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Sample records for vlsi cad algorithms

  1. A Knowledge Based Approach to VLSI CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Avail-and/or Dist ISpecial L| OI. SEICURITY CLASIIrCATION OP THIS IPA.lErllm S Daene." A KNOwLEDE BASED APPROACH TO VLSI CAD’ Louis L Steinberg and...major issues lies in building up and managing the knowledge base of oesign expertise. We expect that, as with many recent expert systems, in order to

  2. VLSI Design with Alliance Free CAD Tools: an Implementation Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chávez-Bracamontes Ramón

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology used for a digital integrated circuit design that implements the communication protocol known as Serial Peripheral Interface, using the Alliance CAD System. The aim of this paper is to show how the work of VLSI design can be done by graduate and undergraduate students with minimal resources and experience. The physical design was sent to be fabricated using the CMOS AMI C5 process that features 0.5 micrometer in transistor size, sponsored by the MOSIS Educational Program. Tests were made on a platform that transfers data from inertial sensor measurements to the designed SPI chip, which in turn sends the data back on a parallel bus to a common microcontroller. The results show the efficiency of the employed methodology in VLSI design, as well as the feasibility of ICs manufacturing from school projects that have insufficient or no source of funding

  3. Parallel computation of nondeterministic algorithms in VLSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortensius, P D

    1987-01-01

    This work examines parallel VLSI implementations of nondeterministic algorithms. It is demonstrated that conventional pseudorandom number generators are unsuitable for highly parallel applications. Efficient parallel pseudorandom sequence generation can be accomplished using certain classes of elementary one-dimensional cellular automata. The pseudorandom numbers appear in parallel on each clock cycle. Extensive study of the properties of these new pseudorandom number generators is made using standard empirical random number tests, cycle length tests, and implementation considerations. Furthermore, it is shown these particular cellular automata can form the basis of efficient VLSI architectures for computations involved in the Monte Carlo simulation of both the percolation and Ising models from statistical mechanics. Finally, a variation on a Built-In Self-Test technique based upon cellular automata is presented. These Cellular Automata-Logic-Block-Observation (CALBO) circuits improve upon conventional design for testability circuitry.

  4. Synthesis algorithm of VLSI multipliers for ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, O. H.; Eldin, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    Multipliers are critical sub-blocks in ASIC design, especially for digital signal processing and communications applications. A flexible multiplier synthesis tool is developed which is capable of generating multiplier blocks for word size in the range of 4 to 256 bits. A comparison of existing multiplier algorithms is made in terms of speed, silicon area, and suitability for automated synthesis and verification of its VLSI implementation. The algorithm divides the range of supported word sizes into sub-ranges and provides each sub-range with a specific multiplier architecture for optimal speed and area. The algorithm of the synthesis tool and the multiplier architectures are presented. Circuit implementation and the automated synthesis methodology are discussed.

  5. Artificial immune system algorithm in VLSI circuit configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Mohd. Asyraf; Sathasivam, Saratha; Kasihmuddin, Mohd Shareduwan Mohd

    2017-08-01

    In artificial intelligence, the artificial immune system is a robust bio-inspired heuristic method, extensively used in solving many constraint optimization problems, anomaly detection, and pattern recognition. This paper discusses the implementation and performance of artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm integrated with Hopfield neural networks for VLSI circuit configuration based on 3-Satisfiability problems. Specifically, we emphasized on the clonal selection technique in our binary artificial immune system algorithm. We restrict our logic construction to 3-Satisfiability (3-SAT) clauses in order to outfit with the transistor configuration in VLSI circuit. The core impetus of this research is to find an ideal hybrid model to assist in the VLSI circuit configuration. In this paper, we compared the artificial immune system (AIS) algorithm (HNN-3SATAIS) with the brute force algorithm incorporated with Hopfield neural network (HNN-3SATBF). Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 was used as a platform for training, simulating and validating the performances of the proposed network. The results depict that the HNN-3SATAIS outperformed HNN-3SATBF in terms of circuit accuracy and CPU time. Thus, HNN-3SATAIS can be used to detect an early error in the VLSI circuit design.

  6. Power efficient and high performance VLSI architecture for AES algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalaiselvi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced encryption standard (AES algorithm has been widely deployed in cryptographic applications. This work proposes a low power and high throughput implementation of AES algorithm using key expansion approach. We minimize the power consumption and critical path delay using the proposed high performance architecture. It supports both encryption and decryption using 256-bit keys with a throughput of 0.06 Gbps. The VHDL language is utilized for simulating the design and an FPGA chip has been used for the hardware implementations. Experimental results reveal that the proposed AES architectures offer superior performance than the existing VLSI architectures in terms of power, throughput and critical path delay.

  7. VLSI PARTITIONING ALGORITHM WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Filippenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning. A graph is selected as a mathematical model describing integrated circuit. Modification of ant colony optimization algorithm is presented, which is used to solve graph partitioning problem. Ant colony optimization algorithm is an optimization method based on the principles of self-organization and other useful features of the ants’ behavior. The proposed search system is based on ant colony optimization algorithm with the improved method of the initial distribution and dynamic adjustment of the control search parameters. The experimental results and performance comparison show that the proposed method of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning provides the better search performance over other well known algorithms.

  8. Designing algorithms using CAD technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin IORDACHE

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A representative example of eLearning-platform modular application, ‘Logical diagrams’, is intended to be a useful learning and testing tool for the beginner programmer, but also for the more experienced one. The problem this application is trying to solve concerns young programmers who forget about the fundamentals of this domain, algorithmic. Logical diagrams are a graphic representation of an algorithm, which uses different geometrical figures (parallelograms, rectangles, rhombuses, circles with particular meaning that are called blocks and connected between them to reveal the flow of the algorithm. The role of this application is to help the user build the diagram for the algorithm and then automatically generate the C code and test it.

  9. Application of evolutionary algorithms for multi-objective optimization in VLSI and embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how evolutionary algorithms (EA), including genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) can be utilized for solving multi-objective optimization problems in the area of embedded and VLSI system design. Many complex engineering optimization problems can be modelled as multi-objective formulations. This book provides an introduction to multi-objective optimization using meta-heuristic algorithms, GA and PSO, and how they can be applied to problems like hardware/software partitioning in embedded systems, circuit partitioning in VLSI, design of operational amplifiers in analog VLSI, design space exploration in high-level synthesis, delay fault testing in VLSI testing, and scheduling in heterogeneous distributed systems. It is shown how, in each case, the various aspects of the EA, namely its representation, and operators like crossover, mutation, etc. can be separately formulated to solve these problems. This book is intended for design engineers and researchers in the field ...

  10. Improved algorithms and advanced features of the CAD to MC conversion tool McCad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •The latest improvements of the McCad conversion approach including decomposition and void filling algorithms is presented. •An advanced interface for the materials editing and assignment has been developed and added to the McCAD GUI. •These improvements have been tested and successfully applied to DEMO and ITER NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) applications. •The performance of the CAD model conversion process is shown to be significantly improved. -- Abstract: McCad is a geometry conversion tool developed at KIT to enable the automatic bi-directional conversions of CAD models into the Monte Carlo (MC) geometries utilized for neutronics calculations (CAD to MC) and, reversed (MC to CAD), for visualization purposes. The paper presents the latest improvements of the conversion algorithms including improved decomposition, void filling and an advanced interface for the materials editing and assignment. The new implementations and features were tested on fusion neutronics applications to the DEMO and ITER NBI (Neutral Beam Injector) models. The results demonstrate greater stability and enhanced efficiency of McCad conversion process

  11. Parallel algorithms for placement and routing in VLSI design. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Randall Jay

    1991-01-01

    The computational requirements for high quality synthesis, analysis, and verification of very large scale integration (VLSI) designs have rapidly increased with the fast growing complexity of these designs. Research in the past has focused on the development of heuristic algorithms, special purpose hardware accelerators, or parallel algorithms for the numerous design tasks to decrease the time required for solution. Two new parallel algorithms are proposed for two VLSI synthesis tasks, standard cell placement and global routing. The first algorithm, a parallel algorithm for global routing, uses hierarchical techniques to decompose the routing problem into independent routing subproblems that are solved in parallel. Results are then presented which compare the routing quality to the results of other published global routers and which evaluate the speedups attained. The second algorithm, a parallel algorithm for cell placement and global routing, hierarchically integrates a quadrisection placement algorithm, a bisection placement algorithm, and the previous global routing algorithm. Unique partitioning techniques are used to decompose the various stages of the algorithm into independent tasks which can be evaluated in parallel. Finally, results are presented which evaluate the various algorithm alternatives and compare the algorithm performance to other placement programs. Measurements are presented on the parallel speedups available.

  12. VLSI Architecture for Configurable and Low-Complexity Design of Hard-Decision Viterbi Decoding Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmad Vidya Wicaksana Putra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Convolutional encoding and data decoding are fundamental processes in convolutional error correction. One of the most popular error correction methods in decoding is the Viterbi algorithm. It is extensively implemented in many digital communication applications. Its VLSI design challenges are about area, speed, power, complexity and configurability. In this research, we specifically propose a VLSI architecture for a configurable and low-complexity design of a hard-decision Viterbi decoding algorithm. The configurable and low-complexity design is achieved by designing a generic VLSI architecture, optimizing each processing element (PE at the logical operation level and designing a conditional adapter. The proposed design can be configured for any predefined number of trace-backs, only by changing the trace-back parameter value. Its computational process only needs N + 2 clock cycles latency, with N is the number of trace-backs. Its configurability function has been proven for N = 8, N = 16, N = 32 and N = 64. Furthermore, the proposed design was synthesized and evaluated in Xilinx and Altera FPGA target boards for area consumption and speed performance.

  13. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Lun; Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Ke, Chi-En

    2015-01-01

    A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO), and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA). To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction. PMID:26287193

  14. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Lun; Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Ke, Chi-En

    2015-08-13

    A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO), and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA). To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction.

  15. VLSI IMPLEMENTATION OF NOVEL ROUND KEYS GENERATION SCHEME FOR CRYPTOGRAPHY APPLICATIONS BY ERROR CONTROL ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SENTHILKUMAR

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel implementation of code based cryptography (Cryptocoding technique for multi-layer key distribution scheme is presented. VLSI chip is designed for storing information on generation of round keys. New algorithm is developed for reduced key size with optimal performance. Error Control Algorithm is employed for both generation of round keys and diffusion of non-linearity among them. Two new functions for bit inversion and its reversal are developed for cryptocoding. Probability of retrieving original key from any other round keys is reduced by diffusing nonlinear selective bit inversions on round keys. Randomized selective bit inversions are done on equal length of key bits by Round Constant Feedback Shift Register within the error correction limits of chosen code. Complexity of retrieving the original key from any other round keys is increased by optimal hardware usage. Proposed design is simulated and synthesized using VHDL coding for Spartan3E FPGA and results are shown. Comparative analysis is done between 128 bit Advanced Encryption Standard round keys and proposed round keys for showing security strength of proposed algorithm. This paper concludes that chip based multi-layer key distribution of proposed algorithm is an enhanced solution to the existing threats on cryptography algorithms.

  16. Optimal Solution for VLSI Physical Design Automation Using Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hameem Shanavas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Optimization of VLSI Physical Design, area minimization and interconnect length minimization is an important objective in physical design automation of very large scale integration chips. The objective of minimizing the area and interconnect length would scale down the size of integrated chips. To meet the above objective, it is necessary to find an optimal solution for physical design components like partitioning, floorplanning, placement, and routing. This work helps to perform the optimization of the benchmark circuits with the above said components of physical design using hierarchical approach of evolutionary algorithms. The goal of minimizing the delay in partitioning, minimizing the silicon area in floorplanning, minimizing the layout area in placement, minimizing the wirelength in routing has indefinite influence on other criteria like power, clock, speed, cost, and so forth. Hybrid evolutionary algorithm is applied on each of its phases to achieve the objective. Because evolutionary algorithm that includes one or many local search steps within its evolutionary cycles to obtain the minimization of area and interconnect length. This approach combines a hierarchical design like genetic algorithm and simulated annealing to attain the objective. This hybrid approach can quickly produce optimal solutions for the popular benchmarks.

  17. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 14: VLSI Design presents a comprehensive exposition and assessment of the developments and trends in VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) electronics. This volume covers topics that range from microscopic aspects of materials behavior and device performance to the comprehension of VLSI in systems applications. Each article is prepared by a recognized authority. The subjects discussed in this book include VLSI processor design methodology; the RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer); the VLSI testing program; silicon compilers for VLSI; and special

  18. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D K

    2014-01-01

    Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) design has moved from costly curiosity to an everyday necessity, especially with the proliferated applications of embedded computing devices in communications, entertainment and household gadgets. As a result, more and more knowledge on various aspects of VLSI design technologies is becoming a necessity for the engineering/technology students of various disciplines. With this goal in mind the course material of this book has been designed to cover the various fundamental aspects of VLSI design, like Categorization and comparison between various technologies used for VLSI design Basic fabrication processes involved in VLSI design Design of MOS, CMOS and Bi CMOS circuits used in VLSI Structured design of VLSI Introduction to VHDL for VLSI design Automated design for placement and routing of VLSI systems VLSI testing and testability The various topics of the book have been discussed lucidly with analysis, when required, examples, figures and adequate analytical and the...

  19. An Efficient VLSI Architecture for Multi-Channel Spike Sorting Using a Generalized Hebbian Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Lun Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel VLSI architecture for multi-channel online spike sorting is presented in this paper. In the architecture, the spike detection is based on nonlinear energy operator (NEO, and the feature extraction is carried out by the generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA. To lower the power consumption and area costs of the circuits, all of the channels share the same core for spike detection and feature extraction operations. Each channel has dedicated buffers for storing the detected spikes and the principal components of that channel. The proposed circuit also contains a clock gating system supplying the clock to only the buffers of channels currently using the computation core to further reduce the power consumption. The architecture has been implemented by an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture has lower power consumption and hardware area costs for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction.

  20. VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Chandrasetty, Vikram Arkalgud

    2011-01-01

    This book provides insight into the practical design of VLSI circuits. It is aimed at novice VLSI designers and other enthusiasts who would like to understand VLSI design flows. Coverage includes key concepts in CMOS digital design, design of DSP and communication blocks on FPGAs, ASIC front end and physical design, and analog and mixed signal design. The approach is designed to focus on practical implementation of key elements of the VLSI design process, in order to make the topic accessible to novices. The design concepts are demonstrated using software from Mathworks, Xilinx, Mentor Graphic

  1. Development of CAD implementing the algorithm of boundary elements’ numerical analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia V. Korniyenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to recent days the algorithms for numerical-analytical boundary elements method had been implemented with programs written in MATLAB environment language. Each program had a local character, i.e. used to solve a particular problem: calculation of beam, frame, arch, etc. Constructing matrices in these programs was carried out “manually” therefore being time-consuming. The research was purposed onto a reasoned choice of programming language for new CAD development, allows to implement algorithm of numerical analytical boundary elements method and to create visualization tools for initial objects and calculation results. Research conducted shows that among wide variety of programming languages the most efficient one for CAD development, employing the numerical analytical boundary elements method algorithm, is the Java language. This language provides tools not only for development of calculating CAD part, but also to build the graphic interface for geometrical models construction and calculated results interpretation.

  2. On flexible CAD of adaptive control and identification algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Ravn, Ole

    1988-01-01

    a total redesign of the system within each sample. The necessary design parameters are evaluated and a decision vector is defined, from which the identification algorithm can be generated by the program. Using the decision vector, a decision-node tree structure is built up, where the nodes define......SLLAB is a MATLAB-family software package for solving control and identification problems. This paper concerns the planning of a general-purpose subroutine structure for solving identification and adaptive control problems. A general-purpose identification algorithm is suggested, which allows...

  3. Probability Density Functions for the CALIPSO Lidar Version 4 Cloud-Aerosol Discrimination (CAD) Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Kar, J.; Zeng, S.; Tackett, J. L.; Vaughan, M.; Trepte, C. R.; Omar, A. H.; Hu, Y.; Winker, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the CALIPSO retrieval algorithm, detection layers in the lidar measurements is followed by their classification as a "cloud" or "aerosol" using 5-dimensional probability density functions (PDFs). The five dimensions are the mean attenuated backscatter at 532 nm, the layer integrated total attenuated color ratio, the mid-layer altitude, integrated volume depolarization ratio and latitude. The new version 4 (V4) level 2 (L2) data products, released in November 2016, are the first major revision to the L2 product suite since May 2010. Significant calibration changes in the V4 level 1 data necessitated substantial revisions to the V4 L2 CAD algorithm. Accordingly, a new set of PDFs was generated to derive the V4 L2 data products. The V4 CAD algorithm is now applied to layers detected in the stratosphere, where volcanic layers and occasional cloud and smoke layers are observed. Previously, these layers were designated as `stratospheric', and not further classified. The V4 CAD algorithm is also applied to all layers detected at single shot (333 m) resolution. In prior data releases, single shot detections were uniformly classified as clouds. The CAD PDFs used in the earlier releases were generated using a full year (2008) of CALIPSO measurements. Because the CAD algorithm was not applied to stratospheric features, the properties of these layers were not incorporated into the PDFs. When building the V4 PDFs, the 2008 data were augmented with additional data from June 2011, and all stratospheric features were included. The Nabro and Puyehue-Cordon volcanos erupted in June 2011, and volcanic aerosol layers were observed in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The June 2011 data thus provides the stratospheric aerosol properties needed for comprehensive PDF generation. In contrast to earlier versions of the PDFs, which were generated based solely on observed distributions, construction of the V4 PDFs considered the

  4. Real-time slicing algorithm for Stereolithography (STL) CAD model applied in additive manufacturing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, F. A.; Romlay, F. R. M.; Shafiq, M.

    2018-04-01

    Owing to the advent of the industrial revolution 4.0, the need for further evaluating processes applied in the additive manufacturing application particularly the computational process for slicing is non-trivial. This paper evaluates a real-time slicing algorithm for slicing an STL formatted computer-aided design (CAD). A line-plane intersection equation was applied to perform the slicing procedure at any given height. The application of this algorithm has found to provide a better computational time regardless the number of facet in the STL model. The performance of this algorithm is evaluated by comparing the results of the computational time for different geometry.

  5. Hardware Genetic Algorithm Optimization by Critical Path Analysis using a Custom VLSI Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose a Virtual-Field Programmable Gate Array (V-FPGA architecture that allows direct access to its configuration bits to facilitate hardware evolution, thereby allowing any combinational or sequential digital circuit to be realized. By using the V-FPGA, this paper investigates two possible ways of making evolutionary hardware systems more scalable: by optimizing the system’s genetic algorithm (GA; and by decomposing the solution circuit into smaller, evolvable sub-circuits. GA optimization is done by: omitting a canonical GA’s crossover operator (i.e. by using a 1+λ algorithm; applying evolution constraints; and optimizing the fitness function. A noteworthy contribution this research has made is the in-depth analysis of the phenotypes’ CPs. Through analyzing the CPs, it has been shown that a great amount of insight can be gained into a phenotype’s fitness. We found that as the number of columns in the Cartesian Genetic Programming array increases, so the likelihood of an external output being placed in the column decreases. Furthermore, the number of used LEs per column also substantially decreases per added column. Finally, we demonstrated the evolution of a state-decomposed control circuit. It was shown that the evolution of each state’s sub-circuit was possible, and suggest that modular evolution can be a successful tool when dealing with scalability.

  6. Assessing operating characteristics of CAD algorithms in the absence of a gold standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Choudhury, Kingshuk; Paik, David S.; Yi, Chin A.; Napel, Sandy; Roos, Justus; Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examine potential bias when using a reference reader panel as ''gold standard'' for estimating operating characteristics of CAD algorithms for detecting lesions. As an alternative, the authors propose latent class analysis (LCA), which does not require an external gold standard to evaluate diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A binomial model for multiple reader detections using different diagnostic protocols was constructed, assuming conditional independence of readings given true lesion status. Operating characteristics of all protocols were estimated by maximum likelihood LCA. Reader panel and LCA based estimates were compared using data simulated from the binomial model for a range of operating characteristics. LCA was applied to 36 thin section thoracic computed tomography data sets from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC): Free search markings of four radiologists were compared to markings from four different CAD assisted radiologists. For real data, bootstrap-based resampling methods, which accommodate dependence in reader detections, are proposed to test of hypotheses of differences between detection protocols. Results: In simulation studies, reader panel based sensitivity estimates had an average relative bias (ARB) of -23% to -27%, significantly higher (p-value <0.0001) than LCA (ARB -2% to -6%). Specificity was well estimated by both reader panel (ARB -0.6% to -0.5%) and LCA (ARB 1.4%-0.5%). Among 1145 lesion candidates LIDC considered, LCA estimated sensitivity of reference readers (55%) was significantly lower (p-value 0.006) than CAD assisted readers' (68%). Average false positives per patient for reference readers (0.95) was not significantly lower (p-value 0.28) than CAD assisted readers' (1.27). Conclusions: Whereas a gold standard based on a consensus of readers may substantially bias sensitivity estimates, LCA may be a significantly more accurate and consistent means for evaluating diagnostic accuracy.

  7. VLSI implementations for image communications

    CERN Document Server

    Pirsch, P

    1993-01-01

    The past few years have seen a rapid growth in image processing and image communication technologies. New video services and multimedia applications are continuously being designed. Essential for all these applications are image and video compression techniques. The purpose of this book is to report on recent advances in VLSI architectures and their implementation for video signal processing applications with emphasis on video coding for bit rate reduction. Efficient VLSI implementation for video signal processing spans a broad range of disciplines involving algorithms, architectures, circuits

  8. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 4 reviews trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the silicon-on-insulator for VLSI and VHSIC, X-ray lithography, and transient response of electron transport in GaAs using the Monte Carlo method. The technology and manufacturing of high-density magnetic-bubble memories, metallic superlattices, challenge of education for VLSI, and impact of VLSI on medical signal processing are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the impact of VLSI t

  9. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system with a 3D algorithm for small acute intracranial hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ximing; Fernandez, James; Deshpande, Ruchi; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Acute Intracranial hemorrhage (AIH) requires urgent diagnosis in the emergency setting to mitigate eventual sequelae. However, experienced radiologists may not always be available to make a timely diagnosis. This is especially true for small AIH, defined as lesion smaller than 10 mm in size. A computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection of small AIH would facilitate timely diagnosis. A previously developed 2D algorithm shows high false positive rates in the evaluation based on LAC/USC cases, due to the limitation of setting up correct coordinate system for the knowledge-based classification system. To achieve a higher sensitivity and specificity, a new 3D algorithm is developed. The algorithm utilizes a top-hat transformation and dynamic threshold map to detect small AIH lesions. Several key structures of brain are detected and are used to set up a 3D anatomical coordinate system. A rule-based classification of the lesion detected is applied based on the anatomical coordinate system. For convenient evaluation in clinical environment, the CAD module is integrated with a stand-alone system. The CAD is evaluated by small AIH cases and matched normal collected in LAC/USC. The result of 3D CAD and the previous 2D CAD has been compared.

  10. Spike Neuromorphic VLSI-Based Bat Echolocation for Micro-Aerial Vehicle Guidance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horiuchi, Timothy K; Krishnaprasad, P. S

    2007-01-01

    .... This includes multiple efforts related to a VLSI-based echolocation system being developed in one of our laboratories from algorithm development, bat flight data analysis, to VLSI circuit design...

  11. VLSI in medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1989-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 17: VLSI in Medicine deals with the more important applications of VLSI in medical devices and instruments.This volume is comprised of 11 chapters. It begins with an article about medical electronics. The following three chapters cover diagnostic imaging, focusing on such medical devices as magnetic resonance imaging, neurometric analyzer, and ultrasound. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the impact of VLSI in cardiology. The electrocardiograph, implantable cardiac pacemaker, and the use of VLSI in Holter monitoring are detailed in these chapters. The

  12. VLSI electronics microstructure science

    CERN Document Server

    1981-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 3 evaluates trends for the future of very large scale integration (VLSI) electronics and the scientific base that supports its development.This book discusses the impact of VLSI on computer architectures; VLSI design and design aid requirements; and design, fabrication, and performance of CCD imagers. The approaches, potential, and progress of ultra-high-speed GaAs VLSI; computer modeling of MOSFETs; and numerical physics of micron-length and submicron-length semiconductor devices are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the optical linewi

  13. Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low dose CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung, E-mail: shkim7071@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We assessed the effect of reconstruction algorithms on CAD in ultra-low dose CTC. •30 patients underwent ultra-low dose CTC using 120 and 100 kVp with 10 mAs. •CT was reconstructed with FBP, ASiR and Veo and then, we applied a CAD system. •Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD in ULD CT can be improved with the IR algorithms. •Despite of an increase in the number of FPs with IR, it was still acceptable. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low-dose CT colonography (ULD CTC). Materials and methods: IRB approval and informed consents were obtained. Thirty prospectively enrolled patients underwent non-contrast CTC at 120 kVp/10 mAs in supine and 100 kVp/10 mAs in prone positions, followed by same-day colonoscopy. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 80% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR80), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A commercial CAD system was applied and per-polyp sensitivities and numbers of false-positives (FPs) were compared among algorithms. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTC was 1.02 mSv. Of 101 polyps detected and removed by colonoscopy, 61 polyps were detected on supine and on prone CTC datasets on consensus unblinded review, resulting in 122 visible polyps (32 polyps <6 mm, 52 6–9.9 mm, and 38 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD for all polyps was highest with MBIR (56/122, 45.9%), followed by ASIR80 (54/122, 44.3%) and FBP (43/122, 35.2%), with significant differences between FBP and IR algorithms (P < 0.017). Per-polyp sensitivity for polyps ≥ 10 mm was also higher with MBIR (25/38, 65.8%) and ASIR80 (24/38, 63.2%) than with FBP (20/38, 58.8%), albeit without statistical significance (P > 0.017). Mean number of FPs was significantly different among algorithms (FBP, 1.4; ASIR, 2.1; MBIR, 2.4) (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Although the performance of stand-alone CAD

  14. Effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low dose CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Se Hyung; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Sang Gyun; Shin, Cheong-il; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We assessed the effect of reconstruction algorithms on CAD in ultra-low dose CTC. •30 patients underwent ultra-low dose CTC using 120 and 100 kVp with 10 mAs. •CT was reconstructed with FBP, ASiR and Veo and then, we applied a CAD system. •Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD in ULD CT can be improved with the IR algorithms. •Despite of an increase in the number of FPs with IR, it was still acceptable. -- Abstract: Purpose: To assess the effect of different reconstruction algorithms on computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) performance in ultra-low-dose CT colonography (ULD CTC). Materials and methods: IRB approval and informed consents were obtained. Thirty prospectively enrolled patients underwent non-contrast CTC at 120 kVp/10 mAs in supine and 100 kVp/10 mAs in prone positions, followed by same-day colonoscopy. Images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), 80% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR80), and model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). A commercial CAD system was applied and per-polyp sensitivities and numbers of false-positives (FPs) were compared among algorithms. Results: Mean effective radiation dose of CTC was 1.02 mSv. Of 101 polyps detected and removed by colonoscopy, 61 polyps were detected on supine and on prone CTC datasets on consensus unblinded review, resulting in 122 visible polyps (32 polyps <6 mm, 52 6–9.9 mm, and 38 ≥ 10 mm). Per-polyp sensitivity of CAD for all polyps was highest with MBIR (56/122, 45.9%), followed by ASIR80 (54/122, 44.3%) and FBP (43/122, 35.2%), with significant differences between FBP and IR algorithms (P < 0.017). Per-polyp sensitivity for polyps ≥ 10 mm was also higher with MBIR (25/38, 65.8%) and ASIR80 (24/38, 63.2%) than with FBP (20/38, 58.8%), albeit without statistical significance (P > 0.017). Mean number of FPs was significantly different among algorithms (FBP, 1.4; ASIR, 2.1; MBIR, 2.4) (P = 0.011). Conclusion: Although the performance of stand-alone CAD

  15. Applications of VLSI circuits to medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the application of advanced VLSI circuits to medical imaging is explored. The relationship of both general purpose signal processing chips and custom devices to medical imaging is discussed using examples of fabricated chips. In addition, advanced CAD tools for silicon compilation are presented. Devices built with these tools represent a possible alternative to custom devices and general purpose signal processors for the next generation of medical imaging systems

  16. VLSI and system architecture-the new development of system 5G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, K.; Sekino, A.; Kodaka, T.; Uehara, T.; Aiso, H.

    1982-01-01

    A research and development proposal is presented for VLSI CAD systems and for a hardware environment called system 5G on which the VLSI CAD systems run. The proposed CAD systems use a hierarchically organized design language to enable design of anything from basic architectures of VLSI to VLSI mask patterns in a uniform manner. The cad systems will eventually become intelligent cad systems that acquire design knowledge and perform automatic design of VLSI chips when the characteristic requirements of VLSI chip is given. System 5G will consist of superinference machines and the 5G communication network. The superinference machine will be built based on a functionally distributed architecture connecting inferommunication network. The superinference machine will be built based on a functionally distributed architecture connecting inference machines and relational data base machines via a high-speed local network. The transfer rate of the local network will be 100 mbps at the first stage of the project and will be improved to 1 gbps. Remote access to the superinference machine will be possible through the 5G communication network. Access to system 5G will use the 5G network architecture protocol. The users will access the system 5G using standardized 5G personal computers. 5G personal logic programming stations, very high intelligent terminals providing an instruction set that supports predicate logic and input/output facilities for audio and graphical information.

  17. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  18. VLSI implementation of MIMO detection for 802.11n using a novel adaptive tree search algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Heng; Jian Haifang; Zhou Liguo; Shi Yin

    2013-01-01

    A 4×4 64-QAM multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detector is presented for the application of an IEEE 802.11n wireless local area network. The detectoris the implementation of a novel adaptive tree search(ATS) algorithm, and multiple ATS cores need to be instantiated to achieve the wideband requirement in the 802.11n standard. Both the ATS algorithm and the architectural considerations are explained. The latency of the detector is 0.75 μs, and the detector has a gate count of 848 k with a total of 19 parallel ATS cores. Each ATS core runs at 67 MHz. Measurement results show that compared with the floating-point ATS algorithm, the fixed-point implementation achieves a loss of 0.9 dB at a BER of 10 −3 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

  20. Immersive CAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, A.L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

  1. Low-Complexity Hierarchical Mode Decision Algorithms Targeting VLSI Architecture Design for the H.264/AVC Video Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Corrêa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In H.264/AVC, the encoding process can occur according to one of the 13 intraframe coding modes or according to one of the 8 available interframes block sizes, besides the SKIP mode. In the Joint Model reference software, the choice of the best mode is performed through exhaustive executions of the entire encoding process, which significantly increases the encoder's computational complexity and sometimes even forbids its use in real-time applications. Considering this context, this work proposes a set of heuristic algorithms targeting hardware architectures that lead to earlier selection of one encoding mode. The amount of repetitions of the encoding process is reduced by 47 times, at the cost of a relatively small cost in compression performance. When compared to other works, the fast hierarchical mode decision results are expressively more satisfactory in terms of computational complexity reduction, quality, and bit rate. The low-complexity mode decision architecture proposed is thus a very good option for real-time coding of high-resolution videos. The solution is especially interesting for embedded and mobile applications with support to multimedia systems, since it yields good compression rates and image quality with a very high reduction in the encoder complexity.

  2. Lithography for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1987-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 16: Lithography for VLSI treats special topics from each branch of lithography, and also contains general discussion of some lithographic methods.This volume contains 8 chapters that discuss the various aspects of lithography. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to optical lithography. Chapter 3 covers electron lithography in general, and Chapter 4 discusses electron resist exposure modeling. Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of ion-beam lithography. Mask/wafer alignment for x-ray proximity printing and for optical lithography is tackled in Chapter 6.

  3. Parallel VLSI Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T. K.; Reed, I.; Yeh, C.; Shao, H.

    1985-01-01

    Fermat number transformation convolutes two digital data sequences. Very-large-scale integration (VLSI) applications, such as image and radar signal processing, X-ray reconstruction, and spectrum shaping, linear convolution of two digital data sequences of arbitrary lenghts accomplished using Fermat number transform (ENT).

  4. An improved algorithm to convert CAD model to MCNP geometry model based on STEP file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qingguo; Yang, Jiaming; Wu, Jiong; Tian, Yanshan; Wang, Junqiong; Jiang, Hai; Li, Kuan-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fully exploits common features of cells, making the processing efficient. • Accurately provide the cell position. • Flexible to add new parameters in the structure. • Application of novel structure in INP file processing, conveniently evaluate cell location. - Abstract: MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code) is a general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code that can be used for neutron, photon, electron, or coupled neutron/photon/electron transport. Its input file, the INP file, has the characteristics of complicated form and is error-prone when describing geometric models. Due to this, a conversion algorithm that can solve the problem by converting general geometric model to MCNP model during MCNP aided modeling is highly needed. In this paper, we revised and incorporated a number of improvements over our previous work (Yang et al., 2013), which was proposed and targeted after STEP file and INP file were analyzed. Results of experiments show that the revised algorithm is more applicable and efficient than previous work, with the optimized extraction of geometry and topology information of the STEP file, as well as the production efficiency of output INP file. This proposed research is promising, and serves as valuable reference for the majority of researchers involved with MCNP-related researches

  5. From Nonlinear Optimization to Convex Optimization through Firefly Algorithm and Indirect Approach with Applications to CAD/CAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Gálvez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fitting spline curves to data points is a very important issue in many applied fields. It is also challenging, because these curves typically depend on many continuous variables in a highly interrelated nonlinear way. In general, it is not possible to compute these parameters analytically, so the problem is formulated as a continuous nonlinear optimization problem, for which traditional optimization techniques usually fail. This paper presents a new bioinspired method to tackle this issue. In this method, optimization is performed through a combination of two techniques. Firstly, we apply the indirect approach to the knots, in which they are not initially the subject of optimization but precomputed with a coarse approximation scheme. Secondly, a powerful bioinspired metaheuristic technique, the firefly algorithm, is applied to optimization of data parameterization; then, the knot vector is refined by using De Boor’s method, thus yielding a better approximation to the optimal knot vector. This scheme converts the original nonlinear continuous optimization problem into a convex optimization problem, solved by singular value decomposition. Our method is applied to some illustrative real-world examples from the CAD/CAM field. Our experimental results show that the proposed scheme can solve the original continuous nonlinear optimization problem very efficiently.

  6. Multi-site evaluation of a computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm for small acute intra-cranial hemorrhage and development of a stand-alone CAD system ready for deployment in a clinical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ruchi R.; Fernandez, James; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2010-03-01

    Timely detection of Acute Intra-cranial Hemorrhage (AIH) in an emergency environment is essential for the triage of patients suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury. Moreover, the small size of lesions and lack of experience on the reader's part could lead to difficulties in the detection of AIH. A CT based CAD algorithm for the detection of AIH has been developed in order to improve upon the current standard of identification and treatment of AIH. A retrospective analysis of the algorithm has already been carried out with 135 AIH CT studies with 135 matched normal head CT studies from the Los Angeles County General Hospital/ University of Southern California Hospital System (LAC/USC). In the next step, AIH studies have been collected from Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and are currently being processed using the AIH CAD system as part of implementing a multi-site assessment and evaluation of the performance of the algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity numbers from the Walter Reed study will be compared with the numbers from the LAC/USC study to determine if there are differences in the presentation and detection due to the difference in the nature of trauma between the two sites. Simultaneously, a stand-alone system with a user friendly GUI has been developed to facilitate implementation in a clinical setting.

  7. VLSI Architectures for the Multiplication of Integers Modulo a Fermat Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. J.; Truong, T. K.; Reed, I. S.; Hsu, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Multiplication is central in the implementation of Fermat number transforms and other residue number algorithms. There is need for a good multiplication algorithm that can be realized easily on a very large scale integration (VLSI) chip. The Leibowitz multiplier is modified to realize multiplication in the ring of integers modulo a Fermat number. This new algorithm requires only a sequence of cyclic shifts and additions. The designs developed for this new multiplier are regular, simple, expandable, and, therefore, suitable for VLSI implementation.

  8. TU-G-204-09: The Effects of Reduced- Dose Lung Cancer Screening CT On Lung Nodule Detection Using a CAD Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S; Lo, P; Kim, G; Hsu, W; Hoffman, J; Brown, M; McNitt-Gray, M [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: While Lung Cancer Screening CT is being performed at low doses, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of further reducing dose on the performance of a CAD nodule-detection algorithm. Methods: We selected 50 cases from our local database of National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) patients for which we had both the image series and the raw CT data from the original scans. All scans were acquired with fixed mAs (25 for standard-sized patients, 40 for large patients) on a 64-slice scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens Healthcare). All images were reconstructed with 1-mm slice thickness, B50 kernel. 10 of the cases had at least one nodule reported on the NLST reader forms. Based on a previously-published technique, we added noise to the raw data to simulate reduced-dose versions of each case at 50% and 25% of the original NLST dose (i.e. approximately 1.0 and 0.5 mGy CTDIvol). For each case at each dose level, the CAD detection algorithm was run and nodules greater than 4 mm in diameter were reported. These CAD results were compared to “truth”, defined as the approximate nodule centroids from the NLST reports. Subject-level mean sensitivities and false-positive rates were calculated for each dose level. Results: The mean sensitivities of the CAD algorithm were 35% at the original dose, 20% at 50% dose, and 42.5% at 25% dose. The false-positive rates, in decreasing-dose order, were 3.7, 2.9, and 10 per case. In certain cases, particularly in larger patients, there were severe photon-starvation artifacts, especially in the apical region due to the high-attenuating shoulders. Conclusion: The detection task was challenging for the CAD algorithm at all dose levels, including the original NLST dose. However, the false-positive rate at 25% dose approximately tripled, suggesting a loss of CAD robustness somewhere between 0.5 and 1.0 mGy. NCI grant U01 CA181156 (Quantitative Imaging Network); Tobacco Related Disease Research Project grant 22RT-0131.

  9. TU-G-204-09: The Effects of Reduced- Dose Lung Cancer Screening CT On Lung Nodule Detection Using a CAD Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S; Lo, P; Kim, G; Hsu, W; Hoffman, J; Brown, M; McNitt-Gray, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While Lung Cancer Screening CT is being performed at low doses, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of further reducing dose on the performance of a CAD nodule-detection algorithm. Methods: We selected 50 cases from our local database of National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) patients for which we had both the image series and the raw CT data from the original scans. All scans were acquired with fixed mAs (25 for standard-sized patients, 40 for large patients) on a 64-slice scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens Healthcare). All images were reconstructed with 1-mm slice thickness, B50 kernel. 10 of the cases had at least one nodule reported on the NLST reader forms. Based on a previously-published technique, we added noise to the raw data to simulate reduced-dose versions of each case at 50% and 25% of the original NLST dose (i.e. approximately 1.0 and 0.5 mGy CTDIvol). For each case at each dose level, the CAD detection algorithm was run and nodules greater than 4 mm in diameter were reported. These CAD results were compared to “truth”, defined as the approximate nodule centroids from the NLST reports. Subject-level mean sensitivities and false-positive rates were calculated for each dose level. Results: The mean sensitivities of the CAD algorithm were 35% at the original dose, 20% at 50% dose, and 42.5% at 25% dose. The false-positive rates, in decreasing-dose order, were 3.7, 2.9, and 10 per case. In certain cases, particularly in larger patients, there were severe photon-starvation artifacts, especially in the apical region due to the high-attenuating shoulders. Conclusion: The detection task was challenging for the CAD algorithm at all dose levels, including the original NLST dose. However, the false-positive rate at 25% dose approximately tripled, suggesting a loss of CAD robustness somewhere between 0.5 and 1.0 mGy. NCI grant U01 CA181156 (Quantitative Imaging Network); Tobacco Related Disease Research Project grant 22RT-0131

  10. The VLSI handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2007-01-01

    Written by a stellar international panel of expert contributors, this handbook remains the most up-to-date, reliable, and comprehensive source for real answers to practical problems. In addition to updated information in most chapters, this edition features several heavily revised and completely rewritten chapters, new chapters on such topics as CMOS fabrication and high-speed circuit design, heavily revised sections on testing of digital systems and design languages, and two entirely new sections on low-power electronics and VLSI signal processing. An updated compendium of references and othe

  11. UW VLSI chip tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Neil

    1989-12-01

    We present a design for a low-cost, functional VLSI chip tester. It is based on the Apple MacIntosh II personal computer. It tests chips that have up to 128 pins. All pin drivers of the tester are bidirectional; each pin is programmed independently as an input or an output. The tester can test both static and dynamic chips. Rudimentary speed testing is provided. Chips are tested by executing C programs written by the user. A software library is provided for program development. Tests run under both the Mac Operating System and A/UX. The design is implemented using Xilinx Logic Cell Arrays. Price/performance tradeoffs are discussed.

  12. VLSI signal processing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Swartzlander, Earl

    1994-01-01

    This book is the first in a set of forthcoming books focussed on state-of-the-art development in the VLSI Signal Processing area. It is a response to the tremendous research activities taking place in that field. These activities have been driven by two factors: the dramatic increase in demand for high speed signal processing, especially in consumer elec­ tronics, and the evolving microelectronic technologies. The available technology has always been one of the main factors in determining al­ gorithms, architectures, and design strategies to be followed. With every new technology, signal processing systems go through many changes in concepts, design methods, and implementation. The goal of this book is to introduce the reader to the main features of VLSI Signal Processing and the ongoing developments in this area. The focus of this book is on: • Current developments in Digital Signal Processing (DSP) pro­ cessors and architectures - several examples and case studies of existing DSP chips are discussed in...

  13. Multi-valued LSI/VLSI logic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrakul, K.

    A procedure for synthesizing any large complex logic system, such as LSI and VLSI integrated circuits is described. This scheme uses Multi-Valued Multi-plexers (MVMUX) as the basic building blocks and the tree as the structure of the circuit realization. Simple built-in test circuits included in the network (the main current), provide a thorough functional checking of the network at any time. In brief, four major contributions are made: (1) multi-valued Algorithmic State Machine (ASM) chart for describing an LSI/VLSI behavior; (2) a tree-structured multi-valued multiplexer network which can be obtained directly from an ASM chart; (3) a heuristic tree-structured synthesis method for realizing any combinational logic with minimal or nearly-minimal MVMUX; and (4) a hierarchical design of LSI/VLSI with built-in parallel testing capability.

  14. Nano lasers in photonic VLSI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, M.T.; Oei, Y.S.; Smit, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the use of micro and nano lasers to form digital photonic VLSI building blocks. Problems such as isolation and cascading of building blocks are addressed, and the potential of future nano lasers explored.

  15. VLSI Architectures for Computing DFT's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T. K.; Chang, J. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Reed, I. S.; Pei, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Simplifications result from use of residue Fermat number systems. System of finite arithmetic over residue Fermat number systems enables calculation of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of series of complex numbers with reduced number of multiplications. Computer architectures based on approach suitable for design of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits for computing DFT's. General approach not limited to DFT's; Applicable to decoding of error-correcting codes and other transform calculations. System readily implemented in VLSI.

  16. An efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Lian, Xiaocong; Liu, Zhenyu; Liu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    The next-generation video coding standard of High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is especially efficient for coding high-resolution video such as 8K-ultra-high-definition (UHD) video. Fractional motion estimation in HEVC presents a significant challenge in clock latency and area cost as it consumes more than 40 % of the total encoding time and thus results in high computational complexity. With aims at supporting 8K-UHD video applications, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new interpolation filter algorithm based on the 8-pixel interpolation unit is proposed in this paper. It can save 19.7 % processing time on average with acceptable coding quality degradation. Based on the proposed algorithm, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture, composed of a reused data path of interpolation, an efficient memory organization, and a reconfigurable pipeline interpolation filter engine, is presented to reduce the implement hardware area and achieve high throughput. The final VLSI implementation only requires 37.2k gates in a standard 90-nm CMOS technology at an operating frequency of 240 MHz. The proposed architecture can be reused for either half-pixel interpolation or quarter-pixel interpolation, which can reduce the area cost for about 131,040 bits RAM. The processing latency of our proposed VLSI architecture can support the real-time processing of 4:2:0 format 7680 × 4320@78fps video sequences.

  17. Bomb CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, R.J.; Howard, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes BombCAD a computer-aided analysis technique for assessing the damage to diverse structures which results from specific high explosive detonations within or near the structure. BombCAD analyzes the vulnerability of specific facilities to bomb attach, and evaluates siting, screening and hardening/softening aspects of comprehensive bomb defense programs. The paper describes BombCAD's architectural models of specific structures, computations of blastwave effects and the paradigms which relate blast wave effects to both structural damage and human injury. The use of BombCAD in bomb attack vulnerability assessment, facility design, bomb threat response planning and post-incident analyses is described and field examples are presented

  18. Spike Neuromorphic VLSI-Based Bat Echolocation for Micro-Aerial Vehicle Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-31

    IFinal 03/01/04 - 02/28/07 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Neuromorphic VLSI-based Bat Echolocation for Micro-aerial 5b.GRANTNUMBER Vehicle...uncovered interesting new issues in our choice for representing the intensity of signals. We have just finished testing the first chip version of an echo...timing-based algorithm (’openspace’) for sonar-guided navigation amidst multiple obstacles. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Neuromorphic VLSI, bat echolocation

  19. PLA realizations for VLSI state machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.; Liu, K.

    1990-01-01

    A major problem associated with state assignment procedures for VLSI controllers is obtaining an assignment that produces minimal or near minimal logic. The key item in Programmable Logic Array (PLA) area minimization is the number of unique product terms required by the design equations. This paper presents a state assignment algorithm for minimizing the number of product terms required to implement a finite state machine using a PLA. Partition algebra with predecessor state information is used to derive a near optimal state assignment. A maximum bound on the number of product terms required can be obtained by inspecting the predecessor state information. The state assignment algorithm presented is much simpler than existing procedures and leads to the same number of product terms or less. An area-efficient PLA structure implemented in a 1.0 micron CMOS process is presented along with a summary of the performance for a controller implemented using this design procedure.

  20. An area-efficient path memory structure for VLSI Implementation of high speed Viterbi decoders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, Erik; Pedersen, Steen; Sparsø, Jens

    1991-01-01

    Path storage and selection methods for Viterbi decoders are investigated with special emphasis on VLSI implementations. Two well-known algorithms, the register exchange, algorithm, REA, and the trace back algorithm, TBA, are considered. The REA requires the smallest number of storage elements...

  1. Comprehensive Auto CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Taekju

    1993-06-01

    This book starts introduction of conception, application system, software for CAD, function of Auto CAD, kinds and function of Auto CAD files. It deals with starting of Auto CAD, dialogue box and Auto CAD interface, utility command, 2D drawing command, check command, control system, dimension, hatching command, layer command, block, 3D drawing, plotting and printing, auto CAD and application of data, supply program of auto CAD, AME and region modeler, EDLIN, script optimization of Auto CAD and composition on demand.

  2. VLSI Design of Trusted Virtual Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena C. Martínez-Rodríguez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI design of trusted virtual sensors providing a minimum unitary cost and very good figures of size, speed and power consumption. The sensed variable is estimated by a virtual sensor based on a configurable and programmable PieceWise-Affine hyper-Rectangular (PWAR model. An algorithm is presented to find the best values of the programmable parameters given a set of (empirical or simulated input-output data. The VLSI design of the trusted virtual sensor uses the fast authenticated encryption algorithm, AEGIS, to ensure the integrity of the provided virtual measurement and to encrypt it, and a Physical Unclonable Function (PUF based on a Static Random Access Memory (SRAM to ensure the integrity of the sensor itself. Implementation results of a prototype designed in a 90-nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS technology show that the active silicon area of the trusted virtual sensor is 0.86 mm 2 and its power consumption when trusted sensing at 50 MHz is 7.12 mW. The maximum operation frequency is 85 MHz, which allows response times lower than 0.25 μ s. As application example, the designed prototype was programmed to estimate the yaw rate in a vehicle, obtaining root mean square errors lower than 1.1%. Experimental results of the employed PUF show the robustness of the trusted sensing against aging and variations of the operation conditions, namely, temperature and power supply voltage (final value as well as ramp-up time.

  3. VLSI Design of Trusted Virtual Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rodríguez, Macarena C; Prada-Delgado, Miguel A; Brox, Piedad; Baturone, Iluminada

    2018-01-25

    This work presents a Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) design of trusted virtual sensors providing a minimum unitary cost and very good figures of size, speed and power consumption. The sensed variable is estimated by a virtual sensor based on a configurable and programmable PieceWise-Affine hyper-Rectangular (PWAR) model. An algorithm is presented to find the best values of the programmable parameters given a set of (empirical or simulated) input-output data. The VLSI design of the trusted virtual sensor uses the fast authenticated encryption algorithm, AEGIS, to ensure the integrity of the provided virtual measurement and to encrypt it, and a Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) based on a Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) to ensure the integrity of the sensor itself. Implementation results of a prototype designed in a 90-nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology show that the active silicon area of the trusted virtual sensor is 0.86 mm 2 and its power consumption when trusted sensing at 50 MHz is 7.12 mW. The maximum operation frequency is 85 MHz, which allows response times lower than 0.25 μ s. As application example, the designed prototype was programmed to estimate the yaw rate in a vehicle, obtaining root mean square errors lower than 1.1%. Experimental results of the employed PUF show the robustness of the trusted sensing against aging and variations of the operation conditions, namely, temperature and power supply voltage (final value as well as ramp-up time).

  4. Advanced symbolic analysis for VLSI systems methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Guoyong; Tlelo Cuautle, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the recent advances in symbolic analysis techniques for design automation of nanometer VLSI systems. The presentation is organized in parts of fundamentals, basic implementation methods and applications for VLSI design. Topics emphasized include  statistical timing and crosstalk analysis, statistical and parallel analysis, performance bound analysis and behavioral modeling for analog integrated circuits . Among the recent advances, the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) based approaches are studied in depth. The BDD-based hierarchical symbolic analysis approaches, have essentially broken the analog circuit size barrier. In particular, this book   • Provides an overview of classical symbolic analysis methods and a comprehensive presentation on the modern  BDD-based symbolic analysis techniques; • Describes detailed implementation strategies for BDD-based algorithms, including the principles of zero-suppression, variable ordering and canonical reduction; • Int...

  5. A VLSI image processor via pseudo-mersenne transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sei, W.J.; Jagadeesh, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    The computational burden on image processing in medical fields where a large amount of information must be processed quickly and accurately has led to consideration of special-purpose image processor chip design for some time. The very large scale integration (VLSI) resolution has made it cost-effective and feasible to consider the design of special purpose chips for medical imaging fields. This paper describes a VLSI CMOS chip suitable for parallel implementation of image processing algorithms and cyclic convolutions by using Pseudo-Mersenne Number Transform (PMNT). The main advantages of the PMNT over the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) are: (1) no multiplications are required; (2) integer arithmetic is used. The design and development of this processor, which operates on 32-point convolution or 5 x 5 window image, are described

  6. VLSI Architecture and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Lennart

    1980-01-01

    Integrated circuit technology is rapidly approaching a state where feature sizes of one micron or less are tractable. Chip sizes are increasing slowly. These two developments result in considerably increased complexity in chip design. The physical characteristics of integrated circuit technology are also changing. The cost of communication will be dominating making new architectures and algorithms both feasible and desirable. A large number of processors on a single chip will be possible....

  7. Princeton VLSI Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    for otherwise, since sc = xs2 . we would ELIE system. This algorithm also applies to SL) systems have been able to compute zec without looking at block...Prof. Peter R. Cappello of the CompuLer Science Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, I I Im i Ii - 19 - Caiifo:nia. Some of the work...multiple pro- cessors will not be as simple as the MMM ones. Acknowledgments. Several useful ideas and suggestions were made by Jim Gray, Peter Honneyman

  8. Multi-Objective Hypergraph Partitioning Algorithms for Cut and Maximum Subdomain Degree Minimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvakkumaran, Navaratnasothie; Karypis, George

    2004-01-01

    ... subdomain degree are simultaneously minimized. This type of partitionings are critical for existing and emerging applications in VLSI CAD as they allow to both minimize and evenly distribute the interconnects across the physical devices...

  9. VLSI structures for track finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orso, M.

    1989-01-01

    We discuss the architecture of a device based on the concept of associative memory designed to solve the track finding problem, typical of high energy physics experiments, in a time span of a few microseconds even for very high multiplicity events. This ''machine'' is implemented as a large array of custom VLSI chips. All the chips are equal and each of them stores a number of ''patterns''. All the patterns in all the chips are compared in parallel to the data coming from the detector while the detector is being read out. (orig.)

  10. The test of VLSI circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baviere, Ph.

    Tests which have proven effective for evaluating VLSI circuits for space applications are described. It is recommended that circuits be examined after each manfacturing step to gain fast feedback on inadequacies in the production system. Data from failure modes which occur during operational lifetimes of circuits also permit redefinition of the manufacturing and quality control process to eliminate the defects identified. Other tests include determination of the operational envelope of the circuits, examination of the circuit response to controlled inputs, and the performance and functional speeds of ROM and RAM memories. Finally, it is desirable that all new circuits be designed with testing in mind.

  11. Surface and interface effects in VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1985-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 10: Surface and Interface Effects in VLSI provides the advances made in the science of semiconductor surface and interface as they relate to electronics. This volume aims to provide a better understanding and control of surface and interface related properties. The book begins with an introductory chapter on the intimate link between interfaces and devices. The book is then divided into two parts. The first part covers the chemical and geometric structures of prototypical VLSI interfaces. Subjects detailed include, the technologically most import

  12. Design of a Low-Power VLSI Macrocell for Nonlinear Adaptive Video Noise Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A VLSI macrocell for edge-preserving video noise reduction is proposed in the paper. It is based on a nonlinear rational filter enhanced by a noise estimator for blind and dynamic adaptation of the filtering parameters to the input signal statistics. The VLSI filter features a modular architecture allowing the extension of both mask size and filtering directions. Both spatial and spatiotemporal algorithms are supported. Simulation results with monochrome test videos prove its efficiency for many noise distributions with PSNR improvements up to 3.8 dB with respect to a nonadaptive solution. The VLSI macrocell has been realized in a 0.18 μm CMOS technology using a standard-cells library; it allows for real-time processing of main video formats, up to 30 fps (frames per second 4CIF, with a power consumption in the order of few mW.

  13. VLSI Technology for Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIJAYALAKSHMI, B.; SIDDAIAH, P.

    2017-08-01

    One of the most challenging tasks of cognitive radio is the efficiency in the spectrum sensing scheme to overcome the spectrum scarcity problem. The popular and widely used spectrum sensing technique is the energy detection scheme as it is very simple and doesn’t require any previous information related to the signal. We propose one such approach which is an optimised spectrum sensing scheme with reduced filter structure. The optimisation is done in terms of area and power performance of the spectrum. The simulations of the VLSI structure of the optimised flexible spectrum is done using verilog coding by using the XILINX ISE software. Our method produces performance with 13% reduction in area and 66% reduction in power consumption in comparison to the flexible spectrum sensing scheme. All the results are tabulated and comparisons are made. A new scheme for optimised and effective spectrum sensing opens up with our model.

  14. AutoCAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    I 1998 var AutoCAD Arkitektskolens basale CAD-tilbud til de studerende. Kursets vægt ligger på konstruktion og strukturering af 3d-modeller og med udgangspunkt i dette, 2d-tegning. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudium.......I 1998 var AutoCAD Arkitektskolens basale CAD-tilbud til de studerende. Kursets vægt ligger på konstruktion og strukturering af 3d-modeller og med udgangspunkt i dette, 2d-tegning. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min forskning). Kompendiet kan bruges til selvstudium....

  15. CAD-guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlechtendahl, E.G.; Lang-Lendorff, G.

    1982-10-01

    The CAD-guidelines (CAD = Computer Aided Design) contain rules for programming, structuring and documentation of programs. The standard deals with the structure of CAD-programs, their components, the programming-methods, the language etc. It describes what documents and references are necessary for a CAD-program. In order to gain a broad application of CAD criteria like portability and completeness of the documentation for an effective maintenance are as important as a transparent way of producing CAD-software. (orig.) [de

  16. Learning Auto CAD 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Gyeong Su; Song, Chun Dong; Park, Hyeong Jin; Kim, Yeong Min

    2004-02-15

    This book introduces basic knowledge of AutoCAD, practice method of command of AutoCAD like poly line, rotate, copy, break, trim, stretch, lengthen, chamfer, grips, extend, array polygon, spline, hatch, and image, writing letters, making library, application of design center and tool palette, drawing floor plan elevation, cross-sectional diagram, presentation materials, effective application of AutoCAD, and construction design using CAD POWER 2004.

  17. Learning Auto CAD 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Gyeong Su; Song, Chun Dong; Park, Hyeong Jin; Kim, Yeong Min

    2004-02-01

    This book introduces basic knowledge of AutoCAD, practice method of command of AutoCAD like poly line, rotate, copy, break, trim, stretch, lengthen, chamfer, grips, extend, array polygon, spline, hatch, and image, writing letters, making library, application of design center and tool palette, drawing floor plan elevation, cross-sectional diagram, presentation materials, effective application of AutoCAD, and construction design using CAD POWER 2004.

  18. Fast-prototyping of VLSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucier, G.; Read, E.

    1987-01-01

    Fast-prototyping will be a reality in the very near future if both straightforward design methods and fast manufacturing facilities are available. This book focuses, first, on the motivation for fast-prototyping. Economic aspects and market considerations are analysed by European and Japanese companies. In the second chapter, new design methods are identified, mainly for full custom circuits. Of course, silicon compilers play a key role and the introduction of artificial intelligence techniques sheds a new light on the subject. At present, fast-prototyping on gate arrays or on standard cells is the most conventional technique and the third chapter updates the state-of-the art in this area. The fourth chapter concentrates specifically on the e-beam direct-writing for submicron IC technologies. In the fifth chapter, a strategic point in fast-prototyping, namely the test problem is addressed. The design for testability and the interface to the test equipment are mandatory to fulfill the test requirement for fast-prototyping. Finally, the last chapter deals with the subject of education when many people complain about the lack of use of fast-prototyping in higher education for VLSI

  19. Compact MOSFET models for VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, A B

    2009-01-01

    Practicing designers, students, and educators in the semiconductor field face an ever expanding portfolio of MOSFET models. In Compact MOSFET Models for VLSI Design , A.B. Bhattacharyya presents a unified perspective on the topic, allowing the practitioner to view and interpret device phenomena concurrently using different modeling strategies. Readers will learn to link device physics with model parameters, helping to close the gap between device understanding and its use for optimal circuit performance. Bhattacharyya also lays bare the core physical concepts that will drive the future of VLSI.

  20. Lithography requirements in complex VLSI device fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication of complex very large scale integration (VLSI) circuits requires continual advances in lithography to satisfy: decreasing minimum linewidths, larger chip sizes, tighter linewidth and overlay control, increasing topography to linewidth ratios, higher yield demands, increased throughput, harsher device processing, lower lithography cost, and a larger part number set with quick turn-around time. Where optical, electron beam, x-ray, and ion beam lithography can be applied to judiciously satisfy the complex VLSI circuit fabrication requirements is discussed and those areas that are in need of major further advances are addressed. Emphasis will be placed on advanced electron beam and storage ring x-ray lithography

  1. Algorithmically specialized parallel computers

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Lawrence; Gannon, Dennis B

    1985-01-01

    Algorithmically Specialized Parallel Computers focuses on the concept and characteristics of an algorithmically specialized computer.This book discusses the algorithmically specialized computers, algorithmic specialization using VLSI, and innovative architectures. The architectures and algorithms for digital signal, speech, and image processing and specialized architectures for numerical computations are also elaborated. Other topics include the model for analyzing generalized inter-processor, pipelined architecture for search tree maintenance, and specialized computer organization for raster

  2. Electro-optic techniques for VLSI interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, J. A.

    1985-03-01

    A major limitation to achieving significant speed increases in very large scale integration (VLSI) lies in the metallic interconnects. They are costly not only from the charge transport standpoint but also from capacitive loading effects. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, in pursuit of the fifth generation supercomputer, is investigating alternatives to the VLSI metallic interconnects, especially the use of optical techniques to transport the information either inter or intrachip. As the on chip performance of VLSI continues to improve via the scale down of the logic elements, the problems associated with transferring data off and onto the chip become more severe. The use of optical carriers to transfer the information within the computer is very appealing from several viewpoints. Besides the potential for gigabit propagation rates, the conversion from electronics to optics conveniently provides a decoupling of the various circuits from one another. Significant gains will also be realized in reducing cross talk between the metallic routings, and the interconnects need no longer be constrained to the plane of a thin film on the VLSI chip. In addition, optics can offer an increased programming flexibility for restructuring the interconnect network.

  3. CAD on personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong U; Cho, Cheol Ho; Ko, Il Du

    1990-02-01

    This book contains four studies of CAD on personal computers. The first thing is computer graphics in computer-aided design by Seong U Lee. The second thing is graphics primer and programming with Fortran by Seong U Lee. The third thing is application of Auto cad by Il Do Ko. The last thing is application of CAD in building construction design by Cheol Ho Cho.

  4. Easy Auto CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyeon Jun

    1996-02-01

    This book explains Auto CAD easily, which introduces improved function in Auto CAD R 13, such as direct import and export of 3 DS pile, revised render order structure, and explanations of assist, view Draw, construct and modify. Next it gives descriptions of Auto CAD conception, application and system. The last part deals with line, arc, circle, ellipse, erase, undo, redo, redraw, line type, multi line, limits, zoom, move, copy, rotate, array, mirror, grid, snap, units, offset and poly line.

  5. CAD: Designs on Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Provides a general review of the field of Computer-Aided Design Software including specific reviews of "Autosketch,""Generic CADD,""Drafix 1 Plus,""FastCAD," and "Autocad Release 9." Brief articles include "Blueprint for Generation,""CAD for Every Department,""Ideas…

  6. VLSI Design of SVM-Based Seizure Detection System With On-Chip Learning Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lichen; Li, Zunchao; Wang, Yuanfa

    2018-02-01

    Portable automatic seizure detection system is very convenient for epilepsy patients to carry. In order to make the system on-chip trainable with high efficiency and attain high detection accuracy, this paper presents a very large scale integration (VLSI) design based on the nonlinear support vector machine (SVM). The proposed design mainly consists of a feature extraction (FE) module and an SVM module. The FE module performs the three-level Daubechies discrete wavelet transform to fit the physiological bands of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal and extracts the time-frequency domain features reflecting the nonstationary signal properties. The SVM module integrates the modified sequential minimal optimization algorithm with the table-driven-based Gaussian kernel to enable efficient on-chip learning. The presented design is verified on an Altera Cyclone II field-programmable gate array and tested using the two publicly available EEG datasets. Experiment results show that the designed VLSI system improves the detection accuracy and training efficiency.

  7. Towards an Analogue Neuromorphic VLSI Instrument for the Sensing of Complex Odours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Aziz, Muhammad Fazli; Harun, Fauzan Khairi Che; Covington, James A.; Gardner, Julian W.

    2011-09-01

    Almost all electronic nose instruments reported today employ pattern recognition algorithms written in software and run on digital processors, e.g. micro-processors, microcontrollers or FPGAs. Conversely, in this paper we describe the analogue VLSI implementation of an electronic nose through the design of a neuromorphic olfactory chip. The modelling, design and fabrication of the chip have already been reported. Here a smart interface has been designed and characterised for thisneuromorphic chip. Thus we can demonstrate the functionality of the a VLSI neuromorphic chip, producing differing principal neuron firing patterns to real sensor response data. Further work is directed towards integrating 9 separate neuromorphic chips to create a large neuronal network to solve more complex olfactory problems.

  8. Harnessing VLSI System Design with EDA Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Kamat, Rajanish K; Gaikwad, Pawan K; Guhilot, Hansraj

    2012-01-01

    This book explores various dimensions of EDA technologies for achieving different goals in VLSI system design. Although the scope of EDA is very broad and comprises diversified hardware and software tools to accomplish different phases of VLSI system design, such as design, layout, simulation, testability, prototyping and implementation, this book focuses only on demystifying the code, a.k.a. firmware development and its implementation with FPGAs. Since there are a variety of languages for system design, this book covers various issues related to VHDL, Verilog and System C synergized with EDA tools, using a variety of case studies such as testability, verification and power consumption. * Covers aspects of VHDL, Verilog and Handel C in one text; * Enables designers to judge the appropriateness of each EDA tool for relevant applications; * Omits discussion of design platforms and focuses on design case studies; * Uses design case studies from diversified application domains such as network on chip, hospital on...

  9. VLSI 'smart' I/O module development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Dan

    The developmental history, design, and operation of the MIL-STD-1553A/B discrete and serial module (DSM) for the U.S. Navy AN/AYK-14(V) avionics computer are described and illustrated with diagrams. The ongoing preplanned product improvement for the AN/AYK-14(V) includes five dual-redundant MIL-STD-1553 channels based on DSMs. The DSM is a front-end processor for transferring data to and from a common memory, sharing memory with a host processor to provide improved 'smart' input/output performance. Each DSM comprises three hardware sections: three VLSI-6000 semicustomized CMOS arrays, memory units to support the arrays, and buffers and resynchronization circuits. The DSM hardware module design, VLSI-6000 design tools, controlware and test software, and checkout procedures (using a hardware simulator) are characterized in detail.

  10. Heavy ion tests on programmable VLSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost-Grellier, A.

    1989-11-01

    The radiation from space environment induces operation damages in onboard computers systems. The definition of a strategy, for the Very Large Scale Integrated Circuitry (VLSI) qualification and choice, is needed. The 'upset' phenomena is known to be the most critical integrated circuit radiation effect. The strategies for testing integrated circuits are reviewed. A method and a test device were developed and applied to space applications candidate circuits. Cyclotron, synchrotron and Californium source experiments were carried out [fr

  11. AutoCAD workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Metherell, Phil

    1989-01-01

    AutoCAD Workbook helps new users learn the basics of AutoCad, providing guidance on most of the commonly used functions in which the program operates.This book discusses loading AutoCad and starting a drawing; drawing and erasing lines, circles, and arcs; and setting up the drawing environment. The topics on drawing and editing polylines; entering text and text styles; and layers, linetype, and color are also considered. This publication likewise covers creating and using blocks, hatching and extracting information, dimensioning drawings, 3D visualization, and plotting a drawing. Other

  12. Vlsi implementation of flexible architecture for decision tree classification in data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K. Venkatesh; Shewandagn, Behailu; Bhukya, Shankar Nayak

    2017-07-01

    The Data mining algorithms have become vital to researchers in science, engineering, medicine, business, search and security domains. In recent years, there has been a terrific raise in the size of the data being collected and analyzed. Classification is the main difficulty faced in data mining. In a number of the solutions developed for this problem, most accepted one is Decision Tree Classification (DTC) that gives high precision while handling very large amount of data. This paper presents VLSI implementation of flexible architecture for Decision Tree classification in data mining using c4.5 algorithm.

  13. Positron emission tomographic images and expectation maximization: A VLSI architecture for multiple iterations per second

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.F.; Byars, L.G.; Casey, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    A digital electronic architecture for parallel processing of the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm for Positron Emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction is proposed. Rapid (0.2 second) EM iterations on high resolution (256 x 256) images are supported. Arrays of two very large scale integration (VLSI) chips perform forward and back projection calculations. A description of the architecture is given, including data flow and partitioning relevant to EM and parallel processing. EM images shown are produced with software simulating the proposed hardware reconstruction algorithm. Projected cost of the system is estimated to be small in comparison to the cost of current PET scanners

  14. MS AutoCad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Rye; Heinicke, Hugo

    1996-01-01

    Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund for praktiskprojekter......Formålet med dette notat er at give en introduktion til tegning af et generalarrangement ved anvendelse af CAD-programmet AutoCAD. Generalarrangementets formål er at skabe en overskuelig præsentation af et skibsprojekt. Det skal gøres indenfor de rammer, som ligger til grund...

  15. CAD/CAM/CNC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domermuth, Dave; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "Quick Start CNC (computer numerical control) with a Vacuum Filter and Laminated Plastic" (Domermuth); "School and Industry Cooperate for Mutual Benefit" (Buckler); and "CAD (computer-assisted drafting) Careers--What Professionals Have to Say" (Skinner). (JOW)

  16. Combining photogrammetry and CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowsky, V.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear power plants photogrammetry is being used to supply the data needed for setting up 3D CAD models. At Siemens, project handling has been made more economical by using photogrammetry and 3D CAD as a single process. Photogrammetry can be used for modelling extensive sections of the plant or small areas. Areas which particularly lend themselves to the use of photogrammetry are those with a high level of radiation or those yielding a large volume of data. (author)

  17. Application of Auto CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Un; Kim, Geun Ho

    1989-05-01

    This book has introduction to use this book and explanation of application on Auto CAD, which includes, sub directories, batch files, robot wrist, design of standard paper, title block, robort weld room, robert wrist joint, PC board, plant sym, electro, PID, machines, robots, bubbles, plant, schema, Pid, plant assembly, robots, dim plant, PL-ASSM, plotting line weight control, symbol drawing joint, Auto CAD using script file, set up of workout · MNU, workout MNU, ACAD, LSP and workout · MNU.

  18. Application of Auto CAD 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeong Jun

    1999-11-01

    This book deals with basic of AutoCAD, beginning AutoCAD 2000, using design center of AutoCAD 2000, adding drawing element with design center, drawing lines, using 2D edit command, making layer, hatching, dimensioning, entering letters on the floor plan, making 3D object, practice of 3D command, edition of 3D object, making solid, rendering object, and using internet in AutoCAD 2000. This book is introduction of AutoCAD 2000 for beginner.

  19. Research on remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition method in AutoCAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Guangtong; Liu, Jun; Liu, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The remote sensing image has been widely used in AutoCAD, but AutoCAD lack of the function of remote sensing image processing. In the paper, ObjectARX was used for the secondary development tool, combined with the Image Engine SDK to realize remote sensing image pixel attribute data acquisition in AutoCAD, which provides critical technical support for AutoCAD environment remote sensing image processing algorithms.

  20. Suunnitteluautomaatio CAD-ohjelmissa

    OpenAIRE

    Anttila, Juho

    2010-01-01

    Tässä työssä tutkittiin suunnitteluautomaation mahdollisuuksia cad-ohjelmissa. Työtä varten perehdyttiin useampaan cad-ohjelmaan ja tehtiin suurehko automaatti Vertex G4 alustalle, jonka kokemuksiin työn pohdinta pitkälti perustuu. Työ etenee yleisestä työkalujen esittelystä automatisoinnin teoriaan. Teoriassa pohditaan erilaisia tapoja ja tasoja miten automatisointia voidaan toteuttaa. Työn aihe oli kiinnostava, koska aiheesta on tehty melko vähän teoksia. Teoriapohdiskelun ohella esitettii...

  1. Technology computer aided design simulation for VLSI MOSFET

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Chandan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Responding to recent developments and a growing VLSI circuit manufacturing market, Technology Computer Aided Design: Simulation for VLSI MOSFET examines advanced MOSFET processes and devices through TCAD numerical simulations. The book provides a balanced summary of TCAD and MOSFET basic concepts, equations, physics, and new technologies related to TCAD and MOSFET. A firm grasp of these concepts allows for the design of better models, thus streamlining the design process, saving time and money. This book places emphasis on the importance of modeling and simulations of VLSI MOS transistors and

  2. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  3. Wavelength-encoded OCDMA system using opto-VLSI processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal

    2007-07-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a 2.5 Gbits/sper user wavelength-encoded optical code-division multiple-access encoder-decoder structure based on opto-VLSI processing. Each encoder and decoder is constructed using a single 1D opto-very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) processor in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array of different Bragg wavelengths. The FBG array spectrally and temporally slices the broadband input pulse into several components and the opto-VLSI processor generates codewords using digital phase holograms. System performance is measured in terms of the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  4. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polynomial) division have been found in Vedic Mathematics which are dated much before Euclid's algorithm. A programming language Is used to describe an algorithm for execution on a computer. An algorithm expressed using a programming.

  5. The VE/CAD synergism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Value Engineering (VE) and Computer-Aided Design (CAD) can be used synergistically to reduce costs and improve facilities designs. The cost and schedule impacts of implementing alternative design ideas developed by VE teams can be greatly reduced when the drawings have been produced with interactive CAD systems. To better understand the interrelationship between VE and CAD, the fundamentals of the VE process are explained; and example of a VE proposal is described and the way CAD drawings facilitated its implementation is illustrated

  6. AutoCAD 2014 and AutoCAD LT 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step tutorial introduction to AutoCAD As the only book to teach AutoCAD using a continuous tutorial which allows you to follow along sequentially or jump in at any exercise by downloading the drawing files, this Autodesk Official Press book is ideal for the AutoCAD novice. Industry expert and AutoCAD guru Donnie Gladfelter walks you through the powerful features of AutoCAD, provides you with a solid foundation of the basics, and shares the latest industry standards and techniques. The hands-on tutorial project inspired by real-world workflows that runs throughout the book

  7. A Compact VLSI System for Bio-Inspired Visual Motion Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cong; Luo, Gang

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a bio-inspired visual motion estimation algorithm based on motion energy, along with its compact very-large-scale integration (VLSI) architecture using low-cost embedded systems. The algorithm mimics motion perception functions of retina, V1, and MT neurons in a primate visual system. It involves operations of ternary edge extraction, spatiotemporal filtering, motion energy extraction, and velocity integration. Moreover, we propose the concept of confidence map to indicate the reliability of estimation results on each probing location. Our algorithm involves only additions and multiplications during runtime, which is suitable for low-cost hardware implementation. The proposed VLSI architecture employs multiple (frame, pixel, and operation) levels of pipeline and massively parallel processing arrays to boost the system performance. The array unit circuits are optimized to minimize hardware resource consumption. We have prototyped the proposed architecture on a low-cost field-programmable gate array platform (Zynq 7020) running at 53-MHz clock frequency. It achieved 30-frame/s real-time performance for velocity estimation on 160 × 120 probing locations. A comprehensive evaluation experiment showed that the estimated velocity by our prototype has relatively small errors (average endpoint error < 0.5 pixel and angular error < 10°) for most motion cases.

  8. Memory Based Machine Intelligence Techniques in VLSI hardware

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2012-01-01

    We briefly introduce the memory based approaches to emulate machine intelligence in VLSI hardware, describing the challenges and advantages. Implementation of artificial intelligence techniques in VLSI hardware is a practical and difficult problem. Deep architectures, hierarchical temporal memories and memory networks are some of the contemporary approaches in this area of research. The techniques attempt to emulate low level intelligence tasks and aim at providing scalable solutions to high ...

  9. ORGANIZATION OF GRAPHIC INFORMATION FOR VIEWING THE MULTILAYER VLSI TOPOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Romanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible ways to reorganize of graphical information describing the set of topology layers of modern VLSI. The method is directed on the use in the conditions of the bounded size of video card memory. An additional effect, providing high performance of forming multi- image layout a multi-layer topology of modern VLSI, is achieved by preloading the required texture by means of auxiliary background process.

  10. Annotation and retrieval system of CAD models based on functional semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhansong; Tian, Ling; Duan, Wenrui

    2014-11-01

    CAD model retrieval based on functional semantics is more significant than content-based 3D model retrieval during the mechanical conceptual design phase. However, relevant research is still not fully discussed. Therefore, a functional semantic-based CAD model annotation and retrieval method is proposed to support mechanical conceptual design and design reuse, inspire designer creativity through existing CAD models, shorten design cycle, and reduce costs. Firstly, the CAD model functional semantic ontology is constructed to formally represent the functional semantics of CAD models and describe the mechanical conceptual design space comprehensively and consistently. Secondly, an approach to represent CAD models as attributed adjacency graphs(AAG) is proposed. In this method, the geometry and topology data are extracted from STEP models. On the basis of AAG, the functional semantics of CAD models are annotated semi-automatically by matching CAD models that contain the partial features of which functional semantics have been annotated manually, thereby constructing CAD Model Repository that supports model retrieval based on functional semantics. Thirdly, a CAD model retrieval algorithm that supports multi-function extended retrieval is proposed to explore more potential creative design knowledge in the semantic level. Finally, a prototype system, called Functional Semantic-based CAD Model Annotation and Retrieval System(FSMARS), is implemented. A case demonstrates that FSMARS can successfully botain multiple potential CAD models that conform to the desired function. The proposed research addresses actual needs and presents a new way to acquire CAD models in the mechanical conceptual design phase.

  11. Multi-net optimization of VLSI interconnect

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseev, Konstantin; Wimer, Shmuel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers layout design and layout migration methodologies for optimizing multi-net wire structures in advanced VLSI interconnects. Scaling-dependent models for interconnect power, interconnect delay and crosstalk noise are covered in depth, and several design optimization problems are addressed, such as minimization of interconnect power under delay constraints, or design for minimal delay in wire bundles within a given routing area. A handy reference or a guide for design methodologies and layout automation techniques, this book provides a foundation for physical design challenges of interconnect in advanced integrated circuits.  • Describes the evolution of interconnect scaling and provides new techniques for layout migration and optimization, focusing on multi-net optimization; • Presents research results that provide a level of design optimization which does not exist in commercially-available design automation software tools; • Includes mathematical properties and conditions for optimal...

  12. DPL/Daedalus design environment (for VLSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batali, J; Mayle, N; Shrobe, H; Sussman, G; Weise, D

    1981-01-01

    The DPL/Daedalus design environment is an interactive VLSI design system implemented at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. The system consists of several components: a layout language called DPL (for design procedure language); an interactive graphics facility (Daedalus); and several special purpose design procedures for constructing complex artifacts such as PLAs and microprocessor data paths. Coordinating all of these is a generalized property list data base which contains both the data representing circuits and the procedures for constructing them. The authors first review the nature of the data base and then turn to DPL and Daedalus, the two most common ways of entering information into the data base. The next two sections review the specialized procedures for constructing PLAs and data paths; the final section describes a tool for hierarchical node extraction. 5 references.

  13. Development methods for VLSI-processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horninger, K.; Sandweg, G.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this project, which was originally planed for 3 years, was the development of modern system and circuit concepts, for VLSI-processors having a 32 bit wide data path. The result of this first years work is the concept of a general purpose processor. This processor is not only logically but also physically (on the chip) divided into four functional units: a microprogrammable instruction unit, an execution unit in slice technique, a fully associative cache memory and an I/O unit. For the ALU of the execution unit circuits in PLA and slice techniques have been realized. On the basis of regularity, area consumption and achievable performance the slice technique has been prefered. The designs utilize selftesting circuitry. (orig.) [de

  14. VLSI Implementation of a Fixed-Complexity Soft-Output MIMO Detector for High-Speed Wireless

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-complexity MIMO symbol detector with close-Maximum a posteriori performance for the emerging multiantenna enhanced high-speed wireless communications. The VLSI implementation is based on a novel MIMO detection algorithm called Modified Fixed-Complexity Soft-Output (MFCSO detection, which achieves a good trade-off between performance and implementation cost compared to the referenced prior art. By including a microcode-controlled channel preprocessing unit and a pipelined detection unit, it is flexible enough to cover several different standards and transmission schemes. The flexibility allows adaptive detection to minimize power consumption without degradation in throughput. The VLSI implementation of the detector is presented to show that real-time MIMO symbol detection of 20 MHz bandwidth 3GPP LTE and 10 MHz WiMAX downlink physical channel is achievable at reasonable silicon cost.

  15. A multi coding technique to reduce transition activity in VLSI circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vithyalakshmi, N.; Rajaram, M.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in VLSI technology have enabled the implementation of complex digital circuits in a single chip, reducing system size and power consumption. In deep submicron low power CMOS VLSI design, the main cause of energy dissipation is charging and discharging of internal node capacitances due to transition activity. Transition activity is one of the major factors that also affect the dynamic power dissipation. This paper proposes power reduction analyzed through algorithm and logic circuit levels. In algorithm level the key aspect of reducing power dissipation is by minimizing transition activity and is achieved by introducing a data coding technique. So a novel multi coding technique is introduced to improve the efficiency of transition activity up to 52.3% on the bus lines, which will automatically reduce the dynamic power dissipation. In addition, 1 bit full adders are introduced in the Hamming distance estimator block, which reduces the device count. This coding method is implemented using Verilog HDL. The overall performance is analyzed by using Modelsim and Xilinx Tools. In total 38.2% power saving capability is achieved compared to other existing methods. (semiconductor technology)

  16. Structural design by CAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jhin Wung; Shim, Jae Ku; Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Choi, Kyu Sup; Choi, In Kil; Lee, Dong Yong

    1988-12-01

    CAD systems are now widely used for the design of many engineering problems involving static, dynamic and thermal stress analyses of structures. In order to apply CAD systems to the structural analysis and design, the function of hardwares and softwares necessary for the CAD systems must be understood. The purpose of this study is to introduce the basic elements that are indispensible in the application of CAD systems to the analysis and design of structures and to give a thorough understanding of CAD systems to design engineers, so as to participate in the further technological developments of CAD systems. Due to the complexity and variety of the shape and size of the nowa-days structures, the need of new design technologies is growing for more efficient, accurate and economical design of structures. The application of CAD systems to structural engineering fields enables to improve structural engineering analysis and design technologies and also to obtain the standardization of the design process. An active introduction of rapidly developing CAD technologies will contribute to analyzing and designing structures more efficiently and reliably. Based on this report of the current status of the application of CAD systems to the structural analysis and design, the next goal is to develop the expert system which enables to perform the design of structures by CAD systems from the preliminary conceptual design to the final detail drawings automatically. (Author)

  17. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to as 'divide-and-conquer'. Although there has been a large effort in realizing efficient algorithms, there are not many universally accepted algorithm design paradigms. In this article, we illustrate algorithm design techniques such as balancing, greedy strategy, dynamic programming strategy, and backtracking or traversal of ...

  18. AutoCAD / AutoCAD LT 2014 fundamentals metric

    CERN Document Server

    ASCENT center for technical knowledge

    2014-01-01

    The objective of AutoCAD/AutoCAD LT 2014 Fundamentals is to enable students to create a basic 2D drawing in the AutoCAD software. Even at this fundamental level, the AutoCAD software is one of the most sophisticated computer applications that you are likely to encounter. Therefore learning to use it can be challenging. To make the process easier and provide flexibility for instructors and students, the training guide is divided into two parts that can be taken independently.

  19. CAD/CAM-assisted breast reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchels, Ferry; Hutmacher, Dietmar Werner; Wiggenhauser, Paul Severin; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; Warne, David; Barry, Mark; Ong, Fook Rhu; Chong, Woon Shin

    2011-01-01

    The application of computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques in the clinic is growing slowly but steadily. The ability to build patient-specific models based on medical imaging data offers major potential. In this work we report on the feasibility of employing laser scanning with CAD/CAM techniques to aid in breast reconstruction. A patient was imaged with laser scanning, an economical and facile method for creating an accurate digital representation of the breasts and surrounding tissues. The obtained model was used to fabricate a customized mould that was employed as an intra-operative aid for the surgeon performing autologous tissue reconstruction of the breast removed due to cancer. Furthermore, a solid breast model was derived from the imaged data and digitally processed for the fabrication of customized scaffolds for breast tissue engineering. To this end, a novel generic algorithm for creating porosity within a solid model was developed, using a finite element model as intermediate.

  20. CAD: How it works, how to use it, performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, Daniele; Halligan, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are software algorithms designed to assist radiologists (or other practitioners) in solving a diagnostic problem by using a visual prompt (or “CAD mark”) to direct the observer towards potential pathology. CT colonography is a recent arrival to CAD, but could represent one of its most fruitful applications in the future. In contrast to other organs, where a variety of different pathologies are equally represented, significant colorectal pathologies other than polyps and cancer are relatively uncommon. As we shall see, this simplifies the diagnostic task for artificial intelligence developers and also for radiologists who, ultimately, must make the final decision. This review aims to present the current state-of-the-art for CAD applied to CT colonography. A brief overview of the technical essentials and of the diagnostic performance of CAD in isolation, is followed by an explanation of how CAD is used in day-to-day practice. The last section will deal with the most controversial issues affecting CAD performance in clinical practice, with a focus on the interaction between human and artificial intelligence

  1. CAD: How it works, how to use it, performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regge, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.regge@ircc.it [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo-Torino (Italy); Halligan, Steve, E-mail: s.halligan@ucl.ac.uk [University College Hospital London, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are software algorithms designed to assist radiologists (or other practitioners) in solving a diagnostic problem by using a visual prompt (or “CAD mark”) to direct the observer towards potential pathology. CT colonography is a recent arrival to CAD, but could represent one of its most fruitful applications in the future. In contrast to other organs, where a variety of different pathologies are equally represented, significant colorectal pathologies other than polyps and cancer are relatively uncommon. As we shall see, this simplifies the diagnostic task for artificial intelligence developers and also for radiologists who, ultimately, must make the final decision. This review aims to present the current state-of-the-art for CAD applied to CT colonography. A brief overview of the technical essentials and of the diagnostic performance of CAD in isolation, is followed by an explanation of how CAD is used in day-to-day practice. The last section will deal with the most controversial issues affecting CAD performance in clinical practice, with a focus on the interaction between human and artificial intelligence.

  2. Easy Korean Auto CAD 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Cheol

    1997-10-01

    This book introduces Auto CAD 14, which includes summary of basic things of Auto CAD 14, user interface for Auto CAD, basic drawing and advice, layer and set-up drawing, drawing with Auto CAD tools exactly, basic drawing of every thing, edit command, control of display, modeling and view ports of drawing space, various things drawing, writing letters, modification of floor plan, and check, block, X ref, lines and hatch, writing measurement, floor plan and OLE exchange of data, 3D floor plan, and rendering and presentation.

  3. An electron undulating ring for VLSI lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomimasu, T.; Mikado, T.; Noguchi, T.; Sugiyama, S.; Yamazaki, T.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the ETL storage ring ''TERAS'' as an undulating ring has been continued to achieve a wide area exposure of synchrotron radiation (SR) in VLSI lithography. Stable vertical and horizontal undulating motions of stored beams are demonstrated around a horizontal design orbit of TERAS, using two small steering magnets of which one is used for vertical undulating and another for horizontal one. Each steering magnet is inserted into one of the periodic configulation of guide field elements. As one of useful applications of undulaing electron beams, a vertically wide exposure of SR has been demonstrated in the SR lithography. The maximum vertical deviation from the design orbit nCcurs near the steering magnet. The maximum vertical tilt angle of the undulating beam near the nodes is about + or - 2mrad for a steering magnetic field of 50 gauss. Another proposal is for hith-intensity, uniform and wide exposure of SR from a wiggler installed in TERAS, using vertical and horizontal undulating motions of stored beams. A 1.4 m long permanent magnet wiggler has been installed for this purpose in this April

  4. Convolving optically addressed VLSI liquid crystal SLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, David A.; Stirk, Charles W.

    1994-03-01

    We designed, fabricated, and tested an optically addressed spatial light modulator (SLM) that performs a 3 X 3 kernel image convolution using ferroelectric liquid crystal on VLSI technology. The chip contains a 16 X 16 array of current-mirror-based convolvers with a fixed kernel for finding edges. The pixels are located on 75 micron centers, and the modulators are 20 microns on a side. The array successfully enhanced edges in illumination patterns. We developed a high-level simulation tool (CON) for analyzing the performance of convolving SLM designs. CON has a graphical interface and simulates SLM functions using SPICE-like device models. The user specifies the pixel function along with the device parameters and nonuniformities. We discovered through analysis, simulation and experiment that the operation of current-mirror-based convolver pixels is degraded at low light levels by the variation of transistor threshold voltages inherent to CMOS chips. To function acceptable, the test SLM required the input image to have an minimum irradiance of 10 (mu) W/cm2. The minimum required irradiance can be further reduced by adding a photodarlington near the photodetector or by increasing the size of the transistors used to calculate the convolution.

  5. Computer-aided pulmonary nodule detection. Performance of two CAD systems at different CT dose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, Patrick Alexander; Rogalla, P.; Klessen, C.; Lembcke, A.; Romano, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose reduction on the performance of computer-aided lung nodule detection systems (CAD) of two manufacturers by comparing respective CAD results on ultra-low-dose computed tomography (ULD-CT) and standard dose CT (SD-CT). Materials and Methods: Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) data sets of 26 patients (13 male and 13 female, patients 31 - 74 years old) were retrospectively selected for CAD analysis. Indication for CT examination was staging of a known primary malignancy or suspected pulmonary malignancy. CT images were consecutively acquired at 5 mAs (ULD-CT) and 75 mAs (SD-CT) with 120kV tube voltage (1 mm slice thickness). The standard of reference was determined by three experienced readers in consensus. CAD reading algorithms (pre-commercial CAD system, Philips, Netherlands: CAD-1; LungCARE, Siemens, Germany: CAD-2) were applied to the CT data sets. Results: Consensus reading identified 253 nodules on SD-CT and ULD-CT. Nodules ranged in diameter between 2 and 41 mm (mean diameter 4.8 mm). Detection rates were recorded with 72% and 62% (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2) for SD-CT and with 73% and 56% for ULD-CT. Median also positive rates per patient were calculated with 6 and 5 (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2) for SD-CT and with 8 and 3 for ULD-CT. After separate statistical analysis of nodules with diameters of 5 mm and greater, the detection rates increased to 83% and 61% for SD-CT and to 89% and 67% for ULD-CT (CAD-1 vs. CAD-2). For both CAD systems there were no significant differences between the detection rates for standard and ultra-low-dose data sets (p>0.05). Conclusion: Dose reduction of the underlying CT scan did not significantly influence nodule detection performance of the tested CAD systems. (orig.)

  6. Memory Efficient VLSI Implementation of Real-Time Motion Detection System Using FPGA Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Motion detection is the heart of a potentially complex automated video surveillance system, intended to be used as a standalone system. Therefore, in addition to being accurate and robust, a successful motion detection technique must also be economical in the use of computational resources on selected FPGA development platform. This is because many other complex algorithms of an automated video surveillance system also run on the same platform. Keeping this key requirement as main focus, a memory efficient VLSI architecture for real-time motion detection and its implementation on FPGA platform is presented in this paper. This is accomplished by proposing a new memory efficient motion detection scheme and designing its VLSI architecture. The complete real-time motion detection system using the proposed memory efficient architecture along with proper input/output interfaces is implemented on Xilinx ML510 (Virtex-5 FX130T FPGA development platform and is capable of operating at 154.55 MHz clock frequency. Memory requirement of the proposed architecture is reduced by 41% compared to the standard clustering based motion detection architecture. The new memory efficient system robustly and automatically detects motion in real-world scenarios (both for the static backgrounds and the pseudo-stationary backgrounds in real-time for standard PAL (720 × 576 size color video.

  7. 64006 CAD i Byggesektoren. Grundkursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, Egil

    1998-01-01

    Overview on Computer Aided Design in Civil Engineering and introduction to AutoCAD version 13, layers, colours, blocks, attributes.......Overview on Computer Aided Design in Civil Engineering and introduction to AutoCAD version 13, layers, colours, blocks, attributes....

  8. Handbook of VLSI chip design and expert systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, A F

    1993-01-01

    Handbook of VLSI Chip Design and Expert Systems provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of expert systems, which provides a knowledge-based approach to problem solving. This book discusses the use of expert systems in every possible subtask of VLSI chip design as well as in the interrelations between the subtasks.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of design automation, which can be identified as Computer-Aided Design of Circuits and Systems (CADCAS). This text then presents the progress in artificial intelligence, with emphasis on expert systems.

  9. VLSI micro- and nanophotonics science, technology, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, El-Hang; Razeghi, Manijeh; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2011-01-01

    Addressing the growing demand for larger capacity in information technology, VLSI Micro- and Nanophotonics: Science, Technology, and Applications explores issues of science and technology of micro/nano-scale photonics and integration for broad-scale and chip-scale Very Large Scale Integration photonics. This book is a game-changer in the sense that it is quite possibly the first to focus on ""VLSI Photonics"". Very little effort has been made to develop integration technologies for micro/nanoscale photonic devices and applications, so this reference is an important and necessary early-stage pe

  10. Integrating CAD modules in a PACS environment using a wide computing infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Cuenca, Jorge J; Tilve, Amara; López, Ricardo; Ferro, Gonzalo; Quiles, Javier; Souto, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a project designed to achieve a total integration of different CAD algorithms into the PACS environment by using a wide computing infrastructure. The aim is to build a system for the entire region of Galicia, Spain, to make CAD accessible to multiple hospitals by employing different PACSs and clinical workstations. The new CAD model seeks to connect different devices (CAD systems, acquisition modalities, workstations and PACS) by means of networking based on a platform that will offer different CAD services. This paper describes some aspects related to the health services of the region where the project was developed, CAD algorithms that were either employed or selected for inclusion in the project, and several technical aspects and results. We have built a standard-based platform with which users can request a CAD service and receive the results in their local PACS. The process runs through a web interface that allows sending data to the different CAD services. A DICOM SR object is received with the results of the algorithms stored inside the original study in the proper folder with the original images. As a result, a homogeneous service to the different hospitals of the region will be offered. End users will benefit from a homogeneous workflow and a standardised integration model to request and obtain results from CAD systems in any modality, not dependant on commercial integration models. This new solution will foster the deployment of these technologies in the entire region of Galicia.

  11. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ticians but also forms the foundation of computer science. Two ... with methods of developing algorithms for solving a variety of problems but ... applications of computers in science and engineer- ... numerical calculus are as important. We will ...

  12. High performance VLSI telemetry data systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, J.; Speciale, N.; Horner, W.; Sabia, S.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's deployment of major space complexes such as Space Station Freedom (SSF) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) will demand increased functionality and performance from ground based telemetry acquisition systems well above current system capabilities. Adaptation of space telemetry data transport and processing standards such as those specified by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards and those required for commercial ground distribution of telemetry data, will drive these functional and performance requirements. In addition, budget limitations will force the requirement for higher modularity, flexibility, and interchangeability at lower cost in new ground telemetry data system elements. At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), the design and development of generic ground telemetry data system elements, over the last five years, has resulted in significant solutions to these problems. This solution, referred to as the functional components approach includes both hardware and software components ready for end user application. The hardware functional components consist of modern data flow architectures utilizing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC's) developed specifically to support NASA's telemetry data systems needs and designed to meet a range of data rate requirements up to 300 Mbps. Real-time operating system software components support both embedded local software intelligence, and overall system control, status, processing, and interface requirements. These components, hardware and software, form the superstructure upon which project specific elements are added to complete a telemetry ground data system installation. This paper describes the functional components approach, some specific component examples, and a project example of the evolution from VLSI component, to basic board level functional component, to integrated telemetry data system.

  13. Initial CAD investigations for NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.; Leinemann, K.; Ludwig, A.; Marek, U.; Olbrich, W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.

    1985-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done under contract no. 164/84-7/FU-D-/NET between the Commission of the European Communities and KfK during the period from June 1, 1984, through May 31, 1985. The following topics are covered in this report: Initial modelling of NET version NET2A, CAD system extension for remote handling studies, analysis of the CAD information structure, work related to the transfer of CAD information between KfK and the NET team. (orig.) [de

  14. AutoCAD 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Onstott, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Learn crucial AutoCAD tools and techniques with this Autodesk Official Press Book Quickly become productive using AutoCAD 2014 and AutoCAD LT 2014 with this full color Autodesk Official Press guide. This unique learning resource features concise, straightforward explanations and real-world, hands-on exercises and tutorials. Following a quick discussion of concepts and goals, each chapter moves on to an approachable hands-on exercise designed to reinforce real-world tactics and techniques. Compelling, full-color screenshots illustrate tutorial steps, and chapters conclude with relat

  15. Numerical analysis of electromigration in thin film VLSI interconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrescu, V.; Mouthaan, A.J.; Schoenmaker, W.; Angelescu, S.; Vissarion, R.; Dima, G.; Wallinga, Hans; Profirescu, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the continuing downscaling of the dimensions in VLSI circuits, electromigration is becoming a serious reliability hazard. A software tool based on finite element analysis has been developed to solve the two partial differential equations of the two particle vacancy/imperfection model.

  16. Hybrid VLSI/QCA Architecture for Computing FFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarres, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    A data-processor architecture that would incorporate elements of both conventional very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry and quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) has been proposed to enable the highly parallel and systolic computation of fast Fourier transforms (FFTs). The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, namely Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots (NPO-20801), Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42; Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20855) Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 32; and Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots (NPO-20869), Vol. 27, No. 1 (January 2003), page 35. The cited prior articles described the limitations of very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCAbased signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes.

  17. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm design technique called 'divide-and-conquer'. One of ... Turtle graphics, September. 1996. 5. ... whole list named 'PO' is a pointer to the first element of the list; ..... Program for computing matrices X and Y and placing the result in C *).

  18. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algorithm that it is implicitly understood that we know how to generate the next natural ..... Explicit comparisons are made in line (1) where maximum and minimum is ... It can be shown that the function T(n) = 3/2n -2 is the solution to the above ...

  19. Ant System-Corner Insertion Sequence: An Efficient VLSI Hard Module Placer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOO, C.-S.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Placement is important in VLSI physical design as it determines the time-to-market and chip's reliability. In this paper, a new floorplan representation which couples with Ant System, namely Corner Insertion Sequence (CIS is proposed. Though CIS's search complexity is smaller than the state-of-the-art representation Corner Sequence (CS, CIS adopts a preset boundary on the placement and hence, leading to search bound similar to CS. This enables the previous unutilized corner edges to become viable. Also, the redundancy of CS representation is eliminated in CIS leads to a lower search complexity of CIS. Experimental results on Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC hard block benchmark circuits show that the proposed algorithm performs comparably in terms of area yet at least two times faster than CS.

  20. A Low Cost VLSI Architecture for Spike Sorting Based on Feature Extraction with Peak Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Jyun Chang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a novel VLSI architecture for spike sorting with high classification accuracy, low area costs and low power consumption. A novel feature extraction algorithm with low computational complexities is proposed for the design of the architecture. In the feature extraction algorithm, a spike is separated into two portions based on its peak value. The area of each portion is then used as a feature. The algorithm is simple to implement and less susceptible to noise interference. Based on the algorithm, a novel architecture capable of identifying peak values and computing spike areas concurrently is proposed. To further accelerate the computation, a spike can be divided into a number of segments for the local feature computation. The local features are subsequently merged with the global ones by a simple hardware circuit. The architecture can also be easily operated in conjunction with the circuits for commonly-used spike detection algorithms, such as the Non-linear Energy Operator (NEO. The architecture has been implemented by an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture is well suited for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction requiring low hardware area costs, low power consumption and high classification accuracy.

  1. A Low Cost VLSI Architecture for Spike Sorting Based on Feature Extraction with Peak Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Jyun; Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Chen, Chih-Chang

    2016-12-07

    The goal of this paper is to present a novel VLSI architecture for spike sorting with high classification accuracy, low area costs and low power consumption. A novel feature extraction algorithm with low computational complexities is proposed for the design of the architecture. In the feature extraction algorithm, a spike is separated into two portions based on its peak value. The area of each portion is then used as a feature. The algorithm is simple to implement and less susceptible to noise interference. Based on the algorithm, a novel architecture capable of identifying peak values and computing spike areas concurrently is proposed. To further accelerate the computation, a spike can be divided into a number of segments for the local feature computation. The local features are subsequently merged with the global ones by a simple hardware circuit. The architecture can also be easily operated in conjunction with the circuits for commonly-used spike detection algorithms, such as the Non-linear Energy Operator (NEO). The architecture has been implemented by an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) with 90-nm technology. Comparisons to the existing works show that the proposed architecture is well suited for real-time multi-channel spike detection and feature extraction requiring low hardware area costs, low power consumption and high classification accuracy.

  2. Vragenlijst ter beoordeling van beeldschermtekenfuncties (CAD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berndsen, M.B.; Vaas, F.

    1990-01-01

    Deze vragenlijst is een hulpmiddel om beeldscherm-tekenfuncties (CAD) waarbij gebruik wordt gemaakt van CAD-apparatuur, te beoordelen. Het gaat hierbij om functies waarin bij de hoofdtaken intensief met een beeldscherm wordt gewerkt, zoals het geval is bij de CAD-tekenaar, de CAD-instructeur en de

  3. Evaluation of Five Microcomputer CAD Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the similarities, differences, advanced features, applications and number of users of five microcomputer computer-aided design (CAD) packages. Included are: "AutoCAD (V.2.17)"; "CADKEY (V.2.0)"; "CADVANCE (V.1.0)"; "Super MicroCAD"; and "VersaCAD Advanced (V.4.00)." Describes the…

  4. Algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    will become clear in the next article when we discuss a simple logo like programming language. ... Rod B may be used as an auxiliary store. The problem is to find an algorithm which performs this task. ... No disks are moved from A to Busing C as auxiliary rod. • move _disk (A, C);. (No + l)th disk is moved from A to C directly ...

  5. A novel configurable VLSI architecture design of window-based image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Sang, Hongshi; Shen, Xubang

    2018-03-01

    Most window-based image processing architecture can only achieve a certain kind of specific algorithms, such as 2D convolution, and therefore lack the flexibility and breadth of application. In addition, improper handling of the image boundary can cause loss of accuracy, or consume more logic resources. For the above problems, this paper proposes a new VLSI architecture of window-based image processing operations, which is configurable and based on consideration of the image boundary. An efficient technique is explored to manage the image borders by overlapping and flushing phases at the end of row and the end of frame, which does not produce new delay and reduce the overhead in real-time applications. Maximize the reuse of the on-chip memory data, in order to reduce the hardware complexity and external bandwidth requirements. To perform different scalar function and reduction function operations in pipeline, this can support a variety of applications of window-based image processing. Compared with the performance of other reported structures, the performance of the new structure has some similarities to some of the structures, but also superior to some other structures. Especially when compared with a systolic array processor CWP, this structure at the same frequency of approximately 12.9% of the speed increases. The proposed parallel VLSI architecture was implemented with SIMC 0.18-μm CMOS technology, and the maximum clock frequency, power consumption, and area are 125Mhz, 57mW, 104.8K Gates, respectively, furthermore the processing time is independent of the different window-based algorithms mapped to the structure

  6. AutoCAD 2014 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Fane, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Find your way around AutoCAD 2014 with this full-color, For Dummies guide!Put away that pencil and paper and start putting the power of AutoCAD 2014 to work in your CAD projects and designs. From setting up your drawing environment to using text, dimensions, hatching, and more, this guide walks you through AutoCAD basics and provides you with a solid understanding of the latest CAD tools and techniques. You'll also benefit from the full-color illustrations that mirror exactly what you'll see on your AutoCAD 2014 screen and highlight the importance of AutoCAD's Mode

  7. Mixed-Dimensionality VLSI-Type Configurable Tools for Virtual Prototyping of Biomicrofluidic Devices and Integrated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhijani, Vinod B.; Przekwas, Andrzej J.

    2002-10-01

    This report presents results of a DARPA/MTO Composite CAD Project aimed to develop a comprehensive microsystem CAD environment, CFD-ACE+ Multiphysics, for bio and microfluidic devices and complete microsystems. The project began in July 1998, and was a three-year team effort between CFD Research Corporation, California Institute of Technology (CalTech), University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and Tanner Research, with Mr. Don Verlee from Abbott Labs participating as a consultant on the project. The overall objective of this project was to develop, validate and demonstrate several applications of a user-configurable VLSI-type mixed-dimensionality software tool for design of biomicrofluidics devices and integrated systems. The developed tool would provide high fidelity 3-D multiphysics modeling capability, l-D fluidic circuits modeling, and SPICE interface for system level simulations, and mixed-dimensionality design. It would combine tools for layouts and process fabrication, geometric modeling, and automated grid generation, and interfaces to EDA tools (e.g. Cadence) and MCAD tools (e.g. ProE).

  8. TGeoCad: an Interface between ROOT and CAD Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, C; Carminati, F

    2014-01-01

    In the simulation of High Energy Physics experiment a very high precision in the description of the detector geometry is essential to achieve the required performances. The physicists in charge of Monte Carlo Simulation of the detector need to collaborate efficiently with the engineers working at the mechanical design of the detector. Often, this collaboration is made hard by the usage of different and incompatible software. ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework used by physicists for storing, analyzing and simulating data produced by the high-energy physics experiments while CAD (Computer-Aided Design) software is used for mechanical design in the engineering field. The necessity to improve the level of communication between physicists and engineers led to the implementation of an interface between the ROOT geometrical modeler used by the virtual Monte Carlo simulation software and the CAD systems. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of the TGeoCad Interface that has been developed to enable the use of ROOT geometrical models in several CAD systems. To achieve this goal, the ROOT geometry description is converted into STEP file format (ISO 10303), which can be imported and used by many CAD systems

  9. TGeoCad: an Interface between ROOT and CAD Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, C.; Carminati, F.

    2014-06-01

    In the simulation of High Energy Physics experiment a very high precision in the description of the detector geometry is essential to achieve the required performances. The physicists in charge of Monte Carlo Simulation of the detector need to collaborate efficiently with the engineers working at the mechanical design of the detector. Often, this collaboration is made hard by the usage of different and incompatible software. ROOT is an object-oriented C++ framework used by physicists for storing, analyzing and simulating data produced by the high-energy physics experiments while CAD (Computer-Aided Design) software is used for mechanical design in the engineering field. The necessity to improve the level of communication between physicists and engineers led to the implementation of an interface between the ROOT geometrical modeler used by the virtual Monte Carlo simulation software and the CAD systems. In this paper we describe the design and implementation of the TGeoCad Interface that has been developed to enable the use of ROOT geometrical models in several CAD systems. To achieve this goal, the ROOT geometry description is converted into STEP file format (ISO 10303), which can be imported and used by many CAD systems.

  10. Pursuit, Avoidance, and Cohesion in Flight: Multi-Purpose Control Laws and Neuromorphic VLSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    spatial navigation in mammals. We have designed, fabricated, and are now testing a neuromorphic VLSI chip that implements a spike-based, attractor...Control Laws and Neuromorphic VLSI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 070402-7705 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-07-1-0446 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...implementations (custom Neuromorphic VLSI and robotics) we will apply important practical constraints that can lead to deeper insight into how and why efficient

  11. Building a web-based CAD server for clinical use, evaluation, and incremental learning. Implementation of analysis function based on execution result and clinical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yukihiro; Hayashi, Naoto; Masutani, Yoshitaka; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Nemoto, Mitsutaka; Hanaoka, Shouhei; Maeda, Eriko; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miki, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Development of clinical image analysis software such as computer-assisted detection/diagnosis (CAD) involves a cycle of algorithm development, software implementation, clinical use, refinement of algorithm and software based on feedback. This cycle is expected to accelerate development of CAD software. We have been building a web-based CAD server that enables radiologists to use CAD software and to give feedback in clinical environment. The platform has been utilized in our hospital for 16 months, and more than 2,000 cases of feedback data have been accumulated. In this report, we introduce additional functions for performance evaluation based on executed results of CAD software and clinical feedback. (author)

  12. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2014-01-01

    Learn AutoCAD by example with this tutorial-based guide from Autodesk Official Press Whether you are just starting out or an experienced user wanting to brush up on your skills, this Autodesk Official Press book provides you with concise explanations, focused examples, and step-by-step instructions through a hands-on tutorial project that runs throughout the book. As you progress through the project, the book introduces you to the Microsoft Windows-based AutoCAD interface and then guides you through basic commands and creating drawings. A downloadable file is available from the website so that

  13. Trace-based post-silicon validation for VLSI circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    This book first provides a comprehensive coverage of state-of-the-art validation solutions based on real-time signal tracing to guarantee the correctness of VLSI circuits.  The authors discuss several key challenges in post-silicon validation and provide automated solutions that are systematic and cost-effective.  A series of automatic tracing solutions and innovative design for debug (DfD) techniques are described, including techniques for trace signal selection for enhancing visibility of functional errors, a multiplexed signal tracing strategy for improving functional error detection, a tracing solution for debugging electrical errors, an interconnection fabric for increasing data bandwidth and supporting multi-core debug, an interconnection fabric design and optimization technique to increase transfer flexibility and a DfD design and associated tracing solution for improving debug efficiency and expanding tracing window. The solutions presented in this book improve the validation quality of VLSI circuit...

  14. Emerging Applications for High K Materials in VLSI Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    The current status of High K dielectrics in Very Large Scale Integrated circuit (VLSI) manufacturing for leading edge Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) applications is summarized along with the deposition methods and general equipment types employed. Emerging applications for High K dielectrics in future CMOS are described as well for implementations in 10 nm and beyond nodes. Additional emerging applications for High K dielectrics include Resistive RAM memories, Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diodes, Ferroelectric logic and memory devices, and as mask layers for patterning. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a common and proven deposition method for all of the applications discussed for use in future VLSI manufacturing. PMID:28788599

  15. Emerging Applications for High K Materials in VLSI Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Clark

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of High K dielectrics in Very Large Scale Integrated circuit (VLSI manufacturing for leading edge Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS applications is summarized along with the deposition methods and general equipment types employed. Emerging applications for High K dielectrics in future CMOS are described as well for implementations in 10 nm and beyond nodes. Additional emerging applications for High K dielectrics include Resistive RAM memories, Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM diodes, Ferroelectric logic and memory devices, and as mask layers for patterning. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD is a common and proven deposition method for all of the applications discussed for use in future VLSI manufacturing.

  16. Embedded Processor Based Automatic Temperature Control of VLSI Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimha Murthy Yayavaram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents embedded processor based automatic temperature control of VLSI chips, using temperature sensor LM35 and ARM processor LPC2378. Due to the very high packing density, VLSI chips get heated very soon and if not cooled properly, the performance is very much affected. In the present work, the sensor which is kept very near proximity to the IC will sense the temperature and the speed of the fan arranged near to the IC is controlled based on the PWM signal generated by the ARM processor. A buzzer is also provided with the hardware, to indicate either the failure of the fan or overheating of the IC. The entire process is achieved by developing a suitable embedded C program.

  17. Design of a VLSI Decoder for Partially Structured LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Vacca

    2008-01-01

    of their parity matrix can be partitioned into two disjoint sets, namely, the structured and the random ones. For the proposed class of codes a constructive design method is provided. To assess the value of this method the constructed codes performance are presented. From these results, a novel decoding method called split decoding is introduced. Finally, to prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach a whole VLSI decoder is designed and characterized.

  18. The AMchip: A VLSI associative memory for track finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsani, F.; Galeotti, S.; Passuello, D.; Amendolia, S.R.; Ristori, L.; Turini, N.

    1992-01-01

    An associative memory to be used for super-fast track finding in future high energy physics experiments, has been implemented on silicon as a full-custom CMOS VLSI chip (the AMchip). The first prototype has been designed and successfully tested at INFN in Pisa. It is implemented in 1.6 μm, double metal, silicon gate CMOS technology and contains about 140 000 MOS transistors on a 1x1 cm 2 silicon chip. (orig.)

  19. Drift chamber tracking with a VLSI neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.; Johns, K.

    1992-10-01

    We have tested a commercial analog VLSI neural network chip for finding in real time the intercept and slope of charged particles traversing a drift chamber. Voltages proportional to the drift times were input to the Intel ETANN chip and the outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. We will discuss the chamber and test setup, the chip specifications, and results of recent tests. We'll briefly discuss possible applications in high energy physics detector triggers

  20. Using Software Technology to Specify Abstract Interfaces in VLSI Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    with the complexity lev- els inherent in VLSI design, in that they can capitalize on their foundations in discrete mathemat- ics and the theory of...basis, rather than globally. Such a partitioning of module semantics makes the specification easier to construct and verify intelectual !y; it also...access function definitions. A standard language improves executability characteristics by capitalizing on portable, optimized system software developed

  1. GPU-accelerated depth map generation for X-ray simulations of complex CAD geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Robert J.; Young, Gavin; Holland, Stephen D.; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh

    2018-04-01

    Interactive x-ray simulations of complex computer-aided design (CAD) models can provide valuable insights for better interpretation of the defect signatures such as porosity from x-ray CT images. Generating the depth map along a particular direction for the given CAD geometry is the most compute-intensive step in x-ray simulations. We have developed a GPU-accelerated method for real-time generation of depth maps of complex CAD geometries. We preprocess complex components designed using commercial CAD systems using a custom CAD module and convert them into a fine user-defined surface tessellation. Our CAD module can be used by different simulators as well as handle complex geometries, including those that arise from complex castings and composite structures. We then make use of a parallel algorithm that runs on a graphics processing unit (GPU) to convert the finely-tessellated CAD model to a voxelized representation. The voxelized representation can enable heterogeneous modeling of the volume enclosed by the CAD model by assigning heterogeneous material properties in specific regions. The depth maps are generated from this voxelized representation with the help of a GPU-accelerated ray-casting algorithm. The GPU-accelerated ray-casting method enables interactive (> 60 frames-per-second) generation of the depth maps of complex CAD geometries. This enables arbitrarily rotation and slicing of the CAD model, leading to better interpretation of the x-ray images by the user. In addition, the depth maps can be used to aid directly in CT reconstruction algorithms.

  2. VLSI scaling methods and low power CMOS buffer circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma Vijay Kumar; Pattanaik Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Device scaling is an important part of the very large scale integration (VLSI) design to boost up the success path of VLSI industry, which results in denser and faster integration of the devices. As technology node moves towards the very deep submicron region, leakage current and circuit reliability become the key issues. Both are increasing with the new technology generation and affecting the performance of the overall logic circuit. The VLSI designers must keep the balance in power dissipation and the circuit's performance with scaling of the devices. In this paper, different scaling methods are studied first. These scaling methods are used to identify the effects of those scaling methods on the power dissipation and propagation delay of the CMOS buffer circuit. For mitigating the power dissipation in scaled devices, we have proposed a reliable leakage reduction low power transmission gate (LPTG) approach and tested it on complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) buffer circuit. All simulation results are taken on HSPICE tool with Berkeley predictive technology model (BPTM) BSIM4 bulk CMOS files. The LPTG CMOS buffer reduces 95.16% power dissipation with 84.20% improvement in figure of merit at 32 nm technology node. Various process, voltage and temperature variations are analyzed for proving the robustness of the proposed approach. Leakage current uncertainty decreases from 0.91 to 0.43 in the CMOS buffer circuit that causes large circuit reliability. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. AutoCAD 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, David

    2009-01-01

    AutoCAD is the hot computer-aided design software known for both its powerful tools and its complexity. AutoCAD 2010 for Dummies is the bestselling guide that walks you through this complicated program so you can build complex 3D technical drawings, edit like a pro, enter new dimensions, and plot with style. AutoCAD 2010 for Dummies helps you navigate the program, use the AutoCAD Design Center, create a basic layout and work with dimension, and put your drawings on the Internet. You'll soon be setting up the AutoCAD environment, using the AutoCAD Ribbon, creating annotation and dimension drawi

  4. AutoCAD 2008 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, David

    2007-01-01

    A gentle, humorous introduction to this fearsomely complex software that helps new users start creating 2D and 3D technical drawings right awayCovers the new features and enhancements in the latest AutoCAD version and provides coverage of AutoCAD LT, AutoCAD''s lower-cost siblingTopics covered include creating a basic layout, using AutoCAD DesignCenter, drawing and editing, working with dimensions, plotting, using blocks, adding text to drawings, and drawing on the InternetAutoCAD is the leading CAD software for architects, engineers, and draftspeople who need to create detailed 2D and 3D tech

  5. Or CAD 9.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Mu

    2000-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of Or CAD 9.1 with before drawing plan such as gaining Or CAD Demo CD, capture tools, making new design file, drawing structure, and setting design template, Drawings like making new drawing, finding parts, drawing lines, connecting line among the pages, and connecting parts using drawing structure, unstable multivibrator circle such as management of design file, power and ground connection, utility, beginning layout, single drawing, flat drawing, latch circuit, making a library, making a footprint, smart route and flash window.

  6. Robust Bioinformatics Recognition with VLSI Biochip Microsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Jaw-Chyng L.; Fang, Wai-Chi

    2006-01-01

    A microsystem architecture for real-time, on-site, robust bioinformatic patterns recognition and analysis has been proposed. This system is compatible with on-chip DNA analysis means such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)amplification. A corresponding novel artificial neural network (ANN) learning algorithm using new sigmoid-logarithmic transfer function based on error backpropagation (EBP) algorithm is invented. Our results show the trained new ANN can recognize low fluorescence patterns better than the conventional sigmoidal ANN does. A differential logarithmic imaging chip is designed for calculating logarithm of relative intensities of fluorescence signals. The single-rail logarithmic circuit and a prototype ANN chip are designed, fabricated and characterized.

  7. vPELS: An E-Learning Social Environment for VLSI Design with Content Security Using DRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Jahangir; Chowdhury, Morshed; Batten, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a proposal for personal e-learning system (vPELS [where "v" stands for VLSI: very large scale integrated circuit])) architecture in the context of social network environment for VLSI Design. The main objective of vPELS is to develop individual skills on a specific subject--say, VLSI--and share resources with peers.…

  8. Las Vegas is better than determinism in VLSI and distributed computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, Kurt; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new method for proving lower bounds on the complexity of VLSI - computations and more generally distributed computations. Lipton and Sedgewick observed that the crossing sequence arguments used to prove lower bounds in VLSI (or TM or distributed computing) apply to (ac...

  9. Cool-and Unusual-CAD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Ken

    2004-01-01

    This article describes several very useful applications of AutoCAD that may lie outside the normal scope of application. AutoCAD commands used in this article are based on AutoCAD 2000I. The author and his students used a Hewlett Packard 750C DesignJet plotter for plotting. (Contains 5 figures and 5 photos.)

  10. CAD Skills Increased through Multicultural Design Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how students in a college-entry-level CAD course researched four generations of their family histories and documented cultural and symbolic influences within their family backgrounds. AutoCAD software was then used to manipulate those cultural and symbolic images to create the design for a multicultural area rug. AutoCAD was…

  11. Algorithms, architectures and information systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Sur-Kolay, Susmita; Nandy, Subhas C; Bagchi, Aditya

    2008-01-01

    This volume contains articles written by leading researchers in the fields of algorithms, architectures, and information systems security. The first five chapters address several challenging geometric problems and related algorithms. These topics have major applications in pattern recognition, image analysis, digital geometry, surface reconstruction, computer vision and in robotics. The next five chapters focus on various optimization issues in VLSI design and test architectures, and in wireless networks. The last six chapters comprise scholarly articles on information systems security coverin

  12. Lung nodule detection on chest CT: evaluation of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Jae; Gamsu, Gordon; Czum, Julianna; Johnson, Rebecca; Chakrapani, Sanjay; Wu, Ning

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the capacity of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system to detect lung nodules in clinical chest CT. A total of 210 consecutive clinical chest CT scans and their reports were reviewed by two chest radiologists and 70 were selected (33 without nodules and 37 with 1-6 nodules, 4-15.4 mm in diameter). The CAD system (ImageChecker CT LN-1000) developed by R2 Technology, Inc. (Sunnyvale, CA) was used. Its algorithm was designed to detect nodules with a diameter of 4-20 mm. The two chest radiologists working with the CAD system detected a total of 78 nodules. These 78 nodules form the database for this study. Four independent observers interpreted the studies with and without the CAD system. The detection rates of the four independent observers without CAD were 81% (63/78), 85% (66/78), 83% (65/78), and 83% (65/78), respectively. With CAD their rates were 87% (68/78), 85% (66/78), 86% (67/78), and 85% (66/78), respectively. The differences between these two sets of detection rates did not reach statistical significance. In addition, CAD detected eight nodules that were not mentioned in the original clinical radiology reports. The CAD system produced 1.56 false-positive nodules per CT study. The four test observers had 0, 0.1, 0.17, and 0.26 false-positive results per study without CAD and 0.07, 0.2, 0.23, and 0.39 with CAD, respectively. The CAD system can assist radiologists in detecting pulmonary nodules in chest CT, but with a potential increase in their false positive rates. Technological improvements to the system could increase the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of pulmonary nodules and reduce these false-positive results

  13. Role of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) in the detection of pulmonary nodules on 64 row multi detector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakashini, K; Babu, Satish; Rajgopal, K V; Kokila, K Raja

    2016-01-01

    To determine the overall performance of an existing CAD algorithm with thin-section computed tomography (CT) in the detection of pulmonary nodules and to evaluate detection sensitivity at a varying range of nodule density, size, and location. A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 20 patients with 322 suspected nodules who underwent diagnostic chest imaging using 64-row multi-detector CT. The examinations were evaluated on reconstructed images of 1.4 mm thickness and 0.7 mm interval. Detection of pulmonary nodules, initially by a radiologist of 2 years experience (RAD) and later by CAD lung nodule software was assessed. Then, CAD nodule candidates were accepted or rejected accordingly. Detected nodules were classified based on their size, density, and location. The performance of the RAD and CAD system was compared with the gold standard that is true nodules confirmed by consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. The overall sensitivity and false-positive (FP) rate of CAD software was calculated. Of the 322 suspected nodules, 221 were classified as true nodules on the consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. Of the true nodules, the RAD detected 206 (93.2%) and 202 (91.4%) by the CAD. CAD and RAD together picked up more number of nodules than either CAD or RAD alone. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection with the CAD program was 91.4%, and FP detection per patient was 5.5%. The CAD showed comparatively higher sensitivity for nodules of size 4-10 mm (93.4%) and nodules in hilar (100%) and central (96.5%) location when compared to RAD's performance. CAD performance was high in detecting pulmonary nodules including the small size and low-density nodules. CAD even with relatively high FP rate, assists and improves RAD's performance as a second reader, especially for nodules located in the central and hilar region and for small nodules by saving RADs time.

  14. AutoCAD platform customization VBA

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Boost productivity and streamline your workflow with expert AutoCAD: VBA programming instruction AutoCAD Platform Customization: VBA is the definitive guide to personalizing AutoCAD and the various programs that run on the AutoCAD platform, including AutoCAD Architecture, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and more. Written by an Autodesk insider with years of customization and programming experience, this book features detailed discussions backed by real-world examples and easy-to-follow tutorials that illustrate each step in the personalization process. Readers gain expert guidance toward managing layout

  15. VLSI design of an RSA encryption/decryption chip using systolic array based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chi-Chia; Lin, Bor-Shing; Jan, Gene Eu; Lin, Jheng-Yi

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the VLSI design of a configurable RSA public key cryptosystem supporting the 512-bit, 1024-bit and 2048-bit based on Montgomery algorithm achieving comparable clock cycles of current relevant works but with smaller die size. We use binary method for the modular exponentiation and adopt Montgomery algorithm for the modular multiplication to simplify computational complexity, which, together with the systolic array concept for electric circuit designs effectively, lower the die size. The main architecture of the chip consists of four functional blocks, namely input/output modules, registers module, arithmetic module and control module. We applied the concept of systolic array to design the RSA encryption/decryption chip by using VHDL hardware language and verified using the TSMC/CIC 0.35 m 1P4 M technology. The die area of the 2048-bit RSA chip without the DFT is 3.9 × 3.9 mm2 (4.58 × 4.58 mm2 with DFT). Its average baud rate can reach 10.84 kbps under a 100 MHz clock.

  16. Point DCT VLSI Architecture for Emerging HEVC Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ashfaq; Shahid, Muhammad Usman; Rehman, Ata ur

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a flexible VLSI architecture to compute the -point DCT. Since HEVC supports different block sizes for the computation of the DCT, that is, 4 × 4 up to 3 2 × 3 2 , the design of a flexible architecture to support them helps reducing the area overhead of hardware implementations. The hardware proposed in this work is partially folded to save area and to get speed for large video sequences sizes. The proposed architecture relies on the decomposition of the DCT matrices into ...

  17. VLSI architectures for modern error-correcting codes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xinmiao

    2015-01-01

    Error-correcting codes are ubiquitous. They are adopted in almost every modern digital communication and storage system, such as wireless communications, optical communications, Flash memories, computer hard drives, sensor networks, and deep-space probing. New-generation and emerging applications demand codes with better error-correcting capability. On the other hand, the design and implementation of those high-gain error-correcting codes pose many challenges. They usually involve complex mathematical computations, and mapping them directly to hardware often leads to very high complexity. VLSI

  18. Formal verification an essential toolkit for modern VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Seligman, Erik; Kumar, M V Achutha Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Formal Verification: An Essential Toolkit for Modern VLSI Design presents practical approaches for design and validation, with hands-on advice for working engineers integrating these techniques into their work. Building on a basic knowledge of System Verilog, this book demystifies FV and presents the practical applications that are bringing it into mainstream design and validation processes at Intel and other companies. The text prepares readers to effectively introduce FV in their organization and deploy FV techniques to increase design and validation productivity. Presents formal verific

  19. Opto-VLSI-based reconfigurable free-space optical interconnects architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Alameh, Kamal; Chung, Il-Sug

    2007-01-01

    is the Opto-VLSI processor which can be driven by digital phase steering and multicasting holograms that reconfigure the optical interconnects between the input and output ports. The optical interconnects architecture is experimentally demonstrated at 2.5 Gbps using high-speed 1×3 VCSEL array and 1......×3 photoreceiver array in conjunction with two 1×4096 pixel Opto-VLSI processors. The minimisation of the crosstalk between the output ports is achieved by appropriately aligning the VCSEL and PD elements with respect to the Opto-VLSI processors and driving the latter with optimal steering phase holograms....

  20. VLSI architecture and design for the Fermat Number Transform implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajayakrit, A.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique of sectioning a pipelined transformer, using the Fermat Number Transform (FNT), is introduced. Also, a novel VLSI design which overcomes the problems of implementing FNTs, for use in fast convolution/correlation, is described. The design comprises one complete section of a pipelined transformer and may be programmed to function at any point in a forward or inverse pipeline, so allowing the construction of a pipelined convolver or correlator using identical chips, thus the favorable properties of the transform can be exploited. This overcomes the difficulty of fitting a complete pipeline onto one chip without resorting to the use of several different designs. The implementation of high-speed convolver/correlator using the VLSI chips has been successfully developed and tested. For impulse response lengths of up to 16 points the sampling rates of 0.5 MHz can be achieved. Finally, the filter speed performance using the FNT chips is compared to other designs and conclusions drawn on the merits of the FNT for this application. Also, the advantages and limitations of the FNT are analyzed, with respect to the more conventional FFT, and the results are provided.

  1. Assimilation of Biophysical Neuronal Dynamics in Neuromorphic VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Breen, Daniel; Akinin, Abraham; Broccard, Frederic; Abarbanel, Henry D I; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2017-12-01

    Representing the biophysics of neuronal dynamics and behavior offers a principled analysis-by-synthesis approach toward understanding mechanisms of nervous system functions. We report on a set of procedures assimilating and emulating neurobiological data on a neuromorphic very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit. The analog VLSI chip, NeuroDyn, features 384 digitally programmable parameters specifying for 4 generalized Hodgkin-Huxley neurons coupled through 12 conductance-based chemical synapses. The parameters also describe reversal potentials, maximal conductances, and spline regressed kinetic functions for ion channel gating variables. In one set of experiments, we assimilated membrane potential recorded from one of the neurons on the chip to the model structure upon which NeuroDyn was designed using the known current input sequence. We arrived at the programmed parameters except for model errors due to analog imperfections in the chip fabrication. In a related set of experiments, we replicated songbird individual neuron dynamics on NeuroDyn by estimating and configuring parameters extracted using data assimilation from intracellular neural recordings. Faithful emulation of detailed biophysical neural dynamics will enable the use of NeuroDyn as a tool to probe electrical and molecular properties of functional neural circuits. Neuroscience applications include studying the relationship between molecular properties of neurons and the emergence of different spike patterns or different brain behaviors. Clinical applications include studying and predicting effects of neuromodulators or neurodegenerative diseases on ion channel kinetics.

  2. Development of Radhard VLSI electronics for SSC calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.W.; Nodulman, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    A new program of development of integrated electronics for liquid argon calorimeters in the SSC detector environment is being started at Argonne National Laboratory. Scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory and Vanderbilt University together with an industrial participants are expected to collaborate in this work. Interaction rates, segmentation, and the radiation environment dictate that front-end electronics of SSC calorimeters must be implemented in the form of highly integrated, radhard, analog, low noise, VLSI custom monolithic devices. Important considerations are power dissipation, choice of functions integrated on the front-end chips, and cabling requirements. An extensive level of expertise in radhard electronics exists within the industrial community, and a primary objective of this work is to bring that expertise to bear on the problems of SSC detector design. Radiation hardness measurements and requirements as well as calorimeter design will be primarily the responsibility of Argonne scientists and our Brookhaven and Vanderbilt colleagues. Radhard VLSI design and fabrication will be primarily the industrial participant's responsibility. The rapid-cycling synchrotron at Argonne will be used for radiation damage studies involving response to neutrons and charged particles, while damage from gammas will be investigated at Brookhaven. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Design of two easily-testable VLSI array multipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, J.; Shen, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Array multipliers are well-suited to VLSI implementation because of the regularity in their iterative structure. However, most VLSI circuits are very difficult to test. This paper shows that, with appropriate cell design, array multipliers can be designed to be very easily testable. An array multiplier is called c-testable if all its adder cells can be exhaustively tested while requiring only a constant number of test patterns. The testability of two well-known array multiplier structures are studied. The conventional design of the carry-save array multipler is shown to be not c-testable. However, a modified design, using a modified adder cell, is generated and shown to be c-testable and requires only 16 test patterns. Similar results are obtained for the baugh-wooley two's complement array multiplier. A modified design of the baugh-wooley array multiplier is shown to be c-testable and requires 55 test patterns. The implementation of a practical c-testable 16*16 array multiplier is also presented. 10 references.

  4. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The perfect reference for all AutoCAD users AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 Bible is the book you want to have close at hand to answer those day-to-day questions about this industry-leading software. Author and Autodesk University instructor Ellen Finkelstein guides readers through AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 with clear, easy-to-understand instruction and hands-on tutorials that allow even total beginners to create a design on their very first day. Although simple and fundamental enough to be used by those new to CAD, the book is so comprehensive that even Autodesk power u

  5. Use of McCad for the conversion of ITER CAD data to MCNP geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsige-Tamirat, H.; Fischer, U.; Serikov, A.; Stickel, S.

    2008-01-01

    The program McCad provides a CAD interface for the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP. It is able to convert CAD data into MCNP input geometry description and provides GUI components for modeling, visualization, and data exchange. It performs sequences of tests on CAD data to check its validity and neutronics appropriateness including completion of the final MCNP model by void geometries. McCad has been used to convert a 40 deg. ITER torus sector CAD model to a suitable MCNP geometry model. Results of MCNP calculations performed to validate the converted geometry are presented

  6. WEBSITE EXECUTION OF CAD MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lyalinsky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Web-based interface of modules that are part of the computer-aided design system in microelectronics is considered. The influence of several factors (available computer  memory, maximum allowed run time, degree of homogeneity of the software on the structure of the created system is investigated. Synchronous and asynchronous variants of interaction between control and executive parts are described. References on the systems that allow an access to applications in CAD microelectronics and are based on the principles discussed in this article are given.

  7. Viewing CAD Drawings on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendau, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Computer aided design (CAD) has been producing 3-D models for years. AutoCAD software is frequently used to create sophisticated 3-D models. These CAD files can be exported as 3DS files for import into Autodesk's 3-D Studio Viz. In this program, the user can render and modify the 3-D model before exporting it out as a WRL (world file hyperlinked)…

  8. Computing Mass Properties From AutoCAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1990-01-01

    Mass properties of structures computed from data in drawings. AutoCAD to Mass Properties (ACTOMP) computer program developed to facilitate quick calculations of mass properties of structures containing many simple elements in such complex configurations as trusses or sheet-metal containers. Mathematically modeled in AutoCAD or compatible computer-aided design (CAD) system in minutes by use of three-dimensional elements. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  9. BUILDING A PERGOLA IN CAD SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRUNA Liviu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a study and the conclusions they reached, regarding the possibility to automatically representing a pergola, when a CAD system is used. Also, a computer program, made by the authors is presented. This software was named Pergola and it offer the opportunity to sketch a pergola which cover a rectangular or circular area, when using the AutoCAD Architecture or AutoCAD computer program.

  10. An area-efficient topology for VLSI implementation of Viterbi decoders and other shuffle-exchange type structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Jørgensen, Henrik Nordtorp; Paaske, Erik

    1991-01-01

    A topology for single-chip implementation of computing structures based on shuffle-exchange (SE)-type interconnection networks is presented. The topology is suited for structures with a small number of processing elements (i.e. 32-128) whose area cannot be neglected compared to the area required....... The topology has been used in a VLSI implementation of the add-compare-select (ACS) module of a fully parallel K=7, R=1/2 Viterbi decoder. Both the floor-planning issues and some of the important algorithm and circuit-level aspects of this design are discussed. The chip has been designed and fabricated in a 2....... The interconnection network occupies 32% of the area.>...

  11. A parallel row-based algorithm for standard cell placement with integrated error control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jeff S.; Banerjee, Prith

    1989-01-01

    A new row-based parallel algorithm for standard-cell placement targeted for execution on a hypercube multiprocessor is presented. Key features of this implementation include a dynamic simulated-annealing schedule, row-partitioning of the VLSI chip image, and two novel approaches to control error in parallel cell-placement algorithms: (1) Heuristic Cell-Coloring; (2) Adaptive Sequence Length Control.

  12. Microfluidic very large scale integration (VLSI) modeling, simulation, testing, compilation and physical synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art techniques for the modeling, simulation, testing, compilation and physical synthesis of mVLSI biochips. The authors describe a top-down modeling and synthesis methodology for the mVLSI biochips, inspired by microelectronics VLSI methodologies. They introduce a modeling framework for the components and the biochip architecture, and a high-level microfluidic protocol language. Coverage includes a topology graph-based model for the biochip architecture, and a sequencing graph to model for biochemical application, showing how the application model can be obtained from the protocol language. The techniques described facilitate programmability and automation, enabling developers in the emerging, large biochip market. · Presents the current models used for the research on compilation and synthesis techniques of mVLSI biochips in a tutorial fashion; · Includes a set of "benchmarks", that are presented in great detail and includes the source code of several of the techniques p...

  13. Prototype architecture for a VLSI level zero processing system. [Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianfei; Grebowsky, Gerald J.; Horner, Ward P.; Chesney, James R.

    1989-01-01

    The prototype architecture and implementation of a high-speed level zero processing (LZP) system are discussed. Due to the new processing algorithm and VLSI technology, the prototype LZP system features compact size, low cost, high processing throughput, and easy maintainability and increased reliability. Though extensive control functions have been done by hardware, the programmability of processing tasks makes it possible to adapt the system to different data formats and processing requirements. It is noted that the LZP system can handle up to 8 virtual channels and 24 sources with combined data volume of 15 Gbytes per orbit. For greater demands, multiple LZP systems can be configured in parallel, each called a processing channel and assigned a subset of virtual channels. The telemetry data stream will be steered into different processing channels in accordance with their virtual channel IDs. This super system can cope with a virtually unlimited number of virtual channels and sources. In the near future, it is expected that new disk farms with data rate exceeding 150 Mbps will be available from commercial vendors due to the advance in disk drive technology.

  14. Progress of computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD in dentistryCAD in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitoshi Katsumata

    2014-08-01

    CAD is also useful in the detection and evaluation of dental and maxillofacial lesions. Identifying alveolar bone resorption due to periodontitis and radiolucent jaw lesions (such as radicular and dentigerous cysts are important goals for CAD. CAD can be applied not only to panoramic radiography but also to dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT images. Linking of CAD and teleradiology will be an important issue.

  15. Modeling selective attention using a neuromorphic analog VLSI device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, G

    2000-12-01

    Attentional mechanisms are required to overcome the problem of flooding a limited processing capacity system with information. They are present in biological sensory systems and can be a useful engineering tool for artificial visual systems. In this article we present a hardware model of a selective attention mechanism implemented on a very large-scale integration (VLSI) chip, using analog neuromorphic circuits. The chip exploits a spike-based representation to receive, process, and transmit signals. It can be used as a transceiver module for building multichip neuromorphic vision systems. We describe the circuits that carry out the main processing stages of the selective attention mechanism and provide experimental data for each circuit. We demonstrate the expected behavior of the model at the system level by stimulating the chip with both artificially generated control signals and signals obtained from a saliency map, computed from an image containing several salient features.

  16. Point DCT VLSI Architecture for Emerging HEVC Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a flexible VLSI architecture to compute the -point DCT. Since HEVC supports different block sizes for the computation of the DCT, that is, 4×4 up to 32×32, the design of a flexible architecture to support them helps reducing the area overhead of hardware implementations. The hardware proposed in this work is partially folded to save area and to get speed for large video sequences sizes. The proposed architecture relies on the decomposition of the DCT matrices into sparse submatrices in order to reduce the multiplications. Finally, multiplications are completely eliminated using the lifting scheme. The proposed architecture sustains real-time processing of 1080P HD video codec running at 150 MHz.

  17. PERFORMANCE OF LEAKAGE POWER MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CMOS VLSI TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tharaneeswaran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Leakage power of CMOS VLSI Technology is a great concern. To reduce leakage power in CMOS circuits, a Leakage Power Minimiza-tion Technique (LPMT is implemented in this paper. Leakage cur-rents are monitored and compared. The Comparator kicks the charge pump to give body voltage (Vbody. Simulations of these circuits are done using TSMC 0.35µm technology with various operating temper-atures. Current steering Digital-to-Analog Converter (CSDAC is used as test core to validate the idea. The Test core (eg.8-bit CSDAC had power consumption of 347.63 mW. LPMT circuit alone consumes power of 6.3405 mW. This technique results in reduction of leakage power of 8-bit CSDAC by 5.51mW and increases the reliability of test core. Mentor Graphics ELDO and EZ-wave are used for simulations.

  18. VLSI-based video event triggering for image data compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1994-02-01

    Long-duration, on-orbit microgravity experiments require a combination of high resolution and high frame rate video data acquisition. The digitized high-rate video stream presents a difficult data storage problem. Data produced at rates of several hundred million bytes per second may require a total mission video data storage requirement exceeding one terabyte. A NASA-designed, VLSI-based, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term (DC-like) or short term (AC-like) changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pre-trigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable to archiving only the significant video images.

  19. Carbon nanotube based VLSI interconnects analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The brief primarily focuses on the performance analysis of CNT based interconnects in current research scenario. Different CNT structures are modeled on the basis of transmission line theory. Performance comparison for different CNT structures illustrates that CNTs are more promising than Cu or other materials used in global VLSI interconnects. The brief is organized into five chapters which mainly discuss: (1) an overview of current research scenario and basics of interconnects; (2) unique crystal structures and the basics of physical properties of CNTs, and the production, purification and applications of CNTs; (3) a brief technical review, the geometry and equivalent RLC parameters for different single and bundled CNT structures; (4) a comparative analysis of crosstalk and delay for different single and bundled CNT structures; and (5) various unique mixed CNT bundle structures and their equivalent electrical models.

  20. 3D CAD ON Qinshan CANDU project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper briefly describe AECL's work in applying computer-aided engineering tools to the Qinshan CANDU project. The main thrust of this paper is to introduce the major CAD software tools and their use in civil design, process design and EI and C design. Other special software tools and non-CAD tools and their applications are also briefly introduced. (author)

  1. Sharing the learning activity using intelligent CAD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, S. M.; Duffy, Alex

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the need for Intelligent Computer Aided Design (Int.CAD) to jointly support design and learning assistance is introduced. The paper focuses on presenting and exploring the possibility of realizing ''learning'' assistance in Int.CAD by introducing a new concept called Shared Learning...

  2. Progress of conversion system from CAD data to MCNP geometry data in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, S.; Nashif, H.; Masuda, F.; Morota, H.; Iida, H.; Konno, C.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic conversion systems from CAD data to MCNP geometry input data have been developed to convert the CAD data of the fusion reactor with very complicated structure. So far, two conversion systems (GEOMIT-1 and ARCMCP) have been developed and the third system (GEOMIT-2) is under developing. The void data can be created in these systems. GEOMIT-1 was developed in 2007, but a lot of manual shape splitting work for the CAD data was required to convert the complicated geometry. ARCMCP was developed in 2008. The algorithm has been drastically improved on automatic creation of ambiguous surface in ARCMCP, but it still required a little manual shape splitting work. The latest system, GEOMIT-2, does not require additional commercial software packages, though the previous systems require them. It also has functions of the CAD data healing and the automatic shape splitting. Geometrical errors of CAD data can be automatically revised by the healing function, and complicated geometries can be automatically split into simple geometries by the shape splitting function. Any manual works for CAD data are not required in GEOMIT-2. GEOMIT-2 is very useful for nuclear analyses of fusion reactors.

  3. Successfully converting mine maps to CAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munn, M.D. (Image Conversion Services, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Procedures followed by computer service bureaus to convert paper drawing to digital files that can be used by CAD systems are described. The conversion involves laser scanning of original drawings to produce an 'inactive image' (a form suitable for many drawings that do not need to be changed). Using optical character recognition software the image is then vectorized or converted from raster format to geometric elements usable in a CAD system. The vectorized image can then be cleaned up corrected and changed at the CAD workstation. 4 figs.

  4. Dataudveksling mellem CAD og CAE programmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Conrad, Finn

    2001-01-01

    Når mange forskelligartede programmer benyttes til beregninger og anden databehandling på samme modeller er det nødvendig at udveksle modellerne mellem disse forskellige programmer. Biler og skibe bliver f.eks. typisk designet i 3D CAD systemer, mens CAD modellerne herefter anvendes i andre...... dedikerede IT-systemer i forbindelse montageplanlægningen, svejseplanlægningen, robotprogrammeringen mm. der således her et behov for at udveksle CAD modellen mellem de forskellige programmer. Udveksling af information mellem forskellige programmer og systemer kræver såvel en fælles specifikation af det...

  5. AutoCAD platform customization autolisp

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Customize and personalize programs built on the AutoCAD platform AutoLISP is the key to unlocking the secrets of a more streamlined experience using industry leading software programs like AutoCAD, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and more. AutoCAD Platform Customization: AutoLISP provides real-world examples that show you how to do everything from modifying graphical objects and reading and setting system variables to communicating with external programs. It also features a resources appendix and downloadable datasets and customization examples-tools that ensure swift and easy adoption. Find out how to r

  6. Which test for CAD should be used in patients with left bundle branch block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Cremer, Paul; Jaber, Wael; Moir, Stuart; Harb, Serge C; Rodriguez, L Leonardo

    2018-03-01

    Exercise stress electrocardiography is unreliable as a test for obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) if the patient has left bundle branch block. The authors provide an algorithm for using alternative tests: exercise stress echocardiography, dobutamine echocardiography, computed tomographic (CT) angiography, and nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging. Copyright © 2018 Cleveland Clinic.

  7. A new data integration approach for AutoCAD and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongmei; Li, Yuhong; Wang, Cheng; Li, Lijun

    2006-10-01

    GIS has its advantages both on spatial data analysis and management, particularly on the geometric and attributive information management, which has also attracted lots attentions among researchers around world. AutoCAD plays more and more important roles as one of the main data sources of GIS. Various work and achievements can be found in the related literature. However, the conventional data integration from AutoCAD to GIS is time-consuming, which also can cause the information loss both in the geometric aspects and the attributive aspects for a large system. It is necessary and urgent to sort out new approach and algorithm for the efficient high-quality data integration. In this paper, a novel data integration approach from AutoCAD to GIS will be introduced based on the spatial data mining technique through the data structure analysis both in the AutoCAD and GIS. A practicable algorithm for the data conversion from CAD to GIS will be given as well. By a designed evaluation scheme, the accuracy of the conversion both in the geometric and the attributive information will be demonstrated. Finally, the validity and feasibility of the new approach will be shown by an experimental analysis.

  8. AutoCAD 2008 and AutoCAD LT 2008 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    "Whether you're new to AutoCAD or a veteran, you will undoubtedly find this book to be an excellent resource."-- Abhi Singh, AutoCAD Product Manager, Autodesk, Inc.Here's the book that makes AutoCAD approachableEven the people at Autodesk look to Ellen Finkelstein for AutoCAD training, so who better to teach you about AutoCAD 2008? This comprehensive guide brings veterans up to speed on AutoCAD updates and takes novices from the basics to programming in AutoLISP(r) and VBA. Every feature is covered in a logical order, and with the Quick Start chapter, you'll be creating drawings on your very f

  9. Line Generalization and AutoCAD Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Vučetić

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers the results of original research made on the application of AutoCAD Map in line generalisation. The differences and similarities have been found out between the Douglas-Peucker method and the method of line simplification that is incorporated in AutoCAD Map. There have been also the inaccuracies found out in AutoCAD Map manual relating to the issues of buffer width and tolerance, and the line width before and after simplification. The paper gives recommendations about pseudo nodes dissolving. It has been noticed that AutoCAD Map simplification method is not independent of the order of points. The application of the method is illustrated by an example of coastal line of Istria.

  10. Microcomputer Simulated CAD for Engineering Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, David L.; Myers, Roy E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a simulated computer-aided-graphics (CAD) program at The Pennsylvania State University. Rationale for the program, facilities, microcomputer equipment (Apple) used, and development of a software package for simulating applied engineering graphics are considered. (JN)

  11. Distortion of CAD-CAM-fabricated implant-fixed titanium and zirconia complete dental prosthesis frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Meraikhi, Hadi; Yilmaz, Burak; McGlumphy, Edwin; Brantley, William A; Johnston, William M

    2018-01-01

    Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM)-fabricated titanium and zirconia implant-supported fixed dental prostheses have become increasingly popular for restoring patients with complete edentulism. However, the distortion level of these frameworks is not well known. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the 3-dimensional (3D) distortion of CAD-CAM zirconia and titanium implant-fixed screw-retained complete dental prostheses. A master edentulous model with 4 implants at the positions of the maxillary first molars and canines was used. Multiunit abutments (Nobel Biocare) secured to the model were digitally scanned using scan bodies and a laboratory scanner (S600 ARTI; Zirkonzahn). Titanium (n=5) and zirconia (n=5) frameworks were milled using a CAD-CAM system (Zirkonzahn M1; Zirkonzahn). All frameworks were scanned using an industrial computed tomography (CT) scanner (Nikon/X-Tek XT H 225kV MCT Micro-Focus). The direct CT scans were reconstructed to generate standard tessellation language (STL) files. To calculate the 3D distortion of the frameworks, STL files of the CT scans were aligned to the CAD model using a sum of the least squares best-fit algorithm. Surface comparison points were placed on the CAD model on the midfacial aspect of all teeth. The 3D distortion of each direct scan to the CAD model was calculated. In addition, color maps of the scan-to-CAD comparison were constructed using a ±0.500 mm color scale range. Both materials exhibited distortion; however, no significant difference was found in the amount of distortion from the CAD model between the materials (P=.747). Absolute values of deviations from the CAD model were evident in the x and y plane and less so in the z direction. Zirconia and titanium frameworks showed similar 3D distortion compared with the CAD model for the tested CAD-CAM and implant systems. The distortion was more pronounced in the horizontal and sagittal plane than in the vertical plane

  12. AutoCAD-To-NASTRAN Translator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A.

    1989-01-01

    Program facilitates creation of finite-element mathematical models from geometric entities. AutoCAD to NASTRAN translator (ACTON) computer program developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element mathematical models for use with NASTRAN finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  13. A High Performance VLSI Computer Architecture For Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Wen-Tai

    1988-10-01

    A VLSI computer architecture, consisting of multiple processors, is presented in this paper to satisfy the modern computer graphics demands, e.g. high resolution, realistic animation, real-time display etc.. All processors share a global memory which are partitioned into multiple banks. Through a crossbar network, data from one memory bank can be broadcasted to many processors. Processors are physically interconnected through a hyper-crossbar network (a crossbar-like network). By programming the network, the topology of communication links among processors can be reconfigurated to satisfy specific dataflows of different applications. Each processor consists of a controller, arithmetic operators, local memory, a local crossbar network, and I/O ports to communicate with other processors, memory banks, and a system controller. Operations in each processor are characterized into two modes, i.e. object domain and space domain, to fully utilize the data-independency characteristics of graphics processing. Special graphics features such as 3D-to-2D conversion, shadow generation, texturing, and reflection, can be easily handled. With the current high density interconnection (MI) technology, it is feasible to implement a 64-processor system to achieve 2.5 billion operations per second, a performance needed in most advanced graphics applications.

  14. Adaptive WTA with an analog VLSI neuromorphic learning chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfliger, Philipp

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how a particular spike-based learning rule (where exact temporal relations between input and output spikes of a spiking model neuron determine the changes of the synaptic weights) can be tuned to express rate-based classical Hebbian learning behavior (where the average input and output spike rates are sufficient to describe the synaptic changes). This shift in behavior is controlled by the input statistic and by a single time constant. The learning rule has been implemented in a neuromorphic very large scale integration (VLSI) chip as part of a neurally inspired spike signal image processing system. The latter is the result of the European Union research project Convolution AER Vision Architecture for Real-Time (CAVIAR). Since it is implemented as a spike-based learning rule (which is most convenient in the overall spike-based system), even if it is tuned to show rate behavior, no explicit long-term average signals are computed on the chip. We show the rule's rate-based Hebbian learning ability in a classification task in both simulation and chip experiment, first with artificial stimuli and then with sensor input from the CAVIAR system.

  15. Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) in a VLSI CMOS technology

    CERN Document Server

    Turchetta, R; Manolopoulos, S; Tyndel, M; Allport, P P; Bates, R; O'Shea, V; Hall, G; Raymond, M

    2003-01-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in a standard VLSI CMOS technology have recently been proposed as a compact pixel detector for the detection of high-energy charged particle in vertex/tracking applications. MAPS, also named CMOS sensors, are already extensively used in visible light applications. With respect to other competing imaging technologies, CMOS sensors have several potential advantages in terms of low cost, low power, lower noise at higher speed, random access of pixels which allows windowing of region of interest, ability to integrate several functions on the same chip. This brings altogether to the concept of 'camera-on-a-chip'. In this paper, we review the use of CMOS sensors for particle physics and we analyse their performances in term of the efficiency (fill factor), signal generation, noise, readout speed and sensor area. In most of high-energy physics applications, data reduction is needed in the sensor at an early stage of the data processing before transfer of the data to ta...

  16. CAPCAL, 3-D Capacitance Calculator for VLSI Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Albert; Klose, Helmut; Svoboda, Mildos

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CAPCAL is devoted to the calculation of capacitances of three-dimensional wiring configurations are typically used in VLSI circuits. Due to analogies in the mathematical description also conductance and heat transport problems can be treated by CAPCAL. To handle the problem using CAPCAL same approximations have to be applied to the structure under investigation: - the overall geometry has to be confined to a finite domain by using symmetry-properties of the problem - Non-rectangular structures have to be simplified into an artwork of multiple boxes. 2 - Method of solution: The electrical field is described by the Laplace-equation. The differential equation is discretized by using the finite difference method. NEA-1327/01: The linear equation system is solved by using a combined ADI-multigrid method. NEA-1327/04: The linear equation system is solved by using a conjugate gradient method for CAPCAL V1.3. NEA-1327/05: The linear equation system is solved by using a conjugate gradient method for CAPCAL V1.3. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: NEA-1327/01: Certain restrictions of use may arise from the dimensioning of arrays. Field lengths are defined via PARAMETER-statements which can easily by modified. If the geometry of the problem is defined such that Neumann boundaries are dominating the convergence of the iterative equation system solver is affected

  17. A second generation 50 Mbps VLSI level zero processing system prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan C.; Shi, Jeff; Speciale, Nick; Bennett, Toby

    1994-01-01

    Level Zero Processing (LZP) generally refers to telemetry data processing functions performed at ground facilities to remove all communication artifacts from instrument data. These functions typically include frame synchronization, error detection and correction, packet reassembly and sorting, playback reversal, merging, time-ordering, overlap deletion, and production of annotated data sets. The Data Systems Technologies Division (DSTD) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been developing high-performance Very Large Scale Integration Level Zero Processing Systems (VLSI LZPS) since 1989. The first VLSI LZPS prototype demonstrated 20 Megabits per second (Mbp's) capability in 1992. With a new generation of high-density Application-specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) and a Mass Storage System (MSS) based on the High-performance Parallel Peripheral Interface (HiPPI), a second prototype has been built that achieves full 50 Mbp's performance. This paper describes the second generation LZPS prototype based upon VLSI technologies.

  18. Role of Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD in the detection of pulmonary nodules on 64 row multi detector computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Prakashini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To determine the overall performance of an existing CAD algorithm with thin-section computed tomography (CT in the detection of pulmonary nodules and to evaluate detection sensitivity at a varying range of nodule density, size, and location. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted on 20 patients with 322 suspected nodules who underwent diagnostic chest imaging using 64-row multi-detector CT. The examinations were evaluated on reconstructed images of 1.4 mm thickness and 0.7 mm interval. Detection of pulmonary nodules, initially by a radiologist of 2 years experience (RAD and later by CAD lung nodule software was assessed. Then, CAD nodule candidates were accepted or rejected accordingly. Detected nodules were classified based on their size, density, and location. The performance of the RAD and CAD system was compared with the gold standard that is true nodules confirmed by consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. The overall sensitivity and false-positive (FP rate of CAD software was calculated. Observations and Results: Of the 322 suspected nodules, 221 were classified as true nodules on the consensus of senior RAD and CAD together. Of the true nodules, the RAD detected 206 (93.2% and 202 (91.4% by the CAD. CAD and RAD together picked up more number of nodules than either CAD or RAD alone. Overall sensitivity for nodule detection with the CAD program was 91.4%, and FP detection per patient was 5.5%. The CAD showed comparatively higher sensitivity for nodules of size 4-10 mm (93.4% and nodules in hilar (100% and central (96.5% location when compared to RAD′s performance. Conclusion: CAD performance was high in detecting pulmonary nodules including the small size and low-density nodules. CAD even with relatively high FP rate, assists and improves RAD′s performance as a second reader, especially for nodules located in the central and hilar region and for small nodules by saving RADs time.

  19. Synthesis of on-chip control circuits for mVLSI biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potluri, Seetal; Schneider, Alexander Rüdiger; Hørslev-Petersen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    them to laboratory environments. To address this issue, researchers have proposed methods to reduce the number of offchip pressure sources, through integration of on-chip pneumatic control logic circuits fabricated using three-layer monolithic membrane valve technology. Traditionally, mVLSI biochip......-chip control circuit design and (iii) the integration of on-chip control in the placement and routing design tasks. In this paper we present a design methodology for logic synthesis and physical synthesis of mVLSI biochips that use on-chip control. We show how the proposed methodology can be successfully...... applied to generate biochip layouts with integrated on-chip pneumatic control....

  20. The GLUEchip: A custom VLSI chip for detectors readout and associative memories circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Galeotti, S.; Morsani, F.; Passuello, D.; Ristori, L.; Turini, N.

    1993-01-01

    An associative memory full-custom VLSI chip for pattern recognition has been designed and tested in the past years. It's the AMchip, that contains 128 patterns of 60 bits each. To expand the pattern capacity of an Associative Memory bank, the custom VLSI GLUEchip has been developed. The GLUEchip allows the interconnection of up to 16 AMchips or up to 16 GLUEchips: the resulting tree-like structure works like a single AMchip with an output pipelined structure and a pattern capacity increased by a factor 16 for each GLUEchip used

  1. Digital VLSI design with Verilog a textbook from Silicon Valley Technical Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, John

    2008-01-01

    This unique textbook is structured as a step-by-step course of study along the lines of a VLSI IC design project. In a nominal schedule of 12 weeks, two days and about 10 hours per week, the entire verilog language is presented, from the basics to everything necessary for synthesis of an entire 70,000 transistor, full-duplex serializer - deserializer, including synthesizable PLLs. Digital VLSI Design With Verilog is all an engineer needs for in-depth understanding of the verilog language: Syntax, synthesis semantics, simulation, and test. Complete solutions for the 27 labs are provided on the

  2. AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    The latest version of this perennial favorite, in-depth, reference-tutorial This top-selling book has been updated by AutoCAD guru and author Ellen Finkelstein to provide you with the very latest coverage of both AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012. It begins with a Quick Start tutorial, so you start creating right away. From there, the book covers so much in-depth material on AutoCAD that it is said that even Autodesk employees keep this comprehensive book at their desks. A DVD is included that features before-and-after drawings of all the tutorials and plenty of great examples from AutoCAD prof

  3. Improving the radiologist–CAD interaction: designing for appropriate trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, W.; Cnossen, F.; Ooijen, P.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has great potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic performance. However, the reported performance of the radiologist–CAD team is lower than what might be expected based on the performance of the radiologist and the CAD system in isolation. This indicates that the interaction between radiologists and the CAD system is not optimal. An important factor in the interaction between humans and automated aids (such as CAD) is trust. Suboptimal performance of the human–automation team is often caused by an inappropriate level of trust in the automation. In this review, we examine the role of trust in the radiologist–CAD interaction and suggest ways to improve the output of the CAD system so that it allows radiologists to calibrate their trust in the CAD system more effectively. Observer studies of the CAD systems show that radiologists often have an inappropriate level of trust in the CAD system. They sometimes under-trust CAD, thereby reducing its potential benefits, and sometimes over-trust it, leading to diagnostic errors they would not have made without CAD. Based on the literature on trust in human–automation interaction and the results of CAD observer studies, we have identified four ways to improve the output of CAD so that it allows radiologists to form a more appropriate level of trust in CAD. Designing CAD systems for appropriate trust is important and can improve the performance of the radiologist–CAD team. Future CAD research and development should acknowledge the importance of the radiologist–CAD interaction, and specifically the role of trust therein, in order to create the perfect artificial partner for the radiologist. This review focuses on the role of trust in the radiologist–CAD interaction. The aim of the review is to encourage CAD developers to design for appropriate trust and thereby improve the performance of the radiologist–CAD team. - Highlights: • Radiologists often have an inappropriate

  4. Development of integrated CAD system PV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Ogawa, Kazuya; Shibata, Masayoshi.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated CAD system for pressure vessels, such as heat exchangers, drums, towers, jacketed vessels, and tanks, has been developed. The system is operated by MS-DOS personal computers combined in a LAN. Pressure vessel designers can work watching using the computer display because the system automatically manages design work, on a common data base. The project team members in other sections, such as production, cost control, and design, have the same data concurrently. Personal computers unite the 3D CAD system, and the generated design with detail dimensions and shapes is stored in the 3D CAD system automatically. The system has promoted higher design quality and greatly reduced design cost. (author)

  5. Absorbing CAD system geometries into GEANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womersley, J.; Dragovitsch, P.; Youssef, S.

    1991-01-01

    The simulation community has for many years discussed the possibility of direct conversion of geometrical detector models from computer- aided design and engineering systems (CAD systems) to the simulation packages (which we shall assume means GEANT). This would allow fast and simultaneous optimization of the physics performance and structural integrity of detector designs. The benefit that this would offer is the avoidance of such problems as the late discovery of the rather thick cryostats in the D-Zero detector. Recent progress in the absorption of CAD geometries into GEANT models is reviewed, including descriptions of the additions to the I-DEAS solid modeller package developed for the EMPACT SSC proposal, the COGENT CAD-to-GEANT interpreter developed by Quantum Research Services, and the OCTAGON package for representing arbitrary shapes in GEANT. Likely future directions of development are described. 2 refs., 7 figs

  6. High-energy heavy ion testing of VLSI devices for single event ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    per describes the high-energy heavy ion radiation testing of VLSI devices for single event upset (SEU) ... The experimental set up employed to produce low flux of heavy ions viz. silicon ... through which they pass, leaving behind a wake of elec- ... for use in Bus Management Unit (BMU) and bulk CMOS ... was scheduled.

  7. Power gating of VLSI circuits using MEMS switches in low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shobak, Hosam; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; El Boghdady, Nawal; Halawa, Sarah; Iskander, Sophinese M.; Anis, Mohab H.

    2011-01-01

    -designed MEMS switch to power gate VLSI circuits, such that leakage power is efficiently reduced while accounting for performance and reliability. The designed MEMS switch is characterized by an 0.1876 ? ON resistance and requires 4.5 V to switch. As a result

  8. Implementation of a VLSI Level Zero Processing system utilizing the functional component approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianfei; Horner, Ward P.; Grebowsky, Gerald J.; Chesney, James R.

    1991-01-01

    A high rate Level Zero Processing system is currently being prototyped at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Based on state-of-the-art VLSI technology and the functional component approach, the new system promises capabilities of handling multiple Virtual Channels and Applications with a combined data rate of up to 20 Megabits per second (Mbps) at low cost.

  9. VLSI top-down design based on the separation of hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanenburg, L.; Broekema, A.; Leenstra, J.; Huys, C.

    1986-01-01

    Despite the presence of structure, interactions between the three views on VLSI design still lead to lengthy iterations. By separating the hierarchies for the respective views, the interactions are reduced. This separated hierarchy allows top-down design with functional abstractions as exemplified

  10. AutoCAD platform customization user interface and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Make AutoCAD your own with powerful personalization options Options for AutoCAD customization are typically the domain of administrators, but savvy users can perform their own customizations to personalize AutoCAD. Until recently, most users never thought to customize the AutoCAD platform to meet their specific needs, instead leaving it to administrators. If you are an AutoCAD user who wants to ramp up personalization options in your favorite software, AutoCAD Platform Customization: User Interface and Beyond is the perfect resource for you. Author Lee Ambrosius is recognized as a leader in Au

  11. MEBT design for C-ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Huiping; Tang Jingyu; Li Zhihui; Yan Fang; Ouyang Huafu

    2012-01-01

    In proton accelerators, the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is an essential part for transporting and matching the beam from the RFQ to the next type of accelerating structure. The MEBT is also very important in machine commissioning and tuning. The design of the China Accelerator Driven System is making great progress. The C-ADS project is composed of two independent injectors; therefore, two MEBT lines will be designed independently. In this paper, we will give a detailed description of the MEBT design (including parameter selection and beam dynamics calculation) for the injector I of the C-ADS project. (authors)

  12. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Deepak; Bergmann, Frank T; Sauro, Herbert M

    2009-01-01

    Background Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD) is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. Results An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API). TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at . Conclusion An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled and analyzed computationally. TinkerCell can readily

  13. TinkerCell: modular CAD tool for synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergmann Frank T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology brings together concepts and techniques from engineering and biology. In this field, computer-aided design (CAD is necessary in order to bridge the gap between computational modeling and biological data. Using a CAD application, it would be possible to construct models using available biological "parts" and directly generate the DNA sequence that represents the model, thus increasing the efficiency of design and construction of synthetic networks. Results An application named TinkerCell has been developed in order to serve as a CAD tool for synthetic biology. TinkerCell is a visual modeling tool that supports a hierarchy of biological parts. Each part in this hierarchy consists of a set of attributes that define the part, such as sequence or rate constants. Models that are constructed using these parts can be analyzed using various third-party C and Python programs that are hosted by TinkerCell via an extensive C and Python application programming interface (API. TinkerCell supports the notion of a module, which are networks with interfaces. Such modules can be connected to each other, forming larger modular networks. TinkerCell is a free and open-source project under the Berkeley Software Distribution license. Downloads, documentation, and tutorials are available at http://www.tinkercell.com. Conclusion An ideal CAD application for engineering biological systems would provide features such as: building and simulating networks, analyzing robustness of networks, and searching databases for components that meet the design criteria. At the current state of synthetic biology, there are no established methods for measuring robustness or identifying components that fit a design. The same is true for databases of biological parts. TinkerCell's flexible modeling framework allows it to cope with changes in the field. Such changes may involve the way parts are characterized or the way synthetic networks are modeled

  14. AutoCAD 2015 and AutoCAD LT 2015 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Onstott, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Step-by-step instructions for the AutoCAD fundamentals AutoCAD 2015 Essentials contains 400 pages of full-color, comprehensive instruction on the world's top drafting and architecture software. This 2015 edition features architectural, manufacturing, and landscape architecture examples. And like previous editions, the detailed guide introduces core concepts using interactive tutorials and open-ended projects, which can be completed in any order, thanks to downloadable data sets (an especially useful feature for students and professionals studying for Autodesk AutoCAD certification). Unlike man

  15. AutoCAD 2012 and AutoCAD LT 2012 No Experience Required

    CERN Document Server

    Gladfelter, Donnie

    2011-01-01

    The perfect step-by-step introduction to Autodesk's powerful architectural design software With this essential guide, you'll learn how to plan, develop, document, and present a complete AutoCAD project by building a summer cabin from start to finish. You can follow each step sequentially or jump in at any point by downloading the drawing files from the book's companion web site. You'll also master all essential AutoCAD features, get a thorough grounding in the basics, learn the very latest industry standards and techniques, and quickly become productive with AutoCAD 2012.Features concise expla

  16. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  17. Displacement of cryomodule in CADS injector II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Fengfeng; Wan, Yuqin; Sun, Guozhen; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Juihui; He, Yuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics

    2017-06-15

    As Cryomodule can easily reduce higher power consumption and length of an accelerator and the accelerator can be operated more continuously. The Chinese academy of sciences institute of modern physics is developing an accelerator driven subcritical system (CADS) Injector II. Cryomodules are extremely complex systems, and their design optimization is strongly dependent on the accelerator application for which they are intended.

  18. A Case Study in CAD Design Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Andrew G.; Hartman, Nathan W.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided design (CAD) software and other product life-cycle management (PLM) tools have become ubiquitous in industry during the past 20 years. Over this time they have continuously evolved, becoming programs with enormous capabilities, but the companies that use them have not evolved their design practices at the same rate. Due to the…

  19. Design Implementation and Testing of a VLSI High Performance ASIC for Extracting the Phase of a Complex Signal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Altmeyer, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    This thesis documents the research, circuit design, and simulation testing of a VLSI ASIC which extracts phase angle information from a complex sampled signal using the arctangent relationship: (phi=tan/-1 (Q/1...

  20. A novel low-voltage low-power analogue VLSI implementation of neural networks with on-chip back-propagation learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Manuel; Garde, Andres; Murillo, Pilar; Serrano, Luis

    2005-06-01

    In this paper a novel design and implementation of a VLSI Analogue Neural Net based on Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) with on-chip Back Propagation (BP) learning algorithm suitable for the resolution of classification problems is described. In order to implement a general and programmable analogue architecture, the design has been carried out in a hierarchical way. In this way the net has been divided in synapsis-blocks and neuron-blocks providing an easy method for the analysis. These blocks basically consist on simple cells, which are mainly, the activation functions (NAF), derivatives (DNAF), multipliers and weight update circuits. The analogue design is based on current-mode translinear techniques using MOS transistors working in the weak inversion region in order to reduce both the voltage supply and the power consumption. Moreover, with the purpose of minimizing the noise, offset and distortion of even order, the topologies are fully-differential and balanced. The circuit, named ANNE (Analogue Neural NEt), has been prototyped and characterized as a proof of concept on CMOS AMI-0.5A technology occupying a total area of 2.7mm2. The chip includes two versions of neural nets with on-chip BP learning algorithm, which are respectively a 2-1 and a 2-2-1 implementations. The proposed nets have been experimentally tested using supply voltages from 2.5V to 1.8V, which is suitable for single cell lithium-ion battery supply applications. Experimental results of both implementations included in ANNE exhibit a good performance on solving classification problems. These results have been compared with other proposed Analogue VLSI implementations of Neural Nets published in the literature demonstrating that our proposal is very efficient in terms of occupied area and power consumption.

  1. CAD in breast imaging. Application in mammography and MR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenauer, S.; Hermann, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Computer aided diagnosis systems (CAD-systems) are evaluated in different parts of diagnostic imaging. In breast imaging double reading which is time- and cost spending is necessary. Therefore a lot of studies evaluated the use of CAD-systems in mammography. However the rate of false-positives is too high to implement CAD-systems as double reader in routine work. In the future, improvements in this technique could perhaps change the performance of CAD-systems. (orig.)

  2. Theory and practice of Auto CAD, computer graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Si Won; Choe, Hong Yeong; Shin, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ryong Cheol

    1990-08-01

    This book describes theory and practice of Auto CAD, computer graphics, which deals with peripheral of computer, occurrence of digital line by DDA, BRM, theory of conversion, data base and display and shape modeling. This book gives descriptions of outline of CAD system, Auto CAD, basic function practice, simple figure practice, the third angle projection drawing a little complex single object, machine drawing I, function practice of improved Auto CAD, edit, set up layer, and 3D, and 3D display function.

  3. Algorithms for adaptive histogram equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, S.M.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Ter Haar Romeny, B.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.

    1986-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness [Zimmerman, 1985]. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. The authors summarize algorithms designed to overcome these and other concerns. These algorithms include interpolated ahe, to speed up the method on general purpose computers; a version of interpolated ahe designed to run in a few seconds on feedback processors; a version of full ahe designed to run in under one second on custom VLSI hardware; and clipped ahe, designed to overcome the problem of overenhancement of noise contrast. The authors conclude that clipped ahe should become a method of choice in medical imaging and probably also in other areas of digital imaging, and that clipped ahe can be made adequately fast to be routinely applied in the normal display sequence

  4. [The CAD-S, an instrument for the assessment of adaptation to divorce - separation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yárnoz Yaben, Sagrario; Comino González, Priscila

    2010-02-01

    The CAD-S, an Instrument for the Assessment of Adaptation to Divorce - Separation. This paper presents an instrument for the evaluation of the adaptation to divorce-separation. The CAD-S is a questionnaire created in Spanish, made up of 20 items whose aim is the evaluation of the family's adaptation to divorce-separation, using one of the parents as informant. Data were collected in four different samples of divorced persons and their children from different autonomous comunities from the Spanish state. 223 parents and 160 children from divorced families took part in this study. Four factors emerged, accounting for 52.39 percent of the total variance: psychological and emotional difficulties, conflict with the ex-partner, disposition to co-parentality, and negative outcomes of separation for children. The results suggest that CAD-S appears to be a reliable and valid instrument, with high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and adequate construct validity supported by its relations with measures of satisfaction with life (SWLS), in the case of parents, and conduct problems (CBCL) for children.

  5. Using AutoCAD to improve the visibility of the organizational technological design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Irina Mikhailovna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the issue of increasing the visibility of technological solutions in organizational-technological design. The ability to visualize the main stages of building process technology contributes to organic integration of all the requirements. A special role for the harmonious perception is played by correct display of the lighting facilities, shadowing. Realistic shadows help to analyze the rooms’ insolation of the designed facility and the surrounding areas. We give a justification for the use of AutoCAD in order to automate the process of visualizing the results of organizational-technological design. The author describes the methods of obtaining realistic natural lighting in AutoCAD without significantly increasing the complexity of the process. Engineering companies in 46 % of cases use the software AutoCAD in order to create construction plans. AutoCAD has a variety of possibilities and is constantly evolving. Continuation is one of the benefits of this program. AutoCAD is unique in terms of customization, because, apart from instruction languages, it has two built-in programming languages: AutoLISP and VisualBasic. Because of these specific features AutoCAD allows to create any applications related to graphics implementation. Constant monitoring of lightning changes allows finding the appropriate in terms of aesthetics, ergonomics and insolation decisions on planning and associating a building or structure to the environment. Solar lighting is simulated by a combination of several directional lightning point sources. The author offers a brief description of the program algorithm, which allows automatically managing lighting settings and creating a file with a realistic visualization of the design solutions.

  6. A CAD (Classroom Assessment Design) of a Computer Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawi, Nazir S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a CAD (classroom assessment design) of an entry-level undergraduate computer programming course "Computer Programming I". CAD has been the product of a long experience in teaching computer programming courses including teaching "Computer Programming I" 22 times. Each semester, CAD is evaluated and modified…

  7. Improving the radiologist-CAD interaction : designing for appropriate trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, W.; Cnossen, F.; van Ooijen, P. M. A.

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has great potential to improve radiologists' diagnostic performance. However, the reported performance of the radiologist-CAD team is lower than what might be expected based on the performance of the radiologist and the CAD system in isolation. This indicates that the

  8. Fra form-Z til AutoCad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Dette kursus er lavet for at forberede de studerende til deres tegnestuepraktik, og dets indhold er planlagt i samarbejde med tegnestuerne. I 2003 var form-Z Arkitektskolens grundlæggende CAD-program; men på tegnestuerne arbejde man med AutoCad. Kurset er opbygget over CAD Clasic skabelonen (se min...

  9. The review of CAD for simulation of microwave devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drach V.E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to a brief review of modern CAD for electromagnetic modeling of microwave devices. Five major CAD systems are described in the article: FEKO, μWave Wizard, Sonnet, AWR Microwave Office, HFSS. The main methods are given for each CAD system used for simulation of microwave structures and the main advantages that distinguish its use.

  10. A Fully Parallel VLSI-implementation of the Viterbi Decoding Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Jørgensen, Henrik Nordtorp; Paaske, Erik

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we describe the implementation of a K = 7, R = 1/2 single-chip Viterbi decoder intended to operate at 10-20 Mbit/sec. We propose a general, regular and area efficient floor-plan that is also suitable for implementation of decoders for codes with different generator polynomials...

  11. Machinability of CAD-CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavali, Ramakiran; Nejat, Amir H; Lawson, Nathaniel C

    2017-08-01

    Although new materials are available for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) fabrication, limited information is available regarding their machinability. The depth of penetration of a milling tool into a material during a timed milling cycle may indicate its machinability. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the tool penetration rate for 2 polymer-containing CAD-CAM materials (Lava Ultimate and Enamic) and 2 ceramic-based CAD-CAM materials (e.max CAD and Celtra Duo). The materials were sectioned into 4-mm-thick specimens (n=5/material) and polished with 320-grit SiC paper. Each specimen was loaded into a custom milling apparatus. The apparatus pushed the specimens against a milling tool (E4D Tapered 2016000) rotating at 40 000 RPM with a constant force of 0.98 N. After a 6-minute timed milling cycle, the length of each milling cut was measured with image analysis software under a digital light microscope. Representative specimens and milling tools were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The penetration rate of Lava Ultimate (3.21 ±0.46 mm/min) and Enamic (2.53 ±0.57 mm/min) was significantly greater than that of e.max CAD (1.12 ±0.32 mm/min) or Celtra Duo (0.80 ±0.21 mm/min) materials. SEM observations showed little tool damage, regardless of material type. Residual material was found on the tools used with polymer-containing materials, and wear of the embedding medium was seen on the tools used with the ceramic-based materials. Edge chipping was noted on cuts made in the ceramic-based materials. Lava Ultimate and Enamic have greater machinability and less edge chipping than e.max CAD and Celtra Duo. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. AutoCAD 2014 review for certification official certification preparation

    CERN Document Server

    ASCENT center for technical knowledge

    2014-01-01

    The AutoCAD® 2014 Review for Certification book is intended for users of AutoCAD® preparing to complete the AutoCAD 2014 Certified Professional exam. This book contains a collection of relevant instructional topics, practice exercises, and review questions from the Autodesk Official Training Guides (AOTG) from ASCENT - Center for Technical Knowledge pertaining specifically to the Certified Professional exam topics and objectives. This book is intended for experienced users of AutoCAD in preparation for certification. New users of AutoCAD should refer to the AOTG training guides from ASCENT, such as AutoCAD/AutoCAD LT 2014 Fundamentals, for more comprehensive instruction.

  13. AutoCAD-To-GIFTS Translator Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew

    1989-01-01

    AutoCAD-to-GIFTS translator program, ACTOG, developed to facilitate quick generation of small finite-element models using CASA/GIFTS finite-element modeling program. Reads geometric data of drawing from Data Exchange File (DXF) used in AutoCAD and other PC-based drafting programs. Geometric entities recognized by ACTOG include points, lines, arcs, solids, three-dimensional lines, and three-dimensional faces. From this information, ACTOG creates GIFTS SRC file, which then reads into GIFTS preprocessor BULKM or modified and reads into EDITM to create finite-element model. SRC file used as is or edited for any number of uses. Written in Microsoft Quick-Basic (Version 2.0).

  14. CAD for cutting head exchange of roadheader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Z.; Wu, Z.; Qian, P. [China Coal Research Institute (China). Shanghai Branch

    1999-08-01

    Improving the cutting method according to the actual operating conditions is an effective way to raise production efficiency. A cutting head designed by means of computer and CAD software is characterized by short design cycle but high design quality. Taking the AM-50 road header as an example, this paper shows that it is feasible to design an interchangeable cutting head for the machine without interfering with the main technical parameters. 2 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Recovery Act - CAREER: Sustainable Silicon -- Energy-Efficient VLSI Interconnect for Extreme-Scale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Patrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The research goal of this CAREER proposal is to develop energy-efficient, VLSI interconnect circuits and systems that will facilitate future massively-parallel, high-performance computing. Extreme-scale computing will exhibit massive parallelism on multiple vertical levels, from thou­ sands of computational units on a single processor to thousands of processors in a single data center. Unfortunately, the energy required to communicate between these units at every level (on­ chip, off-chip, off-rack) will be the critical limitation to energy efficiency. Therefore, the PI's career goal is to become a leading researcher in the design of energy-efficient VLSI interconnect for future computing systems.

  16. Power gating of VLSI circuits using MEMS switches in low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shobak, Hosam

    2011-12-01

    Power dissipation poses a great challenge for VLSI designers. With the intense down-scaling of technology, the total power consumption of the chip is made up primarily of leakage power dissipation. This paper proposes combining a custom-designed MEMS switch to power gate VLSI circuits, such that leakage power is efficiently reduced while accounting for performance and reliability. The designed MEMS switch is characterized by an 0.1876 ? ON resistance and requires 4.5 V to switch. As a result of implementing this novel power gating technique, a standby leakage power reduction of 99% and energy savings of 33.3% are achieved. Finally the possible effects of surge currents and ground bounce noise are studied. These findings allow longer operation times for battery-operated systems characterized by long standby periods. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. KiCad challenges the big ones

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) are the heart of any electronic device, including your toaster and your smartphone. Designing PCBs is the job of electronic engineers who, so far, have often had no option but to use proprietary tools to design complex circuits. Thanks to the efforts that CERN experts have put in to improve the free KiCad software, that situation is about to change.   KiCad's development started in 1992 as a way to design PCBs, the units that control how an electronic device works. Since 2013, experts in the Beams department have made important contributions to KiCad as part of the Open Hardware Initiative (OHI), which provides a framework to facilitate knowledge exchange across the electronic design community. “Our vision is to allow the hardware developers to share as easily as their software colleagues,” says Javier Serrano, head of the BE-CO-HT section and OHI initiator. “Software sources are easily shared online because they are text ...

  18. TEACHING CAD PROGRAMMING TO ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Caffarena CELANI

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss the relevance of including the discipline of computer programming in the architectural curriculum. To do so I start by explaining how computer programming has been applied in other educational contexts with pedagogical success, describing Seymour Papert's principles. After that, I summarize the historical development of CAD and provide three historical examples of educational applications of computer programming in architecture, followed by a contemporary case that I find of particular relevance. Next, I propose a methodology for teaching programming for architects that aims at improving the quality of designs by making their concepts more explicit. This methodology is based on my own experience teaching computer programming for architecture students at undergraduate and graduate levels at the State University of Campinas, Brazil. The paper ends with a discussion about the role of programming nowadays, when most CAD software are user-friendly and do not require any knowledge of programming for improving performance. I conclude that the introduction of programming in the CAD curriculum within a proper conceptual framework may transform the concept of architectural education. Key-words: Computer programming; computer-aided design; architectural education.

  19. Automatic generation of virtual worlds from architectural and mechanical CAD models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szepielak, D.

    2003-12-01

    Accelerator projects like the XFEL or the planned linear collider TESLA involve extensive architectural and mechanical design work, resulting in a variety of CAD models. The CAD models will be showing different parts of the project, like e.g. the different accelerator components or parts of the building complexes, and they will be created and stored by different groups in different formats. A complete CAD model of the accelerator and its buildings is thus difficult to obtain and would also be extremely huge and difficult to handle. This thesis describes the design and prototype development of a tool which automatically creates virtual worlds from different CAD models. The tool will enable the user to select a required area for visualization on a map, and then create a 3D-model of the selected area which can be displayed in a web-browser. The thesis first discusses the system requirements and provides some background on data visualization. Then, it introduces the system architecture, the algorithms and the used technologies, and finally demonstrates the capabilities of the system using two case studies. (orig.)

  20. An analog VLSI real time optical character recognition system based on a neural architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo, G.; Caviglia, D.; Valle, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a real time Optical Character Recognition system is presented: it is based on a feature extraction module and a neural network classifier which have been designed and fabricated in analog VLSI technology. Experimental results validate the circuit functionality. The results obtained from a validation based on a mixed approach (i.e., an approach based on both experimental and simulation results) confirm the soundness and reliability of the system

  1. An analog VLSI real time optical character recognition system based on a neural architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, G.; Caviglia, D.; Valle, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dip. of Biophysical and Electronic Engineering

    1999-03-01

    In this paper a real time Optical Character Recognition system is presented: it is based on a feature extraction module and a neural network classifier which have been designed and fabricated in analog VLSI technology. Experimental results validate the circuit functionality. The results obtained from a validation based on a mixed approach (i.e., an approach based on both experimental and simulation results) confirm the soundness and reliability of the system.

  2. First results from a silicon-strip detector with VLSI readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzivino, G.; Horisberger, R.; Hubbeling, L.; Hyams, B.; Parker, S.; Breakstone, A.; Litke, A.M.; Walker, J.T.; Bingefors, N.

    1986-01-01

    A 256-strip silicon detector with 25 μm strip pitch, connected to two 128-channel NMOS VLSI chips (Microplex), has been tested using straight-through tracks from a ruthenium beta source. The readout channels have a pitch of 47.5 μm. A single multiplexed output provides voltages proportional to the integrated charge from each strip. The most probable signal height from the beta traversals is approximately 14 times the rms noise in any single channel. (orig.)

  3. International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Advanced Devices, Signals & Systems and Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Shirur, Yasha; Prasad, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers presented by renowned researchers, keynote speakers and academicians in the International Conference on VLSI, Communication, Analog Designs, Signals and Systems, and Networking (VCASAN-2013), organized by B.N.M. Institute of Technology, Bangalore, India during July 17-19, 2013. The book provides global trends in cutting-edge technologies in electronics and communication engineering. The content of the book is useful to engineers, researchers and academicians as well as industry professionals.

  4. Multifunctional facades - design optimisation with CAD; Multifunktionale Fassaden - Effektive Auslegung durch CAD-Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viotto, M. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany). Abt. fuer Anlagen- und Messtechnik

    1998-02-01

    The energetically optimal design of PV facades requires the consideration of many technical conditions (different elevations/orientations of modules; shading possibility; high and different module temperatures). It also requires the interface with architecture, civil and electrical engineering. To support this planning process, the software program PV-CAD was developed which rapidly calculates energy yield under conditions of inhomogeneous irradiance, shading, thermal behaviour of modules and electrical layout. PV-CAD is compatible with other civil and electrical engineering CAD programs and incorporates extensive databases (weather data; modules and inverter types). (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer optimalen Energieertrag sind zahlreiche technische Randbedingungen bei der Auslegung einer Photovoltaik (PV)-Fassade zu beruecksichtigen (unterschiedliche Ausrichtungen/Neigungen der Module; moegliche Teilabschattung; hoehere und unterschiedliche Betriebstemperaturen). Installation und Betrieb einer PV-Fassade erfordern die Abstimmung zwischen Architektur, Bauwesen und Elektrotechnik. Zur Unterstuetzung der Planer wurde das Programm PV-CAD entwickelt, das den Energieertrag unter Beruecksichtigung von inhomogener Einstrahlung und Abschattung, Temperaturverhalten der Fassadenmodule sowie unterschiedlichen elektrischen Anlagenkonzepten schnell ermittelt; es fuegt sich nahtlos in CAD-Arbeitsumgebungen ein. (orig.)

  5. Motion estimation for video coding efficient algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, Indrajit; Chatterjee, Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The need of video compression in the modern age of visual communication cannot be over-emphasized. This monograph will provide useful information to the postgraduate students and researchers who wish to work in the domain of VLSI design for video processing applications. In this book, one can find an in-depth discussion of several motion estimation algorithms and their VLSI implementation as conceived and developed by the authors. It records an account of research done involving fast three step search, successive elimination, one-bit transformation and its effective combination with diamond search and dynamic pixel truncation techniques. Two appendices provide a number of instances of proof of concept through Matlab and Verilog program segments. In this aspect, the book can be considered as first of its kind. The architectures have been developed with an eye to their applicability in everyday low-power handheld appliances including video camcorders and smartphones.

  6. Present state of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Topics of computer-aided detection (CAD) are reviewed. Commercially available, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved CAD systems are for fields of breast cancer (mammography), chest (flat X-ray and CT imaging) and colon (polyp detection). In Japan, only mammography CAD is approved. Efficacy of CAD is controversial, for which reliable database is important, and its construction is under development in various medical fields. Digitalized image is now popularized, which conceivably leads to improve the cost-effectiveness of diagnosis with CAD. For incentive, approval for health insurance would be the case as seen in the increased CAD sale by R2 Technology Co., and MHLW actually assists facilities to introduce the reading-aid system of mammography by sharing a half of its cost. There are 2 big projects for CAD study supported by MECSST, which the author concerns. One is the development of diagnostic aid for the multi-dimensional medical images where the multi-organ, multi-disease CAD system is considered. The other involves the CAD in brain MRI, in breast US and in eyeground picture. It is not in so far future for patients and doctors to fully enjoy the benefit of CAD. (R.T.)

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzakoun, Joseph; Bommart, Sébastien; Coste, Joël; Chassagnon, Guillaume; Lederlin, Mathieu; Boussouar, Samia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) of subsolid nodules: Evaluation of a commercial CAD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzakoun, Joseph, E-mail: benzakoun.joseph@gmail.com [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Bommart, Sébastien, E-mail: s-bommart@chu-montpellier.fr [CHU de Montpellier, 191 avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); INSERM U 1046, 371 avenue du Doyen G. Giraud, 34000 Montpellier (France); Coste, Joël, E-mail: joel.coste@htd.aphp.fr [Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, 1 parvis Notre-Dame, 75004 Paris (France); Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Chassagnon, Guillaume, E-mail: gchassagnon@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Cochin, Radiologie, 27 rue du Faubourg Saint Jacques, 75014 Paris (France); Lederlin, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lederlin@chu-rennes.fr [CHU de Rennes, Radiologie, 2 Rue Henri le Guilloux, 35000 Rennes (France); Université de Rennes 1, 9 Rue Jean Macé, 35000 Rennes (France); Boussouar, Samia, E-mail: samiaboussouar@gmail.com [Université Paris Descartes, 12 rue de l’Ecole de Médecine, 75006 Paris (France); Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 20 Rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CAD sensitivity is still limited for automated detection of subsolid nodules. • CAD detection rate is higher for part-solid than for pure ground-glass nodules. • Part-solid nodule detection is not better for nodules with larger solid component. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the performance of a commercially available CAD system for automated detection and measurement of subsolid nodules. Materials and methods: The CAD system was tested on 50 pure ground-glass and 50 part-solid nodules (median diameter: 17 mm) previously found on standard-dose CT scans in 100 different patients. True nodule detection and the total number of CAD marks were evaluated at different sensitivity settings. The influence of nodule and CT acquisition characteristics was analyzed with logistic regression. Software and manually measured diameters were compared with Spearman and Bland-Altman methods. Results: With sensitivity adjusted for 3-mm nodule detection, 50/100 (50%) subsolid nodules were detected, at the average cost of 17 CAD marks per CT. These figures were respectively 26/100 (26%) and 2 at the 5-mm setting. At the highest sensitivity setting (2-mm nodule detection), the average number of CAD marks per CT was 41 but the nodule detection rate only increased to 54%. Part–solid nodules were better detected than pure ground glass nodules: 36/50 (72%) versus 14/50 (28%) at the 3-mm setting (p < 0.0001), with no influence of the solid component size. Except for the type (i.e. part solid or pure ground glass), no other nodule characteristic influenced the detection rate. High-quality segmentation was obtained for 79 nodules, which for automated measurements correlated well with manual measurements (rho = 0.90[0.84–0.93]). All part-solid nodules had software-measured attenuation values above −671 Hounsfield units (HU). Conclusion: The detection rate of subsolid nodules by this CAD system was insufficient, but high-quality segmentation was obtained in 79% of

  9. Using CAD/CAM-systems for process optimization during laser beam cutting and surface treatment. CAD/CAM-gestuetzte Prozessauslegung beim Laserstrahlschneiden und -oberflaechenveredeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, W.; Trasser, F.J.; Wetzels, W. (Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Produktionstechnologie, IPT, Aachen (Germany))

    1991-02-01

    Using technological modules in modern CAD/CAM-systems provides an efficient use of the available know-how. On the one hand, companies can save their know-how, on the other hand they can improve manufacturing quality as well as increase the productivity. Especially laser beam cutting allows an automatic process control - orientated on geometry aspects. Similar results can be shown for laser surface treatment as well, although up to now reducing of the programming time is the main task of technological modules for this application, including special algorithms for CNC-controlled rotation/swiveling of powder-nozzles and adjustment of the powder flow rate.

  10. Importing CAD models into MONK and MCBEND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searson, K.; Fleurot, F.; Cooper, A. J.; Cowan, P.

    2009-01-01

    The direct use of Computer Aided Design (CAD) models in criticality and shielding codes has been a long standing goal for Sellafield Ltd. Such functionality could offer several advantages over the traditional method of text based modelling systems. Analysts would be able to take advantage of the advanced Graphical User Interface based modelling features provided by solid modelers, potentially reducing the costs associated with creating models in a format suitable for the analyst's criticality and shielding code. A prototype system has been developed that allows CAD models created in Autodesk Inventor or Solidworks to be used in criticality and shielding calculations. The system is based on the ANSI Initial Graphics Exchange Specification 5.3 standard and models are exported from the CAD software in Trimmed NURBS format. The format retains much more of the model's geometrical information than a format based on solid meshing techniques and avoids many of the associated problems such as large memory costs, surface approximations and void spaces. The time consuming and complex meshing process is also avoided. Runtime intersection calculations are performed using either a Bezier clipping process for NURBS based surface definitions, or by transforming the coordinate system through which the ray tracks for Surface of Revolution calculations. NURBS surfaces are therefore converted to Bezier form as the model is imported. In addition, the SR generatrix is, in general, converted to a 'strip tree' representation, allowing the SR intersection calculations to be performed with arbitrary generatrix shapes. Details of recent improvements to the Bezier clipping process are provided. Reduction in runtime of SR based Solidworks models over equivalent NURBS based Autodesk Inventor models is also demonstrated. (authors)

  11. Edge strength of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilschifter, Maria; Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the edge force of CAD/CAM materials as a function of (a) material, (b) thickness, and (c) distance from the margin. Materials intended for processing with CAD/CAM were investigated: eight resin composites, one resin-infiltrated ceramic, and a clinically proven lithiumdisilicate ceramic (reference). To measure edge force (that is, load to failure/crack), plates (d = 1 mm) were fixed and loaded with a Vickers diamond indenter (1 mm/min, Zwick 1446) at a distance of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm from the edge. Edge force was defined as a loading force at a distance of 0.5 mm. The type of failure was determined. To investigate the influence of the thickness, all data were determined on 1-mm and 2-mm plates. To test the influence of bonding and an underlying dentin, individual 1-mm plates were bonded to a 1-mm-thick dentin-like (concerning modulus of elasticity) resin composite. For the 1-mm plates, edge force varied between 64.4 ± 24.2 N (Shofu Block HC) and 183.2 ± 63.3 N (ceramic reference), with significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences between the materials. For the 2-mm plates, values between 129.2 ± 32.5 N (Lava Ultimate) and 230.3 ± 67.5 N (Cerasmart) were found. Statistical comparison revealed no significant differences (p > 0.109) between the materials. Brilliant Crios (p = 0.023), Enamic (p = 0.000), Shofu Blocks HC (p = 0.009), and Grandio Bloc (p = 0.002) showed significantly different edge force between the 1-mm- and 2-mm-thick plates. The failure pattern was either cracking, (severe) chipping, or fracture. Material, material thickness, and distance from the edge impact the edge force of CAD/CAM materials. CAD/CAM materials should be carefully selected on the basis of their individual edge force and performance during milling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. DESIGNING AN EFFECTIVE INTERSECTION USING CAD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISAN George-Horea

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring the safety and streamline in road traffic are very important aims, with regard to the nowadays people mobility level. Road infrastructure is an essential element that can meet these requirements. Thus, it is proposed to develop an effective model of intersection by using CAD software tools. This type of intersection can be successfully used on almost any category of roads, increasing road traffic safety, reducing passing times through the intersection and in the same time, reducing conflict points and increase the intersection capacity.

  13. A VLSI-Based High-Performance Raster Image System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-08

    and data in broadcast form to the array of memory -hips in the frame buffer, shown in the bottom block. This is simply a physical structure to hold up...Principal Investigator: John Poulton Collaboration on algorithm development: Prof. Jack Goldfeather (Dept. of Mathematics, Carleton Collge ...1983) Cheng-Hong Hsieh (MS, Computer Science, May, 1985) Jeff P. Hultquist Susan Spach Undergraduate ResearLh Assistant: Sonya Holder (BS, Physics , May

  14. Model, analysis, and evaluation of the effects of analog VLSI arithmetic on linear subspace-based image recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Gonzalo; Figueroa, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    Typical image recognition systems operate in two stages: feature extraction to reduce the dimensionality of the input space, and classification based on the extracted features. Analog Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) is an attractive technology to achieve compact and low-power implementations of these computationally intensive tasks for portable embedded devices. However, device mismatch limits the resolution of the circuits fabricated with this technology. Traditional layout techniques to reduce the mismatch aim to increase the resolution at the transistor level, without considering the intended application. Relating mismatch parameters to specific effects in the application level would allow designers to apply focalized mismatch compensation techniques according to predefined performance/cost tradeoffs. This paper models, analyzes, and evaluates the effects of mismatched analog arithmetic in both feature extraction and classification circuits. For the feature extraction, we propose analog adaptive linear combiners with on-chip learning for both Least Mean Square (LMS) and Generalized Hebbian Algorithm (GHA). Using mathematical abstractions of analog circuits, we identify mismatch parameters that are naturally compensated during the learning process, and propose cost-effective guidelines to reduce the effect of the rest. For the classification, we derive analog models for the circuits necessary to implement Nearest Neighbor (NN) approach and Radial Basis Function (RBF) networks, and use them to emulate analog classifiers with standard databases of face and hand-writing digits. Formal analysis and experiments show how we can exploit adaptive structures and properties of the input space to compensate the effects of device mismatch at the application level, thus reducing the design overhead of traditional layout techniques. Results are also directly extensible to multiple application domains using linear subspace methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. VLSI Design of a Variable-Length FFT/IFFT Processor for OFDM-Based Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Chih Kuo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of {orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM} is famous for its robustness against frequency-selective fading channel. This technique has been widely used in many wired and wireless communication systems. In general, the {fast Fourier transform (FFT} and {inverse FFT (IFFT} operations are used as the modulation/demodulation kernel in the OFDM systems, and the sizes of FFT/IFFT operations are varied in different applications of OFDM systems. In this paper, we design and implement a variable-length prototype FFT/IFFT processor to cover different specifications of OFDM applications. The cached-memory FFT architecture is our suggested VLSI system architecture to design the prototype FFT/IFFT processor for the consideration of low-power consumption. We also implement the twiddle factor butterfly {processing element (PE} based on the {{coordinate} rotation digital computer (CORDIC} algorithm, which avoids the use of conventional multiplication-and-accumulation unit, but evaluates the trigonometric functions using only add-and-shift operations. Finally, we implement a variable-length prototype FFT/IFFT processor with TSMC 0.35 μm 1P4M CMOS technology. The simulations results show that the chip can perform (64-2048-point FFT/IFFT operations up to 80 MHz operating frequency which can meet the speed requirement of most OFDM standards such as WLAN, ADSL, VDSL (256∼2K, DAB, and 2K-mode DVB.

  16. CATO: a CAD tool for intelligent design of optical networks and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Ciesielski, Maciej; Fumagalli, Andrea F.; Ruszczyk, Chester; Wedzinga, Gosse

    1997-10-01

    Increasing communication speed requirements have created a great interest in very high speed optical and all-optical networks and interconnects. The design of these optical systems is a highly complex task, requiring the simultaneous optimization of various parts of the system, ranging from optical components' characteristics to access protocol techniques. Currently there are no computer aided design (CAD) tools on the market to support the interrelated design of all parts of optical communication systems, thus the designer has to rely on costly and time consuming testbed evaluations. The objective of the CATO (CAD tool for optical networks and interconnects) project is to develop a prototype of an intelligent CAD tool for the specification, design, simulation and optimization of optical communication networks. CATO allows the user to build an abstract, possible incomplete, model of the system, and determine its expected performance. Based on design constraints provided by the user, CATO will automatically complete an optimum design, using mathematical programming techniques, intelligent search methods and artificial intelligence (AI). Initial design and testing of a CATO prototype (CATO-1) has been completed recently. The objective was to prove the feasibility of combining AI techniques, simulation techniques, an optical device library and a graphical user interface into a flexible CAD tool for obtaining optimal communication network designs in terms of system cost and performance. CATO-1 is an experimental tool for designing packet-switching wavelength division multiplexing all-optical communication systems using a LAN/MAN ring topology as the underlying network. The two specific AI algorithms incorporated are simulated annealing and a genetic algorithm. CATO-1 finds the optimal number of transceivers for each network node, using an objective function that includes the cost of the devices and the overall system performance.

  17. Mammogram CAD, hybrid registration and iconic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, A.; Cloppet, F.; Vincent, N.

    2013-03-01

    This paper aims to develop a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) based on a two-step methodology to register and analyze pairs of temporal mammograms. The concept of "medical file", including all the previous medical information on a patient, enables joint analysis of different acquisitions taken at different times, and the detection of significant modifications. The developed registration method aims to superimpose at best the different anatomical structures of the breast. The registration is designed in order to get rid of deformation undergone by the acquisition process while preserving those due to breast changes indicative of malignancy. In order to reach this goal, a referent image is computed from control points based on anatomical features that are extracted automatically. Then the second image of the couple is realigned on the referent image, using a coarse-to-fine approach according to expert knowledge that allows both rigid and non-rigid transforms. The joint analysis detects the evolution between two images representing the same scene. In order to achieve this, it is important to know the registration error limits in order to adapt the observation scale. The approach used in this paper is based on an image sparse representation. Decomposed in regular patterns, the images are analyzed under a new angle. The evolution detection problem has many practical applications, especially in medical images. The CAD is evaluated using recall and precision of differences in mammograms.

  18. Computer-aided detection (CAD) of lung nodules in CT scans: radiologist performance and reading time with incremental CAD assistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Justus E.; Paik, David; Olsen, David; Liu, Emily G.; Leung, Ann N.; Mindelzun, Robert; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; Napel, Sandy; Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Chow, Lawrence C.; Naidich, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The diagnostic performance of radiologists using incremental CAD assistance for lung nodule detection on CT and their temporal variation in performance during CAD evaluation was assessed. CAD was applied to 20 chest multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) scans containing 190 non-calcified ≥3-mm nodules. After free search, three radiologists independently evaluated a maximum of up to 50 CAD detections/patient. Multiple free-response ROC curves were generated for free search and successive CAD evaluation, by incrementally adding CAD detections one at a time to the radiologists' performance. The sensitivity for free search was 53% (range, 44%-59%) at 1.15 false positives (FP)/patient and increased with CAD to 69% (range, 59-82%) at 1.45 FP/patient. CAD evaluation initially resulted in a sharp rise in sensitivity of 14% with a minimal increase in FP over a time period of 100 s, followed by flattening of the sensitivity increase to only 2%. This transition resulted from a greater prevalence of true positive (TP) versus FP detections at early CAD evaluation and not by a temporal change in readers' performance. The time spent for TP (9.5 s ± 4.5 s) and false negative (FN) (8.4 s ± 6.7 s) detections was similar; FP decisions took two- to three-times longer (14.4 s ± 8.7 s) than true negative (TN) decisions (4.7 s ± 1.3 s). When CAD output is ordered by CAD score, an initial period of rapid performance improvement slows significantly over time because of non-uniformity in the distribution of TP CAD output and not to a changing reader performance over time. (orig.)

  19. How to build VLSI-efficient neural chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiu, V.

    1998-02-01

    This paper presents several upper and lower bounds for the number-of-bits required for solving a classification problem, as well as ways in which these bounds can be used to efficiently build neural network chips. The focus will be on complexity aspects pertaining to neural networks: (1) size complexity and depth (size) tradeoffs, and (2) precision of weights and thresholds as well as limited interconnectivity. They show difficult problems-exponential growth in either space (precision and size) and/or time (learning and depth)-when using neural networks for solving general classes of problems (particular cases may enjoy better performances). The bounds for the number-of-bits required for solving a classification problem represent the first step of a general class of constructive algorithms, by showing how the quantization of the input space could be done in O (m{sup 2}n) steps. Here m is the number of examples, while n is the number of dimensions. The second step of the algorithm finds its roots in the implementation of a class of Boolean functions using threshold gates. It is substantiated by mathematical proofs for the size O (mn/{Delta}), and the depth O [log(mn)/log{Delta}] of the resulting network (here {Delta} is the maximum fan in). Using the fan in as a parameter, a full class of solutions can be designed. The third step of the algorithm represents a reduction of the size and an increase of its generalization capabilities. Extensions by using analogue COMPARISONs, allows for real inputs, and increase the generalization capabilities at the expense of longer training times. Finally, several solutions which can lower the size of the resulting neural network are detailed. The interesting aspect is that they are obtained for limited, or even constant, fan-ins. In support of these claims many simulations have been performed and are called upon.

  20. VLSI for High-Speed Digital Signal Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-30

    particular, the design, layout and fab - rication of integrated circuits. The primary project for this grant has been the design and implementation of a...targeted at 33.36 dB, and PSNR (dB) Rate ( bpp ) the FRSBC algorithm, targeted at 0.5 bits/pixel, respec- Filter FDSBC FRSBC FDSBC FRSBC tively. The filter...to mean square error d by as shown in Fig. 6, is used, yielding a total of 16 subbands. 255’ The rates, in bits per pixel ( bpp ), and the peak signal

  1. A Streaming PCA VLSI Chip for Neural Data Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Zhao, Wenfeng; Guo, Hongsun; Lim, Hubert H; Yang, Zhi

    2017-12-01

    Neural recording system miniaturization and integration with low-power wireless technologies require compressing neural data before transmission. Feature extraction is a procedure to represent data in a low-dimensional space; its integration into a recording chip can be an efficient approach to compress neural data. In this paper, we propose a streaming principal component analysis algorithm and its microchip implementation to compress multichannel local field potential (LFP) and spike data. The circuits have been designed in a 65-nm CMOS technology and occupy a silicon area of 0.06 mm. Throughout the experiments, the chip compresses LFPs by 10 at the expense of as low as 1% reconstruction errors and 144-nW/channel power consumption; for spikes, the achieved compression ratio is 25 with 8% reconstruction errors and 3.05-W/channel power consumption. In addition, the algorithm and its hardware architecture can swiftly adapt to nonstationary spiking activities, which enables efficient hardware sharing among multiple channels to support a high-channel count recorder.

  2. VLSI Architectures for Sliding-Window-Based Space-Time Turbo Trellis Code Decoders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Passas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The VLSI implementation of SISO-MAP decoders used for traditional iterative turbo coding has been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a complete architectural model of a space-time turbo code receiver that includes elementary decoders is presented. These architectures are based on newly proposed building blocks such as a recursive add-compare-select-offset (ACSO unit, A-, B-, Γ-, and LLR output calculation modules. Measurements of complexity and decoding delay of several sliding-window-technique-based MAP decoder architectures and a proposed parameter set lead to defining equations and comparison between those architectures.

  3. Initial beam test results from a silicon-strip detector with VLSI readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.; Litke, A.; Schwarz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Silicon detectors with 256 strips, having a pitch of 25 μm, and connected to two 128 channel NMOS VLSI chips each (Microplex), have been tested in relativistic charged particle beams at CERN and at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The readout chips have an input channel pitch of 47.5 μm and a single multiplexed output which provides voltages proportional to the integrated charge from each strip. The most probable signal height from minimum ionizing tracks was 15 times the rms noise in any single channel. Two-track traversals with a separation of 100 μm were cleanly resolved

  4. New domain for image analysis: VLSI circuits testing, with Romuald, specialized in parallel image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubat Du Merac, C; Jutier, P; Laurent, J; Courtois, B

    1983-07-01

    This paper describes some aspects of specifying, designing and evaluating a specialized machine, Romuald, for the capture, coding, and processing of video and scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures. First the authors present the functional organization of the process unit of romuald and its hardware, giving details of its behaviour. Then they study the capture and display unit which, thanks to its flexibility, enables SEM images coding. Finally, they describe an application which is now being developed in their laboratory: testing VLSI circuits with new methods: sem+voltage contrast and image processing. 15 references.

  5. FILTRES: a 128 channels VLSI mixed front-end readout electronic development for microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstotz, F.; Hu, Y.; Michel, J.; Sohler, J.L.; Lachartre, D.

    1998-01-01

    We present a VLSI digital-analog readout electronic chain for silicon microstrip detectors. The characteristics of this circuit have been optimized for the high resolution tracker of the CERN CMS experiment. This chip consists of 128 channels at 50 μm pitch. Each channel is composed by a charge amplifier, a CR-RC shaper, an analog memory, an analog processor, an output FIFO read out serially by a multiplexer. This chip has been processed in the radiation hard technology DMILL. This paper describes the architecture of the circuit and presents test results of the 128 channel full chain chip. (orig.)

  6. Techniques for Computing the DFT Using the Residue Fermat Number Systems and VLSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T. K.; Chang, J. J.; Hsu, I. S.; Pei, D. Y.; Reed, I. S.

    1985-01-01

    The integer complex multiplier and adder over the direct sum of two copies of a finite field is specialized to the direct sum of the rings of integers modulo Fermat numbers. Such multiplications and additions can be used in the implementation of a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of a sequence of complex numbers. The advantage of the present approach is that the number of multiplications needed for the DFT can be reduced substantially over the previous approach. The architectural designs using this approach are regular, simple, expandable and, therefore, naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  7. The CAD concept for stellarator-type magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyova, V.P.; Martynov, S.A.; Khazhmuradov, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the computer-aided design (CAD) concept for stellarator-type magnetic systems. Consideration is given to the main peculiarities, principles, and dialog organization and design stages of the CAD. The practical realization of the concept is illustrated by specific examples

  8. Teach CAD and Measuring Skills through Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a reverse engineering activity that gives students hands-on, minds-on experience with measuring tools, machine parts, and CAD. The author developed this activity to give students an abundance of practical experience with measuring tools. Equally important, it provides a good interface between the virtual world of CAD 3D…

  9. An Instructional Method for the AutoCAD Modeling Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, James L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a command organizer for AutoCAD to aid new uses in operating within the 3-D modeling environment. Addresses analyzing the problem, visualization skills, nonlinear tools, a static view of a dynamic model, the AutoCAD organizer, environment attributes, and control of the environment. Contains 11 references. (JRH)

  10. Multi-operation cryptographic engine: VLSI design and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selimis, George; Koufopavlou, Odysseas

    2005-01-01

    The environment of smart card lacks of system resources but the commercial and economic transactions via smart cards demand the use of certificated and secure cryptographic methods. In this paper a cryptographic approach in hardware for smart cards is proposed. The proposed system supports two basic operations of cryptography, authentication and encryption. The basic component of system is the one round of DES algorithm which supports the DES, Triple DES and the ANSI X9.17 standards. The proposed system is efficient in terms of area resources and techniques for low power consumption have applied. Due to the fact that the system is for smart card applications the overall throughput outperforms the typical smart card throughput standards

  11. Technology CAD for germanium CMOS circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, A.R. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)]. E-mail: ars.iitkgp@gmail.com; Maiti, C.K. [Department of Electronics and ECE, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302 (India)

    2006-12-15

    Process simulation for germanium MOSFETs (Ge-MOSFETs) has been performed in 2D SILVACO virtual wafer fabrication (VWF) suite towards the technology CAD for Ge-CMOS process development. Material parameters and mobility models for Germanium were incorporated in simulation via C-interpreter function. We also report on the device design issues along with the DC and RF characterization of the bulk Ge-MOSFETs, AC parameter extraction and circuit simulation of Ge-CMOS. Simulation results are compared with bulk-Si devices. Simulations predict a cut-off frequency, f {sub T} of about 175 GHz for Ge-MOSFETs compared to 70 GHz for a similar gate-length Si MOSFET. For a single stage Ge-CMOS inverter circuit, a GATE delay of 0.6 ns is predicted.

  12. Technology CAD for germanium CMOS circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.R.; Maiti, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    Process simulation for germanium MOSFETs (Ge-MOSFETs) has been performed in 2D SILVACO virtual wafer fabrication (VWF) suite towards the technology CAD for Ge-CMOS process development. Material parameters and mobility models for Germanium were incorporated in simulation via C-interpreter function. We also report on the device design issues along with the DC and RF characterization of the bulk Ge-MOSFETs, AC parameter extraction and circuit simulation of Ge-CMOS. Simulation results are compared with bulk-Si devices. Simulations predict a cut-off frequency, f T of about 175 GHz for Ge-MOSFETs compared to 70 GHz for a similar gate-length Si MOSFET. For a single stage Ge-CMOS inverter circuit, a GATE delay of 0.6 ns is predicted

  13. CAD-CAM printed circuit board design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agy, W. E.

    A step-by-step procedure for a printed circuit design achieved by CAD is presented. The operator at the interactive CRT station moves a stylus across a graphics tablet and intersperses commands which result in computer-generated pictorial forms on the screen that were drawn on the pad. Standard symbols are used for commands allowing, for instance, connections to be made of specific types in certain locations, which can be automatically edited from a materials list. An entire network of drawn lines can be referenced by a signal name for recall, and a finished circuit schematic can be checked for designs rules compliance, including fault reporting in terms of designator/pin number. A map may be present delineating the boundaries of the circuitry area, and previously completed circuitry segments can be recalled for piece-by-piece assembly of the circuit board.

  14. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy - possibilities of diagnosing CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsonevska, A.

    1998-01-01

    A reviewing the diagnostic methods used in the intricate process of evaluating CAD patients in a attempt to establish the role played by radionuclide methods in the diagnostic strategy is done. The perfusion cardiotropic radiopharmaceuticals used and the various methods of evaluating myocardial are discussed. Although 210 Tl-chloride is the most widely used myocardial perfusion agent, recently 99m Tc-MIBI is proposed as an alternative because of its advantages. Myocardial perfusion assessment is done by various techniques depending on the specific aim, each of them having its proper advantages and shortcomings. The inference is reached that regardless of the routine practical implementation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and comprehensive studies along this line in course, there are problems still not well enough clarified awaiting solution

  15. Potential benefits of a CAD package for designing multivariable control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.

    1983-01-01

    An open-ended CAD package, MVPACK, has been developed and implemented on a PDP-11/45 minicomputer at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. The package is fully interactive, and includes a comprehensive state-of-the-art methematical library to support development of complex multi-variable control algorithms. Coded in RATFOR, MVPACK operates with a flexible data structure which makes efficient use of minicomputer resources and provides a standard framework for program generation. The existence of a help mechanism enhances the simplicity of package utilization. The capability of the package as a tool for designing control systems is illustrated with the design of a regulating system for an evaporator

  16. A multichip aVLSI system emulating orientation selectivity of primary visual cortical cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonomura, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we designed and fabricated a multichip neuromorphic analog very large scale integrated (aVLSI) system, which emulates the orientation selective response of the simple cell in the primary visual cortex. The system consists of a silicon retina and an orientation chip. An image, which is filtered by a concentric center-surround (CS) antagonistic receptive field of the silicon retina, is transferred to the orientation chip. The image transfer from the silicon retina to the orientation chip is carried out with analog signals. The orientation chip selectively aggregates multiple pixels of the silicon retina, mimicking the feedforward model proposed by Hubel and Wiesel. The chip provides the orientation-selective (OS) outputs which are tuned to 0 degrees, 60 degrees, and 120 degrees. The feed-forward aggregation reduces the fixed pattern noise that is due to the mismatch of the transistors in the orientation chip. The spatial properties of the orientation selective response were examined in terms of the adjustable parameters of the chip, i.e., the number of aggregated pixels and size of the receptive field of the silicon retina. The multichip aVLSI architecture used in the present study can be applied to implement higher order cells such as the complex cell of the primary visual cortex.

  17. An engineering methodology for implementing and testing VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated) circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Walter F., II

    1989-03-01

    The engineering methodology for producing a fully tested VLSI chip from a design layout is presented. A 16-bit correlator, NPS CORN88, that was previously designed, was used as a vehicle to demonstrate this methodology. The study of the design and simulation tools, MAGIC and MOSSIM II, was the focus of the design and validation process. The design was then implemented and the chip was fabricated by MOSIS. This fabricated chip was then used to develop a testing methodology for using the digital test facilities at NPS. NPS CORN88 was the first full custom VLSI chip, designed at NPS, to be tested with the NPS digital analysis system, Tektronix DAS 9100 series tester. The capabilities and limitations of these test facilities are examined. NPS CORN88 test results are included to demonstrate the capabilities of the digital test system. A translator, MOS2DAS, was developed to convert the MOSSIM II simulation program to the input files required by the DAS 9100 device verification software, 91DVS. Finally, a tutorial for using the digital test facilities, including the DAS 9100 and associated support equipments, is included as an appendix.

  18. VLSI architecture of a K-best detector for MIMO-OFDM wireless communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Haifang; Shi Yin

    2009-01-01

    The K-best detector is considered as a promising technique in the MIMO-OFDM detection because of its good performance and low complexity. In this paper, a new K-best VLSI architecture is presented. In the proposed architecture, the metric computation units (MCUs) expand each surviving path only to its partial branches, based on the novel expansion scheme, which can predetermine the branches' ascending order by their local distances. Then a distributed sorter sorts out the new K surviving paths from the expanded branches in pipelines. Compared to the conventional K-best scheme, the proposed architecture can approximately reduce fundamental operations by 50% and 75% for the 16-QAM and the 64-QAM cases, respectively, and, consequently, lower the demand on the hardware resource significantly. Simulation results prove that the proposed architecture can achieve a performance very similar to conventional K-best detectors. Hence, it is an efficient solution to the K-best detector's VLSI implementation for high-throughput MIMO-OFDM systems.

  19. VLSI architecture of a K-best detector for MIMO-OFDM wireless communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Haifang; Shi Yin, E-mail: jhf@semi.ac.c [Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-07-15

    The K-best detector is considered as a promising technique in the MIMO-OFDM detection because of its good performance and low complexity. In this paper, a new K-best VLSI architecture is presented. In the proposed architecture, the metric computation units (MCUs) expand each surviving path only to its partial branches, based on the novel expansion scheme, which can predetermine the branches' ascending order by their local distances. Then a distributed sorter sorts out the new K surviving paths from the expanded branches in pipelines. Compared to the conventional K-best scheme, the proposed architecture can approximately reduce fundamental operations by 50% and 75% for the 16-QAM and the 64-QAM cases, respectively, and, consequently, lower the demand on the hardware resource significantly. Simulation results prove that the proposed architecture can achieve a performance very similar to conventional K-best detectors. Hence, it is an efficient solution to the K-best detector's VLSI implementation for high-throughput MIMO-OFDM systems.

  20. Built-in self-repair of VLSI memories employing neural nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Pinaki

    1998-10-01

    The decades of the Eighties and the Nineties have witnessed the spectacular growth of VLSI technology, when the chip size has increased from a few hundred devices to a staggering multi-millon transistors. This trend is expected to continue as the CMOS feature size progresses towards the nanometric dimension of 100 nm and less. SIA roadmap projects that, where as the DRAM chips will integrate over 20 billion devices in the next millennium, the future microprocessors may incorporate over 100 million transistors on a single chip. As the VLSI chip size increase, the limited accessibility of circuit components poses great difficulty for external diagnosis and replacement in the presence of faulty components. For this reason, extensive work has been done in built-in self-test techniques, but little research is known concerning built-in self-repair. Moreover, the extra hardware introduced by conventional fault-tolerance techniques is also likely to become faulty, therefore causing the circuit to be useless. This research demonstrates the feasibility of implementing electronic neural networks as intelligent hardware for memory array repair. Most importantly, we show that the neural network control possesses a robust and degradable computing capability under various fault conditions. Overall, a yield analysis performed on 64K DRAM's shows that the yield can be improved from as low as 20 percent to near 99 percent due to the self-repair design, with overhead no more than 7 percent.

  1. Automated CD-SEM recipe creation technology for mass production using CAD data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Masamichi; Tanaka, Masashi; Ido, Sanyu; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Naokaka; Abe, Yuichi; Nagatomo, Wataru

    2011-03-01

    Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM) recipe creation needs sample preparation necessary for matching pattern registration, and recipe creation on CD-SEM using the sample, which hinders the reduction in test production cost and time in semiconductor manufacturing factories. From the perspective of cost reduction and improvement of the test production efficiency, automated CD-SEM recipe creation without the sample preparation and the manual operation has been important in the production lines. For the automated CD-SEM recipe creation, we have introduced RecipeDirector (RD) that enables the recipe creation by using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data and text data that includes measurement information. We have developed a system that automatically creates the CAD data and the text data necessary for the recipe creation on RD; and, for the elimination of the manual operation, we have enhanced RD so that all measurement information can be specified in the text data. As a result, we have established an automated CD-SEM recipe creation system without the sample preparation and the manual operation. For the introduction of the CD-SEM recipe creation system using RD to the production lines, the accuracy of the pattern matching was an issue. The shape of design templates for the matching created from the CAD data was different from that of SEM images in vision. Thus, a development of robust pattern matching algorithm that considers the shape difference was needed. The addition of image processing of the templates for the matching and shape processing of the CAD patterns in the lower layer has enabled the robust pattern matching. This paper describes the automated CD-SEM recipe creation technology for the production lines without the sample preparation and the manual operation using RD applied in Sony Semiconductor Kyusyu Corporation Kumamoto Technology Center (SCK Corporation Kumamoto TEC).

  2. Improving performance of breast cancer risk prediction using a new CAD-based region segmentation scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Morteza; Zargari Khuzani, Abolfazl; Danala, Gopichandh; Qiu, Yuchen; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Objective of this study is to develop and test a new computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme with improved region of interest (ROI) segmentation combined with an image feature extraction framework to improve performance in predicting short-term breast cancer risk. A dataset involving 570 sets of "prior" negative mammography screening cases was retrospectively assembled. In the next sequential "current" screening, 285 cases were positive and 285 cases remained negative. A CAD scheme was applied to all 570 "prior" negative images to stratify cases into the high and low risk case group of having cancer detected in the "current" screening. First, a new ROI segmentation algorithm was used to automatically remove useless area of mammograms. Second, from the matched bilateral craniocaudal view images, a set of 43 image features related to frequency characteristics of ROIs were initially computed from the discrete cosine transform and spatial domain of the images. Third, a support vector machine model based machine learning classifier was used to optimally classify the selected optimal image features to build a CAD-based risk prediction model. The classifier was trained using a leave-one-case-out based cross-validation method. Applying this improved CAD scheme to the testing dataset, an area under ROC curve, AUC = 0.70+/-0.04, which was significantly higher than using the extracting features directly from the dataset without the improved ROI segmentation step (AUC = 0.63+/-0.04). This study demonstrated that the proposed approach could improve accuracy on predicting short-term breast cancer risk, which may play an important role in helping eventually establish an optimal personalized breast cancer paradigm.

  3. On the impact of communication complexity in the design of parallel numerical algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, D.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes two models of the cost of data movement in parallel numerical algorithms. One model is a generalization of an approach due to Hockney, and is suitable for shared memory multiprocessors where each processor has vector capabilities. The other model is applicable to highly parallel nonshared memory MIMD systems. In the second model, algorithm performance is characterized in terms of the communication network design. Techniques used in VLSI complexity theory are also brought in, and algorithm independent upper bounds on system performance are derived for several problems that are important to scientific computation.

  4. CAD-centric Computation Management System for a Virtual TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakanth Munipalli; K.Y. Szema; P.Y. Huang; C.M. Rowell; A.Ying; M. Abdou

    2011-05-03

    HyPerComp Inc. in research collaboration with TEXCEL has set out to build a Virtual Test Blanket Module (VTBM) computational system to address the need in contemporary fusion research for simulating the integrated behavior of the blanket, divertor and plasma facing components in a fusion environment. Physical phenomena to be considered in a VTBM will include fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, neutronics, structural mechanics and electromagnetics. We seek to integrate well established (third-party) simulation software in various disciplines mentioned above. The integrated modeling process will enable user groups to interoperate using a common modeling platform at various stages of the analysis. Since CAD is at the core of the simulation (as opposed to computational meshes which are different for each problem,) VTBM will have a well developed CAD interface, governing CAD model editing, cleanup, parameter extraction, model deformation (based on simulation,) CAD-based data interpolation. In Phase-I, we built the CAD-hub of the proposed VTBM and demonstrated its use in modeling a liquid breeder blanket module with coupled MHD and structural mechanics using HIMAG and ANSYS. A complete graphical user interface of the VTBM was created, which will form the foundation of any future development. Conservative data interpolation via CAD (as opposed to mesh-based transfer), the regeneration of CAD models based upon computed deflections, are among the other highlights of phase-I activity.

  5. A novel sorting algorithm and its application to a gamma-ray telescope asynchronous data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, A.; Capello, G.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel parallel sorting algorithm, which works through a cascade of elementary sorting units and leads to a scalable architecture. The algorithm's complexity is analyzed and compared with a classical parallel algorithm. It comes out that, although it may be less efficient than classical approaches, the proposed algorithm is highly suited for VLSI implementation for its simplicity and scalability. The paper describes the applications of such device to the asynchronous data acquisition for a gamma-ray telescope. (orig.)

  6. Engineering drawing from first principles using AutoCAD

    CERN Document Server

    Maguire, Dennis E

    1998-01-01

    Engineering Drawing From First Principles is a guide to good draughting for students of engineering who need to learn how to produce technically accurate and detailed designs to British and International Standards. Written by Dennis Maguire, an experienced author and City and Guilds chief examiner, this text is designed for use on Further Education and University courses where a basic understanding of draughtsmanship and CAD is necessary. Although not written as an AutoCAD tutor, the book will be a useful introduction to good CAD practice.Part of the Revision and Self-Assessmen

  7. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and layout

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2011-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need a quick tutorial on how to use the software and who need in-depth knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of the software package. There are two goals the book aims to reach:The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Layout. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Layout is used to design the circuit board so that

  8. A Virtual CAD Model of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chemli, S; Messerli, R; Muttoni, Y; Prin, H; Van Uytvinck, E

    2000-01-01

    Integrating the large and complex LHC machine into the existing LEP tunnel is a major challenge. Space was not really a problem to fit the LEP machine into its tunnel, but LHC cryostats are much larger than the LEP quadrupoles and the external cryogenic line fills even more the tunnel. Space problems lead to small clearances. Possible conflicts, or at least the most penalising ones, between installed equipment or with transport, must be solved beforehand in order to avoid unacceptable delays and extra costs during the installation. Experience gained with LEP has already shown the help that Computer-Aided Engineering tools could provide for the integration. A virtual model of the LHC is presently prepared. The actual LEP tunnel, known with a quite good accuracy (centimetre level), has been modelled and all the elements of the machine constructed as 3D objects with the CAD system are positioned accurately on the basis of data generated from the theoretical definition. These layouts are used to generate the refe...

  9. Anniversary Paper: History and status of CAD and quantitative image analysis: The role of Medical Physics and AAPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, Maryellen L.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Boone, John

    2008-01-01

    The roles of physicists in medical imaging have expanded over the years, from the study of imaging systems (sources and detectors) and dose to the assessment of image quality and perception, the development of image processing techniques, and the development of image analysis methods to assist in detection and diagnosis. The latter is a natural extension of medical physicists' goals in developing imaging techniques to help physicians acquire diagnostic information and improve clinical decisions. Studies indicate that radiologists do not detect all abnormalities on images that are visible on retrospective review, and they do not always correctly characterize abnormalities that are found. Since the 1950s, the potential use of computers had been considered for analysis of radiographic abnormalities. In the mid-1980s, however, medical physicists and radiologists began major research efforts for computer-aided detection or computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), that is, using the computer output as an aid to radiologists--as opposed to a completely automatic computer interpretation--focusing initially on methods for the detection of lesions on chest radiographs and mammograms. Since then, extensive investigations of computerized image analysis for detection or diagnosis of abnormalities in a variety of 2D and 3D medical images have been conducted. The growth of CAD over the past 20 years has been tremendous--from the early days of time-consuming film digitization and CPU-intensive computations on a limited number of cases to its current status in which developed CAD approaches are evaluated rigorously on large clinically relevant databases. CAD research by medical physicists includes many aspects--collecting relevant normal and pathological cases; developing computer algorithms appropriate for the medical interpretation task including those for segmentation, feature extraction, and classifier design; developing methodology for assessing CAD performance; validating the

  10. Systolic array processing of the sequential decoding algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. Y.; Yao, K.

    1989-01-01

    A systolic array processing technique is applied to implementing the stack algorithm form of the sequential decoding algorithm. It is shown that sorting, a key function in the stack algorithm, can be efficiently realized by a special type of systolic arrays known as systolic priority queues. Compared to the stack-bucket algorithm, this approach is shown to have the advantages that the decoding always moves along the optimal path, that it has a fast and constant decoding speed and that its simple and regular hardware architecture is suitable for VLSI implementation. Three types of systolic priority queues are discussed: random access scheme, shift register scheme and ripple register scheme. The property of the entries stored in the systolic priority queue is also investigated. The results are applicable to many other basic sorting type problems.

  11. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  12. Harmonizing interoperability - Emergent Serious Gaming in Playful Stochastic CAD Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosmadoudi, Z.; Lim, T.; Ritchie, J.M.; Liu, Y.; Sung, R.; Hauge, J.B.; Garbaya, S.; Wendrich, Robert E.; Stanescu, I.A.; De Gloria, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Computer-Aided Design (CAD) applications often promote memorable experiences for the wrong reasons. Coupled with complex functionality and poor user experience the learning curve is often steep and overwhelming. Invoking design creativity remains limited to conveying established geometry. Gameplay

  13. Geometric data transfer between CAD systems: solid models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroszynski, Uri; Palstroem, Bjarne; Trostmann, Erik

    1989-01-01

    The first phase of the ESPRIT project CAD*I resulted in a specification for the exchange of solid models as well as in some pilot implementations of processors based on this specification. The authors summarize the CAD*I approach, addressing the structure of neutral files for solids, entities......, and attributes supporting three kinds of representations: facilities for the transfer of parametric designs; referencing library components; and other general mechanisms. They also describe the current state of the specification and processor implementations and include an example of a CAD*I neutral file....... Results from cycle and intersystem solid model transfer tests are presented, showing the practicality of the CAD*I proposal. B-rep model transfer results are discussed in some detail. The relationship of this work to standardization efforts is outlined...

  14. Resin-composite blocks for dental CAD/CAM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, N D; Sadoun, M J

    2014-12-01

    Advances in digital impression technology and manufacturing processes have led to a dramatic paradigm shift in dentistry and to the widespread use of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in the fabrication of indirect dental restorations. Research and development in materials suitable for CAD/CAM applications are currently the most active field in dental materials. Two classes of materials are used in the production of CAD/CAM restorations: glass-ceramics/ceramics and resin composites. While glass-ceramics/ceramics have overall superior mechanical and esthetic properties, resin-composite materials may offer significant advantages related to their machinability and intra-oral reparability. This review summarizes recent developments in resin-composite materials for CAD/CAM applications, focusing on both commercial and experimental materials. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  15. CAD-CAE in Electrical Machines and Drives Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmans, R.; Geysen, W.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of computer-aided design (CAD) techniques in teaching the design of electrical motors. Approaches described include three technical viewpoints, such as electromagnetics, thermal, and mechanical aspects. Provides three diagrams, a table, and conclusions. (YP)

  16. Scheduling of Iterative Algorithms with Matrix Operations for Efficient FPGA Design—Implementation of Finite Interval Constant Modulus Algorithm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šůcha, P.; Hanzálek, Z.; Heřmánek, Antonín; Schier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2007), s. 35-53 ISSN 0922-5773 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET300750402; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567; GA MPO(CZ) FD-K3/082 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : high-level synthesis * cyclic scheduling * iterative algorithms * imperfectly nested loops * integer linear programming * FPGA * VLSI design * blind equalization * implementation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.449, year: 2007 http://www.springerlink.com/content/t217kg0822538014/fulltext.pdf

  17. Structured reporting platform improves CAD-RADS assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilveszter, Bálint; Kolossváry, Márton; Karády, Júlia; Jermendy, Ádám L; Károlyi, Mihály; Panajotu, Alexisz; Bagyura, Zsolt; Vecsey-Nagy, Milán; Cury, Ricardo C; Leipsic, Jonathon A; Merkely, Béla; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2017-11-01

    Structured reporting in cardiac imaging is strongly encouraged to improve quality through consistency. The Coronary Artery Disease - Reporting and Data System (CAD-RADS) was recently introduced to facilitate interdisciplinary communication of coronary CT angiography (CTA) results. We aimed to assess the agreement between manual and automated CAD-RADS classification using a structured reporting platform. Five readers prospectively interpreted 500 coronary CT angiographies using a structured reporting platform that automatically calculates the CAD-RADS score based on stenosis and plaque parameters manually entered by the reader. In addition, all readers manually assessed CAD-RADS blinded to the automatically derived results, which was used as the reference standard. We evaluated factors influencing reader performance including CAD-RADS training, clinical load, time of the day and level of expertise. Total agreement between manual and automated classification was 80.2%. Agreement in stenosis categories was 86.7%, whereas the agreement in modifiers was 95.8% for "N", 96.8% for "S", 95.6% for "V" and 99.4% for "G". Agreement for V improved after CAD-RADS training (p = 0.047). Time of the day and clinical load did not influence reader performance (p > 0.05 both). Less experienced readers had a higher total agreement as compared to more experienced readers (87.0% vs 78.0%, respectively; p = 0.011). Even though automated CAD-RADS classification uses data filled in by the readers, it outperforms manual classification by preventing human errors. Structured reporting platforms with automated calculation of the CAD-RADS score might improve data quality and support standardization of clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Trends in CAD education in interior design programs

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Hye Mi

    1990-01-01

    This research investigated Computer Aided Design (CAD) education in the interior design. program focusing on educators' opinions about creativity aspects including computer application, teaching materials and teaching methods as well as other trends in CAD education. A questionnaire was sent to one hundred eighty-two members of the Interior Design Educators Council (IDEC). A frequency distribution was used on 69 usable returned surveys to describe the sample characteristi...

  19. Trend and application of CAD/CAM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Man Ok

    1984-09-01

    This report is about trend and application of CAD/CAM system, giving descriptions of computer aided design which helps construction, engineering and drafting tasks. It also tells of computer aided manufacturing related general design of manufactures, which includes process design, production management, decision of work technology, processing. The need and application of CAD/CAM system is increasing more and more for industry each area.

  20. Incorporation of CAD/CAM Restoration Into Navy Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    CAD/CAM Computer-aided design /Computer-assisted manufacturing CDT Common Dental Terminology DENCAS Dental Common Access System DTF Dental...to reduce avoidable dental emergencies for deployed sailors and marines. Dental Computer-aided design /Computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM...this time by allowing for rapid scanning, designing , development, and production of dental restorations. Using this technology gives dentists the

  1. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: Flexural strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Mevec, Daniel; Harrer, Walter; Lube, Tanja; Danzer, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Strength is one of the preferred parameters used in dentistry for determining clinical indication of dental restoratives. However, small dimensions of CAD/CAM blocks limit reliable measurements with standardized uniaxial bending tests. The objective of this study was to introduce the ball-on-three-ball (B3B) biaxial strength test for dental for small CAD/CAM block in the context of the size effect on strength predicted by the Weibull theory. Eight representative chairside CAD/CAM materials ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Specimens were prepared with highly polished surfaces in rectangular plate (12×12×1.2mm 3 ) or round disc (Ø=12mm, thickness=1.2mm) geometries. Specimens were tested using the B3B assembly and the biaxial strength was determined using calculations derived from finite element analyses of the respective stress fields. Size effects on strength were determined based on results from 4-point-bending specimens. A good agreement was found between the biaxial strength results for the different geometries (plates vs. discs) using the B3B test. Strength values ranged from 110.9MPa (Vitablocs Mark II) to 1303.21MPa (e.max ZirCAD). The strength dependency on specimen size was demonstrated through the calculated effective volume/surface. The B3B test has shown to be a reliable and simple method for determining the biaxial strength restorative materials supplied as small CAD/CAM blocks. A flexible solution was made available for the B3B test in the rectangular plate geometry. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Refining a brief decision aid in stable CAD: cognitive interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly-Blake, Karen; Clark, Stacie; Dontje, Katherine; Olomu, Adesuwa; Henry, Rebecca C; Rovner, David R; Rothert, Marilyn L; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the “Making Choices©” Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the “think aloud” interview techniq...

  3. The MAGIC-5 CAD for nodule detection in low dose and thin slice lung CTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerello, Piergiorgio

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in developed countries. Only 10-15% of all men and women diagnosed with lung cancer live 5 years after the diagnosis. However, the 5-year survival rate for patients diagnosed in the early asymptomatic stage of the disease can reach 70%. Early-stage lung cancers can be diagnosed by detecting non-calcified small pulmonary nodules with computed tomography (CT). Computer-aided detection (CAD) could support radiologists in the analysis of the large amount of noisy images generated in screening programs, where low-dose and thin-slice settings are used. The MAGIC-5 project, funded by the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN, Italy) and Ministero dell'Universita e della Ricerca (MUR, Italy), developed a multi-method approach based on three CAD algorithms to be used in parallel with a merging of their results: the Channeler Ant Model (CAM), based on Virtual Ant Colonies, the Dot-Enhancement/Pleura Surface Normals/VBNA (DE-PSN-VBNA), and the Region Growing Volume Plateau (RGVP). Preliminary results show quite good performances, to be improved with the refining of the single algorithm and the added value of the results merging.

  4. Customizing CAD system and its application for engineering design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Ho; Kwak, Byung Man

    2003-01-01

    The computer is an important tool to design an engineering system and CAD systems are widely used for various design practice. To meet the market requirements, the old mass production system is being changed into the mass customization system. As for CAD systems, it is increasingly required to extend, automate, and customize a wide range of functionality. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the principal technologies for customizing CAD systems. And we have implemented an application that enables the parametric design by directly inputting numerical values of parameters for a CAD model. Based on this application, we have developed another system that makes it possible sharing of part family data between SolidEdge and Pro/Engineer. Through customization of CAD systems, it is possible to improve the product quality using external knowledge-based systems or to integrate with external system such as CAE tools. This paper can be a guide for engineering designers who want to customize CAD systems

  5. Front panel engineering with CAD simulation tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, Jacques; Ungar, Serge; Mathieu, Gilles; Hasna, Guenther; Martinez, Pascal; Roche, Jean-Christophe

    1999-04-01

    THe progress made recently in display technology covers many fields of application. The specification of radiance, colorimetry and lighting efficiency creates some new challenges for designers. Photometric design is limited by the capability of correctly predicting the result of a lighting system, to save on the costs and time taken to build multiple prototypes or bread board benches. The second step of the research carried out by company OPTIS is to propose an optimization method to be applied to the lighting system, developed in the software SPEOS. The main features of the tool requires include the CAD interface, to enable fast and efficient transfer between mechanical and light design software, the source modeling, the light transfer model and an optimization tool. The CAD interface is mainly a prototype of transfer, which is not the subjects here. Photometric simulation is efficiently achieved by using the measured source encoding and a simulation by the Monte Carlo method. Today, the advantages and the limitations of the Monte Carlo method are well known. The noise reduction requires a long calculation time, which increases with the complexity of the display panel. A successful optimization is difficult to achieve, due to the long calculation time required for each optimization pass including a Monte Carlo simulation. The problem was initially defined as an engineering method of study. The experience shows that good understanding and mastering of the phenomenon of light transfer is limited by the complexity of non sequential propagation. The engineer must call for the help of a simulation and optimization tool. The main point needed to be able to perform an efficient optimization is a quick method for simulating light transfer. Much work has been done in this area and some interesting results can be observed. It must be said that the Monte Carlo method wastes time calculating some results and information which are not required for the needs of the simulation

  6. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD gene family in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.: Insight from expression profiling of cads induced by elicitors in cultured flax cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eom Hee Seung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin and lignans as it catalyzes the final step of monolignol biosynthesis, using NADPH as a cofactor. In higher plants, CAD is encoded by a multigene family consisting of three major classes. Based on the recently released flax (Linum usitatissimum L. whole-genome sequences, in this study we identified six CAD family genes that contain an ADH_N domain and an ADH_zinc_N domain, which suggests that the putative flax CADs (LuCADs are zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases and members of the plant CAD family. In addition, expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR revealed spatial variations in the expression of LuCADs in different organs. Comparative analysis between LuCAD enzymatic activity and LuCAD transcripts indicates that the variation of LuCAD enzymatic activities by elicitors is reflected by transcription of LuCADs in flax suspension-cultured cells. Taken together, our genome-wide analysis of CAD genes and the expression profiling of these genes provide valuable information for understanding the function of CADs, and will assist future studies on the physiological role of monolignols associated with plant defense.

  7. An SEU analysis approach for error propagation in digital VLSI CMOS ASICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baze, M.P.; Bartholet, W.G.; Dao, T.A.; Buchner, S.

    1995-01-01

    A critical issue in the development of ASIC designs is the ability to achieve first pass fabrication success. Unsuccessful fabrication runs have serious impact on ASIC costs and schedules. The ability to predict an ASICs radiation response prior to fabrication is therefore a key issue when designing ASICs for military and aerospace systems. This paper describes an analysis approach for calculating static bit error propagation in synchronous VLSI CMOS circuits developed as an aid for predicting the SEU response of ASIC's. The technique is intended for eventual application as an ASIC development simulation tool which can be used by circuit design engineers for performance evaluation during the pre-fabrication design process in much the same way that logic and timing simulators are used

  8. Operation of a Fast-RICH Prototype with VLSI readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyonnet, J.L. (CRN, IN2P3-CNRS / Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Arnold, R. (CRN, IN2P3-CNRS / Louis Pasteur Univ., Strasbourg (France)); Jobez, J.P. (Coll. de France, 75 - Paris (France)); Seguinot, J. (Coll. de France, 75 - Paris (France)); Ypsilantis, T. (Coll. de France, 75 - Paris (France)); Chesi, E. (CERN / ECP Div., Geneve (Switzerland)); Racz, A. (CERN / ECP Div., Geneve (Switzerland)); Egger, J. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)); Gabathuler, K. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)); Joram, C. (Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany)); Adachi, I. (KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)); Enomoto, R. (KEK, Tsukuba (Japan)); Sumiyoshi, T. (KEK, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the first test results, obtained with cosmic rays, of a full-scale Fast-RICH Prototype with proximity-focused 10 mm thick LiF (CaF[sub 2]) solid radiators, TEA as photosensor in CH[sub 4], and readout of 12 x 10[sup 3] cathode pads (5.334 x 6.604 mm[sup 2]) using dedicated VLSI electronics we have developed. The number of detected photoelectrons is 7.7 (6.9) for the CaF[sub 2] (LiF) radiator, very near to the expected values 6.4 (7.5) from Monte Carlo simulations. The single-photon Cherenkov angle resolution [sigma][sub [theta

  9. Analog VLSI Models of Range-Tuned Neurons in the Bat Echolocation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horiuchi Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat echolocation is a fascinating topic of research for both neuroscientists and engineers, due to the complex and extremely time-constrained nature of the problem and its potential for application to engineered systems. In the bat's brainstem and midbrain exist neural circuits that are sensitive to the specific difference in time between the outgoing sonar vocalization and the returning echo. While some of the details of the neural mechanisms are known to be species-specific, a basic model of reafference-triggered, postinhibitory rebound timing is reasonably well supported by available data. We have designed low-power, analog VLSI circuits to mimic this mechanism and have demonstrated range-dependent outputs for use in a real-time sonar system. These circuits are being used to implement range-dependent vocalization amplitude, vocalization rate, and closest target isolation.

  10. Radiation hardness tests with a demonstrator preamplifier circuit manufactured in silicon on sapphire (SOS) VLSI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingefors, N.; Ekeloef, T.; Eriksson, C.; Paulsson, M.; Moerk, G.; Sjoelund, A.

    1992-01-01

    Samples of the preamplifier circuit, as well as of separate n and p channel transistors of the type contained in the circuit, were irradiated with gammas from a 60 Co source up to an integrated dose of 3 Mrad (30 kGy). The VLSI manufacturing technology used is the SOS4 process of ABB Hafo. A first analysis of the tests shows that the performance of the amplifier remains practically unaffected by the radiation for total doses up to 1 Mrad. At higher doses up to 3 Mrad the circuit amplification factor decreases by a factor between 4 and 5 whereas the output noise level remains unchanged. It is argued that it may be possible to reduce the decrease in amplification factor in future by optimizing the amplifier circuit design further. (orig.)

  11. Real time track finding in a drift chamber with a VLSI neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.; Johns, K.

    1992-01-01

    In a test setup, a hardware neural network determined track parameters of charged particles traversing a drift chamber. Voltages proportional to the drift times in 6 cells of the 3-layer chamber were inputs to the Intel ETANN neural network chip which had been trained to give the slope and intercept of tracks. We compare network track parameters to those obtained from off-line track fits. To our knowledge this is the first on-line application of a VLSI neural network to a high energy physics detector. This test explored the potential of the chip and the practical problems of using it in a real world setting. We compare the chip performance to a neural network simulation on a conventional computer. We discuss possible applications of the chip in high energy physics detector triggers. (orig.)

  12. A parallel VLSI architecture for a digital filter of arbitrary length using Fermat number transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, T. K.; Reed, I. S.; Yeh, C. S.; Shao, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    A parallel architecture for computation of the linear convolution of two sequences of arbitrary lengths using the Fermat number transform (FNT) is described. In particular a pipeline structure is designed to compute a 128-point FNT. In this FNT, only additions and bit rotations are required. A standard barrel shifter circuit is modified so that it performs the required bit rotation operation. The overlap-save method is generalized for the FNT to compute a linear convolution of arbitrary length. A parallel architecture is developed to realize this type of overlap-save method using one FNT and several inverse FNTs of 128 points. The generalized overlap save method alleviates the usual dynamic range limitation in FNTs of long transform lengths. Its architecture is regular, simple, and expandable, and therefore naturally suitable for VLSI implementation.

  13. XML-based assembly visualization for a multi-CAD digital mock-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Ho; Chung, Sung Chong

    2007-01-01

    Using a virtual assembly tool, engineers are able to design accurate and interference free parts without making physical mock-ups. Instead of a single CAD source, several CAD systems are used to design a complex product in a distributed design environment. In this paper, a multi-CAD assembly method is proposed through an XML and the lightweight CAD file. XML data contains a hierarchy of the multi-CAD assembly. The lightweight CAD file produced from various CAD files through the ACIS kemel and InterOp includes not only mesh and B-Rep data, but also topological data. It is used to visualize CAD data and to verify dimensions of the parts. The developed system is executed on desktop computers. It does not require commercial CAD systems to visualize 3D assembly data. Multi-CAD models have been assembled to verify the effectiveness of the developed DMU system on the Internet

  14. CAD/CAM produces dentures with improved fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmassl, Otto; Dumfahrt, Herbert; Grunert, Ingrid; Steinmassl, Patricia-Anca

    2018-02-22

    Resin polymerisation shrinkage reduces the congruence of the denture base with denture-bearing tissues and thereby decreases the retention of conventionally fabricated dentures. CAD/CAM denture manufacturing is a subtractive process, and polymerisation shrinkage is not an issue anymore. Therefore, CAD/CAM dentures are assumed to show a higher denture base congruence than conventionally fabricated dentures. It has been the aim of this study to test this hypothesis. CAD/CAM dentures provided by four different manufacturers (AvaDent, Merz Dental, Whole You, Wieland/Ivoclar) were generated from ten different master casts. Ten conventional dentures (pack and press, long-term heat polymerisation) made from the same master casts served as control group. The master casts and all denture bases were scanned and matched digitally. The absolute incongruences were measured using a 2-mm mesh. Conventionally fabricated dentures showed a mean deviation of 0.105 mm, SD = 0.019 from the master cast. All CAD/CAM dentures showed lower mean incongruences. From all CAD/CAM dentures, AvaDent Digital Dentures showed the highest congruence with the master cast surface with a mean deviation of 0.058 mm, SD = 0.005. Wieland Digital Dentures showed a mean deviation of 0.068 mm, SD = 0.005, Whole You Nexteeth prostheses showed a mean deviation of 0.074 mm, SD = 0.011 and Baltic Denture System prostheses showed a mean deviation of 0.086 mm, SD = 0.012. CAD/CAM produces dentures with better fit than conventional dentures. The present study explains the clinically observed enhanced retention and lower traumatic ulcer-frequency in CAD/CAM dentures.

  15. [Tailored cranioplasty using CAD-CAM technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanovics, Dusán; Major, Ottó; Lovas, László; Banczerowski, Péter

    2014-11-30

    cranioplasty. Combined with 3D CAD- CAM method excellent aesthetic and functional result was achieved. In our study no case of infection occured. Proper preoperative preparation is important.

  16. VLSI Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Interpretation of IMMEDIATE fields of instructions (except ldhi ): W (c) (d) (e) sssssssssssss s imml9 sssssssssssssssssss...s imml3 Destination REGISTER of a LDHI instruction: imml9 0000000000000 Data in REGISTERS when operated upon: 32-bit quantity...Oll x l OOOO OOOl calli sll OOlO getpsw sra xxzOOll getlpc srl OlOO putpsw ldhi OlOl and zzzOllO or ldxw stxw Olll xor

  17. Feasibility of an automatic computer-assisted algorithm for the detection of significant coronary artery disease in patients presenting with acute chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki-Woon; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Shim, Hackjoon; Kim, Young-Jin; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Yang, Woo-In; Shim, Jee-Young; Ha, Jongwon; Chung, Namsik

    2012-01-01

    Automatic computer-assisted detection (auto-CAD) of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) in coronary computed tomography angiography (cCTA) has been shown to have relatively high accuracy. However, to date, scarce data are available regarding the performance of auto-CAD in the setting of acute chest pain. This study sought to demonstrate the feasibility of an auto-CAD algorithm for cCTA in patients presenting with acute chest pain. We retrospectively investigated 398 consecutive patients (229 male, mean age 50 ± 21 years) who had acute chest pain and underwent cCTA between Apr 2007 and Jan 2011 in the emergency department (ED). All cCTA data were analyzed using an auto-CAD algorithm for the detection of >50% CAD on cCTA. The accuracy of auto-CAD was compared with the formal radiology report. In 380 of 398 patients (18 were excluded due to failure of data processing), per-patient analysis of auto-CAD revealed the following: sensitivity 94%, specificity 63%, positive predictive value (PPV) 76%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 89%. After the exclusion of 37 cases that were interpreted as invalid by the auto-CAD algorithm, the NPV was further increased up to 97%, considering the false-negative cases in the formal radiology report, and was confirmed by subsequent invasive angiogram during the index visit. We successfully demonstrated the high accuracy of an auto-CAD algorithm, compared with the formal radiology report, for the detection of >50% CAD on cCTA in the setting of acute chest pain. The auto-CAD algorithm can be used to facilitate the decision-making process in the ED.

  18. A new VLSI complex integer multiplier which uses a quadratic-polynomial residue system with Fermat numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, H. C.; Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Chang, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    A quadratic-polynomial Fermat residue number system (QFNS) has been used to compute complex integer multiplications. The advantage of such a QFNS is that a complex integer multiplication requires only two integer multiplications. In this article, a new type Fermat number multiplier is developed which eliminates the initialization condition of the previous method. It is shown that the new complex multiplier can be implemented on a single VLSI chip. Such a chip is designed and fabricated in CMOS-Pw technology.

  19. Performance and value of CAD-deficient pine- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailian Li; Houmin Chang; Hasan Jameel

    2007-02-28

    The southern US produces 58% of the nation's timber, much of it grown in intensively managed plantations of genetically improved loblolly pine. One of the fastest-growing loblolly pine selections made by the NCSU-Industry Cooperative Tree Improvement Program, whose progeny are widely planted, is also the only known natural carrier of a rare gene, cadn1. This allele codes for deficiency in an enzyme, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of lignin precursors. This study is to characterize this candidate gene for marker-assisted selection and deployment in the breeding program. This research will enhance the sustainability of forest production in the South, where land-use pressures will limit the total area available in the future for intensively managed plantations. Furthermore, this research will provide information to establish higher-value plantation forests with more desirable wood/fiber quality traits. A rare mutant allele (cad-n1) of the cad gene in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) causes a deficiency in the production of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). The effects of this allele were examined by comparing wood density and growth traits of cad-n1 heterozygous trees with those of wild-type trees in a 10-year-old open-pollinated family trial growing under two levels of fertilization in Scotland County, North Carolina. In all, 200 trees were sampled with 100 trees for each treatment. Wood density measurements were collected from wood cores at breast height using x-ray densitometry. We found that the substitution of cad-n1 for a wild-type allele (Cad) was associated with a significant effect on wood density. The cad-n1 heterozygotes had a significantly higher wood density (+2.6%) compared to wild-type trees. The higher density was apparently due to the higher percentage of latewood in the heterozygotes. The fertilization effect was highly significant for both growth and wood density traits. While no cad genotype

  20. Role of radiologists in CAD life-cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietka, Ewa; Kawa, Jacek; Spinczyk, Dominik; Badura, Pawel; Wieclawek, Wojciech; Czajkowska, Joanna; Rudzki, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    A modern CAD (computer-aided diagnosis) system development involves a multidisciplinary team whose members are experts in medical and technical fields. This study indicates the activities of medical experts at various stages of the CAD design, testing, and implementation. Those stages include a medical analysis of the diagnostic problem, data collection, image analysis, evaluation, and clinical verification. At each stage the physicians knowledge and experience are indispensable. The final implementation involves integration with the existing Picture Archiving and Communication System. The term CAD life-cycle describes an overall process of the design, testing, and implementation of a system that in its final form assists the radiologists in their daily clinical routine. Four CAD systems (applied to the bone age assessment, Multiple Sclerosis detection, lung nodule detection, and pneumothorax measurement) developed in our laboratory are given as examples of how consecutive stages are developed by the multidisciplinary team. Specific advantages of the CAD implementation that include the daily clinical routine as well as research and education activities are discussed.

  1. CAD for CT colonography: toward a preparation-independent scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeppi, J.

    2007-01-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) systems can be used to automatically detect and display the locations of polyps and masses in computed tomographic colonography (CTC) data for assisting radiologists' image interpretation. Rapid technical advancements over the last few years have established a fundamental CAD scheme for CTC that includes the steps of colon extraction, polyp detection, and false-positive (FP) reduction. Several CAD prototype systems have demonstrated clinically acceptable high polyp detection sensitivity with relatively few FP detections in cathartic CTC, and observer studies have demonstrated the potential benefit of such systems in improving the accuracy and consistency of radiologists' detection performance. Some CAD prototype systems have also demonstrated promising performance in reduced cathartic and non-cathartic CTC. Recent advancements suggest that CAD systems can soon be expected to provide a preparation-independent scheme that can yield consistently high detection sensitivity with moderately low FP rate not only with cathartic CTC protocols but over a wide range of cathartic, reduced cathartic, and non-cathartic CTC protocols. (orig.)

  2. Role of radiologists in CAD life-cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietka, Ewa, E-mail: ewa.pietka@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Kawa, Jacek, E-mail: jacek.kawa@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Spinczyk, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.spinczyk@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Badura, Pawel, E-mail: pawel.badura@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wieclawek, Wojciech, E-mail: wojciech.wieclawek@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Czajkowska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.czajkowska@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Rudzki, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.rudzki@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Automatic Control, Electronics and Computer Science, ul. Akademicka 16, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    A modern CAD (computer-aided diagnosis) system development involves a multidisciplinary team whose members are experts in medical and technical fields. This study indicates the activities of medical experts at various stages of the CAD design, testing, and implementation. Those stages include a medical analysis of the diagnostic problem, data collection, image analysis, evaluation, and clinical verification. At each stage the physicians knowledge and experience are indispensable. The final implementation involves integration with the existing Picture Archiving and Communication System. The term CAD life-cycle describes an overall process of the design, testing, and implementation of a system that in its final form assists the radiologists in their daily clinical routine. Four CAD systems (applied to the bone age assessment, Multiple Sclerosis detection, lung nodule detection, and pneumothorax measurement) developed in our laboratory are given as examples of how consecutive stages are developed by the multidisciplinary team. Specific advantages of the CAD implementation that include the daily clinical routine as well as research and education activities are discussed.

  3. VLSI System Implementation of 200 MHz, 8-bit, 90nm CMOS Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU Processor Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazal NOORBASHA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this present study includes the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI system implementation of 200MHz, 8-bit, 90nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU processor control with logic gate design style and 0.12µm six metal 90nm CMOS fabrication technology. The system blocks and the behaviour are defined and the logical design is implemented in gate level in the design phase. Then, the logic circuits are simulated and the subunits are converted in to 90nm CMOS layout. Finally, in order to construct the VLSI system these units are placed in the floor plan and simulated with analog and digital, logic and switch level simulators. The results of the simulations indicates that the VLSI system can control different instructions which can divided into sub groups: transfer instructions, arithmetic and logic instructions, rotate and shift instructions, branch instructions, input/output instructions, control instructions. The data bus of the system is 16-bit. It runs at 200MHz, and operating power is 1.2V. In this paper, the parametric analysis of the system, the design steps and obtained results are explained.

  4. The Enzyme Activity and Substrate Specificity of Two Major Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), SbCAD2 and SbCAD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Se-Young; Walker, Alexander M; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2017-08-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, reducing sinapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and p -coumaraldehyde to their corresponding alcohols in an NADPH-dependent manner. Because of its terminal location in monolignol biosynthesis, the variation in substrate specificity and activity of CAD can result in significant changes in overall composition and amount of lignin. Our in-depth characterization of two major CAD isoforms, SbCAD2 (Brown midrib 6 [bmr6]) and SbCAD4, in lignifying tissues of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ), a strategic plant for generating renewable chemicals and fuels, indicates their similarity in both structure and activity to Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) CAD5 and Populus tremuloides sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively. This first crystal structure of a monocot CAD combined with enzyme kinetic data and a catalytic model supported by site-directed mutagenesis allows full comparison with dicot CADs and elucidates the potential signature sequence for their substrate specificity and activity. The L119W/G301F-SbCAD4 double mutant displayed its substrate preference in the order coniferaldehyde > p -coumaraldehyde > sinapaldehyde, with higher catalytic efficiency than that of both wild-type SbCAD4 and SbCAD2. As SbCAD4 is the only major CAD isoform in bmr6 mutants, replacing SbCAD4 with L119W/G301F-SbCAD4 in bmr6 plants could produce a phenotype that is more amenable to biomass processing. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. AutoCAD electrical 2013 for electrical control designers

    CERN Document Server

    Tickoo, Sham; CADCIM Technologies

    2013-01-01

    The AutoCAD Electrical 2013 for Electrical Control Designers textbook has been written to assist the engineering students and the practicing designers learn the application of various AutoCAD Electrical tools and options for creating electrical control designs. After reading this textbook, the users will be able to create professional electrical-control drawings easily and effectively. Moreover, the users will be able to automate various control engineering tasks such as building circuits, numbering wires, creating bills of materials, and many more. The textbook takes the users across a wide spectrum of electrical control drawings through progressive examples and numerous illustrations and exercises, thereby making it an ideal guide for both the novice and the advanced users. Salient Features of the Textbook Consists of 14 chapters that are organized in a pedagogical sequence covering various tools and features of AutoCAD Electrical such as schematic drawings, parametric and non-parametric PLC modules, Circu...

  6. Characterization analysis database system (CADS). A system overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The CADS database is a standardized, quality-assured, and configuration-controlled data management system developed to assist in the task of characterizing the DOE surplus HEU material. Characterization of the surplus HEU inventory includes identifying the specific material; gathering existing data about the inventory; defining the processing steps that may be necessary to prepare the material for transfer to a blending site; and, ultimately, developing a range of the preliminary cost estimates for those processing steps. Characterization focuses on producing commercial reactor fuel as the final step in material disposition. Based on the project analysis results, the final determination will be made as to the viability of the disposition path for each particular item of HEU. The purpose of this document is to provide an informational overview of the CADS database, its evolution, and its current capabilities. This document describes the purpose of CADS, the system requirements it fulfills, the database structure, and the operational guidelines of the system

  7. Integrated CAD/CAE for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoq, P.; Lachat, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The size of the French nuclear power program has led both EDF and Framatome to equip themselves progressively with management software, computer-assisted design (CAD) systems, and computer-assisted engineering (CAE) systems. The nature of the projects and of the respective activities of EDF and Framatome determined the essential specifications of these computerized systems. EDF and Framatome have pooled their CAD/CAE efforts in a joint venture (Groupement d'Interet Economique) called GIAO, set up in 1985 by EDF and Aquitaine Systeme (a subsidiary of Framatome and Elf Aquitaine). GIAO's ambition is to become a pole of French CAD/CAE efforts and to foster progress in integrated computer-assisted engineering, by enlarging the synergy of EDF and Framatome in this field to other enterprises that participate in design and construction of complex industrial plants

  8. The application of CAD / CAM technology in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susic, I.; Travar, M.; Susic, M.

    2017-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have found their application in the healthcare sector, including the frameworks of modern dentistry. CAD / CAM application in dentistry is the process by which is attained finished dental restoration through fine milling process of ready ceramic blocks. CAD / CAM is an acronym of english words Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) / Computer-Aided-Manufacture (CAM), respectively dental computer aided design and computer aided manufacture of inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges. CAD / CAM technology essentially allows you to create a two-dimensional and three-dimensional models and their materialization by numerical controlled machines. In order to operate more efficiently, reduce costs, increase user/patient satisfaction and ultimately achieve profits, many dental offices in the world have their attention focused on implementation of modern IT solutions in everyday practice. In addition to the specialized clinic management software, inventory control, etc., or hardware such as the use of lasers in cosmetic dentistry or intraoral scanning, recently the importance is given to the application of CAD / CAM technology in the field of prosthetic. After the removal of pathologically altered tooth structure, it is necessary to achieve restoration that will be most similar to the anatomy of a natural tooth. Applying CAD / CAM technology on applicable ceramic blocks it can be obtained very quick, but also very accurate restoration, in the forms of inlays, onlays, bridges and crowns. The paper presents the advantages of using this technology as well as satisfaction of the patients and dentists by using systems as: Cercon, Celay, Cerec, Lava, Everest, which represent imperative of modern dentistry in creating fixed dental restorations.

  9. AutoCAD platform customization user interface, AutoLISP, VBA, and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosius, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Take control of AutoCAD to boost the speed, quality, and precision of your work Senior drafters and savvy users are increasingly taking AutoCAD customization out of the hands of system administrators, and taking control of their own workflow. In AutoCAD Platform Customization, Autodesk customization guru Lee Ambrosius walks you through a multitude of customization options using detailed tutorials and real-world examples applicable to AutoCAD, AutoCAD LT, Civil 3D, Plant 3D, and other programs built on the AutoCAD platform. By unleashing the full power of the software, you'll simplify and str

  10. MEASURING INFORMATION INTEGR-ATION MODEL FOR CAD/CMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A CAD/CMM workpiece modeling system based on IGES file is proposed. The modeling system is implemented by using a new method for labelling the tolerance items of 3D workpiece. The concept-"feature face" is used in the method. First the CAD data of workpiece are extracted and recognized automatically. Then a workpiece model is generated, which is the integration of pure 3D geometry form with its corresponding inspection items. The principle of workpiece modeling is also presented. At last, the experiment results are shown and correctness of the model is certified.

  11. CAD system applications to the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Eiji; Matsumoto, Tadakuni; Shikakura, Sakae; Furuya, Kousei; Sakurai, Shin-ichi.

    1994-01-01

    Effective supporting techniques of design, operation, and maintenance of the reprocessing facility have been developed using the Intergraph CAD system. Two and three dimensional views of the process cells were utilized to rationalize the equipment layout and material handling flows, and to check the piping interference. Interferences of the remote maintenance equipment with the process equipments were also evaluated by the pictures on the CAD display. The newest virtual reality technology will help our future development of the more natural simulation for the remote maintenance operator training. (author)

  12. Particle tracking in sophisticated CAD models for simulation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkimo, J.; Vuoskoski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The transfer of physics detector models from computer aided design systems to physics simulation packages like GEANT suffers from certain limitations. In addition, GEANT is not able to perform particle tracking in CAD models. We describe an application which is able to perform particle tracking in boundary models constructed in CAD systems. The transfer file format used is the new international standard, STEP. The design and implementation of the application was carried out using object-oriented techniques. It will be integrated in the future object-oriented version of GEANT. (orig.)

  13. Particle tracking in sophisticated CAD models for simulation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkimo, J.; Vuoskoski, J.

    1996-02-01

    The transfer of physics detector models from computer aided design systems to physics simulation packages like GEANT suffers from certain limitations. In addition, GEANT is not able to perform particle tracking in CAD models. We describe an application which is able to perform particle tracking in boundary models constructed in CAD systems. The transfer file format used is the new international standard, STEP. The design and implementation of the application was carried out using object-oriented techniques. It will be integrated in the future object-oriented version of GEANT.

  14. CAD/CAM: improved design quality, increased productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D. E.; England, J.

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining productivity levels while assuring the quality of engineering products grows increasingly more difficult and costly for industries such as the energy industry which are heavily committed to product design. The man/machine interface made possible through the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can be applied to the design process as a tool for increased control to assure the quality of the final engineering product. The quality-control aspects of CAD/CAM technology are addressed in this presentation.

  15. Instant Autodesk AutoCAD 2014 customization with .NET

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. An instruction-based guide with examples written in the C# programming language. VB.NET programmers can also take advantage of these examples by using one of the free conversion websites to convert the examples to VB.NET.Clear, step-by-step instructions and complete code examples illustrate the processes, making it easy to develop your own custom AutoCAD tools.This book is perfect if you are interested in customizing AutoCAD 2014 using the .NET API. You should have a basic familiari

  16. Parallel algorithms and architecture for computation of manipulator forward dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijany, Amir; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel computation of manipulator forward dynamics is investigated. Considering three classes of algorithms for the solution of the problem, that is, the O(n), the O(n exp 2), and the O(n exp 3) algorithms, parallelism in the problem is analyzed. It is shown that the problem belongs to the class of NC and that the time and processors bounds are of O(log2/2n) and O(n exp 4), respectively. However, the fastest stable parallel algorithms achieve the computation time of O(n) and can be derived by parallelization of the O(n exp 3) serial algorithms. Parallel computation of the O(n exp 3) algorithms requires the development of parallel algorithms for a set of fundamentally different problems, that is, the Newton-Euler formulation, the computation of the inertia matrix, decomposition of the symmetric, positive definite matrix, and the solution of triangular systems. Parallel algorithms for this set of problems are developed which can be efficiently implemented on a unique architecture, a triangular array of n(n+2)/2 processors with a simple nearest-neighbor interconnection. This architecture is particularly suitable for VLSI and WSI implementations. The developed parallel algorithm, compared to the best serial O(n) algorithm, achieves an asymptotic speedup of more than two orders-of-magnitude in the computation the forward dynamics.

  17. A CAD System for Evaluating Footwear Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Bita Ture; de Amicis, Raffaele

    With the great growth in footwear demand, the footwear manufacturing industry, for achieving commercial success, must be able to provide the footwear that fulfills consumer's requirement better than it's competitors. Accurate fitting for shoes is an important factor in comfort and functionality. Footwear fitter measurement have been using manual measurement for a long time, but the development of 3D acquisition devices and the advent of powerful 3D visualization and modeling techniques, automatically analyzing, searching and interpretation of the models have now made automatic determination of different foot dimensions feasible. In this paper, we proposed an approach for finding footwear fit within the shoe last data base. We first properly aligned the 3D models using "Weighted" Principle Component Analysis (WPCA). After solving the alignment problem we used an efficient algorithm for cutting the 3D model in order to find the footwear fit from shoe last data base.

  18. Transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of CAD isoforms specific for podophyllotoxin biosynthesis from Podophyllum hexandrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Dipto; Hazra, Saptarshi; Banerjee, Anindyajit; Datta, Riddhi; Kumar, Deepak; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila

    2016-09-01

    Podophyllotoxin (ptox) is a therapeutically important lignan derived from Podophyllum hexandrum and is used as a precursor for the synthesis of anticancer drugs etoposide, teniposide and etopophose. In spite of its enormous economic significance, genomic information on this endangered medicinal herb is scarce. We have performed de novo transcriptome analysis of methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated P. hexandrum cell cultures exhibiting enhanced ptox accumulation. The results revealed the maximum up-regulation of several isoforms of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). CAD catalyzes the synthesis of coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol from coniferaldehyde (CAld) and sinapaldehyde respectively. Coniferyl alcohol can produce both lignin and lignan while sinapyl alcohol produces only lignin. To isolate the CAD isoforms favoring ptox, we deduced full length cDNA sequences of four CAD isoforms: PhCAD1, PhCAD2, PhCAD3 and PhCAD4 from the contigs of the transcriptome data. In vitro enzyme assays indicated a higher affinity for CAld over sinapaldehyde for each isoform. In silico molecular docking analyses also suggested that PhCAD3 has a higher binding preference with CAld over sinapaldehyde, followed by PhCAD4, PhCAD2, and PhCAD1, respectively. The transgenic cell cultures overexpressing these isoforms independently revealed that PhCAD3 favored the maximum accumulation of ptox as compared to lignin followed by PhCAD4 and PhCAD2, whereas, PhCAD1 favored both equally. Together, our study reveals transcriptome-wide identification and characterization of ptox specific CAD isoforms from P. hexandrum. It provides a useful resource for future research not only on the ptox biosynthetic pathway but on overall P. hexandrum, an endangered medicinal herb with immense therapeutic importance.

  19. Reconstruction of Consistent 3d CAD Models from Point Cloud Data Using a Priori CAD Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, A.; Chaine, R.; Marc, R.; Thibault, G.; Akkouche, S.

    2011-09-01

    We address the reconstruction of 3D CAD models from point cloud data acquired in industrial environments, using a pre-existing 3D model as an initial estimate of the scene to be processed. Indeed, this prior knowledge can be used to drive the reconstruction so as to generate an accurate 3D model matching the point cloud. We more particularly focus our work on the cylindrical parts of the 3D models. We propose to state the problem in a probabilistic framework: we have to search for the 3D model which maximizes some probability taking several constraints into account, such as the relevancy with respect to the point cloud and the a priori 3D model, and the consistency of the reconstructed model. The resulting optimization problem can then be handled using a stochastic exploration of the solution space, based on the random insertion of elements in the configuration under construction, coupled with a greedy management of the conflicts which efficiently improves the configuration at each step. We show that this approach provides reliable reconstructed 3D models by presenting some results on industrial data sets.

  20. Algorithming the Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Martina; Uprichard, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Imagine sailing across the ocean. The sun is shining, vastness all around you. And suddenly [BOOM] you’ve hit an invisible wall. Welcome to the Truman Show! Ever since Eli Pariser published his thoughts on a potential filter bubble, this movie scenario seems to have become reality, just with slight...... changes: it’s not the ocean, it’s the internet we’re talking about, and it’s not a TV show producer, but algorithms that constitute a sort of invisible wall. Building on this assumption, most research is trying to ‘tame the algorithmic tiger’. While this is a valuable and often inspiring approach, we...

  1. CAD-Based Shielding Analysis for ITER Port Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serikov Arkady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation shielding analysis conducted in support of design development of the contemporary diagnostic systems integrated inside the ITER ports is relied on the use of CAD models. This paper presents the CAD-based MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport and activation analyses for the Diagnostic Upper and Equatorial Port Plugs (UPP #3 and EPP #8, #17. The creation process of the complicated 3D MCNP models of the diagnostics systems was substantially accelerated by application of the CAD-to-MCNP converter programs MCAM and McCad. High performance computing resources of the Helios supercomputer allowed to speed-up the MCNP parallel transport calculations with the MPI/OpenMP interface. The found shielding solutions could be universal, reducing ports R&D costs. The shield block behind the Tritium and Deposit Monitor (TDM optical box was added to study its influence on Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR in Port Interspace (PI of EPP#17. Influence of neutron streaming along the Lost Alpha Monitor (LAM on the neutron energy spectra calculated in the Tangential Neutron Spectrometer (TNS of EPP#8. For the UPP#3 with Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS-core, an excessive neutron streaming along the CXRS shutter, which should be prevented in further design iteration.

  2. On CAD-integrated Structural Topology and Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olhoff, Niels; Bendsøe, M.P.; Rasmussen, John

    1991-01-01

    Concepts underlying an interactive CAD-based engineering design optimization system are developed, and methods of optimizing the topology, shape and sizing of mechanical components are presented. These methods are integrated in the system, and the method for determining the optimal topology is used...

  3. Individualized Human CAD Models: Anthropmetric Morphing and Body Tissue Layering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    fat thickness may not be uniform and an estimation of this inhomogeneity is integrated into the sub-assemblies of the CAD model. For example, the...Xu X, Endrusick T, Santee W and Kokla M. Simulation of toe thermal responses to cold exposure while wearing protective footwear . SAE 2005

  4. CAD-Based Shielding Analysis for ITER Port Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikov, Arkady; Fischer, Ulrich; Anthoine, David; Bertalot, Luciano; De Bock, Maartin; O'Connor, Richard; Juarez, Rafael; Krasilnikov, Vitaly

    2017-09-01

    Radiation shielding analysis conducted in support of design development of the contemporary diagnostic systems integrated inside the ITER ports is relied on the use of CAD models. This paper presents the CAD-based MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport and activation analyses for the Diagnostic Upper and Equatorial Port Plugs (UPP #3 and EPP #8, #17). The creation process of the complicated 3D MCNP models of the diagnostics systems was substantially accelerated by application of the CAD-to-MCNP converter programs MCAM and McCad. High performance computing resources of the Helios supercomputer allowed to speed-up the MCNP parallel transport calculations with the MPI/OpenMP interface. The found shielding solutions could be universal, reducing ports R&D costs. The shield block behind the Tritium and Deposit Monitor (TDM) optical box was added to study its influence on Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) in Port Interspace (PI) of EPP#17. Influence of neutron streaming along the Lost Alpha Monitor (LAM) on the neutron energy spectra calculated in the Tangential Neutron Spectrometer (TNS) of EPP#8. For the UPP#3 with Charge eXchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS-core), an excessive neutron streaming along the CXRS shutter, which should be prevented in further design iteration.

  5. Correlating Trainee Attributes to Performance in 3D CAD Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamade, Ramsey F.; Artail, Hassan A.; Sikstrom, Sverker

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify trainee attributes relevant for development of skills in 3D computer-aided design (CAD). Design/methodology/approach: Participants were trained to perform cognitive tasks of comparable complexity over time. Performance data were collected on the time needed to construct test models, and…

  6. Present State of CAD Teaching in Spanish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ramon Rubio; Santos, Ramon Gallego; Quiros, Javier Suarez; Penin, Pedro I. Alvarez

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, all Spanish Universities updated the syllabuses of their courses as a result of the entry into force of the new Organic Law of Universities ("Ley Organica de Universidades") and, for the first time, "Computer Assisted Design" (CAD) appears in the list of core subjects (compulsory teaching content set by the…

  7. Program Evolves from Basic CAD to Total Manufacturing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Close to a decade ago, John Hersey High School (JHHS) in Arlington Heights, Illinois, made a transition from a traditional classroom-based pre-engineering program. The new program is geared towards helping students understand the entire manufacturing process. Previously, a JHHS student would design a project in computer-aided design (CAD) software…

  8. Alternatives for Saving and Viewing CAD Graphics for the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, La Verne Abe; Sadowski, Mary A.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces some alternatives for preparing and viewing computer aided design (CAD) graphics for Internet output on a budget, without the fear of copyright infringement, and without having to go back to college to learn a complex graphic application. (Author/YDS)

  9. Fatigue resistance of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shembish, F.A.; Tong, H.; Kaizer, M.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the fatigue behavior of CAD/CAM resin composite molar crowns using a mouth-motion step-stress fatigue test. Monolithic leucite-reinforced glass-ceramic crowns were used as a reference. METHODS: Fully anatomically shaped monolithic resin composite molar crowns (Lava

  10. Schools (Students) Exchanging CAD/CAM Files over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Gary S.; Smallwood, James E.

    This document discusses how students and schools can benefit from exchanging computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) files over the Internet, explains how files are exchanged, and examines the problem of selected hardware/software incompatibility. Key terms associated with information search services are defined, and several…

  11. Optimized FPGA Implementation of the Thyroid Hormone Secretion Mechanism Using CAD Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Jaafar M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to implement the secretion mechanism of the Thyroid Hormone (TH) based on bio-mathematical differential eqs. (DE) on an FPGA chip. Hardware Descriptive Language (HDL) is used to develop a behavioral model of the mechanism derived from the DE. The Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism is simulated with the interaction of the related stimulating and inhibiting hormones. Synthesis of the simulation is done with the aid of CAD tools and downloaded on a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) Chip. The chip output shows identical behavior to that of the designed algorithm through simulation. It is concluded that the chip mimics the Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism. The chip, operating in real-time, is computer-independent stand-alone system.

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Wave Gait of a Hexapod Walking Robot: A CAD/CAE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Mahapatra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an attempt has been made to carry out dynamic analysis of a hexapod robot using the concept of multibody dynamics. A CAD (Computer Aided Design model of a realistic hexapod robot has been made for dynamic simulation of its locomotion using ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems multibody dynamics solver. The kinematic model of each leg of three degrees of freedom has been designed using CATIA (Computer Aided Three Dimensional Interactive Application and SimDesigner package in order to develop an overall kinematic model of the robot, when it follows a straight path. Joint Torque variation as well as the variation of the aggregate center of mass of the robot was analyzed for the wave tetrapod gait. The simulation results provide the basis for developing the control algorithm as well as an intelligent decision making for the robot while in motion.

  13. Motion-sensor fusion-based gesture recognition and its VLSI architecture design for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenping; Liu, Leibo; Yin, Shouyi; Hu, Siqi; Tang, Eugene Y.; Wei, Shaojun

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid proliferation of smartphones and tablets, various embedded sensors are incorporated into these platforms to enable multimodal human-computer interfaces. Gesture recognition, as an intuitive interaction approach, has been extensively explored in the mobile computing community. However, most gesture recognition implementations by now are all user-dependent and only rely on accelerometer. In order to achieve competitive accuracy, users are required to hold the devices in predefined manner during the operation. In this paper, a high-accuracy human gesture recognition system is proposed based on multiple motion sensor fusion. Furthermore, to reduce the energy overhead resulted from frequent sensor sampling and data processing, a high energy-efficient VLSI architecture implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA board is also proposed. Compared with the pure software implementation, approximately 45 times speed-up is achieved while operating at 20 MHz. The experiments show that the average accuracy for 10 gestures achieves 93.98% for user-independent case and 96.14% for user-dependent case when subjects hold the device randomly during completing the specified gestures. Although a few percent lower than the conventional best result, it still provides competitive accuracy acceptable for practical usage. Most importantly, the proposed system allows users to hold the device randomly during operating the predefined gestures, which substantially enhances the user experience.

  14. Emergent auditory feature tuning in a real-time neuromorphic VLSI system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadique eSheik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many sounds of ecological importance, such as communication calls, are characterised by time-varying spectra. However, most neuromorphic auditory models to date have focused on distinguishing mainly static patterns, under the assumption that dynamic patterns can be learned as sequences of static ones. In contrast, the emergence of dynamic feature sensitivity through exposure to formative stimuli has been recently modeled in a network of spiking neurons based on the thalamocortical architecture. The proposed network models the effect of lateral and recurrent connections between cortical layers, distance-dependent axonal transmission delays, and learning in the form of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP, which effects stimulus-driven changes in the pattern of network connectivity. In this paper we demonstrate how these principles can be efficiently implemented in neuromorphic hardware. In doing so we address two principle problems in the design of neuromorphic systems: real-time event-based asynchronous communication in multi-chip systems, and the realization in hybrid analog/digital VLSI technology of neural computational principles that we propose underlie plasticity in neural processing of dynamic stimuli. The result is a hardware neural network that learns in real-time and shows preferential responses, after exposure, to stimuli exhibiting particular spectrotemporal patterns. The availability of hardware on which the model can be implemented, makes this a significant step towards the development of adaptive, neurobiologically plausible, spike-based, artificial sensory systems.

  15. An Analogue VLSI Implementation of the Meddis Inner Hair Cell Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Alistair; van Schaik, André

    2003-12-01

    The Meddis inner hair cell model is a widely accepted, but computationally intensive computer model of mammalian inner hair cell function. We have produced an analogue VLSI implementation of this model that operates in real time in the current domain by using translinear and log-domain circuits. The circuit has been fabricated on a chip and tested against the Meddis model for (a) rate level functions for onset and steady-state response, (b) recovery after masking, (c) additivity, (d) two-component adaptation, (e) phase locking, (f) recovery of spontaneous activity, and (g) computational efficiency. The advantage of this circuit, over other electronic inner hair cell models, is its nearly exact implementation of the Meddis model which can be tuned to behave similarly to the biological inner hair cell. This has important implications on our ability to simulate the auditory system in real time. Furthermore, the technique of mapping a mathematical model of first-order differential equations to a circuit of log-domain filters allows us to implement real-time neuromorphic signal processors for a host of models using the same approach.

  16. Robust working memory in an asynchronously spiking neural network realized in neuromorphic VLSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eGiulioni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate bistable attractor dynamics in a spiking neural network implemented with neuromorphic VLSI hardware. The on-chip network consists of three interacting populations (two excitatory, one inhibitory of integrate-and-fire (LIF neurons. One excitatory population is distinguished by strong synaptic self-excitation, which sustains meta-stable states of ‘high’ and ‘low’-firing activity. Depending on the overall excitability, transitions to the ‘high’ state may be evoked by external stimulation, or may occur spontaneously due to random activity fluctuations. In the former case, the ‘high’ state retains a working memory of a stimulus until well after its release. In the latter case, ‘high’ states remain stable for seconds, three orders of magnitude longer than the largest time-scale implemented in the circuitry. Evoked and spontaneous transitions form a continuum and may exhibit a wide range of latencies, depending on the strength of external stimulation and of recurrent synaptic excitation. In addition, we investigated corrupted ‘high’ states comprising neurons of both excitatory populations. Within a basin of attraction, the network dynamics corrects such states and re-establishes the prototypical ‘high’ state. We conclude that, with effective theoretical guidance, full-fledged attractor dynamics can be realized with comparatively small populations of neuromorphic hardware neurons.

  17. Robust Working Memory in an Asynchronously Spiking Neural Network Realized with Neuromorphic VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulioni, Massimiliano; Camilleri, Patrick; Mattia, Maurizio; Dante, Vittorio; Braun, Jochen; Del Giudice, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate bistable attractor dynamics in a spiking neural network implemented with neuromorphic VLSI hardware. The on-chip network consists of three interacting populations (two excitatory, one inhibitory) of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) neurons. One excitatory population is distinguished by strong synaptic self-excitation, which sustains meta-stable states of "high" and "low"-firing activity. Depending on the overall excitability, transitions to the "high" state may be evoked by external stimulation, or may occur spontaneously due to random activity fluctuations. In the former case, the "high" state retains a "working memory" of a stimulus until well after its release. In the latter case, "high" states remain stable for seconds, three orders of magnitude longer than the largest time-scale implemented in the circuitry. Evoked and spontaneous transitions form a continuum and may exhibit a wide range of latencies, depending on the strength of external stimulation and of recurrent synaptic excitation. In addition, we investigated "corrupted" "high" states comprising neurons of both excitatory populations. Within a "basin of attraction," the network dynamics "corrects" such states and re-establishes the prototypical "high" state. We conclude that, with effective theoretical guidance, full-fledged attractor dynamics can be realized with comparatively small populations of neuromorphic hardware neurons.

  18. Biophysical Neural Spiking, Bursting, and Excitability Dynamics in Reconfigurable Analog VLSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Sejnowski, T J; Cauwenberghs, G

    2011-10-01

    We study a range of neural dynamics under variations in biophysical parameters underlying extended Morris-Lecar and Hodgkin-Huxley models in three gating variables. The extended models are implemented in NeuroDyn, a four neuron, twelve synapse continuous-time analog VLSI programmable neural emulation platform with generalized channel kinetics and biophysical membrane dynamics. The dynamics exhibit a wide range of time scales extending beyond 100 ms neglected in typical silicon models of tonic spiking neurons. Circuit simulations and measurements show transition from tonic spiking to tonic bursting dynamics through variation of a single conductance parameter governing calcium recovery. We similarly demonstrate transition from graded to all-or-none neural excitability in the onset of spiking dynamics through the variation of channel kinetic parameters governing the speed of potassium activation. Other combinations of variations in conductance and channel kinetic parameters give rise to phasic spiking and spike frequency adaptation dynamics. The NeuroDyn chip consumes 1.29 mW and occupies 3 mm × 3 mm in 0.5 μm CMOS, supporting emerging developments in neuromorphic silicon-neuron interfaces.

  19. An Analogue VLSI Implementation of the Meddis Inner Hair Cell Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair McEwan

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The Meddis inner hair cell model is a widely accepted, but computationally intensive computer model of mammalian inner hair cell function. We have produced an analogue VLSI implementation of this model that operates in real time in the current domain by using translinear and log-domain circuits. The circuit has been fabricated on a chip and tested against the Meddis model for (a rate level functions for onset and steady-state response, (b recovery after masking, (c additivity, (d two-component adaptation, (e phase locking, (f recovery of spontaneous activity, and (g computational efficiency. The advantage of this circuit, over other electronic inner hair cell models, is its nearly exact implementation of the Meddis model which can be tuned to behave similarly to the biological inner hair cell. This has important implications on our ability to simulate the auditory system in real time. Furthermore, the technique of mapping a mathematical model of first-order differential equations to a circuit of log-domain filters allows us to implement real-time neuromorphic signal processors for a host of models using the same approach.

  20. Biophysical synaptic dynamics in an analog VLSI network of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Theodore; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2009-01-01

    We study synaptic dynamics in a biophysical network of four coupled spiking neurons implemented in an analog VLSI silicon microchip. The four neurons implement a generalized Hodgkin-Huxley model with individually configurable rate-based kinetics of opening and closing of Na+ and K+ ion channels. The twelve synapses implement a rate-based first-order kinetic model of neurotransmitter and receptor dynamics, accounting for NMDA and non-NMDA type chemical synapses. The implemented models on the chip are fully configurable by 384 parameters accounting for conductances, reversal potentials, and pre/post-synaptic voltage-dependence of the channel kinetics. We describe the models and present experimental results from the chip characterizing single neuron dynamics, single synapse dynamics, and multi-neuron network dynamics showing phase-locking behavior as a function of synaptic coupling strength. The 3mm x 3mm microchip consumes 1.29 mW power making it promising for applications including neuromorphic modeling and neural prostheses.

  1. Emergent Auditory Feature Tuning in a Real-Time Neuromorphic VLSI System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheik, Sadique; Coath, Martin; Indiveri, Giacomo; Denham, Susan L; Wennekers, Thomas; Chicca, Elisabetta

    2012-01-01

    Many sounds of ecological importance, such as communication calls, are characterized by time-varying spectra. However, most neuromorphic auditory models to date have focused on distinguishing mainly static patterns, under the assumption that dynamic patterns can be learned as sequences of static ones. In contrast, the emergence of dynamic feature sensitivity through exposure to formative stimuli has been recently modeled in a network of spiking neurons based on the thalamo-cortical architecture. The proposed network models the effect of lateral and recurrent connections between cortical layers, distance-dependent axonal transmission delays, and learning in the form of Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP), which effects stimulus-driven changes in the pattern of network connectivity. In this paper we demonstrate how these principles can be efficiently implemented in neuromorphic hardware. In doing so we address two principle problems in the design of neuromorphic systems: real-time event-based asynchronous communication in multi-chip systems, and the realization in hybrid analog/digital VLSI technology of neural computational principles that we propose underlie plasticity in neural processing of dynamic stimuli. The result is a hardware neural network that learns in real-time and shows preferential responses, after exposure, to stimuli exhibiting particular spectro-temporal patterns. The availability of hardware on which the model can be implemented, makes this a significant step toward the development of adaptive, neurobiologically plausible, spike-based, artificial sensory systems.

  2. A neuromorphic VLSI device for implementing 2-D selective attention systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiveri, G

    2001-01-01

    Selective attention is a mechanism used to sequentially select and process salient subregions of the input space, while suppressing inputs arriving from nonsalient regions. By processing small amounts of sensory information in a serial fashion, rather than attempting to process all the sensory data in parallel, this mechanism overcomes the problem of flooding limited processing capacity systems with sensory inputs. It is found in many biological systems and can be a useful engineering tool for developing artificial systems that need to process in real-time sensory data. In this paper we present a neuromorphic hardware model of a selective attention mechanism implemented on a very large scale integration (VLSI) chip, using analog circuits. The chip makes use of a spike-based representation for receiving input signals, transmitting output signals and for shifting the selection of the attended input stimulus over time. It can be interfaced to neuromorphic sensors and actuators, for implementing multichip selective attention systems. We describe the characteristics of the circuits used in the architecture and present experimental data measured from the system.

  3. Implementation of neuromorphic systems: from discrete components to analog VLSI chips (testing and communication issues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dante, V; Del Giudice, P; Mattia, M

    2001-01-01

    We review a series of implementations of electronic devices aiming at imitating to some extent structure and function of simple neural systems, with particular emphasis on communication issues. We first provide a short overview of general features of such "neuromorphic" devices and the implications of setting up "tests" for them. We then review the developments directly related to our work at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS): a pilot electronic neural network implementing a simple classifier, autonomously developing internal representations of incoming stimuli; an output network, collecting information from the previous classifier and extracting the relevant part to be forwarded to the observer; an analog, VLSI (very large scale integration) neural chip implementing a recurrent network of spiking neurons and plastic synapses, and the test setup for it; a board designed to interface the standard PCI (peripheral component interconnect) bus of a PC with a special purpose, asynchronous bus for communication among neuromorphic chips; a short and preliminary account of an application-oriented device, taking advantage of the above communication infrastructure.

  4. CASTOR a VLSI CMOS mixed analog-digital circuit for low noise multichannel counting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, G.; Loddo, F.; Hu, Y.; Kaplon, J.; Ly, F.; Turchetta, R.; Bonvicini, V.; Vacchi, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we present the design and first experimental results of a VLSI mixed analog-digital 1.2 microns CMOS circuit (CASTOR) for multichannel radiation detectors applications demanding low noise amplification and counting of radiation pulses. This circuit is meant to be connected to pixel-like detectors. Imaging can be obtained by counting the number of hits in each pixel during a user-controlled exposure time. Each channel of the circuit features an analog and a digital part. In the former one, a charge preamplifier is followed by a CR-RC shaper with an output buffer and a threshold discriminator. In the digital part, a 16-bit counter is present together with some control logic. The readout of the counters is done serially on a common tri-state output. Daisy-chaining is possible. A 4-channel prototype has been built. This prototype has been optimised for use in the digital radiography Syrmep experiment at the Elettra synchrotron machine in Trieste (Italy): its main design parameters are: shaping time of about 850 ns, gain of 190 mV/fC and ENC (e - rms)=60+17 C (pF). The counting rate per channel, limited by the analog part, can be as high as about 200 kHz. Characterisation of the circuit and first tests with silicon microstrip detectors are presented. They show the circuit works according to design specification and can be used for imaging applications. (orig.)

  5. A novel VLSI processor for high-rate, high resolution spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, Antonio; Gatti, E; Longoni, A; Buttler, W

    2000-01-01

    A novel time-variant VLSI shaper amplifier, suitable for multi-anode Silicon Drift Detectors or other multi-element solid-state X-ray detection systems, is proposed. The new read-out scheme has been conceived for demanding applications with synchrotron light sources, such as X-ray holography or EXAFS, where both high count-rates and high-energy resolutions are required. The circuit is of the linear time-variant class, accepts randomly distributed events and features: a finite-width (1-10 mu s) quasi-optimal weight function, an ultra-low-level energy discrimination (approx 150 eV), and a full compatibility for monolithic integration in CMOS technology. Its impulse response has a staircase-like shape, but the weight function (which is in general different from the impulse response in time-variant systems) is quasi trapezoidal. The operation principles of the new scheme as well as the first experimental results obtained with a prototype of the circuit are presented and discussed in the work.

  6. VLSI ARCHITECTURE FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION THROUGH ADDER MINIMIZATION TECHNIQUE AT DCT STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Divya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Data compression plays a vital role in multimedia devices to present the information in a succinct frame. Initially, the DCT structure is used for Image compression, which has lesser complexity and area efficient. Similarly, 2D DCT also has provided reasonable data compression, but implementation concern, it calls more multipliers and adders thus its lead to acquire more area and high power consumption. To contain an account of all, this paper has been dealt with VLSI architecture for image compression using Rom free DA based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform structure. This technique provides high-throughput and most suitable for real-time implementation. In order to achieve this image matrix is subdivided into odd and even terms then the multiplication functions are removed by shift and add approach. Kogge_Stone_Adder techniques are proposed for obtaining a bit-wise image quality which determines the new trade-off levels as compared to the previous techniques. Overall the proposed architecture produces reduced memory, low power consumption and high throughput. MATLAB is used as a funding tool for receiving an input pixel and obtaining output image. Verilog HDL is used for implementing the design, Model Sim for simulation, Quatres II is used to synthesize and obtain details about power and area.

  7. A Single Chip VLSI Implementation of a QPSK/SQPSK Demodulator for a VSAT Receiver Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatra, S. C.; King, Brent

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents a VLSI implementation of a QPSK/SQPSK demodulator. It is designed to be employed in a VSAT earth station that utilizes the FDMA/TDM link. A single chip architecture is used to enable this chip to be easily employed in the VSAT system. This demodulator contains lowpass filters, integrate and dump units, unique word detectors, a timing recovery unit, a phase recovery unit and a down conversion unit. The design stages start with a functional representation of the system by using the C programming language. Then it progresses into a register based representation using the VHDL language. The layout components are designed based on these VHDL models and simulated. Component generators are developed for the adder, multiplier, read-only memory and serial access memory in order to shorten the design time. These sub-components are then block routed to form the main components of the system. The main components are block routed to form the final demodulator.

  8. Digital VLSI design with Verilog a textbook from Silicon Valley Polytechnic Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, John Michael

    2014-01-01

    This book is structured as a step-by-step course of study along the lines of a VLSI integrated circuit design project.  The entire Verilog language is presented, from the basics to everything necessary for synthesis of an entire 70,000 transistor, full-duplex serializer-deserializer, including synthesizable PLLs.  The author includes everything an engineer needs for in-depth understanding of the Verilog language:  Syntax, synthesis semantics, simulation, and test. Complete solutions for the 27 labs are provided in the downloadable files that accompany the book.  For readers with access to appropriate electronic design tools, all solutions can be developed, simulated, and synthesized as described in the book.   A partial list of design topics includes design partitioning, hierarchy decomposition, safe coding styles, back annotation, wrapper modules, concurrency, race conditions, assertion-based verification, clock synchronization, and design for test.   A concluding presentation of special topics inclu...

  9. Optimal parallel algorithms for problems modeled by a family of intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olariu, Stephan; Schwing, James L.; Zhang, Jingyuan

    1992-01-01

    A family of intervals on the real line provides a natural model for a vast number of scheduling and VLSI problems. Recently, a number of parallel algorithms to solve a variety of practical problems on such a family of intervals have been proposed in the literature. Computational tools are developed, and it is shown how they can be used for the purpose of devising cost-optimal parallel algorithms for a number of interval-related problems including finding a largest subset of pairwise nonoverlapping intervals, a minimum dominating subset of intervals, along with algorithms to compute the shortest path between a pair of intervals and, based on the shortest path, a parallel algorithm to find the center of the family of intervals. More precisely, with an arbitrary family of n intervals as input, all algorithms run in O(log n) time using O(n) processors in the EREW-PRAM model of computation.

  10. Design of 10Gbps optical encoder/decoder structure for FE-OCDMA system using SOA and opto-VLSI processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Hwang, Seow; Alameh, Kamal

    2008-01-21

    In this paper we propose and experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable 10Gbps frequency-encoded (1D) encoder/decoder structure for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA). The encoder is constructed using a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and 1D reflective Opto-VLSI processor. The SOA generates broadband amplified spontaneous emission that is dynamically sliced using digital phase holograms loaded onto the Opto-VLSI processor to generate 1D codewords. The selected wavelengths are injected back into the same SOA for amplifications. The decoder is constructed using single Opto-VLSI processor only. The encoded signal can successfully be retrieved at the decoder side only when the digital phase holograms of the encoder and the decoder are matched. The system performance is measured in terms of the auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions as well as the eye diagram.

  11. Applying a new unequally weighted feature fusion method to improve CAD performance of classifying breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargari Khuzani, Abolfazl; Danala, Gopichandh; Heidari, Morteza; Du, Yue; Mashhadi, Najmeh; Qiu, Yuchen; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Higher recall rates are a major challenge in mammography screening. Thus, developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme to classify between malignant and benign breast lesions can play an important role to improve efficacy of mammography screening. Objective of this study is to develop and test a unique image feature fusion framework to improve performance in classifying suspicious mass-like breast lesions depicting on mammograms. The image dataset consists of 302 suspicious masses detected on both craniocaudal and mediolateral-oblique view images. Amongst them, 151 were malignant and 151 were benign. The study consists of following 3 image processing and feature analysis steps. First, an adaptive region growing segmentation algorithm was used to automatically segment mass regions. Second, a set of 70 image features related to spatial and frequency characteristics of mass regions were initially computed. Third, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based machine learning classifier combined with a bat optimization algorithm was used to optimally fuse the selected image features based on predefined assessment performance index. An area under ROC curve (AUC) with was used as a performance assessment index. Applying CAD scheme to the testing dataset, AUC was 0.75+/-0.04, which was significantly higher than using a single best feature (AUC=0.69+/-0.05) or the classifier with equally weighted features (AUC=0.73+/-0.05). This study demonstrated that comparing to the conventional equal-weighted approach, using an unequal-weighted feature fusion approach had potential to significantly improve accuracy in classifying between malignant and benign breast masses.

  12. User interface issues in radiotherapy CAD software. 116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherouse, G.W.; Mosher, C.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A major growth area in computerized planning of radiotherapy over the last five years has been the development of programs for treatment design based on the interactive graphic display of three dimensional patient models. This word has been recognized as being a close relative of Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software which is used in industry for a broad spectrum of engineering and design applications. A CAD system for radiotherapy has been constructed which combines some of the more attractive aspects of other institutions' treatment design systems with CAD technology and a user interface which is designed for use by clinicians. The importance of an appropriate user interface cannot be overemphasized and is often sadly neglected in radiotherapy software. In order to realize the potential of this new treatment design technology it is essential that clinicians, particularly physicians, perceive RT CAD systems as tools rather than as obstacles. It is felt that thhe best way to achieve that perception is for the software to implement a superset of the functions used in conventional practice while retaining the ambiance of the traditional methods. It is the aim to construct a system which an experienced physician or dosimetrist can use with essentially no retraining. The model for this CAD tool is that of a virtual simulator. It is meant to faithfully reproduce both the function and the feel of a physical simulator. A number of techniques has been identified for realizing this goal. These include simple intuitive input devices, natural coordinate systems graphic interaction, good interactive responsiveness, and high-quality 3D display modalities. Here a description of these techniques and some details of their implementation is presented. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  13. Optical properties of CAD-CAM ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Nogueira, Audrea D; Pecho, Oscar E

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the direct transmittance (T%), translucency, opacity and opalescence of CAD-CAM ceramic systems and the correlation between the translucency parameter (TP) and the contrast ratio (CR). Specimens of shades A1, A2 and A3 (n=5) were fabricated from CAD-CAM ceramic blocks (IPS e.max(®) CAD HT and LT, IPS Empress(®) CAD HT and LT, Paradigm™ C, and VITABLOCS(®) Mark II) and polished to 1.0±0.01mm in thickness. A spectrophotometer (Lambda 20) was used to measure T% on the wavelength range of 400-780nm. Another spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade(®) Advance) was used to measure the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) coordinates and the reflectance value (Y) of samples on white and black backgrounds. TP, CR and the opalescence parameter (OP) were calculated. Data were statistically analysed using VAF (variance accounting for) coefficient with Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, Bonferroni correction and Pearson's correlation. T% of some ceramic systems is dependent on the wavelength. The spectral behaviour showed a slight and constant increase in T% up to approximately 550nm, then some ceramics changed the behaviour as the wavelength gets longer. TP and CR values ranged, respectively, from 16.79 to 21.69 and from 0.52 to 0.64 (r(2)=-0.97). OP values ranged from 3.01 to 7.64. The microstructure of CAD-CAM ceramic systems influenced the optical properties. TP and CR showed a strong correlation for all ceramic systems evaluated. Yet, all ceramics showed some degree of light transmittance. In addition to shade, this study showed that other optical properties influence on the natural appearance of dental ceramics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computation-aware algorithm selection approach for interlaced-to-progressive conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Jun; Jeon, Gwanggil; Jeong, Jechang

    2010-05-01

    We discuss deinterlacing results in a computationally constrained and varied environment. The proposed computation-aware algorithm selection approach (CASA) for fast interlaced to progressive conversion algorithm consists of three methods: the line-averaging (LA) method for plain regions, the modified edge-based line-averaging (MELA) method for medium regions, and the proposed covariance-based adaptive deinterlacing (CAD) method for complex regions. The proposed CASA uses two criteria, mean-squared error (MSE) and CPU time, for assigning the method. We proposed a CAD method. The principle idea of CAD is based on the correspondence between the high and low-resolution covariances. We estimated the local covariance coefficients from an interlaced image using Wiener filtering theory and then used these optimal minimum MSE interpolation coefficients to obtain a deinterlaced image. The CAD method, though more robust than most known methods, was not found to be very fast compared to the others. To alleviate this issue, we proposed an adaptive selection approach using a fast deinterlacing algorithm rather than using only one CAD algorithm. The proposed hybrid approach of switching between the conventional schemes (LA and MELA) and our CAD was proposed to reduce the overall computational load. A reliable condition to be used for switching the schemes was presented after a wide set of initial training processes. The results of computer simulations showed that the proposed methods outperformed a number of methods presented in the literature.

  15. Assessment of the Use of AutoCAD in Mechanical Engineering Technical Drawing Education

    OpenAIRE

    Akyürek, Turgut

    2018-01-01

    AutoCAD is one of the widely used software tools in engineering education. In this study, ageneral assessment of AutoCAD for the usage in the mechanical engineering technical drawing educationis made. AutoCAD is assessed in terms of the fulfilment of the requirements defined for the main twotechnical drawing courses. AutoCAD is assessed in terms of its capability in meeting the requirements ofthe technical drawing courses.

  16. Longevity of Single-Tooth All-Ceramic CAD/CAM Restorations: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    to the application of CAD/CAM technology in dentistry . The initial monetary investment for the equipment is significant. Systems currently on the...CURRENT DENTAL CAD/CAM SYSTEMS Current CAD/CAM systems in dentistry include: CEREC (CEramic REConstruction) and CEREC Acquisition Center (AC) with...of Adhesive Dentistry , 1 (3), 255- 265. 42     Bindl A, & Mörmann W. (2002). An up to 5-year clinical evaluation of posterior In- Ceram CAD

  17. The dynamic interaction of order flows and the CAD/USD exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Gradojevic; Christopher J. Neely

    2008-01-01

    We explore the relationship between disaggregated order flow, the Canada/U.S. dollar (CAD/USD) market and U.S. macroeconomic announcements. Three types of CAD order flow and the CAD/USD are cointegrated. Financial order flow appears to contemporaneously drive the CAD/USD while commercial order flow seems to contemporaneously respond to exchange rate movements. Past order flow and lagged exchange rates strongly explain most types of order flow. Despite this predictability and the contemporaneo...

  18. Automation in the Teaching of Descriptive Geometry and CAD. High-Level CAD Templates Using Script Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R.; Bazán, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this work is to study improvements to the learning method of technical drawing and descriptive geometry through exercises with traditional techniques that are usually solved manually by applying automated processes assisted by high-level CAD templates (HLCts). Given that an exercise with traditional procedures can be solved, detailed step by step in technical drawing and descriptive geometry manuals, CAD applications allow us to do the same and generalize it later, incorporating references. Traditional teachings have become obsolete and current curricula have been relegated. However, they can be applied in certain automation processes. The use of geometric references (using variables in script languages) and their incorporation into HLCts allows the automation of drawing processes. Instead of repeatedly creating similar exercises or modifying data in the same exercises, users should be able to use HLCts to generate future modifications of these exercises. This paper introduces the automation process when generating exercises based on CAD script files, aided by parametric geometry calculation tools. The proposed method allows us to design new exercises without user intervention. The integration of CAD, mathematics, and descriptive geometry facilitates their joint learning. Automation in the generation of exercises not only saves time but also increases the quality of the statements and reduces the possibility of human error.

  19. Cam Design Projects in an Advanced CAD Course for Mechanical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present applications of solid modeling aimed at modeling of complex geometries such as splines and blended surfaces in advanced CAD courses. These projects, in CAD-based Mechanical Engineering courses, are focused on the use of the CAD system to solve design problems for applications in machine design, namely the…

  20. CAD-RADS - a new clinical decision support tool for coronary computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldyna, Borek; Szilveszter, Bálint; Scholtz, Jan-Erik; Banerji, Dahlia; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Hoffmann, Udo

    2018-04-01

    Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been established as an accurate method to non-invasively assess coronary artery disease (CAD). The proposed 'Coronary Artery Disease Reporting and Data System' (CAD-RADS) may enable standardised reporting of the broad spectrum of coronary CTA findings related to the presence, extent and composition of coronary atherosclerosis. The CAD-RADS classification is a comprehensive tool for summarising findings on a per-patient-basis dependent on the highest-grade coronary artery lesion, ranging from CAD-RADS 0 (absence of CAD) to CAD-RADS 5 (total occlusion of a coronary artery). In addition, it provides suggestions for clinical management for each classification, including further testing and therapeutic options. Despite some limitations, CAD-RADS may facilitate improved communication between imagers and patient caregivers. As such, CAD-RADS may enable a more efficient use of coronary CTA leading to more accurate utilisation of invasive coronary angiograms. Furthermore, widespread use of CAD-RADS may facilitate registry-based research of diagnostic and prognostic aspects of CTA. • CAD-RADS is a tool for standardising coronary CTA reports. • CAD-RADS includes clinical treatment recommendations based on CTA findings. • CAD-RADS has the potential to reduce variability of CTA reports.

  1. Physico-topological methods of increasing stability of the VLSI circuit components to irradiation. Fiziko-topologhicheskie sposoby uluchsheniya radiatsionnoj stojkosti komponentov BIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereshenkov, V S [MIFI, Moscow, (Russian Federation); Shishianu, F S; Rusanovskij, V I [S. Lazo KPI, Chisinau, (Moldova, Republic of)

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the method used and the experimental results obtained for 8-bit microprocessor irradiated with [gamma]-rays and neutrons. The correlation between the electrical and technological parameters with the irradiation ones is revealed. The influence of leakage current between devices incorporated in VLSI circuits was studied. The obtained results create the possibility to determine the technological parameters necessary for designing the circuit able to work at predetermined doses. The necessary substrate doping concentration for isolation which eliminates the leakage current between devices prevents the VLSI circuit break down was determined. (Author).

  2. Digital VLSI systems design a design manual for implementation of projects on FPGAs and ASICs using Verilog

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, S

    2007-01-01

    Digital VLSI Systems Design is written for an advanced level course using Verilog and is meant for undergraduates, graduates and research scholars of Electrical, Electronics, Embedded Systems, Computer Engineering and interdisciplinary departments such as Bio Medical, Mechanical, Information Technology, Physics, etc. It serves as a reference design manual for practicing engineers and researchers as well. Diligent freelance readers and consultants may also start using this book with ease. The book presents new material and theory as well as synthesis of recent work with complete Project Designs

  3. State-of-the-art assessment of testing and testability of custom LSI/VLSI circuits. Volume 8: Fault simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, M. A.; Carlan, A. J.

    1982-10-01

    Fault simulation is widely used by industry in such applications as scoring the fault coverage of test sequences and construction of fault dictionaries. For use in testing VLSI circuits a simulator is evaluated by its accuracy, i.e., modelling capability. To be accurate simulators must employ multi-valued logic in order to represent unknown signal values, impedance, signal transitions, etc., circuit delays such as transport rise/fall, inertial, and the fault modes it is capable of handling. Of the three basic fault simulators now in use (parallel, deductive and concurrent) concurrent fault simulation appears most promising.

  4. Software planning and analysis for automated design system AutoCAD

    OpenAIRE

    Koskutė, Lina

    2007-01-01

    AutoCAD sistemos papildymas sukurtas tam, kad būtų lengviau ir paprasčiau dirbti su AutoCAD grafine sistema. Funkcijos sukurtos naudojant AutoLisp ir VisualLISP programavimo kalbas. Sistemos papildymą galima įdiegti į bet kurią AutoCAD versiją. Sukurtas papildymas lankstus naujų funkcijų prijungimui, lengvai eksploatuojamas. Funkcijos suskirstytos į keletą grupių pagal jų formatą. AutoCAD system complement is created to make more easy working with AutoCAD graphic system. Functions are crea...

  5. Driving a car with custom-designed fuzzy inferencing VLSI chips and boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Francois G.; Watanabe, Yutaka

    1993-01-01

    Vehicle control in a-priori unknown, unpredictable, and dynamic environments requires many calculational and reasoning schemes to operate on the basis of very imprecise, incomplete, or unreliable data. For such systems, in which all the uncertainties can not be engineered away, approximate reasoning may provide an alternative to the complexity and computational requirements of conventional uncertainty analysis and propagation techniques. Two types of computer boards including custom-designed VLSI chips were developed to add a fuzzy inferencing capability to real-time control systems. All inferencing rules on a chip are processed in parallel, allowing execution of the entire rule base in about 30 microseconds, and therefore, making control of 'reflex-type' of motions envisionable. The use of these boards and the approach using superposition of elemental sensor-based behaviors for the development of qualitative reasoning schemes emulating human-like navigation in a-priori unknown environments are first discussed. Then how the human-like navigation scheme implemented on one of the qualitative inferencing boards was installed on a test-bed platform to investigate two control modes for driving a car in a-priori unknown environments on the basis of sparse and imprecise sensor data is described. In the first mode, the car navigates fully autonomously, while in the second mode, the system acts as a driver's aid providing the driver with linguistic (fuzzy) commands to turn left or right and speed up or slow down depending on the obstacles perceived by the sensors. Experiments with both modes of control are described in which the system uses only three acoustic range (sonar) sensor channels to perceive the environment. Simulation results as well as indoors and outdoors experiments are presented and discussed to illustrate the feasibility and robustness of autonomous navigation and/or safety enhancing driver's aid using the new fuzzy inferencing hardware system and some human

  6. Sound algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De Götzen , Amalia; Mion , Luca; Tache , Olivier

    2007-01-01

    International audience; We call sound algorithms the categories of algorithms that deal with digital sound signal. Sound algorithms appeared in the very infancy of computer. Sound algorithms present strong specificities that are the consequence of two dual considerations: the properties of the digital sound signal itself and its uses, and the properties of auditory perception.

  7. Genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lui; Bayer, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are mathematical, highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Basic genetic algorithms concepts are introduced, genetic algorithm applications are introduced, and results are presented from a project to develop a software tool that will enable the widespread use of genetic algorithm technology.

  8. CDMS: CAD data set system design description. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    This document is intended to formalize the program design of the CAD Data Set Management System (CDMS) and to be the vehicle to communicate the design to the Engineering, Design Services, and Configuration Management organizations and the WHC IRM Analysts/Programmers. The SDD shows how the software system will be structured to satisfy the requirements identified in the WHC-SD-GN-CSRS-30005 CDMS Software Requirement Specification (SRS). It is a description of the software structure, software components, interfaces, and data that make up the CDMS System. The design descriptions contained within this document will describe in detail the software product that will be developed to assist the aforementioned organizations for the express purpose of managing CAD data sets associated with released drawings, replacing the existing locally developed system and laying the foundation for automating the configuration management

  9. Productivity increase through implementation of CAD/CAE workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The tracking and communication division computer aided design/computer aided engineering system is now operational. The system is utilized in an effort to automate certain tasks that were previously performed manually. These tasks include detailed test configuration diagrams of systems under certification test in the ESTL, floorplan layouts of future planned laboratory reconfigurations, and other graphical documentation of division activities. The significant time savings achieved with this CAD/CAE system are examined: (1) input of drawings and diagrams; (2) editing of initial drawings; (3) accessibility of the data; and (4) added versatility. It is shown that the Applicon CAD/CAE system, with its ease of input and editing, the accessibility of data, and its added versatility, has made more efficient many of the necessary but often time-consuming tasks associated with engineering design and testing.

  10. The Role of CAD in Enterprise Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ota

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of the mutual influence between software systems used in enterprise environment and enterprise integration processes. The position of CAD data and CAx systems in the integrated environment of manufacturing enterprises is clarified. As a consequence, the key role of CAx systems used in those companies is emphasized. It is noted that the integration of CAD data is nowadays only on a secondary level, via primarily integrated PDM systems. This limitation is a reason why we are developing a unified communication model focused on product-oriented data. Our approach is based on Internet technologies, so we believe that is independent enough. The proposed system of communication is based on a simple request-replay dialogue. The structure of this model is open and extensible, but we assume supervision supported by an Internet portal.

  11. Application of 3-dimensional CAD modeling system in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Minoru; Saito, Shunji; Nobuhiro, Minoru

    1990-01-01

    Until now, the preliminary work for mutual components in nuclear plant were readied by using plastic models. Recently with the development of computer graphic techniques, we can display the components on the graphics terminal, better than with use of plastic model and actual plants. The computer model can be handled, both telescopically and microscopically. A computer technique called 3-dimensional CAD modeling system was used as the preliminary work and design system. Through application of this system, database for nuclear plants was completed in arrangement step. The data can be used for piping design, stress analysis, shop production, testing and site construction, in all steps. In addition, the data can be used for various planning works, even after starting operation of plant. This paper describes the outline of the 3-dimensional CAD modeling system. (author)

  12. Impact of a CAD system in a screen-film mammography screening program: A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Gómez, S.; Torres Tabanera, M.; Vega Bolivar, A.; Sainz Miranda, M.; Baroja Mazo, A.; Ruiz Diaz, M.; Martinez Miravete, P.; Lag Asturiano, E.; Muñoz Cacho, P.; Delgado Macias, T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to perform a prospective assessment of the impact of a CAD system in a screen-film mammography screening program during a period of 3 years. Materials and methods: Our study was carried out on a population of 21,855 asymptomatic women (45–65 years). Mammograms were processed in a CAD system and independently interpreted by one of six radiologists. We analyzed the following parameters: sensitivity of radiologist's interpretation (without and with CAD), detection increase, recall rate and positive predictive value of biopsy, CAD's marks, radiologist's false negatives and comparative analysis of carcinomas detected and non-detected by CAD. Results: Detection rate was 4.3‰. CAD supposed an increase of 0.1‰ in detection rate and 1% in the total number of cases (p < 0.005). The impact on recall rate was not significant (0.4%) and PPV of percutaneous biopsy was unchanged by CAD (20.23%). CAD's marks were 2.7 per case and 0.7 per view. Radiologist's false negatives were 13 lesions which were initially considered as CAD's false positives. Conclusions: CAD supposed a significant increase in detection, without modifications in recall rates and PPV of biopsy. However, better results could have been achieved if radiologists had considered actionable those cases marked by CAD but initially misinterpreted.

  13. The microcomputer-based expert system in CAD-PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Qin, S.

    1987-01-01

    As a branch of artificial intelligence, expert system has been revealed day after day in more and more engineering scopes since the successful applications of MYCIN in diagnosis and DENDRAL in the molecular structure of organic compounds etc.. But in the design scope of pressure vessel, as we know, only a few papers have so far been published with respect to the expert system. The necessity and feasibility of accompanying CAD-PV with expert system attracted more scholars to engage in. Although many countries, including China, have regularized the design standards or codes for pressure vessel, but of which no one can solve all of the problems concerning the various practical occasions and experiences. In general, the more domain knowledges a design engineer possesses of, the better decision will be made by him. By virtue of the expert system any less experienced engineer could make the optimum decision in design as well as a skilled senior engineer in addition to the application of design code. It is the due significance for developing high level expert system as an intelligence assistant in the plan option of CAD-PV. In this paper we attempt to introduce a specified software JACKPV used in the design procedure of jacketed pressure vessel as an intelligence front in CAD-PV. JACKPV consists of the function of expert system based on the personal computer IBM-PC/XT with the language PASCAL in its program. It was proved that an ordinary CAD software could be effectively improved while equipped with expert system. (orig.)

  14. From CAD to BIM: A New Way to Understand Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Sánchez, Juan Carlos; Mora García, Raúl Tomás; Pérez Sánchez, Vicente Raúl; Piedecausa-García, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, and despite the effects of the economic crisis in the building sector, technicians involved in the architectural process had to adapt themselves to many changes, in search of new job opportunities. In this situation, traditional methods imposed by computer-aided design (CAD) in the development of new projects have evolved towards the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodologies, enabling the control of different aspects such as the design, construction and monito...

  15. Grinding damage assessment for CAD-CAM restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Philippe; Cattani-Lorente, Maria; Anselm Wiskott, H W; Durual, Stéphane; Scherrer, Susanne S

    2017-03-01

    To assess surface/subsurface damage after grinding with diamond discs on five CAD-CAM restorative materials and to estimate potential losses in strength based on crack size measurements of the generated damage. The materials tested were: Lithium disilicate (LIT) glass-ceramic (e.max CAD), leucite glass-ceramic (LEU) (Empress CAD), feldspar ceramic (VM2) (Vita Mark II), feldspar ceramic-resin infiltrated (EN) (Enamic) and a composite reinforced with nano ceramics (LU) (Lava Ultimate). Specimens were cut from CAD-CAM blocs and pair-wise mirror polished for the bonded interface technique. Top surfaces were ground with diamond discs of respectively 75, 54 and 18μm. Chip damage was measured on the bonded interface using SEM. Fracture mechanics relationships were used to estimate fracture stresses based on average and maximum chip depths assuming these to represent strength limiting flaws subjected to tension and to calculate potential losses in strength compared to manufacturer's data. Grinding with a 75μm diamond disc induced on a bonded interface critical chips averaging 100μm with a potential strength loss estimated between 33% and 54% for all three glass-ceramics (LIT, LEU, VM2). The softer materials EN and LU were little damage susceptible with chips averaging respectively 26μm and 17μm with no loss in strength. Grinding with 18μm diamond discs was still quite detrimental for LIT with average chip sizes of 43μm and a potential strength loss of 42%. It is essential to understand that when grinding glass-ceramics or feldspar ceramics with diamond discs surface and subsurface damage are induced which have the potential of lowering the strength of the ceramic. Careful polishing steps should be carried out after grinding especially when dealing with glass-ceramics. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Converting Geometry from Creo Parametric to BRL-CAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-28

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT There exists in vulnerability /lethality analysis an ongoing need to convert target geometries from commercial systems...Contents List of Figures iv 1. Using Commercially Produced Models in Vulnerability /Lethality Analysis 1 2. Installing the Creo to BRL-CAD Converter...distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Using Commercially Produced Models in Vulnerability / Lethality Analysis Vulnerability /lethality (V/L) analysis

  17. CAD And Distributed Manufacturing Solutions for Pellet Boiler Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur Mamut

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is summarizing the research activities that had been carried out for defining an appropriate manufacturing concept and the system architecture for a manufacturing plant of pellet boilers. The concept has been validated through the implementation of a solution of computer integrated manufacturing that includes a CAD platform and a CAM facility including laser cutting machines, rolling and welding machines and advanced technologies for assembly, quality control and testing.

  18. Use of Existing CAD Models for Radiation Shielding Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. T.; Barzilla, J. E.; Wilson, P.; Davis, A.; Zachman, J.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of a radiation exposure analysis depends not only on the accuracy of the underlying particle transport code, but also on the accuracy of the geometric representations of both the vehicle used as radiation shielding mass and the phantom representation of the human form. The current NASA/Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG) process to determine crew radiation exposure in a vehicle design incorporates both output from an analytic High Z and Energy Particle Transport (HZETRN) code and the properties (i.e., material thicknesses) of a previously processed drawing. This geometry pre-process can be time-consuming, and the results are less accurate than those determined using a Monte Carlo-based particle transport code. The current work aims to improve this process. Although several Monte Carlo programs (FLUKA, Geant4) are readily available, most use an internal geometry engine. The lack of an interface with the standard CAD formats used by the vehicle designers limits the ability of the user to communicate complex geometries. Translation of native CAD drawings into a format readable by these transport programs is time consuming and prone to error. The Direct Accelerated Geometry -United (DAGU) project is intended to provide an interface between the native vehicle or phantom CAD geometry and multiple particle transport codes to minimize problem setup, computing time and analysis error.

  19. AutoCAD electrical 2016 for electrical control designers

    CERN Document Server

    Tickoo, Sham

    2016-01-01

    The AutoCAD Electrical 2016 for Electrical Control Designers textbook has been written to assist the engineering students and the practicing designers who are new to AutoCAD Electrical. Using this textbook, the readers can learn the application of basic tools required for creating professional electrical control drawings with the help of AutoCAD Electrical. Keeping in view the varied requirements of the users, this textbook covers a wide range of tools and features such as schematic drawings, Circuit Builder, panel drawings, parametric and nonparametric PLC modules, stand-alone PLC I/O points, ladder diagrams, point-to-point wiring diagrams, report generation, creation of symbols, and so on. This will help the readers to create electrical drawings easily and effectively. Special emphasis has been laid on the introduction of concepts, which have been explained using text and supported with graphical examples. The examples and tutorials used in this book ensure that the users can relate the information provided...

  20. Interoperability of CAD Standards and Robotics in CIME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben

    The research presented in this dissertation concerns the identification of problems and provision of solutions for increasing the degree of interoperability between CAD, CACSD (Computer Aided Control Systems Design) and CAR (Computer Aided Robotics) in Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Engine......The research presented in this dissertation concerns the identification of problems and provision of solutions for increasing the degree of interoperability between CAD, CACSD (Computer Aided Control Systems Design) and CAR (Computer Aided Robotics) in Computer Integrated Manufacturing......· The development of a STEP based interface for general control system data and functions, especially related to robot motion control for interoperability of CAD, CACSD, and CAR systems for the extension of the inter-system communication capabilities beyond the stage achieved up to now.This interface development...... comprehends the following work:· The definition of the concepts of 'information' and 'information model', and the selection of a proper information modeling methodology within the STEP methodologies.· The elaboration of a general function model of a generic robot motion controller in IDEF0 for interface...

  1. ROCK-CAD - computer aided geological modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.

    1995-12-01

    The study discusses surface and solid modelling methods, their use and interfacing with geodata. Application software named ROCK-CAD suitable for geological bedrock modelling has been developed with support from Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). It has been utilized in the Finnish site characterization programme for spent nuclear fuel waste disposal during the 1980s and 1990s. The system is based on the solid modelling technique. It comprises also rich functionality for the particular geological modelling scheme. The ROCK-CAD system provides, among other things, varying graphical vertical and horizontal intersections and perspective illustrations. The specially developed features are the application of the boundary representation modelling method, parametric object generation language and the discipline approach. The ROCK-CAD system has been utilized in modelling spatial distribution of rock types and fracturing structures in TVO's site characterization. The Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki serves as an example case. The study comprises the description of the modelling process, models and illustration examples. The utilization of bedrock models in site characterization, in tentative repository siting as well as in groundwater flow simulation is depicted. The application software has improved the assessment of the sites studied, given a new basis for the documentation of interpretation and modelling work, substituted hand-drawing and enabled digital transfer to numerical analysis. Finally, aspects of presentation graphics in geological modelling are considered. (84 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.)

  2. Strategies for the Curation of CAD Engineering Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Patel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 Product Lifecycle Management (PLM has become increasingly important in the engineering community over the last decade or so, due to the globalisation of markets and the rising popularity of products provided as services. It demands the efficient capture, representation, organisation, retrieval and reuse of product data over its entire life. Simultaneously, there is now a much greater reliance on CAD models for communicating designs to manufacturers, builders, maintenance crews and regulators, and for definitively expressing designs. Creating the engineering record digitally, however, presents problems not only for its long-term maintenance and accessibility - due in part to the rapid obsolescence of the hardware, software and file formats involved - but also for recording the evolution of designs, artefacts and products. We examine the curation and preservation requirements in PLM and suggest ways of alleviating the problems of sustaining CAD engineering models through the use of lightweight formats, layered annotation and the collection of Representation Information as defined in the Open Archival Information System (OAIS Reference Model.  We describe two tools which have been specifically developed to aid in the curation of CAD engineering models in the context of PLM: Lightweight Models with Multilayered Annotation (LiMMA and a Registry/Repository of Representation Information for Engineering (RRoRIfE.

  3. Sophistication and integration of plant engineering CAD-CAE systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Toshiaki; Hanyu, Masaharu; Ota, Yoshimi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro.

    1995-01-01

    In respective departments in charge of basic planning, design, manufacture, inspection and construction of nuclear power plants, by the positive utilization of CAD/CAE system, efficient workings have been advanced. This time, the plant integrated CAE system wich heightens the function of these individual systems, and can make workings efficient and advanced by unifying and integrating them was developed. This system is composed of the newly developed application system and the data base system which enables the unified management of engineering data and high speed data conversion in addition to the CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning. On the basis of the rich experience and the proposal of improvement of designers by the application of the CAD system for three-dimensional plant layout planning to actual machines, the automation, speed increase and the visualization of input and output by graphical user interface (GUI) in the processing of respective applications were made feasible. As the advancement of plant CAE system, scenic engineering system, integrated layout CAE system, electric instrumentation design CAE system and construction planning CAE system are described. As for the integration of plant CAE systems, the integrated engineering data base, the combination of plant CAE systems, and the operation management in the dispersed environment of networks are reported. At present, Hitachi Ltd. exerts efforts for the construction of atomic energy product in formation integrated management system as the second stage of integration. (K.I.)

  4. Fabricating Complete Dentures with CAD/CAM and RP Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Mehmet Selim; Erdem, Ali; Aglarci, Osman Sami; Dilber, Erhan

    2015-06-01

    Two techological approaches for fabricating dentures; computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) and rapid prototyping (RP), are combined with the conventional techniques of impression and jaw relation recording to determine their feasibility and applicability. Maxillary and mandibular edentulous jaw models were produced using silicone molds. After obtaining a gypsum working model, acrylic bases were crafted, and occlusal rims for each model were fabricated with previously determined standard vertical and centric relationships. The maxillary and mandibular relationships were recorded with guides. The occlusal rims were then scanned with a digital scanner. The alignment of the maxillary and mandibular teeth was verified. The teeth in each arch were fabricated in one piece, or set, either by CAM or RP. Conventional waxing and flasking was then performed for both methods. These techniques obviate a practitioner's need for technicians during design and provide the patient with an opportunity to participate in esthetic design with the dentist. In addition, CAD/CAM and RP reduce chair time; however, the materials and techniques need further improvements. Both CAD/CAM and RP techniques seem promising for reducing chair time and allowing the patient to participate in esthetics design. Furthermore, the one-set aligned artificial tooth design may increase the acrylic's durability. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. Ovulation leads women to perceive sexy cads as good dads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Kristina M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Simpson, Jeffry A; Cantú, Stephanie M; Li, Norman P

    2012-08-01

    Why do some women pursue relationships with men who are attractive, dominant, and charming but who do not want to be in relationships--the prototypical sexy cad? Previous research shows that women have an increased desire for such men when they are ovulating, but it is unclear why ovulating women would think it is wise to pursue men who may be unfaithful and could desert them. Using both college-age and community-based samples, in 3 studies we show that ovulating women perceive charismatic and physically attractive men, but not reliable and nice men, as more committed partners and more devoted future fathers. Ovulating women perceive that sexy cads would be good fathers to their own children but not to the children of other women. This ovulatory-induced perceptual shift is driven by women who experienced early onset of puberty. Taken together, the current research identifies a novel proximate reason why ovulating women pursue relationships with sexy cads, complementing existing research that identifies the ultimate, evolutionary reasons for this behavior.

  6. A Near-Lossless Image Compression Algorithm Suitable for Hardware Design in Wireless Endoscopy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to decrease the communication bandwidth and save the transmitting power in the wireless endoscopy capsule, this paper presents a new near-lossless image compression algorithm based on the Bayer format image suitable for hardware design. This algorithm can provide low average compression rate ( bits/pixel with high image quality (larger than dB for endoscopic images. Especially, it has low complexity hardware overhead (only two line buffers and supports real-time compressing. In addition, the algorithm can provide lossless compression for the region of interest (ROI and high-quality compression for other regions. The ROI can be selected arbitrarily by varying ROI parameters. In addition, the VLSI architecture of this compression algorithm is also given out. Its hardware design has been implemented in m CMOS process.

  7. Evaluation of mechanical and optical behavior of current esthetic dental restorative CAD/CAM composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Liebermann, Anja; Eichberger, Marlis; Güth, Jan-Frederik

    2015-03-01

    To determine the mechanical and optical properties of CAD/CAM composites (LAVA Ultimate, Cerasmart, Shofu Block and two exp. CAD/CAM composites), a hybrid material (VITA Enamic), a leucite (IPS Empress CAD) and a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD). Three-point flexural strength (FS) was investigated according ISO 6872:2008 (N=240/n=30). Two-body wear (TBW) was analyzed in a chewing simulator (1,200,000 cycles, 50N, 5°/55°C) using human teeth as antagonists (N=120/n=15). Quantitative analysis of wear was carried out with a 3D-scanner and associated matching software. Discoloration rate (DR) after 14 days of storage in cress, curry, red wine, and distilled water (N=384/n=12), and translucency (T) (N=384/n=48) of CAD/CAM materials were measured in a spectrophotometer (400-700nm wavelength). Data were analyzed using two-/one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc test, Kruskal-Wallis-H test, and linear mixed models (α=0.05). IPS e.max CAD showed the highest FS (pCAD/CAM composites (exception: Shofu Block). The lowest FS showed VITA Enamic and IPS Empress CAD (pCAD, VITA Enamic, exp. CAD/CAM composite 2, followed by IPS e.max presented lower material TBW than the remaining CAD/CAM materials (pcurry>cress>distilled water) exerted the highest influence on DR (pCAD/CAM material. Glass-ceramics showed lower DR than CAD/CAM composites (pCAD/CAM composites presented moderate FS, high T and antagonist friendly behavior. Glass-ceramic demonstrated the most favorable DR and lowest TBW on the material side. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of CAD-Based Geometry Processing Module for a Monte Carlo Particle Transport Analysis Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Hoon; Kwark, Min Su; Shim, Hyung Jin

    2012-01-01

    As The Monte Carlo (MC) particle transport analysis for a complex system such as research reactor, accelerator, and fusion facility may require accurate modeling of the complicated geometry. Its manual modeling by using the text interface of a MC code to define the geometrical objects is tedious, lengthy and error-prone. This problem can be overcome by taking advantage of modeling capability of the computer aided design (CAD) system. There have been two kinds of approaches to develop MC code systems utilizing the CAD data: the external format conversion and the CAD kernel imbedded MC simulation. The first approach includes several interfacing programs such as McCAD, MCAM, GEOMIT etc. which were developed to automatically convert the CAD data into the MCNP geometry input data. This approach makes the most of the existing MC codes without any modifications, but implies latent data inconsistency due to the difference of the geometry modeling system. In the second approach, a MC code utilizes the CAD data for the direct particle tracking or the conversion to an internal data structure of the constructive solid geometry (CSG) and/or boundary representation (B-rep) modeling with help of a CAD kernel. MCNP-BRL and OiNC have demonstrated their capabilities of the CAD-based MC simulations. Recently we have developed a CAD-based geometry processing module for the MC particle simulation by using the OpenCASCADE (OCC) library. In the developed module, CAD data can be used for the particle tracking through primitive CAD surfaces (hereafter the CAD-based tracking) or the internal conversion to the CSG data structure. In this paper, the performances of the text-based model, the CAD-based tracking, and the internal CSG conversion are compared by using an in-house MC code, McSIM, equipped with the developed CAD-based geometry processing module

  9. An Asynchronous Low Power and High Performance VLSI Architecture for Viterbi Decoder Implemented with Quasi Delay Insensitive Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kalavathi Devi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Convolutional codes are comprehensively used as Forward Error Correction (FEC codes in digital communication systems. For decoding of convolutional codes at the receiver end, Viterbi decoder is often used to have high priority. This decoder meets the demand of high speed and low power. At present, the design of a competent system in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI technology requires these VLSI parameters to be finely defined. The proposed asynchronous method focuses on reducing the power consumption of Viterbi decoder for various constraint lengths using asynchronous modules. The asynchronous designs are based on commonly used Quasi Delay Insensitive (QDI templates, namely, Precharge Half Buffer (PCHB and Weak Conditioned Half Buffer (WCHB. The functionality of the proposed asynchronous design is simulated and verified using Tanner Spice (TSPICE in 0.25 µm, 65 nm, and 180 nm technologies of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacture Company (TSMC. The simulation result illustrates that the asynchronous design techniques have 25.21% of power reduction compared to synchronous design and work at a speed of 475 MHz.

  10. Peningkatan Prestasi Belajar CAD Mahasiswa Teknik Otomotif Non-Reguler FT UNY melalui Pembuatan “Pohon Kata” Perintah dalam Program AutoCAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martubi Martubi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan meningkatkan prestasi belajar mata kuliah Computer Aided Design (CAD mahasiswa prodi Teknik Otomotif Non-Reguler yang dinyatakan dalam bentuk rerata nilai akhir semester yang berasal dari komponen nilai tugas harian, nilai ujian tengah semester dan nilai ujian akhir semester. Penelitian quasi-eksperimen ini terdiri dari tahapan penelitian diawali dengan penyusunan materi pembelajaran sejumlah pokok bahasan tertentu dalam satu job sheet (lembar kerja, dilanjutkan dengan pembuatan bantuan “Pohon Kata” perintah dalam Auto CAD kepada kelas eksperimen yang ditentukan secara random dari dua kelas peserta kuliah Auto CAD pada Semester Genap 2008/2009. Kedua kelas diamati prestasinya, baik kecepatan penyelesaiannya maupun kualitas kebenaran gambarnya. Prestasi belajar kedua kelas juga diukur melalui pemberian ujian tengah semester dan ujian akhir semester. Setelah data prestasi kedua kelas terkumpul dilanjutkan dengan analisis statistik melalui uji beda (t-test setelah sebelumnya dilakukan uji persyaratan analisis yang ternyata dapat dipenuhi. Hasil penelitian ini disimpulkan bahwa: prestasi belajar CAD mahasiswa pada kelas yang diberi perlakuan strategi pembelajaran menggunakan “Pohon Kata” perintah dalam Program Auto CAD lebih baik dibanding prestasi belajar CAD mahasiswa pada kelas yang tidak diberi perlakuan (75,41>70,89, dengan demikian pembelajaran CAD menggunakan media “Pohon Kata” perintah dalam Program Auto CAD dapat meningkatkan prestasi belajar mahasiswa Teknik Otomotif Program Non-Reguler.

  11. Algorithmic cryptanalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Joux, Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Illustrating the power of algorithms, Algorithmic Cryptanalysis describes algorithmic methods with cryptographically relevant examples. Focusing on both private- and public-key cryptographic algorithms, it presents each algorithm either as a textual description, in pseudo-code, or in a C code program.Divided into three parts, the book begins with a short introduction to cryptography and a background chapter on elementary number theory and algebra. It then moves on to algorithms, with each chapter in this section dedicated to a single topic and often illustrated with simple cryptographic applic

  12. INTEGRATION OF VIDEO IMAGES AND CAD WIREFRAMES FOR 3D OBJECT LOCALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Persad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of moving objects from single images has received widespread attention in photogrammetric computer vision and considered to be at a state of maturity. This paper presents a model-driven solution for localizing moving objects detected from monocular, rotating and zooming video images in a 3D reference frame. To realize such a system, the recovery of 2D to 3D projection parameters is essential. Automatic estimation of these parameters is critical, particularly for pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ surveillance cameras where parameters change spontaneously upon camera motion. In this work, an algorithm for automated parameter retrieval is proposed. This is achieved by matching linear features between incoming images from video sequences and simple geometric 3D CAD wireframe models of man-made structures. The feature matching schema uses a hypothesis-verify optimization framework referred to as LR-RANSAC. This novel method improves the computational efficiency of the matching process in comparison to the standard RANSAC robust estimator. To demonstrate the applicability and performance of the method, experiments have been performed on indoor and outdoor image sequences under varying conditions with lighting changes and occlusions. Reliability of the matching algorithm has been analyzed by comparing the automatically determined camera parameters with ground truth (GT. Dependability of the retrieved parameters for 3D localization has also been assessed by comparing the difference between 3D positions of moving image objects estimated using the LR-RANSAC-derived parameters and those computed using GT parameters.

  13. Computer-aided detection (CAD) in mammography: Does it help the junior or the senior radiologist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balleyguier, Corinne; Kinkel, Karen; Fermanian, Jacques; Malan, Sebastien; Djen, Germaine; Taourel, Patrice; Helenon, Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system on the ability of a junior and senior radiologist to detect breast cancers on mammograms, and to determine the potential of CAD as a teaching tool in mammography. Methods: Hundred biopsy-proven cancers and 100 normal mammograms were randomly analyzed by a CAD system. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the CAD system were calculated. In the second phase, to simulate daily practice, 110 mammograms (97 normal or with benign lesions, and 13 cancers) were examined independently by a junior and a senior radiologist, with and without CAD. Interpretations were standardized according to BI-RADS classification. Sensitivity, Specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated for each session. Results: For the senior radiologist, Se slightly improved from 76.9 to 84.6% after CAD analysis (NS) (one case of clustered microcalcifications case overlooked by the senior radiologist was detected by CAD). Sp, PPV and PNV did not change significantly. For the junior radiologist, Se improved from 61.9 to 84.6% (significant change). Three cancers overlooked by the junior radiologist were detected by CAD. Sp was unchanged. Conclusion: CAD mammography proved more useful for the junior than for the senior radiologist, improving sensitivity. The CAD system may represent a useful educational tool for mammography

  14. Comparative assessment of different approaches for the use of CAD geometry in Monte Carlo transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinhorst, Bastian; Fischer, Ulrich; Lu, Lei; Qiu, Yuefeng; Wilson, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of different approaches for the use of CAD geometry for Monte Carlo transport calculations. • Comparison with regard to user-friendliness and computation performance. • Three approaches, namely conversion with McCad, unstructured mesh feature of MCN6 and DAGMC. • Installation most complex for DAGMC, model preparation worst for McCad, computation performance worst for MCNP6. • Installation easiest for McCad, model preparation best for MCNP6, computation speed fastest for McCad. - Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is an important industrial way to produce high quality designs. Therefore, CAD geometries are in general used for engineering and the design of complex facilities like the ITER tokamak. Although Monte Carlo codes like MCNP are well suited to handle the complex 3D geometry of ITER for transport calculations, they rely on their own geometry description and are in general not able to directly use the CAD geometry. In this paper, three different approaches for the use of CAD geometries with MCNP calculations are investigated and assessed with regard to calculation performance and user-friendliness. The first method is the conversion of the CAD geometry into MCNP geometry employing the conversion software McCad developed by KIT. The second approach utilizes the MCNP6 mesh geometry feature for the particle tracking and relies on the conversion of the CAD geometry into a mesh model. The third method employs DAGMC, developed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, for the direct particle tracking on the CAD geometry using a patched version of MCNP. The obtained results show that each method has its advantages depending on the complexity and size of the model, the calculation problem considered, and the expertise of the user.

  15. Comparative assessment of different approaches for the use of CAD geometry in Monte Carlo transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhorst, Bastian, E-mail: bastian.weinhorst@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Fischer, Ulrich; Lu, Lei; Qiu, Yuefeng [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Wilson, Paul [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Computational Nuclear Engineering Research Group, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of different approaches for the use of CAD geometry for Monte Carlo transport calculations. • Comparison with regard to user-friendliness and computation performance. • Three approaches, namely conversion with McCad, unstructured mesh feature of MCN6 and DAGMC. • Installation most complex for DAGMC, model preparation worst for McCad, computation performance worst for MCNP6. • Installation easiest for McCad, model preparation best for MCNP6, computation speed fastest for McCad. - Abstract: Computer aided design (CAD) is an important industrial way to produce high quality designs. Therefore, CAD geometries are in general used for engineering and the design of complex facilities like the ITER tokamak. Although Monte Carlo codes like MCNP are well suited to handle the complex 3D geometry of ITER for transport calculations, they rely on their own geometry description and are in general not able to directly use the CAD geometry. In this paper, three different approaches for the use of CAD geometries with MCNP calculations are investigated and assessed with regard to calculation performance and user-friendliness. The first method is the conversion of the CAD geometry into MCNP geometry employing the conversion software McCad developed by KIT. The second approach utilizes the MCNP6 mesh geometry feature for the particle tracking and relies on the conversion of the CAD geometry into a mesh model. The third method employs DAGMC, developed by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, for the direct particle tracking on the CAD geometry using a patched version of MCNP. The obtained results show that each method has its advantages depending on the complexity and size of the model, the calculation problem considered, and the expertise of the user.

  16. Are unnecessary follow-up procedures induced by computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in mammography? Comparison of mammographic diagnosis with and without use of CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, Christiane; Malich, Ansgar; Facius, Mirjam; Grebenstein, Uta; Sauner, Dieter; Pfleiderer, Stefan O.R.; Kaiser, Werner A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the rate of unnecessary follow-up procedures recommended by radiologists using a CAD-system. Materials and methods: 185 patients (740 images) were consecutively selected from three groups (36 histologically proven cancers=group 1; 49 histologically proven benign lesions=group 2 and 100 screening cases (4 years-follow up=group 3). Mammograms were evaluated by a CAD system (Second Look [reg] , CADx, Canada). Five blinded radiologists assessed the images without/with CAD outputs. Diagnostic decisions were ranked from surely benign to surely malignant according to BIRADS classification, follow-up procedures were recommended for each observed lesion (a, screening; b, short interval follow-up examination in 6 months; c, pathologic clarification). Results: CAD-system detected 32/36 cancers (88.9%) (FP-rate: 1.04 massmarks and 0.27 calcmarks/image). The following values were reached by all observers without/with CAD in the mean: Sensitivity 80.6/80.0%, specificity 83.2/86.4%, PPV 53.1/58.1%, and NPV 94.6/94.7%. Observers described a similar number of additional lesions without/with the use of CAD (325/326). Whereas the number of unnecessary short-time follow up recommendations increased in all case-subgroups with CAD: 40.8/42.9% (group 1), 35.6/38.1% (group 2), 44.7/46.8% (group 3), respectively, the number of recommended biopsies decreased in all subgroups: group 1: 34.7/27.1%; group 2: 47.4/41.5%, group 3: 33.3/22.0%, respectively. Conclusion: In this rather small population additional usage of CAD led to a lower rate of unnecessary biopsies. The observed decrease of recommended unnecessary biopsies due to the usage of CAD in the screening group suggests a potential financial benefit by using CAD as diagnostic aid

  17. Algorithmic mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hougardy, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms play an increasingly important role in nearly all fields of mathematics. This book allows readers to develop basic mathematical abilities, in particular those concerning the design and analysis of algorithms as well as their implementation. It presents not only fundamental algorithms like the sieve of Eratosthenes, the Euclidean algorithm, sorting algorithms, algorithms on graphs, and Gaussian elimination, but also discusses elementary data structures, basic graph theory, and numerical questions. In addition, it provides an introduction to programming and demonstrates in detail how to implement algorithms in C++. This textbook is suitable for students who are new to the subject and covers a basic mathematical lecture course, complementing traditional courses on analysis and linear algebra. Both authors have given this "Algorithmic Mathematics" course at the University of Bonn several times in recent years.

  18. TH-AB-207A-12: CT Lung Cancer Screening and the Effects of Further Dose Reduction On CAD Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, S; Lo, P; Hoffman, J; Kim, H; Hsu, W; Flores, C; Lee, G; Brown, M; McNitt-Gray, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: CT lung screening is already performed at low doses. In this study, we investigated the effects of further dose reduction on a lung-nodule CAD detection algorithm. Methods: The original raw CT data and images from 348 patients were obtained from our local database of National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) cases. 61 patients (17.5%) had at least one nodule reported on the NLST reader forms. All scans were acquired with fixed mAs (25 for standard-sized patients, 40 for large patients) on a 64-slice scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens Healthcare). All images were reconstructed with 1-mm slice thickness, B50 kernel. Based on a previously-published technique, we added noise to the raw data to simulate reduced-dose versions of each case at 50% and 25% of the original NLST dose (i.e. approximately 1.0 and 0.5 mGy CTDIvol). For each case at each dose level, a CAD detection algorithm was run and nodules greater than 4 mm in diameter were reported. These CAD results were compared to “truth”, defined as the approximate nodule centroids from the NLST forms. Sensitivities and false-positive rates (FPR) were calculated for each dose level, with a sub-analysis by nodule LungRADS category. Results: For larger category 4 nodules, median sensitivities were 100% at all three dose levels, and mean sensitivity decreased with dose. For the more challenging category 2 and 3 nodules, the dose dependence was less obvious. Overall, mean subject-level sensitivity varied from 38.5% at 100% dose to 40.4% at 50% dose, a difference of only 1.9%. However, median FPR quadrupled from 1 per case at 100% dose to 4 per case at 25% dose. Conclusions: Dose reduction affected nodule detectability differently depending on the LungRADS category, and FPR was very sensitive at sub-screening levels. Care should be taken to adapt CAD for the very challenging noise characteristics of screening. Funding support: NIH U01 CA181156; Disclosures (McNitt-Gray): Institutional research agreement, Siemens

  19. TH-AB-207A-12: CT Lung Cancer Screening and the Effects of Further Dose Reduction On CAD Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, S; Lo, P; Hoffman, J; Kim, H; Hsu, W; Flores, C; Lee, G; Brown, M; McNitt-Gray, M [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: CT lung screening is already performed at low doses. In this study, we investigated the effects of further dose reduction on a lung-nodule CAD detection algorithm. Methods: The original raw CT data and images from 348 patients were obtained from our local database of National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) cases. 61 patients (17.5%) had at least one nodule reported on the NLST reader forms. All scans were acquired with fixed mAs (25 for standard-sized patients, 40 for large patients) on a 64-slice scanner (Sensation 64, Siemens Healthcare). All images were reconstructed with 1-mm slice thickness, B50 kernel. Based on a previously-published technique, we added noise to the raw data to simulate reduced-dose versions of each case at 50% and 25% of the original NLST dose (i.e. approximately 1.0 and 0.5 mGy CTDIvol). For each case at each dose level, a CAD detection algorithm was run and nodules greater than 4 mm in diameter were reported. These CAD results were compared to “truth”, defined as the approximate nodule centroids from the NLST forms. Sensitivities and false-positive rates (FPR) were calculated for each dose level, with a sub-analysis by nodule LungRADS category. Results: For larger category 4 nodules, median sensitivities were 100% at all three dose levels, and mean sensitivity decreased with dose. For the more challenging category 2 and 3 nodules, the dose dependence was less obvious. Overall, mean subject-level sensitivity varied from 38.5% at 100% dose to 40.4% at 50% dose, a difference of only 1.9%. However, median FPR quadrupled from 1 per case at 100% dose to 4 per case at 25% dose. Conclusions: Dose reduction affected nodule detectability differently depending on the LungRADS category, and FPR was very sensitive at sub-screening levels. Care should be taken to adapt CAD for the very challenging noise characteristics of screening. Funding support: NIH U01 CA181156; Disclosures (McNitt-Gray): Institutional research agreement, Siemens

  20. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  1. WE-E-217A-01: CAD: Quality Assurance of CAD Systems Implemented in Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Z

    2012-06-01

    We propose a new metric called Distance Discordance (DD), which is defined as the distance between two anatomic points from two moving images, which are co-located on some reference image, when deformed onto another reference image. To demonstrate the concept of DD, we created a reference software phantom which contains two objects. The first object (1) consists of a hollow box with a fixed size core and variable wall thickness. The second object (2) consists of a solid box of fixed size and arbitrary location. 7 different variations of the fixed phantom were created. Each phantom was deformed onto every other phantom using two B-Spline DIR algorithms available in Elastix and Plastimatch. Voxels were sampled from the reference phantom [1], which were also deformed from moving phantoms [2…6], and we find the differences in their corresponding location on phantom [7]. Each voxel results in a distribution of DD values, which we call distance discordance histogram (DDH). We also demonstrate this concept in 8 Head & Neck patients. The two image registration algorithms produced two different DD results for the same phantom image set. The mean values of the DDH were slightly lower for Elastix (0-1.28 cm) as compared to the values produced by Plastimatch (0-1.43 cm). The combined DDH for the H&N patients followed a lognormal distribution with a mean of 0.45 cm and std. deviation of 0.42 cm. The proposed distance discordance (DD) metric is an easily interpretable, quantitative tool that can be used to evaluate the effect of inter-patient variability on the goodness of the registration in different parts of the patient anatomy. Therefore, it can be utilized to exclude certain images based on their DDH characteristics. In addition, this metric does not rely on 'ground truth' or the presence of contoured structures. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, P.

    1984-01-01

    The history of CAD/CAM and scientific data management at Dassault are presented. Emphasis is put on the targets of the now commercially available software CATIA. The links with scientific computations such as aerodynamics and structural analysis are presented. Comments are made on the principles followed within the company. The consequences of the approximative nature of scientific data are examined. Consequence of the new history function is mainly its protection against copy or alteration. Future plans at Dassault for scientific data appear to be in opposite directions compared to some general tendencies.

  3. Automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R. Glenn; Blanchard, Mary

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge base development requires a substantial investment in time, money, and resources in order to capture the knowledge and information necessary for anything other than trivial applications. This paper addresses a means to integrate the design and knowledge base development process through automated knowledge base development from CAD/CAE databases and files. Benefits of this approach include the development of a more efficient means of knowledge engineering, resulting in the timely creation of large knowledge based systems that are inherently free of error.

  4. AutoCAD Civil 3D 2014 essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Quickly learn essential Civil 3D tools and techniques Get a thorough introduction to AutoCAD Civil 3D, the industry-leading engineering software used to design roads, highways, subdivisions, drainage and sewer systems, and more. This Autodesk Official Press book is a unique learning resource that features concise, straightforward explanations and real-world, hands-on exercises and tutorials. With compelling full-color screenshots and approachable exercises that demonstrate core features and functions, the book helps you gain understanding and confidence as you master this premiere

  5. Performance of fusion algorithms for computer-aided detection and classification of mines in very shallow water obtained from testing in navy Fleet Battle Exercise-Hotel 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciany, Charles M.; Zurawski, William; Kerfoot, Ian

    2001-10-01

    The performance of Computer Aided Detection/Computer Aided Classification (CAD/CAC) Fusion algorithms on side-scan sonar images was evaluated using data taken at the Navy's's Fleet Battle Exercise-Hotel held in Panama City, Florida, in August 2000. A 2-of-3 binary fusion algorithm is shown to provide robust performance. The algorithm accepts the classification decisions and associated contact locations form three different CAD/CAC algorithms, clusters the contacts based on Euclidian distance, and then declares a valid target when a clustered contact is declared by at least 2 of the 3 individual algorithms. This simple binary fusion provided a 96 percent probability of correct classification at a false alarm rate of 0.14 false alarms per image per side. The performance represented a 3.8:1 reduction in false alarms over the best performing single CAD/CAC algorithm, with no loss in probability of correct classification.

  6. Innovation problems of new technologies - the introduction of CAD to mechnical engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riehm, U; Rader, M

    1982-01-01

    The introduction of CAD (computer aided design) is accompanied by uncertainties in the estimation of the needs, the effectivity and the consequence of the application of CAD. Similar uncertainties have also been observed in the past during the introduction of NC-tooling machines. These problems can be solved by a parallel scientific evaluation of the experience made. This is the main purpose of a social science study accomaniing the introduction of CAD, which is presented here.

  7. Introduction of effect and consideration of the introduction of CAD/CAM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Man Ok

    1984-12-01

    This reports introduction of effect and consideration of the introduction of computer-aided design and computer aided manufacturing system. It includes outline of CAD/CAM system like definition, classification, system kinds, and development process of CAD/CAM system, technology, market trend development prospect, and value on introduction of this system, and current application of CAD/CAM system in major application area, development countries and Korea.

  8. Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collabora- tion avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  9. Séminaire de l'enseignement technique : Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006

    - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    Davide Vitè

    2005-01-01

    Jeudi 17 novembre 2005 de 14:30 à 16:30 - Training Centre Auditorium, Bât 593 Forum AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 CADSCHOOL, CH-1207 GENEVE, Suisse Ce nouveau séminaire de l'Enseignement technique, organisé en forme de forum et en collaboration avec TS-MME et notre entreprise partenaire en formation, sera consacré à la présentation de la nouvelle version d'AutoCAD, AutoCAD 2006 et AutoCAD Mechanical 2006, disponible au CERN. Au programme : Présentation d'AutoCAD Mechanical 2006 Améliorations par rapport à AutoCAD Mechanical 6 Power Pack Questions - Réponses Langue: Français. Séminaire libre, sans inscription. Organisateurs: Manfred Mayer / TS-MME / 74499 ; Davide Vitè / HR-PMD / 75141 Pour plus d'information, veuillez SVP visiter les pages des Séminaires de l'Enseignement Technique à l'adresse http://www.cern.ch/TechnicalTraining/special/TTseminars.asp . ENSEIGNEMENT TECHNIQUE TECHNICAL TRAINING technical.training@cern.ch

  10. Stable reduced-order models of generalized dynamical systems using coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, L.M.; Kamon, M.; Elfadel, I.; White, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Model order reduction based on Krylov subspace iterative methods has recently emerged as a major tool for compressing the number of states in linear models used for simulating very large physical systems (VLSI circuits, electromagnetic interactions). There are currently two main methods for accomplishing such a compression: one is based on the nonsymmetric look-ahead Lanczos algorithm that gives a numerically stable procedure for finding Pade approximations, while the other is based on a less well characterized Arnoldi algorithm. In this paper, we show that for certain classes of generalized state-space systems, the reduced-order models produced by a coordinate-transformed Arnoldi algorithm inherit the stability of the original system. Complete Proofs of our results will be given in the final paper.

  11. CAD-based Monte Carlo automatic modeling method based on primitive solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Song, Jing; Yu, Shengpeng; Long, Pengcheng; Wang, Yongliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a method which bi-convert between CAD model and primitive solid. • This method was improved from convert method between CAD model and half space. • This method was test by ITER model and validated the correctness and efficiency. • This method was integrated in SuperMC which could model for SuperMC and Geant4. - Abstract: Monte Carlo method has been widely used in nuclear design and analysis, where geometries are described with primitive solids. However, it is time consuming and error prone to describe a primitive solid geometry, especially for a complicated model. To reuse the abundant existed CAD models and conveniently model with CAD modeling tools, an automatic modeling method for accurate prompt modeling between CAD model and primitive solid is needed. An automatic modeling method for Monte Carlo geometry described by primitive solid was developed which could bi-convert between CAD model and Monte Carlo geometry represented by primitive solids. While converting from CAD model to primitive solid model, the CAD model was decomposed into several convex solid sets, and then corresponding primitive solids were generated and exported. While converting from primitive solid model to the CAD model, the basic primitive solids were created and related operation was done. This method was integrated in the SuperMC and was benchmarked with ITER benchmark model. The correctness and efficiency of this method were demonstrated.

  12. Association of rs662799 in APOA5 with CAD in Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua; Ding, Shifang; Zhou, Mi; Wu, Xiayin; Liu, Xi; Wu, Yun; Liu, Dechao

    2018-01-08

    CAD (Coronary Artery Disease) is a complex disease that influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. Previous studies have found many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the risk of CAD occurrence. However, the results are inconsistent. In this study, we aim to investigate genetic etiology in Chinese Han population by analysis of 7 SNPs in lipid metabolism pathway that previously has been reported to be associated with CAD. A total of 631 samples were used in this study, including 435 CAD cases and 196 normal healthy controls. SNP genotyping were conducted via multiplex PCR amplifying followed by NGS (next-generation sequencing). Rs662799 in APOA5 (Apolipoprotein A5) gene was associated with CAD in Chinese Han population (Odds-ratio = 1.374, P-value = 0.03). No significant association was observed between the rest of SNPs and CAD. Stratified association analysis revealed rs5882 was associated with CAD in non-hypertension group (Odds-ratio = 1.593, P-value = 0.023). Rs1800588 was associated with CAD in smoking group (Odds-ratio = 1.603, P-value = 0.035). The minor allele of rs662799 was the risk factor of CAD occurrences in Chinese Han population.

  13. Up and running with AutoCAD 2013 2D and 3D drawing and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gindis, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    Gindis introduces AutoCAD with step by step instructions, stripping away complexities to  begin working in AutoCAD immediately.  All concepts are explained first in theory, and then shown in practice, helping the reader understand what it is they are doing and why, before they do it. Divided into three parts, the book covers beginning through advanced AutoCAD, including 3D features.  Also included is an extensive Appendix for each part, detailing additional useful CAD-related information not often found in other text books The book contains support

  14. BombCAD - A new tool for bomb defense in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, D.J.; Howard, J.W.; Sturm, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new tool for analysis of the specific vulnerability of diverse facilites to bomb attack and for computer-aided-design (CAD) of siting, screening and hardening/softening aspects of comprehensive bomb defense programs. BombCAD combines the extensive architectural and engineering data base and graphics capabilities of modern architectural CAD systems with the bomb effects computational capability of the ''SECUREPLAN'' BOMB UTILITY. BombCAD permits architects/engineers, security professionals and facility managers to analytically estimate and graphically display facility vulnerability and changes (reductions) in vulnerability which result from the adoption of various bomb defense measures

  15. Deactivation of the E. coli pH stress sensor CadC by cadaverine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneburger, Ina; Fritz, Georg; Jurkschat, Nicole; Tetsch, Larissa; Eichinger, Andreas; Skerra, Arne; Gerland, Ulrich; Jung, Kirsten

    2012-11-23

    At acidic pH and in the presence of lysine, the pH sensor CadC activates transcription of the cadBA operon encoding the lysine/cadaverine antiporter CadB and the lysine decarboxylase CadA. In effect, these proteins contribute to acid stress adaptation in Escherichia coli. cadBA expression is feedback inhibited by cadaverine, and a cadaverine binding site is predicted within the central cavity of the periplasmic domain of CadC on the basis of its crystallographic analysis. Our present study demonstrates that this site only partially accounts for the cadaverine response in vivo. Instead, evidence for a second, pivotal binding site was collected, which overlaps with the pH-responsive patch of amino acids located at the dimer interface of the periplasmic domain. The temporal response of the E. coli Cad module upon acid shock was measured and modeled for two CadC variants with mutated cadaverine binding sites. These studies supported a cascade-like binding and deactivation model for the CadC dimer: binding of cadaverine within the pair of central cavities triggers a conformational transition that exposes two further binding sites at the dimer interface, and the occupation of those stabilizes the inactive conformation. Altogether, these data represent a striking example for the deactivation of a pH sensor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preparation of CAD infrastructure for ITER procurement packages allocated to Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.H.; Hwang, H.S.; Choi, J.H.; Lee, H.G.; Thomas, E.; Redon, F.; Wilhelm, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is necessary to use the same CAD platform between project partners for efficient design collaboration. ► Several unexpected problems were found during preparation of the CAD infrastructure. ► The problems have resulted in a waste of time and cost. ► The approach using the same configurations is effective to avoid IT-related problems. ► The design activities are steadily being performed on the prepared ITER CAD platform. -- Abstract: It is necessary to use the same CAD platform for standardization and efficient design collaboration between project partners. ITER has selected CATIA with ENOVIA as the primary CAD and integration tool. During the preparation of the CAD infrastructure, there were several difficulties with respect to information technology (IT). ITER design is classified as mechanical and plant. The procurement arrangement is divided into three types; functional specification, detailed design, and build to print. Therefore, it is important to prepare the suitable prerequisites according to the design type, and to comply with CAD methodologies to avoid trial and error. This paper presents how to overcome the difficulties and how to perform the CAD activities for ITER Korea procurement packages including important matters on a CAD infrastructure in a big project

  17. Up and Running with AutoCAD 2011 2D and 3D Drawing and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gindis, Elliot

    2010-01-01

    Gindis introduces AutoCAD with step by step instructions, stripping away complexities to  begin working in AutoCAD immediately.  All concepts are explained first in theory, and then shown in practice, helping the reader understand what it is they are doing and why, before they do it. Divided into three parts, the book covers beginning through advanced AutoCAD, including 3D features.  Also included is an extensive Appendix for each part, detailing additional useful CAD-related information not often found in other text books The book contains supporting graphics (screen shot

  18. Up and Running with AutoCAD 2012 2D and 3D Drawing and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gindis, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Gindis introduces AutoCAD with step by step instructions, stripping away complexities to  begin working in AutoCAD immediately.  All concepts are explained first in theory, and then shown in practice, helping the reader understand what it is they are doing and why, before they do it. Divided into three parts, the book covers beginning through advanced AutoCAD, including 3D features.  Also included is an extensive Appendix for each part, detailing additional useful CAD-related information not often found in other text books The book contains supporting graphics (screen shot

  19. Implementasi Penggunaan Aplikasi AutoCAD dalam Meningkatkan Kompetensi Dasar Menggambar teknik bagi Masyarakat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risma Dwi Atmajayani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengan berkembangnya teknologi, maka gambarpun ikut mengalami kemajuan dalam penggunaannya. Dengan kecanggihan dan kemajuan teknologi dapat melahirkan suatu cara menggambar dengan media komputer. Teknologi dapat membantu mempercepat menyelesaikan suatu pekerjaan, tidak terkecuali aplikasi CAD (Computer Aided Design. Program yang sering digunakan untuk pengajaran CAD adalah AutoCAD yang merupakan sebuah aplikasi (software yang digunakan untuk menggambar, mendesain gambar, menguji material dimana program tersebut mempunyai kemudahan dan keunggulan untuk membuat gambar secara tepat dan akurat. Berdasarkan temuan dilapangan yang didasari tinjauan langsung, didapatkan informasi bahwa materi AutoCAD yang diperoleh dari jenjang sebelumnya masih banyak yang jauh dari kondisi ideal. Materi AutoCAD yang didapatkan masih banyak tentang teori sedikit praktek, perangkat hardware yang terbatas sampai pada ketersediaan sumber daya manusia yang kurang adalah permasalahan umum yang terjadi. Adapun tujuan yang ingin dicapai adalah (1 Meningkatkan mutu peserta pelatihan melalui workshop pemanfaatan aplikasi AutoCAD (2 Meningkatkan ketrampilan peserta pelatihan dengan membuat suatu proyek desain gambar bangun berbasis aplikasi AutoCAD. Manfaat kegiatan pelatihan adalah: (1 Peserta pelatihan dapat meningkatkan pemahaman tentang program AutoCAD; (2 Peserta pelatihan dapat menyalurkan pengetahuan dan ketrampilan yang didapatkan nantinya kepada yang membutuhkan dan terutama akan sangat membantu para calon civil engineer dalam menyelesaikan pekerjaan yang berkaitan dengan desain rancang bangun; (3 Peserta pelatihan dapat mendesain gambar menggunakan program AutoCAD.

  20. Up and running with AutoCAD 2014 2D and 3D drawing and modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gindis, Elliot

    2013-01-01

    Get ""Up and Running"" with AutoCAD using Gindis's combination of step-by-step instruction, examples, and insightful explanations. The emphasis from the beginning is on core concepts and practical application of AutoCAD in architecture, engineering and design. Equally useful in instructor-led classroom training, self-study, or as a professional reference, the book is written with the user in mind by a long-time AutoCAD professional and instructor based on what works in the industry and the classroom. Strips away complexities, both real and perceived, and reduces AutoCAD t

  1. Tools for building Breast Cancer CAD methods; Herramientas para elaborar metodos de CAD del cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Herrero, G.; Franco-Valiente, J. M.; Suarez-Ortega, C.; Rubio del Solar, M.; Ramos-Pollam, R.; Guevara-Lopez, M. A.; Gonzalez de Posada, N.; Ramos, I.; Loureiro, J.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the main results of the collaboration currently ongoing between CETA-CIEMAT and the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Porto. It introduces the Mammography image Workstation for Analysis and Diagnosis (MIWAD) and the data analysis processes through which Grid infrastructures are used to develop Breast Cancer Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) methods.MIWAD is a novel integrated software framework that integrates a specialized graphical user interface combining digital image processing, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence techniques. This paper describes its successful application in a pilot experience, on the first Portuguese Breast Cancer Digital Repository. (Author)

  2. Continuous Surface Rendering, Passing from CAD to Physical Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Covarrubias

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a desktop-mechatronic interface that has been conceived to support designers in the evaluation of aesthetic virtual shapes. This device allows a continuous and smooth free hand contact interaction on a real and developable plastic tape actuated by a servo-controlled mechanism. The objective in designing this device is to reproduce a virtual surface with a consistent physical rendering well adapted to designers' needs. The desktop-mechatronic interface consists in a servo-actuated plastic strip that has been devised and implemented using seven interpolation points. In fact, by using the MEC (Minimal Energy Curve Spline approach, a developable real surface is rendered taking into account the CAD geometry of the virtual shapes. In this paper, we describe the working principles of the interface by using both absolute and relative approaches to control the position on each single control point on the MEC spline. Then, we describe the methodology that has been implemented, passing from the CAD geometry, linked to VisualNastran in order to maintain the parametric properties of the virtual shape. Then, we present the co-simulation between VisualNastran and MATLAB/Simulink used for achieving this goal and controlling the system and finally, we present the results of the subsequent testing session specifically carried out to evaluate the accuracy and the effectiveness of the mechatronic device.

  3. Structure of ganglioside with CAD blood group antigen activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, B.K.; Blanchard, D.; Cartron, J.P.; van Kuik, G.A.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Marcus, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The novel erythrocyte ganglioside which carries the blood group Cad determinant has been isolated, and its structure has been determined. The ganglioside contained Glu:Gal:GalNAc:GlcNAc in a molar ratio of 1.00:1.94:0.93:0.95. The ganglioside binds Helix pomatia lectin and its chromatographic mobility is similar to G/sub D3/. After treatment with β-hexosaminidase (human placenta HexA) the product migrated with sialosylparagloboside (SPG), no longer binds Helix lectin, and binds a human anti-SPG antibody. Treatment of this material with neuraminidase (V. cholera) yielded a product with the mobility of paragloboside that bound monoclonal antibody 1B2. NMR analysis revealed that the terminal GalNAc is linked β1-4 to Gal, and confirms the structure proposed previously: GalNAcβ1-4(NeuAcα2-3)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc-Cer. This structure is consistent with the previous demonstration that a compound with the same chromatographic mobility as the Cad ganglioside could be synthesized by enzymatic transfer of GalNAc to sialosylparagloboside

  4. Refining a brief decision aid in stable CAD: cognitive interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Blake, Karen; Clark, Stacie; Dontje, Katherine; Olomu, Adesuwa; Henry, Rebecca C; Rovner, David R; Rothert, Marilyn L; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret

    2014-02-13

    We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the "Making Choices©" Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the "think aloud" interview technique to assess the clarity, usefulness, and design of each page of the DA. Participants identified three main messages: 1) patients have multiple options based on stress tests and they should be discussed with a physician, 2) take care of yourself, 3) the stress test is the gold standard for determining the severity of your heart disease. Revisions corrected the inaccurate assumption of item number three. Cognitive interviews proved critical for engaging patients in the development process and highlighted the necessity of clear message development and use of design principles that make decision materials easy to read and easy to use. Cognitive interviews appear to contribute critical information from the patient perspective to the overall systematic development process for designing decision aids.

  5. Engineering applications using CAD based application programming interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzotzis Anastasios

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Automating the design process of a product or a system can provide engineers and designers with many benefits. As such, repeatable tasks that are time consuming can be handled automatically and with minimal human attention. This is achieved by using the API (Application Programmable Interface of CAD systems in order to create macros or even develop software applications. The present paper deals with an application that has been developed with the API of a general purposes CAD system. This application automates the design process of a standard pneumatic double acting cylinder based on the appropriate inserted parameters (ISO 15552.The design process begins with the creation of a series of components developed as solids, and extends to the extraction of basic attributes and properties from the complete mechanical assembly. Finally, the assembled models and the extracted data can be used to further study the design of the pneumatic double acting cylinder. It is expected in the future to expand the features of the presented application in order to automate the design process of other related mechanical systems.

  6. Is the application of CAD useful for radiologists for passing the official tests required for outpatient breast imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malich, A.; Beier, A.; Gorna, R.; Bank, P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: to analyze whether currently available CAD systems meet the diagnostic requirements for passing screening tests (first reader CAD) and to analyze whether the additional usage of CAD systems provides significant support for the diagnosing radiologist on the basis of official screening test cases (second reading by CAD). Material and methods: 200 images of 100 mammographies of 50 patients of an official screening test case collection were analyzed double-blind with and without CAD printouts (iCAD, U.S.A.) by three radiologists: one experienced in breast analysis and CAD application, one experienced in mammography analysis but inexperienced in CAD usage, one with minimal experience with breast analysis and CAD application. All radiologists measured the largest diameter of any malignant mass. The mean value of these calculations was correlated to the largest diameter given by CAD prompts. Results: the mean sensitivity and specificity increased slightly as a result of the additional usage of CAD (1 and 0.6%, resp.). Both values are not statistically significant. The highest effect was measured for the radiologist with CAD experience, while no effect was measured for the inexperienced radiologist. CAD met the sensitivity requirements but not the specificity criteria (96 and 20.3%, resp.). The sizes given by CAD prompts corresponded significantly with the real sizes (r = 0.45, p < 0.05). (orig.)

  7. 10 K gate I(2)L and 1 K component analog compatible bipolar VLSI technology - HIT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, K.; Watanabe, T.; Okabe, T.; Horie, N.

    1985-02-01

    An advanced analog/digital bipolar VLSI technology that combines on the same chip 2-ns 10 K I(2)L gates with 1 K analog devices is proposed. The new technology, called high-density integration technology-2, is based on a new structure concept that consists of three major techniques: shallow grooved-isolation, I(2)L active layer etching, and I(2)L current gain increase. I(2)L circuits with 80-MHz maximum toggle frequency have developed compatibly with n-p-n transistors having a BV(CE0) of more than 10 V and an f(T) of 5 GHz, and lateral p-n-p transistors having an f(T) of 150 MHz.

  8. Macrocell Builder: IP-Block-Based Design Environment for High-Throughput VLSI Dedicated Digital Signal Processing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urard Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an efficient IP-block-based design environment for high-throughput VLSI systems. The flow generates SystemC register-transfer-level (RTL architecture, starting from a Matlab functional model described as a netlist of functional IP. The refinement model inserts automatically control structures to manage delays induced by the use of RTL IPs. It also inserts a control structure to coordinate the execution of parallel clocked IP. The delays may be managed by registers or by counters included in the control structure. The flow has been used successfully in three real-world DSP systems. The experimentations show that the approach can produce efficient RTL architecture and allows to save huge amount of time.

  9. The Nucleotide Synthesis Enzyme CAD Inhibits NOD2 Antibacterial Function in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Amy L.; Kabi, Amrita; Homer, Craig R.; García, Noemí Marina; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; NesvizhskiI, Alexey I.; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Nuñez, Gabriel; McDonald, Christine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Polymorphisms that reduce the function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a bacterial sensor, have been associated with Crohn’s disease (CD). No proteins that regulate NOD2 activity have been identified as selective pharmacologic targets. We sought to discover regulators of NOD2 that might be pharmacologic targets for CD therapies. METHODS Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/ aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotase (CAD) is an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis; it was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein by immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry. CAD expression was assessed in colon tissues from individuals with and without inflammatory bowel disease by immunohistochemistry. The interaction between CAD and NOD2 was assessed in human HCT116 intestinal epithelial cells by immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, reporter gene, and gentamicin protection assays. We also analyzed human cell lines that express variants of NOD2 and the effects of RNA interference, overexpression and CAD inhibitors. RESULTS CAD was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein expressed at increased levels in the intestinal epithelium of patients with CD compared with controls. Overexpression of CAD inhibited NOD2-dependent activation of nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as intracellular killing of Salmonella. Reduction of CAD expression or administration of CAD inhibitors increased NOD2-dependent signaling and antibacterial functions of NOD2 variants that are and are not associated with CD. CONCLUSIONS The nucleotide synthesis enzyme CAD is a negative regulator of NOD2. The antibacterial function of NOD2 variants that have been associated with CD increased in response to pharmacologic inhibition of CAD. CAD is a potential therapeutic target for CD. PMID:22387394

  10. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Adil Othman; Tsitrou, Effrosyni A; Pollington, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone "PEEK", Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group). The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10), Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99) µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26) µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65) µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96) µm (PCAD-Temp® 124.94 (±22.96) µm, PEEK 113.14 (±23.55) µm, Telio CAD-Temp 110.95 (±11.64) µm, and Protemp™4 143.48(±26.74) µm. The average fracture strength was: VITA CAD-Temp® 361.01 (±21.61) N, PEEK 802.23 (±111.29) N, Telio CAD-Temp 719.24 (±95.17) N, and Protemp™4 416.40 (±69.14) N. One-way ANOVA test showed a statistically significant difference for marginal gap, internal gap, and fracture strength between all groups (p0.05). CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns.

  11. Fracture strength testing of crowns made of CAD/CAM composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ryota; Asakura, Masaki; Ando, Akihiro; Kumano, Hirokazu; Ban, Seiji; Kawai, Tatsushi; Takebe, Jun

    2018-03-28

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) composite resin crowns have sufficient strength to withstand the bite force of the molar teeth. The null hypothesis was that the fracture strength of CAD/CAM composite resin crowns is lower than the average maximum bite force of the molar tooth. The crowns, which shape is the right maxillary first molar, were fabricated using four CAD/CAM blanks made of composite resins (Block HC: HC, KZR-CAD HR: HR, KZR-CAD HR2: HR2, Avencia Block: AVE) and one CAD/CAM blank made of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD: IPS), which was used as a control. Fracture strength of fabricated crowns bonded to metal abutment and biaxial flexural strength of the materials were evaluated. The results of fracture strength test and biaxial flexural strength test showed different tendencies. The fracture strength of CAD/CAM composite resin crowns except HC ranged from 3.3kN to 3.9kN, and was similar to that of IPS (3.3kN). In contrast, biaxial flexural strength of CAD/CAM composite resins ranged from 175MPa to 247MPa, and was significantly lower than that of IPS (360MPa). All CAD/CAM composite resin crowns studied presented about 3-4 times higher fracture strength than the average maximum bite force of the molar tooth (700-900N), which result leads to the conclusion that CAD/CAM composite resin crowns would have sufficient strength to withstand the bite force of the molar teeth. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Research and Implementation of the Practical Texture Synthesis Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家广; 周毅

    1991-01-01

    How to generate pictures real and esthetic objects is an important subject of computer graphics.The techniques of mapping textures onto the surfaces of an object in the 3D space are efficient approaches for the purpose.We developed and implemented algorithms for generating objects with appearances stone,wood grain,ice lattice,brick,doors and windows on Apollo workstations.All the algorithms have been incorporated into the 3D grometry modelling system (GEMS) developed by the CAD Center of Tsinghua University.This paper emphasizes the wood grain and the ice lattice algorithms.

  13. FY1995 transduction method and CAD database systems for integrated design; 1995 nendo transduction ho to CAD database togo sekkei shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Transduction method developed by the research coordinator and Prof. Muroga is one of the most popular methods to design large-scale integrated circuits, and thus used by major design tool companies in USA and Japan. The major objectives of the research is to improve capability and utilize its reusable property by combining with CAD databases. Major results of the project is as follows, (1) Improvement of Transduction method : Efficiency, capability and the maximum circuit size are improved. Error compensation method is also improved. (2) Applications to new logic elements : Transduction method is modified to cope with wired logic and FPGAs. (3) CAD databases : One of the major advantages of Transduction methods is 'reusability' of already designed circuits. It is suitable to combine with CAD databases. We design CAD databases suitable for cooperative design using Transduction method. (4) Program development : Programs for Windows95 and developed for distribution. (NEDO)

  14. FY1995 transduction method and CAD database systems for integrated design; 1995 nendo transduction ho to CAD database togo sekkei shien system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Transduction method developed by the research coordinator and Prof. Muroga is one of the most popular methods to design large-scale integrated circuits, and thus used by major design tool companies in USA and Japan. The major objectives of the research is to improve capability and utilize its reusable property by combining with CAD databases. Major results of the project is as follows, (1) Improvement of Transduction method : Efficiency, capability and the maximum circuit size are improved. Error compensation method is also improved. (2) Applications to new logic elements : Transduction method is modified to cope with wired logic and FPGAs. (3) CAD databases : One of the major advantages of Transduction methods is 'reusability' of already designed circuits. It is suitable to combine with CAD databases. We design CAD databases suitable for cooperative design using Transduction method. (4) Program development : Programs for Windows95 and developed for distribution. (NEDO)

  15. Accuracy of CAD-CAM-fabricated removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christin; Hey, Jeremias; Schweyen, Ramona; Setz, Jürgen M

    2018-04-01

    The conventional fabrication of removable partial dentures (RPDs) is a complex, error-prone, time-consuming, and expensive process. The use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) techniques, especially rapid prototyping, promises a more effective method for fabricating RPD frameworks. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the fit of RPD clasps fabricated by means of 4 different CAD-CAM-systems and to compare those fittings with that of the conventional lost-wax casting technique (LWT). A master model of a partially edentulous maxilla with the canines and second molars as the remaining teeth was fabricated. After the model was optically scanned, we designed a quadrangularly supported RPD with 4 clasps and a palatal strap major connector. A standard tessellation language data set was used to fabricate 12 identical RPDs by using 4 different CAD-CAM techniques: indirect rapid prototyping (wax inject printing combined with LWT), direct rapid prototyping (selective laser melting), indirect milling (wax milling with LWT), and direct milling (resin milling [polyetheretherketone]). Three conventionally cast RPDs (LWT) served as the control group. The fit accuracy of the clasps (n=12 for each group) was determined in both the horizontal and vertical dimensions by using light microscopy. Indirectly milled RPDs (117 ±34 μm horizontal and 45 ±21 μm vertical) and directly milled RPDs (43 ±23 μm horizontal, and 38 ±21 μm vertical) showed significantly better (P<.05) fit than did conventionally fabricated LWT RPDs (133 ±59 μm horizontal; 73 ±25 μm vertical). The worst fit was found for RPDs fabricated using indirect rapid prototyping (323 ±188 μm horizontal and 112 ±60 μm vertical) or direct rapid prototyping (365 ±205 μm horizontal and 363 ±133 μm vertical), which were unstable on the master model, making them unsuitable for clinical use. Most RPDs exhibited smaller vertical measuring distances. Compared with the LWT

  16. PV-CAD: an integrated tool for designing PV facades; PV-CAD - Ein integriertes Werkzeug zur Auslegung von PV-Fassaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, H.; Viotto, M. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET) e.V., Kassel (Germany); Esser, M.; Pukrop, D. [Univ. Oldenburg (Germany). Abt. Energie- und Halbleiterforschung; Stellbogen, D. [Zentrum fuer Sonnenergie- und Wasserstoff-Forschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    PV-CAD provides PV system planners with a practice-oriented tool for an efficient design of PV facades. Being compatible with the standard programmes of the architects` and electrical engineering sectors it can be used on already existing systems and allows the user to draw on previously acquired knowedge. Its open interfaces permit the integration of further design tools. PV CAD works under Microsoft Windows for which it has the necessary graphic user interface. Its compliance to PC standards opens up a wide range of applications and permits its use also on inexpensive computers. Thanks to its promotion by the Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research, and Technology under the research project ``Computer programmes for the design of photovoltaic facades`` PV-CAD is available at a moderate price. PV-CAD permits an efficient planning of solar facades and therefore has the potential to stimulate the use of PV on buildings. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit PV-CAD steht dem Anlagenplaner ein anwendungsorientiertes Werkzeug zur Verfuegung, das eine rationelle Auslegung von PV-Fassaden ermoeglicht. Die Kompatibilitaet zu Standardprogrammen aus dem Architektur- und Elektrosektor erlaubt die Nutzung bereits vorhandener Systeme und damit erworbener Kenntnisse. Offene Schnittstellen gestatten die Einbindung weiterer Entwurfswerkzeuge. PV-CAD arbeitet unter Microsoft-Windows und verfuegt ueber die entsprechende grafische Benutzerschnittstelle. Die Kompatibilitaet zum PC-Standard eroeffnet eine sehr breite Anwenderbasis und ermoeglicht den Einsatz des Programms auch auf preiswerten Rechnern. Aufgrund der Foerderung durch das Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts `Rechnerprogramm zur Auslegung von Photovoltaik-Fassaden` steht PV-CAD preiswert zur Verfuegung. PV-CAD ermoeglicht eine effiziente Planung von Solarfassaden und kann daher dem PV-Einsatz in Gebaeuden weitere Impulse geben. (orig.)

  17. A Multidisciplinary Research Team Approach to Computer-Aided Drafting (CAD) System Selection. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ken; And Others

    A multidisciplinary research team was assembled to review existing computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems for the purpose of enabling staff in the Design Drafting Department at Linn Technical College (Missouri) to select the best system out of the many CAD systems in existence. During the initial stage of the evaluation project, researchers…

  18. Mobile Technology and CAD Technology Integration in Teaching Architectural Design Process for Producing Creative Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin Hassan, Isham Shah; Ismail, Mohd Arif; Mustafa, Ramlee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of integrating the mobile and CAD technology on teaching architectural design process for Malaysian polytechnic architectural students in producing a creative product. The website is set up based on Caroll's minimal theory, while mobile and CAD technology integration is based on Brown and…

  19. Usefulness of the CAD System for Detecting Pulmonary Nodule in Real Clinical Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyoung Doo; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Hee Cheol; Lee, Kyung Soo; Jeong, Sun Young

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of the computer-aided detection (CAD) system for detecting pulmonary nodules in real clinical practice by using the CT images. Our Institutional Review Board approved our retrospective study with a waiver of informed consent. This study included 166 CT examinations that were performed for the evaluation of pulmonary metastasis in 166 patients with colorectal cancer. All the CT examinations were interpreted by radiologists and they were also evaluated by the CAD system. All the nodules detected by the CAD system were evaluated with regard to whether or not they were true nodules, and they were classified into micro nodules (MN, diameter < 4 mm) and significant nodules (SN, 4 ≤ diameter ≤ 10 mm). The radiologic reports and CAD results were compared. The CAD system helped detect 426 nodules: 115 (27%) of the 426 nodules were classified as true nodules and 35 (30%) of the 115 nodules were SNs, and 83 (72%) of the 115 were not mentioned in the radiologists' reports and three (4%) of the 83 nodules were non-calcified SNs. One of three non-calcified SNs was confirmed as a metastatic nodule. According to the radiologists' reports, 60 true nodules were detected, and 28 of the 60 were not detected by the CAD system. Although the CAD system missed many SNs that are detected by radiologists, it helps detect additional nodules that are missed by the radiologists in real clinical practice. Therefore, the CAD system can be useful to support a radiologist's detection performance

  20. 3D-CAD Effects on Creative Design Performance of Different Spatial Abilities Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Students' creativity is an important focus globally and is interrelated with students' spatial abilities. Additionally, three-dimensional computer-assisted drawing (3D-CAD) overcomes barriers to spatial expression during the creative design process. Does 3D-CAD affect students' creative abilities? The purpose of this study was to explore the…

  1. The Use of a Parametric Feature Based CAD System to Teach Introductory Engineering Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steven K.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of a parametric-feature-based computer-aided design (CAD) System, AutoCAD Designer, in teaching concepts of three dimensional geometrical modeling and design. Allows engineering graphics to go beyond the role of documentation and communication and allows an engineer to actually build a virtual prototype of a design idea and…

  2. Comparative in vitro evaluation of CAD/CAM vs conventional provisional crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil Othman ABDULLAH

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study compared the marginal gap, internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture of CAD/CAM provisional crowns with that of direct provisional crowns. Material and Methods An upper right first premolar phantom tooth was prepared for full ceramic crown following tooth preparation guidelines. The materials tested were: VITA CAD-Temp®, Polyetheretherketone “PEEK”, Telio CAD-Temp, and Protemp™4 (control group. The crowns were divided into four groups (n=10, Group1: VITA CAD-Temp®, Group 2: PEEK, Group 3: Telio CAD-Temp, and Group 4: Protemp™4. Each crown was investigated for marginal and internal fit, fracture strength, and mode of fracture. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism software version 6.0. Results The average marginal gap was: VITA CAD-Temp® 60.61 (±9.99 µm, PEEK 46.75 (±8.26 µm, Telio CAD-Temp 56.10 (±5.65 µm, and Protemp™4 193.07(±35.96 µm (P0.05. Conclusions CAD/CAM fabricated provisional crowns demonstrated superior fit and better strength than direct provisional crowns.

  3. Integration of computer-aided diagnosis/detection (CAD) results in a PACS environment using CAD-PACS toolkit and DICOM SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Anh H.T.; Liu, Brent; Huang, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) is a mature technology in health care delivery for daily clinical imaging service and data management. Computer-aided detection and diagnosis (CAD) utilizes computer methods to obtain quantitative measurements from medical images and clinical information to assist clinicians to assess a patient's clinical state more objectively. CAD needs image input and related information from PACS to improve its accuracy; and PACS benefits from CAD results online and available at the PACS workstation as a second reader to assist physicians in the decision making process. Currently, these two technologies remain as two separate independent systems with only minimal system integration. This paper describes a universal method to integrate CAD results with PACS in its daily clinical environment. The method is based on Health Level 7 (HL7) and Digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) standards, and Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) workflow profiles. In addition, the integration method is Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant. The paper presents (1) the clinical value and advantages of integrating CAD results in a PACS environment, (2) DICOM Structured Reporting formats and some important IHE workflow profiles utilized in the system integration, (3) the methodology using the CAD-PACS integration toolkit, and (4) clinical examples with step-by-step workflows of this integration. (orig.)

  4. Bonding Effectiveness of Luting Composites to Different CAD/CAM Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Marleen; Valjakova, Emilija Bajraktarova; De Munck, Jan; Mishevska, Cece Bajraktarova; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    To evaluate the influence of different surface treatments of six novel CAD/CAM materials on the bonding effectiveness of two luting composites. Six different CAD/CAM materials were tested: four ceramics - Vita Mark II; IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD; Celtra Duo - one hybrid ceramic, Vita Enamic, and one composite CAD/CAM block, Lava Ultimate. A total of 60 blocks (10 per material) received various mechanical surface treatments: 1. 600-grit SiC paper; 2. sandblasting with 30-μm Al2O3; 3. tribochemical silica coating (CoJet). Subsequent chemical surface treatments involved either no further treatment (control), HF acid etching (HF), silanization (S, or HF acid etching followed by silanization (HF+S). Two specimens with the same surface treatment were bonded together using two dual-curing luting composites: Clearfil Esthetic Cement (self-etching) or Panavia SA Cement (self-adhesive). After 1 week of water storage, the microtensile bond strength of the sectioned microspecimens was measured and the failure mode was evaluated. The bonding performance of the six CAD/CAM materials was significantly influenced by surface treatment (linear mixed models, p CAD (p = 0.0115), and Lava Ultimate (p CAD/CAM materials: Vita Mark II and IPS Empress CAD: S, HF+S; Celtra Duo: HF, HF+S; IPS e.max CAD: HF+S; Vita Enamic: HF+S, S. For Lava Ultimate, the highest bond strengths were obtained with HF, S, HF+S. Failure analysis showed a relation between bond strength and failure type: more mixed failures were observed with higher bond strengths. Mainly adhesive failures were noticed if no further surface treatment was done. The percentage of adhesive failures was higher for CAD/CAM materials with higher flexural strength (Celtra Duo, IPS e.max CAD, and Lava Ultimate). The bond strength of luting composites to novel CAD/CAM materials is influenced by surface treatment. For each luting composite, an adhesive cementation protocol can be specified in order to obtain the highest bond to the

  5. Marginal adaptation and CAD-CAM technology: A systematic review of restorative material and fabrication techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadiochou, Sofia; Pissiotis, Argirios L

    2018-04-01

    The comparative assessment of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology and other fabrication techniques pertaining to marginal adaptation should be documented. Limited evidence exists on the effect of restorative material on the performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate whether the marginal adaptation of CAD-CAM single crowns, fixed dental prostheses, and implant-retained fixed dental prostheses or their infrastructures differs from that obtained by other fabrication techniques using a similar restorative material and whether it depends on the type of restorative material. An electronic search of English-language literature published between January 1, 2000, and June 30, 2016, was conducted of the Medline/PubMed database. Of the 55 included comparative studies, 28 compared CAD-CAM technology with conventional fabrication techniques, 12 contrasted CAD-CAM technology and copy milling, 4 compared CAD-CAM milling with direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and 22 investigated the performance of a CAD-CAM system regarding marginal adaptation in restorations/infrastructures produced with different restorative materials. Most of the CAD-CAM restorations/infrastructures were within the clinically acceptable marginal discrepancy (MD) range. The performance of a CAD-CAM system relative to marginal adaptation is influenced by the restorative material. Compared with CAD-CAM, most of the heat-pressed lithium disilicate crowns displayed equal or smaller MD values. Slip-casting crowns exhibited similar or better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with CAD-CAM. Cobalt-chromium and titanium implant infrastructures produced using a CAD-CAM system elicited smaller MD values than zirconia. The majority of cobalt-chromium restorations/infrastructures produced by DMLS displayed better marginal accuracy than those fabricated with the casting technique. Compared with copy

  6. Design of the new couplers for C-ADS RFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ai-Min; Sun, Lie-Peng; Zhang, Zhou-Li; Xu, Xian-Bo; Shi, Long-Bo; Li, Chen-Xing; Wang, Wen-Bin

    2015-04-01

    A new special coupler with a kind of bowl-shaped ceramic window for a proton linear accelerator named the Chinese Accelerator Driven System (C-ADS) at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) has been simulated and constructed and a continuous wave (CW) beam commissioning through a four-meter long radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) was completed by the end of July 2014. In the experiments of conditioning and beam, some problems were promoted gradually such as sparking and thermal issues. Finally, two new couplers were passed with almost 110 kW CW power and 120 kW pulsed mode, respectively. The 10 mA intensity beam experiments have now been completed, and the couplers during the operation had no thermal or electro-magnetic problems. The detailed design and results are presented in the paper. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA03020500)

  7. Integrated electric circuit CAD system in Minolta Camera Co. Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagami, Tsuyoshi; Hirata, Sumiaki; Matsumura, Fumihiko

    1988-08-26

    Development background, fundamental concept, details and future plan of the integrated electric circuit CAD system for OA equipment are presented. The central integrated database is basically intended to store experiences or know-hows, to cover the wide range of data required for designs, and to provide a friendly interface. This easy-to-use integrated database covers the drawing data, parts information, design standards, know-hows and system data. The system contains the circuit design function to support drawing circuit diagrams, the wiring design function to support the wiring and arrangement of printed circuit boards and various parts integratedly, and the function to verify designs, to make full use of parts or technical information, to maintain the system security. In the future, as the system will be wholly in operation, the design period reduction, quality improvement and cost saving will be attained by this integrated design system. (19 figs, 2 tabs)

  8. Paper-Less CAD/CAM For Accelerator Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, R M; Alford, O; Bertolini, L R

    2001-01-01

    Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) have enabled advances in the design and manufacture of many accelerator components, though government procurement rules tend to inhibit its use. We developed and executed a method that provides adequate documentation for the procurement process, industrial vendor manufacturing processes, and laboratory installation activities. We detail our experiences in the design and manufacture of 60 separate and unique PEP-II Low Energy Ring Interaction Region vacuum chambers totaling ∼ 140m in length as an example of how we used this technique, reducing design effort and manufacturing risk while streamlining the production process. We provide ''lessons learned'' to better implement and execute the process in subsequent iterations. We present our study to determine the estimated savings in the design and production of the Spallation Neutron Source room temperature linac if this process were utilized

  9. Characteristics study of the gears by the CAD/CAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. Y.; Chang, S. L.; Lee, B. Y.; Nguyen, D. H.; Cao, C. W.

    2017-09-01

    Gears are the most important transmission component in machines. The rapid development of the machines in industry requires a shorter time of the analysis process. In traditional, the gears are analyzed by setting up the complete mathematical model firstly, considering the profile of cutter and coordinate systems relationship between the machine and the cutter. It is a really complex and time-consuming process. Recently, the CAD/CAE software is well developed and useful in the mechanical design. In this paper, the Autodesk Inventor® software is introduced to model the spherical gears firstly, and then the models can also be transferred into ANSYS Workbench for the finite element analysis. The proposed process in this paper is helpful to the engineers to speed up the analyzing process of gears in the design stage.

  10. Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Flow around Tube Bundle by Applying CAD Best Practice Guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gong Hee; Bang, Young Seok; Woo, Sweng Woong; Cheng, Ae Ju

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the numerical analysis of a turbulent flow around both a staggered and an incline tube bundle was conducted using Annoys Cfx V. 13, a commercial CAD software. The flow was assumed to be steady, incompressible, and isothermal. According to the CAD Best Practice Guideline, the sensitivity study for grid size, accuracy of the discretization scheme for convection term, and turbulence model was conducted, and its result was compared with the experimental data to estimate the applicability of the CAD Best Practice Guideline. It was concluded that the CAD Best Practice Guideline did not always guarantee an improvement in the prediction performance of the commercial CAD software in the field of tube bundle flow

  11. User productivity as a function of AutoCAD interface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitta, D A; Flores, P L

    1995-12-01

    Increased operator productivity is a desired outcome of user-CAD interaction scenarios. Two objectives of this research were to (1) define a measure of operator productivity and (2) empirically investigate the potential effects of CAD interface design on operator productivity, where productivity is defined as the percentage of a drawing session correctly completed per unit time. Here, AutoCAD provides the CAD environment of interest. Productivity with respect to two AutoCAD interface designs (menu, template) and three task types (draw, dimension, display) was investigated. Analysis of user productivity data revealed significantly higher productivity under the menu interface condition than under the template interface condition. A significant effect of task type was also discovered, where user productivity under display tasks was higher than productivity under the draw and dimension tasks. Implications of these results are presented.

  12. The efficacy of using CAD for detection of breast cancer in mammography screening A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Emilie; Lauridsen, Carsten Ammitzbøl

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to present an overview of the available studies concerning the use of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems in screening mammography for early detection of breast cancer and compare the diagnostic accuracy and recall rates of single reading....... The literature search resulted in 1522 records after duplicates were removed. 1491 records were excluded by abstract and 18 were excluded after assessing the eligibility by full text reading. A total of 13 articles were included in this study. Results: The results for the single reading vs. single reading...... with CAD group indicate that the addition of CAD increases sensitivity and cancer detection rate (CDR). For the double reading vs. single reading with CAD group none of the studies reported significant differences in sensitivity and CDR. Adding CAD to single reading increased the recall rates and decreased...

  13. Ceramic dental biomaterials and CAD/CAM technology: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Raymond Wai Kim; Chow, Tak Wah; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Ceramics are widely used as indirect restorative materials in dentistry because of their high biocompatibility and pleasing aesthetics. The objective is to review the state of the arts of CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials. CAD/CAM all-ceramic biomaterials are highlighted and a subsequent literature search was conducted for the relevant subjects using PubMed followed by manual search. Developments in CAD/CAM technology have catalyzed researches in all-ceramic biomaterials and their applications. Feldspathic glass ceramic and glass infiltrated ceramic can be fabricated by traditional laboratory methods or CAD/CAM. The advent of polycrystalline ceramics is a direct result of CAD/CAM technology without which the fabrication would not have been possible. The clinical uses of these ceramics have met with variable clinical success. Multiple options are now available to the clinicians for the fabrication of aesthetic all ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Computer-assisted detection (CAD) methodology for early detection of response to pharmaceutical therapy in tuberculosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Robert; Kwong, Heston; Liu, Brent; Huang, H. K.

    2009-02-01

    The chest x-ray radiological features of tuberculosis patients are well documented, and the radiological features that change in response to successful pharmaceutical therapy can be followed with longitudinal studies over time. The patients can also be classified as either responsive or resistant to pharmaceutical therapy based on clinical improvement. We have retrospectively collected time series chest x-ray images of 200 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis receiving the standard pharmaceutical treatment. Computer algorithms can be created to utilize image texture features to assess the temporal changes in the chest x-rays of the tuberculosis patients. This methodology provides a framework for a computer-assisted detection (CAD) system that may provide physicians with the ability to detect poor treatment response earlier in pharmaceutical therapy. Early detection allows physicians to respond with more timely treatment alternatives and improved outcomes. Such a system has the potential to increase treatment efficacy for millions of patients each year.

  15. VLSI implementation of RSA encryption system using ancient Indian Vedic mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Himanshu; Srinivas, M. B.

    2005-06-01

    This paper proposes the hardware implementation of RSA encryption/decryption algorithm using the algorithms of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics that have been modified to improve performance. The recently proposed hierarchical overlay multiplier architecture is used in the RSA circuitry for multiplication operation. The most significant aspect of the paper is the development of a division architecture based on Straight Division algorithm of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics and embedding it in RSA encryption/decryption circuitry for improved efficiency. The coding is done in Verilog HDL and the FPGA synthesis is done using Xilinx Spartan library. The results show that RSA circuitry implemented using Vedic division and multiplication is efficient in terms of area/speed compared to its implementation using conventional multiplication and division architectures.

  16. When and why might a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) system interfere with visual search? An eye-tracking study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Cunningham, Corbin; Wolfe, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Rational and Objectives Computer Aided Detection (CAD) systems are intended to improve performance. This study investigates how CAD might actually interfere with a visual search task. This is a laboratory study with implications for clinical use of CAD. Methods 47 naïve observers in two studies were asked to search for a target, embedded in 1/f2.4 noise while we monitored their eye-movements. For some observers, a CAD system marked 75% of targets and 10% of distractors while other observers completed the study without CAD. In Experiment 1, the CAD system’s primary function was to tell observers where the target might be. In Experiment 2, CAD provided information about target identity. Results In Experiment 1, there was a significant enhancement of observer sensitivity in the presence of CAD (t(22)=4.74, pCAD system were missed more frequently than equivalent targets in No CAD blocks of the experiment (t(22)=7.02, pCAD, but also no significant cost on sensitivity to unmarked targets (t(22)=0.6, p=n.s.). Finally, in both experiments, CAD produced reliable changes in eye-movements: CAD observers examined a lower total percentage of the search area than the No CAD observers (Ex 1: t(48)=3.05, pCAD signals do not combine with observers’ unaided performance in a straight-forward manner. CAD can engender a sense of certainty that can lead to incomplete search and elevated chances of missing unmarked stimuli. PMID:22958720

  17. A wheat cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase TaCAD12 contributes to host resistance to the sharp eyespot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Rong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies towards both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1 and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1 were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  18. Digital Sketch Modelling: Integrating Digital Sketching as a Transition between Sketching and CAD in Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranscombe, Charlie; Bissett-Johnson, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Literature on the use of design tools in educational settings notes an uneasy relationship between student use of traditional hand sketching and digital modelling tools (CAD) during the industrial design process. This is often manifested in the transition from sketching to CAD and exacerbated by a preference of current students to use CAD. In this…

  19. Computer Aided Design in FE. Some Suggestions on the Inclusion of CAD Topics in Mechanical Engineering Courses. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, P. C.

    This report investigates the feasibility of including computer aided design (CAD) materials in engineering courses. Section 1 briefly discusses the inevitability of CAD being adopted widely by British industry and the consequent need for its inclusion in engineering syllabi at all levels. A short description of what is meant by CAD follows in…

  20. Algorithm for Automatic Generation of Curved and Compound Twills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Mei-zhen; WANG Fu-mei; WANG Shan-yuan

    2005-01-01

    A new arithmetic using matrix left-shift functions for the quicker generation of curved and compound twills is introduced in this paper. A matrix model for the generation of regular, curved and compound twill structures is established and its computing simulation realization are elaborated. Examples of the algorithm applying in the simulation and the automatic generation of curved and compound twills in fabric CAD are obtained.