaire consisting of 190 face-to-face questions and 24 self-reported questions. A single item included in the COSECON questionnaire assessed sexual satisfaction. Results showed that high education level, marital status, and high socioeconomic levels were associated with sexual satisfaction in women but not in men. The results also showed important gender differences and sustain the idea that sexuality changes may be more present in middle and high social classes. The proximal variables typically used for measuring sexual satisfaction, such as the frequency of sexual intercourse and orgasm, showed a positive but smaller association with sexual satisfaction. Other important variables related to sexual satisfaction were being in love with the partner and having a steady partner. The results confirmed previous findings and are discussed in the frame of approaches like the exchange, equity, and sexual scripts theories.

  2. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  3. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  4. Psychiatric disorders among the Mapuche in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Benjamin; Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Torres, Silverio

    2005-06-01

    The Mapuche are the largest indigenous group in Chile; yet almost all data on the mental health of indigenous populations are from North America. The study examines the differential DSM-III-R prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders and service utilization among indigenous and non-indigenous community residence. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to a stratified random sample of 75 Mapuche and 434 non-Mapuche residents of the province of Cautín. Lifetime prevalence and 12-month prevalence rates were estimated. Approximately 28.4% of the Mapuche population had a lifetime, and 15.7% a 12-month, prevalent psychiatric disorder compared to 38.0% and 25.7%, respectively, of the non-Mapuche. Few significant differences were noted between the two groups; however, generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia, and drug dependence were less prevalent among the Mapuche. Service utilization among the Mapuche with mental illness was low. This is a preliminary study based on a small sample size. Further research on the mental health of indigenous populations of South America is needed.

  5. Financiamiento Solidario para Vivienda en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas Mujica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Desarrollo Solidario (PDS del Banco del Desarrollo consiste en brindar apoyo financiero y formativo a mujeres de escasos recursos a lo largo de todo Chile, a través de un crédito solidario, sin ningún otro tipo de garantía que la confianza, la responsabilidad y la solidaridad. En este Programa se trabaja con grupos de al menos 8 mujeres de muy escasos recursos que no tienen acceso al sistema bancario tradicional por no contar con ingresos demostrables ni estables. El apoyo financiero se canaliza a través de créditos solidarios. El apoyo formativo consiste en un trabajo en forma previa al otorgamiento de los créditos y luego un seguimiento periódico del grupo, durante todo el periodo de reembolso del crédito. A la fecha, han participado en este programa más de 10.000 mujeres, estimándose que más de 6.000 de ellas han dedicado estos préstamos al mejoramiento de la calidad de su vivienda, movilizando en forma directa más de 2 millones de dólares.

  6. Second Announcement - ESO/ST-ECF Workshop on NICMOS and the VLT: A New Era of High-Resolution Near-Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy - May 26-27, 1998 - Hotel Baia di Nora, Pula, Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    ST-ECF and ESO are organising in collaboration with the NICMOS IDT and STScI a workshop on near infrared imaging from space and ground. The purpose of the workshop is to review what has been achieved with the Near Infrared and Multi Object Spectrograph (NICMOS) on board of HST, what can be achieved in the remaining lifetime of the instrument, and how NICMOS observations can be optimised taking into account the availability of IR imaging and spectroscopy on ESO's Very large Telescope (VLT) in the near future. The meeting will be held in May 1998, about one year after science observations started with NICMOS, and about half a year before the Infrared Spectrometer and Array Camera (ISAAC) starts to operate on the VLT. Currently, it is expected that NICMOS will operate until the end of 1998.

  7. CLASH-VLT: DISSECTING THE FRONTIER FIELDS GALAXY CLUSTER MACS J0416.1-2403 WITH ∼800 SPECTRA OF MEMBER GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestra, I.; Sartoris, B.; Girardi, M.; Nonino, M.; Biviano, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Mercurio, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Rosati, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122, Ferrara (Italy); Ettori, S.; Vanzella, E. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Ogrean, G. A.; Weeren, R. J. van [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States); Medezinski, E.; Zitrin, A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Merten, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Tozzi, P. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Umetsu, K., E-mail: balestra@oats.inaf.it [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); and others

    2016-06-01

    We present VIMOS-Very Large Telescope (VLT) spectroscopy of the Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0416.1-2403 ( z  = 0.397). Taken as part of the CLASH-VLT survey, the large spectroscopic campaign provided more than 4000 reliable redshifts over ∼600 arcmin{sup 2}, including ∼800 cluster member galaxies. The unprecedented sample of cluster members at this redshift allows us to perform a highly detailed dynamical and structural analysis of the cluster out to ∼2.2 r {sub 200} (∼4 Mpc). Our analysis of substructures reveals a complex system composed of a main massive cluster ( M {sub 200} ∼ 0.9 × 10{sup 15} M {sub ⊙} and σ{sub V,r200} ∼ 1000 km s{sup −1}) presenting two major features: (i) a bimodal velocity distribution, showing two central peaks separated by Δ V {sub rf} ∼ 1100 km s{sup −1} with comparable galaxy content and velocity dispersion, and (ii) a projected elongation of the main substructures along the NE–SW direction, with a prominent sub-clump ∼600 kpc SW of the center and an isolated BCG approximately halfway between the center and the SW clump. We also detect a low-mass structure at z  ∼ 0.390, ∼10′ south of the cluster center, projected at ∼3 Mpc, with a relative line-of-sight velocity of Δ V{sub rf} ∼ −1700 km s{sup −1}. The cluster mass profile that we obtain through our dynamical analysis deviates significantly from the “universal” NFW, being best fit by a Softened Isothermal Sphere model instead. The mass profile measured from the galaxy dynamics is found to be in relatively good agreement with those obtained from strong and weak lensing, as well as with that from the X-rays, despite the clearly unrelaxed nature of the cluster. Our results reveal an overall complex dynamical state of this massive cluster and support the hypothesis that the two main subclusters are being observed in a pre-collisional phase, in agreement with recent findings from radio and deep X-ray data. In this article, we

  8. Microalgae of the continental shelf off Paraná State, southeastern Brazil: a review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico P. Brandini

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the taxonomic and ecological works on marine microalgae (phytoplankton and microphytobenthos off Paraná State, Southeastern Brazil. Various studies refer to the taxonomy of benthic diatoms. Few descriptive field works in coastal and adjacent shelf waters contribute to the understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal and shelf areas. Patterns of geographic distribution and changes in the phytoplankton community are described in relation to water masses and seasonal variations in the hydrographic regime. During summertime, when warm oligotrophic waters predominate over the shelf, the phytoplankton is nummerically dominated by small phytotlagellates, dinotlagellates, coccolithophorids and filaments of cyanobacteria. During wintertime, the abundance of micro-size diatoms over the shclf increase due to the dominance of cold nutrient-rich waters from the South Atlantic Central Water and wind-driven vertical circulation. The phytoplankton community off Paraná State may be classified into two categorics: the diatom-dominated coastal assemblage, mainly controlled by nutrient inputs from land drainage and ressuspension of bottom sediments, and the tlagellate-dominated shelf assemblage, more affectcd by the seasonality of local hydrographic regime.O trabalho é uma revisão dos estudos taxonômicos e ecológicos das microalgas (planctônicas e bentônicas realizados no Estado do Paraná. A maioria dos trabalhos sobre microfitobentos são de caráter taxonômico e, basicamente, referem-se à diatomáceas bênticas sobre macroalgas ou fundos lodosos e consolidados. Poucos trabalhos contribuiram para o estudo da dinâmica espaço-temporal do fitoplâncton em áreas costeiras e de plataforma. São descritos os padrões de distribuição geográfica e as mudanças sazonais na comunidade fitoplanctônica em relação ao regime hidrográfico. No verão, quando águas quentes oligotróficas predominam na superfície, o fitoplâncton

  9. Mangrove bird community of Paranaguá Bay - Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Macedo Mestre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the mangrove bird community of Paranaguá Bay in Paraná - South Brazil. Seasonal surveys were conducted during September 1997 to September 1998 at three sites in Paranaguá Bay. Frequencies and abundances of birds were registered in 200m transects and one hour point counts. A total of 81 bird species were observed in the three sampling sites. Most of the bird species in Paranaguá mangroves are fruits, seeds and arthropods consumers, and predators of flying insects. The most frequent and abundant species were Egretta caerulea, Ceryle torquata, Chloroceryle amazona, Pitangus sulphuratus, Turdus amaurochalinus and Parula pitiayumi. The bird community of these three sites is composed mainly by forest bird species. The mangroves of Paranaguá Bay shelter one of the richest avifauna of Brazilian mangroves. Differences between sampling sites could be related to the proximity of the Paranaguá city and human impacts in the areas. Only in the most disturbed site were observed Passer domesticus and large flocks of Coragyps atratus. This study contributed to the knowledge of mangrove communities, and could be an important basis to fluvial-marine conservation plans in Paraná- Brazil.Este estudo teve como objetivos caracterizar a comunidade de aves de manguezais na baía de Paranaguá e comparar descritivamente a comunidade das três áreas amostradas, diferentes em relação à proximidade de centros urbanos. Foram amostradas sazonalmente, entre setembro de 1997 a setembro 1998, três áreas de manguezais a diferentes distâncias da cidade e do porto de Paranaguá. A avifauna foi registrada em transectos de 200m no interior dos manguezais e em observações de 1 hora em pontos fixos. Foram determinadas freqüência, abundancia relativa e densidade de espécies em cada área. Foram observadas 81 espécies de aves nas três áreas de manguezais. As guildas mais significativas foram das espécies consumidoras de frutos, sementes e artr

  10. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR E. PAULIV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian, Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  11. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  12. Sanitizing, caring and civilizing: the medical discourse for schools in the state of Paraná (1920-1937

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Müller Larocca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the investigation of medical discourses referring to school sanitation, this study addresses the spread of the Hygiene science in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil, between 1920 and 1937. Discourses to schools present in many sources, mainly periodicals, Archivos Paranaenses de Medicina and Revista Medica do Parana, pointed out the perception of medicine underpinned by Hygiene, in which doctors advocated a new social function: educators. By discussing intervention in schools and their users, doctors intended to "care for, protect and sanitize infancy", a task aiming to insert the territory of Paraná in the national process of hygienic and social sanitation. It is a historical research study, inspired by Norbert Elias' ideas of Civilizing Process. Thus, its purpose is to recognize civility proposals in the medical discourses created to the schools of the State of Paraná. Educational conceptions in the studied period evolved from knowledge, prescriptions and discourses on Hygiene science and its greatest advocates - the doctors.

  13. Species richness and abundance of bats in fragments of the stational semidecidual forest, Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ortêncio-Filho

    Full Text Available The Upper Paraná River floodplain is inserted in a region of the Mata Atlântica biome, which is a critical area to preserve. Due to the scarcity of researches about the chiropterofauna in this region, the present study investigated species richness and abundance of bats in remnants from the stational semidecidual forest of the Upper Paraná River, southern Brazil. Samplings were taken every month, from January to December 2006, using 32 mist nets with 8.0 x 2.5 m, resulting in 640 m²/h and totaling a capture effort of 87,040 m²/h. In order to estimate the species richness, the following estimators were employed Chao1 and Jack2. During the study, a total of 563 individuals belonging to 17 species (Artibeus planirostris, Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Sturnira lilium, Artibeus fimbriatus, Myotis nigricans, Desmodus rotundus, Artibeus obscurus, Noctilio albiventris, Phylostomus discolor, Phylostomus hastatus, Chrotopterus auritus, Lasiurus ega, Chiroderma villosum, Pygoderma bilabiatum and Lasiurus blossevillii were captured. The estimated richness curves tended to stabilize, indicating that most of the species were sampled. Captured species represented 10% of the taxa recorded in Brazil and 28% in Paraná State, revealing the importance of this area for the diversity of bats. These findings indicate the need to determine actions aiming to restrict human activities in these forest fragments, in order to minimize anthropogenic impacts on the chiropterofauna.

  14. Guarani education and religion in the state of Paraná, Brazil: a study on the Nimongarai ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Celia Faustino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the violent expropriation and commercialization of large areas in the state of Paraná, Brazil, at the beginning of the 20th century the surviving indigenous groups were herded within small parcels of land, called villages, and currently denominated Indigene Land (IL. The Nhandewa Guarani of the northern region of the state of Paraná, living in the Laranjinha, Ywyporã and Pinhalzinho ILs, have experienced terrible conditions since they lost many of their traditions and culture, including their language. During the 1980s and 1990s and within the context of the world economic crisis, the international organisms UNESCO and World Bank aimed at social cohesion and started, as a joint venture with the national states, the implementation of an inclusion policy based on the right to be different. Current analysis discusses the results of a cultural revival project developed through the register of narratives by the indigene elderly people with regard to the Nimongarai baptism ritual and pedagogical interventions in schools in the state of Paraná.

  15. Zinc, copper and manganese availability in soils treated with alkaline sewage sludge from Paraná state (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Dalpisol

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Paraná, most of the sludge generated in sewage treatment plants is subjected to the prolonged alkaline stabilization process. Although it is known that the alkaline sewage sludge contains micronutrients such as Zn, Cu and Mn, little is known about the availability of these elements in soils treated with this type of sewage sludge. Thus, the objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of alkaline sewage sludge from Paraná on Zn, Cu and Mn availability in soils. Twenty sewage treatment plants were selected throughout Paraná, where alkaline sewage sludge and the most representative agricultural soil of the each region were collected. Each soil was incubated for 60 days with alkaline sewage sludge rates (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 Mg ha-1 from their region. Subsequently, Zn, Cu and Mn availability was determined using the Mehlich-1 extractant. The alkaline sewage sludge increased Zn availability and decreased Mn availability in most soils. Cu showed intermediate results, with increased availability, primarily in medium texture soils and decrease in most of the clayey soils. In soils with pH close to ideal for the plant growth, the alkaline sewage sludge rate should be carefully calculated so that there is no excessive increase in the pH and Zn, Cu and Mn imbalance.

  16. A paisagem urbana como herança cultural: a praça Santos Dumont, Umuarama, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = The urban landscape as a cultural heritage: Santos Dumont plaza, Umuarama, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fabbri Hulsmeyer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A paisagem urbana possui uma forte conotação histórica, e pode ser considerada uma herança cultural. Neste contexto, os espaços livres públicos podem converter-se em registros importantes, fortalecendo tradições, valores e identidades. Nos quatro principais núcleosurbanos projetados pela Companhia de Terras do Norte do Paraná CTNP, e denominada Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná CMNP após 1942, as praças exercem o papel de elementos ordenadores na configuração dos centros cívico, religioso e comercial, demonstrando a íntima relação entre os espaços livres públicos e seu entorno. Esta pesquisa1 teve o objetivo de analisar, a partir da pesquisa dos registros fotográficos, jornais de época e bibliografia referente àsraízes conceituais do traçado morfológico da cidade e seu contexto histórico, a Praça Santos Dumont, maior praça e palco de importantes momentos da história da jovem cidade de Umuarama, Estado do Paraná.The urban landscape has strong historical meaning because it can be considered as cultural heritage. In this context, public open spaces are important registries, reinforcing traditions, values and identities. In the four main cities projected by the Companhia Melhoramentos Norte do Paraná (CMNP, the squares and plazas carry out the task of ordination elements for the configuration of the civic, religious and commercial centers, reinforcing the close relation between public open spaces and their surroundings. This research was done under the Scientific Initiation Program of Universidade Paranaense, and is about Santos Dumont Plaza, the biggest one that supported important historical moments of earlyUmuarama, in northwestern Paraná, Brazil. The analysis was based on the research of photographic registries, newspapers, and the publications about the conceptual roots of the urban morphology of the city and its historical context.

  17. A escolarização das práticas corporais no Estado do Paraná (1846-1926: perscrutando o acervo de periódicos da Biblioteca Pública do Paraná - The schooling of corporal practices in Paraná State (1846-1926: examining the periodicals of Paraná’s Public Lib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Aurelio Taborda de Oliveira, Lausane Correa Pykosz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O trabalho é oriundo de um projeto de pesquisa que localiza e cataloga fontes para o estudo das práticas corporais escolares no estado do Paraná, compreendendo o período de 1846 a 1926. Embora esteja no horizonte do projeto a exploração de vários acervos, aqui optamos por mostrar um pouco do que nos reserva a Biblioteca Pública do Paraná, a qual possui um riquíssimo acervo de periódicos. Levantados os periódicos disponíveis, procedemos o mapeamento dos conteúdos referentes à Instrução Pública, sobretudo no que se refere à educação do corpo na escola. Entendemos que os periódicos representam uma considerável possibilidade de compreensão do passado educacional por apresentarem-se como fontes de fácil manuseio, ricas em conteúdo, que facilitam a reflexão acerca das questões referentes à educação, contribuindo de maneira significativa para a investigação histórica neste campo, seja como objeto ou como fonte de pesquisa. Já os periódicos educacionais se constituem como uma possibilidade impar de compreender as tensões entre a teoria educacional e a realidade escolar, pois oferecem pistas de como se davam as relações no interior da instituição escolar, além de trazer à tona discussões a respeito das práticas docentes. Palavras-chave: história da educação; fontes e acervos; periódicos; educação do corpo.   THE SCHOOLING OF CORPORAL PRACTICES IN PARANÁ STATE (1846-1926: EXAMINING THE PERIODICALS OF PARANÁ’S PUBLIC LIBRARY Abstract The work derives of a research project that locates and catalogues sources for the study of the body’s practices at school in the Paraná’s State, between 1846 and 1926. Although it is in the horizon of the project the exploration of many quantities, here we opt to show a little of what reserve us at the Public Library of the Paraná, which possess a very rich quantity of periodic. Raised the availables periodics, we proceed the mapping of the Public

  18. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.

  19. Pimelodus paranaensis, sp. n., um novo Pimelodidae (Pisces, Siluriformes do Alto Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo A. Britski

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se Pimelodus paranaensis, sp. n., da bacia do Alto Paraná, Brasil, com base em 20 exemplares. A nova espécie pode ser assim diagnosticada: (i dentes presentes e formando duas áreas isoladas no vômer; (ii faixa pré-maxilar de dentes com um ângulo projetado para trás; (iii teto do crânio coberto por pele fina; (iv comprimento da nadadeira adiposa 3,9 a 4,3 vezes no comprimento padrão; (v a maior altura da nadadeira adiposa 3,1 a 4.3 vezes no seu comprimento; (vi região dorsal do corpo de cor castanha com pequenas manchas arredondadas, castanho-escuras. Apesar de possuir dentes vomerianos como em Pimelodus albicans, e como em certos exemplares de P. clarias (sensu Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1890, achamos que as verdadeiras relações desta nova espécie e sua situação genérica só poderão ser estabelecidas após uma nova boa revisão do grupo.Pimelodus paranaensis, n. sp., from the Upper Paraná basin, is described on the basis of 20 specimens. The new species can be diagnosed as follows: (1 teeth present and forming two isolated on the vomer; (2 premaxillary band of teeth with a backward projecting angle; (3 top of head covered with thin layer of skin; (4 adipose fin basis 3,9 to 4.6 in standard length; (5 greatest depth of adipose fin 3.1 to 4.3 in its length, (6 dark spots along the dorsum. In spite of having teeth on the vomer as Pimelodus albicans, and as some specimens of P. clarias (sensu Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1890 and in being similar to Bagropsis reinhardti in many respects, we feel that the true relationships and the generic status of the new species can be established only after a thorough revision of the group.

  20. Zooming into the Paraná-Etendeka silicic volcanics, southern Brasil: a physical volcanological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualda, G. A. R.; Gravley, D. M.; Harmon, L. J.; Tramontano, S.; Luchetti, A. C. F.; Nardy, A.

    2015-12-01

    Paraná-Etendeka volcanism led to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean during the early Cretaceous. Most Paraná research has focused on the regional scale geochemistry and geochronology. Complementarily, we have taken a physical volcanological approach to elucidate the styles and locations of silicic eruptions with a focus on extrusive vs. explosive varieties, and an ultimate goal to characterise the crustal magmatic conditions. Through satellite to microscopic observations we can zoom from volcanic edifice and deposit morphologies, remarkably preserved in the Mesozoic landscape, to primary microscopic textures. Lava domes appear in clusters with high relief and are surrounded by lower flat-topped terraces comprised of multiple tabular-shaped packages with conspicuous horizontal jointing. Joint thickness coincides with layering from mm-scale laminations to larger lens-shaped blobs up to 20 cm thick and more than a metre long. These layered deposits appear to be compressed and/or stretched into the finer laminations and grade up into the fatter lens-shaped blobs. In other regions, extensive plateaus dominate the landscape with flat-lying flow packages continuous over 10's of kilometres and possibly further. Rheomorphism is evident in places with sub-parallel joints that grade up into a zone of deformation where curvilinear to overturned joint patterns reflect lateral forcing in a more ductile flow regime. Microscopically the blobs and surrounding matrix are almost indistinguishable except for subtle differences in spherulite textures, zonal alteration and distribution of crystal sizes. Although our research is relatively nascent, our observations suggest eruptions may have ranged from edifice building effusive ones to more explosive ones, albeit possibly relatively low fire fountains feeding hybridised lava/pyroclastic flows. Some of these flows are extensive, tens to possibly hundreds of kilometres long, consistent with high eruption rates of hot magma. These

  1. Estrutura da comunidade das larvas de Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera, em diferentes substratos artificiais e fases hídricas, no trecho superior do rio Paraná, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Community structure of Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera, in different artificial substrates and during distinct hydrological phases, in the upper stretch of the Paraná river, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Felix dos Anjos

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a influência das fases hídricas sobre a composição, a densidade e a dominância das larvas de Chironomidae em diferentes tipos de substratos artificiais. As coletas foram realizadas quinzenalmente, entre os meses de agosto de2004 e dezembro de 2005. A análise de agrupamento revelou diferenças na composição e densidade das morfoespécies entre as fases hídricas e, de acordo com o índice de dominância de Kownacki, Cricotopus sp. foi dominante ou subdominante em todos os substratos e fases hídricas.Na fase de águas baixas, a maior similaridade foi observada entre os substratos de mesma forma. Nesse período, os maiores valores de riqueza e densidade das larvas foram registrados nos substratos em forma de X. Na fase de águas altas, o aumento no nível do rio Paraná influenciou na redução da densidade média das larvas e somente nos substratos de madeira em forma de X e PVC em forma de tubo, cujos materiais favoreceram a melhor fixação das larvas, foramregistrados maiores valores de densidade.This study investigated the influence of hydrological phases on species composition, density and dominance of Chironomidae larvae indifferent types of artificial substrates. Samplings were undertaken fortnightly, between August 2004 and December 2005. Cluster analysis evidenced differences in the species composition and density of Chironomidae morphospecies among hydrological phases; according to the Kownacki dominance index, Cricotopus sp. was dominant or subdominant in all substrates and hydrological phases. During the low water phase, the greatest similarity was observed among the substrateswith the same shape. In this period, the highest values of species richness and density of larvae were registered in X-shaped substrates. During the high water phase, the rise in the level of the Paraná River influenced on the reduction of mean larvae density, and only in wooden X-shaped and tube-shaped PVC

  2. HIV subtype, epidemiological and mutational correlations in patients from Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Maria Gomes da Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Analyze patients with HIV infection from Curitiba, Paraná, their epidemiological characteristics and HIV RAM. METHODS: Patients regularly followed in an ID Clinic had their medical data evaluated and cases of virological failure were analyzed with genotypic report. RESULTS: Patients with complete medical charts were selected (n = 191. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared. One hundred thirty two patients presented with subtype B infection (69.1%, 41 subtype C (21.5%, 10 subtype F (5.2%, 7 BF (3.7% and 1 CF (0.5%. Patients with subtype B infection had been diagnosed earlier than patients with subtype non-B. Also, subtype B infection was more frequent in men who have sex with men, while non-B subtypes occurred more frequently in heterosexuals and women. Patients with previous history of three classes of ARVs (n = 161 intake were selected to evaluate resistance. For RT inhibitors, 41L and 210W were more frequently observed in subtype B than in non-B strains. No differences between subtypes and mutations were observed to NNTRIs. Mutations at 10, 32 and 63 position of protease were more observed in subtype B viruses than non-B, while positions 20 and 36 of showed more amino acid substitutions in subtype non-B viruses. Patients with history of NFV intake were evaluated to resistance pathway. The 90M pathway was more frequent in subtypes B and non-B. Mutations previously reported as common in non-B viruses, such as 65R and 106M, were uncommon in our study. Mutations 63P and 36I, previously reported as common in HIV-1 subtypes B and C from Brazil, respectively, were common. CONCLUSION: There is a significant frequency of HIV-1 non-B infections in Paraná state, with isolates classified as subtypes C, F, BF and BC. Patients with subtype C infection were more frequently female, heterosexual and had a longer average time of HIV diagnosis

  3. Effect of pH on boron adsorption in some soils of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Steiner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporary B deficiency can be triggered by liming of acid soils because of increased B adsorption at higher soil pH. Plants respond directly to the activity of B in soil solution and only indirectly to B adsorbed on soil constituents. Because the range between deficient and toxic B concentration is relatively narrow, this poses difficulty in maintaining appropriate B levels in soil solution. Thus, knowledge of the chemical behavior of B in the soil is particularly important. The present study investigated the effect of soil pH on B adsorption in four soils of Paraná State, and to correlate these values with the physical and chemical properties of the soils. Surface samples were taken from a Rhodic Hapludox, Arenic Hapludalf, Arenic Hapludult, and one Typic Usthorthent. To evaluate the effect of pH on B adsorption, subsamples soil received the application of increasing rates of calcium carbonate. Boron adsorption was accomplished by shaking 2.0 g soil, for 24 h, with 20 mL of 0.01 mol L¹ NaCl solution containing different concentrations (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, and 4.0 mg B L-1. Sorption was fitted to non-linear form of the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Boron adsorption increased as concentration increased. Boron adsorption was dependent on soil pH, increasing as a function of pH in the range between 4.6 and 7.4, although the bonding energy has decreased. Maximum adsorption capacity (MAC of B was observed in the Arenic Hapludalf (49.8 mg B kg-1 soil followed by Arenic Hapludult (22.5 mg kg-1, Rhodic Hapludox (17.4 mg kg-1, and Typic Usthorthent (7.0 mg kg-1. The organic matter content, clay content, and aluminum oxide content (Al2O3 were the soils properties that affecting the B adsorption on Paraná soils.

  4. Virulence potential of filamentous fungi isolated from poultry barns in Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleison Ledesma Taira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungi are those that normally would not cause diseases in otherwise healthy people, but are able to cause problems under some circumstances, and for this they need to possess a certain virulence potential. The objective of this study was to identify samples of filamentous fungi isolated from poultry barns in Cascavel, Paraná, and also to evaluate their virulence potential by assessing proteinase production, hemolytic activity, urease production, and growth rate at 37 ºC. We have evaluated the following samples: Acremonium hyalinulum (1 sample, Aspergillus sp. (12, Beauveria bassiana (1, Curvularia brachyspora (1, Paecilomyces variotti (1, and Penicillium sp. (2. Out of the 18 samples analyzed, 44.4% showed proteolytic activity using albumin as the substrate versus 66.7% when using casein; 66.7% showed hemolytic activity, 83.3% were positive for urea, and 88.9% grew at a temperature of 37 ºC. The results demonstrated that the majority of the isolates expressed virulence factors. Therefore, these isolates have the potential to harm human hosts, such as those working at poultry barns, especially predisposed or susceptible individuals.Fungos oportunistas são aqueles que normalmente não causariam doenças em pessoas saudáveis, mas eles são capazes de causar problemas sob certas circunstâncias e, para isso, eles necessitam possuir algum potencial de virulência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar amostras de fungos filamentosos isolados de granjas de aves em Cascavel, Paraná, e também avaliar o seu potencial de virulência, verificando a produção de proteinase, atividade hemolítica, produção de urease e crescimento a 37 ºC. Foram avaliados Acremonium hyalinulum (01, Aspergillus sp (12, Beauveria bassiana (01, Curvularia brachyspora (01, Paecylomices variotti (01 e Penicillium sp (02. Das 18 amostras, 44,4% apresentaram atividade proteolítica usando como substrato a albumina e 66,7% com caseína; 66,7% demonstraram

  5. Relations among Valencia orange yields with soil and leaf nutrients in Northwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonez Fidalski

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Valencia orange orchards established on soils of low fertility in the Northwest region of Paraná State, Brazil, have showed symptoms of Mg deficiency and reduced fruit yields. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between yield with soil and leaf nutrients during 1996/97 growing season. Two sites of low and high productivity were selected in seven orchards. Leaf and soil samples (fertilized rows and interrows were collected in 1996. The results showed that the citrus yields were negatively related with soil Mg/K and Ca+Mg/K ratios in the fertilized rows, and fruit weight positively correlated with leaf Zn in the low productivity orchards. The fruit weight was positively related with leaf Ca and soil Ca in the fertilized rows of the high productivity orchards. The results suggested an adequate lime and K fertilization managements in the fertilized rows, as well as an adequate Zn supply.Os pomares de laranja Valência (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck estabelecidos em solos de baixa fertilidade da região noroeste do Paraná, tem apresentado sintomas de desequilíbrio nutricional, principalmente deficiência de Mg e redução da produção e do tamanho dos frutos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar as relações da produção e peso dos frutos com os nutrientes das folhas e do solo de sete pomares de laranja Valência na safra de 1996/97, em talhões de produtividade inferior e superior. Em 1996, foram coletadas amostras de folha e de solo nas faixas de adubação e nas entrelinhas. Os resultados mostraram que a produção de frutos correlacionou-se negativamente com as relações dos cátions Mg/K e Ca+Mg/K do solo das faixas de adubação dos pomares de baixa produtividade e, o peso dos frutos, correlacionou-se positivamente com os teores foliares de Zn. Nos pomares de produtividade superior, o peso dos frutos correlacionou-se positivamente com os teores de Ca das folhas e do solo nas faixas de adubação. Estes

  6. National control and eradication program of bovine tuberculosis in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Vanessa; Paredes, Luis; Rivera, Alejandro; Ternicier, Claudio

    2011-07-05

    There have been reports of the presence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in Chile for more than 100 years. Several prevalence studies have revealed that there is a wide spectrum of disease across the country with certain geographic areas where the disease is endemic through to other geographic areas where infection is sporadic and at very low prevalence. In 2009, this information was used to divide Chile into different geographic zones based on prevalence rates. This will enable the correct actions to be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of TB. Thus the northern part of Chile which has a medium to high prevalence of TB will be categorized as a control zone. In contrast, the southern part of Chile which has a high proportion of the bovine population, has a low prevalence of TB and will be classified as an eradication zone (Paredes, 2008). Although there have been several past attempts to create a national control and eradication program in Chile, none has been successful. A national program is proposed, and outlined in this paper. Progress toward program initiation in 2009 has been difficult, mostly because of the global economic crisis, difficulties in the milk and meat industry, and social and political issues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Mental health in Chile and Finland: Challenges and lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal C, Pedro; Markkula, Niina; Peña, Sebastián

    2016-07-01

    This article analyses and compares the epidemiology of mental disorders and relevant public policies in Chile and Finland. In Chile, a specific mental health law is still lacking. While both countries highlight the role of primary care, Finland places more emphasis on participation and recovery of service users. Comprehensive mental health policies from Finland, such as a successful suicide prevention program, are presented. Both countries have similar prevalence of mental disorders, high alcohol consumption and high suicide rates. In Chile, the percentage of total disease burden due to psychiatric disorders is 13% and in Finland 14%. However, the resources to address these issues are very different. Finland spends 4.5% of its health budget on mental health, while in Chile the percentage is 2.2%. This results in differences in human resources and service provision. Finland has five times more psychiatric outpatient visits, four times more psychiatrists, triple antidepressant use and twice more clinical guidelines for different psychiatric conditions. In conclusion, both countries have similar challenges but differing realities. This may help to identify gaps and potential solutions for public health challenges in Chile. Finland’s experience demonstrates the importance of political will and long-term vision in the construction of mental health policies.

  8. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  9. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ...)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade... preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of... mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  10. Virtual Borders Between Chile and Its Neighbors: Argentina, Peru and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-30

    Estadísticas, “ Inmigrantes en Chile ”, Santiago Census, 2002 20 ...Studies and Research Center, 1998), 13 22 Military Studies and Research Center, Chile en la Region. CESIM. 2001; available from <http...Estatuto de Inversiones Extranjeras en Chile ”, ( Santiago: 1974), Capitulo I,19 35 The International Center for Adjustment of Disputes of Investment

  11. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010: Deadline for filing written... effects of the free trade agreements (FTAs) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report...

  12. MathWorks Simulink and C++ integration with the new VLT PLC-based standard development platform for instrument control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekebusch, Mario J.; Di Lieto, Nicola; Sandrock, Stefan; Popovic, Dan; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2014-07-01

    ESO is in the process of implementing a new development platform, based on PLCs, for upcoming VLT control systems (new instruments and refurbishing of existing systems to manage obsolescence issues). In this context, we have evaluated the integration and reuse of existing C++ libraries and Simulink models into the real-time environment of BECKHOFF Embedded PCs using the capabilities of the latest version of TwinCAT software and MathWorks Embedded Coder. While doing so the aim was to minimize the impact of the new platform by adopting fully tested solutions implemented in C++. This allows us to reuse the in house expertise, as well as extending the normal capabilities of the traditional PLC programming environments. We present the progress of this work and its application in two concrete cases: 1) field rotation compensation for instrument tracking devices like derotators, 2) the ESO standard axis controller (ESTAC), a generic model-based controller implemented in Simulink and used for the control of telescope main axes.

  13. BROAD BALMER WINGS IN BA HYPER/SUPERGIANTS DISTORTED BY DIFFUSE INTERSTELLAR BANDS: FIVE EXAMPLES IN THE 30 DORADUS REGION FROM THE VLT-FLAMES TARANTULA SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Sana, Hugues; Sabbi, Elena, E-mail: walborn@stsci.edu, E-mail: hsana@stsci.edu, E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2015-08-10

    Extremely broad emission wings at Hβ and Hα have been found in VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of Hβ and the shortward wing of Hα. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs). No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.

  14. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Kelson, D.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Sartoris, B.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Regös, E.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a signif...

  15. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  16. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient

  17. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Por casi un siglo, varios autores han analizado los patrones de distribución de la fauna y flora marina del Pacífico de Sudamérica y de la costa de Chile en particular, con el propósito de establecer el número de las unidades biogeográficas presentes. Si bien los patrones generales actuales son relativamente bien conocidos, la mayoría de los estudios se ha enfocado en las discontinuidades distribucionales y en propuestas de clasificación más que en los factores y procesos dinámicos que han formado las unidades espaciales identificadas. Aun en el caso de las clasificaciones, las conclusiones publicadas se basan principalmente en el análisis de uno o pocos grupos seleccionados, y presentan diferencias importantes en los criterios de selección de los grupos, el número de especies involucrado y la metodología usada. Por otra parte, las discrepancias entre estudios específicos tienden a obscurecer un fenómeno relevante y de mayor escala como es la dinámica de las biotas, uno de los aspectos biogeográficos menos conocidos en Chile. En tal contexto, este trabajo presenta una revisión de literatura sobre la biogeografía marina de Chile y sus aspectos asociados, con los siguientes objetivos: (a resumir las características oceanográficas, climáticas y geomorfológicas de la costa continental de Chile; (b discutir 27 clasificaciones biogeográficas publicadas para la costa chilena, analizando los criterios y procedimientos usados por los autores, sus conclusiones principales, y la concordancia entre los estudios; (c evaluar los procesos dispersivos y vicariantes asociados a los desplazamientos y modificaciones de las biotas de la región, en función de los antecedentes disponibles sobre las condiciones existentes y los principales eventos ocurridos durante los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario; y (d proponer un escenario de cambio biogeográfico basado en determinantes históricas y su influencia en la formación, carácter y din

  18. Chile y los Desafíos Globales de Seguridad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Griffiths Spielman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende abordar el tema "Chile y los desafíos globales de seguridad", asumiendo a modo de propuesta una noción de seguridad relativa a todo fenómeno violento e intencional, que como producto de su actuación provoca mortalidad, y ello desde la perspectiva de un país pequeño, tal y como Chile, si bien notablemente interconectado a nivel global. En consecuencia, Chile debería asumir un efecto potencialmente mayor de las principales amenazas globales. En síntesis, se expresa que en el actual escenario de seguridad, la lejanía geográfica de los fenómenos ya no es necesariamente un factor que prevenga los efectos de dichas amenazas sobre la seguridad de un Estado.

  19. [Illegitimate patients: Undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Nanette Liberona; Mansilla, Miguel Ángel

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services - particularly the public health system - at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants' access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations. The research results highlight the lack of compliance with existing regulations and the exercise of discretionary personal judgment as barriers to access. It is concluded that in Chile immigrants in general, and undocumented immigrants in particular, are considered to be illegitimate patients.

  20. Illegitimate patients: Undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanette Paz Liberona Concha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Chile has become a destination for immigrants from other South American countries, which has significantly impacted public services – particularly the public health system – at the economic, social, and cultural levels. The aim of this paper is to provide substantiated information on issues concerning undocumented immigrants’ access to health care in Chile. A qualitative methodology, fundamentally an ethnography of the clinical setting, was used. Results were then analyzed in relation to theories of power asymmetries and interethnic relations. The research results highlight the lack of compliance with existing regulations and the exercise of discretionary personal judgment as barriers to access. It is concluded that in Chile immigrants in general, and undocumented immigrants in particular, are considered to be illegitimate patients.

  1. Horizontal arrangements: strategy for reducing the asymmetry information for dairy farmers in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Moreira de Brito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An empirical investigation was conducted to study whether dairy farmers involved in horizontal arrangements (HA have lower information asymmetry than those who do not participate in HA. Our assumption is that greater access to information results in fewer risky decisions in production systems. One hundred and twenty semi-structured questionnaires were applied to dairy farmers located in four different geographical regions in Paraná State, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was used to define factors related to information asymmetry in dairy agribusiness system (DAS and four factors were defined. In a second step, the 120 dairy farmers were split into two groups: the first one involved in HA and the second one not involved in HA. Mean test (t-student were performed to compare these groups between factors. Significant differences (P<0.05 were observed for factors related to transaction information and for general market information, and dairy farmers participating in HA achieved the greatest values. Finally, it can be concluded that dairy farmers who participate in HA have higher access to information, which can create an environment with lower information asymmetry and, consequently, be subject to lower risks than dairy farmers who do not participate in HA

  2. Informações preliminares sobre flebotomíneos do norte do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueslei Teodoro

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available São relatados os resultados de coletas de flebotomíneos feitas em localidades de 10 municípios do Estado do Paraná, com armadilhas de Falcão em domicílios, abrigos de animais domésticos e nas matas, de 1999 a 2002. Coletaram-se 13.653 flebotomíneos de 10 espécies dos gêneros Brumptomyia, Expapillata, Evandromyia, Migonemyia, Pintomyia, Nyssomyia, Psathyromyia. A espécie Nyssomyia neivai predominou em cinco municípios, e N. whitmani nos demais, a qual foi numericamente superior à primeira. Verificou-se maior freqüência de flebotomíneos nas matas, residências, pocilgas e galinheiros. As investigações sobre a participação de animais domésticos e da fauna de flebotomíneos na epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar deveriam fazer parte da rotina dos serviços de saúde, especialmente nas áreas onde a doença é endêmica.

  3. Profile and behavior of elderly flower consumer in Paraná Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Anacleto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The per capita consumption of flowers in Brazil has presented successive growth rates, although the consumption in consumer class called elderly, that is 60 years old or more, is still incipient when compared to other countries such as the United States, Japan and the most part of European countries where the consumption of these people is more than the double of consumption in Brazil. In this context, it is presented the results of the profile and consumer behavior evaluation of elderly flowers consumer, aiming to subsidize the establishment of marketing actions for the retail segment of the flower production chain. The study was accomplished using 169 interviews with elderly people of both genres at the time that they were buying flowers in 22 flower shops in Paraná Coast. The female gender was identified as the majority consumer (p=78.7%. It was observed a tendency in the increase of consumption based on advanced schooling. It was registered an average of acquisition of 5,81 times per year, with preferential consumption of roses, violets and orchids. The accessibility to stores, the service quality followed by the high prices of flowers, were the main consumption limiting factors in the class evaluated.

  4. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in two centers of training horses in Curitiba, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keila Youko Fujii

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho investigou a ocorrência de parasitismo por Cryptosporidium spp. em equinos alojados em dois centros de treinamento de equinos localizados no município de Curitiba, Paraná. Foram examinados 108 cavalos, sendo 48 procedentes do Centro de Treinamento 1 (CT1 e 60 do Centro de Treinamento 2 (CT2. As coletas de amostras de fezes foram realizadas no período de outubro de 2010 a janeiro de 2011. A metodologia utilizada para a confirmação da presença de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. foi a técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada. A ocorrência encontrada foi de 18,52% para o total de animais examinados. Houve diferença estatística significativa (p > 0,05 quando comparadas as prevalências encontradas nos dois centros de treinamento, sendo no CT1 de 4,16% e no CT2 de 30%. Não houve associação entre a prevalência e a idade, o sexo e raça (p > 0,05.

  5. Behavior of hybrid corn crop as second rot incidence in West Region Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and influence of stalk rot and ear in cultivation of hybrid corn second crop in west region Paraná. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design with six transgenic corn hybrids (DKB 330PRO, P4285HX, P3646HX, 30F53HX, P3340HX and P3161HX with four replications at spacing of 0.90 m between rows and 0.20 m between plants. The characteristics evaluated were: number of healthy and symptomatic plants, number of ears healthy and symptomatic and total number of spikes. After harvest, we assessed the length of ears healthy and symptomatic, bulk grain ears healthy and symptomatic, thousand grain weight of ears healthy and symptomatic, and grain mass per spike weighted, thousand grain weight and weighted productivity. The hybrid P3646HX showed 100% of plants with stem base rot (Colletotrichum graminicola and soft rot cob (Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. Zeae and 100% of ears with symptoms of soft rot, followed by hybrid 30F53HX, DKB 330PRO with 34.9 and 29.1% of ears with symptoms of soft rot respectively. The hybrid DKB330PRO showed healthy spikes and patients with superior size, resulting in less interference in the grain yield. The hybrid P3340 productivity was higher, with 7952 kg ha-1 , followed by hybrid 30F53HX and DKB330PRO. A positive correlation between agronomic characteristics and grain yield.

  6. Microhabitat occupation by birds in a restinga fragment of Paraná coast, PR, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Novaes Pedroso Junior

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out to characterize microhabitat occupation by birds in a restinga fragment of Paraná coast. Were described 14 microhabitats occupied in different manners for 64 species of birds. Based on the results, could be suggested that this conspicuous class of vertebrates, together with the other elements that integrate the restinga, serve as a component to attract and stimulate the interest for the comprehension and necessity of conservation by the visitors of such ecosystem.Os cordões de restinga formam um ecossistema cuja extensão já se encontra bastante reduzida, devido à sua localização em áreas de grande interesse urbano, industrial e turístico. Nesse estudo caracterizou-se uma parcela desse tipo de ambiente e foram descritos 14 diferentes microhabitats ocupados diferencialmente por 64 espécies de aves. Sugere-se que essa conspícua classe de vertebrados, junto com os demais elementos que integram o ambiente de restinga, sirva como um componente para atrair e estimular o interesse pela compreensão e necessidade de conservação por parte dos frequentadores desse tipo de ambiente.

  7. Genetic heterogeneity of Escherichia coli isolated from pasteurized milk in State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Oltramari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination caused by enteric pathogens is a major cause of diarrheal disease worldwide, resulting in high morbidity and mortality and significant economic losses. Bacteria are important agents of foodborne diseases, particularly diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The present study assessed the genetic diversity and antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from pasteurized milk processed in 21 dairies in northwestern State of Parana, Brazil. The 95 E. coli isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing according to the recommendations of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and assessed genotypically by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ERIC-PCR. The highest rate of resistance was observed for cephalothin (55.78%. ERIC-PCR revealed high genetic diversity, clustering the 95 bacterial isolates into 90 different genotypic patterns. These results showed a heterogeneous population of E. coli in milk samples produced in the northwestern region of Paraná and the need for good manufacturing practices throughout the processing of pasteurized milk to reduce the risk of foodborne illnesses.

  8. Geoelectrical characterization by joint inversion of VES/TEM in Paraná basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolozo, C. A.; Couto, M. A.; Almeida, E. R.; Porsani, J. L.; Santos, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    For many years electrical (DC) and transient electromagnetic (TEM) soundings have been used in a great number of environmental, hydrological and mining exploration studies. The data of both methods are interpreted usually by individual 1D models resulting in many cases in ambiguous models. This can be explained by how the two different methodologies sample the subsurface. The vertical electrical sounding (VES) is good on marking very resistive structures, while the transient electromagnetic sounding (TEM) is very sensitive to map conductive structures. Another characteristic is that VES is more sensitive to shallow structures, while TEM soundings can reach deeper structures. A Matlab program for joint inversion of VES and TEM soundings, by using CRS algorithm was developed aiming explore the best of the both methods. Initially, the algorithm was tested with synthetic data and after it was used to invert experimental data from Paraná sedimentary basin. We present the results of a re-interpretation of 46 VES/TEM soundings data set acquired in Bebedouro region in São Paulo State - Brazil. The previous interpretation was based in geoelectrical models obtained by single inversion of the VES and TEM soundings. In this work we present the results with single inversion of VES and TEM sounding inverted by the Curupira Program and a new interpretation based in the joint inversion of both methodologies. The goal is increase the accuracy in determining the underground structures. As a result a new geoelectrical model of the region is obtained.

  9. Terrestrial mammals in an Atlantic Forest remnant, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Borba de Miranda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.

  10. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in native and reforested areas in Rancho Alegre, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Gallo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, natural environments have been transformed into small forest remnants, with the consequent habitat loss and species extinction. The North Paraná State is not an exception, since only 2 to 4% of the original ecosystem occurs in small fragments of Stational Semidecidual Forest. We studied the species richness and abundance of bats in two forest fragments from the Fazenda Congonhas, in Rancho Alegre city, Paraná State, Brazil. Four samplings were undertaken in a legally protected native area (107.8ha and in a reforested area (11.8ha between April 2007 and March 2008. Samplings began at nightfall and lasted six hours, during two consecutive nights in each location. The individuals were captured using eight mist nets, with the same capture effort in both environments. A total of 397 individuals, 14 species and 10 genera were captured in the native area; while in the reforested area, 105 individuals, six species and four genera. Artibeus lituratus was the most common species in both fragments (n=328, 65.3%, followed by Artibeus fimbriatus (n=44, 8.8% and Artibeus jamaicensis (n=30, 6.0%. Other species including Platyrrhinus lineatus, Carollia perspicillata, Sturnira lilium, Chrotopterus auritus, Desmodus rotundus, Michronycteris megalotis, Phyllostomus hastatus, Phyllostomus discolor, Myoti levis, Myotis nigricans and Lasiurus blossevillii, accounted for 19.9% of the captures. The native area presented higher values of species richness (S=14 and diversity (H’=1.4802 in comparison to the reforested area (S=6, H’=0.57015. The t-test evidenced a significant difference between diversity among the sites (t=7.1075. Chao 1 index indicated that the sampling effort recorded approximately 78% from the total species richness for the native area and 75% for the reforested area. Therefore, the preservation of the forest fragment is essential since it provides habitat for a diverse community of bats. Forest management and reforestation actions may

  11. Characterization of the physical environment, use and occupation of the Pequeno wathershed - Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Gomes de Jesus SOARES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o meio físico e formas de uso e ocupação do solo da bacia do rio Pequeno, situada no município de São José dos Pinhais – Estado do Paraná, analisando condições de uso atual em contraste com as características naturais do meio físico. Nas análises realizadas entre 2000 e 2006, envolvendo a integração dos dados obtidos, geotecnologias e elaboração de mapas, verificou-se que: (a a área ocupada com vegetação natural foi reduzida em 11%, tornando o local mais sensível à exposição dos processos erosivos; (b a urbanização aumentou 2% concentrando-se no encontro das águas do Rio Pequeno com o rio Iguaçu; (c as atividades agrícolas intensificaram em solos frágeis (Organossolos o que ocasiona inúmeros impactos negativos.

  12. Chemical composition in Parmesan cheese marketed in Paranavaí - Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Duarte Gomes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The grated Parmesan cheese is among the most consumed cheese in the country and also among the most fraudulent, since the fragmentation facilitates the incorporation of various adulterants. Brazilian law establishes as the parameters to be evaluated in grated cheese only the moisture content and the fat content in dry matter (GES. However, it is important to analyze other parameters, in order to characterize the products commercialized in Brazil, as quality can be compromised. The objective of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and presence of starch in different samples of grated Parmesan cheese, commercialized in the city of Paranavaí, Paraná. Fifteen samples were analyzed, being three different batches of five brands. The chemical composition (moisture, ash, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids differed from one sample to another; however, all samples were in compliance with Brazilian legislation, considering the moisture content. For the GES content, 60% of the samples showed values higher than those established by Brazilian legislation for semi-fat cheese, such as grated Parmesan cheese. One sample showed a high carbohydrate content, however, starch was not detected by the lugol test. It is concluded that 60% of grated cheese commercialized in the city of Paranavaí present disagreement with Brazilian law, because they had higher fat content in the dry matter than the established.

  13. Histophilus somni-induced thrombotic meningoencephalitis in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn A. Headley

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic meningoencephalitis (TME is a fatal neurological disease of cattle, predominantly from North America, that is caused by Histophilus somni with sporadic descriptions from other countries. This manuscript describes the occurrence of spontaneous TME in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil. Most cattle had acute neurological manifestations characteristic of brain dysfunction. Hematological and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were not suggestive of bacterial infections of the brain. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis with vasculitis and thrombosis of small vessels that contained discrete neutrophilic and/or lymphocytic infiltrates admixed with fibrin at the brainstem, cerebral cortex, and trigeminal nerve ganglion of all animals. All tissues from the central nervous system used during this study were previously characterized as negative for rabies virus by the direct immunofluorescence assay. PCR and RT-PCR assays investigated the participation of infectious agents associated with bovine neurological disease by targeting specific genes of H. somni, Listeria monocytogenes, bovine herpesvirus -1 and -5, bovine viral diarrhea virus, and ovine herpesvirus-2. PCR and subsequent sequencing resulted in partial fragments of the 16S rRNA gene of H. somni from brain sections of all animals with histopathological diagnosis of TME; all other PCR/RT-PCR assays were negative. These findings confirmed the participation of H. somni in the neuropathological disease observed in these animals, extend the geographical distribution of this disease, and support previous findings of H. somni from Brazil.

  14. Genetic dissimilarity among jabuticaba trees native to southwestern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeses Andrigo Danner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the genetic diversity within and between genotype groups is of great importance for breeding programs. The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among 36 native jabuticaba trees (Plinia cauliflora from five sites in the southwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Sixteen fruit traits were analyzed, based on multivariate techniques (canonical variables, Tocher and UPGMA, using Mahalanobis' distance as dissimilarity measure. By the techniques of clustering and graphic dispersion, together with the comparison of means, the genetic diversity among native jabuticaba trees was efficiently identified, indicating a high potential of these genotypes for breeding programs. The traits of greatest importance for dissimilarity were percentage of pulp and of skin, which are easily measured. The clustering structure is related to the collection sites and for breeding programs, genotypes from different sites should be crossed to generate progenies to be tested. Genotypes 'CV5' and 'VT3' should be conserved in genebanks, due to its important agronomic traits.

  15. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, C C Z; Krupek, R A; Peres, C K

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  16. Prevalence of Torque teno virus in healthy donors of Paraná State, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocimara Costa Mazzola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil.METHODS: The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region.RESULTS: The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024 with a higher incidence (74.7% in 18- to 24-year-old donors.CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population.

  17. Plants and pollinating bees in Maringá, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toledo Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to survey the bees as visitors to melliferous flora in the region of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 331 insects were captured, and the fauna comprised 39.88% Trigona spinipes, 38.37% Apis mellifera, 8.16% Tetragonisca angustula, 3.93% Halictidae, 1.21% Megachilidae, 2.42% Anthophoridae, and 3.32% other Hymenoptera. Eleven plant species from nine families were observed. The four families most frequently visited by A. mellifera were Pontederiaceae (93.53%, Sterculiaceae and Polygoniaceae (47.22%, Apocynaceae and Apiaceae (42.86%. The families most visited by T. spinipes were Lamiaceae (64.70%, Apocynaceae (57.14%, Sterculiaceae (51.85% and Anacardiaceae (48.39%, and the families most visited by T. angustula were (28.57%, Asteraceae (22.22% and Labiatae (16.47%. Three species predominated in number of bee visits Dombeya wallichii (32.63%, Ocimum americanum (15.5% and Antigonon leptopus (15.2%. T. angustula was the most frequent visitor of O. gratissimum flowers (60.87%.

  18. Stress level among intensive care nurses in the municipality of Paraná (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Inoue

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify stress levels among intensive care nurses who work in the municipality of Western Paraná, Brazil. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional cohort study, carried out from May to July 2010, included 60 nurses from intensive care units (adult, pediatric, or neonatal of five hospitals. All participants completed the Bianchi Stress Scale. Results. The mean participant age was 31 years; 70% of the nurses were women, 33% had more than 15 years of experience, and 88% conducted care activities. The general level of stress was medium. Stress levels were low for relationships with other units and supervisors, activities related to adequate functioning of the unit and the coordination of activities of the unit. Levels were medium for the following domains: activities related to personnel management, labor conditions for the development of nursing activities, and delivery of care to patient; this last domain was related to the following stress factors: facing patient death, attending to emergencies in the unit, advising patients' family members, and conducting tasks in the minimal time available. Conclusion. Although the general stress level was medium, the identification of domains with a high score can be used to plan intervention strategies to preserve the health of intensive care nurses and, in turn, improve quality of care delivered to severely ill patients.

  19. Dynamics of Exposure to Rickettsia parkeri in Cattle in the Paraná River Delta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, L D; Costa, F B; Colombo, V C; Labruna, M B; Antoniazzi, L R; Gamietea, I; Nava, S; Beldomenico, P M

    2016-05-01

    Several cases of human rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia parkeri were recently documented in the Paraná River delta of Argentina, where the tick vector is Amblyomma triste Koch. As cattle suffer recurrent A. triste infestations, they are at risk of becoming infected with R. parkeri Herein we investigated the dynamics of R. parkeri and its A. triste vector in a herd of beef cattle. Cattle were followed for 18 mo and samples were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against four Rickettsia species (R. parkeri, Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Rickettsia felis) and also for the presence of rickettsial DNA. Additionally, cattle were examined for attached ticks and questing adult ticks were collected. All ticks were analyzed for the presence of rickettsial DNA. No evidence of rickettsemia was found in any cow, but the high R. parkeri infection rate documented in A. triste both questing in the study area (13.9%) and feeding on cattle (19.8%) and the identification of antibodies against R. parkeri antigen in 90% of cattle are evidence that infection is taking place. Altogether, our data suggest that A. triste ticks are capable of naturally exposing cattle to R. parkeri However, the progress of R. parkeri infection and its impact on bovine health and production remain to be established. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Perfil de adolescentes gestantes de um município do interior do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio planteó como objetivo identificar el perfil de adolescentes embarazadas, en un municipio de Paraná, teniendo en cuenta la influencia de factores biológicos, psicológicos y sociales, para apoyar las acciones preventivas del embarazo precoz. Investigación cuantitativa con datos obtenidos mediante entrevista. y análisis estadístico descriptivo. Se analizaron: edad de la menarqula, ginecológica y al quedar embarazada, uso de anticonceptivos antes del embarazo, relación familiar, aceptación y planificación del embarazo, nivel educativo, repetición y abandono escolar, renta. familiar, estado civil, número de compañeros hasta el embarazo y medios de acceso a educación sexual. El perfil obtenido mostró menarquia precoz, sólo una pareja sexual, poco uso de anticonceptivos, reacción familiar positiva en relación al embarazo actual, repetición y abandono escolar, falta de empleo remunerado, baja renta familiar. Los datos aportan informaciones al equipo de salud del municipio en cuestión para que desarrolle acciones específicas que prevengan el embarazo en la adolescencia.

  1. Genetic variability of populations of Nyssomyia neivai in the Northern State of Paraná, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Jaqueline de Carvalho; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Liebel, Sandra Mara Rodrigues da Silva; Neitzke-Abreu, Herintha Coeto; Reinhold-Castro, Kárin Rosi; Cristovão, Edilson Colhera; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing. PMID:28380111

  2. Nutritive value of pastures of Cynodon mixed with forage peanut in southwestern Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnos Fernando Ziech

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the nutritive value of pastures of Coastcross-1 and Tifton 85 mixed with increasing inclusion of forage peanut (0, 25, 50, 75% occupancy area, subjected to cuts, over two study years in Southwestern Paraná State. The experimental design was factorial (three factors distributed in randomized block. The factors were cultivars (2, the occupancy area of forage peanut (4 and seasons of cuts (5, with three replications. It was evaluated the percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and in vitro digestibility of dry matter of leaf blades, stem + sheath of grasses and available forage mass of pastures. Values of crude protein ranged from 17.0 to 20.4% and from 16.8 to 19.3% for the forage mass available of Coastcross-1 and Tifton 85, respectively. Higher digestibility values were found at the beginning of evaluations. On average, the Coastcross-1 showed better nutritive value compared to Tifton 85, and, the inclusion of forage peanut increased crude protein content in leaf blades of grasses studied, in the second year after planted.

  3. Genetic variability of populations of Nyssomyia neivai in the Northern State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Carvalho Gasparotto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The genetic study of sandfly populations needs to be further explored given the importance of these insects for public health. Were sequenced the NDH4 mitochondrial gene from populations of Nyssomyia neivai from Doutor Camargo, Lobato, Japira, and Porto Rico, municipalities in the State of Paraná, Brazil, to understand the genetic structure and gene flow. Eighty specimens of Ny. Neivai were sequenced, 20 from each municipality, and 269 base pairs were obtained. A total of 27 haplotypes and 28 polymorphic sites were found, along with a haplotypic diversity of 0.80696 and a nucleotide diversity of 0.00567. Haplotype H5, with 33 specimens, was the most common among the four populations. Only haplotypes H5 and H7 were present in all four populations. The population from Doutor Camargo showed the highest genetic diversity, and only this population shared haplotypes with those from the other municipalities. The highest number of haplotypes was sheared with Lobato which also had the highest number of unique haplotypes. This probably occurred because of constant anthropic changes that happened in the environment during the first half of the twentieth century, mainly after 1998. There was no significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances regarding these populations. However, the highest genetic and geographical distances, and the lowest gene flow were observed between Japira and Porto Rico. Geographical distance is a possible barrier between these municipalities through the blocking of haplotype sharing.

  4. Correlation maps to assess soybean yield from EVI data in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyce Kelly Dantas Araújo Figueiredo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vegetation indices are widely used to monitor crop development and generally used as input data in models to forecast yield. The first step of this study consisted of using monthly Maximum Value Composites to create correlation maps using Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor mounted on Terra satellite and historical yield during the soybean crop cycle in Paraná State, Brazil, from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. We compared the ability of forecasting crop yield based on correlation maps and crop specific masks. We ran a preliminary regression model to test its ability on yield estimation for four municipalities during the soybean growing season. A regression model was developed for both methodologies to forecast soybean crop yield using leave-one-out cross validation. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE values in the implementation of the model ranged from 0.037 t ha−1 to 0.19 t ha−1 using correlation maps, while for crop specific masks, it varied from 0.21 t ha−1 to 0.35 t ha−1. The model was able to explain 96 % to 98 % of the variance in estimated yield from correlation maps, while it was able to explain only 2 % to 67 % for crop specific mask approach. The results showed that the correlation maps could be used to predict crop yield more effectively than crop specific masks. In addition, this method can provide an indication of soybean yield prior to harvesting.

  5. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Paraná state, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CCZ. Branco

    Full Text Available Seasonal dynamics of macroalgal communities was analyzed monthly by samplings in three stream segments of the Pedras River Basin, mid-south region of Paraná State, southern Brazil, from April 2004 to March 2005. The seasonal fluctuations in macroalgal species richness and abundance were correlated with selected environmental variables. In general, the seasonal distribution patterns of these communities were distinct from those reported from other tropical and temperate regions, with higher macroalgal richness and abundance observed from late spring to late fall. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the stream variable most closely related with the temporal distribution pattern observed was temperature, which had a very similar seasonal pattern to the biological parameters. On the other hand, the floristic composition was quite diverse in the streams sampled. Among the 25 taxa identified, only two were common to the three streams whereas 15 were restricted to a single sampling site. These data indicate that, although temperature seems to be an effective relationship with global temporal pattern, particular characteristics of each stream can strongly influence the seasonal tendencies in local scale. The results of Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Cluster Analysis corroborated this observation.

  6. Aspectos espaciais do escorpionismo em Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Mayara Kotviski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os acidentes por animais peçonhentos, o escorpionismo vem crescendo de forma significativa nas áreas urbanas de todo o país. Considerando que Ponta Grossa é o município com o maior número desse tipo de acidentes no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, o presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a situação do escorpionismo na cidade, com base na utilização de registros de acidentes e reclamações de ocorrência de escorpiões nas residências, entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2010. As coordenadas geográficas dos endereços em que houve notificações de acidentes foram coletadas, digitalizadas e espacializadas, resultando em um cartograma georreferenciado. Os coeficientes de incidência calculados para o período revelaram que Ponta Grossa apresentou 113,3 casos por 100 mil habitantes, sendo que os bairros Colônia Dona Luiza, Neves e Chapada foram os que apresentaram maior risco da ocorrência de acidentes. A investigação dos fatores determinantes desse agravo se deu por meio de análise visual e estatística, indicando áreas verdes, rede hidrográfica e rede de esgoto como as principais variáveis a ele associadas.

  7. conelchilenoresistentearte, Solidaridad: Chile Vive, una Exposición en España contra el Chile Dictatorial withthechileanresistantart, Solidarity: Chile Vive, an Exposition in Spain against the Dictatorial Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Godoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1987 se realiza en Madrid Chile Vive, megaexposición que incluye diferentes manifestaciones artísticas para dar cuenta de la vitalidad cultural de Chile en dictadura. El ensayo, partiendo de una discusión conceptual sobre el problema de la exposición de arte latinoamericano en el extranjero, analiza la configuración de esta exposición, centrándose en las artes visuales como alineación unitaria de un discurso político de país, además de examinar su repercusión en la prensa española de la época. Por otro lado, reflexiona sobre las inclusiones y exclusiones de artistas y las proyecciones de Chile Vive en el problema de la exposición del arte chileno en el extranjero, particularmente el de un periodo tan complejo como el producido durante la dictadura militar.In 1987, Chile Vive, a mega-exhibition that included different artistic expressions, was performed in Madrid to inform people about the cultural vitality of Chile during their dictatorship. This essay will focus on a conceptual discussion about the problem of Latin American art exhibitions abroad. It will analyze the configuration of the mentioned exhibition, focusing on visual arts as a unitary alignment of a political discourse of nation. The text will also examine the repercussion in the Media of Spain in that period of time. On the other hand, the article will develop some thoughts on the artists incorporations, exclusions and projections of Chile Vive, focusing on why the exhibition of Chilean art abroad might be problematic, particularly the ones that belongs to this complex period of time; the military dictatorship.

  8. The species of Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmeunella, and Parmeunopsis (Parmeliaceae, Lichenized Ascomycotina from the "segundo planalto" in the state of Paraná, Brazil Espécies de Canomaculina, Myelochroa, Parmelinella e Parmelinopsis (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycotina Liquenizados do segundo planalto do Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sionara Eliasaro

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the species of Canomaculina Elix & Hale, Myelochroa (Asahina Elix & Hale, Parmelinella Elix & Hale and Parmelinopsis Elix & Hale occuring in the "Segundo Planalto" in the State of Paraná. Keys Identification are given. Six species are reported for the first time for Paraná. Parmelinella wallichiana is cited for the first time for the American continent.Este estudo descreve as espécies de Canomaculina Elix & Hale, Myelochroa (Asahina Elix & Hale, Parmelinella Elix & Hale e Parmelinopsis Elix & Hale ocorrentes no Segundo Planalto do Estado do Paraná. São apresentadas chaves para a identificação das espécies. Seis espécies são citadas pela primeira vez para o Estado do Paraná. Parmelinella wallichiana é citada pela primeira vez para o Continente Americano.

  9. Capsaicinoides en chiles nativos de Puebla, México

    OpenAIRE

    Morán-Bañuelos, S. Hirán; Aguilar-Rincón, V. Heber; Corona-Torres, Tarsicio; Castillo-González, Fernando; Soto-Hernández, R. Marcos; San Miguel-Chávez, Rubén

    2008-01-01

    Los recursos genéticos del chile (Capsicum spp.) son importantes por ser la fuente natural de capsaicinoides que confieren el sabor picante a los frutos. Los reportes sobre la amplitud de esta característica en los chiles nativos cultivados por agricultores tradicionales en México son escasos. Por tanto, el objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar y cuantificar los capsaicinoides predominantes en 22 poblaciones recolectadas en nueve municipios de Puebla, México, mediante la extracción de...

  10. Intelectuais e política no Chile: Apontamentos sobre a revista Aurora de Chile (1938-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia M.C. Melo

    Full Text Available Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é o de examinar a revista Aurora de Chile que circula em Santiago entre 1938-1940. Criada por Pablo Neruda esta publicação apresentou-se como um importante órgão de comunicação da Alianza de Intelectuales de Chile para la Defensa de la Cultura (AICH, entidade fundada em articulação com outras organizações internacionais de intelectuais e com orientação da Comintern. A revista situou-se nos debates políticos e culturais desses anos no Chile e atuou vigorosamente na defesa dos princípios da democracia, das liberdades públicas e contra o fascismo. Neste estudo busco demonstrar o papel desta revista como uma das vozes da perspectiva frentista que passou a orientar o Partido Comunista Chileno no período.

  11. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  12. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  13. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urriola

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  14. Approach of physiotherapy in collective health in a fishing community - paraná state litoral area: a learning project whitin the Federal Universtiy of Paraná -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia da CRUZ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fisioterapia no campo da Saúde Coletiva revela crescentes possibilidades de atuação profissional. A população do Litoral do Paraná que vive em pequenas comunidades isoladas encontra-se à margem das políticas públicas de atenção à saúde. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a experiência da aproximação de uma realidade pouco conhecida, permeando uma abordagem inovadora da fisioterapia na Saúde Coletiva em uma comunidade, denominada “Tromomô”, do município de Guaraqueçaba, litoral paranaense. Nela residem trinta famílias, geograficamente isoladas que se deparam com a inexistência de políticas públicas que respeitem seu modo de vida e sua história. O acesso é somente pela baia e a atenção à saúde depende de outras localidades situadas a mais de 30 minutos de barco, em boas condições de maré. A metodologia utilizada abordou aspectos quali e quantitativos. Estabelecendo um vínculo com a comunidade, foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas aos moradores, seguidas de formulário de investigação sócio-econômica e de saúde acompanhados de registro etnográfico. Observou-se a falta de atendimento de equipes de saúde, de coleta de resíduos, de tratamento da água e de um trapiche de acesso às embarcações. A etapa de campo ainda identificou ausência de saneamento básico e, algumas casas, sem energia elétrica. A partir da aplicação do Questionário Nórdico para mapear as condições osteomusculares, observou-se prevalência de algias, especialmente em região lombar. Cruzando-se os dados deste instrumento com a abordagem qualitativa, observou-se que grande parte desses sintomas emerge das atividades laborais relacionadas à pesca, coleta e atividades domésticas. Elaborouse então uma proposta de interação interdisciplinar em saúde que constou de oficinas e rodas de conversa abordando aspectos como promoção à saúde, cidadania, sustentabilidade e meio ambiente. Observamos a importância da

  15. The political structures and its influences in sport development in the state of Paraná, Brazil: the case of athletics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenamar Fiorese Vieira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate political structures and its influence over sport talents development in athletics, in the state of Paraná, having as basis the BRONFENBRENNER (1979, 1992, 1995 ecological systems theory. The model for this study was the person- process- context – time biological paradigm. Informer's record, semi-structured interview, research diary and documents, were used to collect the data. The sample comprised athletics talented individuals (14, their relatives (13, coaches (7 directors from Paraná Esporte (3 and a State Secretary for Sports of Paraná. Category contents analysis through outlines, enumeration and categories were used to analyze the data. The results showed that two historical periods happened at state government level: from 1983 to 1990, with the development of programs and projects that instigated athletics talent development in the state of Paraná; from 1991 to 1998 such policy had no continuity, which depreciated athletics in the state. The state governments structure dynamics at the different periods interfered significantly in the Paraná's athletics talents development. Therefore, the personal trajectory of each of these talented individuals is characterized by a unique process, closely related to many years of training process, being dependent of administrative structures.

  16. Japanese red cedar as an alternative species for wood production in the State of Paraná Criptoméria como espécie alternativa para produção de madeira no Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarbas Yukio Shimizu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Japanese red cedar (Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. D. Don. is an important alternative tree species for
    wood production in the State of Paraná. This study reports on the performance of this species from different geographic origins in comparison to a previously introduced population of unknown origin. The test plantations were established in three locations in the State of Paraná. The sites differed in soil types as well as in mean annual rainfall. Provenance performances varied in frost tolerance and in growth traits. Among planting sites, Cantagalo was the most productive due to better soil quality than in other sites. Also, the mean annual rainfall at Cantagalo site is higher (1,831 mm than in Rio Negro and Colombo (1,420 mm and 1,407 mm, respectively. The seed origins with the greatest potential for wood production in the State of Paraná are the Japanese prefectures of Nara, Miyagi, and Shimane, where mean annual temperatures are higher than 12 oC. Seeds brought from cold sites such as Toyama and Akita prefectures resulted in slow growing stands in the State of Paraná.A criptoméria (Cryptomeria japonica (L. F. D. Don. é uma espécie alternativa potencial para produção de madeira no Estado do Paraná. Neste estudo, foram comparadas as produtividades de plantios feitos com
    sementes de várias origens com um material genético existente no País, introduzido de origem desconhecida. Os plantios experimentais foram estabelecidos em três locais, com tipos de solos e precipitações  luviométricas
    médias anuais distintos. Houve variações entre origens quanto à intensidade de danos causados pelas geadas
    e, também, quanto ao crescimento das árvores. Dentre os locais em que foram plantados os experimentos, o maior potencial de produção de madeira de criptoméria foi verificado em Cantagalo, onde o solo é caracterizado como Cambissolo de basalto e há maior precipitação pluviométrica (1.831 mm/ano, em compara

  17. [Fertility Survey, Metropolitana region, Chile 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    A fertility study was carried out by the Chilean Association for Protection of the Family (APROFA) in metropolitan Chile in 1989 to update data from the most recent fertility study in 1974. A random and self-weighted sample of 600 women aged 15-44 in 32 urban communes of the metropolitan region were interviewed in November 1989. 55% were married or in stable consensual unions, 39.1% were single, and 5.9% were separated, divorced, or widowed. 24.1% had primary educations, 15.5% had some form of higher education, and .2% were illiterate. 64.2% of the women had children, of whom 63.8% had 1 or 2. Only 2.1% had 6 or more children. 46.2% felt that the ideal family size was 1-2 children and 30.7% that it was 3 children. 40.4% of women with children wanted another child and 59.6% did not. 25.1% of the sample had never had sexual relations, 7.3% had not had sexual relations in the 12 months prior to the interview, and the remaining 67.6% were sexually active. At the time of the survey 6.1% were pregnant and 11.1% had had a birth in the preceding 12 months. 28.3% of these pregnancies were considered unwanted, usually for economic reasons or because the family was considered complete. 55.6% of the sample reported using contraceptives. 48.6% used IUDs, 26.0% used oral contraceptives, 6.9% periodic abstinence methods, and 1.8% barrier methods. Only 7.5% of women aged 15-19 used contraception. Rates of use stabilized after age 25 at about 72%. 80.9% of women married or in union used a method, as did 20.2% of single and 59.3% of separated or divorced women. The data for the survey are still under analysis and all statistics are provisional.

  18. O gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae no estado do Paraná, Brasil The genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Asteraceae: Vernonieae in the Paraná state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Grokoviski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo abrange o gênero Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. A metodologia consistiu no levantamento bibliográfico, coleta de material e observação de campo, estudos morfológicos e taxonômicos do material vivo e herborizado. Foram confirmadas para o Estado do Paraná nove espécies, sendo quatro escandentes: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker e P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; e cinco arbóreas: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker e P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições morfológicas, época de floração e frutificação, nomes populares, distribuição geográfica, comentários e ilustrações para cada táxon estudado.The present study analysed the genus Piptocarpha R.Br. (Vernonieae: Asteraceae in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The methodology consisted of examining literature, botanical collections and field observations, morphological and taxonomic study of herborized specimens. Nine species were confirmed, four of these are scandent species: Piptocarpha leprosa (Less. Baker, P. oblonga (Gardner Baker, P. quadrangularis (Vell. Baker and P. sellowii (Sch.Bip. Baker; and five are trees species: Piptocarpha angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, P. axillaris (Less. Baker, P. densifolia Dusén ex G.L. Smith, P. macropoda (DC. Baker and P. regnellii (Sch.Bip. Cabrera. Identification key, descriptions, flowering and fruiting time, popular names, geographical distribution, comments and illustrations are provided for each studied taxa.

  19. Sementes de soja produzidas em épocas de safrinha na região oeste do Estado do Paraná = Soybean seeds produced in out season in west of Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Paiola Albrecht

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de soja em safrinha é prática que se consolida, em termos de opção, para a entressafra, podendo servir também à produção de sementes de soja. O presente trabalho foi conduzido com objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes épocas de semeadura, na safrinha da soja, sobre a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária das sementes de três cultivares de soja, na região oeste do Estado do Paraná. Para tanto, foram conduzidos quatro ensaios, no ano de 2005, com delineamento em blocos completos casualizados, instalando-se um ensaio em quatro épocas de semeadura (15/01, 30/01, 15/02 e 15/03. Os cultivares estudados foram CD 202, CD 215 e CD 216. As sementes foram avaliadas por meio dos testes de germinação e de vigor (primeira contagem e envelhecimento acelerado e a sanidade por meio do “blotter test”. As sementes produzidas no período de safrinha no ano de 2005, para ascondições edafoclimáticas da região oeste do Estado do Paraná, não foram favoráveis à obtenção de sementes de alta qualidade fisiológica.The soybean culture in out season as a practice that consolidates in terms of an option between harvests, could also serve to the production of soybean seeds. The present work was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of sowing in out season, on physiological and sanitary quality of seeds of three soybeans cultivars, in west of Paraná state. For such way were conducted four assays in the year of 2005, arranged in a completely randomized blockdesign, with each assay sown in different dates (01/15, 01/30, 02/15 and 03/15. The studied cultivars were CD 202, CD 215 and CD 216. The seeds were evaluated by germination and vigor tests (first counting and accelerated aging and of health. The seeds produced in “outseason” in the year of 2005, to the environmental conditions of the west of Paraná state were not favorable to the attainment of high physiological quality seeds.

  20. Susceptibilidad de Biomphalaria tenagophila de las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay a Schistosoma mansoni Susceptibility of Biomphalaria tenagophila from the Paraná and Uruguay river basins to Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Edgardo Borda

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de estudiar la posibilidad de extensión de la esquistosomiasis a las cuencas de los ríos Paraná y Uruguay se expusieron experimentalmente a infección por Schistosoma mansoni 1 711 caracoles criados en laboratorio a partir de ejemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila recolectados en 15 poblaciones de dicha zona geográfica. Se utilizaron tres cepas de S. mansoni: la BH2, adaptada a B. glabrata, y las cepas SJ y SJ2, adaptadas a B. tenagophila. No se produjo infección de ninguno de los 543 caracoles expuestos a la cepa BH2 ni de los 668 expuestos a la SJ. En cambio, de los 500 expuestos a la cepa SJ2, fueron susceptibles a la infestación 4 de 163 caracoles (2% procedentes de Ayolas, una localidad de la cuenca del Paraná, y 8 de 45 (18% de los procedentes de Fuente Salto, en la cuenca del Uruguay. Estos hallazgos son similares a los de otras áreas geográficas en las que se han encontrado poblaciones de B. tenagophila que no se infectan y otras que sí son susceptibles a S. mansoni. Los resultados de este trabajo señalan la posibilidad de expansión de la esquistosomiasis a una amplia región de Sudamérica en la que se halla B. tenagophila.To study the possibility that schistosomiasis might be able to spread into the basins of the Paraná and Uruguay rivers, 1 711 snails were experimentally exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. These snails were laboratory-bred progeny of Biomphalaria tenagophila collected from 15 populations in the geographic area under consideration. Three strains of S. mansoni were used: BH2, adapted to B. glabrata, and SJ and SJ2, adapted to B. tenagophila. None of the 543 snails exposed to the BH2 strain became infected, nor did any of the 668 exposed to SJ. However, of the 500 exposed the SJ2, 4 of 163 snails (2% from Ayolas, a locality in the Paraná basin, were susceptible, as were 8 of 45 (18% from Fuente Salto, in the Uruguay basin. These findings are similar to those of studies done in other

  1. O papel do CITS1 na política de desenvolvimento tecnológico no Paraná The role of CITS on the policy on technological development in Paraná state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Tadahiro Shimajv

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisam-se as implicações da produção de software no Paraná. Como produção de bem intangível, há contribuições para a expansão do Sistema Setorial de Inovação. O foco da análise é o Centro Internacional de Tecnologia de Software e sua trajetória natural em direção à capacitação para a inovação radical de forma híbrida. Discute-se a integração entre os conceitos de Sistema Nacional de Inovação e Triple Helix (TH e apresenta-se sua evolução no Brasil e no Paraná (Sistema Local. O software é a pura expressão do atual paradigma tecnológico. É necessária uma forte política de desenvolvimento centrada nas tecnologias de informação, em função do papel revolucionário exercido nas economias centrais. O CITS se encaixa perfeitamente nessa nova dinâmica, estabelecendo uma estratégia clara de aquisição de competências e construindo uma rede de conhecimento nos níveis micro, meso e macroeconômico. A evolução da fase atual do CITS implicará uma forte ação da TH.This article analyses the implications of the software production in Paraná state, which strongly contributes to the expansion of the Sectoral Innovation System. The focus is on CITS - Centro Internacional de Tecnologia de Software (International Centre of Software Technology and its natural trajectory towards the capability for a radical innovation in a hybrid way. It discusses the integration between the concepts of the National System of Innovation and the Triple Helix (TH and presents its evolution in Brazil, more specifically in Paraná State (Local System. As a pure expression of the current technological paradigm, the software implies a strong policy on development centred on the generic information technologies because of the revolutionary role that such technologies have exercised on central economies. CITS perfectly fits this new dynamics, establishing a clear strategy for acquisition of competencies and building a network of knowledge

  2. Evictions and the Right to Housing: Experience from Canada, Chile ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This book tells the story of evictions and planned evictions in the Canadian cities of Vancouver, Toronto, and Calgary. It explores the housing plight of Santiago de Chile's urban poor during the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. It looks at how the 500th anniversary of Columbus's arrival in America resulted in mass ...

  3. How Local Market Pressures Shape Leadership Practices: Evidence from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Fromm, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Chile is well known worldwide for its extensive use of market-driven mechanisms in education. Using a case study strategy in three schools, this paper shows that "universal" voucher system and mixed provision (co-existence of subsidised private and state-funded schools) policies are reshaping school management practices. The paper draws…

  4. All projects related to chile | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Project. While countries in Latin America have a relatively plentiful supply of water on a per-capita basis and high coverage of water supply services, there is ample evidence that water scarcity is affecting the daily lives of millions. ... Impact of Prices and Taxes on Tobacco Product Use in Argentina,Bolivia,and Chile. Project.

  5. [Brucellosis in Chile: Description of a series of 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Roberto; Vidal, Pamela; Sotomayor, Camila; Norambuena, Mackarenna; Luppi, Mario; Silva, Francisco; Cifuentes, Marcela

    2017-06-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. It may be acquired by consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Brucellosis has a low incidence in Chile, thus, we have a scarce data. To report and to characterize the first series of clinical cases of adult patients diagnosed with brucellosis in Chile. We describe a series of 13 clinical cases in patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2016 in three different centers in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical presentation, laboratory, antibiotic treatment, morbidity and mortality. The mean age was 50 years old. Eight cases had a record of consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The most frequently reported complaints were fever. The most frequent focal point involved was the spine. Only one patient had a positive blood culture, while the diagnosis was made using serological techniques in the other part of the group. The most indicated antibiotic regimens were doxycycline-rifampicin and doxycycline-gentamicin. The hospital stay was 20 days approximately as an average. Clinical cure was achieved in all cases. Brucellosis is an infrequent zoonosis in Chile, and it produces a nonspecific clinical picture, so it is necessary to have high suspicion to make the diagnosis based in the antecedent of consumption of unpasteurized dairy or raw meat.

  6. Dynamics of Investment for Market-Oriented Farmers in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes, A.; Kuyvenhoven, A.; Lensink, R.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Using panel data from a survey conducted in 2006 and 2008 of 177 market-oriented farmers in central Chile, we investigate investment under imperfect capital markets. Specifically we determine the impact of formal credit constraints on fixed investment. By controlling for endogeneity problems, we

  7. Integrated geophysical characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, earthquake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman, Matthew W.; Nealy, Jennifer L.; Yeck, William L.; Barnhart, William D.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Benz, Harley M.

    2017-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a Mw 8.3 earthquake ruptured the subduction zone offshore of Illapel, Chile, generating an aftershock sequence with 14 Mw 6.0–7.0 events. A double source W phase moment tensor inversion consists of a Mw 7.2 subevent and the main Mw 8.2 phase. We determine two slip models for

  8. La prensa satírica de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Refiere el autor sobre la revista más vendida de Chile y convertida en el referente obligado de la prensa alternativa en Latinoamérica. De humor descarnado, irreverente, de marcado rechazo a la Dictadura militar de Pinochet y en la búsqueda constante por revelar las contradicciones de la sociedad chilena.

  9. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  10. Chile : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Plusieurs études ont montré que certaines formes de réseautage d'affaires collaboratif peuvent avoir une incidence positive sur l'innovation, les résultats financiers et le développement régional. Région: Chile, El Salvador, Paraguay, Uruguay. Programme: Initiative Think tank. Financement total : CA$ 250,000.00.

  11. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  12. The histories and destinies of Chile and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    In Strangers on Familiar Soil, Edward Dallam Melillo shows how Californians and Chileans each have one foot on their land and the other connecting them through the Pacific Ocean. Melillo reframes our understanding of US history in the west and links the histories and destinies of Chile and California from 1786 to the current day. Contrary to popular belief, Melillo...

  13. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  14. All projects related to chile | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-07-11

    The Impact of Price, Tax, and Advertising Policies on Alcohol Use in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. Project. Alcohol consumption in the Americas comes at a considerable cost. End Date: July 11, 2017. Topic: SURVEYS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, POLICY MAKING, LOW INCOME GROUPS, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, ...

  15. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2014-01-01

    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique kn...

  16. Reforming Educational Reform: Teachers' Union Leading Teacher Research in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecinos, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…

  17. El Caso del Dinero Desaparecido Chile 1984-1986

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Larraín; Aníbal Larraín

    1988-01-01

    Between the third quarter of 1984 and the second one of 1986, Chile's real money balances (seasonally adjusted, real MI) decreased by 11%. In the same period, Gross Domestic Product grew by 12.3% and the effective short-term interest rate systematically d

  18. All projects related to chile | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Latin American Schoolnets (REDAL) network and the Latin American Education Portals Network (RELPE) have made a substantive contribution to ... The municipality of Peñalolén in Santiago, Chile, is characterized by great socioeconomic diversity and strong social networks (clubs for the elderly and young people, ...

  19. Triassic volcanic units in coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basso, M.; Cortes, J.A.; Marinovic, N

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb geochronological evidence of a Middle to Late Triassic volcanic event was found in the coastal region of Antofagasta, northern Chile (23 o -23 o 30 ). Two new ages were obtained from rhyolitic tuffs and an associated dome, which have classically been attributed to the Jurassic La Negra Formation (au)

  20. Cooperating to compete : associative peasant business firms in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdegué Sacristán, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990 the government of Chile has carried out a major effort to support the participation of small scale agriculture in one of the most liberalized and competitive economies of the developing world. In particular, the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), and agency of the Ministry of

  1. Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave , SE,Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Chileno por Crímenes de ‘Caravana de la Muerte ’,” Agencia Mexicana de Noticias, October 15, 2008. 64 “Chile Arrests 25 Ex-Military On Rights Abuse

  2. Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

  3. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Pallister; Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson; Richard P. Hoblitt; Jacob B. Lowenstern; John C. Eichelberger; Lara. Luis; Hugo Moreno; Jorge Munoz; Jonathan M. Castro; Andres Iroume; Andrea Andreoli; Julia Jones; Fred Swanson; Charlie Crisafulli

    2010-01-01

    There was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaiten volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which...

  4. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  5. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, F.; Valenzuela, E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  6. Evolution in Freedom? The Meanings of "Free School" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leihy, Peodair; Martini, Héctor Arancibia; Armijo, Pablo Castillo; Fernandez, José Saldaña

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the background in which enterprises called free schools, as well as complementary educational activities, have taken root in Chile. Two kinds of recently burgeoning free schools are identified; one supplementing regular schooling with a social justice focus, and another that is a fully fledged alternative to other schooling.…

  7. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  8. The Araucanian Indian in Chile. IWGIA Document 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdichewsky, Bernardo

    One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…

  9. Somatotype of children and adolescent the city of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Elisabete Ribeiro Pinto Guedes

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses somatotype components with relation to chronological age and gender, in members of the child and adolescent population of the city of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The sample comprised 1180 subjects from 7 to 17 years old selected at random. Somatotypes were determined by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. From the results obtained it was concluded that endomorphy in boys was affected little by change in age, whereas in girls it exhibited increasing values, in particular from the start of adolescence on. Mesomorphy decreased slightly in both sexes year by year. Ectomorphy gradually increased from 7 to 12 years in girls and then tends to decline once more. The boys reached their highest levels in this component at age 16. On average, endomorphy was greater in girls than in boys at all ages. In contrast, boys exhibited consistently higher mesomorphy and ectomorphy values . Comparisons with other studies suggest similarities in the distribution of somatotype components, but point to signifi cant differences in their dimensions. p> RESUMO O estudo analisa os componentes do somatótipo em relação à idade cronológica e ao sexo em integrantes da população de crianças e adolescentes pertencentes ao município de Londrina – Paraná – Brasil. A amostra utilizada constituiu-se de 1180 sujeitos, com idades entre 7 e 17 anos, selecionados de forma aleatória. Para a determinação do somatótipo recorreu-se ao método proposto por Heath-Carter, envolvendo medidas antropométricas. Mediante os resultados encontrados conclui-se que, entre os rapazes, a endomorfia foi pouco sensível a modificações com a idade. Entre as moças, esse componente demonstrou valores crescentes, particularmente a partir do início da adolescência. Com relação à mesomorfia, ambos os sexos apresentaram valores ligeiramente menores a cada ano durante todo o período etário estudado. A ectomorfia apresentou valores gradualmente mais elevados dos 7

  10. Space geodiversity review: a case study in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosso, Fernando; Tauana Basso, Bruna; Alcindo Da Roza, Douglas; Souza dos Santos, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Considering the strong global concern for nature protection, improvements emerge to support techniques to understand physical and biological means of selecting areas for environmental conservation. Most techniques take into consideration mainly the biological characteristics of nature, however as the nature is a complex of biotic and abiotic elements it becomes thus necessary the creation of parameters to understand the diversity of abiotic elements, their distribution, occurrence, threats and values as well. This paper aims to identify, quantify and perform a spatial analysis of the distribution of geodiversity in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, from the different concepts of geodiversity with the use of techniques on digital cartographic database in a Geographic Information System - GIS. Gray (2004) conceptualized geodiversity as the natural distribution of geology, including rocks, minerals, fossils, soil characteristics, land forms and processes (geomorphology), and their connections. Geodiversity is composed by the variability of abiotic nature, including lithological elements, tectonic, geomorphological, edaphic, hydrological, topographical and physical processes of the Earth surface, seas, oceans, together with natural endogenous, exogenous and anthropogenic processes that include a diversity of particles, elements and places (Serrano and Ruiz Flaño, 2007). Different methods of quantitative assessment of geodiversity in different territories were applied by Carcavilla et al (2007), Pellitero and González-Amuchastegui (2010), Navarro (2010), Katerina and Dušan (2008), Serrano et al (2007; 2009), Kozlowski (2010), Zwolinski and Stachowiak (2012), Thomas (2012), Hjort and Luoto (2010; 2012), Pellitero et al (2014), and Silva (2014). Considering geodiversity as the abiotic elements which constitute the landscape; it is important to mention that such set may vary spatially according to the occurrence of different geological formations, rock

  11. Bacterial Community Associated with Fish and Water from Congonhas River, Sertaneja, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Américo de Sousa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A bacteriological study was conducted on fish and water from Congonhas River, Sertaneja (22º58’ S; 50º58’ W, Paraná State, Brazil. From 44% of the analysed fish, bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus were isolated. The group most frequently isolated from fish was Aeromonas. In the water, the bacterial groups detected were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus and Flavobacterium, from which Flavobacterium and Acinetobacter were the most abundant. The numbers of Colony Forming Units per millilitre of water varied from 3.1x10² to 1.0 x 10³. Although a clear pattern was not detected in the susceptibilities/resistances of the isolated strains to nine antimicrobial substances, Gram negative aerobic bacteria were more resistant than the other strains. A simultaneous resistance to furazolidone, oxolinic acid and norfloxacin, particularly in the bacteria isolated from fish, as well as in the aerobic strains isolated from water was observed. The antimicrobial substances to which less resistances were found were oxytetracycline in the strains isolated from water, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, oxytetracycline and chloramphenicol in those isolated from fish.Foi realizado um estudo da comunidade bacteriana de peixes e da água do rio Congonhas, próximo à sua foz no rio Tibagi, município de Sertaneja, Paraná, Brasil. De 44% dos peixes analisados, foram isoladas estirpes de Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococcus, Bacillus e Lactobacillus. Destas, a mais abundante foi Aeromonas. Na água do rio Congonhas foram detectados os grupos Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillus e Flavobacterium, dos quais os predominantes foram Flavobacterium e Acinetobacter. Os números de unidades formadoras de colônias por mililitro de água variaram entre 3,1x10² e 1,0x10³. Embora não tenha

  12. Environmental water quality assessment in Guaratuba bay, state of Paraná, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byanka Damian Mizerkowski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An environmental assessment of the estuarine waters of Guaratuba bay, Paraná State, Brazil, is provided through the analysis of physical-chemical, biological and hydrographic dynamics. Twelve stations with a bi-monthly frequency (from October/2002 until August/2003 were sampled during spring and neap tides for the determination of pH, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, suspended particulate matter and dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and silicate. Based on the evaluation of six parameters (chlorophyll, Secchi depth, CO2 saturation, dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and dissolved oxygen, Guaratuba Bay shows a low to medium trophic status, i.e. from meso- to oligotrophic, and a predominant heterotrophic metabolism, meaning that respiration overcomes primary production. Horizontal stratification was observed during the rainy season, while during the dry season the system showed more homogeneous conditions. Inorganic and/or organic matter in Guaratuba Bay seem to be controlled mainly by the seasonality of precipitation and/ also by ebb and flood tidal phase variations.A dinâmica das variáveis físico-químicas, biológicas e hidrográficas, em escalas temporal e espacial, sua variabilidade e tendências, permite avaliar a qualidade ambiental de estuários. Esse trabalho descreve as flutuações da qualidade de água da Baía de Guaratuba, sul do Estado do Paraná. Foram amostrados doze pontos em campanhas bimensais (outubro/2002 a agosto/2003, em situação de sizígia e de quadratura, para a análise das variáveis pH, transparência, saturação de CO2, oxigênio dissolvido, clorofila-a, material particulado em suspensão e nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos (nitrato, nitrito, amônio, fosfato e silicato. Considerando as seis variáveis descritoras da qualidade de água (clorofila-a, profundidade de Secchi, saturação de CO2, fósforo e nitrogênio inorg

  13. Conncomitant bovine viral diarrhea, mycotoxicosis, and seneciosis in cattle from northern Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selwyn Arligton Headley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the causes of mortality in cattle from northern Paraná, southern Brazil, during which 9.5% (23/242 of Nellore cows died after clinical manifestations of uncoordinated gait, fever, transient bloody diarrhea, dyspnea, and lateral decumbency. All cattle were maintained on poor pastures, and ingested moldy silage and sprouts of Senecio brasiliensis. Serum samples (n=17 were collected for virus neutralizing (VN antibodies assays against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1. Three cows were necropsied; fragment of tissue samples collected during necropsy from two cows were used in polymerase chain reaction (PCR and reverse transcription- PCR assays to identify BoHV-1 and BVDV; blood samples (n=6 were obtained for hematological and biochemical analyses. Significant gross findings of all cows included increased liver consistency, intestinal bleeding, and pulmonary hemorrhage. Histopathology revealed hepatic fibrosis, hemorrhagic enteritis, renal tubular necrosis, pulmonary hemorrhage, and widespread vasculitis. All serum samples contained VN antibodies against BoHV-1, but only four of these reacted positively to BVDV. The RTPCR assays amplified specific amplicons of the untranslated region of BVDV from tissues samples of both animals; direct sequencing and sequence analyses demonstrated that these sequences clustered within the BVDV subgenotype 1d; all PCRs were negative for BoHV-1. Toxicological analyses of the moldy silage demonstrated elevated concentrations of ochratoxin (75.94 ?g/kg. Laboratory evaluations revealed renal and hepatic dysfunctions. These findings confirmed the combined actions of BVDV-1d infection and toxicosis by mycotoxin and S. brasiliensis in cattle mortality at this farm.

  14. Hillslope chemical weathering across Paraná, Brazil: A data mining-GIS hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Fabio; Friedel, Michael J.; Filho, Carlos Roberto de Souza; Fraser, Stephen J.

    2011-09-01

    Self-organizing map (SOM) and geographic information system (GIS) models were used to investigate the nonlinear relationships associated with geochemical weathering processes at local (~100 km 2) and regional (~50,000 km 2) scales. The data set consisted of 1) 22 B-horizon soil variables: P, C, pH, Al, total acidity, Ca, Mg, K, total cation exchange capacity, sum of exchangeable bases, base saturation, Cu, Zn, Fe, B, S, Mn, gammaspectrometry (total count, potassium, thorium, and uranium) and magnetic susceptibility measures; and 2) six topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, hydrological accumulated flux, horizontal curvature and vertical curvature. It is characterized at 304 locations from a quasi-regular grid spaced about 24 km across the state of Paraná. This data base was split into two subsets: one for analysis and modeling (274 samples) and the other for validation (30 samples) purposes. The self-organizing map and clustering methods were used to identify and classify the relations among solid-phase chemical element concentrations and GIS derived topographic models. The correlation between elevation and k-means clusters related the relative position inside hydrologic macro basins, which was interpreted as an expression of the weathering process reaching a steady-state condition at the regional scale. Locally, the chemical element concentrations were related to the vertical curvature representing concave-convex hillslope features, where concave hillslopes with convergent flux tends to be a reducing environment and convex hillslopes with divergent flux, oxidizing environments. Stochastic cross validation demonstrated that the SOM produced unbiased classifications and quantified the relative amount of uncertainty in predictions. This work strengthens the hypothesis that, at B-horizon steady-state conditions, the terrain morphometry were linked with the soil geochemical weathering in a two-way dependent process: the topographic relief was a factor on

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia: survival analysisof patients at a university hospital of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Lunardon Padilha

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic factors correlated with survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia at the Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná between 2003 and 2009, as well as to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile. Methods: The overall survival and disease-free survival were statistically evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test and multivariate evaluation by Cox regression analysis. Results: The study population was predominantly younger than 60 years old (81,6%, had intermediate cytogenetic risk (40.8%, in first complete remission after induction chemotherapy (46.9%, with a white blood count at diagnosis of less than 30 × 109 /L (57.1% and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (62.2%. Survival curves showed that better prognosis was related to age below 60 years (median:12,4 months; p-value = 0,2227; Odds Ratio = 0,6676, good pro- gnostic cytogenetic markers (median: 97.7 months; p-value = 0.0037; Odds Ratio = 0.4239 and white blood cell count at diagnosis of less than 30 × 109 /L (median survival: 23.6 months; p- value = 0.0001; Odds Ratio = 0.3651. Regarding the French-American-British subgroups, the median overall survival was 23.5 months for M0, M1 and M2, 97.7 months for M3 and 7.4 months for M4, M5, M6, and M7 (p-value = 0.0288. Conclusion: Prognostic factors strongly influenced patient survival, as well as guided treat- ment. Moreover, these factors were consistent with the available literature adjusted for the population in question.

  16. Water quality monitoring of the Pirapó River watershed, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Bortoletto

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Pirapó River watershed in Paraná, Brazil, and identify the critical pollution sites throughout the drainage basin. The water quality was monitored during the period from January 2011 to December 2012. Nine points distributed throughout the main channel of the Pirapó River were sampled for a total of 17 samplings. The water quality was evaluated based on the determination of 14 physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Analysis of the variables monitored in the Pirapó River watershed using factor analysis/principal components analysis (FA/PCA indicated the formation of three distinct groups of parameters: water temperature (Twater, dissolved oxygen (DO and a group composed of total suspended solids (TSS, turbidity and nitrite (NO2–. The parameters Twater and DO exhibited a relationship with the seasonality, and the TSS, turbidity, and NO2– levels were correlated with surface runoff caused by rainfall events. Principal component analysis (PCA of the sampling points enabled the selection of the 10 most important variables from among the 14 evaluated parameters. The results showed that the nitrate (NO3–, NO2–, TSS, turbidity and total phosphorous (TP levels were related to the soil type, and the parameters DO, electrical conductivity (EC, ammoniacal nitrogen (N-NH3 and thermotolerant coliforms (TC were related to organic matter pollution, with the P5 sampling site being the most critical site. The ordination diagram of the sampling points as a function of the PCA indicated a reduction from 9 to 5 sampling points, indicating the potential for decreasing the costs associated with monitoring.

  17. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Curimatidae (Pisces, Characiformes) from the middle Paraná River (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassesco, M S; Pastori, M C; Roncati, H A; Fenocchio, A S

    2004-06-30

    Almost all species of the Curimatidae family have a stable karyotype, with a diploid number of 54 metacentric (M) and submetacentric (SM) chromosomes, and one sole nucleolus organizer pair. This family has considerable specific diversity in Argentinean fluvial basins; however, no cytogenetic data are available. Eight species from the Paraná River (Argentina): Cyphocharax voga, C. spilotus, C. platanus, Steindachnerina brevipinna, S. conspersa, Curimatella dorsalis, Psectrogaster curviventris, and Potamorhina squamoralevis were analyzed cytogenetically. Chromosome preparations were obtained from direct samples and through cell culture, and they were processed for conventional, C- and nucleolar organizer region-banding. Six of the species exhibited the standard family karyotype, with 2n = 54 M-SM and fundamental number of chromosomes (FN) = 108, as well as variations in the chromosome formula, and in heterochromatic and nucleolar organizer regions. Though nucleolar organizer regions were located on only one chromosome pair, they varied in both carrier chromosomes and pairs involved. On the other hand, C. platanus showed a complement of 2n = 58 M-SM and subtelocentric with FN = 116, and P. squamoralevis presented 2n = 102, with some M-SM and a large number of acrocentric chromosomes. Even though the karyotype macrostructure appears to be conserved, the speciation process within the family has been accompanied by micro-structural rearrangements, as evidenced by pattern diversity in the heterochromatin and nucleolar organizer regions. Some changes in chromosome macrostructure have also occurred in this group, primarily in C. platanus and P. squamoralevis, in which there have been centric dissociations and inversions.

  18. Hillslope chemical weathering across Paraná, Brazil: a data mining-GIS hybrid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Fabio; Friedel, Michael J.; Filho, Carlos Roberto de Souza; Fraser, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Self-organizing map (SOM) and geographic information system (GIS) models were used to investigate the nonlinear relationships associated with geochemical weathering processes at local (~100 km2) and regional (~50,000 km2) scales. The data set consisted of 1) 22 B-horizon soil variables: P, C, pH, Al, total acidity, Ca, Mg, K, total cation exchange capacity, sum of exchangeable bases, base saturation, Cu, Zn, Fe, B, S, Mn, gammaspectrometry (total count, potassium, thorium, and uranium) and magnetic susceptibility measures; and 2) six topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, hydrological accumulated flux, horizontal curvature and vertical curvature. It is characterized at 304 locations from a quasi-regular grid spaced about 24 km across the state of Paraná. This data base was split into two subsets: one for analysis and modeling (274 samples) and the other for validation (30 samples) purposes. The self-organizing map and clustering methods were used to identify and classify the relations among solid-phase chemical element concentrations and GIS derived topographic models. The correlation between elevation and k-means clusters related the relative position inside hydrologic macro basins, which was interpreted as an expression of the weathering process reaching a steady-state condition at the regional scale. Locally, the chemical element concentrations were related to the vertical curvature representing concave–convex hillslope features, where concave hillslopes with convergent flux tends to be a reducing environment and convex hillslopes with divergent flux, oxidizing environments. Stochastic cross validation demonstrated that the SOM produced unbiased classifications and quantified the relative amount of uncertainty in predictions. This work strengthens the hypothesis that, at B-horizon steady-state conditions, the terrain morphometry were linked with the soil geochemical weathering in a two-way dependent process: the topographic relief was a factor on

  19. Caracterização do reciclador da ONG RRV em Londrina-Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lali Bazo

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Existem poucas informações a respeito das condições de trabalho do reciclador e dos efeitos do exercício dessa atividade. OBJETIVO: Investigar o ambiente de trabalho, a postura e o perfil dos recicladores da Associação Reciclar Reciclando a Vida (RRV da cidade de Londrina, Paraná, Brasil. METODOLOGIA: A pesquisa qualiquantitativa foi realizada com 18 recicladores por meio de uma entrevista com um formulário de dados (gerais/ocupacionais e um check list, buscando uma visão ergonômica do ambiente de trabalho. RESULTADOS: O grupo de trabalhadores estudado exerce a atividade de recicladores há 3[0,8-8] anos. Em relação às doenças sistêmicas, 22% relataram hipertensão arterial e cardiopatias e 39% cefaleia. A presença de dor em MMSS aumentou (p = 0,04 e houve uma tendência de aumento de dor em MMI e cervical (p = 0,08 com o exercício da atividade de reciclador. Em relação ao ambiente de trabalho, foram constatados condições adversas à salubridade humana, além de odor desagradável, sendo que nenhum dos recicladores faz uso de equipamentos de segurança do tipo Equipamento de Proteção Individual (EPIs. Entre as posturas adotadas na execução de suas atividades, grande parte dos recicladores permanece em pé e carrega peso a maior parte de sua jornada de trabalho. CONCLUSÃO: A atividade do reciclador está ligada ao ambiente e a posturas inadequadas de trabalho. O perfil do trabalhador envolvido nessa atividade é o de mulheres com baixos índices de escolaridade e de remuneração.

  20. Agenciar palavras, fabricar sujeitos: sentidos da educação inclusiva no Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagner Carniel

    Full Text Available Resumo O texto aborda os usos políticos e pedagógicos de uma concepção de inclusão educacional que adquiriu proeminência na gestão pública da educação brasileira durante a primeira década deste novo milênio. Para tanto, lança mão de uma reflexão construída a partir da inserção como técnico do Departamento de Ensino Básico na divisão de sociologia e tomando como eixo de discussão a interlocução com uma profissional que participou ativamente da organização da Secretaria de Estado da Educação do Paraná entre os anos de 2003 e 2011. Desse modo, o objetivo desta análise não se refere às experiências de pessoas em fase de escolarização, mas ao projeto institucional que pretendeu inseri-las em categorias pedagógicas relativamente estáveis e passíveis de inclusão fomentando um processo de organização estatal com base na nomeação e normatização de sujeitos. Trata-se, portanto, de uma tentativa de apresentar as práticas de gestão e sua justificativa discursiva em relação ao multiculturalismo, destacando as prerrogativas da educação inclusiva para pessoas surdas.

  1. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

    2010-12-01

    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, δ3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep

  2. Ichnology applied to sequence stratigraphic analysis of Siluro-Devonian mud-dominated shelf deposits, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedorko, Daniel; Netto, Renata G.; Savrda, Charles E.

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies of the Paraná Supersequence (Furnas and Ponta Grossa formations) of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil have yielded disparate sequence stratigraphic interpretations. An integrated sedimentological, paleontological, and ichnological model was created to establish a refined sequence stratigraphic framework for this succession, focusing on the Ponta Grossa Formation. Twenty-nine ichnotaxa are recognized in the Ponta Grossa Formation, recurring assemblages of which define five trace fossil suites that represent various expressions of the Skolithos, Glossifungites and Cruziana ichnofacies. Physical sedimentologic characteristics and associated softground ichnofacies provide the basis for recognizing seven facies that reflect a passive relationship to bathymetric gradients from shallow marine (shoreface) to offshore deposition. The vertical distribution of facies provides the basis for dividing the Ponta Grossa Formation into three major (3rd-order) depositional sequences- Siluro-Devonian and Devonian I and II-each containing a record of three to seven higher-order relative sea-level cycles. Major sequence boundaries, commonly coinciding with hiatuses recognized from previously published biostratigraphic data, are locally marked by firmground Glossifungites Ichnofacies associated with submarine erosion. Maximum transgressive horizons are prominently marked by unbioturbated or weakly bioturbated black shales. By integrating observations of the Ponta Grossa Formation with those recently made on the underlying marginal- to shallow-marine Furnas Formation, the entire Paraná Supersequence can be divided into four disconformity-bound sequences: a Lower Silurian (Llandovery-Wenlock) sequence, corresponding to lower and middle units of the Furnas; a Siluro-Devonian sequence (?Pridoli-Early Emsian), and Devonian sequences I (Late Emsian-Late Eifelian) and II (Late Eifelian-Early Givetian). Stratigraphic positions of sequence boundaries generally coincide with

  3. Genetic divergence between Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in the Paraná River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS. Bignotto

    Full Text Available Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eingenmann and Eigenmann, 1889 are large migratory catfishes of high biological importance and great commercial value in South America. Because fertile crossbreeds can be artificially produced in hatcheries, a high genetic proximity between these two Pimelodidae species is conceivable. Possible escape of crossbred specimens from pisciculture stations is a serious environmental concern. Despite their importance, knowledge of P. corruscans and P. reticulatum biology, ecology, population diversity and genetics is limited. In the present work, the genetic divergence between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum populations from the Paraná River Basin was analyzed on the basis of polymorphisms in ISSR fragments and in the hypervariable sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region. Estimates of intraspecific haplotype (h > 0.5 and nucleotide diversities (π < 0.01 indicate that P. corruscans and P. reticulatum have survived a historical population decline, followed by a demographic expansion. The interspecific polymorphisms within the mtDNA control region and ISSR fragments were suitable as diagnostic molecular markers and could be used to discriminate the two species. A unique Pseudoplatystoma specimen, captured in the Upper Paraná River Floodplain, was identified by these DNA diagnostic markers as a hybrid P. reticulatum x P. corruscans, which possibly escaped from pisciculture. The integrity of the natural population of P. corruscans in the Upper Paraná River is at risk of genetic introgression or homogenization due to the presence of hybrids and the transposition of P. reticulatum upstream through the Canal da Piracema at Itaipu Dam. Data presented herein improve the understanding of the genetic relatedness between P. corruscans and P. reticulatum and represent potential tools for future programs of conservation and surveillance of genetic introgression

  4. The socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Matías

    2012-11-01

    Illegal drug use and trafficking are closely connected to crime. This article estimates the socioeconomic impact of this connection in Chile. Goldstein's tripartite model was applied quantifying drug-crime connections and then using those estimates to measure the socioeconomic impact of drug-related crimes. This was estimated in terms of both the monetary cost of law enforcement, and lost productivity due to incarceration. This socioeconomic impact can be divided into: (a) the direct costs arising from infractions to Chile's Drug Law, and the indirect costs originated by crimes linked only partially to drug consumption and trafficking; (b) is measured in productivity losses, as well as in costs to the three branches of Chile's criminal justice system (police, judiciary, and prisons); and (c) is attributed to the three illicit drugs most prevalent in Chile: cannabis, cocaine hydrochloride (CH) and cocaine base paste (CBP). The socioeconomic impact of Chile's drug-crime relationship in 2006 is estimated to be USD 268 million. Out of this amount, 36% is spent on national Drug Law enforcement, and the remaining 64% comes from the connection of drug use and trafficking with non-Drug-Law-related crimes. The police bear the largest share of drug enforcement costs (32%), followed by penitentiaries (25%). Productivity losses due to incarceration for drug-related crimes represent 29% of the total impact. 53% of the costs are attributable to CBP, 29% to CH, and the remaining 18% to cannabis. The impact of CBP is greater when indirect costs are taken into account, although direct costs are primarily associated with CH. The majority of costs is attributed to the trafficking and consumption of CBP, a drug with a relatively low prevalence. Based on the results, this study suggests reviewing drug enforcement policies to differentiate them according to the social and individual harm caused by each drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. O Fundef no Paraná: reflexões sobre os impactos na oferta e no financiamento educacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Barbosa Gouveia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents some discussions about the FUNDEF impacts in Paraná state and analyses the matriculate data and financing data in 1996-2000 period in state government and in five cities. The principal conclusions show that FUNDEF has a small impact in elementary school level, but presents indirect effect in education to children (0-6 years old and high school. In financing field, we found three FUNDEF´s possible effects: education budget deficit compensation, complementation of budget to elementary level and a stable font of budget complementation to education.

  6. Decapod crustaceans from rocky shore at Farol Island, Matinhos, Paraná, Brazil. I: temporal distribution of population densities

    OpenAIRE

    Masunari, Setuko; Oliveira, Edinalva; Kowalczuk, Vânia Graciele Lezan

    1998-01-01

    A study of the temporal distribution of the decapod populations from a rocky shore at Farol Isle, Matinhos, State of Paraná, Brazil (25o51'S e48o32'W) was carried out. The rocky shore is 13m wide when the tidal level is zero meter and about 8o inclination. In the supralittoral, the rocky basins is mostly covered by a layer of litter coming from the terrestrial environment. In the midlittoral and upper infralittoral, the rocky slope is overlayed by boulders and pebbles and they constitute a hi...

  7. Festivais Matsuris como referencial cultural e turístico da etnia japonesa em Curitiba (Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Bahl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata sobre Matsuris, festivais da etnia japonesa realizados na cidade de Curitiba, Paraná (Brasil. É um estudo de caso de caráter descritivo com a intenção de resgatar parte do histórico de imigração japonesa no Brasil, a fim de perceber a importância dos festivais Matsuris como referencial da etnia e como forma de inserção social do grupo na capital paranaense. Utilizando pesquisa bibliográfica, busca eletrônica e observação direta intensiva, o estudo traz como resultado a descrição dos três festivais mais importantes da etnia na cidade (Hana Matsuri, Imin Matsuri e Haru Matsuri, demonstrando a relação dos mesmos como referencial étnico japonês e a apresentação do resultado de pesquisa de campo empreendida em 2009, junto ao Hana Matsuri e ao Imin Matsuri. Também evidencia a importância da existência de produtos étnicos culturais para um grupo de imigrantes, principalmente em uma capital cosmopolita como Curitiba, que contemplem o significado real de sua cultura, sem que se tornem apenas um bem de consumo.  Matsuris Festivals as cultural and turistic benchmark of japonese ethnicity in Curitiba (Paraná, Brazil. The article discusses about the Matsuris, Japanese ethnic festivals realized in Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil. It is a descriptive case study that intends to briefly redeem part of the history of Japanese immigration in Brazil, in order to understand the importance of Matsuris festivals as an ethnic referential and as a kind of social insertion of the group at the capital of Paraná. Using literature search, electronic search and intensive direct observation, the study results in a description of the three most important festivals of the ethnic group in the city (Hana Matsuri, Imin Matsuri and Haru Matsuri, showing their relation as an ethnic Japanese referential and showing the result from the field research applied in 2009, during the Hana Matsuri and Imin Matsuri Festivals. It also highlights the

  8. Diversidade de formigas epígeas em três ambientes no noroeste do Paraná - Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Halison Correia Golias

    2008-01-01

    As formigas são insetos que exercercem importante papel como bioindicadores, pragas agrícolas, controle biológico, polinizadores e dispersores de sementes. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer e comparar a diversidade de formigas em três ambientes (fragmento florestal, pomar de laranja e pomar de limão) do noroeste do Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas com armadilhas pitfall, sendo utilizados copos plástico com 7,5 cm de diâmetro por 11,5 cm de altura, enterrados totalmente no, solo. Foram insta...

  9. Pensando os papéis e significados das pequenas cidades do noroeste do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Endlich, Angela Maria [UNESP

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho inicia-se a partir de um olhar de estranheza sobre o processo de declínio demográfico que ocorre em vários municípios com pequenos núcleos urbanos, na Região Noroeste do Paraná. Nesta área constitui-se, em ritmo acelerado, uma formação socioespacial, baseada num complexo econômico capitalista fundamentado na economia cafeeira. O surgimento de uma densa rede urbana, com muitas pequenas cidades, decorreu de atributos peculiares daquele momento, quando tais localidades explicavam-s...

  10. School learning among the Kaingang indigenous people in the State of Paraná: language, literacy and language learning issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Célia Faustino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies the issues of literacy and language learning in relation to the mother tongue of the Kaingang indigenous people in the state of Paraná. Based on data collected in field research, literature and documents (2007-2010, it discusses the public policies for social inclusion and the current policy of indigenous education developed in 1990 by the Ministry of Education - MEC. It also points out how this policy can foster the access to scientific knowledge among ethnic groups, increasing the chances of literacy, citizenship and indigenous autonomy.

  11. Poda e raleio manual de tangerineira (Citrus deliciosa Tenore) cv. Montenegrina no Sudoeste do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Rafael Dalla; Nava, Gilmar Antônio; Piva, André Luiz; Mezzalira, Éder Júnior; Paulus, Dalva

    2012-01-01

    O bom calibre e a coloração adequada dos frutos cítricos para consumo in natura são importantes fatores de qualidade que elevam o seu consumo e melhoram os preços do produto. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes intensidades de raleio manual dos frutos e da poda sobre a produção e qualidade dos frutos da tangerina Montenegrina. O experimento foi realizado em pomar comercial no município de Dois Vizinhos, no Sudoeste do Paraná. O experimento bifatorial (raleio x poda...

  12. Produção de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Adilson Anacleto; Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle

    2013-01-01

    Apresenta-se caracterização do processo de produção agrícola de bromélias no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, realizada a partir de visitas ao campo, observação participante e entrevistas, evidenciando-se particularidades e discrepâncias frente aos modelos já descritos na literatura especializada. Identificou-se como principal problema a padronização de cultivo adotada, que, embora facilite os tratos culturais e exija menos mão-de-obra do produtor, não contempla as necessidades individuais de cada e...

  13. Occurrence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered swine in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lia Ettiene Peruch Lemos dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in swine slaughtered in Iporã, Northwest Paraná state. Blood samples were obtained from 500 finishing swine. All animals were raised under intensive farming; the blood samples were analyzed using the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Animals with titers of ?64 were considered positive for T. gondii infection. Of the tested samples, 63 (12.6% were positive by IFAT; 58 (92.06% of these showed titers of 64 (4.7%, with titers 256 and two (3.1% titers of 1024. These pigs might be considered a source of T. gondii infection for humans

  14. A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842 (Carnivora, Canidae occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Tiepolo

    Full Text Available Abstract We report six new occurrence records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus, a widely distributed South American carnivore that is threatened with extinction. These records are accompanied by notes on the places where the records were made, such as vegetation type, date and information about the protection of areas. The records, obtained over the last 17 years in Paraná state, southern Brazil, offer an improved understanding of the species geographic range and the threats it faces and can enable better assessments of the conservation status of the species in southern Brazil.

  15. Comportamiento de céspedes de Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. en Paraná, Entre Ríos, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Laurencena, María I; Carponi, María S; Reinoso, Patricia D; Butus, Marina; Scorciapino, Claudia; Galli, Martín; Pérez, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    En zonas subtropicales o templadas cálidas las gramíneas estivales constituyen la base del césped pero presentan dormancia durante el invierno. Por ello es importante el conocimiento de céspedes con períodos de emergencia a implantación y vegetativo inactivo cortos, de textura fina, buen color, buen comportamiento sanitario y respuesta a fertilización. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento en el Departamento Paraná (Entre Ríos, Argentina) de céspedes de Cynodon dactylon (b...

  16. The first record of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the State of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Demilson Rodrigues Dos; Ferreira, Adão Celestino; Bisetto Junior, Alceu

    2012-10-01

    We report the first find of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the State of Paraná, Brazil. The specimens were captured in the urban area of the municipality of Foz do Iguaçu, with Falcão light traps, in domiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of 61 properties, on two consecutive nights from 18:00 to 06:00hs in March 2012. We captured 40 specimens of Lu. longipalpis and 54 specimens of other sandfly species. This find expands knowledge of the geographical distribution of this sandfly in Brazil.

  17. Worthy Women of Chile: What Role Did They Play? Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1995 (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Ruth A.

    This paper describes the lives of some notable women in the history of Chile from the time of the conquistadors to the present. The significant women described in the paper include: (1) Ines de Suarez (accompanied Pedro de Validivia in 1544); (2) Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (wife of Incan leader Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru, about 1780); (3) Gabriela…

  18. Álcool e adolescência: o perfil de consumidores de um município do norte do Paraná Alcohol y adolescencia: el perfil de los consumidores de un distrito municipal del norte de Paraná Alcohol and adolescence: the consumer's of a municipal district of the north of Paraná profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Maria Assis Alavarse

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar o consumo de álcool entre os adolescentes estudantes na faixa etária de 13 a 19 anos de um município do norte do Paraná. As informações foram obtidas através de um questionário aplicado nas escolas de ensino público e privado do município de Apucarana-Paraná, com 976 estudantes, e os dados foram processados no Programa Epi-Info 6.0. Os resultados mostram que 82,18% dos adolescentes entrevistados já experimentaram álcool, 66,39% iniciaram o uso entre 8 e 14 anos, 71,61% experimentaram em casa com os pais e 25% dos entrevistados já beberam até a embriaguez. Por isso, conclui-se que novas estratégias de intervenção são necessárias, envolvendo um trabalho multiprofissional com saúde, educação, segurança pública, esporte e lazer, por meio de ações preventivas de saúde, sistematizadas e contínuas, fortalecendo assim, suas relações.La siguente investigación fué realizada con el objetivo de evaluar el consumo de alcohol entre los estudiantes adolescentes en el grupo de edad de 13 a 19 años, de un distrito municipal del norte de Paraná. La información se obtuvo a través de una encuesta aplicada en las escuelas pública y privadas del distrito municipal de Apucarana-Paraná, con 976 estudiantes, siendo los datos analizados por el Programa Epi-Info. Los resultados indican que 82,18% de los adolescentes entrevistados ya habían probado el alcohol, el 66,39% empezaron a consumir entre los 8 y 14 años, el 71,61% probaron en casa con los padres y el 25% de los encuestados habían bebido hasta la embriaguez. Por consiguiente se deduce que nuevas estrategias de intervención son necesarias. Involucrando un trabajo multiprofesional con la salud, la educación, la seguridad pública, deportes y ocio, a través de acciones preventivas de salud, sistematizadas y continuas, fortaleciendo de esta forma sus relaciones.The present research was accomplished with the

  19. Gravidade das intoxicações por inseticidas inibidores das colinesterases no noroeste do estado do Paraná, Brasil Gravedad de las intoxicaciones por insecticidas inhibidores de colinesterasa en el noroeste del estado do Paraná, Brasil Severity of the intoxications by cholinesterase inhibitor insecticides registered in the nothwest of the state of Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Lúcia Félix de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva discutir a gravidade de intoxicações por inseticidas inibidores das colinesterases, ocorridas no Noroeste do Paraná, a partir de estudo descritivo exploratório, com análise retrospectiva de fichas epidemiológicas do Centro de Controle de Intoxicações do Hospital Universitário de Maringá, Paraná, referentes a pacientes intoxicados entre janeiro de 1994 a dezembro de 2005. Foram analisados 529 casos, 168 (31,7% por organofosoforados e 167 (31,5% por carbamatos. A tentativa de suicídio representou 257 casos (48,5%, a exposição ocupacional 140 (26,5%, e a acidental 124 (23,5%. Comparando o número de intoxicações severas e óbitos, verificou-se taxa de 100% de óbitos para casos de exposições ocupacionais severas, 20% para a tentativa de suicídio e 7,5% óbitos para as intoxicações acidentais classificadas como severas. A alta incidência de intoxicação grave e mortalidade sugerem estratégias preventivas no que diz respeito à utilização destes inseticidas, objetivando restringir o acesso indiscriminado a estes potentes agentes tóxicos.Este artículo objetiva discutir la gravedad de las intoxicaciones por insecticidas inhibidores de las colinesterasa, ocurridas en el Noroeste de Paraná, a partir de estudio descriptivo exploratorio, con análisis retrospectivo de fichas epidemiológicas del Centro de Control de Intoxicaciones del Hospital Universitario de Maringá, Paraná, Brasil, referidas a pacientes intoxicados entre enero de 1994 y diciembre de 2005. Fueron analizados 529 casos, 168 (31,7% por organofosforados y 167 (31,5% por carbamatos. El intento de suicidio representó 257 de los casos (48,5%, la exposición ocupacional 140 (26,5%, y la accidental 124 (23,5%. Comparando el número de intoxicaciones severas y óbitos, se verifico una tasa de 100% de óbitos para casos de exposiciones ocupacionales severas, 20% para el intento de suicidio y 7,5% óbitos para las intoxicaciones accidentales

  20. Occurrence and toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) in the Paraná River, downstream of the Yacyretá dam (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forastier, Marina Elizabet; Zalocar, Yolanda; Andrinolo, Dario; Domitrovic, Hugo Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria constitute the main toxin producers in inland water ecosystems and have extensive global distribution. The presence of hepatotoxins in aquatic environments is hazardous to human and animal health; even though the presence and identification of hepatotoxic microcystins in rivers and reservoirs of the world have been confirmed by several studies in the last few years. Herein, we studied the abundance and toxicity of Microcystis aeruginosa in the Argentine section of the Paraná River at the beginning of the Middle Paraná (Corrientes Hydrometer), near Corrientes city (27º28´ S - 58º51´ W) and approximately 220 km downstream of the Yacyretá dam (High Paraná). The Paraná River basin, with a drainage area of 3.1 x 10(6) km(2) and 3 965 km in length, is the second largest catchment of South America, after that of the Amazon. The Paraná River is the main source of drinking water supply for the Northeastern Argentine region. Phytoplankton samples were collected and environmental variables were measured in a monthly basis (exceptionally fortnightly), from March 2004 to June 2008. Fifty-eight samples were analyzed for phytoplankton density and biomass. Five samples were used for toxicity testing; the latter were obtained during the cyanobacteria blooms from 2005 to 2008. Phytoplankton counts were performed with an inverted microscope, and biomass was expressed as biovolume. Bioassays with mice and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were performed to evaluate the presence of cyanotoxins. Phytoplankton mainly consisted of Cryptophyta, Chlorophyta and Bacillariophyta. Microcystis aeruginosa was identified during the warmer months each year (November to March). Density varied between 189 and 25 027 cells/mL (1-10 colonies/mL) and biomass from 0.34 to 44 mm(3)/L. Taking into account the number of cells, the highest abundance occurred in April 2004 (25 027 cells/mL), coinciding with the largest biovolume (44 mm(3)/L). All mice subjected to

  1. A new long-finned Corydoras Lacépède, 1803 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae from the lower rio Paraná basin, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. C. Tencatt

    Full Text Available A new species of Corydoras is described from the lower rio Paraná basin, just downstream from Itaipu Dam, Brazil, close to Paraguay boundary. The new species can be distinguished from most of its congeners by the infraorbital 2 with a posterior laminar expansion conspicuously reduced, first and second dorsal-fin branched rays conspicuously elongated in males, mesethmoid entirely covered by skin, and by the presence of four to six irregular black or brownish blotches on the midline of the flank. The probable occurrence of the new species in the floodplain of the upper portion of the rio Paraná drainage is discussed.

  2. Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides causando antracnose em frutos de pupunheira nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnosis on peach palm fruits in Minas Gerais and Paraná States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Vida

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes para palmito tem-se expandido para algumas regiões do Sudeste e Sul do Brasil, ocupando áreas abandonadas pela agricultura no espaço territorial de domínio da Mata Atlântica. Em plantas adultas de pupunheira, cultivadas para a produção de sementes nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná, verificou-se ocorrência de antracnose nos frutos, causando severa podridão. O fungo Colletotrichum gloeosporioides foi isolado de tecidos doentes e a sua patogenicidade aos frutos da pupunheira foi confirmada em condições controladas. Essa foi a primeira constatação da doença em frutos nos estados de Minas Gerais e Paraná.The cultivation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes for production of palm heart has increased in Southeast and Southern Brazil, in areas of domain of Atlantic Forest. Adult peach palm plants kept for seed production have suffered severe rot damages on fruits, resulting from coalescence of spots. The fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from the damaged tissues and its pathogenicity to peach palm fruits was confirmed under controlled conditions. This is the first report of this disease damaging peach palm fruits in the Minas Gerais and Parana States.

  3. Invasão da piranha Serrasalmus marginatus Valenciennes, 1847 no alto rio Paraná, Brasil (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae Observation of an invasion of the piranha Serrasalmus marginatus Valenciennes, 1847 (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae into the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Ferreira Júlio Junior

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A construção da barragem de Itaipu, 150 km a jusante do salto de Sete Quedas, resultou no afogamento da barreira geográfica natural, com conseqüente mistura das ictiofaunas. Serrasalmus marginatus (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae, uma espécie que apresentava distribuição restrita ao segmento a jusante de Sete Quedas, invadiu o alto rio Paraná. A captura de Serrasalmus spilopleura, uma espécie residente, diminuiu drasticamente após a invasão, ao contrário de S. marginatus que aumentou em abundância. No rio Piquiri, onde a espécie invasora não ocorreu, a abundância de S. spilopleura permaneceu alta por causa das quedas de Nhá Bárbara e Apertado.The building of Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the natural geographical barrier drowning, with subsequent mixing of the fish faunas. Serrasalmus marginatus (Osteichthyes, Serrasalmidae, a species that had been restricted to the river segment downstream from Sete Quedas, invaded the Upper Paraná River. The catching of Serrasalmus spilopleura, a resident species, decreased drastically after the invasion, contrary to S. marginatus, which increased in abundance. In the Piquiri River, where the latter species does not occur, the abundance of S. spilopleura remained high, due to the presence of Nhá Bárbara and Apertado Falls.

  4. Análise dos projetos de desenvolvimento dos vales dos rios Tietê e Paraná Analyzing the development projects for the Tietê and Paraná valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mendonça Bernardes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo avalia as alternativas propostas para a região dos vales dos rios Tietê e Paraná, no estado de São Paulo. Os projetos formalmente elaborados para a região foram analisados através do método da estrutura lógica. Tal método consiste em representar um projeto na forma de uma matriz 4 × 4 cujos elementos permitem a análise do projeto em questão pela utilização de critérios relacionados ao método científico, à análise de sistemas e ao ponto de vista da gerência de programas. Os resultados encontrados demonstraram a inconsistência nos planos e projetos existentes para a região.This article analyzes the proposed alternatives expressed in the plans and projects for the region of the Tietê and Paraná valleys, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The plans and projects were analyzed by the logical structure method, which consists in representing a project in a 4 × 4 matrix. The elements of the matrix make it possible to analyze the project using criteria related to the scientific method, systems analysis and program management. The results revealed inconsistencies in the existing plans and projects for the region.

  5. Vochysia Aubl. do Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.124 Vochysia Aubl. from the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Pedroso Ribas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se resultados de levantamento florístico das espécies de Vochysia Aubl. (Vochysiaceae St. Hil. no Estado do Paraná, baseado em material fresco coletado nas diversas regiões fitogeográficas deste Estado e em material exsicatado, depositado em herbários nacionais e estrangeiros. Foram registradas três espécies: V. tucanorum Mart., V. bifalcata Warm. e V. magnifica Warm. Inclui-se chave dicotômica para identificação, assim como descrições, nomes populares, usos, fenologia, distribuição geográfica e ilustrações para cada espécie identificada.The results of a floristic survey of Vochysia Aubl in the state of Paraná are presented. The analysis was based on fresh material collected in different regions of the state as well as on dried material from several national and foreign herbaria. Three species were registered: V. tucanorum Mart., V. bifalcata Warm . and V. magnifica Warm. A key to differentiate the species is presented and for each species, the botanical description, common names, phenology data, the geographic distribution, uses and illustrations are included.

  6. Jazz en Chile: su historia y función social Jazz in Chile: its history and social function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Menanteau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una visión general de la historia del jazz en Chile que destaca la función social de esta música y el cambio que tuvo a través del tiempo. Estos cambios se relacionaron con diferentes valoraciones de la práctica jazzística local. En un principio el jazz fue música popular masiva. Posteriormente fue valorado estéticamente por un segmento de élite, quienes eran profesionales en áreas no musicales y en muchos casos eran instrumentistas aficionados. En una tercera etapa, músicos profesionales asumieron la práctica del jazz como una plataforma para fusionar el lenguaje jazzístico con recursos tomados de la música tradicional chilena. Este tránsito del jazz en Chile está cruzado por factores socioeconómicos y estéticos, que se analizan en el trabajo.The article presents an overview of the history of jazz in Chile on the basis of the social function of jazz and the changes it has underwent over the years in terms of the valúes it has represented for Chilean society. Initially jazz was considered as mass popular music. Afterwards it was valued in aesthetic terms by a group belonging to the élite of Chilean society. Many of them belonged to non-music professions and in some cases were amateur musicians. Most recently professional musicians took up jazz as the basis for combining the jazz style with elements belonging to traditional music of Chile. This process in Chile is also influenced by social, economic and aesthetic aspects which are explored in this article.

  7. A greve dos professores no Paraná em 2015: política, subjetividade, resistência (Educational strikes in Paraná 2015: politics, subjectivity, resistance Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.15i2.0009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Duarte Costa Corrêa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: os ciclos de greves dos professores da rede pública de ensino doEstado do Paraná, que culminaram no trágico episódio repressivo de 29 de abril de 2015, foram atravessados por uma intensa disputa pela condução e pelo controle dos signos que se plasmariam na opinião pública. O governo estadual procurava alterar os significados sociais dos três eixos que, ao se confundirem ao infinito, compunham o potencial coletivo das greves dos professores do Estado: sua política, sua subjetividade e sua resistência. É ao redor desses três eixos, e de suas hibridações práticas, que se pretende analisar a conjuntura política dos ciclos das greves de 2015, descrevendo suas conexões inaparentes com as novas dinâmicas de manifestações populares, que encontram seu marco nos levantes que se iniciaram em junho de 2013, os processos de subjetivação envolvidos e as ramificações locais das lutas do público e do comum contra medidas de austeridade. Para tanto, o texto se vale do método de análise da conjuntura política que envolve o episódio de 29 de abril, fundada teoricamente em categorias filiadas pós-estruturalismo contemporâneo – sobretudo à obra de Michael Hardt e Antonio Negri – e empiricamente na análise de crítica de artigos de jornais, periódicos e sites a respeito do objeto de estudo. Palavras-Chave: Greves. Estado do Paraná. Movimentos Sociais. Contemporâneos. Análise de conjuntura.Abstract: The educational strikes in Paraná, which resulted in the tragic repressive episode of April 29th 2015, were crossed by an intense dispute to conduct and control the signs from which public opinion would later emerge. The State government tried to modify the social meaning of three political axes consisting in the collective potential of those strikes: their politics, subjectivity and forms of resistance. Concerning these three axes, and their processes and practices of hybridation, this essay aims to analyse the political

  8. Consórcios Intermunicipais de Saúde: o caso do Paraná, Brasil Inter-municipal health consortia: the case of Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cristina Stefano Nicoletto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os Consórcios Intermunicipais de Saúde (CIS surgiram no âmbito do SUS no final da década de 80. Os gestores municipais aderiram a essa estratégia, visando potencializar as ações e serviços de saúde oferecidos à população. Esta pesquisa analisou o perfil dos CIS do Paraná, Brasil, focalizando a assistência médica especializada. Os dados são dos relatórios sobre os consórcios realizados pelo Conselho Estadual de Saúde e dos questionários enviados para os vinte CIS. Os parâmetros utilizados foram a Portaria nº 1.101 e dados publicados do perfil do sistema de saúde do Paraná em 2000. Dos 399 municípios paranaenses, 81,5% integram CIS. Os especialistas são cedidos pelos municípios (4,4%, Estado (13,6%, união (12,8%, ou contratados pelo próprio CIS (69,2%. A oferta de consultas especializadas não é suficiente ou sua distribuição é feita de forma inadequada. Há falha no mecanismo de referência e contra-referência. O CIS é um instrumento viável para ampliar e potencializar a capacidade dos municípios em ofertar consultas especializadas; porém, há necessidade de ser utilizado com critérios, planejamento e adequado sistema de referência e contra-referência.Inter-municipal health consortia emerged in Brazil's Unified National Health System (SUS policy in the late 1980s. Municipal health administrators adhered to this strategy with the aim of upgrading health services supplied to the population. This research analyzes the profile of such consortia in Paraná State, focusing on specialized medical care. Data were obtained from reports by the State Health Council and questionnaires sent to all 20 existing municipal health consortia. Governmental Decree no. 1,101 and data published in 2000 on the profile of the health system in Paraná were used as references. Of the 399 municipalities in Paraná State, 81.5% have joined municipal consortia. Specialists are allocated by municipalities (4.4%, the State government (13

  9. Suscetibilidade magnética do horizonte B de solos do Estado do Paraná Magnetic susceptibility of B horizon of soils in the State of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Rodrigues da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Os minerais ferrimagnéticos maghemita (γFe2O3 e magnetita (Fe3O4 possuem alta relação com a disponibilidade de cátions metálicos e com a capacidade do solo em adsorver ânions como o fosfato. Uma percentagem expressiva dos solos brasileiros apresenta magnetização espontânea. No Estado do Paraná essa área corresponde a aproximadamente 50 %. A determinação da suscetibilidade magnética por unidade de massa (ΧBF é o método mais simples de identificar a presença e quantificar esses minerais nos solos. A BF é uma técnica rápida, barata, não destrutiva e de boa reprodutibilidade, que pode ser utilizada como critério nos estudos pedogenéticos em que os minerais ferrimagnéticos estão presentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do material de origem nos valores de ΧBF da terra fina seca ao ar (TFSA de amostras do horizonte B de solos do Paraná. As amostras foram coletadas em todo o Estado, num total de 45 pontos. Na TFSA foram determinados os valores de BF e da porcentagem da frequência dependente da suscetibilidade magnética (ΧFD. Os valores de suscetibilidade magnética dos solos formados sobre rochas eruptivas básicas foram significativamente maiores (1.000 a 7.800 x 10-8 m³ kg-1 que os encontrados em solos formados sobre rochas metamórficas e sedimentares (menores do que 500 x 10-8 m³ kg-1, demonstrando a influência do material de origem na presença de minerais ferrimagnéticos. Os valores de ΧFD indicaram a presenca de partículas superparamagnéticas (maghemita na maioria dos solos paranaenses.The ferrimagnetic minerals maghemite (γFe2O3 are closely related with metal availability and P adsorption capacity. Magnetization is spontaneous in a significant percentage of Brazilian soils. In the State of Paraná (Brazil this area represents up to 50 %. The determination of the mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (ΧBF is the simplest method of identification and quantification of ferrimagnetic

  10. Factores determinantes de la esperanza de vida en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planck Barahona-Urbina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: En las últimas décadas, Chile ha experimentado un fuerte crecimiento económico, lo que ha permitido mejorar las condiciones de vida de los ciudadanos. Objetivos: Determinar los factores asociados a la esperanza de vida en Chile. Diseño: Análisis econométrico. Lugar: Chile. Intervenciones: Aplicación del modelo de regresión múltiple con series temporales para el análisis de la esperanza de vida en Chile. Se utilizó datos de naturaleza agregada del Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE y el Banco Central de Chile para el período comprendido entre 1988 y 2008. Se utilizó como variable dependiente la esperanza de vida en años y, como variables explicativas, el PIB per cápita, número de médicos, número de enfermeras y gasto público en salud. Principales medidas de resultados: Factores asociados a la esperanza de vida. Resultados: Luego del análisis, los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que el ingreso per cápita, el número de médicos, número de enfermeras y el gasto en salud resultaron ser estadísticamente significativos, es decir, tienen un efecto positivo sobre la esperanza de vida de las personas. Conclusiones: A la luz de los resultados podría argumentarse lo beneficioso que puede resultar en términos cuantitativos un aumento del PIB per cápita a la hora de conseguir una mayor esperanza de vida de las personas. Igualmente, los resultados sugieren el efecto positivo que produce un incremento del número de personal médico en el país dado, pues esta variable ha permitido satisfacer la demanda sanitaria cada vez más creciente de la población. El aumento del presupuesto social en salud ha sido una variable que ha tenido un resultado positivo a la hora de valorar su efecto en la mejora de las condiciones de vida en Chile.

  11. Breves Notícias Sobre a Geologia dos Estados do Paraná e Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maack Reinhard

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present short survey of the geology of the States of Paraná and Santa Catarina was written as a text to accompany sketches for the revision of the GEOLOGICAL MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA. It contains the results of geologic research up to the year 1947 in most concise form, without going into detail. As requested, the occurrence of useful minerals was not considered in the summary, and the list of bibliographical references has been condensed to the uttermost. Inasmuch as the author treated the Passa Dois Series in more detail, due to the reorganization of the Gondwana beds, the Archean and the Algonkian had to be reduced to the minimum. This was possible, since the innumerable details of the phenomena in the crystalline complex could not be represented in a geologic map of the given scale. The reorganization of the geologic constituents of Paraná and Santa Catarina is summarized in Stratigraphic Table nº 2, and is explained by the enclosed sketches.

  12. Landscape structure in the northern coast of Paraná state, a hotspot for the brazilian Atlantic Forest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Emed Kauano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Serra do Mar" region comprises the largest remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The coast of the Paraná State is part of the core area of the "Serra do Mar" corridor and where actions for biodiversity conservation must be planned. In this study we aimed at characterizing the landscape structure in the APA-Guaraqueçaba, the largest protected area in this region, in order to assist environmental policies of this region. Based on a supervised classification of a mosaic of LANDSAT-5-TM satellite images (from March 2009, we developed a map (1:75,000 scale with seven classes of land use and land cover and analyzed the relative quantities of forests and modified areas in slopes and lowlands. The APA-Guaraqueçaba is comprised mainly by the Dense Ombrophilous Forest (68.6% of total area and secondary forests (9.1%, indicating a forested landscape matrix; anthropogenic and bare soil areas (0.8% and the Pasture/Grasslands class (4.2% were less representative. Slopes were less fragmented and more preserved (96.3% of Dense Ombrophilous Forest and secondary forest than lowlands (71.3%, suggesting that restoration initiatives in the lowlands must be stimulated in this region. We concluded that most of the region sustains well-conserved ecosystems, highlighting the importance of Paraná northern coast for the biodiversity maintenance of the Atlantic Forest.

  13. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  14. Textural evidence for high-grade ignimbrites formed by low-explosivity eruptions, Paraná Magmatic Province, southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Ana Carolina F.; Gravley, Darren M.; Gualda, Guilherme A. R.; Nardy, Antonio J. R.

    2018-04-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Province is a Lower Cretaceous huge bimodal tholeiitic volcanic province (1 million·km3) that predated the Gondwana breakup. Its silicic portion makes up a total volume of at least 20,000 km3 and in southern Brazil it comprises the Chapecó porphyritic high-Ti trachydacites-dacites and the Palmas microporphyritic-aphyric low-Ti dacites-rhyolites. The widespread silicic sheets are debated in the literature because they bear similarities between lavas and high grade ignimbrites. Here we provide new observations and interpretations for flow units with large, dark, and vesicle-poor lens-shaped blobs surrounded by a light-colored matrix. The textural features (macro- to micro-scale) of these blobs are different from typical pumice and/or fiamme and support a low explosivity pyroclastic origin, possibly low-column fountain eruptions with discharge rates high enough to produce laterally extensive high-grade ignimbrites. Such an interpretation, combined with a conspicuous absence of lithic fragments in the deposits, is aligned with a lack of identified calderas in the Paraná-Etendeka Province. Maximum timescales of crystallization associated with the juvenile blobs and estimated from CSD slopes are on the order of millennia for phenocryst populations and on the order of decades for microphenocryst populations.

  15. The fluoride in the groundwater of Guarani Aquifer System: the origin associated with black shales of Paraná Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M. L.; Vieiro, A. P.; Machado, G.

    2008-09-01

    This work presents petrological and geochemical results of the black shales interval from Permian and Devonian strata of the Paraná Basin, Brazil and its relationships with fluoride of groundwater from Guarani Aquifer System. The Guarani Aquifer, located in South Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentine, presents contents of fluoride higher than the Brazilian accepted potability limits. Several hypotheses have been presented for the origin of the fluoride in the groundwater of the Guarani Aquifer. Microcrystalline fluorite was registered in black shales of Ponta Grossa and Irati formations from Paraná Basin. The results shown in this work suggest that fluoride present in groundwater of Guarani Aquifer can be originated in deeper groundwater that circulates in Ponta Grossa and Irati formations. The interaction of the groundwater coming from deeper black shales with the groundwater-bearing Aquifer Guarani System occurs through regional fragile structures (faults and fractures) that constitute excellent hydraulic connectors between the two sedimentary packages. The microcrystalline fluorite registered in Ponta Grossa and Irati Formations can be dissolved promoting fluoride enrichment in groundwater of these black shales and Guarani Aquifer System.

  16. Reproductive aspects of piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus marginatus into the upper Paraná River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, C S

    2003-02-01

    Construction of the Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the drowning of that natural geographic barrier, with consequent invasion of Serrasalmus marginatus in the upper stream. This event was followed by the reduction in the abundance of the native species, S. spilopleura. Analyzes of reproductive activity these species revealed that in lotic waters S. marginatus had a very intense reproductive activity while activity of S. spilopleura was nil. This, probably made it possible for the invading species to occupy new environments into the Upper Paraná River, using the river as an entry port. In the 1987-1988 period there was a marked decline in reproductive activity of S. spilopleura reflecting the negative effects of its interaction with the invading species, S. marginatus. The assertiveness of S. marginatus in caring for its offspring and aggressiveness in establishing its feeding territory may be the determining factor for its competitive superiority over S. spilopleura, and consequently its success in colonizing the Upper Paraná River. In addition to the negative interference of S. marginatus, a possible recruitment failure of S. spilopleura could have benefited the colonization of the floodplain by the invader species.

  17. [The nutritional status of Kaingang and Guarani indigenous peoples in the State of Paraná, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaretto, Juliana Dias; Molena-Fernandes, Carlos Alexandre; Pimentel, Giuliano Gomes de Assis

    2015-08-01

    This study arose from the need to comprehend epidemiological aspects to establish a policy for physical activity for indigenous peoples. Although infectious diseases are still the main causes of suffering in these ethnic groups, chronic diseases have emerged due to the process of epidemiological/nutritional change in indigenous peoples subject to the policy of life on reservations. The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of indigenous peoples belonging to two ethnic groups in the State of Paraná. Anthropometric data were collected on 178 adults belonging to the Kaingang (n = 117) and Guarani (n = 61) indigenous ethnic groups. The prevalence of being overweight in Guarani and Kaingang adults was 32.3% and 41%, respectively, detecting a prevalence of obesity in the order of 3.2% among the Guarani indigenous people and 12.8% among the Kaingang ethnic group. Anthropometric changes observed among the Guarani and Kaingang indigenous peoples of Paraná are of increasing concern according to some studies. Thus, the results of this study reinforce the need for integrated actions such as nutritional guidance and physical activity during leisure time for the promotion of the health of these populations.

  18. Reproductive aspects of piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus marginatus into the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho C. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction of the Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the drowning of that natural geographic barrier, with consequent invasion of Serrasalmus marginatus in the upper stream. This event was followed by the reduction in the abundance of the native species, S. spilopleura. Analyzes of reproductive activity these species revealed that in lotic waters S. marginatus had a very intense reproductive activity while activity of S. spilopleura was nil. This, probably made it possible for the invading species to occupy new environments into the Upper Paraná River, using the river as an entry port. In the 1987-1988 period there was a marked decline in reproductive activity of S. spilopleura reflecting the negative effects of its interaction with the invading species, S. marginatus. The assertiveness of S. marginatus in caring for its offspring and aggressiveness in establishing its feeding territory may be the determining factor for its competitive superiority over S. spilopleura, and consequently its success in colonizing the Upper Paraná River. In addition to the negative interference of S. marginatus, a possible recruitment failure of S. spilopleura could have benefited the colonization of the floodplain by the invader species.

  19. Reproductive aspects of piranhas Serrasalmus spilopleura and Serrasalmus marginatus into the Upper Paraná River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Agostinho

    Full Text Available Construction of the Itaipu Dam, 150 km downstream from Sete Quedas Falls, resulted in the drowning of that natural geographic barrier, with consequent invasion of Serrasalmus marginatus in the upper stream. This event was followed by the reduction in the abundance of the native species, S. spilopleura. Analyzes of reproductive activity these species revealed that in lotic waters S. marginatus had a very intense reproductive activity while activity of S. spilopleura was nil. This, probably made it possible for the invading species to occupy new environments into the Upper Paraná River, using the river as an entry port. In the 1987-1988 period there was a marked decline in reproductive activity of S. spilopleura reflecting the negative effects of its interaction with the invading species, S. marginatus. The assertiveness of S. marginatus in caring for its offspring and aggressiveness in establishing its feeding territory may be the determining factor for its competitive superiority over S. spilopleura, and consequently its success in colonizing the Upper Paraná River. In addition to the negative interference of S. marginatus, a possible recruitment failure of S. spilopleura could have benefited the colonization of the floodplain by the invader species.

  20. Educação profissional integrada ao ensino médio no Paraná: limites e possibilidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Cleide da Silva Czernisz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto analisa a integração do ensino médio à educação profissional, desenvolvida pelo Estado do Paraná no período de 2003 a 2010. Os argumentos apresentados foram obtidos a partir de discussão bibliográfica e análise de documentos e legislação da educação, que fundamentam também as questões relativas ao sentido assumido pelo currículo para o processo de integração da educação profissional ao ensino médio no Paraná. A análise realizada permite observar que os percalços que se apresentaram durante tal processo indicam divisões e antagonismos que se encontram na base da organização da sociedade capitalista e, por isso mesmo, representam importante complexidade. Também possibilita o entendimento da constante necessidade de reflexão acerca dos limites e possibilidades da educação profissional integrada ao ensino médio como uma questão imprescindível a um país que busca o desenvolvimento, mas que tem, fundamentalmente, o dever de pensar na melhoria das condições de vida dos trabalhadores garantindo-lhes a formação profissional como direito social.