WorldWideScience

Sample records for vls lesion rats

  1. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksanen, A

    1975-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  2. Effect of jianpiyiwei capsule on gastric precancerous lesions in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Shi; Feng-Zhi Zhao; Xin Dai; Lian-Sheng Ma; Xiu-Yu Dong; Jie Fang

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the therapeutic effect of compoundChinese drugs, Jianpiyiwei capsule (JPYW) on gastricprecancerous lesions in rats and to explore itsmechanism of action.METHODS:Model of gastric precancerous lesions wasconstructed in male Wistar rats: a metal spring wasinserted and fixed through pyloric sphincter. One weekafter recovery, each rat was given 50-60 ℃ hot pastecontainingt50 g/L NaCl 2 mL orally, twice a week for15 weeks.Then 10 normal and 11 model rats wereanaesthetized, after the measurement of gastricmucosa blood flow (GMBF), the rats were killed andthe mucosal hexosamines and malonic dialdehyde(MDA) were measured. The morphological changes ofgastric mucosa were observed macroscopically andmicroscopically, and by an automatic imaging analysissystem. Other rats were treated with JPYW 1.5 g/kg.d-1or 4.5 g/kg@d-1, or distilled water as negative controlrespectively (n=-10 in each group). After 12 weeks, allthe rats were examined as above.RESULTS: The gastric mucosa of model rats showedchronic atrophic gastritis with dysplasia and intestinalmetaplasia (IM), GMBF and hexosamine content werereduced significantly and MDA was increased ascompared to the normal group (P<0.01). After 12 weekstreatment, the pathological changes of the negativecontrol group became worsened, while in JPYW treatedgroups the changes were modified with significantincrease of GMBF and reduction of MDA, although thehexosamine concentration increased only mildly.CONCLUSION: JPYW increases GMBF and reduces MDAcontent in gastric mucosa and has therapeutic effectson gastric precancerous lesions.

  3. Quercetin Reverses Rat Liver Preneoplastic Lesions Induced by Chemical Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Carrasco-Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a flavonoid widely studied as a chemopreventive agent in different types of cancer. Previously, we reported that quercetin has a chemopreventive effect on the liver-induced preneoplastic lesions in rats. Here, we evaluated if quercetin was able not only to prevent but also to reverse rat liver preneoplastic lesions. We used the modified resistant hepatocyte model (MRHM to evaluate this possibility. Treatment with quercetin was used 15 days after the induction of preneoplastic lesions. We found that quercetin reverses the number of preneoplastic lesions and their areas. Our results showed that quercetin downregulates the expression of EGFR and modulates this signaling pathway in spite of the activated status of EGFR as detected by the upregulation of this receptor, with respect to that observed in control rats. Besides, quercetin affects the phosphorylation status of Src-1, STAT5, and Sp-1. The better status of the liver after the treatment with quercetin could also be confirmed by the recovery in the expression of IGF-1. In conclusion, we suggest that quercetin reversed preneoplastic lesions by EGFR modulation and the activation state of Src, STAT5, and Sp1, so as the basal IGF-1.

  4. Variable VlsE is critical for host reinfection by the Lyme disease spirochete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Bankhead, Troy

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogens make use of antigenic variation as a way to evade the host immune response. A key mechanism for immune evasion and persistent infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is antigenic variation of the VlsE surface protein. Recombination results in changes in the VlsE surface protein that prevent recognition by VlsE-specific antibodies in the infected host. Despite the presence of a substantial number of additional proteins residing on the bacterial surface, VlsE is the only known antigen that exhibits ongoing variation of its surface epitopes. This suggests that B. burgdorferi may utilize a VlsE-mediated system for immune avoidance of its surface antigens. To address this, the requirement of VlsE for host reinfection by the Lyme disease pathogen was investigated. Host-adapted wild type and VlsE mutant spirochetes were used to reinfect immunocompetent mice that had naturally cleared an infection with a VlsE-deficient clone. Our results demonstrate that variable VlsE is necessary for reinfection by B. burgdorferi, and this ability is directly related to evasion of the host antibody response. Moreover, the data presented here raise the possibility that VlsE prevents recognition of B. burgdorferi surface antigens from host antibodies. Overall, our findings represent a significant advance in our knowledge of immune evasion by B. burgdorferi, and provide insight to the possible mechanisms involved in VlsE-mediated immune avoidance.

  5. Variable VlsE is critical for host reinfection by the Lyme disease spirochete.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem S Rogovskyy

    Full Text Available Many pathogens make use of antigenic variation as a way to evade the host immune response. A key mechanism for immune evasion and persistent infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is antigenic variation of the VlsE surface protein. Recombination results in changes in the VlsE surface protein that prevent recognition by VlsE-specific antibodies in the infected host. Despite the presence of a substantial number of additional proteins residing on the bacterial surface, VlsE is the only known antigen that exhibits ongoing variation of its surface epitopes. This suggests that B. burgdorferi may utilize a VlsE-mediated system for immune avoidance of its surface antigens. To address this, the requirement of VlsE for host reinfection by the Lyme disease pathogen was investigated. Host-adapted wild type and VlsE mutant spirochetes were used to reinfect immunocompetent mice that had naturally cleared an infection with a VlsE-deficient clone. Our results demonstrate that variable VlsE is necessary for reinfection by B. burgdorferi, and this ability is directly related to evasion of the host antibody response. Moreover, the data presented here raise the possibility that VlsE prevents recognition of B. burgdorferi surface antigens from host antibodies. Overall, our findings represent a significant advance in our knowledge of immune evasion by B. burgdorferi, and provide insight to the possible mechanisms involved in VlsE-mediated immune avoidance.

  6. Effects of the uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine on spatial memory in medial septal lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashniani, M; Burjanadze, M; Beselia, G; Chkhikvishvili, N; Kruashvili, L

    2011-12-01

    These experiments examined the effects of acute administration of memantine (2.5 or 5 mg/kg) or saline on spatial memory and learning process within single sessions, on place versions of food-rewarded maze in MS electrolytic lesioned and sham-lesioned rats. Sham-lesioned rats trained in the place task learned more rapidly than did MS electrolytic lesioned rats. This fact certifies for obvious deficit of the place learning performance strategy in the MS-lesioned rats. The results indicate that the drug-treated (5 mg/kg memantine) sham-lesioned rats exhibited significantly impaired performance relative to the saline controls in terms of trials-to-criterion (Pimprove performance in place learning task in MS electrolytic lesioned rats. Our experimental data support the interpretation that memantine does not produce intolerable side effects in human AD patients because it is being used at doses that are below the threshold for interacting with NMDA receptors.

  7. Maternal separation and lesion of adtn alters anxiety and adrenal activity in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Bárbara Bárcena; Levin, Gloria; Rivarola, María Angélica; Suárez, Marta Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of early maternal separation on anxiety and hypophyso-adrenal system activity to anterodorsal thalamic nuclei (ADTN) lesion in male rats as adults in order to compare this with previous results with female rats. During the first 3 weeks of life, male rats were isolated 4.5 hr daily and tested as adults. Thirty days after ADTN lesion we found that adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) plasma levels were affected neither by maternal separation nor by ADTN lesion. Plasma corticosterone (CORT) concentration was increased with lesion of the ADTN in maternally separated rats. A significant increase in plasma catecholamine concentration was induced by early maternal separation. In ADTN-lesioned rats, plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration was significantly lower than in the respective sham-lesioned groups. In terms of anxiety, there were no significant effects of early experience. However, the ADTN lesion tended to decrease anxiety-related behavior.

  8. Variable VlsE Is Critical for Host Reinfection by the Lyme Disease Spirochete

    OpenAIRE

    Artem S Rogovskyy; Troy Bankhead

    2013-01-01

    Many pathogens make use of antigenic variation as a way to evade the host immune response. A key mechanism for immune evasion and persistent infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is antigenic variation of the VlsE surface protein. Recombination results in changes in the VlsE surface protein that prevent recognition by VlsE-specific antibodies in the infected host. Despite the presence of a substantial number of additional proteins residing on the bacterial surface, V...

  9. Human antibody responses to VlsE antigenic variation protein of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, M B; Hardham, J M; Owens, R T; Nowakowski, J; Steere, A C; Wormser, G P; Norris, S J

    1999-12-01

    VlsE is a 35-kDa surface-exposed lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi that was shown previously to undergo antigenic variation through segmental recombination of silent vls cassettes with vlsE during experimental mouse infections. Previous data had indicated that sera from North American Lyme disease patients and experimentally infected animals contained antibodies reactive with VlsE. In this study, sera from patients with Lyme disease, syphilis, and autoimmune conditions as well as from healthy controls were examined for reactivity with VlsE by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Strong Western blot reactivity to a recombinant VlsE cassette region protein was obtained consistently with Lyme disease sera. Although sera from Lyme disease patients also reacted with a band corresponding to VlsE in B. burgdorferi B31-5A3, interpretation was complicated by low levels of VlsE expression in in vitro-cultured B. burgdorferi and by the presence of comigrating bands. An ELISA using recombinant VlsE was compared with an ELISA using sonically disrupted B. burgdorferi as the antigen. For a total of 93 Lyme disease patient sera examined, the VlsE ELISA yielded sensitivities of 63% for culture-confirmed erythema migrans cases and 92% for later stages, as compared to 61 and 98%, respectively, for the "whole-cell" ELISA. The specificities of the two assays with healthy blood donor sera were comparable, but the VlsE ELISA was 90% specific with sera from syphilis patients, compared to 20% specificity for the whole-cell ELISA with this group. Neither assay showed reactivity with a panel of sera from 20 non-Lyme disease arthritis patients or 20 systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Our results indicate that VlsE may be useful in the immunodiagnosis of Lyme disease and may offer greater specificity than ELISAs using whole B. burgdorferi as the antigen.

  10. EXERCISE-INDUCED SYMPATHETIC FFA MOBILIZATION IN VMH-LESIONED RATS IS NORMALIZED BY FASTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkan, B.; Dijk, G. van; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E.; Steffens, A.B.

    This study investigates whether reduced sympathetic responses during physical exercise in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)-lesioned obese rats are the direct result of damage to hypothalamic circuits or a secondary effect of the altered metabolism in obesity. Obese, VMH-lesioned rats and lean

  11. EXERCISE-INDUCED SYMPATHETIC FFA MOBILIZATION IN VMH-LESIONED RATS IS NORMALIZED BY FASTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkan, B.; Dijk, G. van; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E.; Steffens, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigates whether reduced sympathetic responses during physical exercise in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)-lesioned obese rats are the direct result of damage to hypothalamic circuits or a secondary effect of the altered metabolism in obesity. Obese, VMH-lesioned rats and lean control

  12. Exploratory behavior and recognition memory in medial septal electrolytic, neuro- and immunotoxic lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashniani, M G; Burjanadze, M A; Naneishvili, T L; Chkhikvishvili, N C; Beselia, G V; Kruashvili, L B; Pochkhidze, N O; Chighladze, M R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of the medial septal (MS) lesions on exploratory activity in the open field and the spatial and object recognition memory has been investigated. This experiment compares three types of MS lesions: electrolytic lesions that destroy cells and fibers of passage, neurotoxic - ibotenic acid lesions that spare fibers of passage but predominantly affect the septal noncholinergic neurons, and immunotoxin - 192 IgG-saporin infusions that only eliminate cholinergic neurons. The main results are: the MS electrolytic lesioned rats were impaired in habituating to the environment in the repeated spatial environment, but rats with immuno- or neurotoxic lesions of the MS did not differ from control ones; the MS electrolytic and ibotenic acid lesioned rats showed an increase in their exploratory activity to the objects and were impaired in habituating to the objects in the repeated spatial environment; rats with immunolesions of the MS did not differ from control rats; electrolytic lesions of the MS disrupt spatial recognition memory; rats with immuno- or neurotoxic lesions of the MS were normal in detecting spatial novelty; all of the MS-lesioned and control rats clearly reacted to the object novelty by exploring the new object more than familiar ones. Results observed across lesion techniques indicate that: (i) the deficits after nonselective damage of MS are limited to a subset of cognitive processes dependent on the hippocampus, (ii) MS is substantial for spatial, but not for object recognition memory - the object recognition memory can be supported outside the septohippocampal system; (iii) the selective loss of septohippocampal cholinergic or noncholinergic projections does not disrupt the function of the hippocampus to a sufficient extent to impair spatial recognition memory; (iv) there is dissociation between the two major components (cholinergic and noncholinergic) of the septohippocampal pathway in exploratory behavior assessed in the open

  13. Octreotide ameliorates gastric lesions in chronically mild stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noha N Nassar; Mona F Schaalan; Hala F Zaki; Dalaal M Abdallah

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS) on the emergence of gastric ulcers and possible modulation by octreotide, a synthetic somatostatin analogue. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to nine different unpredictable random stress procedures for 21 d, a multifactorial interactional animal model for CMS. Octreotide was administered daily for 21 d at two dose levels (50 and 90 μg/kg) before exposure to stress procedure. Macro-and microscopical assessments were made, in addition to quantification of plasma corticosterone and gastric mucosal inflammatory, oxidative stress, and apoptotic biomarkers. RESULTS: Exposure to CMS elevated plasma corticosterone (28.3 ± 0.6 μg/dL, P = 0.002), an event that was accompanied by gastric lesions (6.4 ± 0.16 mm,P = 0.01) and confirmed histopathologically. Moreover, the insult elevated gastric mucosal lipid peroxides (13 ± 0.5 nmol/g tissue, P = 0.001), tumor necrosis factor-α(3008.6 ± 78.18 pg/g tissue, P < 0.001), prostaglandin E2 (117.1 ± 4.31 pg/g tissue, P = 0.002), and caspase-3 activity (2.4 ± 0.14 OD/mg protein, P = 0.002). Conversely, CMS mitigated interleukin-10 (627.9 ± 12.82 pg/g tissue, P = 0.001). Furthermore, in animals exposed to CMS, octreotide restored plasma corticosterone (61% and 71% from CMS, P = 0.002) at both dose levels. These beneficial effects were associated with a remarkable suppression of gastric lesions (38% and 9% from CMS, P = 0.01) and reversal of derangements in gastric mucosa. CONCLUSION: The current investigation provides evidence that exposure to CMS induces gastric ulceration, which was alleviated by administration of octreotide possibly possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic actions.

  14. Medial accumbens lesions attenuate testosterone-dependent aggression in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Petrovic, D M; Walsh, M L; Jonik, R H

    1989-10-01

    Male hooded rats were castrated and implanted with testosterone-filled Silastic tubes appropriate for maintaining a normal average serum testosterone concentration. They were then given lesions of the medial accumbens nucleus or sham lesions. Twenty-four hours postoperatively each male was housed with a female. Beginning 7 days following pairing and continuing once each week for 4 weeks, each lesioned or sham-lesioned male was observed for aggression toward an unfamiliar male intruder. On the day following each test of aggression toward an unfamiliar male, each lesioned and sham-lesioned male was assessed for defensiveness toward an experimenter. Rats with medial accumbens lesions displayed significantly less aggression toward an unfamiliar male intruder during each of the weekly tests than did sham-lesioned animals. The attenuation was most pronounced in animals with lesions damaging the posterior part of the medial accumbens nucleus (also designated as anterior portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis) in the region of the crossover of the anterior commissure. Although medial accumbens lesions are known to make individually housed rats hyperdefensive toward an experimenter, lesion-induced hyperdefensiveness was not observed in the pair-housed animals in the present experiment. It is argued that the medial accumbens/bed nucleus of the stria terminalis area is an important region in the anterior forebrain for the modulation of hormone-dependent aggression.

  15. The effects of lesions of the posterior piriform cortex on amygdala kindling in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahnschaffe, U; Ebert, U; Löscher, W

    1993-07-01

    The piriform cortex (PC) is thought to be critically involved in the genesis of forebrain (limbic type) seizures, including limbic kindled seizures. More recent studies have shown that the posterior PC is particularly sensitive to kindling stimulation, suggesting that the posterior PC contains specific generating sites which may be important for the stepwise progression of kindling. In the present experiments, we used microinjections of ibotenate to study the effect of selective lesions of the posterior PC on amygdala kindling in rats. Large unilateral lesions of the posterior PC and adjacent endopiriform nucleus markedly decreased the susceptibility of the ipsilateral basolateral amygdala to electrical stimulation, thus indicating that the posterior PC may normally contribute to regulation of physiologic excitability in amygdala. During kindling, rats with large lesions of the PC stayed longer in the initial phase of kindling (stage 1) than sham-lesioned controls, consistent with involvement of the posterior PC in the early stages of seizure propagation during kindling acquisition. However, the PC lesions were not capable of blocking or even severely retarding kindling. Following kindling development, rats with large lesions of the posterior PC had significantly higher focal seizure thresholds than kindled rats without lesion or rats with only small PC lesions, which suggests that the posterior PC is involved in the mechanisms which are responsible for the marked increase in seizure susceptibility induced by kindling. Taken together, the data substantiate that PC structures play a facilitatory role in kindling.

  16. Dysgranular Retrosplenial Cortex Lesions in Rats Disrupt Cross-Modal Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindley, Emma L.; Nelson, Andrew J. D.; Aggleton, John P.; Vann, Seralynne D.

    2014-01-01

    The retrosplenial cortex supports navigation, with one role thought to be the integration of different spatial cue types. This hypothesis was extended by examining the integration of nonspatial cues. Rats with lesions in either the dysgranular subregion of retrosplenial cortex (area 30) or lesions in both the granular and dysgranular subregions…

  17. Neonatal Amygdala Lesions and Stress Responsivity in Rats : Relevance to schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Jeroen

    2004-01-01

    "Stress responsiveness in an animal model with relevance to schizophrenia” Rats bearing lesions of the amygdala made on postnatal day 7 (D7 AMX) model aspects of neurodevelopmental psychopathologies, such as schizophrenia. Adult D7 AMX rats display impaired pre-pulse inhibition, impaired behaviora

  18. Ventromedial hypothalamic knife-cut lesions in rats resistant to dietary obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, J; Bray, G A; Fisler, J S; Schemmel, R

    1984-06-01

    The effects of ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) knife-cut lesions on food intake and body weight of S 5B/Pl rats, which are normally resistant to obesity when eating a high-fat diet, were examined in two experiments. In the first experiment body weight increased only slightly after VMH knife-cut lesions when animals were fed pelleted laboratory chow or a 10% corn oil diet. When eating the 30% corn oil diet, however, body weight increased in the VMH knife-cut rats. In the second experiment VMH knife-cut lesions produced a small weight gain in rats fed the 10% fat diet; this manipulation also increased food intake and disrupted the normal diurnal feeding pattern. Changes in the weight of the liver, interscapular brown adipose tissue, and white adipose tissue paralleled the changes in body weight. Plasma insulin increased in the rats eating the 30% corn oil diet ad libitum but not in the VMH-lesioned animals pair fed to the sham-operated rats. Incorporation of 3H from 3H2O into lipid was significantly increased in white fat of animals with VMH knife cuts. Similar results were obtained from incubation of adipose tissue in vitro with insulin and radioactively labeled glucose. These studies show that hypothalamic knife-cut lesions can remove the resistance of the S 5B/Pl rats to obesity when they are fed a high-fat diet.

  19. Behavioral and cognitive changes after early postnatal lesions of the rat mediodorsal thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Mitchell, Anna S; Elidrissi, Abdeslem; Bennis, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Early insults to the thalamus result in functional and/or structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. However, differences in behavioral and cognitive changes after early insult are not well characterized. The present study assessed whether early postnatal damage to mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD), reciprocally interconnected with the prefrontal cortex, causes behavioral and cognitive alterations in young adult rats. Rat pups at postnatal day 4 received bilateral electrolytic lesion of MD, or a MD Sham lesion or were anesthetized controls; on recovery they were returned to their mothers until weaning. Seven weeks later, all rats were tested with the following behavioral and cognitive paradigms: T-maze test, open field test, actimetry, elevated plus maze test, social interactions test and passive avoidance test. Rats with bilateral MD damage presented with disrupted recognition memory, deficits in shifting response rules, significant hypoactivity, increased anxiety-like behavior, deficits in learning associations as well as decreased locomotor activity, and reduced social interactions compared to MD Sham lesion and anesthetized Control rats. The lesion also caused significant decreases in pyramidal cell density in three frontal cortex regions: medial infralimbic cortex, dorsolateral anterior cortex, and cingulate Cg1 cortex. The present findings suggest a functional role for MD in the postnatal maturation of affective behavior. Further some of the behavioral and cognitive alterations observed in these young adult rats after early MD lesion are reminiscent of those present in major psycho-affective disorders, such as schizophrenia in humans.

  20. Resistance to extinction after schedules of partial delay or partial reinforcement in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, J N; Feldon, J; Ursin, H; Gray, J A

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental procedures were employed to establish the reason why hippocampal lesions apparently block the development of tolerance for aversive events in partial reinforcement experiments, but do not do so in partial punishment experiments. Rats were trained to run in a straight alley following hippocampal lesions (HC), cortical control lesions (CC) or sham operations (SO), and resistance to extinction was assessed following differing acquisition conditions. In Experiment 1 a 4-8 min inter-trial interval (ITI) was used. Either every acquisition trial was rewarded immediately (Continuous Reinforcement, CR), or only a randomly selected half of the trials were immediately rewarded, the reward being delayed for thirty seconds on the other trials (Partial Delay, PD). This delay procedure produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. In Experiment 2 the ITI was reduced to a few seconds, and rats were trained either on a CR schedule, or on a schedule in which only half the trials were rewarded (Partial Reinforcement, PR). This form of partial reinforcement procedure also produced increased resistance to extinction in rats in all lesion groups. It thus appears that hippocampal lesions only prevent the development of resistance to aversive events when the interval between aversive and subsequent appetitive events exceeds some minimum value.

  1. Discrimination of brief speech sounds is impaired in rats with auditory cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Benjamin A; Rosenthal, Tara R; Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Kilgard, Michael P

    2011-05-16

    Auditory cortex (AC) lesions impair complex sound discrimination. However, a recent study demonstrated spared performance on an acoustic startle response test of speech discrimination following AC lesions (Floody et al., 2010). The current study reports the effects of AC lesions on two operant speech discrimination tasks. AC lesions caused a modest and quickly recovered impairment in the ability of rats to discriminate consonant-vowel-consonant speech sounds. This result seems to suggest that AC does not play a role in speech discrimination. However, the speech sounds used in both studies differed in many acoustic dimensions and an adaptive change in discrimination strategy could allow the rats to use an acoustic difference that does not require an intact AC to discriminate. Based on our earlier observation that the first 40 ms of the spatiotemporal activity patterns elicited by speech sounds best correlate with behavioral discriminations of these sounds (Engineer et al., 2008), we predicted that eliminating additional cues by truncating speech sounds to the first 40 ms would render the stimuli indistinguishable to a rat with AC lesions. Although the initial discrimination of truncated sounds took longer to learn, the final performance paralleled rats using full-length consonant-vowel-consonant sounds. After 20 days of testing, half of the rats using speech onsets received bilateral AC lesions. Lesions severely impaired speech onset discrimination for at least one-month post lesion. These results support the hypothesis that auditory cortex is required to accurately discriminate the subtle differences between similar consonant and vowel sounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of excitotoxic hippocampal lesions on simple and conditional discrimination learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, T K; Ridley, R M

    1999-02-15

    The effect of excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus on acquisition and reversal of simple and conditional tasks was investigated using a Y-maze. Hippocampal-lesioned rats were severely impaired on acquisition and reversal of a conditional visuo-spatial task (where different pairs of visually distinctive choice arms indicated whether a left or right arm choice was correct on that trial) and were unable to acquire a visuo-visual conditional discrimination (where the appearance of the start arm indicated which of the visually distinctive choice arms was correct irrespective of their left/right position). They were not impaired on acquisition or reversal of a simple spatial left/right discrimination task (where all arms had the same visual appearance) nor on acquisition of a visual discrimination (where the correct, visually distinctive, choice arm varied in its left/right position). Hippocampal-lesioned rats were, however, impaired on reversal of this visual discrimination task and on acquisition and reversal of another visual discrimination task in which the visually distinctive choice arms were less different from each other than in the first version of this task. The degree of impairment in the lesioned rats was related to task difficulty for the sham-operated rats and was not specific to tasks requiring spatial choices, visual discrimination or conditional responding. The impairment on conditional tasks was greater than the impairment on those non-conditional tasks which happened to be matched for task difficulty for the sham-operated rats, suggesting that the conditional demand may target the function of the hippocampus rather closely. Statistically worse than chance performance by hippocampal-lesioned (and sham-operated) rats at the beginning of reversal testing, which was given 24 h after achieving criterion on acquisition of that task, indicated that hippocampal-lesioned rats simultaneously exhibited good memory but impaired learning for the type of

  3. Low matrix metalloproteinase levels precede vascular lesion formation in the JCR:LA-cp rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Massaeli, Hamid; Russell, James C; Pierce, Grant N; Zahradka, Peter

    2003-07-01

    Clinically significant occlusive vascular lesions contain more extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and lipid deposition than healthy vascular tissue. The events leading to this condition remain unresolved. One possibility is that ECM deposition may exceed ECM degradation which would contribute to the expansion of the vascular lesion. Utilizing lean (+/?) and insulin-resistant, corpulent (cp/cp) JCR:LA-cp rats, which are predisposed to develop vascular lesions, we have compared the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) profile prior to the development of significant vascular lesions. Analysis of serum MMPs revealed that cp/cp rats have lower circulating levels than (+/?) controls. This is observed prior to the development of any noticeable atherosclerotic lesions. It also occurs as the hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance is first developing in these rats. Female corpulent animals, which are less prone to develop vascular lesions, also exhibit a depressed serum MMP profile of a similar magnitude to their male counterparts. Primary vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from cp/cp animals also showed a reduction in secreted MMP compared with cells derived from +/? lean controls. We conclude that reduced MMP levels could lead to increased ECM accumulation and thus contribute to early vascular lesion formation.

  4. Dynamic Assessment of the Focal Hepatic Lesion in Rats Using Ultrasonic Contrast Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chao; DENG Youbin; HUANG Daozhong; ZHANG Qingping

    2006-01-01

    The focal hepatic lesion caused by local injection of absolute alcohol in rats was evaluated with ultrasonic contrast agent and pathologic examination. Twenty adult Wistar rats weighing about 200 g were injected with absolute alcohol (0.05-0.1 mL each one) on the exterior left lobe of the liver under the monitoring of ultrasound. Pulse inversion harmonic imaging was used to evaluate the focal lesion after bolus injection of ultrasonic contrast agent (0.05 mL/200 g) through caudal vein.Seven days later, the focal lesion was studied again as before. The exterior left lobe of liver with focal lesion was incised and underwent pathologic examination. The results showed that all of the focal lesions could be defined clearly after bolus injection of the ultrasonic contrast agent under the mode of pulse inversion harmonic imaging. There was good correlation between the size of the focal lesion measured by ultrasound on the 7th day after the "ablation" under the mode of pulse inversion harmonic imaging and that gotten by pathologic examination (P=0.39). The focus size measured by ultrasound right after the ablation was larger than that gotten by pathologic examination (P= 0.002). It was concluded that ultrasonic contrast agent plus pulse inversion harmonic imaging could be used to assess the size of the focal hepatic lesion caused by local injection of absolute alcohol in rats.

  5. Lagenaria siceraria ameliorates atheromatous lesions by modulating HMG–CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase enzymes activity in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Singh Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanolic extract of fruits of L. siceraria contains active components which ameliorates the atheromatous lesions in rat aorta and lowers the risk of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.

  6. MYOCARDIAL LESIONS AFTER LONG-TERM ADMINISTRATION OF METHAMPHETAMINE IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-hua Yi; Liang Ren; Tian-tong Yang; Liang Liu; Han Wang; Qian Liu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the myocardial lesion associated with long-term administration of methamphetamine in rats.Methods The experimental models of intoxication of methamphetamine were established in Sprague-Dawley rats.Methamphetamine hydrochloride (3 mg-kg-1·d-1) was subcutaneously injected to rats in methamphetamine-treated group (n=16),and normal saline at the same dose was injected to rats in control group (n=16).After 1 week and 8 weeks of injection,8 rats in each group were sacrificed and their hearts were examined with light microscopy and electron microscopy,respectively.Results After 1 week of methamphetamine exposure,foci of contraction band and cellular degeneration were present in subendocardial myoeardium.Cellular degeneration,myocytolysis,and contraction band necrosis became prominent and extensive in methamphetamine-treated rats after 8 weeks.Hypertrophy,intraeellular vaeuolization,and fibrosis were also observed.The ultrastruetural feature showed marked swelling and degeneration of mitochondria,enlargement of sarcoplasmic reticulum,and dissolution of myofilaments.No obvious cardiac myocyte lesions were observed in rats of control group.Conclusion Methamphetamine abuse daily for a long time may result in an increased risk of cardiovascular lesions similar to cardiomyopathy.

  7. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Rat and Mouse Skeletal Tissues (Bones, Joints, and Teeth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Stacey; Vahle, John; Long, Philip; Schelling, Scott; Ernst, Heinrich; Boyce, Rogely Waite; Jolette, Jacquelin; Bolon, Brad; Bendele, Alison; Rinke, Matthias; Healy, Laura; High, Wanda; Roth, Daniel Robert; Boyle, Michael; Leininger, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is an initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the skeletal tissues and teeth of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of many common lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material were databases from government, academic and industrial laboratories throughout the world. PMID:27621538

  8. Mescaline increases startle responding equally in normal and raphe-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, M A; Rose, G J; Petersen, L R

    1979-02-01

    To test the possible involvement of serotonin-containing cells of the midbrain in mediating the effects of mescaline on startle responding, electrolytic lesions were made in either the dorsal or median raphe nucleus in rats. Decreases in either striatal or hippocampal tryptophan hydroxylase activity confirmed the effectiveness of the lesions. One week later, startle was measured in response to 30 air-puff stimuli for each rat. Median, but not dorsal, raphe lesions increased startle magnitudes throughout the test session. The following day each group was divided into matched halves and were given 60 trials, 30 minutes after intraperitoneal injection of either saline or 10 mg/kg mescaline. Despite the large differences in baseline startle among the groups, mescaline produced comparable 25% increases in startle magnitudes in both sham- and raphe-lesioned animals. This result fails to support the hypothesis that increased startle responding produced by mescaline is mediated by the midbrain raphe nuclei.

  9. Ultrastructural Study of Moniliformin Induced Lesions of Myocardium in Rats and Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoDeyu; FengQl; 等

    1993-01-01

    Effects of moliliformin on the ultrastructure of the myocardium of mice and rats were studies.Mice were given moniliformin orally at a dose of 29.46mg·kg-1 the LD50.One h after dosing,lesions of the mitochondria of the myocardial cells were found which became more severe in 2 and 3 h.Ultrastructrual olesions were also observed in the myofibrils and sarcolemma.Rats were given moniliformin orally at the dosage of 6mg·kg-1 once daily for 56d.Lesions of mitochondria and myofibrils were relatively mild.In the myocardiac specimens taken from the 21d post-toxin administration,lesions of the sarcolemma became more obvious.These moniliformin-induced lesions were simillar to the ultrastructural changes in the myocardium of patients with Keshan disease.Our findings indicate that there may be a close and important relationship between moniliformin intoxication and Keshan disease.

  10. Resistance to adenovirally induced hyperleptinemia in rats. Comparison of ventromedial hypothalamic lesions and mutated leptin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, K; Shimabukuro, M; Chen, G; Wang, M Y; Lee, Y; Kalra, P S; Dube, M G; Kalra, S P; Newgard, C B; Unger, R H

    1998-01-01

    Leptin regulates appetite and body weight via hypothalamic targets, but it can act directly on cultured pancreatic islets to regulate their fat metabolism. To obtain in vivo evidence that leptin may act peripherally as well as centrally, we compared the effect of adenovirally induced hyperleptinemia on food intake, body weight, and islet fat content in ventromedial hypothalamic-lesioned (VMHL) rats, sham-lesioned (SL) controls, and Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats in which the leptin receptor is mutated. Infusion with recombinant adenovirus containing the rat leptin cDNA increased plasma leptin by approximately 20 ng/ml in VMHL and ZDF rats but had no effect on their food intake, body weight, or fat tissue weight. Caloric matching of hyperphagic VMHL rats to SL controls did not reduce their resistance to hyperleptinemia. Whereas prediabetic ZDF rats had a fourfold elevation in islet fat, in VMHL rats islet fat was normal and none of them became diabetic. Isolated islets from ZDF rats were completely resistant to the lipopenic action of leptin, while VMHL islets exhibited 50% of the normal response; caloric matching of VMHL rats to SL controls increased leptin responsiveness of their islets to 92% of controls. We conclude that leptin regulation of adipocyte fat requires an intact VMH but that islet fat content is regulated independently of the VMH. PMID:9710441

  11. Effect of orbitofrontal cortex lesions on temporal discounting in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Suhyun; Kim, Ko-Un; Lee, Daeyeol; Jung, Min Whan

    2013-01-01

    Although choices of both humans and animals are more strongly influenced by immediate than delayed rewards, methodological limitations have made it difficult to estimate the precise form of temporal discounting in animals. In the present study, we sought to characterize temporal discounting in rats and to test the role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in this process. Rats were trained in a novel intertemporal choice task in which the sequence of delay durations was randomized across trials....

  12. Effect of zinc acexamate and ranitidine on chronic gastric lesions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, C; Escolar, G; Bravo, M L; Jiménez, E; Bulbena, O

    1990-01-01

    Using the rat as an experimental model we have studied the healing of chronic gastric lesions and the modifications of these lesions by antiulcer agents. Gastric injuries were induced by submucosal injection of 0.05 ml of 5% acetic acid. Placebo, ranitidine (RNT) or zinc acexamate (ZAC) were administered orally. The evolution of gastric injuries was macro- and microscopically evaluated at 6, 12 and 21 days after acetic acid injection. The administration of either RNT (30 mg/kg) or ZAC (200 mg/kg) was followed by a marked improvement of the healing process with respect to control groups. The size of experimental ulcers at 21 days was 3.1 +/- 0.8 mm2 for the control group, 1.8 +/- 1.1 mm2 for RNT-treated animals and 0.3 +/- 0.6 mm2 for ZAC-treated rats (p less than 0.05, vs. control). A similar tendency was observed when lesions were microscopically analyzed. Indices of microscopical lesions (0-6) at 21 days were 3.8 +/- 0.8 for the control group, 3.0 +/- 0.8 for rats receiving RNT and 2.3 +/- 0.4 for rats receiving ZAC (p less than 0.05, vs. control). The statistical analysis of the distribution of microscopical indices of lesions showed significant differences in favour of ZAC at days 6 (p less than 0.01) and 21 (p less than 0.05). Our study indicates that the evolution of gastric damage induced by acid acetic injection was consistently better in rats treated with ZAC than in those receiving RNT. Data obtained in our experiments suggest that the blockade of H2 receptors does not guarantee the optimal healing of chronic gastric lesions induced in rats.

  13. Review of approaches to the recording of background lesions in toxicologic pathology studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, E F; Scudamore, C L

    2014-08-17

    Pathological evaluation of lesions caused directly by xenobiotic treatment must always take into account the recognition of background (incidental) findings. Background lesions can be congenital or hereditary, histological variations, changes related to trauma or normal aging and physiologic or hormonal changes. This review focuses on the importance and correct approach to recording of background changes and includes discussion on sources of variability in background changes, the correct use of terminology, the concept of thresholds, historical control data, diagnostic drift, blind reading of slides, scoring and artifacts. The review is illustrated with background lesions in Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats.

  14. Comparative behavioral changes in postpubertal rats after neonatal excitotoxic lesions of the ventral hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo; Silva-Gómez, Adriana B; Ibáñez, Osvaldo; Quirion, Remi; Srivastava, Lalit K

    2005-06-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal (nVH) and the neonatal prefrontal cortex (nPFC) lesions in rats have been used as models to test the hypothesis that early neurodevelopmental abnormalities lead to behavioral changes putatively linked to schizophrenia. We investigated the role of the nVH and the nPFC lesions on behavioral characteristics related to locomotor behaviors, social interaction, and grooming. Bilateral ibotenic acid lesions of the VH, the PFC, or both were made in neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day 7, P7) and their behaviors studied at P35 and P60. No significant differences in any of the behaviors were observed between sham animals and rats with ibotenic acid lesions at P35. Postpubertally (at P60), the spontaneous locomotor activity of nVH-lesioned rats was significantly enhanced compared to the sham controls; however, this hyperactivity was reversed by nVH and nPFC double lesions. Neonatal PFC lesion alone did not alter spontaneous activity, although a trend of increased activity was observed. The duration of grooming was significantly decreased in rats with neonatal lesions of the VH. Similar to the data on locomotion, nVH plus nPFC lesion normalized the grooming behavior. Lesion of the PFC alone was without any significant effect on grooming behavior. Neonatal VH-lesioned animals spent less time in active social interaction, and this effect persisted even in nVH plus nPFC-lesioned animals. By itself, nPFC lesion did not alter social behavior. These data suggest that subtle developmental aberrations within PFC caused by nVH lesions, rather than the lesion of PFC itself, may contribute to some of the behavioral changes seen in the nVH-lesioned rats.

  15. The effect of treadmill running on memory before and after the NBM-lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Nasrin; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham; Radahmadi, Maryam

    2013-10-01

    Some studies have shown the effects of exercise training in retarding onset and progression of memory deficit in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. In this research, we investigated the effect of treadmill running on memory function; before, after, and continually (before and after) the nucleus basalis magnocellularis lesions. 66 male rats were randomly divided into six groups, including control, sham operation, the NBM-lesion, exercise before the NBM-lesion, exercise after the NBM-lesion, and exercise before and after the NBM-lesion. Lesion was induced by 5 μg/μl bilateral injection of Ibotenic acid. Memory function was assessed by using the passive avoidance learning test. Our results showed that treadmill running delays cognitive decline in the NBM-lesion rats, prevented memory deficit, and has advantageous effects on short-term, intermediate and long-term memory. Exercising on a regular basis may impede memory loss significantly, which may be attributed to specific molecular pathways in the brain.

  16. Central role of the Holliday junction helicase RuvAB in vlsE recombination and infectivity of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Antigenic variation plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of many infectious bacteria and protozoa including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. VlsE, a 35 kDa surface-exposed lipoprotein, undergoes antigenic variation during B. burgdorferi infection of mammalian hosts, and is believed to be a critical mechanism by which the spirochetes evade immune clearance. Random, segmental recombination between the expressed vlsE gene and adjacent vls silent cassettes generates a large number of different VlsE variants within the infected host. Although the occurrence and importance of vlsE sequence variation is well established, little is known about the biological mechanism of vlsE recombination. To identify factors important in antigenic variation and vlsE recombination, we screened transposon mutants of genes known to be involved in DNA recombination and repair for their effects on infectivity and vlsE recombination. Several mutants, including those in BB0023 (ruvA, BB0022 (ruvB, BB0797 (mutS, and BB0098 (mutS-II, showed reduced infectivity in immunocompetent C3H/HeN mice. Mutants in ruvA and ruvB exhibited greatly reduced rates of vlsE recombination in C3H/HeN mice, as determined by restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP screening and DNA sequence analysis. In severe combined immunodeficiency (C3H/scid mice, the ruvA mutant retained full infectivity; however, all recovered clones retained the 'parental' vlsE sequence, consistent with low rates of vlsE recombination. These results suggest that the reduced infectivity of ruvA and ruvB mutants is the result of ineffective vlsE recombination and underscores the important role that vlsE recombination plays in immune evasion. Based on functional studies in other organisms, the RuvAB complex of B. burgdorferi may promote branch migration of Holliday junctions during vlsE recombination. Our findings are consistent with those in the accompanying article by Dresser et al., and together

  17. Detailed analysis of sequence changes occurring during vlsE antigenic variation in the mouse model of Borrelia burgdorferi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Coutte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease Borrelia can infect humans and animals for months to years, despite the presence of an active host immune response. The vls antigenic variation system, which expresses the surface-exposed lipoprotein VlsE, plays a major role in B. burgdorferi immune evasion. Gene conversion between vls silent cassettes and the vlsE expression site occurs at high frequency during mammalian infection, resulting in sequence variation in the VlsE product. In this study, we examined vlsE sequence variation in B. burgdorferi B31 during mouse infection by analyzing 1,399 clones isolated from bladder, heart, joint, ear, and skin tissues of mice infected for 4 to 365 days. The median number of codon changes increased progressively in C3H/HeN mice from 4 to 28 days post infection, and no clones retained the parental vlsE sequence at 28 days. In contrast, the decrease in the number of clones with the parental vlsE sequence and the increase in the number of sequence changes occurred more gradually in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice. Clones containing a stop codon were isolated, indicating that continuous expression of full-length VlsE is not required for survival in vivo; also, these clones continued to undergo vlsE recombination. Analysis of clones with apparent single recombination events indicated that recombinations into vlsE are nonselective with regard to the silent cassette utilized, as well as the length and location of the recombination event. Sequence changes as small as one base pair were common. Fifteen percent of recovered vlsE variants contained "template-independent" sequence changes, which clustered in the variable regions of vlsE. We hypothesize that the increased frequency and complexity of vlsE sequence changes observed in clones recovered from immunocompetent mice (as compared with SCID mice is due to rapid clearance of relatively invariant clones by variable region-specific anti-VlsE antibody responses.

  18. Effects of caffeine or RX821002 in rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eSandner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rats with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL are used to model schizophrenia. They show enhanced locomotion and difficulties in learning after puberty. Such behavioural modifications are strengthened by dopaminergic psychostimulant drugs, which is also relevant for schizophrenia because illustrating its dopaminergic facet. But it remains questionable that only dopaminergic drugs elicit such effects. The behavioural effects could simply represent a non specific arousal, in which case NVHL rats should also be hyper-responsive to other vigilance enhancing drugs. We administered an adenosine (caffeine or an adrenaline receptor antagonist, (RX821002 at doses documented to modify alertness of rats, respectively 5 mg/Kg and 1 mg/Kg. Rats were selected prior to the experiments using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging. Each group contained typical and similar NVHL lesions. They were compared to sham lesioned rats. We evaluated locomotion in a new environment and the capacity to remember a visual or acoustic cue that announced the occurrence of food. Both Caffeine and RX82100 enhanced locomotion in the novel environment, particularly in NVHL rats. But, RX82100 had a biphasic effect on locomotion, consisting of an initial reduction preceding the enhancement. It was independent of the lesion. Caffeine did not modify the learning performance of NVHL rats. But, RX821002 was found to facilitate learning.Patients tend to intake much more caffeine than healthy people, which has been interpreted as a means to counter some cognitive deficits. This idea was not validated with the present results. But adrenergic drugs could be helpful for attenuating some of their cognitive deficits.

  19. [Disruption of latent inhibition in adult rats after prepubertal dopamine terminals lesions in the ventral hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutova, L V; Kostiunina, N V; Red'kina, A V

    2010-05-01

    Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine on 32nd day after birth. Latent inhibition was measured in passive or active avoidance tasks when the rats received 20 and 100 pre-exposures of conditioned stimulus. Prepubertal and adult lesioned rats showed a deficit in the latent inhibition but not in the capacity to avoidance learning in presence of the conditioned stimulus novelty. Possible mechanism of the involvement of hippocampal dopaminergic terminals in attention inhibition to irrelevant information is considered.

  20. Evaluation of the Importance of VlsE Antigenic Variation for the Enzootic Cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem S Rogovskyy

    Full Text Available Efficient acquisition and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by the tick vector, and the ability to persistently infect both vector and host, are important elements for the life cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. Previous work has provided strong evidence implicating the significance of the vls locus for B. burgdorferi persistence. However, studies involving vls mutant clones have thus far only utilized in vitro-grown or host-adapted spirochetes and laboratory strains of mice. Additionally, the effects of vls mutation on tick acquisition and transmission has not yet been tested. Thus, the importance of VlsE antigenic variation for persistent infection of the natural reservoir host, and for the B. burgdorferi enzootic life cycle in general, has not been examined to date. In the current work, Ixodes scapularis and Peromyscus maniculatus were infected with different vls mutant clones to study the importance of the vls locus for the enzootic cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. The findings highlight the significance of the vls system for long-term infection of the natural reservoir host, and show that VlsE antigenic variability is advantageous for efficient tick acquisition of B. burgdorferi from the mammalian reservoir. The data also indicate that the adaptation state of infecting spirochetes influences B. burgdorferi avoidance from host antibodies, which may be in part due to its respective VlsE expression levels. Overall, the current findings provide the most direct evidence on the importance of VlsE for the enzootic cycle of Lyme disease spirochetes, and underscore the significance of VlsE antigenic variation for maintaining B. burgdorferi in nature.

  1. Evaluation of the Importance of VlsE Antigenic Variation for the Enzootic Cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogovskyy, Artem S; Casselli, Timothy; Tourand, Yvonne; Jones, Cami R; Owen, Jeb P; Mason, Kathleen L; Scoles, Glen A; Bankhead, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Efficient acquisition and transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi by the tick vector, and the ability to persistently infect both vector and host, are important elements for the life cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. Previous work has provided strong evidence implicating the significance of the vls locus for B. burgdorferi persistence. However, studies involving vls mutant clones have thus far only utilized in vitro-grown or host-adapted spirochetes and laboratory strains of mice. Additionally, the effects of vls mutation on tick acquisition and transmission has not yet been tested. Thus, the importance of VlsE antigenic variation for persistent infection of the natural reservoir host, and for the B. burgdorferi enzootic life cycle in general, has not been examined to date. In the current work, Ixodes scapularis and Peromyscus maniculatus were infected with different vls mutant clones to study the importance of the vls locus for the enzootic cycle of the Lyme disease pathogen. The findings highlight the significance of the vls system for long-term infection of the natural reservoir host, and show that VlsE antigenic variability is advantageous for efficient tick acquisition of B. burgdorferi from the mammalian reservoir. The data also indicate that the adaptation state of infecting spirochetes influences B. burgdorferi avoidance from host antibodies, which may be in part due to its respective VlsE expression levels. Overall, the current findings provide the most direct evidence on the importance of VlsE for the enzootic cycle of Lyme disease spirochetes, and underscore the significance of VlsE antigenic variation for maintaining B. burgdorferi in nature.

  2. Substantia nigra lesions attenuate the development of hypertension and behavioural hyperreactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Buuse, M; Veldhuis, H D; Versteeg, D H; De Jong, W

    1986-01-01

    The possible relation between changes in behaviour and the development of hypertension was investigated. Depletion of striatal dopamine by lesions in the substantia nigra of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) was associated with an inhibition of the development of hypertension. In the open field

  3. Alteration of conditioned emotional response and conditioned taste aversion after neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Marie-Josée; Macedo, Carlos Eduardo; Guiberteau, Thierry; Sandner, Guy

    2007-04-27

    Sprague-Dawley rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampus lesions 7 days after birth according to the Lipska and Weinberger's procedure for modeling schizophrenia. The aim of the present work was to better characterize their learning capacity. A double latent inhibition study was conducted using respectively conditioned taste aversion and conditioned emotional response. In the background of this evaluation, locomotion under apomorphine and startle reactions, inhibited or not by prepulses, was also evaluated. Our experimental methods were the same as those used in previous studies from the laboratory which were found to be sensitive to pharmacological manipulations and shown by others to be unaffected by lesions of the ventral hippocampus carried out in adult rats. In contrast, neonatally lesioned rats, once adults (over 60 days old), were hyper-responsive to noise--i.e., the startle response to a 105 db(A) noise pulse was enhanced--and hyperactive under apomorphine (0.7 mg/kg). The prepulse inhibition properties of the startle remained unchanged. Lesioned rats showed a deficit but not a suppression of conditioning, similar in both tests, but latent inhibition was preserved. Such observations complement the already known memory deficit produced in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia.

  4. Subtle Cardiovascular Dysfunction in the Unilateral 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Slack

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease produces autonomic deficits. Autonomic parameters were assessed by implanting a small radiofrequency telemetry device which measured heart rate variability (HRV, diurnal rhythms of heart rate (HR, core body temperature (cBT and locomotor activity (LA. Rats then received 6-OHDA lesion or sham surgery. 6-OHDA lesioned rats exhibited head and body axis biases, defective sensorimotor function (“disengage” test, and prominent apomorphine rotation (all P<.05 versus controls. Diurnal rhythm of HR was lower for 6-OHDA lesioned rats (n=8 versus controls (n=6; P<.05. Whilst HR decreased similarly in both groups during the day, there was a greater decrease in HR for the 6-OHDA lesioned rats at night (by 38 b.p.m. relative to 17 b.p.m. for controls. LA and cBT did not differ between surgery groups. This study indicates the unilateral 6-OHDA model of PD shows subtle signs of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction.

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in pancreatic lesions induced in the rat by azaserine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, C.J.T.; Weger, R.A. de; Blokland, W.T.M. van; Seifert-Bock, I.; Kobrin, M.S.; Korc, M.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was investigated in putative preneoplastic and neoplastic acinar cell lesions induced in the rat pancreas by azaserine, using Northern blotting, in situ hybridisation (ISH) and immunohistochemistry. EGFR protein leve

  6. Lesions of Rat Infralimbic Cortex Enhance Recovery and Reinstatement of an Appetitive Pavlovian Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Sarah E. V.; Kilcross, Simon

    2004-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has a well-established role in the inhibition of inappropriate responding, and evidence suggests that the infralimbic (IL) region of the rat medial PFC (MPFC) may be involved in some aspects of extinction of conditioned fear. MPFC lesions including, but not those sparing the IL cortex increase spontaneous recovery of…

  7. Hippocampal lesions facilitate instrumental learning with delayed reinforcement but induce impulsive choice in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung Timothy HC

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals must frequently act to influence the world even when the reinforcing outcomes of their actions are delayed. Learning with action-outcome delays is a complex problem, and little is known of the neural mechanisms that bridge such delays. When outcomes are delayed, they may be attributed to (or associated with the action that caused them, or mistakenly attributed to other stimuli, such as the environmental context. Consequently, animals that are poor at forming context-outcome associations might learn action-outcome associations better with delayed reinforcement than normal animals. The hippocampus contributes to the representation of environmental context, being required for aspects of contextual conditioning. We therefore hypothesized that animals with hippocampal lesions would be better than normal animals at learning to act on the basis of delayed reinforcement. We tested the ability of hippocampal-lesioned rats to learn a free-operant instrumental response using delayed reinforcement, and what is potentially a related ability – the ability to exhibit self-controlled choice, or to sacrifice an immediate, small reward in order to obtain a delayed but larger reward. Results Rats with sham or excitotoxic hippocampal lesions acquired an instrumental response with different delays (0, 10, or 20 s between the response and reinforcer delivery. These delays retarded learning in normal rats. Hippocampal-lesioned rats responded slightly less than sham-operated controls in the absence of delays, but they became better at learning (relative to shams as the delays increased; delays impaired learning less in hippocampal-lesioned rats than in shams. In contrast, lesioned rats exhibited impulsive choice, preferring an immediate, small reward to a delayed, larger reward, even though they preferred the large reward when it was not delayed. Conclusion These results support the view that the hippocampus hinders action-outcome learning

  8. Rhesus monkey neural stem cell transplantation promotes neural regeneration in rats with hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li-Juan; Bian, Hui; Fan, Yao-Dong; Wang, Zheng-Bo; Yu, Hua-Lin; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Chen, Feng

    2016-09-01

    Rhesus monkey neural stem cells are capable of differentiating into neurons and glial cells. Therefore, neural stem cell transplantation can be used to promote functional recovery of the nervous system. Rhesus monkey neural stem cells (1 × 10(5) cells/μL) were injected into bilateral hippocampi of rats with hippocampal lesions. Confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that green fluorescent protein-labeled transplanted cells survived and grew well. Transplanted cells were detected at the lesion site, but also in the nerve fiber-rich region of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum. Some transplanted cells differentiated into neurons and glial cells clustering along the ventricular wall, and integrated into the recipient brain. Behavioral tests revealed that spatial learning and memory ability improved, indicating that rhesus monkey neural stem cells noticeably improve spatial learning and memory abilities in rats with hippocampal lesions.

  9. Spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of experimental Wistar rats and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraju, G J; Ranvir, Ramchandra K; Kothule, Viren R; Kadam, Shekhar B; Ravichandra, B V; Bhatnagar, Upendra; Jain, Mukul R

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken at Zydus Research Centre to understand the incidences of spontaneous lesions in endocrine glands of Wistar rats and beagle dogs. The data from a total of 841 Wistar rats (418 males and 423 females) and 144 beagle dogs (72 males and 72 females) was used from placebo/vehicle treated control group of different non-clinical toxicity studies. The lesions in various endocrine glands were classified according to the species and age of the animals at termination of study. Among the endocrine glands, the highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were observed in adrenal glands followed in descending order by pituitary, thyroid, endocrine pancreas and parathyroid glands in Wistar rats. In beagle dogs, highest numbers (types) of spontaneous lesions were seen in adrenals followed by thyroid, endocrine pancreas, pituitary and parathyroid gland. In adrenal glands of Wistar rats, the incidences of cortical cell vacuolation, hemorrhages and hemangiectasis/peliosis were increased with age. Incidence of peliosis at ∼110 weeks of age was higher in female rats. Among the proliferative lesions in rats, higher incidences of cortical cell hyperplasia was observed followed by medullary hyperplasia, complex pheochromocytoma, cortical cell adenoma and cortical adenocarcinoma. In beagle dogs, the incidences of hemangiectasis and cortical cell vacuolation in adrenal glands were higher in 18-21 months aged dogs in both the sexes as compared to 10-12 months of age. In pituitary gland, the incidences of cystic changes were higher in older rats and dogs and the incidences were more in beagles as compared to rats. In thyroid glands, C-cell (parafollicular cells) hyperplasia/complex was observed more frequently in both the species. Few incidences of cystic changes were observed in parathyroid of 18-21 months aged beagle dogs. In endocrine pancreas, few incidences of islet-cell vacuolation, atrophy and hyperplasia were observed in both the species. The

  10. Taste aversion learning and aging: a comparison with the effect of dorsal hippocampal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moron, I; Ballesteros, M A; Candido, A; Gallo, M

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between hippocampal function and aging was explored in Wistar rats using taste aversion learning by comparing the performance of adult dorsal hippocampal lesioned and fifteen-month-old intact rats with that of adult intact rats. In experiment 1 the conditioned blocking phenomenon was absent in the hippocampal and the aging rats. Unlike the adult intact rats, the hippocampal and aging rats were not impaired in acquiring a learned aversion to a cider vinegar solution (3 %) presented as a serial compound with a previously conditioned saccharin solution (0.1 %). In experiment 2 both the hippocampal and the aging rats developed reduced aversions to a saline solution (0.5 %) followed by an i.p. injection of lithium chloride (0.15 M; 2 % b.w.) if the taste solution was previously preexposed without consequences. This latent inhibition effect was similar to that seen in intact adult rats. In both experiments, the aging rats exhibited enhanced conventional learned taste aversions. It is concluded that aging is not a unitary process but induces both hippocampal dependent and hippocampal independent complex changes in the functioning of the neural circuits, implementing taste aversion learning.

  11. Dorsal hippocampal lesions impair blocking but not latent inhibition of taste aversion learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, M; Cándido, A

    1995-06-01

    The aim of the present experiments was to study the effect of nonselective electrolytic lesions of the rat dorsal hippocampus on 2 learning phenomena: the L.J. Kamin (1969) blocking effect and latent inhibition of taste aversion learning. Bilateral dorsal hippocampal lesions selectively impaired blocking induced by 1 saccharin-lithium chloride pairing previous to 1 serial compound (saccharin-cider vinegar)-lithium pairing, but lesions had no effect on latent inhibition of a saline aversion, induced by 6 saline preexposures, in the same group of animals. Moreover, dorsal hippocampal lesions did not affect latent inhibition of saccharin-conditioned aversion induced by 1 or 6 preexposures. It is argued that blocking and latent inhibition of taste aversion learning do not share a common neural mechanism.

  12. Apomorphine-induced biphasic circling behaviour in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. A pharmacological kindling phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, D M

    1983-06-01

    Factors governing the development of apomorphine-induced biphasic circling behaviour in rats having unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra were investigated. It was found that a post-lesion time of at least 2--3 weeks and the repeated exposure to apomorphine were essential for its development. Optimal results were obtained when animals received weekly apomorphine, 0.05 mg/kg sc, in post-lesion weeks 6, 7 and 8. Pretreatment with haloperidol, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg ip 1 h beforehand in post-lesion week 9, converted the biphasic response into an enhanced, uniphasic one. The findings suggest that the development of the biphasic response to apomorphine is a multi-factorial process representing a pharmacological kindling phenomenon.

  13. Growth parameters and shape specific synthesis of silicon nanowires by the VLS method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latu-Romain, Laurence; Mouchet, Celine [CEA-Grenoble, LITEN/DTNM/LCH (France); Cayron, Cyril [CEA-Grenoble, LITEN/DTH/Grenoble Electron Microscopy-Minatec (France); Rouviere, Emmanuelle; Simonato, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: jean-pierre.simonato@cea.f [CEA-Grenoble, LITEN/DTNM/LCH (France)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper the effect of varying temperature, pressure and chemical precursors on the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of silicon nanowires (Si NWs) have been investigated. Some aspects of nucleation and growth mechanisms are discussed. Control on Si NW morphology by varying the choice of gaseous precursor (silane or dichlorosilane) at elevated temperatures is reported.

  14. Lesion of the tuberomammillary nucleus E2-region attenuates postictal seizure protection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chun-Lei; Zhuge, Zheng-Bing; Wu, Deng-Chang; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Shuang; Luo, Jian-Hong; Chen, Zhong

    2007-03-01

    Postictal seizure protection (PSP) is an endogenous anticonvulsant phenomenon that follows an epileptic seizure and inhibits the induction of further seizures. The tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), located in the posterior hypothalamus, consists of five subregions and is the sole source of histaminergic neurons in the brain. To determine whether the TM is involved in PSP in rats, we tested the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the TM E2-region on seizures induced by intermittent maximal electroshock (MES). The TM E2-region lesions significantly attenuated PSP during the intermittent MES procedure. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (100 microg), a selective and irreversible histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, mimicked the attenuation of PSP induced by the lesion of TM E2-region. In addition, neurochemical experiments revealed that the TM E2-region lesions markedly decreased basal histamine levels in the cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and hypothalamus, but had no significant effect on basal glutamate and GABA levels. Moreover, intermittent MES induced a persistent decrease of brain histamine levels in both sham-operated and lesioned rats. These results indicate that through its intrinsic histaminergic system, the TM may exert powerful inhibitory function during the intermittent MES procedure and actively participate in the mechanisms of PSP.

  15. REM sleep diversity following the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus lesion in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Jelena; Lazic, Katarina; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Saponjic, Jasna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that two REM clusters, which emerge following bilateral pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) lesions in rats, are two functionally distinct REM states. We performed the experiments in Wistar rats, chronically instrumented for sleep recording. Bilateral PPT lesions were produced by the microinfusion of 100 nl of 0.1M ibotenic acid (IBO). Following a recovery period of 2 weeks, we recorded their sleep for 6h. Bilateral PPT lesions were identified by NADPH - diaphorase histochemistry. We applied Fourier analysis to the signals acquired throughout the 6h recordings, and each 10s epoch was differentiated as a Wake, NREM or REM state. We analyzed the topography of the sleep/wake states architecture and their transition structure, their all state-related EEG microstructures, and the sensorimotor (SMCx) and motor (MCx) cortex REM related cortico-muscular coherences (CMCs). Bilateral PPT lesion in rats increased the likelihood of the emergence of two distinct REM sleep states, specifically expressed within the MCx: REM1 and REM2. Bilateral PPT lesion did not change the sleep/wake states architecture of the SMCx, but pathologically increased the duration of REM1 within the MCx, alongside increasing Wake/REM1/Wake and NREM/REM2/NREM transitions within both cortices. In addition, the augmented total REM SMCx EEG beta amplitude and REM1 MCx EEG theta amplitude was the underlying EEG microstructure pathology. PPT lesion induced REM1 and REM2 are differential states with regard to total EMG power, topographically distinct EEG microstructures, and locomotor drives to nuchal musculature.

  16. Viral bronchiolitis in young rats causes small airway lesions that correlate with reduced lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkness, Ronald L; Szakaly, Renee J; Rosenthal, Louis A; Sullivan, Ruth; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Sun, Xin

    2013-11-01

    Viral illness with wheezing during infancy is associated with the inception of childhood asthma. Small airway dysfunction is a component of childhood asthma, but little is known about how viral illness at an early age may affect the structure and function of small airways. We used a well-characterized rat model of postbronchiolitis chronic airway dysfunction to address how postinfectious small airway lesions affect airway physiological function and if the structure/function correlates persist into maturity. Brown Norway rats were sham- or virus inoculated at 3 to 4 weeks of age and allowed to recover from the acute illness. At 3 to 14 months of age, physiology (respiratory system resistance, Newtonian resistance, tissue damping, and static lung volumes) was assessed in anesthetized, intubated rats. Serial lung sections revealed lesions in the terminal bronchioles that reduced luminal area and interrupted further branching, affecting 26% (range, 13-39%) of the small airways at 3 months of age and 22% (range, 6-40%) at 12 to 14 months of age. At 3 months of age (n = 29 virus; n = 7 sham), small airway lesions correlated with tissue damping (rs = 0.69) but not with Newtonian resistance (rs = 0.23), and Newtonian resistance was not elevated compared with control rats, indicating that distal airways were primarily responsible for the airflow obstruction. Older rats (n = 7 virus; n = 6 sham) had persistent small airway dysfunction and significantly increased Newtonian resistance in the postbronchiolitis group. We conclude that viral airway injury at an early age may induce small airway lesions that are associated quantitatively with small airway physiological dysfunction early on and that these defects persist into maturity.

  17. Effect of dairy products on initiation of precursor lesions of colon cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelali, H; Cassand, P; Soussotte, V; Daubeze, M; Bouley, C; Narbonne, J F

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the modulating effect of some dairy products on initiation of putative preneoplasic lesions in rat colon (aberrant crypts) by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Uninoculated skim milk, skim milk fermented with Bifidobacterium sp Bio (Danone strain 173010), and a suspension of the same lactic acid bacteria were incorporated in the animals' diet. The tested diets significantly reduced the incidence of aberrant crypts compared with the control diet by 51%, 49%, and 61%, respectively. The effects of the diets on cecal pH, hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity, and cecal microflora enzyme beta-glucuronidase were also studied. There was no significant difference in cecal pH between rats fed experimental diets and control rat. The diet supplemented with the Bifidobacterium strain suspension significantly decreased only the cecal beta-glucuronidase activity. Both enzyme activities were reduced in rats fed fermented skim milk- or uninoculated skim milk-supplemented diets compared with control animals.

  18. Terbufos-sulfone exacerbates cardiac lesions in diabetic rats: a sub-acute toxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurulain, Syed M; Shafiullah, Mohamed; Yasin, Javed; Adem, Abdu; Kaabi, Juma Al; Tariq, Saeed; Adeghate, Ernest; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) have a wide range of applications, from agriculture to warfare. Exposure to these brings forward a varied kind of health issues globally. Terbufos is one of the leading OPCs used worldwide. The present study investigates the cardiac effect of no observable dose of a metabolite of terbufos, terbufos-sulfone (TS), under non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic condition. One hundred nanomoles per rat (1/20 of LD50) was administered intraperitoneally to adult male Wister rats daily for fifteen days. The left ventricle was collected for ultrastructural changes by transmission electron microscopy. The blood samples were collected for biochemical tests including RBC acetylcholinesterase, creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides, ALT, AST, and GGT. The study revealed about 10 % inhibition of RBC-AChE in two weeks of TS treatment in non-diabetic rats whereas RBC-AChE activity was significantly decreased in diabetic TS treated rats. CK, LDH, and triglycerides were significantly higher in diabetic TS treated rats. Electron microscopy of the heart showed derangement and lesions of the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes in the TS treated groups. The present study concludes that a non-lethal dose of TS causes cardiac lesions which exacerbate under diabetic condition. Biochemical tests confirmed the ultrastructural changes. It is concluded that a non-lethal dose of TS may be a risk factor for a cardiovascular disease, which may be fatal under diabetic condition.

  19. Effect of glutathione on gastric mucosal lesion induced by restraint water-immersion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Li Wan; Chang Liu Wang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To determine the effect of glutathione (GSH) on stress gastric mucosal lesion.METHODS The stress gastric mucosal lesion as produced by restraint water-immersion in rats and gastricmucosal lesion, gastric mucosal GSH content, gastric acid secretion and gastric barrier mucus secretion wereexamined. We also observed the effect of GSH on gastric mucosal lesion and the effect of N-ethylmaleimine(NEM) and indomethacin on GSH protection. Comparisons between two groups were made using the Students t test.RESULTS GSH (100 and 200 mg/kg) intraperitoneally protected against stress gastric mucosal lesion(P0.05). The preinjection of NEM (10 mg/kg, sc.), a sulfhydryl-blocking reagent, or indomethacin(5 mg/kg, im.), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, had no effect on protection of GSH (P>0.05). GSH(100mg/kg) significantly increased secretion of gastric barrier mucus (P0.05).CONCLUSION GSH can inhibit the formation of gastric mucosal lesions induced by restraint water-immersion. The protective effect of GSH was due, in part, to promoting the secretion of gastric barriermucus, but not to suppress the gastric acid secretion. The protection effect of GSH has no relation withgastric mucosal GSH and PGs.

  20. The effect of cul length and hippocampal lesions on maze learning in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, P N

    1978-01-01

    Twenty-four rats, 8 with bilateral hippocampal lesions, 8 with cortical lesions and 8 unoperated rats, were tested on one of 2 mazes. Half of each group were run in a conventional 5 choice multiple Y maze. The other half were run in a symetrical, long cul maze in which distance and number of successive choice point were equal for a right or wrong choice before the animal reached an cul end or the goal box. The correct path in the long cul maze was identical to that of the short cul maze. S's were run one trial a day for 15 days. On the symetrical, long cul maze there were no differences between groups. On the short cul maze, hippocampals were significantly worse than control S's and looked similar to control S's on the long cul maze. The results are interpreted in terms of frustration theory.

  1. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and preneoplastic lesions develop in the liver of obese and hypertensive rats: suppressing effects of EGCG on the development of liver lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochi, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masahito; Terakura, Daishi; Baba, Atsushi; Ohno, Tomohiko; Kubota, Masaya; Shirakami, Yohei; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which involves hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, is associated with liver carcinogenesis. The activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which plays a key role in blood pressure regulation, promotes hepatic fibrogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins, on the development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive (GST-P(+)) foci, a hepatic preneoplastic lesion, in SHRSP.Z-Lepr(fa)/IzmDmcr (SHRSP-ZF) obese and hypertensive rats. Male 7-week-old SHRSP-ZF rats and control non-obese and normotensive WKY rats were fed a high fat diet and received intraperitoneal injections of carbon tetrachloride twice a week for 8weeks. The rats were also provided tap water containing 0.1% EGCG during the experiment. SHRSP-ZF rats presented with obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, an imbalance of adipokines in the serum, and hepatic steatosis. The development of GST-P(+) foci and liver fibrosis was markedly accelerated in SHRSP-ZF rats compared to that in control rats. Additionally, in SHRSP-ZF rats, RAS was activated and inflammation and oxidative stress were induced. Administration of EGCG, however, inhibited the development of hepatic premalignant lesions by improving liver fibrosis, inhibiting RAS activation, and attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in SHRSP-ZF rats. In conclusion, obese and hypertensive SHRSP-ZF rats treated with a high fat diet and carbon tetrachloride displayed the histopathological and pathophysiological characteristics of NASH and developed GST-P(+) foci hepatic premalignant lesions, suggesting the model might be useful for the evaluation of NASH-related liver tumorigenesis. EGCG might also be able to prevent NASH-related liver fibrosis and tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomical mechanism of spontaneous recovery in regions caudal to thoracic spinal cord injury lesions in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu-sheng; Yu, Hao; Raynald, Raynald; Wang, Xiao-dong; Dai, Guang-hui; Cheng, Hong-bin; Liu, Xue-bin

    2017-01-01

    Background The nerve fibre circuits around a lesion play a major role in the spontaneous recovery process after spinal cord hemisection in rats. The aim of the present study was to answer the following question: in the re-control process, do all spinal cord nerves below the lesion site participate, or do the spinal cord nerves of only one vertebral segment have a role in repair? Methods First we made a T7 spinal cord hemisection in 50 rats. Eight weeks later, they were divided into three groups based on distinct second operations at T7: ipsilateral hemisection operation, contralateral hemisection, or transection. We then tested recovery of hindlimbs for another eight weeks. The first step was to confirm the lesion had role or not in the spontaneous recovery process. Secondly, we performed T7 spinal cord hemisections in 125 rats. Eight weeks later, we performed a second single hemisection on the ipsilateral side at T8–T12 and then tested hindlimb recovery for another six weeks. Results In the first part, the Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scores and the electrophysiology tests of both hindlimbs weren’t significantly different after the second hemisection of the ipsilateral side. In the second part, the closer the second hemisection was to T12, the more substantial the resulting impairment in BBB score tests and prolonged latency periods. Conclusions The nerve regeneration from the lesion area after hemisection has no effect on spontaneous recovery of the spinal cord. Repair is carried out by all vertebrae caudal and ipsilateral to the lesion, with T12 being most important. PMID:28097067

  3. Decoupling Actions from Consequences: Dorsal Hippocampal Lesions Facilitate Instrumental Performance, but Impair Behavioral Flexibility in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Sebastian; Schwarting, Rainer K. W.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is part of a series of experiments, where we analyze why and how damage of the rat’s dorsal hippocampus (dHC) can enhance performance in a sequential reaction time task (SRTT). In this task, sequences of distinct visual stimulus presentations are food-rewarded in a fixed-ratio-13-schedule. Our previous study (Busse and Schwarting, 2016) had shown that rats with lesions of the dHC show substantially shorter session times and post-reinforcement pauses (PRPs) than controls, which allows for more practice when daily training is kept constant. Since sequential behavior is based on instrumental performance, a sequential benefit might be secondary to that. In order to test this hypothesis in the present study, we performed two experiments, where pseudorandom rather than sequential stimulus presentation was used in rats with excitotoxic dorsal hippocampal lesions. Again, we found enhanced performance in the lesion-group in terms of shorter session times and PRPs. During the sessions we found that the lesion-group spent less time with non-instrumental behavior (i.e., grooming, sniffing, and rearing) after prolonged instrumental training. Also, such rats showed moderate evidence for an extinction impairment under devalued food reward conditions and significant deficits in a response-outcome (R-O)-discrimination task in comparison to a control-group. These findings suggest that facilitatory effects on instrumental performance after dorsal hippocampal lesions may be primarily a result of complex behavioral changes, i.e., reductions of behavioral flexibility and/or alterations in motivation, which then result in enhanced instrumental learning. PMID:27375453

  4. Losartan inhibited expression of matrix metalloproteinases in rat atherosclerotic lesions and angiotensin Ⅱ-stimulated macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChunLIANG; Zong-guiWU; JianDING; Jian-feiJIANG; Gao-zhongHUANG; Rong-zengDU; Jun-boGE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether the angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) receptor 1 (ATI) antagonist, losartan could reduce activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in rat atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS: Male Wistar-Kyoto rats were ip injected a single dose of vitamin D3 600 kU·kg·-1·month-1 and fed an atherogenic diet for 4 months to induce experimental atheroma. Then either placebo or losartan 50 kU·kg·-1·d-1 was administered in rats for another 2 months. In vitro, the effect of losartan 0.1-10 μmol/L on the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was investigated in Ang Ⅱ-stimulated rat peritoneal macrophages. The expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were monitored by Western blot, RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE zymography analysis. RESULTS: High levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were expressed in rat atherosclerotic lesions. Losartan significantly reduced the activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 compared with the placebo group (MMP-2, 5861±539 vs 8991±965, P<0.05; MMP-9,10527±1002 vs 14623±2462, P<0.01). In cultured rat peritoneal macrophages, Ang Ⅱ 0.1 μmol/L elicited an increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity and expression that were prevented by losartan in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). But the AT2receptor antagonist PD123319 had no effect. CONCLUSION: Losartan reduced the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in rat atherosclerotic lesions. The anti-atherogenic effects of losartan were due to the direct inhibition of Ang Ⅱ bioactivity.

  5. Effects of BNST lesions in female rats on forced swimming and navigational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezuk, Pinar; Aydin, Elif; Aksoy, Ayla; Canbeyli, Resit

    2008-09-01

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) in the forebrain shows sexual dimorphism in its neuroanatomical connectivity and neurochemical characteristics. The structure is involved in many behavioral and motivational phenomena particularly related to coping with stress. Female rats differ from males in responding to stressful situations such as forced swimming and navigational learning in the water maze. It was previously shown that bilateral damage to the BNST in male Wistar rats aggravated depression as measured by forced swim tests, but did not impair navigational learning in the water maze. The present study extended the findings to female rats demonstrating that bilateral electrolytic lesions of the BNST increased immobility and decreased climbing compared to sham-operated controls, but failed to affect performance in the water maze. Additionally, lesions did not alter behavior in the open field and the elevated plus-maze tests suggesting not only that the modulation of depression by BNST lesions is specific, but also providing support for the view that the BNST may not necessarily be critically involved in anxiety.

  6. Fresh raspberry phytochemical extract inhibits hepatic lesion in a Wistar rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red raspberry possesses potent antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer in vitro. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of raspberry 80% acetone extract in a rat hepatic lesions model induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN. Rats were treated with the red raspberry extract (0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 g/kg of body weight by gavage starting 2 h after DEN administration and continuing for 20 weeks. Results A dose-dependent inhibition by red raspberry extract of DEN-induced hepatic nodule formation which stands for hepatic lesions was observed. Corresponding hepatic nodule incidence rates were 45.0, 40.0, 25.0 and 5.0% in positive control, low, middle and high groups, respectively (P Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the potent capacity of red raspberry diet could not only suppress DEN-induced hepatic lesions in rats, but also reduce the definite diagnostic features of neoplasm.

  7. The rat retrosplenial cortex as a link for frontal functions: A lesion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Anna L; Nelson, Andrew J D; Hindley, Emma; Davies, Moira; Aggleton, John P; Vann, Seralynne D

    2017-09-29

    Cohorts of rats with excitotoxic retrosplenial cortex lesions were tested on four behavioural tasks sensitive to dysfunctions in prelimbic cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, or both. In this way the study tested whether retrosplenial cortex has nonspatial functions that reflect its anatomical interactions with these frontal cortical areas. In Experiment 1, retrosplenial cortex lesions had no apparent effect on a set-shifting digging task that taxed intradimensional and extradimensional attention, as well as reversal learning. Likewise, retrosplenial cortex lesions did not impair a strategy shift task in an automated chamber, which involved switching from visual-based to response-based discriminations and, again, included a reversal (Experiment 2). Indeed, there was evidence that the retrosplenial lesions aided the initial switch to response-based selection. No lesion deficit was found on an automated cost-benefit task that pitted size of reward against effort to achieve that reward (Experiment 3). Finally, while retrosplenial cortex lesions affected matching-to-place task in a T-maze, the profile of deficits differed from that associated with prelimbic cortex damage (Experiment 4). When the task was switched to a nonmatching design, retrosplenial cortex lesions had no apparent effect on performance. The results from the four experiments show that many frontal tasks do not require the retrosplenial cortex, highlighting the specificity of their functional interactions. The results show how retrosplenial cortex lesions spare those learning tasks in which there is no mismatch between the internal and external representations used to guide behavioural choice. In addition, these experiments further highlight the importance of the retrosplenial cortex in solving tasks with a spatial component. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic pramipexole treatment induces compulsive behavior in rats with 6-OHDA lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardou, D; Reyrolle, L; Chassain, C; Durif, F

    2017-08-14

    Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) reduces motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but also induces impulsive-compulsive behavior (ICB) in up to 25% of PD patients. These non-motor side effects of DRT generally follow a gradual transition from impulsive to compulsive-like-i.e. repetitive, compelled, and non-pleasurable-behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic pramipexole (PPX) treatment on the onset of compulsive-like behavior, measured via the post-training signal attenuation (PTSA) procedure, in rats with dopaminergic lesions. Accordingly, we aimed to mimic chronic DRT in a PD context, and obtain data on the brain regions that potentially sustain this type of compulsive behavior pattern in rats. We observed that the lesion or treatment alone did not induce compulsive lever pressing in rats. However, rats with lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area as well as with chronic PPX treatment developed strong compulsive lever-pressing behavior, as measured via PTSA. Furthermore, when chronic PPX treatment was discontinued before the PTSA test, the lesioned rats showed the same level of compulsive behavior as sham-operated rats. In fact, lesioned, treated, and compulsive-like rats showed significantly higher Fos expression in the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Thus, chronic PPX treatment in PD rats induced a strong compulsive-like behavior. Furthermore, Fos expression mapping suggests that the behavior was sustained via the activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of histamine on memory deficits induced by hippocampal lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, C; Chen, Z; Nakamura, S; Sugimoto, Y

    1997-05-01

    The influence of bilateral hippocampal lesions on active avoidance response was studied in rats, as well as the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of histamine on memory deficits caused by hippocampectomy. Retardation of learning acquisition was produced by lesioning of the bilateral dorsal hippocampus in active avoidance response. Memory retention was also impaired by hippocampectomy. Although locomotor activity and rearing behavior measured by open-field test increased after hippocampal lesions, there was no relation between impairment of learning and increase in exploratory behavior. I.c.v. injection of histamine and i.p. injection of histidine resulted in an improvement of memory deficits (not only learning acquisition but also memory retrieval) induced by hippocampal lesions in rats. Histamine contents of the hippocampus and hypothalamus decreased after hippocampectomy, and a decrease in histamine contents of both areas was restored by histamine (i.c.v.) and histidine (i.p.) injection. In addition, a close relationship was found between decrease in response latency of avoidance response and an increase in histamine content of the hippocampus and hypothalamus after histamine injection.

  10. Selenium protects against ischemia-reperfusion- induced gastric lesions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobarok Ali Abu Taib

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that selenium afforded protection against ethanol and stress-induced gastric lesions in rats. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of selenium on ischemia-reperfusion-induced gastric injuries in which rats were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia in the presence of 100 mM HCI and a reperfusion for 60 minutes duration. Intraluminal bleeding was assessed macroscopically and gastric lesions were graded microscopically under an inverted microscope. Nonprotein sulphydryl levels were measured spectrophotometrically. The severity of gastric lesions, intraluminal bleeding as well as the depletion of nonprotein sulphydryls during the reperfusion periods was significantly different from that of control. Pretreatment with selenium (0.125-2.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the ischemia-reperfusion, dose-dependently attenuated the gastric lesions, reduced the severity of intraluminal bleeding and prevented the depletion of nonprotein sulphydryls in the stomach. These results suggest that the gastric protection effect of selenium may be due to its antioxidant properties. Furthermore, endogenous nonprotein sulphydryls may play a significant role in the protective mechanisms of selenium.

  11. Effect of excitotoxic lesions of rat medial prefrontal cortex on spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Laurent; White, Ilsun; Feldon, Joram

    2002-06-15

    The involvement of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in spatial learning was examined in two memory tasks using spatial components, the Morris water maze and the three-panel runway. Using the Morris water maze task, with an invisible platform, the effects of NMDA mPFC lesions were assessed in a procedure reflecting spatial learning and memory, including a spatial reversal. In the three-panel runway, a delayed matching-to-position procedure was used in which rats were required to find food at the end of the runway after passing through one of three panel gates set into four barriers spaced equally apart along the maze. In addition, mPFC lesions were assessed behaviorally in two behavioral tests known to be sensitive to mPFC dysfunction: the food hoarding paradigm and spontaneous locomotion in the open field. Consistent with the documented effects of mPFC damage, NMDA mPFC lesions impaired food hoarding behavior and increased spontaneous exploratory locomotion. In the Morris water maze and the three-panel runway, mPFC-lesioned rats showed relatively few effects, supporting the conclusion that the damage inflicted to the mPFC had no consequence for the processing of spatial information. However, mPFC lesioned animals showed slower acquisition during both the training trial in the three-panel runway and the reversal training in the Morris water maze. These results suggest that spatial memory did not depend on mPFC integrity in the Morris water maze and the three-panel runway experiments, and address the issue of deficits induced by mPFC lesions in memory tasks dependent on non-mnemonic processes such as attentional processes and/or a reduced behavioral flexibility to environmental changes.

  12. A grasp-related deficit in tactile discrimination following dorsal column lesion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballermann, M; McKenna, J; Whishaw, I Q

    2001-01-15

    The dorsal columns of the spinal cord are a major source of haptic (sense of active touch) and proprioceptive input to the brainstem and sensory-motor cortex. Following injury in primates, there are impairments in two-point discrimination, direction of movement across the skin, and frequency of vibration, and qualitative control of the digits, but simple spatial discriminations recover. In the rat there are qualitative deficits in paw control in skilled reaching, but no sensory deficits have been reported. Because recent investigations of sensory control suggest that sensory functions may be related to specific actions, the present study investigated whether the dorsal columns contribute to hapsis during food grasping in the rat. Adult female Long-Evans rats were trained to reach with a single forepaw for a piece of uncooked pasta or for equivalent sized but tactually different nonfood items. One group was given lesions of the dorsal column ipsilateral to their preferred paw, while the second group served as a control. Postlesion, both groups were tested for skilled reaching success and force application as well as adhesive dot removal and forepaw placing. Performance levels on these tests were normal. Nevertheless, the rats with dorsal column lesions were unable to discriminate a food item from a tactually distinctive nonfood item as part of the reaching act, suggesting that the dorsal columns are important for on-line tactile discriminations, or "haptic actions," which contribute to the normal performance of grasping actions.

  13. L -sulpiride, at antidepressant dosage, prevents conditioned-fear stress-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, A; De Pol A; Poggioli, R; Cavazzuti, E; Arletti, R; Bertolini, A; Vergoni, A V

    2000-08-01

    It has been previously shown that long-term treatment with low doses of l-sulpiride is highly effective in rat models of depression and of anticipatory anxiety/panic behavior. The present study was aimed at investigating whether the same treatment can prevent the ulcerogenic effect of repeated inescapable stresses. In adult rats, the repeated (7 consecutive days) exposure to an uncontrollable stressful condition (inescapable 2.5 mA scrambled shock for 60 s) produced the development of gastric lesions (multiple punctiform telangiectasias in all rats, with superficial erosions or more severe ulcerations in 10 out 13 rats; score 4.67 +/- 0.44). l-sulpiride, intraperitoneally injected once a day at an antidepressant dose level (4 mg kg(-1) per day), starting 21 days before the beginning of the 7-day sequence of inescapable punishments ( = 28 daily treatments), almost completely prevented the stress-induced gastric injury (score 1.67 +/- 0.29; Psulpiride prevents the development of gastric lesions induced by chronic exposure to uncontrollable stress.

  14. Antagonism of quercetin against tremor induced by unilateral striatal lesion of 6-OHDA in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xin; Yuan, Xia; Du, Li-Da; He, Guo-Rong; Du, Guan-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a flavonoid present in many plants, is reported to be effective in models of neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-tremor effects of quercetin in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease. In rats, quercetin had no effect on apomorphine-induced rotations, but it could significantly attenuate muscle tremor of 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Interestingly, quercetin could decrease the burst frequency in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results suggest that quercetin may have a protective effect on models to mimic muscle tremors of Parkinson's disease. This effect of quercetin may be associated with serotonergic system, but further study is needed.

  15. Protective effects of leflunomide on renal lesions in a rat model if diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Ji, Yongqiang; Lv, Wei; He, Tianwei; Wang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most common chronic complications of diabetes with poor efficacy of clinical treatment. This study investigated the protective effects of leflunomide, a new immunosuppressant, on tubulointerstitial lesions in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes was induced with streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection in male Wistar rats. Two weeks after STZ injection, diabetic rats were treated daily for 8 weeks with low (5 mg/kg) and high dose (10 mg/kg) of leflunomide, and benazepril hydrochloride (4 mg/kg) as a positive control. In diabetic rats, the 24-h urine volume, urine protein and microalbumin, blood creatinine and urea nitrogen significantly increased, which were attenuated by leflunomide treatment in a dose-dependent manner (all p leflunomide treatment. Immunohistochemistry study and real-time polymerase chain reaction results demonstrated that osteopontin (OPN), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), α-smooth muscle actin and CD68 expression in the renal tubulointerstitial region were significantly increased in the diabetic rats, while these increases were inhibited by leflunomide treatment. These findings suggest that leflunomide protects the kidney injury of diabetic rats might through its inhibition of OPN/TGF-β1 mediated extracellular matrix deposition and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as well as its inhibition on tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation.

  16. Losartan inhibited expression of matrix metalloproteinases in rat atherosclerotic lesions and angiotensin Ⅱ-stimulated macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun LIANG; Zong-gui WU; Jian DING; Jian-fei JIANG; Gao-zhong HUANG; Rong-zeng DU; Jun-bo GE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether the angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) receptor 1 (AT1) antagonist, losartan could reduce activity and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in rat atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS: Male Wistar-Kyoto induce experimental atheroma. Then either placebo or losartan 50 mg.kg-1.d-1 was administered in rats for another2 months. In vitro, the effect of losartan 0.1-10 μmol/L on the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was investigated in Ang Ⅱ-stimulated rat peritoneal macrophages. The expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were monitored by Western blot, RT-PCR, and SDS-PAGE zymography analysis. RESULTS: High levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were expressed in rat atherosclerotic lesions. Losartan significantly reduced the activity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 compared with the placebo group (MMP-2, 5861±539 vs 8991±965, P<0.05; MMP-9,10527±1002 vs 14623±2462, P<0.01). In cultured rat peritoneal macrophages, Ang Ⅱ 0.1 μmol/L elicited an increase in MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity and expression that were prevented by losartan in a dose-dependent manner(P<0.01). But the AT2receptor antagonist PD123319 had no effect. CONCLUSION: Losartan reduced the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in rat atherosclerotic lesions. The anti-atherogenic effects of losartan were due to the direct inhibition of Ang Ⅱ bioactivity.

  17. Quantitative study of neurofilament-positive fiber length in rat spinal cord lesions using isotropic virtual planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler, Mia; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Janson, A M

    1998-01-01

    Spontaneous reocurrence of neurofilament (NF)-positive fibers has been described after spinal cord lesions in rats. However, previously introduced methods to evaluate the lesion and the regenerative fiber outgrowth suffer from several biases, why a new concept of quantitative, morphological analy...

  18. Area postrema lesions produce feeding deficits in the rat: effects of preoperative dieting and 2-deoxy-D-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, R J; Fox, E; Drugovich, M L

    1982-11-01

    To investigate the possible role of the area postrema (AP) in the control of food intake and body weight, male albino rats were divided into four groups: (a) animals dieted to 80% of their original body weights prior to receiving AP lesions, (b) nondieted animals with AP lesions, (c) animals dieted to 80% prior to receiving sham lesions, and (d) nondieted animals with sham lesions. Lesions of the AP in nondieted rats resulted in hypophagia, hypodipsia and body weight loss followed by recovery of normal intake and maintenance of body weight at a fixed percentage of the sham operated animals' weight. Reducing body weight prior to surgery led to body weight maintenance levels equivalent to those of the nondieted groups. We also tested the animals for sensitivity to glucoprivation caused by intraperitoneal injections of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG). Injections of 2-DG produced hyperphagia in sham lesioned rats, but not in rats with AP lesions. Our data suggest that the effects of AP lesions on intake and body weight are similar, in several important respects, to the lateral hypothalamic feeding syndrome and to the effects of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. We discuss the results with respect to hierarchical levels of neural circuitry involved in controlling feeding behavior.

  19. Long-term effects of cholinergic basal forebrain lesions on neuropeptide Y and somatostatin immunoreactivity in rat neocortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaykema, R.P.A.; Compaan, J.C.; Nyakas, C.; Horvath, E.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of cholinergic basal forebrain lesions on immunoreactivity to somatostatin (SOM-i) and neuropeptide-Y (NPY-i) was investigated in the rat parietal cortex, 16-18 months after multiple bilateral ibotenic acid injections in the nucleus basalis complex. As a result of the lesion, the choliner

  20. Stereotaxic surgery for excitotoxic lesion of specific brain areas in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Elizabeth D; Jensen, Kelly; Goosens, Ki A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2012-07-19

    Many behavioral functions in mammals, including rodents and humans, are mediated principally by discrete brain regions. A common method for discerning the function of various brain regions for behavior or other experimental outcomes is to implement a localized ablation of function. In humans, patient populations with localized brain lesions are often studied for deficits, in hopes of revealing the underlying function of the damaged area. In rodents, one can experimentally induce lesions of specific brain regions. Lesion can be accomplished in several ways. Electrolytic lesions can cause localized damage but will damage a variety of cell types as well as traversing fibers from other brain regions that happen to be near the lesion site. Inducible genetic techniques using cell-type specific promoters may also enable site-specific targeting. These techniques are complex and not always practical depending on the target brain area. Excitotoxic lesion using stereotaxic surgery, by contrast, is one of the most reliable and practical methods of lesioning excitatory neurons without damaging local glial cells or traversing fibers. Here, we present a protocol for stereotaxic infusion of the excitotoxin, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), into the basolateral amygdala complex. Using anatomical indications, we apply stereotaxic coordinates to determine the location of our target brain region and lower an injection needle in place just above the target. We then infuse our excitotoxin into the brain, resulting in excitotoxic death of nearby neurons. While our experimental subject of choice is a rat, the same methods can be applied to other mammals, with the appropriate adjustments in equipment and coordinates. This method can be used on a variety of brain regions, including the basolateral amygdala, other amygdala nuclei, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and prefrontal cortex. It can also be used to infuse biological compounds such as viral vectors. The basic stereotaxic technique could

  1. Locus coeruleus lesions and PCOS: role of the central and peripheral sympathetic nervous system in the ovarian function of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction”. “Autonomic and central nervous systems play important roles in the regulation of ovarian physiology”. The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC plays a central role in the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system and synaptically connected to the preganglionic cell bodies of the ovarian sympathetic pathway and its activation is essential to trigger spontaneous or induced LH surges. This study evaluates sympathetic outflow in central and peripheral pathways in PCO rats. Objective: Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate LC activity in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to antagonized alpha2a adrenoceptor in systemic conditions with yohimbine. Materials and Methods: Forty two rats were divided into two groups: 1 LC and yohimbine and 2 control. Every group subdivided in two groups: eighteen rats were treated with estradiol valerate for induction of follicular cysts and the remainders were sesame oil groups. Results: Estradiol concentration was significantly augmented by the LC lesion in PCO rats (p<0.001, while LC lesion could not alter serum concentrations of LH and FSH, like yohimbine. The morphological observations of ovaries of LC lesion rats showed follicles with hyperthecosis, but yohimbine reduced the number of cysts, increased corpus lutea and developed follicles. Conclusion: Rats with EV-induced PCO increased sympathetic activity. LC lesion and yohimbine decreased the number of cysts and yohimbine increased corpus lutea and developed follicles in PCO rats.

  2. Effects of an electrolytic lesion of the prelimbic area on anxiety-related and cognitive tasks in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Maaswinkel, H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the role of the prelimbic area of rats in response selection. A bilateral electrolytic lesion was made in the prelimbic area. The rats were tested in the Morris water-maze, the conditioned shock-prod burying test, the elevated plus-maze, a modified open field test,

  3. Voc Degradation in TF-VLS Grown InP Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yubo; Sun, Xingshu; Johnston, Steve; Sutter-Fella, Carolin M.; Hettick, Mark; Javey, Ali; Bermel, Peter

    2016-11-21

    Here we consider two hypotheses to explain the open-circuit voltage (VOC) degradation observed in thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) grown p-type InP photovoltaic cells: bandgap narrowing and local shunting. First, a bandgap (Eg) narrowing effect is hypothesized, based on the surface inhomogeneity of VLS InP captured by the photoluminescence (PL) image. The PL data was used to estimate a spatially-resolved active VOC across surface of the InP sample. Combining this data with the effective Jsc allowed an assessment of the I-V characteristics of individual unit cells. Next, an H-SPICE diode compact model was utilized to reproduce the I-V characteristics of the whole sample. We find a good fit to the I-V performance of TF-VLS grown InP solar cell. Second, a local shunting effect was also considered as an alternative explanation of the VOC degradation effect. Again, PL image data was used, and small local shunt resistance was added in arbitrary elementary unit cells to represent certain dark spots seen in the PL image and dictate the VOC degradation occurred in the sample.

  4. Basolateral amygdala lesion inhibits the development of pain chronicity in neuropathic pain rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronicity of pain is one of the most interesting questions in chronic pain study. Clinical and experimental data suggest that supraspinal areas responsible for negative emotions such as depression and anxiety contribute to the chronicity of pain. The amygdala is suspected to be a potential structure for the pain chronicity due to its critical role in processing negative emotions and pain information. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether amygdala or its subregions, the basolateral amygdala (BLA and the central medial amygdala (CeA, contributes to the pain chronicity in the spared nerve injury (SNI-induced neuropathic pain model of rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (1 Before the establishment of the SNI-induced neuropathic pain model of rats, lesion of the amygdaloid complex with stereotaxic injection of ibotenic acid (IBO alleviated mechanical allodynia significantly at days 7 and 14, even no mechanical allodynia at day 28 after SNI; Lesion of the BLA, but not the CeA had similar effects; (2 however, 7 days after SNI when the neuropathic pain model was established, lesion of the amygdala complex or the BLA or the CeA, mechanical allodynia was not affected. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that BLA activities in the early stage after nerve injury might be crucial to the development of pain chronicity, and amygdala-related negative emotions and pain-related memories could promote pain chronicity.

  5. A2 noradrenergic lesions prevent renal sympathoinhibition induced by hypernatremia in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino

    Full Text Available Renal vasodilation and sympathoinhibition are recognized responses induced by hypernatremia, but the central neural pathways underlying such responses are not yet entirely understood. Several findings suggest that A2 noradrenergic neurons, which are found in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, play a role in the pathways that contribute to body fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular regulation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of selective lesions of A2 neurons on the renal vasodilation and sympathoinhibition induced by hypertonic saline (HS infusion. Male Wistar rats (280-350 g received an injection into the NTS of anti-dopamine-beta-hydroxylase-saporin (A2 lesion; 6.3 ng in 60 nl; n = 6 or free saporin (sham; 1.3 ng in 60 nl; n = 7. Two weeks later, the rats were anesthetized (urethane 1.2 g⋅kg(-1 b.wt., i.v. and the blood pressure, renal blood flow (RBF, renal vascular conductance (RVC and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA were recorded. In sham rats, the HS infusion (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml⋅kg(-1 b.wt., i.v. induced transient hypertension (peak at 10 min after HS; 9±2.7 mmHg and increases in the RBF and RVC (141±7.9% and 140±7.9% of baseline at 60 min after HS, respectively. HS infusion also decreased the RSNA (-45±5.0% at 10 min after HS throughout the experimental period. In the A2-lesioned rats, the HS infusion induced transient hypertension (6±1.4 mmHg at 10 min after HS, as well as increased RBF and RVC (133±5.2% and 134±6.9% of baseline at 60 min after HS, respectively. However, in these rats, the HS failed to reduce the RSNA (115±3.1% at 10 min after HS. The extent of the catecholaminergic lesions was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. These results suggest that A2 noradrenergic neurons are components of the neural pathways regulating the composition of the extracellular fluid compartment and are selectively involved in hypernatremia-induced sympathoinhibition.

  6. Mechanisms regulating invasiveness and growth of endometriosis lesions in rat experimental model and in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikova, Natalia Yu; Antsiferova, Yulia S; Posiseeva, Lyubov V; Shishkov, Dmitrii N; Posiseev, Denis V; Filippova, Ekaterina S

    2010-05-15

    To compare the expression of MMP-2, TIMP-2, and TGFbeta2 mRNA in experimental and human endometriotic lesions and to assess the possibility of its cytokine regulation. Experimental laboratory study. Medical center. ANIMALS AND PATIENT(S): Thirty female Wistar rats, 17 women with endometriosis, 11 healthy women. Uterine transplants were attached to rat peritoneum via the surgical autotransplantation technique. The collection of endometriotic implants at 7, 14, and 21 days postsurgery and laparoscopic collection of peritoneal fluid, ectopic, and matched eutopic endometrium from women with endometriosis were performed. MMP-2, TIMP-2, TGFbeta2 mRNA expression in endometrium was assessed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. In rats, the increase of MMP-2 and decrease of TIMP-2 mRNA expression was noted at the 7th day, and an increase of TGFbeta2 mRNA expression was seen at the 14th day postsurgery. In humans, elevation of TIMP-2 mRNA expression in eutopic endometrium and of MMP-2, TGFbeta2 mRNA expression in ectopic endometrium was observed. Autologous peritoneal fluid stimulated MMP-2 mRNA expression in eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. Cytokines derived from ectopic lesions mononuclear cells increased TGFbeta2 mRNA expression in endometrium of healthy women. Supposedly MMP-TIMP balance is important in promoting endometriotic tissue invasion and TGFbeta2 in regulating ectopic endometrium growth. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Restricted feeding restores rhythmicity in the pineal gland of arrhythmic suprachiasmatic-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillet, Céline A; Mendoza, Jorge; Pévet, Paul; Challet, Etienne

    2008-12-01

    In mammals, the rhythmic synthesis of melatonin by the pineal gland is tightly controlled by the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). In behaviourally arrhythmic SCN-lesioned rats, we investigated the effects of daily restricted feeding (RF) on pineal melatonin synthesis. RF restored not only a rhythmic transcription of the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin biosynthesis [arylalkylamine-N-acetyltransferase (AANAT)] and a rhythmic expression of c-FOS but also a rhythmic synthesis of melatonin in the pineal gland. In control rats without functional SCN and fed ad libitum, a daily immobilization stress did not restore any rhythmicity in the pineal gland. Interestingly, a combination of RF and daily stress prior to the time of food access did not markedly impair AaNat mRNA and c-FOS rhythmicity but did abolish the restoration of rhythmic pineal melatonin. These data indicate that the synchronizing effects of RF on the pineal rhythmicity are not due to, and cannot be mimicked by, high levels of circulating glucocorticoids. In keeping with the multi-oscillatory nature of the circadian system, the rhythmicity of pineal melatonin in mammals, until now an exclusive output of the SCN, can also be controlled by daily feeding cues when the SCN clock is lacking. Thus, the present study demonstrates that daily RF in SCN-lesioned rats provides, probably via sympathetic fibres, synchronizing stimuli strong enough to drive rhythmicity in the pineal gland.

  8. Chronic pramipexole treatment increases tolerance for sucrose in normal and ventral tegmental lesioned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eDARDOU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of dopamine neurons observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD elicits severe motor control deficits which are reduced by the use of dopamine agonists. However, recent works have indicated that D3-preferential agonists such as pramipexole can induce impulse control disorders such as food craving or compulsive eating. In the present study, we performed an intermittent daily feeding experiment to assess the effect of chronic treatment by pramipexole and VTA bilateral lesion on tolerance for sucrose solution. The impact of such chronic treatment on spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory was also examined. Changes in sucrose tolerance could indicate the potential development of a change in food compulsion or addiction related to the action of pramipexole. Neither the bilateral lesion of the VTA nor chronic treatment with pramipexole altered the spontaneous locomotion or spatial memory in rats. Rats without pramipexole treatment quickly developed a stable intake of sucrose solution in the 12h access phase. On the contrary, when under daily pramipexole treatment, rats developed a stronger and ongoing escalation of their sucrose solution intakes. In addition, we noted that the change in sucrose consumption was sustained by an increase of the expression of the dopamine 3 receptor in the core and the shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. The present results may suggest that long term stimulation of the dopamine 3 receptor in animals induces a strong increase in sucrose consumption, indicating an effect of this receptor on certain pathological aspects of food eating.

  9. Chronic pramipexole treatment increases tolerance for sucrose in normal and ventral tegmental lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardou, David; Chassain, Carine; Durif, Franck

    2014-01-01

    The loss of dopamine neurons observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) elicits severe motor control deficits which are reduced by the use of dopamine agonists. However, recent works have indicated that D3-preferential agonists such as pramipexole can induce impulse control disorders (ICDs) such as food craving or compulsive eating. In the present study, we performed an intermittent daily feeding experiment to assess the effect of chronic treatment by pramipexole and VTA bilateral lesion on tolerance for sucrose solution. The impact of such chronic treatment on spontaneous locomotion and spatial memory was also examined. Changes in sucrose tolerance could indicate the potential development of a change in food compulsion or addiction related to the action of pramipexole. Neither the bilateral lesion of the VTA nor chronic treatment with pramipexole altered the spontaneous locomotion or spatial memory in rats. Rats without pramipexole treatment quickly developed a stable intake of sucrose solution in the 12 h access phase. On the contrary, when under daily pramipexole treatment, rats developed a stronger and ongoing escalation of their sucrose solution intakes. In addition, we noted that the change in sucrose consumption was sustained by an increase of the expression of the Dopamine D3 receptor in the core and the shell regions of the nucleus accumbens. The present results may suggest that long-term stimulation of the Dopamine D3 receptor in animals induces a strong increase in sucrose consumption, indicating an effect of this receptor on certain pathological aspects of food eating.

  10. Differential effects of serotonin-specific and excitotoxic lesions of OFC on conditioned reinforcer devaluation and extinction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth A; Forcelli, Patrick A; McCue, David L; Malkova, Ludise

    2013-06-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is critical for behavioral adaptation in response to changes in reward value. Here we investigated, in rats, the role of OFC and, specifically, serotonergic neurotransmission within OFC in a reinforcer devaluation task (which measures behavioral flexibility). This task used two visual cues, each predicting one of two foods, with the spatial position (left-right) of the cues above two levers pseudorandomized across trials. An instrumental action (lever press) was required for reinforcer delivery. After training, rats received either excitotoxic OFC lesions made by NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartic acid), serotonin-specific OFC lesions made by 5,7-DHT (5,7-dihydroxytryptamine), or sham lesions. In sham-lesioned rats, devaluation of one food (by feeding to satiety) significantly decreased responding to the cue associated with that food, when both cues were presented simultaneously during extinction. Both types of OFC lesions disrupted the devaluation effect. In contrast, extinction learning was not affected by serotonin-specific lesions and was only mildly retarded in rats with excitotoxic lesions. Thus, serotonin within OFC is necessary for appropriately adjusting behavior toward cues that predict reward but not for reducing responses in the absence of reward. Our results are the first to demonstrate that serotonin in OFC is necessary for reinforcer devaluation, but not extinction.

  11. Pulmonary cystic keratinizing squamous cell lesions of rats after inhalation/instillation of different particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittinghausen, S; Mohr, U; Dungworth, D L

    1997-12-01

    Cystic keratinizing squamous cell lesions from three inhalation studies (Study A, B, C) and one intratracheal instillation study (Study D) in rats were reclassified and a certain number of lesions examined immunohistochemically for PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) as a marker of cellular proliferation. The following classification was used: squamous cell metaplasia with marked keratinization, keratinizing cyst, cystic keratinizing epithelioma, cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. In study A (inhalation of coal oven exhaust and subcutaneous injection of a high dose of DB (ah)A) 49.3% of rats developed cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas. Inhalation of coal oven exhaust gas together with intratracheal instillation of crocidolite or subcutaneous injection of a low dose DB(ah)A (dibenz(ah)anthracene) resulted in cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas in 23% to 24% of the rats. High incidences of cystic squamous cell carcinomas in the range of 31.9% to 76.4% were observed in rats of Study B1 after a 10-months exposure to tar/pitch condensation aerosol (different B(a)P (benzo(a)pyrene) concentrations) with added carbon black in some groups. After a 20-months exposure period to the same inhalation atmospheres (Study B2) the incidence of squamous cell carcinomas was increased up to 95.8%. Exposure of rats to various concentrations of unfiltered diesel exhaust (Study C) resulted in incidences of cystic keratinizing epitheliomas ranging from 2.5% (2.5 mg/m3) to 10.7% (7.5 mg/m3). Epitheliomas were also observed in 16.2% of carbon black and 16.0% of titanium dioxide exposed rats. Only a few cystic keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas occurred. In the intratrachel instillation study (Study D) increased incidences of cystic keratinizing epitheliomas occurred in rats exposed to native diesel exhaust particles (16.7%), high dose of extracted diesel exhaust particles

  12. Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

  13. Effect of electrolytic lesion of the dorsomedial striatum on sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Pulido, R; Hernández-Briones, Z S; Tamariz-Rodríguez, A; Hernández, M E; Aranda-Abreu, G E; Coria-Avila, G A; Manzo, J; García, L I

    2017-06-01

    Cortical motor areas are influenced not only by peripheral sensory afferents and prefrontal association areas, but also by the basal ganglia, specifically the striatum. The dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum are involved in both spatial and stimulus-response learning; however, each of these areas may mediate different components of learning. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of electrolytic lesion to the DMS on the learning and performance of sexual behaviour and locomotor activity in male rats. Once the subjects had learned to perform motor tests of balance, maze navigation, ramp ascent, and sexual behaviour, they underwent electrolytic lesion to the DMS. Five days later, the tests were repeated on 2 occasions and researchers compared performance latencies for each test. Average latency values for performance on the maze and balance tests were higher after the lesion. However, the average values for the ramp test and for sexual behaviour did not differ between groups. Electrolytic lesion of the DMS modifies the performance of locomotor activity (maze test and balance), but not of sexual behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Eccentric Training for Tendon Healing After Acute Lesion: A Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaux, Jean-François; Libertiaux, Vincent; Leprince, Pierre; Fillet, Marianne; Denoel, Vincent; Wyss, Clémence; Lecut, Christelle; Gothot, André; Le Goff, Caroline; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Drion, Pierre

    2017-05-01

    The tendon is a dynamic entity that remodels permanently. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has been shown to have a beneficial effect on tendon healing after lesion in rats. Furthermore, eccentric exercise seems to improve the mechanical quality of the tendon. A combination of PRP injection and eccentric training might be more effective than either treatment alone. Controlled laboratory study. Adult male rats were anesthetized, an incision was performed in the middle of their left patellar tendon and an injection of physiological fluid (PF) or homologous PRP was randomly made at the lesion level. The rats were then divided into 2 groups: the eccentric group, undergoing eccentric training 3 times a week, and the untrained group, without any training. Thus, 4 groups were compared. After 5 weeks, the tendons were removed and their ultimate tensile strength and energy were measured. Tendons were frozen for proteomic analyses when all biomechanical tests were completed. Statistical analysis was performed with linear mixed effect models. No significant difference was found between the treatments using PF injection or PRP injection alone. However, the value of the ultimate tensile force at rupture was increased by 4.5 N (108% of control, P = .006) when eccentric training was performed. An intragroup analysis revealed that eccentric training significantly improved the ultimate force values for the PRP group. Proteomic analysis revealed that eccentric training led to an increase in abundance of several cytoskeletal proteins in the PF group, while a decrease in abundance of enzymes of the glycolytic pathway occurred in the PRP-treated groups, indicating that this treatment might redirect the exercise-driven metabolic plasticity of the tendon. Eccentric training altered the metabolic plasticity of tendon and led to an improvement of injured tendon resistance regardless of the treatment injected (PF or PRP). This study demonstrates the necessity of eccentric rehabilitation

  15. Perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic chemicals causes proliferative lesions in rat prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Hadrup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of endogenous or exogenous estrogens during fetal life can induce permanent disturbances in prostate growth and predispose to precancerous lesions. Recent studies have indicated that also early anti-androgen exposure may affect prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We examined...... disrupters relevant for human exposure was found to elicit persistent effects on the rat prostate following perinatal exposure, suggesting that human perinatal exposure to environmental chemicals may increase the risk of prostate cancer later in life. Prostate....... the influence of perinatal exposure to mixtures of anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals on prostate development. Wistar rats were exposed from gestation day 7 to postnatal day 22 to a mixture of 8 anti-androgenic compounds (AAMix), a mixture of four estrogenic compounds (EMix), or paracetamol or a mixture...

  16. Effects of septal cholinergic lesion on rat exploratory behavior in an open-field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Lamprea

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The medial septum participates in the modulation of exploratory behavior triggered by novelty. Also, selective lesions of the cholinergic component of the septohippocampal system alter the habituation of rats to an elevated plus-maze without modifying anxiety indices. We investigated the effects of the intraseptal injection of the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (SAP on the behavior of rats in an open-field. Thirty-nine male Wistar rats (weight: 194-230 g were divided into three groups, non-injected controls and rats injected with either saline (0.5 µl or SAP (237.5 ng/0.5 µl. Twelve days after surgery, the animals were placed in a square open-field (120 cm and allowed to freely explore for 5 min. After the test, the rats were killed by decapitation and the septum, hippocampus and frontal cortex were removed and assayed for acetylcholinesterase activity. SAP increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the septum, hippocampus and frontal cortex and decreased the total distance run (9.15 ± 1.51 m in comparison to controls (13.49 ± 0.91 m. The time spent in the center and at the periphery was not altered by SAP but the distance run was reduced during the first and second minutes (2.43 ± 0.36 and 1.75 ± 0.34 m compared to controls (4.18 ± 0.26 and 3.14 ± 0.25 m. SAP-treated rats showed decreased but persistent exploration throughout the session. These results suggest that septohippocampal cholinergic mechanisms contribute to at least two critical processes, one related to the motivation to explore new environments and the other to the acquisition and storage of spatial information (i.e., spatial memory.

  17. Medial amygdala lesions selectively block aversive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Grace McCue

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs play an important role in the reinforcement and motivation of instrumental active avoidance (AA. Conditioned threats can also invigorate ongoing AA responding (aversive Pavlovian-instrumental transfer or PIT. The neural circuits mediating AA are poorly understood, although lesion studies suggest that lateral, basal and central amygdala nuclei, as well as infralimbic prefrontal cortex, make key, and sometimes opposing, contributions. We recently completed an extensive analysis of brain c-Fos expression in good vs. poor avoiders following an AA test (Martinez et al 2013, Learning and Memory. This analysis identified medial amygdala (MeA as a potentially important region for Pavlovian motivation of instrumental actions. MeA is known to mediate defensive responding to innate threats as well as social behaviors, but its role in mediating aversive Pavlovian-instrumental interactions is unknown. We evaluated the effect of MeA lesions on Pavlovian conditioning, Sidman two-way AA conditioning (shuttling and aversive PIT in rats. Mild footshocks served as the unconditioned stimulus in all conditioning phases. MeA lesions had no effect on AA but blocked the expression of aversive PIT and 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in the AA context. Interestingly, MeA lesions failed to affect Pavlovian freezing to discrete threats but reduced freezing to contextual threats when assessed outside of the AA chamber. These findings differentiate MeA from lateral and central amygdala, as lesions of these nuclei disrupt Pavlovian freezing and aversive PIT, but have opposite effects on AA performance. Taken together, these results suggest that MeA plays a selective role in the motivation of instrumental avoidance by general or uncertain Pavlovian threats.

  18. Cardiovascular responses to microinjection of L-glutamate into the NTS in AV3V-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre Antonio; Colombari, Eduardo; De Luca, Laurival A; de Almeida Colombari, Débora Simões; Menani, José V

    2004-10-29

    The excitatory amino acid L-glutamate injected into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in unanesthetized rats similar to peripheral chemoreceptor activation increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduces heart rate. In this study, we investigated the effects of acute (1 day) and chronic (15 days) electrolytic lesions of the preoptic-periventricular tissue surrounding the anteroventral third ventricle (AV3V region) on the pressor and bradycardic responses induced by injections of L-glutamate into the NTS or peripheral chemoreceptor activation in unanesthetized rats. Male Holtzman rats with sham or electrolytic AV3V lesions and a stainless steel cannula implanted into the NTS were used. Differently from the pressor responses (28+/-3 mm Hg) produced by injections into the NTS of sham-lesioned rats, L-glutamate (5 nmol/100 nl) injected into the NTS reduced MAP (-26+/-8 mm Hg) or produced no effect (2+/-7 mm Hg) in acute and chronic AV3V-lesioned rats, respectively. The bradycardia to l-glutamate into the NTS and the cardiovascular responses to chemoreflex activation with intravenous potassium cyanide or to baroreflex activation with intravenous phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside were not modified by AV3V lesions. The results show that the integrity of the AV3V region is essential for the pressor responses to L-glutamate into the NTS but not for the pressor responses to chemoreflex activation, suggesting dissociation between the central mechanisms involved in these responses.

  19. Progressive impairment in motor skill learning at 12 and 20 weeks post 6-OHDA- SNc lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Hardeep; Mathur, Rashmi; Behari, Madhuri

    2011-07-01

    Deficiency in skilled motor activity is primarily attributed to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of substantia nigra (SNc), which can be detected by performance of the rotarod test. Previous reports have demonstrated impaired skilled motor behavior in rats during the pre-motor stage of Parkinson's disease (PD) (3-8 weeks post 6-OHDA lesion of striatum). We studied skilled motor learning in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) SNc lesion rats at 12 and 20 weeks by rotarod task after providing sufficient training to give allowance for ageing (3 sessions/day for 14 consecutive days). On each day, the stay duration on rotarod was noted and compared between the groups (Group 1 = Control, Group 2 = Post lesion (PL) week 12, Group 3 = PL week 20). In Group 2 rats, the duration of stay on rotarod gradually increased from day 1 through 7 {day 7 = 193.1 (81.8-247.4) vs. control group day 7 = 202.1 (87.7-279.8), p = 0.771} and declined thereafter. While, the stay duration in Group 3 rats remained lower {day 7 = 32.5 (20.4-52.1), p = 0.011} than that of the control rats throughout the study period. The results of our study suggest a slower brief learning of skilled motor tasks at post lesion week 12 whereas no learning at all at post-lesion week 20.

  20. Expression of Slit2 and Robo1 after traumatic lesions of the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Bo; Jiang, Yu-Qin; Gong, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Jiang, Qian; Chu, Xiang-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We have used semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence imaging approaches to detect the expression levels of Slit2 and its receptor Robo1 in the rat spinal cord after traumatic lesions. Our results revealed that both the mRNA and protein levels of Slit2 were up-regulated in the injured spinal cord. The Slit2 expression level was increased at day 7 until day 14, and then returned to normal level at day 21 after injury. A double-immunolabelling study showed that Slit2 and neurofilament (NF) proteins were both localized in neurons of spinal corda cinerea. Slit2 immunopositivity was detected in neuronal plasma membranes but not in the axonal fibers. In contrast, the immunolabelling of Robo1 in the normal spinal cord was at a low level, mostly in the neurons of spinal corda cinerea, and remained unchanged at all time points following spinal cord injury (SCI). The regulation levels of Slit2 and Robo1 after traumatic lesions in the rat spinal cord are different. Our results indicate that Slit2-Robo1 might not be involved in the inhibitory environment after SCI.

  1. Evidence for time-of-day dependent effect of neurotoxic dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions on food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Glenn J; Kent, Brianne A; Patton, Danica F; Jaholkowski, Mark; Marchant, Elliott G; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2011-01-01

    The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) is a site of circadian clock gene and immediate early gene expression inducible by daytime restricted feeding schedules that entrain food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats and mice. The role of the DMH in the expression of anticipatory rhythms has been evaluated using different lesion methods. Partial lesions created with the neurotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO) have been reported to attenuate food anticipatory rhythms, while complete lesions made with radiofrequency current leave anticipatory rhythms largely intact. We tested a hypothesis that the DMH and fibers of passage spared by IBO lesions play a time-of-day dependent role in the expression of food anticipatory rhythms. Rats received intra-DMH microinjections of IBO and activity and body temperature (T(b)) rhythms were recorded by telemetry during ad-lib food access, total food deprivation and scheduled feeding, with food provided for 4-h/day for 20 days in the middle of the light period and then for 20 days late in the dark period. During ad-lib food access, rats with DMH lesions exhibited a lower amplitude and mean level of light-dark entrained activity and T(b) rhythms. During the daytime feeding schedule, all rats exhibited food anticipatory activity and T(b) rhythms that persisted during 2 days without food in constant dark. In some rats with partial or total DMH ablation, the magnitude of the anticipatory rhythm was weak relative to most intact rats. When mealtime was shifted to the late night, the magnitude of the food anticipatory activity rhythms in these cases was restored to levels characteristic of intact rats. These results confirm that rats can anticipate scheduled daytime or nighttime meals without the DMH. Improved anticipation at night suggests a modulatory role for the DMH in the expression of food anticipatory activity rhythms during the daily light period, when nocturnal rodents normally sleep.

  2. Evidence for time-of-day dependent effect of neurotoxic dorsomedial hypothalamic lesions on food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn J Landry

    Full Text Available The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH is a site of circadian clock gene and immediate early gene expression inducible by daytime restricted feeding schedules that entrain food anticipatory circadian rhythms in rats and mice. The role of the DMH in the expression of anticipatory rhythms has been evaluated using different lesion methods. Partial lesions created with the neurotoxin ibotenic acid (IBO have been reported to attenuate food anticipatory rhythms, while complete lesions made with radiofrequency current leave anticipatory rhythms largely intact. We tested a hypothesis that the DMH and fibers of passage spared by IBO lesions play a time-of-day dependent role in the expression of food anticipatory rhythms. Rats received intra-DMH microinjections of IBO and activity and body temperature (T(b rhythms were recorded by telemetry during ad-lib food access, total food deprivation and scheduled feeding, with food provided for 4-h/day for 20 days in the middle of the light period and then for 20 days late in the dark period. During ad-lib food access, rats with DMH lesions exhibited a lower amplitude and mean level of light-dark entrained activity and T(b rhythms. During the daytime feeding schedule, all rats exhibited food anticipatory activity and T(b rhythms that persisted during 2 days without food in constant dark. In some rats with partial or total DMH ablation, the magnitude of the anticipatory rhythm was weak relative to most intact rats. When mealtime was shifted to the late night, the magnitude of the food anticipatory activity rhythms in these cases was restored to levels characteristic of intact rats. These results confirm that rats can anticipate scheduled daytime or nighttime meals without the DMH. Improved anticipation at night suggests a modulatory role for the DMH in the expression of food anticipatory activity rhythms during the daily light period, when nocturnal rodents normally sleep.

  3. Rat whisker movement after facial nerve lesion: evidence for autonomic contraction of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, James T; Sheu, Shu Hsien; Hohman, Marc H; Knox, Christopher J; Weinberg, Julie S; Kleiss, Ingrid J; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-04-18

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic denervation was from autonomic, cholinergic axons traveling within the infraorbital branch of the trigeminal nerve (ION). Rats underwent unilateral facial nerve transection with repair (N=7) or resection without repair (N=11). Post-operative whisking amplitude was measured weekly across 10weeks, and during intraoperative stimulation of the ION and facial nerves at ⩾18weeks. Whisking was also measured after subsequent ION transection (N=6) or pharmacologic blocking of the autonomic ganglia using hexamethonium (N=3), and after snout cooling intended to elicit a vasodilation reflex (N=3). Whisking recovered more quickly and with greater amplitude in rats that underwent facial nerve repair compared to resection (Pwhisker movements decreased in all rats during the initial recovery period (indicative of reinnervation), but re-appeared in the resected rats after undergoing ION transection (indicative of motor denervation). Cholinergic, parasympathetic axons traveling within the ION innervate whisker pad vasculature, and immunohistochemistry for vasoactive intestinal peptide revealed these axons branching extensively over whisker pad muscles and contacting neuromuscular junctions after facial nerve resection. This study provides the first behavioral and anatomical evidence of spontaneous autonomic innervation of skeletal muscle after motor nerve lesion, which not only has implications for interpreting facial nerve reinnervation results, but also calls into question whether autonomic-mediated innervation of striated muscle occurs naturally in other forms of neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, Michelle B; Schier, Lindsey A; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC) lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX) and in sham-operated controls (SHAM). Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p.), but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA) even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average). For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; pquinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and/or perceptual features of the stimulus.

  5. Bilateral lesions in a specific subregion of posterior insular cortex impair conditioned taste aversion expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schier, Lindsey A; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    The gustatory cortex (GC) is widely regarded for its integral role in the acquisition and retention of conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) in rodents, but large lesions in this area do not always result in CTA impairment. Recently, using a new lesion mapping system, we found that severe CTA expression deficits were associated with damage to a critical zone that included the posterior half of GC in addition to the insular cortex (IC) that is just dorsal and caudal to this region (visceral cortex). Lesions in anterior GC were without effect. Here, neurotoxic bilateral lesions were placed in the anterior half of this critical damage zone, at the confluence of the posterior GC and the anterior visceral cortex (termed IC2 ), the posterior half of this critical damage zone that contains just VC (termed IC3), or both of these subregions (IC2 + IC3). Then, pre- and postsurgically acquired CTAs (to 0.1 M NaCl and 0.1 M sucrose, respectively) were assessed postsurgically in 15-minute one-bottle and 96-hour two-bottle tests. Li-injected rats with histologically confirmed bilateral lesions in IC2 exhibited the most severe CTA deficits, whereas those with bilateral lesions in IC3 were relatively normal, exhibiting transient disruptions in the one-bottle sessions. Groupwise lesion maps showed that CTA-impaired rats had more extensive damage to IC2 than did unimpaired rats. Some individual differences in CTA expression among rats with similar lesion profiles were observed, suggesting idiosyncrasies in the topographic representation of information in the IC. Nevertheless, this study implicates IC2 as the critical zone of the IC for normal CTA expression.

  6. Investigating the potential role of non-vls genes on linear plasmid 28–1 in virulence and persistence by Borrelia burgdorferi

    OpenAIRE

    Magunda, Petronella R. Hove; Bankhead, Troy

    2016-01-01

    Background The lp28-1 plasmid is required for persistent infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Mutational studies on this plasmid have shown that the vls locus is important for antigenic variation of the VlsE lipoprotein that leads to immune evasion and persistence. However, it is still unknown whether the vls system is the only genetic locus on this plasmid necessary for long-term infection, and thus the potential role of non-vls genes on lp28-1 in virulence and per...

  7. Evaluation of the chemical model of vestibular lesions induced by arsanilate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vignaux, G. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); Chabbert, C.; Gaboyard-Niay, S.; Travo, C. [INSERM U1051, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier, Montpellier, F-34090,France (France); Machado, M.L. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); Denise, P. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France); Comoz, F. [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d' anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France); Hitier, M. [CHRU Caen, Service d' Otorhinolaryngologie, Caen, F-14000,France (France); Landemore, G. [CHRU Caen, Laboratoire d' anatomopathologie, Caen, F-14000 (France); Philoxène, B. [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France); Besnard, S., E-mail: besnard-s@phycog.org [INSERM, ERI27, Caen, F-14000 (France); Univ Caen, Caen, F-14000 (France); CHRU Caen, Explorations Fonctionnelles, Caen, F-14000 (France)

    2012-01-01

    Several animal models of vestibular deficits that mimic the human pathology phenotype have previously been developed to correlate the degree of vestibular injury to cognate vestibular deficits in a time-dependent manner. Sodium arsanilate is one of the most commonly used substances for chemical vestibular lesioning, but it is not well described in the literature. In the present study, we used histological and functional approaches to conduct a detailed exploration of the model of vestibular lesions induced by transtympanic injection of sodium arsanilate in rats. The arsanilate-induced damage was restricted to the vestibular sensory organs without affecting the external ear, the oropharynx, or Scarpa's ganglion. This finding strongly supports the absence of diffusion of arsanilate into the external ear or Eustachian tubes, or through the eighth cranial nerve sheath leading to the brainstem. One of the striking observations of the present study is the complete restructuring of the sensory epithelia into a non sensory epithelial monolayer observed at 3 months after arsanilate application. This atrophy resembles the monolayer epithelia observed postmortem in the vestibular epithelia of patients with a history of lesioned vestibular deficits such as labyrinthectomy, antibiotic treatment, vestibular neuritis, or Ménière's disease. In cases of Ménière's disease, aminoglycosides, and platinum-based chemotherapy, vestibular hair cells are destroyed, regardless of the physiopathological process, as reproduced with the arsanilate model of vestibular lesion. These observations, together with those presented in this study of arsanilate vestibular toxicity, suggest that this atrophy process relies on a common mechanism of degeneration of the sensory epithelia.

  8. Calcitriol promotes augmented dopamine release in the lesioned striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine treated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Wayne A.; Peters, Laura E.; Fletcher, Anita M.; Yurek, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Current therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) offer symptomatic relief but do not provide a cure or slow the disease process. Treatments that could halt progression of the disease or help restore function to damaged neurons would be of substantial benefit. Calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D, has been shown to have significant effects on the brain. These effects include upregulating trophic factor levels, and reducing the severity of some central nervous system lesions. While previous studies have shown that calcitriol can be neuroprotective in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rodent models of PD, the present experiments were designed to examine the ability of calcitriol to promote restoration of extracellular DA levels and tissue content of DA in animals previously lesioned with 6-OHDA. Male Fischer-344 rats were given a single injection of 12 µg 6-OHDA into the right striatum. Four weeks later the animals were administered vehicle or calcitriol (0.3 or 1.0 µg/kg, s.c.) once a day for eight consecutive days. Three weeks after the calcitriol treatments in vivo microdialysis experiments were conducted to measure potassium and amphetamine evoked overflow of DA from both the left and right striata. In control animals treated with 6-OHDA and vehicle there were significant reductions in both potassium and amphetamine evoked overflow of DA on the lesioned side of the brain compared to the contralateral side. In animals treated with 6-OHDA followed by calcitriol there was significantly greater potassium and amphetamine evoked overflow of DA from the lesioned striatum compared to that from the control animals. The calcitriol treatments also led to increases in postmortem tissue levels of DA in the striatum and substantia nigra. These results suggest that calcitriol may help promote recovery of dopaminergic functioning in injured nigrostriatal neurons. PMID:24858239

  9. Protective Effect of Repeatedly Preadministered Brazilian Propolis Ethanol Extract against Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to clarify the protective effect of Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE against stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. The protective effect of BPEE against gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS for 6 h was compared between its repeated preadministration (50 mg/kg/day, 7 days and its single preadministration (50 mg/kg. The repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions and gastric mucosal oxidative stress more largely than the single BPEE preadministration. In addition, the repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated neutrophil infiltration in the gastric mucosa of rats exposed to WIRS. The protective effect of the repeated preadministration of BPEE against WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions was similar to that of a single preadministration of vitamin E (250 mg/kg in terms of the extent and manner of protection. From these findings, it is concluded that BPEE preadministered in a repeated manner protects against gastric mucosal lesions in rats exposed to WIRS more effectively than BPEE preadministered in a single manner possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions.

  10. Neurotoxic lesions of the rat perirhinal cortex fail to disrupt the acquisition or performance of tests of allocentric spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, P; Vann, S D; Muir, J L; Aggleton, J P

    2002-04-01

    Rats with neurotoxic lesions of the perirhinal cortex (n = 9) were compared with sham controls (n = 14) on a working memory task in the radial arm maze. Rats were trained under varying levels of proactive interference and with different retention intervals. Finally, performance was assessed when the maze was switched to a novel room. None of these manipulations differentially impaired rats with perirhinal lesions. Rats were next trained on delayed matching-to-place in the water maze. Even with retention delays of 30 min, there was no evidence of a deficit. Although interactions between the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus may be important for integrating object-place information, the perirhinal cortex is often not necessary for tasks that selectively tax allocentric spatial memory.

  11. Comparison of mesencephalic free-floating tissue culture grafts and cell suspension grafts in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Morten; Widmer, H R; Wagner, B

    1998-01-01

    improvements in terms of significant reductions in amphetamine-induced rotations were observed in rats grafted with FFRT cultures (127%) and rats grafted with cell suspensions (122%), while control animals showed no normalization of rotational behavior. At 84 days after transplantation, there were similar...... days in culture or directly as dissociated cell suspensions, and compared with regard to neuronal survival and ability to normalize rotational behavior in adult rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. Other lesioned rats received injections of cell-free medium and served as controls...... numbers of TH-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in grafts of cultured tissue (775 +/- 98, mean +/- SEM) and grafts of fresh, dissociated cell suspension (806 +/- 105, mean +/- SEM). Cell counts in fresh explants, 7-day-old cultures, and grafted cultures revealed a 68.2% loss of TH-ir cells 7 days after...

  12. Intact neurobehavioral development and dramatic impairments of procedural-like memory following neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecourtier, L; Antal, M-C; Cosquer, B; Schumacher, A; Samama, B; Angst, M-J; Ferrandon, A; Koning, E; Cassel, J-C; Nehlig, A

    2012-04-05

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHL) in rats are considered a potent developmental model of schizophrenia. After NVHL, rats appear normal during their preadolescent time, whereas in early adulthood, they develop behavioral deficits paralleling symptomatic aspects of schizophrenia, including hyperactivity, hypersensitivity to amphetamine (AMPH), prepulse and latent inhibition deficits, reduced social interactions, and spatial working and reference memory alterations. Surprisingly, the question of the consequences of NVHL on postnatal neurobehavioral development has not been addressed. This is of particular importance, as a defective neurobehavioral development could contribute to impairments seen in adult rats. Therefore, at several time points of the early postsurgical life of NVHL rats, we assessed behaviors accounting for neurobehavioral development, including negative geotaxis and grip strength (PD11), locomotor coordination (PD21), and open-field (PD25). At adulthood, the rats were tested for anxiety levels, locomotor activity, as well as spatial reference memory performance. Using a novel task, we also investigated the consequences of the lesions on procedural-like memory, which had never been tested following NVHL. Our results point to preserved neurobehavioral development. They also confirm the already documented locomotor hyperactivity, spatial reference memory impairment, and hyperresponsiveness to AMPH. Finally, our rseults show for the first time that NVHL disabled the development of behavioral routines, suggesting dramatic procedural memory deficits. The presence of procedural memory deficits in adult rats subjected to NHVL suggests that the lesions lead to a wider range of cognitive deficits than previously shown. Interestingly, procedural or implicit memory impairments have also been reported in schizophrenic patients.

  13. Effects of lesions of the nucleus accumbens core on choice between small certain rewards and large uncertain rewards in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howes Nathan J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animals must frequently make choices between alternative courses of action, seeking to maximize the benefit obtained. They must therefore evaluate the magnitude and the likelihood of the available outcomes. Little is known of the neural basis of this process, or what might predispose individuals to be overly conservative or to take risks excessively (avoiding or preferring uncertainty, respectively. The nucleus accumbens core (AcbC is known to contribute to rats' ability to choose large, delayed rewards over small, immediate rewards; AcbC lesions cause impulsive choice and an impairment in learning with delayed reinforcement. However, it is not known how the AcbC contributes to choice involving probabilistic reinforcement, such as between a large, uncertain reward and a small, certain reward. We examined the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the AcbC on probabilistic choice in rats. Results Rats chose between a single food pellet delivered with certainty (p = 1 and four food pellets delivered with varying degrees of uncertainty (p = 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, and 0.0625 in a discrete-trial task, with the large-reinforcer probability decreasing or increasing across the session. Subjects were trained on this task and then received excitotoxic or sham lesions of the AcbC before being retested. After a transient period during which AcbC-lesioned rats exhibited relative indifference between the two alternatives compared to controls, AcbC-lesioned rats came to exhibit risk-averse choice, choosing the large reinforcer less often than controls when it was uncertain, to the extent that they obtained less food as a result. Rats behaved as if indifferent between a single certain pellet and four pellets at p = 0.32 (sham-operated or at p = 0.70 (AcbC-lesioned by the end of testing. When the probabilities did not vary across the session, AcbC-lesioned rats and controls strongly preferred the large reinforcer when it was certain, and strongly

  14. Depletion of brain histamine produces regionally selective protection against thiamine deficiency-induced lesions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, Philip J; McRee, Robert Carter; Nalwalk, Julia A; Hough, Lindsay B

    2002-09-01

    Breakdown of the blood brain barrier and the subsequent accumulation of free radicals, lactate, and glutamate appear to be the immediate causes of thiamine deficiency (TD)-induced damage to thalamus. The mechanisms triggering these events are unknown but recent evidence suggests an important role of histamine. We therefore studied the effects of histamine depletion on thalamic lesions in the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficient (PTD) rat. Chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v., 7 days) infusion of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), combined with bilateral ibotenate destruction of the histamine-containing neurons in the tuberomammillary (TM) nucleus and bolus i.c.v. infusion of 48/80, a potent mast cell degranulating agent, was used to deplete brain histamine levels. PTD rats receiving combined FMH + 48/80 + TM lesions developed acute neurological symptoms, including spontaneous seizures, approximately 1 day earlier than PTD rats treated with i.c.v. infusion of vehicle and sham lesions of the TM. When examined 1 week after restoration of thiamine, the PTD vehicle + sham lesion animals contained severe neuronal loss and gliosis in midline, intralaminar, ventral, lateral, and posterior nuclei. PTD animals treated with FMH + 48/80 + TM lesions had little evidence of neuronal loss or microglial proliferation in thalamus except in the gelatinosus and anteroventral nuclei, in which there was complete neuronal loss. These data demonstrate a significant and regionally selective role of histamine in the development of thalamic lesions in a rat model of Wernicke's encephalopathy. Furthermore, these data suggest either a dissociation between seizures and thalamic lesions or a significant role of histamine in seizure-related damage to the thalamus.

  15. Assessing individual radial junction solar cells over millions on VLS-grown silicon nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Linwei; Rigutti, Lorenzo; Tchernycheva, Maria; Misra, Soumyadeep; Foldyna, Martin; Picardi, Gennaro; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2013-07-12

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) grown on low-cost substrates provide an ideal framework for the monolithic fabrication of radial junction photovoltaics. However, the quality of junction formation over a random matrix of SiNWs, fabricated via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, has never been assessed in a realistic context. To address this, we probe the current response of individual radial junction solar cells under electron-beam and optical-beam excitations. Excellent current generation from the radial junction units, compared to their planar counterparts, has been recorded, indicating a high junction quality and effective doping in the ultra-thin SiNWs with diameters thinner than 20 nm. Interestingly, we found that the formation of radial junctions by plasma deposition can be quite robust against geometrical disorder and even the crossings of neighboring cell units. These results provide a strong support to the feasibility of building high-quality radial junction solar cells over high-throughput VLS-grown SiNWs on low-cost substrates.

  16. Palm vitamin E reduces catecholamines, xanthine oxidase activity and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fahami Nur Azlina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of Palm vitamin E (PVE and α-tocopherol (α-TF supplementations on adrenalin, noradrenalin, xanthine oxidase plus dehydrogenase (XO + XD activities and gastric lesions in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS. Methods Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats (200-250 g were randomly divided into three equal sized groups. The control group was given a normal diet, while the treated groups received the same diet with oral supplementation of PVE or α-TF at 60 mg/kg body weight. After the treatment period of 28 days, each group was further subdivided into two groups with 10 rats without exposing them to stress and the other 10 rats were subjected to WIRS for 3.5 hours. Blood samples were taken to measure the adrenalin and noradrenalin levels. The rats were then sacrificed following which the stomach was excised and opened along the greater curvature and examined for lesions and XO + XD activities. Results The rats exposed to WIRS had lesions in their stomach mucosa. Our findings showed that dietary supplementations of PVE and α-TF were able to reduce gastric lesions significantly in comparison to the stressed control group. WIRS increased plasma adrenalin and noradrenalin significantly. PVE and α-TF treatments reduced these parameters significantly compared to the stressed control. Conclusions Supplementations with either PVE or α-TF reduce the formation of gastric lesions. Their protective effect was related to their abilities to inhibit stress induced elevation of adrenalin and noradrenalin levels as well as through reduction in xanthine oxidase and dehydrogenase activities.

  17. Preventing and Treating Actions of Compound Lian Zhu Capsule on Micrangium Lesions in Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Wenzhuo; Gong Haimin; Wang Jiafu; Ding Yi; Liu Tongmei; Wang Jianying; Li Yueqing

    2005-01-01

    Tissue culture, biochemical techniques and radioimmunoassay were used to study the effects of Compound sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb), urinary protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, aldose reductase (AR) activity and 3H-TdR incorporation rate in the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) were significantly higher, and plasma NO content in the diabetes mellitus (DM) group were significantly lower than those in the normal control group (both P<0.05). The above indexes in the Chinese medicine (TCM)treatment group were improved significantly as compared with the DM group, with no significantly differences, except urine volume and urinary protein, as compared with the normal control group. It is suggested that Compound Lian Zhu Capsules can significantly alleviate the complicated lesions of the micrangium in diabetic rats.

  18. Effects of lateral funiculus sparing, spinal lesion level, and gender on recovery of bladder voiding reflexes and hematuria in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Sunny L; Brady, Tiffany D; Dugan, Victoria P; Armstrong, James E; Hubscher, Charles H; Johnson, Richard D

    2015-02-01

    Deficits in bladder function are complications following spinal cord injury (SCI), severely affecting quality of life. Normal voiding function requires coordinated contraction of bladder and urethral sphincter muscles dependent upon intact lumbosacral reflex arcs and integration of descending and ascending spinal pathways. We previously reported, in electrophysiological recordings, that segmental reflex circuit neurons in anesthetized male rats were modulated by a bilateral spino-bulbo-spinal pathway in the mid-thoracic lateral funiculus. In the present study, behavioral measures of bladder voiding reflexes and hematuria (hemorrhagic cystitis) were obtained to assess the correlation of plasticity-dependent recovery to the degree of lateral funiculus sparing and mid-thoracic lesion level. Adult rats received mid-thoracic-level lesions at one of the following severities: complete spinal transection; bilateral dorsal column lesion; unilateral hemisection; bilateral dorsal hemisection; a bilateral lesion of the lateral funiculi and dorsal columns; or a severe contusion. Voiding function and hematuria were evaluated by determining whether the bladder was areflexic (requiring manual expression, i.e., "crede maneuver"), reflexive (voiding initiated by perineal stroking), or "automatic" (spontaneous voiding without caretaker assistance). Rats with one or both lateral funiculi spared (i.e., bilateral dorsal column lesion or unilateral hemisection) recovered significantly faster than animals with bilateral lateral funiculus lesions, severe contusion, or complete transection. Bladder reflex recovery time was significantly slower the closer a transection lesion was to T10, suggesting that proximity to the segmental sensory and sympathetic innervation of the upper urinary tract (kidney, ureter) should be avoided in the choice of lesion level for SCI studies of micturition pathways. In addition, hematuria duration was significantly longer in males, compared to females, despite

  19. Acupuncture inhibits oxidative stress and rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Peng; Ju, Wei-Ping; Li, Zhen-Guang; Wang, Dao-Zhen; Wang, Yuan-Chen; Xie, An-Mu

    2010-06-08

    Increasing evidence suggests the beneficial effects of acupuncture on Parkinson's disease (PD). Although clinical evidence for the acupuncture anti-Parkinson's disease effect has been demonstrated, the precise mechanism still remains elusive. It has been suggested a relationship between PD and reactive oxygen species (ROS) can result in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status of oxidative stress, as well as the antioxidant enzyme response, and the role of acupuncture stimulation at GB34 (Yanglingquan), LR3 (Taichong), ST36 (Zusanli) and SP10 (Xuehai) acupoints on regulating oxidative stress in the nigrostriatal system in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rat. Two weeks after unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the left medial forebrain bundle (MFB), an apomorphine induced rotational behavior test was performed. The levels of enzymatic, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and nonenzymatic, viz., reduced glutathione (GSH), and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the nigrostriatal system were measured to assess the oxidative stress status. Brain MDA levels significantly increased, while GSH levels were decreased in impaired groups with 6-OHDA injection only, accompanied by a marked reduction in the level of SOD and GSH-Px. The levels of oxidative stress related parameters except CAT, as well as the rotational asymmetry, were reversed by acupuncture stimulation. These results showed that acupuncture treatment displayed antioxidative and/or neuroprotective properties in the 6-OHDA lesioned rat and these protective properties might be mediated, at least in part, by involving regulation of the antioxidant defense system.

  20. A new oxytocin-saporin cytotoxin for lesioning oxytocin-receptive neurons in the rat hindbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Denis G; Kim, Francis; Gelling, Richard W; Russell, Brian J; Schwartz, Michael W; Morton, Gregory J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Moralejo, Daniel H; Blevins, James E

    2010-09-01

    Evidence suggests that release of oxytocin in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the hindbrain from descending projections that originate in the paraventricular nucleus can inhibit food intake by amplifying the satiety response to cholecystokinin (CCK). To further evaluate this mechanism in rats, we used a novel cytotoxin, saporin conjugated to oxytocin (OXY-SAP), a compound designed to destroy cells that express oxytocin receptors (OXYr). OXY-SAP was injected directly into the NTS to lesion neurons that express OXYr and that are implicated in potentiating CCK's satiety effects. The control consisted of injection of saporin conjugated to a nonsense peptide. We found that OXY-SAP was cytotoxic to human uterine smooth muscle cells in vitro, demonstrating that OXY-SAP can lesion cells that express OXYr. Using laser capture microdissection and real-time quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that OXYr mRNA levels were reduced in the NTS after OXY-SAP administration. Moreover, we found that OXY-SAP attenuated the efficacy of CCK-8 to reduce food intake and blocked the actions of an OXYr antagonist to stimulate food intake. The findings suggest that OXY-SAP is an effective neurotoxin for in vivo elimination of cells that express OXYr and is potentially useful for studies to analyze central nervous system mechanisms that involve the action of oxytocin on food intake and other physiological processes.

  1. Neurotoxic lesion of the rostral perirhinal cortex blocks stress-induced exploratory behavioral changes in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Klaus, Brigitte

    2009-03-01

    Exposure to stress leads to adaptive responses including both behavioral and physiological changes. This process is induced by the activation of multiple brain regions. The present study examined the role of the rostral perirhinal cortex (rPRh) in behavioral changes following electrical foot shock-induced stress. The rPRh of rats was lesioned bilaterally by local microinjections of 10 microg N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) before foot shocks (0.7 mA, 1 s). The effects of these lesions on foot shock-induced changes in exploratory behaviors were tested in the open field (4 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 14 days after foot shocks) and the light-dark box (7 days after foot shocks). Foot-shocked and sham-lesioned rats showed several well known behavioral changes in the open field (e.g., immobility, reduction of exploratory activity) most marked at 48 h after foot shocks, and the light-dark box (e.g., reduction of time spent and activity in the lit compartment). All these stress-induced behavioral changes were blocked by neurotoxic lesions of the rPRh. Furthermore, rPRh lesions did not affect behavior in the open field and the light-dark box in unstressed rats. Taken together, these data indicate that the rPRh is involved in neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate changes induced by foot-shock stress in exploratory behaviors which indicate unconditioned fear or anxiety.

  2. In vivo photo-detection of chemically induced premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of the rat palatal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, JM; Speelman, OC; vanLeengoed, HLLM; Nikkels, PGJ; Roodenburg, JLN; Witjes, MJH; Vermey, A

    1997-01-01

    Photo-detection using in vivo fluorescence was studied for different stages of chemically induced premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the Wistar rat palatal mucosa. It was found that the epithelial dysplasia (numerically expressed in the epithelial atypia index (EAI)) of the ra

  3. Phencyclidine prevents spatial navigation and passive avoidance deficits in ibotenate lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, A; Earley, B; Leonard, B E

    1994-09-01

    The potential neuroprotective effects of phencyclidine (5 mg/kg i.p.) were assessed in rats which had been treated with the excitotoxin, ibotenic acid (IBO) (0.015 M) to lesion the nucleus basalis magnocellularis. IBO treated rats showed a significant impairment in 13 of the 25 test trials in the spatial navigation Morris water maze task and deficits in passive avoidance learning. Phencyclidine was found to prevent the IBO-induced impairment in 4 of the 13 test trials in which the IBO Morris maze deficit was observed and also successfully prevented the passive avoidance learning deficits. Neurochemically, IBO was shown to reduce the levels of gamma amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) in the cortex. This effect of IBO on the inhibitory GABAergic system may contribute to the direct toxic effects of IBO which is mediated through excitatory amino acid receptors. Phencyclidine had no effect on the changes in GABA produced by IBO. The effect of phencyclidine treatment on IBO behavioural toxicity observed in this study demonstrates that antagonism of the phencyclidine receptor site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex may be partially protective against the excitotoxic damage induced by IBO.

  4. Brunner's gland lesions in rats induced by a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, Akira; Nakano-Ito, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Jiro; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Etsuko; Taketa, Yoshikazu; Van Gessel, Yvonne; Akare, Sandeep; Hutto, David; Hosokawa, Satoru; Tsukidate, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors are reported to cause reversible mucosal hyperplasia (adenosis) in the duodenum of rats; however, the pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Using lenvatinib, a VEGF RTK inhibitor, we characterized the histologic time course of this duodenal change in rats. At 4 weeks, there was degeneration and necrosis of Brunner's gland epithelium accompanied by neutrophil infiltration around the affected glands. At 13 weeks, the inflammation was more extensive, and Brunner's gland epithelium was attenuated and flattened and was accompanied by reactive hyperplasia of duodenal epithelium. At 26 weeks, the changes became more severe and chronic and characterized by marked cystic dilation, which extended to the external muscular layer. These dilated glands exhibited morphological characteristics of duodenal crypt epithelium, suggestive of replacement of disappeared Brunner's glands by regenerative duodenal crypt epithelial cells. Similar changes were not present in similar time course studies in dog and monkey studies, suggesting that this is a rodent- or species-specific change. Based on the temporal progression of Brunner's gland lesion, we identify degeneration and necrosis of the Brunner's glands as the primary change leading to inflammation, cystic dilatation, and regeneration with cells that are morphologically suggestive of duodenal crypt epithelium.

  5. Crossmodal object recognition in rats with and without multimodal object pre-exposure: no effect of hippocampal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, James M; Jacklin, Derek L; Winters, Boyer D

    2012-10-01

    The neural mechanisms and brain circuitry involved in the formation, storage, and utilization of multisensory object representations are poorly understood. We have recently introduced a crossmodal object recognition (CMOR) task that enables the study of such questions in rats. Our previous research has indicated that the perirhinal and posterior parietal cortices functionally interact to mediate spontaneous (tactile-to-visual) CMOR performance in rats; however, it remains to be seen whether other brain regions, particularly those receiving polymodal sensory inputs, contribute to this cognitive function. In the current study, we assessed the potential contribution of one such polymodal region, the hippocampus (HPC), to crossmodal object recognition memory. Rats with bilateral excitotoxic HPC lesions were tested in two versions of crossmodal object recognition: (1) the original CMOR task, which requires rats to compare between a stored tactile object representation and visually-presented objects to discriminate the novel and familiar stimuli; and (2) a novel 'multimodal pre-exposure' version of the CMOR task (PE/CMOR), in which simultaneous exploration of the tactile and visual sensory features of an object 24 h prior to the sample phase enhances CMOR performance across longer retention delays. Hippocampus-lesioned rats performed normally on both crossmodal object recognition tasks, but were impaired on a radial arm maze test of spatial memory, demonstrating the functional effectiveness of the lesions. These results strongly suggest that the HPC, despite its polymodal anatomical connections, is not critically involved in tactile-to-visual crossmodal object recognition memory.

  6. Excitatory and inhibitory behavioral responses to the pharmacological stimulation of serotonergic function in dorsalis raphe lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; González, A S; Fóscolo, M R; Broitman, S T

    1988-01-01

    Neurotoxin-induced lesions of 5-HT neurons produce supersensitivity of 5-HT1 receptors without affecting 5-HT2 receptor binding in the brain. This model was used in the present work to analyze the role of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the mechanism controlling the excitatory and inhibitory behavioral responses to the pharmacological stimulation of 5-HT systems. Dorsalis raphe (DR) lesions were made by stereotaxic injection of kainic acid. At day 30 after injection DR-and control rats displayed similar baseline behavior in hole board tests. Three days later DR-and control rats received an ip injection of fluoxetine (5 or 10 mg/kg) 30 min before injecting ip 5-HTP(15 or 30 mg/kg). Immediately before and after each ip injection the excitatory response (myoclonic syndrome) was evaluated. DR-and control-group showed similar scores of myoclonus in response to fluoxetine-5-HTP. The inhibitory response was investigated in hole board trials performed 30 min after the second ip injection. The DR lesion potentiated the behavioral depressive effect of fluoxetine-5-HTP. In agreement with data in the literature the DR lesion caused 74.9% loss of forebrain 5-HT and 75% increases of 3H-5HT binding in cortex membranes. Most components of the excitatory response, which remained unchanged in the DR-lesioned rats, might be related to 5-HT2 receptors. The increased inhibitory response to 5-HT stimulation in DR-lesioned rats would be due to the supersensitivity of 5-HT1 receptors.

  7. Effects of medial septal lesions on action-outcome associations in rats under conditions of delayed reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numan, Robert; Ouimette, Amy S; Holloway, Katherine A; Curry, Cristi E

    2004-12-01

    In operant tasks, control rats maintain high response rates under positive contingencies, when the probability of reinforcement is greater following a response (contingent reinforcement) than during the absence of that response. However, as contingencies approach zero, response rates decrease. In this experiment, under immediate contingent reinforcement, rats with medial septal lesions reduced their response rates, just like controls, when contingencies were shifted from positive toward zero. However, the septal rats were less sensitive to this contingency shift, compared with controls, when there was a 5-s delay between lever presses and contingent reinforcements. This lesion effect appeared to be due to a failure of voluntary response memory, which impaired sensitivity to operant contingencies when there was a delay between action and outcome.

  8. Oral and nasal administration of chicken type Ⅱ collagen suppresses adjuvant arthritis in rats with intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qiu Zheng; Wei Wei; Yu-Xian Shen; Min Dai; Li-Hua Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the curative effects of oral and nasal administration of chicken type Ⅱ collagen (CⅡ) on adjuvant arthritis (AA) in rats with meloxicam-induced intestinal lesions.METHODS: AA model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without intestinal lesions induced by meloxicam was established and those rats were divided randomly into six groups which included AA model, AA model+meloxicam,AA model+oral CⅡ, AA model+nasal CⅡ, AA model+meloxicam+oral CⅡ and AA model+meloxicam+nasal CⅡ (n = 12). Rats was treated with meloxicam intragastrically for 7 d from d 14 after immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), and then treated with chicken CⅡ intragastrically or nasally for 7 d. Histological changes of right hind knees were examined. Hind paw secondary swelling and intestinal lesions were evaluated. Synoviocyte proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide (MTT)method. Activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and diamine oxidase (DAO) from supernatants of intestinal homogenates were assayed by spectrophotometric analysis.RESULTS: Intragastrical administration of meloxicam (1.5 mg/kg) induced multiple intestinal lesions in AA rats.There was a significant decrease of intestinal DAO activities in AA+meloxicam group (P<0.01) and AA model group (P<0.01) compared with normal group. DAO activities of intestinal homogenates in AA+meloxicam group were significantly less than those in AA rats (P<0.01). There was a significant increase of intestinal MPO activities in AA+meloxicam group compared with normal control (P<0.01). Oral or nasal administration of CⅡ (20 μg/kg)could suppress the secondary hind paw swelling(P<0.05for oral CⅡ; P<0.01 for nasal CⅡ), synoviocyte proliferation (P<0.01) and histopathological degradation in AA rats, but they had no significant effects on DAO and MPO changes.However, oral administration of CⅡ (20 μg/kg) showed the limited efficacy on arthritis

  9. Pathology review of proliferative lesions of the exocrine pancreas in two chronic feeding studies in rats with ammonium perfluorooctanoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Caverly Rae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two chronic dietary studies, conducted years apart, with ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO in Sprague Dawley rats have been previously reported. Although both included male 300 ppm dietary dose groups, only the later study, conducted in 1990–1992 by Biegel et al., reported an increase in proliferative lesions (hyperplasia and adenoma of the acinar pancreas. An assessment of the significance of the differences between both studies requires careful consideration of: the diagnostic criteria for proliferative acinar cell lesions of the rat pancreas (for example, the diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell hyperplasia versus adenoma is based on the two-dimensional size of the lesion rather than distinct morphological differences; the basis for those criteria in light of their relevance to biological behavior; and the potential diagnostic variability between individual pathologists for difficult-to-classify lesions. A pathology peer review of male exocrine pancreatic tissues from the earlier study, conducted in 1981–1983 by Butenhoff et al., was undertaken. This review identified an increase in acinar cell hyperplasia but not adenoma or carcinoma in the earlier study. Both studies observed a proliferative response in the acinar pancreas which was more pronounced in the study by Biegel et al. Definitive reasons for the greater incidence of proliferative lesions in the later study were not identified, but some possible explanations are presented herein. The relevance of this finding to human risk assessment, in the face of differences in the biological behavior of human and rat pancreatic proliferative lesions and the proposed mechanism of formation of these lesions, are questionable.

  10. Behavioral effects of lesions in the A10 dopaminergic area of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galey, D; Simon, H; Le Moal, M

    1977-03-18

    Experiments have been carried out with 150 rats in order to study some psychophysiological functions of the mesencephalocortico limbic dopaminergic A10 group. Lesions in the A10 area were made by using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) local injections; 2 small volumes of injections were used at the same concentration (2 mug/1 mul or 1 mug/0.5 mul). In a first experiment the effects of these two injections were tested on locomotor activity measured in a circular corridor, 10 and 30 days after surgery. Injections provoked hyperactivity, mainly during nocturnal basal activity periods, but not during initial exploratory activity periods. The larger the injection, the more important the hyperactivity was. The larger injections induced important food spillage evidence through the wire floor of the home cage and perturbation in a passive avoidance learning. There was no change in body weight or in amount of ingested food. In a second experiment, the effects of local injection of 6-OHDA in the other CA structures or bundles situated in or near the ventral tegmental area were tested. Injections in the substantia nigra compacta, in the noradrenergic ventral bundle, in the dorsal periventricular system-tegmental radiations did not provoke locomotor hyperactivity. In a third experiment, a possible role of the median raphe (MR) nucleus in the A10-lesion induced hyperactivity was tested: first, radiofrequency MR lesions were made and no durable significant hyperactivity was recorded; secondly, 6-OHDA (1 mug/0.5 mul) was injected into the A10 area and activity was measured 10 days later: these injections provoked significant hyperactivity during the nocturnal basal and the diurnal basal activity periods. It might be concluded that neither the neighboring CA fibers nor the MR were directly involved in the ventral tegmental -- 6-OHDA lesions syndrome. Anatomical controls by using the Fink-Heimer silver impregnating method have demonstrated, first, that the 6-OHDA injections did not

  11. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Bales

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX and in sham-operated controls (SHAM. Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p., but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average. For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001 in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006 in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  12. Analysis of gait in rats with olivocerebellar lesions and ability of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist varenicline to attenuate impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C S; Philpot, R M; Engberg, M E; Johns, B E; Wecker, L

    2015-09-15

    Studies have demonstrated that administration of the neuronal nicotinic receptor agonist varenicline to rats with olivocerebellar lesions attenuates balance deficits on a rotorod and balance beam, but the effects of this drug on gait deficits have not been investigated. To accomplish this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to walk on a motorized treadmill at 25 and 35 cm/s and baseline performance determined; both temporal and spatial gait parameters were analyzed. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the key components of gait, and the cumulative gait index (CGI) was calculated, representing deviations from prototypical gait patterns. Subsequently, animals either remained as non-lesioned controls or received injections of 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP)/nicotinamide to destroy the climbing fibers innervating Purkinje cells. The gait of the non-lesioned group was assessed weekly to monitor changes in the normal population, while the gait of the lesioned group was assessed 1 week following 3-AP administration, and weekly following the daily administration of saline or varenicline (0.3, 1.0, or 3.0mg free base/kg) for 2 weeks. Non-lesioned animals exhibited a 60-70% increased CGI over time due to increases in temporal gait measures, whereas lesioned animals exhibited a nearly 3-fold increased CGI as a consequence of increases in spatial measures. Following 2 weeks of treatment with the highest dose of varenicline (3.0mg free base/kg), the swing duration of lesioned animals normalized, and stride duration, stride length and step angle in this population did not differ from the non-lesioned population. Thus, varenicline enabled animals to compensate for their impairments and rectify the timing of the gait cycle.

  13. Comparative genome analysis: selection pressure on the Borrelia vls cassettes is essential for infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilske Bettina

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl cause tick-borne Lyme disease. Previous work including the genome analysis of B. burgdorferi B31 and B. garinii PBi suggested a highly variable plasmid part. The frequent occurrence of duplicated sequence stretches, the observed plasmid redundancy, as well as the mainly unknown function and variability of plasmid encoded genes rendered the relationships between plasmids within and between species largely unresolvable. Results To gain further insight into Borreliae genome properties we completed the plasmid sequences of B. garinii PBi, added the genome of a further species, B. afzelii PKo, to our analysis, and compared for both species the genomes of pathogenic and apathogenic strains. The core of all Bbsl genomes consists of the chromosome and two plasmids collinear between all species. We also found additional groups of plasmids, which share large parts of their sequences. This makes it very likely that these plasmids are relatively stable and share common ancestors before the diversification of Borrelia species. The analysis of the differences between B. garinii PBi and B. afzelii PKo genomes of low and high passages revealed that the loss of infectivity is accompanied in both species by a loss of similar genetic material. Whereas B. garinii PBi suffered only from the break-off of a plasmid end, B. afzelii PKo lost more material, probably an entire plasmid. In both cases the vls gene locus encoding for variable surface proteins is affected. Conclusion The complete genome sequences of a B. garinii and a B. afzelii strain facilitate further comparative studies within the genus Borrellia. Our study shows that loss of infectivity can be traced back to only one single event in B. garinii PBi: the loss of the vls cassettes possibly due to error prone gene conversion. Similar albeit extended losses in B. afzelii PKo support the hypothesis that infectivity of Borrelia

  14. Investigating Healing Effects of Pot Marigold Oil and ProsopisFarcta Extract on Skin Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Kalantar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been a common practice to use herbal plants in Iran and other countries around the world since past years. Today with unfavorable impacts and side effects of chemical drugs, traditional medicine and prescription of herbal plants have attracted specific attention. Treatment and healing of lesions can be considered among major issues which human has faced from the first of creation. Using pot marigold oil and powder of ProsopisFarcta fruit has been long common in Iran for treatment of skin lesions. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate quick healing and restoration effects of ProsopisFracta fruit extract as well as pot marigold oil on laboratory rats. The research was a laboratory trial which was done on 50 rats which were divided randomly into five groups including ten rats after complete anesthesia and creating spinal injuries in completely similar conditions and characteristics. For treatment, five interventions were used as follows: 1. Normal saline solution (0.9% physiologic serum; 2. ProsopisFracta fruit extract (with density of 0.5 to 99.5% solvent; 3. Pure pot marigold oil; 4.Combination of ProsopisFracta fruit extract and pot marigold oil (95% oil and 0.5% extract; and 5.Nitroforazone 1% ointment (positive control. Features including 1. Rats' body temperature, 2.Testing injury site blood, 3.Lesion extent, 4.Histology microscopic experiment during sixteen days of treatment were measured and collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software by mean+-SEM as well as survival analysis tests at significance level of 0.05. According to the results, intervention by combination of ProsopisFracta fruit extract and pot marigold oil is significantly better regarding all features studied, while given the feature of lesion extent it shows a significant difference in treatment and healing of the lesion. Results of a study done by Nakhai Moghadam and colleagues confirm the results obtained by the present study.

  15. Effects of Bilateral Electrolytic Lesions of the Dorsomedial Striatum on Motor Behavior and Instrumental Learning in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamphyle Abedi Mukutenga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dorsal striatum plays an important role in the control of motor activity and learning processes within the basal ganglia circuitry. Furthermore, recent works have suggested functional differentiation between subregions of the dorsal striatumMethods:The present study examined the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum on motor behavior and learning ability in rats using a series of behavioral tests. 20 male wistar rats were used in the experiment and behavioral assessment were conducted using open field test, rotarod test and 8-arm radial maze.Results:In the open field test, rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum showed a normal motor function in the horizontal locomotor activity, while in rearing activity they displayed a statistically significant motor impairment when compared to sham operated group. In the rotarod test, a deficit in motor coordination and acquisition of skilled behavior was observed in rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial striatum compared to sham. However, radial maze performance revealed similar capacity in the acquisition of learning task between experimental groups.Discussion:Our results support the premise of the existence of functional dissociation between the dorsomedial and the dorsolateral regions of the dorsal striatum. In addition, our data suggest that the associative dorsomedial striatum may be as critical in striatum-based motor control.

  16. Central amygdala lesions inhibit pontine nuclei acoustic reactivity and retard delay eyeblink conditioning acquisition in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochiro, Joseph M; Lindquist, Derick H

    2016-06-01

    In delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC) a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; tone) is repeatedly paired with a mildly aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; periorbital electrical shock). Over training, subjects learn to produce an anticipatory eyeblink conditioned response (CR) during the CS, prior to US onset. While cerebellar synaptic plasticity is necessary for successful EBC, the amygdala is proposed to enhance eyeblink CR acquisition. In the current study, adult Long-Evans rats received bilateral sham or neurotoxic lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA) followed by 1 or 4 EBC sessions. Fear-evoked freezing behavior, CS-mediated enhancement of the unconditioned response (UR), and eyeblink CR acquisition were all impaired in the CEA lesion rats relative to sham controls. There were also significantly fewer c-Fos immunoreactive cells in the pontine nuclei (PN)-major relays of acoustic information to the cerebellum-following the first and fourth EBC session in lesion rats. In sham rats, freezing behavior decreased from session 1 to 4, commensurate with nucleus-specific reductions in amygdala Fos+ cell counts. Results suggest delay EBC proceeds through three stages: in stage one the amygdala rapidly excites diffuse fear responses and PN acoustic reactivity, facilitating cerebellar synaptic plasticity and the development of eyeblink CRs in stage two, leading, in stage three, to a diminution or stabilization of conditioned fear responding.

  17. Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) protects against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-11-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800-1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production.

  18. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–1600 mg/kg). Both OFSM and betanin effectively prevented the decrease in gastric mucus content as detected by alcian blue staining. In addition, OFSM significantly suppressed WIRS-induced increases in the level of gastric mucosal tumor necrosis factor-α and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Betanin alone was only effective in decreasing MPO. These results revealed the protective activity of OFSM against stress-induced acute gastric lesions and that betanin may contribute to OFSM's gastric protective activity, at least in part. When OFSM and betanin were taken together, OFSM exerted gastroprotective activity against stress-induced gastric lesions by maintaining gastric mucus, which might be related to the attenuation of MPO-mediated damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. PMID:23062184

  19. Differential behavioral reinforcement effects of dopamine receptor agonists in the rat with bilateral lesion of the posterior ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouachikh, Omar; Dieb, Wisam; Durif, Franck; Hafidi, Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease has been attributed to dopamine replacement therapies and/or a lesion of the dopaminergic system. The dopaminergic neuronal loss targets the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). We hypothesize that dopamine replacement therapy is responsible for the potential reinforcement effect in Parkinson's disease by acting on the neuronal reward circuitry. Therefore this study was designed to explore the potential motivational effect of dopamine replacement therapy in bilateral VTA-lesioned animals. The posterior (p)VTA, which project to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) constitutes the major dopamine neuronal circuitry implicated in addictive disorders. Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) behavioral paradigm, we investigated the motivational effects of dopamine receptor agonists, and cocaine in rat with a 6-OHDA bilateral lesion of the pVTA. Amongst the dopamine receptor agonists used in this study only the D2R and D3R agonists (bromocriptine, PD128907 and pramipexole), induced a significant CPP in pVTA-lesioned animals. Dopamine receptor agonists did not induce behavioral sensitization in sham animals. Moreover, confocal D2R immunostaining analysis showed a significant increase in the number of D2R per cell body in the NAc shell of pVTA lesioned rats compared to sham. This result correlated, for the first time, the dopamine receptor agonists effect with DR2 overexpression in the NAc shell of pVTA-lesioned rats. In addition, cocaine, which is known to increase dopamine release, induced behavioral sensitization in sham group but not in dopamine deprived group. Thus, the later result highlighted the importance of pVTA-NAc dopaminergic pathway in positive reinforcements. Altogether these data suggested that the implication of the dopamine replacement therapy in the appearance of dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson's disease is probably due to both neuronal degeneration in the posterior VTA and

  20. Dietary and Intraperitoneal Administration of Selenium Provide Comparable Protection in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Lesion Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia M. Fox

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant research implicates the involvement of free radicals in the manifestation of Parkinson's disease. The antioxidant, selenium is a vital dietary component for mammals. It is present in the active center of glutathione peroxidase, an antioxidant enzyme that scavenges peroxides and protects membrane lipids and macromolecules from oxidative insult. The purpose of this research was to determine an effective means of delivering selenium as well as an appropriate time frame for antioxidant administration that would elicit a protective response in rats challenged with an intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA lesion. In the first part of this study, Fischer 344 rats were placed into one of four groups: selenium enhanced diet, control diet, intraperitoneal injection of selenium as Na2SeO3 or intraperitoneal injection of distilled water. All treatments were delivered prior to an intranigral 6-OHDA lesion. Animals were euthanized two weeks post lesion and their brains processed for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH immunocytochemistry. Average dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra of control animals was less than 22%; whereas nigral dopamine neuron survival in the selenium fed group was 49.7% and 56.0% in the selenium injected group. Based on these results, a subsequent study was designed utilizing the selenium enhanced diet method of antioxidant administration. To examine the neuroprotective effect of long-term selenium treatment, pregnant Fischer 344 rats were exposed to either selenium enhanced or control rat chow. Their pups were treated with the same diet as their mothers and lesioned with 6-OHDA at two months of age. Animals were euthanized and their brains were processed for TH immunocytochemistry. Nigral dopamine neuron survival for the selenium treated animals was significantly protective (59% when compared to the control chow fed animals (29.6%. However, when compared to the short-term exposure of selenium rat chow in the previous

  1. Tea polyphenols prevent lung from preneoplastic lesions and effect p53 and bcl-2 gene expression in rat lung tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qihua; Hu, Chengping; Chen, Qiong; Xia, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the cancers that have the highest incidence and the highest mortality rate, and it is of great interest to identify ways to prevent its occurrence. We had established an animal model by using 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection in our previous study, and had observed that the rats lung carcinoma incidence and multiplicity were significantly reduced by green tea administration. This study further investigated the effect of tea polyphenols on rat lung preneoplastic lesions using the lung carcinoma model established by 3,4-benzopyrene intra-pulmonary injection. Sprague-Dawley rats of the same age were randomly divided into 10 groups and treated with 3,4-benzopyrene by intra-pulmonary injection. Five groups were given 0.3% solution of tea polyphenols (equivalent to 1.2% of green tea) in drinking water, while the other 5 groups were given pure drinking water. The rats were sacrificed at 0, 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment. In the control groups of rats, local bronchial inflammation were observed at 1 week after 3,4-benzopyrene treatment. From 4 weeks to 16 weeks after carcinogen treatment, hyperplasia, cell hyperproliferation, heterogeneity were observed in the bronchial epithelium. Meanwhile, the expression of p53 mRNA and protein, as well as the level of bcl-2, increased in the bronchial epithelial lesion. Tea polyphenols treatment significantly alleviated the bronchial epithelial lesions. At the same time, tea polyphenols treatment enhanced p53 expression, but reduced bcl-2 expression. These results indicated that tea polyphenols may have preventive effect against lung preneoplasm lesions, possibly through regulating the expression of some critical genes such as p53 and bcl-2.

  2. Exercise partly reverses the effect of maternal separation on hippocampal proteins in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimatelis, J J; Hendricks, S; Hsieh, J; Vlok, N M; Bugarith, K; Daniels, W M U; Russell, V A

    2013-01-01

    Animals subjected to maternal separation stress during the early stages of development display behavioural, endocrine and growth factor abnormalities that mirror the clinical findings in anxiety/depression. In addition, maternal separation has been shown to exacerbate the behavioural deficits induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. In contrast, voluntary exercise reduced the detrimental effects of 6-OHDA in the rat model. The beneficial effects of exercise appeared to be largely due to compensation in the non-lesioned hemisphere. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether voluntary exercise for 3 weeks could reverse the effects of maternal separation in rats challenged with the neurotoxin 6-OHDA infused into the medial forebrain bundle after 1 week of exercise, at postnatal day 60. The rats were killed 2 weeks later, at postnatal day 74. Their brains were dissected and the hippocampus rapidly removed for proteomic analysis by isobaric tagging (iTRAQ) and quantification of peptides by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS). Maternal separation upregulated hippocampal proteins functionally involved in energy metabolism (nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase) and synaptic plasticity (α-synuclein, tenascin-R, Ba1-667, brevican and neurocan core protein) in the non-lesioned hemisphere. Exercise reversed many of these changes by downregulating the levels of hippocampal proteins functionally associated with energy metabolism (nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, enolase and triosephosphate isomerase) and synaptic plasticity (α-synuclein, tenascin-R, Ba1-667, brevican and neurocan core protein) in the non-lesioned hemisphere of rats subjected to maternal separation. Exercise and maternal separation therefore appeared to have opposing effects on the hippocampus in the non-lesioned hemisphere of the rat brain. Exercise seemed partly to reverse the

  3. 1H NMR Metabolic Profiling of Biofluids from Rats with Gastric Mucosal Lesion and Electroacupuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric mucosal lesion (GML is a common gastrointestinal disorder with multiple pathogenic mechanisms in clinical practice. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, electroacupuncture (EA treatment has been proven as an effective therapy for GML, although the underlying healing mechanism is not yet clear. Here, we used proton nuclear magnetic resonance- (1H NMR- based metabolomic method to investigate the metabolic perturbation induced by GML and the therapeutic effect of EA treatment on stomach meridian (SM acupoints. Clear metabolic differences were observed between GML and control groups, and related metabolic pathways were discussed by means of online metabolic network analysis toolbox. By comparing the endogenous metabolites from GML and GML-SM groups, the disturbed pathways were partly recovered towards healthy state via EA treated on SM acupoints. Further comparison of the metabolic variations induced by EA stimulated on SM and the control gallbladder meridian (GM acupoints showed a quite similar metabolite composition except for increased phenylacetylglycine, 3,4-dihydroxymandelate, and meta-hydroxyphenylacetate and decreased N-methylnicotinamide in urine from rats with EA treated on SM acupoints. The current study showed the potential application of metabolomics in providing further insight into the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  4. Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Mugera, G M; Njiro, S M

    2002-05-01

    Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.

  5. Lesions of rat skeletal muscle after local block of acetylcholinesterase and neuromuscular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mense, S; Simons, D G; Hoheisel, U; Quenzer, B

    2003-06-01

    In skeletal muscle, a local increase of acetylcholine (ACh) in a few end plates has been hypothesized to cause the formation of contraction knots that can be found in myofascial trigger points. To test this hypothesis in rats, small amounts of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor [diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP)] were injected into the proximal half of the gastrocnemius muscle, and the muscle nerve was electrically stimulated for 30-60 min for induction of muscle twitches. The distal half of the muscle, which performed the same contractions, served as a control to assess the effects of the twitches without DFP. Sections of the muscle were evaluated for morphological changes in relation to the location of blocked end plates. Compared with the distal half of the muscle, the DFP-injected proximal half exhibited significantly higher numbers of abnormally contracted fibers (local contractures), torn fibers, and longitudinal stripes. DFP-injected animals in which the muscle nerve was not stimulated and that were allowed to survive for 24 h exhibited the same lesions but in smaller numbers. The data indicate that an increased concentration of ACh in a few end plates causes damage to muscle fibers. The results support the assumption that a dysfunctional end plate exhibiting increased release of ACh may be the starting point for regional abnormal contractions, which are thought to be essential for the formation of myofascial trigger points.

  6. Morphological study of gastric lesions developing in the rat under several damaging conditions: modifications induced by pretreatment with zinc acexamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, M L; Escolar, G; Navarro, C; Fontarnau, R; Bulbena, O

    1992-09-01

    Lesions developing in the gastric mucosa of the rat after exposure to different gastric damaging agents (100 mg/kg aspirin, and 70% or 100% ethanol) were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The severity of the lesions was quantified according to morphological criteria. Modifications in the severity of these lesions induced by pretreatment with zinc acexamate were also analyzed. The scanning electron microscope revealed that with the exception of absolute ethanol, which caused distinctive morphological features, lesions found under the different experimental agents shared a common pattern of progression. Ultrastructural lesions on surface epithelial cells preceded further alterations of parietal cells. After the integrity of the epithelial cells was lost, detachment of the parietal cells occurred, probably, through peptic digestion of the connections between cells and their extracellular matrices. Pretreatment of animals with zinc acexamate increased the presence of mucus on the gastric surface and significantly prevented the progression of lesions towards the severest stages. Ultrastructural damage of surface epithelial cells was not influenced by this treatment, but detachment of damaged cells was clearly diminished. These data confirm the protective effect of zinc acexamate against gastric aggressions. Moreover, our studies confirm the notion that mucus secretion and maintenance of continuity on the gastric lumen by surface epithelial cells is of critical importance in preventing the gastric damage induced in these experimental models.

  7. Polysomnographic Features of Sleep Disturbances and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in the Unilateral 6-OHDA Lesioned Hemiparkinsonian Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Vo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep pattern disruption, specifically REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, is a major nonmotor cause of disability in PD. Understanding the pathophysiology of these sleep pattern disturbances is critical to find effective treatments. 24-hour polysomnography (PSG, the gold standard for sleep studies, has never been used to test sleep dysfunction in the standard 6-OHDA lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP rat PD model. In this study, we recorded 24-hour PSG from normal and HP rats. Recordings were scored into wake, rapid eye movement (REM, and non-REM (NREM. We then examined EEG to identify REM periods and EMG to check muscle activity during REM. Normal rats showed higher wakefulness (70–80% during the dark phase and lower wakefulness (20% during the light phase. HP rats showed 30–50% sleep in both phases, less modulation and synchronization to the light schedule (P<0.0001, and more long run lengths of wakefulness (P<0.05. HP rats also had more REM epochs with muscle activity than control rats (P<0.05. Our findings that the sleep architecture in the HP rat resembles that of PD patients demonstrate the value of this model in studying the pathophysiological basis of PD sleep disturbances and preclinical therapeutics for PD related sleep disorders including RBD.

  8. Increased efficacy of the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the median forebrain bundle in small rats, by modification of the stereotaxic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E M; Lane, E L; Heuer, A; Smith, G A; Murphy, E; Dunnett, S B

    2011-08-30

    The 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion is the most widely used rat model of Parkinson's disease. A single unilateral injection of 6-OHDA into the median forebrain bundle (MFB) selectively destroys dopamine neurons in the ipsilateral substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), removing more than 95% of the dopamine innervation from target areas. The stereotaxic coordinates used to deliver 6-OHDA to the MFB have been used in our laboratory successfully for more than 25 years. However, in recent years we have observed a decline in the success rate of this lesion. Previously regular success rates of >80% of rats lesioned, have become progressively more variable, with rates as low as 20% recorded in some experiments. Having excluded variability of the neurotoxin and operator errors, we hypothesized that the change seen might be due to the use of smaller rats at the time of first surgery. An attempt to proportionally adjust the lesion coordinates base on head size did not increase lesion efficacy. However, in support of the small rat hypothesis it was observed that, using the standard coordinates, rat's heads had a "nose-up" position in the stereotaxic fame. Adjustment of the nose bar to obtain a flat head position during surgery improved lesion success, and subsequent adjustments of the lesion coordinates to account for smaller head size led to a greatly increased lesion efficacy (>90%) as assessed by amphetamine induced rotation.

  9. Hippocampal lesions impair performance on a conditional delayed matching and non-matching to position task in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Hazel L; Döbrössy, Màtè; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2006-08-10

    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in a range of cognitive processes, from the ability to acquire new memories, to the ability to learn about spatial relationships. Humans and monkeys with damage to the hippocampus are typically impaired on delayed matching to sample tasks, of which the operant delayed matching to position task (DMTP) is a rat analogue. The reported effects of hippocampal damage on DMTP vary, ranging from delay-dependent deficits to no deficit whatsoever. The present study investigates a novel memory task; the conditional delayed matching/non-matching to position task (CDM/NMTP) in the Skinner box. CDM/NMTP uses the presence of specific stimulus cues to signify whether a particular trial is matching or non-matching in nature. Thus, it incorporates both the task contingencies within one session, and supplements the requirement for remembering the side of the lever in the sample phase with attending to the stimulus and remembering the conditional discrimination for the rule. Rats were trained preoperatively and the effects of bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus were examined on postoperative retention of the task. Rats with lesions of the hippocampus incurred a significant impairment on the task that was manifest at all delays intervals. Despite a bias towards matching during training, trials of either type were performed with equivalent accuracy and neither rule was affected differentially by the lesion. This task may prove useful in determining the cognitive roles of a range of brain areas.

  10. Investigation of the genes involved in antigenic switching at the vlsE locus in Borrelia burgdorferi: an essential role for the RuvAB branch migrase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley R Dresser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infection by pathogenic organisms requires effective strategies for the defense of these organisms against the host immune response. A common strategy employed by many pathogens to escape immune recognition and clearance is to continually vary surface epitopes through recombinational shuffling of genetic information. Borrelia burgdorferi, a causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, encodes a surface-bound lipoprotein, VlsE. This protein is encoded by the vlsE locus carried at the right end of the linear plasmid lp28-1. Adjacent to the expression locus are 15 silent cassettes carrying information that is moved into the vlsE locus through segmental gene conversion events. The protein players and molecular mechanism of recombinational switching at vlsE have not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the independent disruption of 17 genes that encode factors involved in DNA recombination, repair or replication on recombinational switching at the vlsE locus during murine infection. In Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 10 such genes have been implicated in recombinational switching at the pilE locus. Eight of these genes, including recA, are either absent from B. burgdorferi, or do not show an obvious requirement for switching at vlsE. The only genes that are required in both organisms are ruvA and ruvB, which encode subunits of a Holliday junction branch migrase. Disruption of these genes results in a dramatic decrease in vlsE recombination with a phenotype similar to that observed for lp28-1 or vls-minus spirochetes: productive infection at week 1 with clearance by day 21. In SCID mice, the persistence defect observed with ruvA and ruvB mutants was fully rescued as previously observed for vlsE-deficient B. burgdorferi. We report the requirement of the RuvAB branch migrase in recombinational switching at vlsE, the first essential factor to be identified in this process. These findings are supported by the independent work of Lin et

  11. Chemotherapy-induced kaolin intake is increased by lesion of the lateral parabrachial nucleus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Charles C; De Jonghe, Bart C; Matyas, Kathleen; Norgren, Ralph

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer agents, such as cisplatin, stimulate nausea, vomiting, and behaviors indicative of malaise. Rats and mice do not possess a vomiting response, and, therefore, in these species, the ingestion of kaolin clay (a pica response) has been used as an index of malaise. In the rat, cisplatin-induced kaolin intake is inhibited by antiemetic treatments. In addition, cisplatin activates vagal afferent fibers in the gut, and kaolin intake induced by cisplatin is largely dependent on an intact vagus. Nevertheless, little is known about the brain pathways controlling pica. We investigated the role of the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN), a major visceral afferent link between the hindbrain and forebrain, in cisplatin-induced c-Fos expression and pica. Injection of cisplatin (6 mg/kg ip) produced c-Fos expression in the ventrolateral (external) lPBN, a region receiving viscerosensory input. In rats with bilateral ibotenic acid lPBN lesions, cisplatin treatment substantially increased kaolin intake compared with controls ( approximately 30 g vs. approximately 5 g, respectively, over 24 h). Food intake was reduced by cisplatin treatment and by apomorphine, an emetic agent that acts centrally. Unlike cisplatin, however, apomorphine stimulated kaolin intake to a similar degree in both the lesioned and control rats, suggesting that lPBN damage neither produces nonspecific effects nor enhances malaise in general. These data suggest that lPBN-lesioned animals not only demonstrate pica after cisplatin treatment, but, in fact, show an exaggerated response that is greatly in excess of any treatment known to produce kaolin intake in rats.

  12. Protective effect of p-coumaric acid against 1,2 dimethylhydrazine induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sharada H; Chellappan, David Raj; Chinnaswamy, Prabu; Nagarajan, Sangeetha

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress and gut microbial enzymes are intricately linked to the onset of colon carcinogenesis. Phytochemicals that modulate these two factors hold promise for the development of such agents as anticancer drugs. The present study evaluates the chemopreventive potential of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) - a phenolic acid in rats challenged with the colon specific procarcinogen DMH (1,2 di-methyl hydrazine). Rats were randomized into six groups (n=7/group). Group 1 (control); Group 2 (p-CA 200mg/kg b.w.); Group 3 (DMH 40mg/kg b.w.); Groups 4 (DMH+p-CA 50mg/kg b.w.) and Group 5 (DMH+p-CA 100mg/kg b.w.) and Group 6 (DMH+p-CA 200mg/kg b.w.). After the experimental duration of 15 weeks' rats were subjected to necropsy and tissues were collected for the histological and biochemical investigations. DMH induced colonic preneoplastic lesions viz., aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF (DACF), mucin depleted foci (MDF) and beta catenin accumulated crypts (BCAC) were significantly suppressed by p-CA supplementation. Glucuronide conjugation of DMH in liver and its subsequent deconjugation mediated by microbes in the colon induced the formation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. p-CA inhibited these lesions and protected the rat colon against genotoxic insult by scavenging the free radicals via its strong antioxidant response and detoxification mechanism as measured by TBARS and enzymic antioxidants in control and experimental rats. Of the three tested doses, p-CA at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight is found to exhibit a significant optimum effect compared to the other two doses 50mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg body weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibitory effects of feeding with carrots or (-)-falcarinol on development of azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Christensen, Lars P; Vach, Werner; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Jelmera; Brandt, Kirsten

    2005-03-09

    The effects of intake of dietary amounts of carrot or corresponding amounts of (-)-(3R)-falcarinol from carrots on development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon preneoplastic lesions were examined in male BDIX rats. Three groups of eight AOM-treated rats were fed the standard rat feed Altromin supplemented with either 10% (w/w) freeze-dried carrots with a natural content of 35 mug falcarinol/g, 10% maize starch to which was added 35 mug falcarinol/g purified from carrots, or 10% maize starch (control). After 18 weeks, the animals were euthanized and the colon was examined for tumors and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which were classified into four size classes. Although the number of small ACF was unaffected by the feeding treatments, the numbers of lesions as a function of increasing size class decreased significantly in the rats that received one of the two experimental treatments, as compared with the control treatment. This indicates that the dietary treatments with carrot and falcarinol delayed or retarded the development of large ACF and tumors. The present study provides a new perspective on the known epidemiological associations between high intake of carrots and reduced incidence of cancers.

  14. Characterization of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, in rat partial and full nigral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion models of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Jelsing, Jacob; Pyke, Charles; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Vrang, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, have been demonstrated to promote neuroprotection in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron loss. In this report, we characterized the effect of a long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide (500µg/kg/day, s.c.) in the context of a partial or advanced (full) 6-OHDA induced nigral lesion in the rat. Rats received a low (3µg, partial lesion) or high (13.5µg, full lesion) 6-OHDA dose stereotaxically injected into the right medial forebrain bundle (n=17-20 rats per experimental group). Six weeks after induction of a partial nigral dopaminergic lesion, vehicle or liraglutide was administered for four weeks. In the full lesion model, vehicle dosing or liraglutide treatment was applied for a total of six weeks starting three weeks pre-lesion, or administered for three weeks starting on the lesion day. Quantitative stereology was applied to assess the total number of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive dopaminergic neurons. As compared to vehicle controls, liraglutide had no effect on the rotational responsiveness to d-amphetamine or apomorphine, respectively. In correspondence, while numbers of TH-positive nigral neurons were significantly reduced in the lesion side (partial lesion ≈55%; full lesion ≈90%) liraglutide administration had no influence dopaminergic neuronal loss in either PD model setting. In conclusion, liraglutide showed no neuroprotective effects in the context of moderate or substantial midbrain dopaminergic neuronal loss and associated functional motor deficits in the rat 6-OHDA lesion model of PD.

  15. Basolateral amygdala lesions attenuate safe taste memory-related c-fos expression in the rat perirhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón, Beatriz; Gámiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-05-01

    Previous results indicated that damage and pharmacological inactivation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) interfere with the attenuation of taste neophobia. A similar disruption of safe taste memories formation induced by the inhibition of protein synthesis in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) has been reported. Thus, we have assessed the effect of bilateral BLA neurotoxic lesions on PRh activity after novel and familiar taste exposure. Wistar male rats with NMDA lesions of the BLA and SHAM-operated received two consecutive exposures to a 3% cider vinegar solution. Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) was examined as a marker of neuronal activity in PRh. As expected the BLA lesioned group showed no evidence of neophobia attenuation. A similar number of PRh Fos-positive cells were found in SHAM and BLA groups exposed to the novel taste solution. However, the BLA-lesioned group exhibited a lower number of Fos stained cells than the SHAM-lesioned group after being exposed to the familiar taste solution. This supports the notion of BLA and PRh as components of a neural circuit involved in safe taste recognition memory and suggests a role of PRh in various forms of recognition memory.

  16. The effect of basolateral amygdala nucleus lesion on memory under acute,mid and chronic stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Hoda; Radahmadi, Maryam; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Reisi, Parham; Karimi, Sara

    2016-12-20

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates memory for emotional events and is involved in both stress and memory. This study investigated different durations of stress and the role of BLA on serum corticosterone level and spatial and cognitive memory. Different durations of stress (acute, mid, and chronic stress), with and without BLA lesion were induced in rats by 6 h/day restraint stress for 1, 7, and 21 days. Memory functions were evaluated by novel object recognition (NOR) and object location test (OLT). The OLT findings showed locomotor activity and spatial memory slightly decreased with different durations of stress. The NOR findings significantly showed locomotor activity impairment in different durations of stress. Cognitive memory deficit was observed in mid stress. The corticosterone level significantly increased in the mid and chronic stress groups. Moreover, the mid stress was the strongest stress condition. There is a possibility that different stress durations act by different mechanisms. The recognition of a novel location decreased in all lesion groups. It was more severe in the NOR. The BLA lesion significantly decreased corticosterone level in the mid and chronic stress groups compared to similar groups without lesion. The BLA lesion caused more damage to cognitive than spatial memory in stressed groups.

  17. Bilateral lesions of the entorhinal cortex differentially modify haloperidol- and olanzapine-induced c-fos mRNA expression in the rat forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillier, A; Coutureau, E; Thiriet, N; Herbeaux, K; Zwiller, J; Di Scala, G; Will, B; Majchrzak, M

    2003-08-01

    Lesions of the entorhinal cortex are now an accepted model for mimicking some of the neuropathological aspects of schizophrenia, since evidence has accumulated for the presence of cytoarchitectonic abnormalities within this cortex in schizophrenic patients. The present study was undertaken to address the functional consequences of bilateral entorhinal cortex lesions on antipsychotic-induced c-fos expression. After a 15-day recovery period, the effect of a typical antipsychotic, haloperidol (1 mg/kg), on c-fos mRNA expression was compared with that of an atypical one, olanzapine (10 mg/kg), in both sham-lesioned and entorhinal cortex-lesioned rats. In sham-lesioned rats, both haloperidol and olanzapine induced c-fos expression in the caudal cingulate cortex, dorsomedial and dorsolateral caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens core and shell and lateral septum. In addition, olanzapine, but not haloperidol, increased c-fos expression within the central amygdala. In entorhinal cortex-lesioned rats, haloperidol-induced c-fos expression was markedly reduced in most areas. In contrast, the olanzapine-induced c-fos expression was not altered in the nucleus accumbens shell and lateral septum of the lesioned rats. These findings reveal that entorhinal cortex lesions affect c-fos expression in a compound- and regional-dependent manner. Our results further emphasize the importance of the exploration of the mechanisms of action of antipsychotic drugs in the context of an associated cortical pathology.

  18. Changes in the distribution of the neuron-specific B-50, neurofilament protein and glial fibrillary acidic proteins following an unilateral mesencephalic lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Oestreicher, A.B.; Devay, P.; Isaacson, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Following a unilateral electrolytic lesion in the ventral rat mesencephalon, changes in the immunocytochemical distribution of the neuron-specific B-50, neurofilament (NF) protein and glial fibrillary acidic (GFAP) proteins were studied around the lesion after 0, 3, 10 and 28 days. At all recovery t

  19. Long-term effects of immunotoxic cholinergic lesions in the septum on acquisition of the cone-field task and noncognitive measures in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staay, van der F.J.; Bouger, P.; Lehmann, O.; Lazarus, C.; Cosquer, B.; Koenig, J.; Stump, V.; Cassel, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    In rats, nonspecific mechanical or neurotoxic lesions of the septum impair spatial memory in, e.g., Morris water- and radial-maze tasks. Unfortunately, the lack of specificity of such lesions limits inferences about the role of the cholinergic hippocampal projections in spatial cognition. We therefo

  20. Neuroprotective effects of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Sook; Park, Mi Sook; Kim, Seung Hwan; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Chong Kil; Lee, Myung Koo

    2010-04-16

    6-Hydroxydopamine administration for 28 days (8 microg/2 microL) reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive neurons to 40.2% in the substantia nigra compared to the intact contralateral side. Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and norepinephrine levels were reduced to 19.1%, 52.3%, 47.1% and 67.4% in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats compared to the control group, respectively. However, an oral administration of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP-EX) (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg) starting on day 3 post-lesion for 28 days markedly ameliorated the reduction of TH-immunopositive neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain from 40.2% to 67.4% and 75.8% in the substantia nigra. GP-EX administration (10 and 30 mg/kg) also recovered the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and norepinephrine in post-lesion striatum to 64.1% and 65.0%, 77.9% and 89.7%, 82.6% and 90.2%, and 88.1% and 89.2% of the control group. GP-EX at the given doses did not produce any sign of toxicity such as weight loss, diarrhea and vomiting in rats during the 28 day treatment period and four gypenoside derivatives, gynosaponin TN-1, gynosaponin TN-2, gypenoside XLV and gypenoside LXXIV were identified from GP-EX. These results suggest that GP-EX might be helpful in the prevention of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Ethanol Extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sook Choi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 6-Hydroxydopamine administration for 28 days (8 μg/2 μL reduced the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-immunopositive neurons to 40.2% in the substantia nigra compared to the intact contralateral side. Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and norepinephrine levels were reduced to 19.1%, 52.3%, 47.1% and 67.4% in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats compared to the control group, respectively. However, an oral administration of herbal ethanol extracts from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP-EX (10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg starting on day 3 post-lesion for 28 days markedly ameliorated the reduction of TH-immunopositive neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat brain from 40.2% to 67.4% and 75.8% in the substantia nigra. GP-EX administration (10 and 30 mg/kg also recovered the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid and norepinephrine in post-lesion striatum to 64.1% and 65.0%, 77.9% and 89.7%, 82.6% and 90.2%, and 88.1% and 89.2% of the control group. GP-EX at the given doses did not produce any sign of toxicity such as weight loss, diarrhea and vomiting in rats during the 28 day treatment period and four gypenoside derivatives, gynosaponin TN-1, gynosaponin TN-2, gypenoside XLV and gypenoside LXXIV were identified from GP-EX. These results suggest that GP-EX might be helpful in the prevention of Parkinson’s disease.

  2. Comparative electrophysiological, functional, and histological studies of nerve lesions in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolthers, M; Moldovan, M; Binderup, T

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a nerve lesion model to compare serial electrophysiological and functional outcome measures with histological findings. The relative significance of the parameters in lesions of diverse severity, the time course of recovery, and the tools for serial longitud...... regeneration. A lack of correlation between evaluation methods supports that functional, morphological, and physiological parameters show different aspects of the recovery process after nerve lesions, and that these outcome measures should be included separately in therapeutic studies....

  3. Anti-proliferative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa-Treviño Saúl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on human health. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and were exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF. The effects of the ELF-EMF on hepatocarcinogenesis, apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle progression were evaluated by histochemical, TUNEL assay, caspase 3 levels, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. Results The application of the ELF-EMF resulted in a decrease of more than 50% of the number and the area of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive preneoplastic lesions (P = 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively and glutathione S-transferase placental expression (P = 0.01. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and the cleaved caspase 3 levels were unaffected; however, the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Ki-67, and cyclin D1 expression decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.03, as compared to the sham-exposure group. Conclusion The application of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF inhibits preneoplastic lesions chemically induced in the rat liver through the reduction of cell proliferation, without altering the apoptosis process.

  4. Differential effects of selective lesions of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons on serotonin-type 1 receptors in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quirion, R.; Richard, J.

    1987-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT)-type1 receptor binding sites are discretely distributed in rat brain. High densities of (3H)5-HT1 binding sites are especially located in areas enriched with cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation, such as the substantia innominata/ventral pallidum, striatum, septal nuclei, hippocampus and substantia nigra. The possible association of (3H)5-HT1 binding sites with cholinergic or dopaminergic cell bodies and/or nerve fiber terminals was investigated by selective lesions of the substantia innominata/ventral pallidum-cortical and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways and the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection. (3H)5-HT1 receptor binding sites are possibly located on cholinergic cell bodies in the ventral pallidum-cortical pathway since (3H)5-HT1 binding in the substantia innominata/ventral pallidal area was markedly decreased following kainic acid lesions. Fimbriaectomies markedly decreased (3H)5-HT1 binding in the hippocampus, suggesting the presence of 5-HT1 binding sites on cholinergic nerve fiber terminals in the septohippocampal pathway. Lesions of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic projection did not modify (3H)5-HT1 binding in the substantia nigra and the striatum, suggesting that 5-HT1 receptors are not closely associated with dopaminergic cell bodies and nerve terminals in this pathway. These results demonstrate differential association between 5-HT1 receptors and cholinergic and dopaminergic innervation in rat brain.

  5. Gender-Dependent Effects of Enriched Environment and Social Isolation in Ischemic Retinal Lesion in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Peter; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Horvath, Gabor; Tamas, Andrea; Farkas, Jozsef; Gabriel, Robert; Reglodi, Dora

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to have many positive effects on brain structure and function. Numerous studies have proven that enriched environment can reduce the lesion induced by toxic and traumatic injuries. Impoverished environment, on the other hand, can have deleterious effects on the outcome of neuronal injuries. We have previously shown that enriched conditions have protective effects in retinal injury in newborn rats. It is well-known that the efficacy of neuroprotective strategies can depend on age and gender. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and social isolation in retinal ischemia. We used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce retinal hypoperfusion in adult Wistar rats of both genders. Groups were housed in standard, enriched or impoverished conditions. Impoverished environment was induced by social isolation. Retinas were processed for histological analysis after two weeks of survival. In the present study, we show that (1) enriched environment has protective effects in adult ischemic retinal lesion, while (2) impoverished environment further increases the degree of ischemic injury, and (3) that these environmental effects are gender-dependent: females are less responsive to the positive effects of environmental enrichment and more vulnerable to retinal ischemia in social isolation. In summary, our present study shows that the effects of both positive and negative environmental stimuli are gender-dependent in ischemic retinal lesions. PMID:23921682

  6. Chronic cerebrolysin administration attenuates neuronal abnormalities in the basolateral amygdala induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ubhi, Kiren; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) has emerged as a model of schizophrenia-related behavior in the rat. Our previous report demonstrated that cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neuropeptide preparation which mimics the action of endogenous neurotrophic factors on brain protection and repair, promoted recovery of dendritic and neuronal damage of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens and behavioral improvements in postpubertal nVHL rats. We recently demonstrated that nVHL animals exhibit dendritic atrophy and spine loss in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). This study aimed to determine whether Cbl treatment was capable of reducing BLA neuronal alterations observed in nVHL rats. The morphological evaluation included examination of dendrites using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in BLA. Golgi-Cox staining revealed that nVHL induced dendritic retraction and spine loss in BLA pyramidal neurons. Stereological analysis demonstrated nVHL also produced a reduction in cells in BLA. Interestingly, repeated Cbl treatment ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the BLA of the nVHL rats. Our data show that Cbl may foster recovery of BLA damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that the use of neurotrophic agents for the management of some schizophrenia-related symptoms may present an alternative therapeutic pathway in these disorders.

  7. The role of VlsE antigenic variation in the Lyme disease spirochete: persistence through a mechanism that differs from other pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead, Troy; Chaconas, George

    2007-09-01

    The linear plasmid, lp28-1, is required for persistent infection by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. This plasmid contains the vls antigenic variation locus, which has long been thought to be important for immune evasion. However, the role of the vls locus as a virulence factor during mammalian infection has not been clearly defined. We report the successful removal of the vls locus through telomere resolvase-mediated targeted deletion, and demonstrate the absolute requirement of this lp28-1 component for persistence in the mouse host. Moreover, successful infection of C3H/HeN mice with an lp28-1 plasmid in which the left portion was deleted excludes participation of other lp28-1 non-vls genes in spirochete virulence, persistence and the process of recombinational switching at vlsE. Data are also presented that cast doubt on an immune evasion mechanism whereby VlsE directly masks other surface antigens similar to what has been observed for several other pathogens that undergo recombinational antigenic variation.

  8. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses hepatic preneoplastic lesions developed in a novel rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Takafumi; Shirakami, Yohei; Shimizu, Masahito; Kochi, Takahiro; Ohno, Tomohiko; Kubota, Masaya; Shiraki, Makoto; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Tanaka, Takuji; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2013-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH, which is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the liver, is associated with hepatic carcinogenesis. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cancer-preventive properties. In this study, we investigated whether (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major component of GTCs, inhibits NAFLD/NASH-related liver tumorigenesis. Male 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administered a single intraperitoneal injection of a hepatic carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 30 mg/kg body weight) and then fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The rats were also provided tap water containing 0.01% or 0.1% EGCG during the experiment. At sacrifice, the livers of SD rats treated with DEN and HFD exhibited marked development of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci, a hepatic preneoplastic lesion, and this was associated with hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, and hepatocyte proliferation. EGCG administration, however, inhibited the development of GST-P-positive foci by decreasing hepatic triglyceride content, reducing hepatic fibrosis, lowering oxidative stress, attenuating inflammation, and inhibiting excessive hepatocyte proliferation in DEN- and HFD-treated SD rats. These findings suggest that the experimental model of SD rats treated with HFD and DEN, in which histopathological and pathophysiological characteristics of NASH and the development of hepatic premalignant lesions were observed, might facilitate the evaluation of liver tumorigenesis associated with NAFLD/NASH. Administering EGCG, a GTC, might serve as an effective chemoprevention modality for NAFLD/NASH-related liver tumorigenesis.

  9. Reevaluation and Classification of Duodenal Lesions in B6C3F1 Mice and F344 Rats from 4 Studies of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John M; Ward, Jerrold M; Thompson, Chad M

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen-week and 2-year drinking water studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) reported that hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) induced diffuse epithelial hyperplasia in the duodenum of B6C3F1 mice but not F344 rats. In the 2-year study, Cr(VI) exposure was additionally associated with duodenal adenomas and carcinomas in mice only. Subsequent 13-week Cr(VI) studies conducted by another group demonstrated non-neoplastic duodenal lesions in B6C3F1 mice similar to those of the NTP study as well as mild duodenal hyperplasia in F344 rats. Because intestinal lesions in mice are the basis for proposed safety standards for Cr(VI), and the histopathology data are relevant to the mode of action, consistency (an important Hill criterion for causality) was assessed across the aforementioned studies. Two veterinary pathologists applied uniform diagnostic criteria to the duodenal lesions in rats and mice from the 4 repeated-dose studies. Comparable non-neoplastic intestinal lesions were evident in mice and rats from all 4 studies; however, the incidence and severity of intestinal lesions were greater in mice than rats. These findings demonstrate consistency across studies and species and highlight the importance of standardized nomenclature for intestinal pathology. The differences in the severity of non-neoplastic lesions also likely contribute to the differential tumor response.

  10. Early L-dopa, but not pramipexole, restores basal ganglia activity in partially 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, C; Bonastre, M; Mengod, G; Cortés, R; Giralt, A; Obeso, J A; Schapira, A H

    2014-04-01

    The most appropriate time for the initiation of dopaminergic symptomatic therapy in Parkinson's disease remains debatable. It has been suggested that early correction of basal ganglia pathophysiological abnormalities may have long-term beneficial effects. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the early and delayed actions of L-dopa and pramipexole, using a delayed-start protocol of treatment. The effects of early and delayed administration of these drugs on motor response, development of dyskinesias, neurogenesis and molecular markers in basal ganglia were studied in rats with a unilateral and partial 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostriatal lesion. Ten days after lesioning, rats received treatment with: a) L-dopa methyl ester (25mg/kg with 6.25mg/kg of benserazide, i.p., twice a day); b) pramipexole (0.5mg/kg, sc, twice a day) or c) saline for 4weeks. Four weeks after treatment initiation, rats from the saline group were distributed in three groups that then received the following treatments: d) L-dopa, e) pramipexole or f) saline, for 4weeks more. Three animals in each treatment arm received 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine injections (200mg/kg) 3days before starting treatment. When compared with delayed-start L-dopa, early-start L-dopa treatment induced a lower rotational response (ppramipexole, early-start pramipexole induced a higher rotational response (ppramipexole treatments. Our data support a possible restoration of basal ganglia physiological mechanisms by early-start L-dopa therapy.

  11. Assessment of dopamine (DA) synthesis rate in selected parts of the rat brain with central noradrenergic lesion after administration of 5-HT3 receptor ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Roczniak

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The study objective was to determine the effect of central noradrenergic system lesions performed in the early extrafetal life period on dopamine synthesis in the rat brain. The content of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) was assessed in the frontal lobe, thalamus, hypothalamus and brain stem of rats by high-pressure chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC/ED) after administration of 5-HT3 receptor ligands.Material and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats which underwent...

  12. Motivational responses to natural and drug rewards in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions: an animal model of dual diagnosis schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, R Andrew; Self, David W

    2002-12-01

    The high prevalence of substance use disorders in schizophrenia relative to the general population and other psychiatric diagnoses could result from developmental neuropathology in hippocampal and cortical structures that underlie schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the effects of neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions on instrumental behavior reinforced by sucrose pellets and intravenous cocaine injections. Lesioned rats acquired sucrose self-administration faster than sham-lesioned rats, but rates of extinction were not altered. Lesioned rats also responded at higher rates during acquisition of cocaine self-administration, and tended to acquire self-administration faster. Higher response rates reflected perseveration of responding during the post-injection "time-out" periods, and a greater incidence of binge-like cocaine intake, which persisted even after cocaine self-administration stabilized. In contrast to sucrose, extinction from cocaine self-administration was prolonged in lesioned rats, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by cocaine priming increased compared with shams. These results suggest that neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions facilitate instrumental learning for both natural and drug rewards, and reduce inhibitory control over cocaine taking while promoting cocaine seeking and relapse after withdrawal. The findings are discussed in terms of possible developmental or direct effects of the lesions, and both positive reinforcement (substance use vulnerability as a primary disease symptom) and negative reinforcement (self-medication) theories of substance use comorbidity in schizophrenia.

  13. Excitotoxic lesions of the tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus impair copulation in naive male rats and block the rewarding effects of copulation in experienced male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippin, Tod E; van der Kooy, Derek

    2003-11-01

    The tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP) of the brainstem mediates food reward in food-sated animals and opiate reward in drug-naive animals. In the present study, we examine the effect of excitotoxic lesions of the TPP on sexual behaviour in naive and experienced male rats. Male, Long-Evans rats received either 0.25 micro L injections of NMDA (4.2 micro g/side) or vehicle (shams) into the TPP. In sexually naive males, complete bilateral TPP lesions decreased all measure of copulation (i.e. mounts, intromissions and ejaculations), prevented acquisition of conditioned sexual excitement, decreased approach preference for a receptive female over a non-receptive one, and decreased non-contact erections; unilateral or bilateral posterior-sparing TPP lesions did not affect any of these measures. Conversely, in sexually experienced males, lesions not only failed to disrupt copulation, but also increased conditioned sexual excitement, decreased post-ejaculatory interval and blocked the effect of prolonged copulation on conditioned sexual excitement. Following differential pairing of distinctive environments with and without copulation, sham males with sexual experience displayed a significant preference for the environment paired with copulation, whereas the lesion males with sexual experience displayed a significant aversion for the environment paired with copulation. These findings indicate that the TPP is critical for the acquisition of copulation in naive males and mediates the rewarding consequences of copulation in experienced males. Together these findings demonstrate that the TPP mediates sexual reward, but that sexual experience is not sufficient to produce a deprivation state.

  14. Medial Amygdala Lesions in Male Rats Reduce Aggressive Behavior : Interference With Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vochteloo, J.D.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The medial nucleus of the amygdala (am) has been implicated in a variety of social behaviors. The present experiment will test the hypothesis that the effect of am lesions on intermale aggressive behavior is due to interference with social learning processes. Small electrolytic lesions of the am had

  15. Exacerbation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced small intestinal lesions by antisecretory drugs in rats: the role of intestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Amagase, Kikuko; Takeuchi, Koji

    2012-11-01

    Antisecretory drugs such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2-RAs) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used for the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, the effects of these drugs on NSAID-induced small intestinal ulcers are not fully understood. The effects of H2-RAs and PPIs on NSAID-induced gastrointestinal lesions and small intestinal motility were examined in rats. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were used. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was administered orally in fasted or fed rats, and gastrointestinal lesions were examined 24 h after indomethacin administration. Intestinal motility was measured by using a balloon method under urethane anesthesia. Indomethacin produced multiple lesions in the gastric corpus in fasted rats and in the small intestine in fed rats: 1) H2-RAs (cimetidine, ranitidine, and famotidine) and PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole, and rabeprazole) markedly inhibited the formation of gastric lesions. 2) The drugs, except for lansoprazole, increased intestinal lesions. 3) H2-RAs augmented the increase in intestinal motility caused by indomethacin, and the effects of H2-RAs on motility and intestinal lesions were markedly inhibited by atropine. 4) Lansoprazole inhibited the formation of intestinal lesions, and the effect was prevented by both pharmacological ablation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons and pretreatment with N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, a selective inhibitor of nitric-oxide synthesis. The results suggest that: 1) inhibition of acid secretion by antisecretory drugs may exacerbate NSAID-induced intestinal lesions, 2) H2-RAs further aggravate lesions by increasing intestinal motility via the activation of cholinergic pathways, and 3) lansoprazole protects the intestinal mucosa against NSAID-related ulcerative stimuli.

  16. Elevated striatal Fos immunoreactivity following 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the rat is mediated by excitatory amino acid transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Wooller, S; Mitchell, I J

    1995-07-14

    Pharmacological depletion of dopaminergic neurotransmission can result in an elevation in striatal Fos levels. This elevation may occur as a direct result of decreased dopaminergic neurotransmission or indirectly via elevated corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission which occurs secondary to dopamine depletion. To test the hypothesis that elevated N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-mediated corticostriatal transmission may underlie the increase in striatal Fos levels upon dopamine depletion, rats were unilaterally 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned under anaesthesia induced by either barbiturate or the NMDA antagonist, ketamine. Following surgery the animals remained under light anaesthesia for 6 h prior to sacrifice and quantification of striatal Fos immunoreactivity. The results demonstrate that dopamine depletion following 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning can result in elevated striatal Fos levels which can be attenuated by contiguous treatment with an NMDA antagonist. This suggests that the increase in striatal Fos levels observed following dopamine depletion may occur as a result of elevated cytoplasmic calcium levels in the striatal cells.

  17. RECONSTRUCTION OF 3D VECTOR MODELS OF BUILDINGS BY COMBINATION OF ALS, TLS AND VLS DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Boulaassal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS and Vehicle based Laser Scanning (VLS are widely used as data acquisition methods for 3D building modelling. ALS data is often used to generate, among others, roof models. TLS data has proven its effectiveness in the geometric reconstruction of building façades. Although the operating algorithms used in the processing chain of these two kinds of data are quite similar, their combination should be more investigated. This study explores the possibility of combining ALS and TLS data for simultaneously producing 3D building models from bird point of view and pedestrian point of view. The geometric accuracy of roofs and façades models is different due to the acquisition techniques. In order to take these differences into account, the surfaces composing roofs and façades are extracted with the same algorithm of segmentation. Nevertheless the segmentation algorithm must be adapted to the properties of the different point clouds. It is based on the RANSAC algorithm, but has been applied in a sequential way in order to extract all potential planar clusters from airborne and terrestrial datasets. Surfaces are fitted to planar clusters, allowing edge detection and reconstruction of vector polygons. Models resulting from TLS data are obviously more accurate than those generated from ALS data. Therefore, the geometry of the roofs is corrected and adapted according to the geometry of the corresponding façades. Finally, the effects of the differences between raw ALS and TLS data on the results of the modeling process are analyzed. It is shown that such combination could be used to produce reliable 3D building models.

  18. Elaboration and characterization of boron doping during SiC growth by VLS mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueidan, Maher; Ferro, Gabriel; Nsouli, Bilal; Roumié, Mohamad; Habka, Nada; Souliere, Véronique; Bluet, Jean-Marie; Kazan, Michel

    2011-07-01

    VLS mechanism was used for growing boron doped homoepitaxial SiC layers on 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1) 8° off substrate. Si-based melts were fed by propane in the temperature range 1450-1500 °C. Two main approaches were studied to incorporate boron during growth: (1) adding elemental B in the initial melt, with two different compositions: Si 90B 10 and Si 27Ge 68B 5; the growth was performed at 1500 °C; (2) adding B 2H 6 to the gas phase during growth with a melt composition of Si 25Ge 75; the growth was performed at 1450 °C. In most cases, the growth time was limited by liquid loss. The longest growth duration (1 h) was obtained when adding B 2H 6 to the gas phase. In the case of Si 90B 10 melt, the surface morphology exhibits large and parallel terraces whereas the step front is more undulated when adding Ge. Raman and photoluminescence characterizations performed on these layers confirmed the 4H polytype of the layers in addition to the presence of B, which results in a strong B-N donor-acceptor band. The thickness and the growth rate were determined by micro-Infrared spectroscopy. Particle Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE) was tentatively used to detect B incorporation inside the grown layers. These results were compared to SIMS measurements from which B concentration was found to vary from 10 18 to 10 19 at cm -3.

  19. Anti-proliferative effect of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field on preneoplastic lesions formation in the rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    Villa-Treviño Saúl; Rodríguez-Segura Miguel; Aparicio-Bautista Diana; Arellanes-Robledo Jaime; Jiménez-García Mónica; Godina-Nava Juan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Recently, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have been studied with great interest due to their possible effects on human health. In this study, we evaluated the effect of 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF on the development of preneoplastic lesions in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. Methods Male Fischer-344 rats were subjected to the modified resistant hepatocyte model and were exposed to 4.5 mT - 120 Hz ELF-EMF. The effects of the ELF-EMF on hepatocarcinog...

  20. Fate of (D-Ala2-deltorphin-I-like immunoreactive neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Casini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of a polyclonal antiserum specific to C-terminal tetrapeptide amide of (D-Ala2deltorphin-I, a naturally occurring amphibian skin opioid peptide, has already demonstrated the presence of immunoreactive neurons in rat midbrain. Double immunostaining identified these neurons as a subpopulation of the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons that were also tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive and calbindin- D28kD- negative, namely, the neurons predominantly affected in Parkinson disease. We followed the fate of these neurons after a monolateral injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine into rat brain. Almost all the immunopositive neurons and their nigrostriatal, mesolimbic and mesocortical projections on the side ipsilateral to the lesion disappeared. Only a few scattered immunopositive neurons within the substantia nigra, pars compacta, and those of supramammillary nucleus remained unaffected. The consistent overlap of dopamine and this new molecule provides a further key to identifying the mammalian counterpart of these amphibian skin opioid peptides.

  1. Effects of septal nucleus lesion on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem in a rat model of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Shuande Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that the septal nucleus is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Based on autopsies of schizophrenia patients, studies have shown a reduced number of septal nucleus neurons and gila. In addition, experimental rat models of schizophrenia have shown increased dopamine receptor D2 binding sites in the basal ganglia, septal nuclei, and substantia nigra. Previous studies have demonstrated that the septal nucleus modulates dopamine metabolic disorder and dopamine D2 receptor balance.OBJECTIVE: Dopamine D2 receptor expression in a rat model of schizophrenia, combined with antipsychotic drugs, was analyzed in the prefrontal lobe, striatum, and brainstem. In situ hybridization was used to observe the effects of stereotactic septal nucleus lesions on dopamine D2 receptor expression in the brains of methylamphetamine-treated rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled, animal experiment was performed in the Laboratory of General Institute of Psychosurgery, Third Hospital of Chinese PLA from November 2005 to June 2006. MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, adult Sprague Dawley rats, weighing approximately 200 g, were included. Methylamphetamine (Sigma, USA) and an in situ hybridization detection kit for dopamine D2 receptor (Boster, China) were also used for this study. METHODS: All rats were randomly allocated to the following 4 groups, with 30 rats in each group: normal control, simple administration, septal nucleus lesion, and sham-operated groups. In the normal control group, rats were not administered or lesioned. In the remaining 3 groups, rats were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg methylamphetamine, once per day, for 15 successive days to establish a schizophrenia model. Following successful model establishment, rats from the septal nucleus lesion group were subjected to stereotactic septal nucleus lesions. The cranial bone was exposed in rats from the sham-operated group, and the septal nucleus was not

  2. Effect of PD I Administration on Dopamine Receptors mRNAs Expression in the Lesioned Striatum of PD Rat Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Mei; SUN Shenggang; CAO Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    To study the effect of PD I administration on dopamine receptors (DR1, DR2 ) mRNAs expression in the lesioned striatum of the PD rat model and confirm if PD I has the effect of dopamine receptor agonist. The PD rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned were administrated with PD I , L-dopa methyl/benserazide, L-dopa methyl/benserazide/ PD I , normal saline respectively for 4 weeks and their behavioral changes were observed. Then the rats were sacrificed and RT-PCR technique was used to detect changes of dopamine receptors (DR1, DR2 ) mRNAs expression in the ipsilateral striatum 1 day after the last treatment. The results showed that treatment with PD I plus L-dopa resulted in a stable contralateral rotation behavior; treatment with L-dopa resulted in a progressively increased contralateral rotation behavior. Rotation behavior induced by anhydromorphine decreased with PD I or PD I plus L-dopa treatment. Treatment With L-dopa or PD I plus L-dopa, up-regulation of DR1 mRNA and down regulation of DR2 mRNA were observed in the ipsilateral striatum which were more obvious than that treated with PD I or vehicle (P<0.05). It was concluded that long-term treatment with PD I could alleviate the behavior of PD rats.PD I had no apparent effect on the dopamine receptors (DR1 , DR2) mRNAs expression in the ipsilateral striatum and the PD I has no agonist effect on dopamine receptors.

  3. Enhanced defensiveness and increased food motivation each contribute to aggression and success in food competition by rats with medial hypothalamic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, D J; Petrovic, D M; Jonik, R H; Walsh, M L

    1991-01-01

    Castrated male rats (N = 27) with medial hypothalamic lesions or sham lesions were placed on a 23-h food-deprivation schedule and adapted to a highly palatable liquid food. They were also given two tests of defensiveness toward an experimenter. All animals were then housed in medial hypothalamic lesion/sham lesion pairs and subjected to a series of 6 competition tests (1 per day). Following the competition tests, all animals were given individual food consumption tests and a third test of defensiveness toward an experimenter. Correlational analysis showed that postcompetition defensiveness scores but not precompetition defensiveness scores or individual food consumption were related to aggression during the food competition. Analysis by criterion groups indicated that animals high in precompetition defensiveness and with food consumption in the normal range were not more successful in the competition but were slightly more aggressive than their sham-lesioned competitors. Animals with high postcompetition defensiveness scores and with individual food consumption in the normal range were more successful than their sham-lesioned competitors and the most aggressive of the lesioned animals during the food competition. Animals that were high in food consumption and only moderately defensive were also more successful but only slightly more aggressive in the food competition than their sham-lesioned competitors. These results suggest that a high and stable level of defensiveness, and excessive food intake, each contribute to the success and aggressiveness of rats with medial hypothalamic lesions in a food competition situation.

  4. Comparative effects of wavelengths of low-power laser in regeneration of sciatic nerve in rats following crushing lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rafael Inácio; Marcolino, Alexandre Marcio; de Jesus Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto; Mazzer, Nilton; Barbieri, Cláudio Henrique; de Cássia Registro Fonseca, Marisa

    2010-05-01

    Peripheral nerves are structures that, when damaged, can result in significant motor and sensory disabilities. Several studies have used therapeutic resources with the aim of promoting early nerve regeneration, such as the use of low-power laser. However, this laser therapy does not represent a consensus regarding the methodology, thus yielding controversial conclusions. The objective of our study was to investigate, by functional evaluation, the comparative effects of low-power laser (660 nm and 830 nm) on sciatic nerve regeneration following crushing injuries. Twenty-seven Wistar rats subjected to sciatic nerve injury were divided into three groups: group sham, consisting of rats undergoing simulated irradiation; a group consisting of rats subjected to gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser at 660 nm (10 J/cm(2), 30 mW and 0.06 cm(2) beam), and another one consisting of rats subjected to GaAlAs laser at 830 nm (10 J/cm(2), 30 mW and 0.116 cm(2)). Laser was applied to the lesion for 21 days. A sciatic functional index (SFI) was used for functional evaluation prior to surgery and on days 7, 14, and 21 after surgery. Differences in SFI were found between group 660 nm and the other ones at the 14th day. One can observe that laser application at 660 nm with the parameters and methods utilised was effective in promoting early functional recovery, as indicated by the SFI, over the period evaluated.

  5. Prenatal ethanol enhances rotational behavior to apomorphine in the 24-month-old rat offspring with small striatal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomide, Vânia C; Chadi, Gerson

    2004-01-01

    Pregnant Wistar rats received a hyperproteic liquid diet containing 37.5% ethanol-derived calories during gestation. Isocaloric amount of liquid diet, with maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol, was given to control pair-fed dams. Offsprings were allowed to survive until 24 months of age. A set of aged female offsprings of both control diet and ethanol diet groups was registered for spontaneous motor activity, by means of an infrared motion sensor activity monitor, or for apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, while another lot of male offsprings was submitted to an unilateral striatal small mechanical lesion by a needle, 6 days before rotational recordings. Prenatal ethanol did not alter spontaneous motor parameters like resting time as well as the events of small and large movements in the aged offsprings. Bilateral circling behavior was already increased 5 min after apomorphine in the unlesioned offsprings of both the control and ethanol diet groups. However, it lasted more elevated for 45- to 75-min time intervals in the gestational ethanol-exposed offsprings, while decreasing faster in the control offsprings. Apomorphine triggered a strong and sustained elevation of contraversive turns in the striatal-lesioned 24-month-old offsprings of the ethanol group, but only a small and transient elevation was seen in the offsprings of the control diet group. Astroglial and microglial reactions were seen surrounding the striatal needle track lesion. Microdensitometric image analysis demonstrated no differences in the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the striatum of 24-month-old unlesioned and lesioned offsprings of control and alcohol diet groups. The results suggest that ethanol exposure during gestation may alter the sensitivity of dopamine receptor in aged offsprings, which is augmented by even a small striatal lesion.

  6. Unilateral lesion of dorsal hippocampus in adult rats impairs contralateral long-term potentiation in vivo and spatial memory in the early postoperative phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Wu, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanrui; Huang, Yan; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang

    2012-05-01

    It is well documented that bilateral hippocampal lesions or unilateral hippocampal lesion at birth causes impairment of contralateral LTP and long-term memory. However, effects of unilateral hippocampal lesion in adults on contralateral in vivo LTP and memory are not clear. We here examined the influence of unilateral electrolytic dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats on contralateral LTP in vivo and spatial memory during different postoperative phases. We found that acute unilateral hippocampal lesion had no effect on contralateral LTP. However, contralateral LTP was impaired at 1 week after lesion, and was restored to the control level at postoperative week 4. Similarly, spatial memory was also impaired at postoperative week 1, and was restored at postoperative week 4. In addition, the rats at postoperative week 1 showed stronger spatial exploratory behavior in a novel open-field environment. The sham operation had no effects on contralateral LTP, spatial memory and exploration at either postoperative week 1 or week 4. These results suggest that unilateral dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats causes transient contralateral LTP impairment and spatial memory deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Comparative Protective Effects of Ganoderma Spores Lipid and Fish Oil on N-Methyl-N-Nitrosourea-Induced Photoreceptor Cell Lesion in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare Ganoderma spores lipid (GSL and fish oil (FO in inhibiting retinal photoreceptor cell lesions induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU in rats. Methods. 120 rats were untreated (normal control, NC group or treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg MNU (MNU group then treated with GSL (GSL group or FO (FO group. Eyes were obtained at 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days. Results. Light microscopy assay demonstrated that GSL and FO alleviated rat retinal photoreceptor cell damage (GSL and FO versus MNU group P.05. Conclusion. GSL, like FO, alleviates rat retinal photoreceptor cell damage induced by MNU.

  8. Effects of Atractylodis Rhizoma Pharmacopuncture on an Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesion Induced by Compound 48/80 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun-Kyu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Atractylodis Rhizoma pharmacopuncture (ARP against acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 in rats. Methods: The ARP was injected in Joksamni (ST36 and Jungwan (CV12 1 hr before treatment with compound 48/80. The animals were sacrificed under anesthesia 3 hrs after treatment with compound 48/80. The stomachs were removed, and the amounts of gastric adherent mucus, gastric mucosal hexosamine, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, xanthine oxidase (XO, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured. Also, histological examination were performed. Results: Gastric adherent mucus, gastric mucosal hexosamine and histological defects of gastric mucosa declined significantly after ARP treatment. Changes in gastric mucosal TBARS were also reduced by ARP treatment, but this result was not statistically significant. ARP treatment did not change the XO and the SOD activities. Conclusions: ARP showed protective effects for acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 in rats. These results suggest that ARP may have protective effects for gastritis.

  9. Dental and oropharyngeal lesions in rats with chronic acid reflux esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Rintaro; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Minesaki, Akimichi; Kuratomi, Yuichiro

    2017-09-04

    In this study, we evaluated pathological changes in the tooth and pharynx of GERD rats to elucidate the association between gastric acid reflux and oral and pharyngeal diseases. An experimental rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis was surgically created. The oral cavities were observed histologically every 2 weeks until 20 weeks after surgery. At 10 weeks after surgery, molar crown heights in GERD rats were shorter than that in control rats, and inflammatory cell infiltration by gastric acid reflux was found in the periodontal mucosa of GERD rats. Furthermore, dental erosion progressed in GERD rats at 20 weeks after surgery, and enamel erosion and dentin exposure were observed. During the same period, inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in the mucosa of the posterior part of the tongue. These findings suggest that gastric acid reflux may be one of the exacerbating factors of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. We investigated oral changes in an experimental rat model of GERD and observed development of dental erosion, periodontitis and glossitis. Our findings suggested chronic gastric acid reflux may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Gastroprotection studies of Schiff base zinc (II derivative complex against acute superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Golbabapour

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study was carried out to assess the gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II complex against ethanol-induced acute hemorrhagic lesions in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The animals received their respective pre-treatments dissolved in tween 20 (5% v/v, orally. Ethanol (95% v/v was orally administrated to induce superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Omeprazole (5.790×10(-5 M/kg was used as a reference medicine. The pre-treatment with the zinc (II complex (2.181×10(-5 and 4.362×10(-5 M/kg protected the gastric mucosa similar to the reference control. They significantly increased the activity levels of nitric oxide, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and prostaglandin E2, and decreased the level of malondialdehyde. The histology assessments confirmed the protection through remarkable reduction of mucosal lesions and increased the production of gastric mucosa. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis indicated that the complex might induced Hsp70 up-regulation and Bax down-regulation. The complex moderately increased the gastroprotectiveness in fine fettle. The acute toxicity approved the non-toxic characteristic of the complex (<87.241×10(-5 M/kg. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The gastroprotective effect of the zinc (II complex was mainly through its antioxidant activity, enzymatic stimulation of prostaglandins E2, and up-regulation of Hsp70. The gastric wall mucus was also a remarkable protective mechanism.

  11. New porcine test-model reveals remarkable differences between algorithms for spectrophotometrical haemoglobin saturation measurements with VLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, John; Greisen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    The study created an 'ex vivo' model to test different algorithms for measurements of mucosal haemoglobin saturation with visible light spectrophotometry (VLS). The model allowed comparison between algorithms, but it also allowed comparison with co-oximetry using a 'gold standard' method. This has......  -32.8 to  +29.9 percentage points and from  -5.0 to  +9.2 percentage points, respectively. CONCLUSION: the algorithms showed remarkable in-between differences when tested on raw-spectra from an 'ex vivo' model. All algorithms had bias, more marked at high oxygenation than low oxygenation. Three...

  12. Engineering scale development of the Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollar, W.E. Jr. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States). Technology Div.; Mills, W.H. [BP America, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS)SiC fibrils are used as reinforcement in ceramic matrix composites (CMC). A program has been completed for determining process scaleup parameters and to produce material for evaluation in a CMC. The scaleup is necessary to lower production cost and increase material availability. Scaleup parameters were evaluated in a reactor with a vertical dimension twice that of the LANL reactor. Results indicate that the scaleup will be possible. Feasibility of recycling process gas was demonstrated and the impact of postprocessing on yields determined.

  13. Excitotoxic median raphe lesions aggravate working memory storage performance deficits caused by scopolamine infusion into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the inhibitory avoidance task in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between the median raphe nucleus (MRN serotonergic system and the septohippocampal muscarinic cholinergic system in the modulation of immediate working memory storage performance were investigated. Rats with sham or ibotenic acid lesions of the MRN were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and tested in a light/dark step-through inhibitory avoidance task in which response latency to enter the dark compartment immediately after the shock served as a measure of immediate working memory storage. MRN lesion per se did not alter response latency. Post-training intrahippocampal scopolamine infusion (2 and 4 µg/side produced a more marked reduction in response latencies in the lesioned animals compared to the sham-lesioned rats. Results suggest that the immediate working memory storage performance is modulated by synergistic interactions between serotonergic projections of the MRN and the muscarinic cholinergic system of the hippocampus.

  14. DNA lesion and Hprt mutant frequency in rat lymphocytes and V79 Chinese hamster lung cells exposed to cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianhua, Zhou; Lian, Xue; Shuanlai, Zheng; Juan, Du; Shuanxi, Yang

    2006-03-01

    Cadmium is a potential carcinogenic environmental and occupational pollutant. A wide variety of mutagens have been shown to cause DNA damage, but it is not yet clear whether the DNA damage is relative to inducement of mutations. DNA damage and the formation of mutations at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl trans ferase (HPRT) induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)) were investigated with rat lymphocytes and V79 Chinese hamster lung cells. The hprt mutant frequency (MF) assay was used as the method to measure gene mutation in the rat lymphocytes and V79 cells exposed to CdCl(2), and comet assay analysis was performed to detect DNA lesion and repair in CdCl(2)-induced V79 cells. The results showed that CdCl(2) treatment caused a strong genotoxic effect and a marginal effect on the frequency of gene mutations. The hprt mutant frequencies in the rat lymphocytes and V79 cells exposed to CdCl(2) were statistically higher than those of the negative control. There was statistical significance in TL, TD and percentage of comet cell with tails. CdCl(2) treatment can induce DNA single-strand breaks. There was a dose-dependent increase between CdCl(2) and DNA lesion. After cells were treated with CdCl(2) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), the TL and TD declined with repair time increasing, which indicated that DNA damages were repaired gradually. However, DNA repair with treatment of CdCl(2) was slower than that of H(2)O(2) in V79 cells, which suggests that CdCl(2) affected DNA repair of damaged cells. The study also showed that the hprt MF and comet assay can be used for genotoxicity testing of heavy metals. DNA damage detected with the comet assay may be relative to mutagenesis.

  15. The role of the subthalamic nucleus in L-DOPA induced dyskinesia in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asier Aristieta

    Full Text Available L-DOPA is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD, but prolonged use leads to disabling motor complications including dyskinesia. Strong evidence supports a role of the subthalamic nucleus (STN in the pathophysiology of PD whereas its role in dyskinesia is a matter of controversy. Here, we investigated the involvement of STN in dyskinesia, using single-unit extracellular recording, behavioural and molecular approaches in hemi-parkinsonian rats rendered dyskinetic by chronic L-DOPA administration. Our results show that chronic L-DOPA treatment does not modify the abnormal STN activity induced by the 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway in this model. Likewise, we observed a loss of STN responsiveness to a single L-DOPA dose both in lesioned and sham animals that received daily L-DOPA treatment. We did not find any correlation between the abnormal involuntary movement (AIM scores and the electrophysiological parameters of STN neurons recorded 24 h or 20-120 min after the last L-DOPA injection, except for the axial subscores. Nonetheless, unilateral chemical ablation of the STN with ibotenic acid resulted in a reduction in global AIM scores and peak-severity of dyskinesia. In addition, STN lesion decreased the anti-dyskinetogenic effect of buspirone in a reciprocal manner. Striatal protein expression was altered in dyskinetic animals with increases in ΔFosB, phosphoDARPP-32, dopamine receptor (DR D3 and DRD2/DRD1 ratio. The STN lesion attenuated the striatal molecular changes and normalized the DRD2/DRD1 ratio. Taken together, our results show that the STN plays a role, if modest, in the physiopathology of dyskinesias.

  16. Bilateral lesions of the central but not anterior or posterior parts of the piriform cortex retard amygdala kindling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, K; Ebert, U; Löscher, W

    2000-01-01

    The piriform cortex is thought to be involved in temporal lobe seizure propagation, such as that occurring during kindling of the amygdala or hippocampus. A number of observations suggested that the circuits of the piriform cortex might act as a critical pathway for limbic seizure discharges to assess motor systems, but direct evidence for this suggestion is scarce. Furthermore, the piriform cortex is not a homogeneous structure, which complicates studies on its role in limbic epileptogenesis. We have previously reported data indicating that the central part of the piriform cortex might be particularly involved during amygdala kindling. In order to further evaluate the role of different parts of the piriform cortex during kindling development, we bilaterally destroyed either the central, anterior or posterior piriform cortex by microinjections of ibotenate two weeks before onset of amygdala kindling. Lesions of the anterior piriform cortex hardly affected kindling acquisition, except that fewer animals exhibited stage 3 (unilateral forelimb) seizures compared to sham controls. Lesions of the central piriform cortex significantly retarded kindling, which was due to a decreased progression from stage 3 to stage 4/5 seizures, i.e. the lesioned rats needed significantly longer for the acquisition of generalized clonic seizures in the late stages of kindling development. Lesions of the posterior piriform cortex did not significantly affect kindling development. The data demonstrate that different parts of the piriform cortex mediate qualitatively different effects on amygdala kindling. The central piriform cortex seems to be a neural substrate involved in the continuous development of kindling from stage 3 to stages 4/5, indicating that this part of the piriform cortex may have preferred access, either directly or indirectly, to structures capable of supporting generalized kindled seizure expression.

  17. The role of the striatum in compulsive behavior in intact and orbitofrontal-cortex-lesioned rats: possible involvement of the serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilman, Eduardo A; Klavir, Oded; Winter, Christine; Sohr, Reinhard; Joel, Daphna

    2010-03-01

    In the signal attenuation rat model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 'compulsive' behavior is induced by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food. We have recently found that lesions to the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) led to an increase in compulsive lever-pressing that was prevented by systemic administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, and paralleled by an increase in the density of the striatal serotonin transporter. This study further explored the interaction between the OFC, the striatum, and the serotonergic system in the production of compulsive lever-pressing. Experiment 1 revealed that OFC lesions decrease the content of serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, and GABA in the striatum. Experiment 2 showed that intrastriatal administration of paroxetine blocked OFC lesion-induced increased compulsivity, but did not affect compulsive responding in intact rats. Experiments 3 and 4 found that pre-training striatal lesions had no effect on compulsive lever-pressing, whereas post-training striatal inactivation exerted an anticompulsive effect. These results strongly implicate the striatum in the expression of compulsive lever-pressing in both intact and OFC-lesioned rats. Furthermore, the results support the possibility that in a subpopulation of OCD patients a primary pathology of the OFC leads to a dysregulation of the striatal serotonergic system, which is manifested in compulsive behavior, and that antiobsessional/anticompulsive drugs exerts their effects, in these patients, by normalizing the dysfunctional striatal serotonergic system.

  18. Changes in firing rate and firing pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons after lesioning of the dorsal raphe nucleus by 5,7-drhydroxytryptamine in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of serotonergic efferent projection of the dorsal raphe nucleus(DRN)on the activity of substantia nigra pars compacta(SNc)and ventral tegmenta area(VTA)dopaminergic neurons after lesioning of the DRN by the neurotoxin 5,7-drhydroxytryptamine(5,7-DHT)in rat.Methods The changes in the firing rate and firing pattern of SNc and VTA dopaminergic neurons were observed with extracellular recording in control and the lesioned rats.Results The results showed that the mean firing rates o...

  19. Antinociceptive effects of neurotropin in a rat model of central neuropathic pain: DSP-4 induced noradrenergic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Takashi; Kushikata, Tetsuya; Kudo, Mihoko; Kudo, Tsuyoshi; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2011-09-26

    Neurotropin is a nonprotein extract isolated from inflamed skin of rabbits inoculated with vaccinia virus, and used for treatment of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we have determined whether neurotropin could exert antinociceptive action using the central neuropathic pain model that we recently established. Rats were randomly allocated to 3 groups: Sham group (n=20), DSP-4 [N-(-2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine] group (50mg/kg ip, n=18), and DSP-4+5,7-DHT [5,7-dihydroxytryptamine] group (ip DSP-4 50mg/kg+icv 5,7-DHT 200μg, n=18). In Sham, DSP-4 and DSP-4+5,7-DHT groups, the effects of ip neurotropin (100NU/Kg) on hot-plate latency in rats with no lesion, noradrenergic neuron depletion and both noradrenergic and serotonergic neuronal depletion were studied, respectively. Rats in each group were subdivided equally to 2 subgroups: saline and neurotropin. After completion of the hot-plate tests, each rat was decapitated, the cerebral cortex was dissected from its internal structure for measurement of norepinephrine contents. Hot-plate latency significantly decreased by ∼40% 10 days after ip DSP-4 or after ip DSP-4 and 5,7-DHT. Norepinephrine contents in DSP-4 treated rats (55.6±6.3ng/ng tissue) and DSP-4+5,7-DHT treated rats (35.3±6.3ng/ng tissue) were significantly lower than those in intact rats (131.6±5.7ng/ng tissue, p<0.01). Neurotropin significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) of the hot-plate latency in the DSP-4 and DSP-4+5,7-DHT groups but not in the Sham group. There was a significant correlation between AUC and norepinephrine contents in saline subgroup (p<0.01, r=0.597) but not in neurotropin subgroup in DSP-4 group. Neurotropin exerted an antinociceptive effect in DSP-4 induced central neuropathic pain. The present data suggest neuronal pathways other than descending inhibitory noradrenergic and serotonergic systems may be involved in neurotropin mediated antinociception.

  20. Immunohistochemical cellular distribution of proteins related to M phase regulation in early proliferative lesions induced by tumor promotion in rat two-stage carcinogenesis models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafune, Atsunori; Taniai, Eriko; Morita, Reiko; Akane, Hirotoshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    We have previously reported that 28-day treatment with hepatocarcinogens increases liver cells expressing p21(Cip1), a G1/S checkpoint protein, and M phase proteins, i.e., nuclear Cdc2, Aurora B, phosphorylated-Histone H3 (p-Histone H3) and heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), in rats. To examine the roles of these markers in the early stages of carcinogenesis, we investigated their cellular distribution in several carcinogenic target organs using rat two-stage carcinogenesis models. Promoting agents targeting the liver (piperonyl butoxide and methapyrilene hydrochloride), thyroid (sulfadimethoxine), urinary bladder (phenylethyl isothiocyanate), and forestomach and glandular stomach (catechol) were administered to rats after initiation treatment for the liver with N-diethylnitrosamine, thyroid with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine, urinary bladder with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine, and forestomach and glandular stomach with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Numbers of cells positive for nuclear Cdc2, Aurora B, p-Histone H3 and HP1α increased within preneoplastic lesions as determined by glutathione S-transferase placental form in the liver or phosphorylated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in the thyroid, and hyperplastic lesions having no known preneoplastic markers in the urinary bladder, forestomach and glandular stomach. Immunoreactive cells for p21(Cip1) were decreased within thyroid preneoplastic lesions; however, they were increased within liver preneoplastic lesions and hyperplastic lesions in other organs. These results suggest that M phase disruption commonly occur during the formation of preneoplastic lesions and hyperplastic lesions. Differences in the expression patterns of p21(Cip1) between thyroid preneoplastic and proliferative lesions in other organs may reflect differences in cell cycle regulation involving G1/S checkpoint function between proliferative lesions in each organ.

  1. Temporary Basolateral Amygdala Lesions Disrupt Acquisition of Socially Transmitted Food Preferences in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanini, Alfredo; Katz, Donald B.; Wang, Yunyan

    2006-01-01

    Lesions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have long been associated with abnormalities of taste-related behaviors and with failure in a variety of taste- and odor-related learning paradigms, including taste-potentiated odor aversion, conditioned taste preference, and conditioned taste aversion. Still, the general role of the amygdala in…

  2. Photochemically induced cystic lesion in the rat spinal cord. I. Behavioral and morphological analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, T.; Prado, R.; Watson, B.D.; Gonzalez-Carvajal, M.; Holets, V.R. (Univ. of Miami, FL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The present study describes the production of a spinal cord lesion which is initiated by vascular occlusion resulting from the interaction between the photosensitizing dye erythrosin B and an argon laser beam. The lesion has characteristics similar to those of the central cavity thought to lead to the production of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS) in humans. The present study examines the behavioral and morphological characteristics of this injury over a 28-day period. Histological analysis revealed a cavity extending from the dorsal horns to lamina VIII, with some lateral and ventral pathways being spared. The cavity volume reached a maximum 7 days after lesion induction. Behavioral changes were assessed using six different tests of motor and reflex function (motor function, climbing, waterbath, inclined plane, withdrawal to pain, and withdrawal to extension). Lesioned animals exhibited flaccid paralysis for 3-5 days, which resolved afterward. The photochemically induced cavity should provide a reproducible model for examining the effects of cystic spinal cord injury on locomotor and reflex function.

  3. Selective androgen receptor modulator RAD140 is neuroprotective in cultured neurons and kainate-lesioned male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Anusha; Christensen, Amy; Moser, V Alexandra; Vest, Rebekah S; Miller, Chris P; Hattersley, Gary; Pike, Christian J

    2014-04-01

    The decline in testosterone levels in men during normal aging increases risks of dysfunction and disease in androgen-responsive tissues, including brain. The use of testosterone therapy has the potential to increase the risks for developing prostate cancer and or accelerating its progression. To overcome this limitation, novel compounds termed "selective androgen receptor modulators" (SARMs) have been developed that lack significant androgen action in prostate but exert agonist effects in select androgen-responsive tissues. The efficacy of SARMs in brain is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the SARM RAD140 in cultured rat neurons and male rat brain for its ability to provide neuroprotection, an important neural action of endogenous androgens that is relevant to neural health and resilience to neurodegenerative diseases. In cultured hippocampal neurons, RAD140 was as effective as testosterone in reducing cell death induced by apoptotic insults. Mechanistically, RAD140 neuroprotection was dependent upon MAPK signaling, as evidenced by elevation of ERK phosphorylation and inhibition of protection by the MAPK kinase inhibitor U0126. Importantly, RAD140 was also neuroprotective in vivo using the rat kainate lesion model. In experiments with gonadectomized, adult male rats, RAD140 was shown to exhibit peripheral tissue-specific androgen action that largely spared prostate, neural efficacy as demonstrated by activation of androgenic gene regulation effects, and neuroprotection of hippocampal neurons against cell death caused by systemic administration of the excitotoxin kainate. These novel findings demonstrate initial preclinical efficacy of a SARM in neuroprotective actions relevant to Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Exposure to short photoperiod regime reduces ventral subicular lesion-induced anxiety-like behavior in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadeep, Duttagupta; Srikumar, B N; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S; Kutty, Bindu M

    2017-03-01

    Neurodegeneration of hippocampal structures is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD exhibit 'sundown syndrome' featuring mood swings and anxiety. Although there are studies demonstrating circadian rhythm disruption associated with sundown phenomenon, the mechanisms underlying the emotional disturbances remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the relationship between subiculum (a key hippocampal output structure) and anxiety. Our study demonstrates that bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) leads to anxiogenic behavior. In the elevated plus maze test, VSL rats made less number of entries into the open arms and spent significantly more time in the closed arms. Similarly, in the light-dark exploration test, VSL rats spent significantly more time in the dark chamber and made fewer entries into the light chamber. VSL also produced significant neurodegeneration in the paraventricular, suprachiasmatic and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. Exposing VSL rats to a short photoperiod regime (SPR; 06/18h light-dark cycle) for 21days ameliorated the anxiety-like behavior. VSL rats on SPR also exhibited increased food consumption and higher core body temperature. Our study supports the hypothesis that the ventral subiculum regulates anxiety-like behavior and that SPR helps in the alleviation of such behavior. Even though the mechanisms underlying anxiolytic effects of light-dark cycle manipulation are yet to be elucidated, such non-pharmacological strategies can help to mitigate anxiety-like behavior. A proper understanding of the effectiveness of photoperiod manipulation will help in developing strategies in the management of emotional disturbances associated with affective and neurodegenerative disorders including AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The application of lesion sterilization and tissue repair 3Mix-MP for treating rat's dental pulp tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Nugroho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lesion sterilization and tissue repair (LSTR 3Mix-MP are three broad-spectrum antibiotics, including metronidazole, ciprofloxacin and minocycline are mixed with propylene glycol or macrogol. There is the possibility ofthe healing process that marked proliferation ofnew blood vessels and proliferation offibroblasts in the treatment ofirreversible pulpitis by pulp capping LSTR 3MixMP because of  the principle of the method LSTR 3Mix-MP is to kill bacteria. Purpose: The purpose of this study to prove the effect of LSTR 3Mix-MP on chronic inflammation and the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue in vivo. Methods: Rattus norvegicus anaesthetized by using ketamine and xylazine dissolved in sterile isotonic saline solution (0.2 ml/50gr mm on the upper right thigh. Cavity preparation class I to perforation by using a low speed tapered diamond round bur. In the treatment group, rats were treated 3Mix-MP at a dose of10 mg and then covered with glass ionomer cement for 7 days on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. The control group treated with saline irrigation on the pulp that has been opened for 3 days. Rats were killed after seven days, and then made preparations pulp tissue to count the number oflymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, blood vessels, and fibroblasts Results: There is an increase in the average number ofmacrophage cells, plasma, and fibroblasts; and decreased lymphocytes and blood vessels in the treated group exposure LSTR 3Mix-MP. Conclusion:LSTR 3Mix-MP can reduce chronic inflammation process and enhance the healing process in rat dental pulp tissue.

  6. Rat whisker movement after facial nerve lesion: Evidence for autonomic contraction of skeletal muscle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heaton, J.T.; Sheu, S.H.; Hohman, M.H.; Knox, C.J.; Weinberg, J.S.; Kleiss, I.J.; Hadlock, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrissal whisking is often employed to track facial nerve regeneration in rats; however, we have observed similar degrees of whisking recovery after facial nerve transection with or without repair. We hypothesized that the source of non-facial nerve-mediated whisker movement after chronic denervati

  7. Long-term reinnervation effects after sciatic nerve lesions in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJkema-Paassen, J; Meek, MF; Gramsbergen, A

    2005-01-01

    Transection of the sciatic nerve in adult rats induces drastic changes in hindleg muscles. Earlier, we demonstrated that the reinnervated soleus (SOL) muscle, 21 weeks after a transection mainly contains type II fibers. This is in striking contrast to normal muscle, which consists to 80% of type I m

  8. A comparison of ballon injury models of endovascular lesions in rat arteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E.E. Gabeler; R. van Hillegersberg (Richard); R.G. Statius van Eps (Randolph); W.J. Sluiter (Wim); E.J. Gussenhoven (Elma); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul); H. van Urk (Hero)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Balloon injury (BI) of the rat carotid artery (CCA) is widely used to study intimal hyperplasia (IH) and decrease in lumen diameter (LD), but CCA's small diameter impedes the evaluation of endovascular therapies. Therefore, we validated BI in the aorta (AA) and iliac artery (

  9. Distribution of networks generating and coordinating locomotor activity in the neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro: a lesion study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, O; Kiehn, O

    1996-01-01

    The isolated spinal cord of the newborn rat contains networks that are able to create a patterned motor output resembling normal locomotor movements. In this study, we sought to localize the regions of primary importance for rhythm and pattern generation using specific mechanical lesions. We used...... ventral root recordings to monitor neuronal activity and tested the ability of various isolated parts of the caudal thoraciclumbar cord to generate rhythmic bursting in a combination of 5-HT and NMDA. In addition, pathways mediating left/right and rostrocaudal burst alternation were localized. We found...... decreased in the caudal direction, but the rhythm-generating network was found to be distributed over the entire lumbar region and to extend into the caudal thoracic region. The pathways mediating left/ right alternation exist primarily in the ventral commissure. As with the rhythmogenic ability...

  10. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in Rats Induced Orally with Eleven Strains of Toxoplasma gondii of Seven Genotypes: Tissue Tropism, Tissue Cyst Size, Neural Lesions, Tissue Cyst Rupture without Reactivation, and Ocular Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Jitender P; Ferreira, Leandra R; Alsaad, Mohammad; Verma, Shiv K; Alves, Derron A; Holland, Gary N; McConkey, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widely distributed and successful parasites. Toxoplasma gondii alters rodent behavior such that infected rodents reverse their fear of cat odor, and indeed are attracted rather than repelled by feline urine. The location of the parasite encysted in the brain may influence this behavior. However, most studies are based on the highly susceptible rodent, the mouse. Latent toxoplasmosis was induced in rats (10 rats per T. gondii strains) of the same age, strain, and sex, after oral inoculation with oocysts (natural route and natural stage of infection) of 11 T. gondii strains of seven genotypes. Rats were euthanized at two months post inoculation (p.i.) to investigate whether the parasite genotype affects the distribution, location, tissue cyst size, or lesions. Tissue cysts were enumerated in different regions of the brains, both in histological sections as well in saline homogenates. Tissue cysts were found in all regions of the brain. The tissue cyst density in different brain regions varied extensively between rats with many regions highly infected in some animals. Overall, the colliculus was most highly infected although there was a large amount of variability. The cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum had higher tissue cyst densities and two strains exhibited tropism for the colliculus and olfactory bulb. Histologically, lesions were confined to the brain and eyes. Tissue cyst rupture was frequent with no clear evidence for reactivation of tachyzoites. Ocular lesions were found in 23 (25%) of 92 rat eyes at two months p.i. The predominant lesion was focal inflammation in the retina. Tissue cysts were seen in the sclera of one and in the optic nerve of two rats. The choroid was not affected. Only tissue cysts, not active tachyzoite infections, were detected. Tissue cysts were seen in histological sections of tongue of 20 rats but not in myocardium and leg muscle. This study reevaluated in depth the

  11. Bilateral central pain sensitization in rats following a unilateral thalamic lesion may be treated with high doses of ketamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Central post-stroke pain is a neuropathic pain condition caused by a vascular lesion, of either ischemic or hemorrhagic origin, in the central nervous system and more precisely involving the spinothalamocortical pathway responsible for the transmission of painful sensations. Few animal models have been developed to study this problem. The objectives of this study were to evaluate different modalities of pain in a central neuropathic pain rat model and to assess the effects of ketamine administered at different doses. Animals were evaluated on the rotarod, Hargreaves, Von Frey and acetone tests. A very small hemorrhage was created by injecting a collagenase solution in the right ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus. Following the establishment of the neuropathy, ketamine was evaluated as a therapeutic drug for this condition. Results Histopathological observations showed a well localized lesion with neuronal necrosis and astrocytosis following the collagenase injection that was localized within the VPL. No significant change in motor coordination was observed following surgery in either the saline or collagensae groups. In the collagenase group, a significant decrease in mechanical allodynia threshold was observed. A sporadic and transient cold allodynia was also noted. No thermal hyperalgesia was seen following the collagenase injection. Ketamine was then tested as a potential therapeutic drug. A significant decrease in motor coordination was seen only following the administration of 25 mg/kg of ketamine in both groups. An alleviation of mechanical allodynia was achieved only with the high ketamine dose. The minimal effective ketamine serum concentration (150 ng/mL) was only achieved in animals that received 25 mg/kg. Conclusions An intrathalamic hemorrhage induced a bilateral mechanical allodynia in rats. Cold hyperalgesia was observed in 60% of these animals. Mechanical allodynia was alleviated with high doses of ketamine which corresponded

  12. Graft-induced Recovery of Inhibitory Avoidance Conditioning in Striatal Lesioned Rats is Related to Choline Acetyltransferase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña, Ana Luisa; Ormsby, Christopher Edward; Miranda, María Isabel; Jiménez, Nicolás; Tapia, Ricardo; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    1994-01-01

    Four groups of male Wistar rats showing disrupted inhibitory avoidance conditioning due to striatal lesions received either striatal or ventral mesencephalic brain grafts. Two additional non-lesioned groups were used as controls. Half of the groups was retrained in an inhibitory avoidance task at fifteen days postgraft and the other half at sixty days postgraft. Those animals receiving striatal grafts significantly improved their ability to acquire the inhibitory avoidance task at fifteen and sixty days postgraft, as opposed to those receiving mesencephalic grafts, which did not show behavioral recovery. Choline acetyltransferase and glutamate decarboxylase activities, as well as dopamine content, were measured in the grafted tissue. Striatal grafts showed levels of choline acetyltransferase activity similar to the control group. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the choline acetyltransferase activity and the behavioral recovery. In contrast, both glutamate decarboxylase activity and dopamine levels were significantly lower in striatal and in mesencephalic grafts, as compared to the controls. These results show that striatal but not mesencephalic grafts can promote the restoration of the ability to acquire an inhibitory avoidance task even at early stages (15 days) of the development of the grafts. The results also suggest that acetylcholine plays an important role in behavioral recovery. PMID:7819369

  13. Distinct MRI pattern in lesional and perilesional area after traumatic brain injury in rat--11 months follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Riikka J; Kharatishvili, Irina; Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Gröhn, Heidi; Pitkänen, Asla; Gröhn, Olli H J

    2009-01-01

    To understand the dynamics of progressive brain damage after lateral fluid-percussion induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rat, which is the most widely used animal model of closed head TBI in humans, MRI follow-up of 11 months was performed. The evolution of tissue damage was quantified using MRI contrast parameters T(2), T(1rho), diffusion (D(av)), and tissue atrophy in the focal cortical lesion and adjacent areas: the perifocal and contralateral cortex, and the ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus. In the primary cortical lesion area, which undergoes remarkable irreversible pathologic changes, MRI alterations start at 3 h post-injury and continue to progress for up to 6 months. In more mildly affected perifocal and hippocampal regions, the robust alterations in T(2), T(1rho), and D(av) at 3 h to 3 d post-injury normalize within the next 9-23 d, and thereafter, progressively increase for several weeks. The severity of damage in the perifocal and hippocampal areas 23 d post-injury appeared independent of the focal lesion volume. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) performed at 5 and 10 months post-injury detected metabolic alterations in the ipsilateral hippocampus, suggesting ongoing neurodegeneration and inflammation. Our data show that TBI induced by lateral fluid-percussion injury triggers long-lasting alterations with region-dependent temporal profiles. Importantly, the temporal pattern in MRI parameters during the first 23 d post-injury can indicate the regions that will develop secondary damage. This information is valuable for targeting and timing interventions in studies aiming at alleviating or reversing the molecular and/or cellular cascades causing the delayed injury.

  14. Nanocrystalline cerium dioxide efficacy for prophylaxis of erosive and ulcerative lesions in the gastric mucosa of rats induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golyshkin, Dmytro; Kobyliak, Nazarii; Virchenko, Oleksandr; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Beregova, Tetyana; Ostapchenko, Lyudmyla; Caprnda, Martin; Skladany, Lubomir; Opatrilova, Radka; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Shcherbokov, Alexandr; Spivak, Mykola

    2016-12-01

    In our previous works, the important therapeutic properties of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide such as strong antioxidant ability, prebiotical and antibiotic activity were shown. Such properties were obtained due to stabilization of nanoparticles with precise size 3-7nm. Such modification of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide has contributed to its remarkable efficacy and low toxicity. We have carried out the investigation of toxicity of the nanodrug and revealed that in the condition of the acute toxicity test, LD 50 was 2000mg/kg when it was administered per os. This indicator is approximately 1000 times greater than effective dose of the compound that proved the possibility of its usage for humans. Considering the strong antioxidant properties of this substance, we have performed the investigation of the influence of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide on the erosive-ulcerative lesions in gastric mucosa of rats induced by Selye's restraint stress. It was established that the studied compound significantly reduced the lesions area by 58.3% (p<0.05) induced by Selye's restraint stress. The attenuation of inflammation and decrease of lipid peroxidation in the conditions of gastric lesions and prophylactic administration of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide were shown. That was confirmed by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokines content (interleukin (IL) 1β, 12B p40) and raise of anti-inflammatory cytokines content (IL-10 and transforming growth factor β). Measurement of lipid peroxidation products has proved the antioxidant properties of nanocrystalline cerium dioxide as it decreased the content of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid active products in the conditions of gastric ulceration induced by stress.

  15. Evidence for a role of orexin/hypocretin system in vestibular lesion-induced locomotor abnormalities in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Pan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular damage can induce locomotor abnormalities in both animals and humans. Rodents with bilateral vestibular loss showed vestibular deficits syndrome such as circling, opisthotonus as well as locomotor and exploratory hyperactivity. Previous studies have investigated the changes in the dopamine system after vestibular loss, but the results are inconsistent and inconclusive. Numerous evidences indicate that the orexin system is implicated in central motor control. We hypothesized that orexin may be potentially involved in vestibular loss-induced motor disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of arsanilate- or 3, 3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN-induced vestibular lesion (AVL or IVL on the orexin-A (OXA labeling in rat hypothalamus using immunohistochemistry. The vestibular lesion-induced locomotor abnormalities were recorded and verified using a histamine H4 receptor antagonist JNJ7777120 (20 mg/kg, i.p.. The effects of the orexin receptor type 1 antagonist SB334867 (16 μg, i.c.v. on these behavior responses were also investigated. At 72 h post-AVL and IVL, animals exhibited vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity in the home cages. These responses were significantly alleviated by JNJ7777120 which also eliminated AVL-induced increases in exploratory behavior in an open field. The numbers of OXA-labeled neurons in the hypothalamus were significantly increased in the AVL animals at 72 h post-AVL and in the IVL animals at 24, 48 and 72 h post-IVL. SB334867 significantly attenuated the vestibular deficit syndrome and locomotor hyperactivity at 72 h post-AVL and IVL. It also decreased exploratory behavior in the AVL animals. These results suggested that the alteration of OXA expression might contribute to locomotor abnormalities after acute vestibular lesion. The orexin receptors might be the potential therapeutic targets for vestibular disorders.

  16. Effects of San Qi on Gastric Secretion and Protective Factors of Gastric Mucosa in the Rat with Precancerous Lesion of Stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雪迎; 赵凤志; 戴欣; 董秀云; 方杰; 杨会敏

    2003-01-01

    @@ In the model rat with precancerous lesion of stomach induced by the combined method of insertion of a spring into the pylorus and high salt hot paste, effects of San Qi (三七 Radix Notoginseng) on gastric secretion and protective factors of stomach were investigated.

  17. The influence of chronic L-carnitine supplementation on the formation of preneoplastic and atherosclerotic lesions in the colon and aorta of male F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Empl, Michael T; Kammeyer, Patricia; Ulrich, Reiner; Joseph, Jan F; Parr, Maria K; Willenberg, Ina; Schebb, Nils H; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Röhrdanz, Elke; Steffen, Christian; Steinberg, Pablo

    2015-11-01

    L-Carnitine, a key component of fatty acid oxidation, is nowadays being extensively used as a nutritional supplement with allegedly "fat burning" and performance-enhancing properties, although to date there are no conclusive data supporting these claims. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between exogenous supplementation and bioavailability, i.e., fairly high oral doses are not fully absorbed and thus a significant amount of carnitine remains in the gut. Human and rat enterobacteria can degrade unabsorbed L-carnitine to trimethylamine or trimethylamine-N-oxide, which, under certain conditions, may be transformed to the known carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine. Recent findings indicate that trimethylamine-N-oxide might also be involved in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. We therefore investigated whether a 1-year administration of different L-carnitine concentrations (0, 1, 2 and 5 g/l) via drinking water leads to an increased incidence of preneoplastic lesions (so-called aberrant crypt foci) in the colon of Fischer 344 rats as well as to the appearance of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta of these animals. No significant difference between the test groups regarding the formation of lesions in the colon and aorta of the rats was observed, suggesting that, under the given experimental conditions, L-carnitine up to a concentration of 5 g/l in the drinking water does not have adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and vascular system of Fischer 344 rats.

  18. Characterization of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, in rat partial and full nigral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion models of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Fabricius, Katrine; Barkholt, Pernille;

    2016-01-01

    Exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, have been demonstrated to promote neuroprotection in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) neurotoxin model of Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron loss...... model setting. In conclusion, liraglutide showed no neuroprotective effects in the context of moderate or substantial midbrain dopaminergic neuronal loss and associated functional motor deficits in the rat 6-OHDA lesion model of PD....... weeks starting three weeks pre-lesion, or administered for three weeks starting on the lesion day. Quantitative stereology was applied to assess the total number of midbrain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive dopaminergic neurons. As compared to vehicle controls, liraglutide had no effect...

  19. Gastroprotective Activity of Polygonum chinense Aqueous Leaf Extract on Ethanol-Induced Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Iza Farhana; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Kadir, Farkaad A.; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Awang, Khalijah

    2012-01-01

    Polygonum chinense is a Malaysian ethnic plant with various healing effects. This study was to determine preventive effect of aqueous leaf extract of P. chinense against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. The normal and ulcer control groups were orally administered with distilled water. The reference group was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole. The experimental groups received the extracts 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, accordingly. After sixty minutes, distilled water and absolute ethanol were given (5 mL/kg) to the normal control and the others, respectively. In addition to histology, immunohistochemical and periodic acid schiff (PAS) stains, levels of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzymes, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The ulcer group exhibited severe mucosal damages. The experimental groups significantly reduced gastric lesions and MDA levels and increased SOD level. Immunohistochemistry of the experimental groups showed upregulation and downregulation of Hsp70 and Bax proteins, respectively. PAS staining in these groups exhibited intense staining as compared to the ulcer group. Acute toxicity study revealed the nontoxic nature of the extract. Our data provide first evidence that P. chinense extract could significantly prevent gastric ulcer. PMID:23365597

  20. Gastroprotective Activity of Polygonum chinense Aqueous Leaf Extract on Ethanol-Induced Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iza Farhana Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum chinense is a Malaysian ethnic plant with various healing effects. This study was to determine preventive effect of aqueous leaf extract of P. chinense against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. The normal and ulcer control groups were orally administered with distilled water. The reference group was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole. The experimental groups received the extracts 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, accordingly. After sixty minutes, distilled water and absolute ethanol were given (5 mL/kg to the normal control and the others, respectively. In addition to histology, immunohistochemical and periodic acid schiff (PAS stains, levels of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA, antioxidant enzymes, and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured. The ulcer group exhibited severe mucosal damages. The experimental groups significantly reduced gastric lesions and MDA levels and increased SOD level. Immunohistochemistry of the experimental groups showed upregulation and downregulation of Hsp70 and Bax proteins, respectively. PAS staining in these groups exhibited intense staining as compared to the ulcer group. Acute toxicity study revealed the nontoxic nature of the extract. Our data provide first evidence that P. chinense extract could significantly prevent gastric ulcer.

  1. Dendritic morphology changes in neurons from the ventral hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens in rats with neonatal lesions into the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Zayda; Solis, Oscar; Díaz, Alfonso; Brambila, Eduardo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia; Guevara, Jorge; Flores, Gonzalo

    2015-06-01

    Neonatal prefrontal cortex (nPFC) lesions in rats could be a potential animal model to study the early neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with the behavioral and morphological brain changes observed in schizophrenia. Morphological alterations in pyramidal neurons from the ventral hippocampus (VH) have been observed in post-mortem schizophrenic brains, mainly because of decreased dendritic arbor and spine density. We assessed the effects of nPFC-lesions on the dendritic morphology of neurons from the VH, basolateral-amygdala (BLA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in rats. nPFC lesions were made on postnatal day 7 (PD7), after dendritic morphology was studied by the Golgi-Cox stain procedure followed by Sholl analysis at PD35 (prepubertal) and PD60 (adult) ages. We also evaluated the effects of PFC-lesions on locomotor activity caused by a novel environment. Adult animals with nPFC lesions showed a decreased spine density in pyramidal neurons from the VH and in medium spiny cells from the NAcc. An increased locomotion was observed in a novel environment for adult animals with a PFC-lesion. Our results indicate that PFC-lesions alter the neuronal dendrite morphology of the NAcc and the VH, suggesting a disconnection between these limbic structures. The locomotion paradigms suggest that dopaminergic transmission is altered in the PFC lesion model. This could help to understand the consequences of an earlier PFC dysfunction in schizophrenia. To evaluate possible dendritic changes in neonatal prefrontal cortex lesions in schizophrenia-related regions including nucleus accumbens, ventral hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, we used the Golgi-Cox stain samples at PD35 and PD70. Our results suggest that neonatal prefrontal cortex damage alters dendritic parameters in limbic regions, and this has potential implications for schizophrenia.

  2. Attenuation of stress-induced gastric lesions by lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandranath, S I; Bastaki, S M A; D'Souza, A; Adem, A; Singh, J

    2011-03-01

    Combining restraint with cold temperature (4°C) consistently induces gastric ulceration in rats after 3.5 h. The cold restraint-stress (CRS) method provides a suitable model for acute ulcer investigations. This study compares the antiulcer activities of lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor), PD-136450 (CCK(2)/gastrin receptor antagonist) and ranitidine (histamine H(2) receptor antagonist) on CRS-induced gastric ulcers in rats. The results have shown that lansoprazole, which is a potent anti-secretory agent, provides complete protection in this model of ulcer formation. The use of indomethacin pretreatment to inhibit the prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and N(G)-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) pretreatment to inhibit nitric oxide synthase did not alter the lansoprazole-induced inhibition of ulcer index obtained in the untreated Wistar rats indicating that these two systems were not involved in the activation of lansoprazole. PD-136450, an effective anti-secretory agent against gastrin- but not dimaprit-induced stimulation, evoked a dose-dependent inhibition of CRS-induced gastric ulcers. The results show that both PG and nitric oxide pathways can influence the inhibitory effect of PD-136450 against CRS-induced gastric ulcer. The antiulcer activities of both lansoprazole and PD-136450 were compared to that of ranitidine. The results showed that ranitidine was more potent than lansoprazole and PD-136450 in inhibiting CRS-induced gastric ulcers and its effect was shown to be influenced by PG as well as nitric oxide synthase. The results of this study have demonstrated that although lansoprazole, PD-136450 and ranitidine were protective against CRS-induced gastric ulcers, the antiulcer activities of PD-136450 and ranitidine involved both PG and nitric oxide pathways, while lansoprazole acted independently of these two systems during CRS.

  3. Melatonin changes in the pineal gland of sleep-deprived rats following habenular nucleus lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huijuan Jin; Meiying Song; Min Huang; Manli Wang; Hua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The habenular nucleus (Hb) is an important structure that regulates the function of the pineal gland,which may affect melatonin content in the pineal gland after sleep deprivation (SD). In the present study, high performance liquid chromatography showed that the melatonin content in the pineal gland was significantly reduced, and Y-aminobutyric acid content in the Hb was significantly increased after SD. Furthermore, the melatonin content in the pineal gland was markedly reduced after Hb lesion under normal sleep and SD conditions. Immunohistochemistry showed that the number of Fos-positive neurons was significantly decreased in the lateral and medial Hb after SD.The findings demonstrate that the reduction of melatonin in the pineal gland after SD is related to decreased activity of Hb neurons, and that the Hb can regulate sleep-wake rhythm by influencing melatonin secretion in the pineal gland.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: UV DISINFECTION FOR REUSE APPLICATIONS, ONDEO DEGREMONT, INC., AQUARAY® 40 HO VLS DISINFECTION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Ondeo Degremont, Inc. Aquaray® 40 HO VLS Disinfection System to develop the UV delivered dose flow relationship was conducted at the Parsippany-Troy Hills wastewater treatment plant test site in Parsippany, New Jersey. Three reactor modules were m...

  5. 5-HT1A Receptor Activation Improves Anti-Cataleptic Effects of Levodopa in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Reyhani-Rad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: In Parkinsons disease (PD prolong use of L-DOPA causes some motor disorders such as wearing-off and L-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID. In this investigation the effect of 8-OHDAPT, as a 5-HT1A agonist on anti-cataleptic effect of L-DOPA in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA lesioned male Wistar rats was investigated. Methods: Catalepsy was induced by unilateral injection of 6-OHDA (8 μg/2μl/rat into the central region of the SNc. After 3 weeks as a recovery period, animals received intraperitoneally (i.p. L-DOPA (15 mg/kg twice daily for 20 days, and anti-cataleptic effect of L-DOPA was assessed by bar-test at days of 5, 10, 15 and 20. Results and major conclusion: The results showed that L-DOPA had anti-cataleptic effect only until the day of 15, and its effect was decreased on the day of 20. On the day of 21, rats were co-injected with three different doses of 8-OHDAPT (0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p. and L-DOPA (15 mg/kg, ip. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino tetralin (8-OHDAPT improved anti-cataleptic effect of L-DOPA at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg. Moreover the effect of 8-OHDAPT on anti-cataleptic effect of L-DOPA (15 mg/kg, ip was abolished by 1-(2-methyoxyphenyl-4-[4-(2-phthalamido butyl] piperazine hydrobromide (NAN-190; 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. as a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist. According to the obtained results, it may be concluded that activation of 5-HT1A receptors by 8-OHDAPT may improve anti-cataleptic effect of L-DOPA in a 6-OHDA- induced rat model of PD. Further studies are required to clarify the exact mechanism of interaction between 5-HT1A and dopaminergic neurons.

  6. Dietary polyacetylenes, falcarinol and falcarindiol, isolated from carrots prevents the formation of neoplastic lesions in the colon of azoxymethane-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; El-Houri, Rime B; Christensen, Lars P; Al-Najami, Issam; Fretté, Xavier; Baatrup, Gunnar

    2017-03-22

    Falcarinol (FaOH) and falcarindiol (FaDOH) are found in many food plants of the Apiaceae family. Carrots are a major dietary source of these polyacetylenes. Feeding azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rats with carrots and purified FaOH have previously been shown to inhibit neoplastic transformations in the colon. FaOH and FaDOH have also shown to have a synergistic effect in vitro, resulting in a significant increased cytotoxic activity. Based on these findings the antineoplastic effect of FaOH and FaDOH (purity > 99%) was investigated in the AOM-induced rat model. Twenty rats received rat diet containing 7 μg FaOH per g feed and 7 μg FaDOH per g feed and 20 rats were controls receiving only rat diet. Then carcinogenesis was induced in all 40 rats with the carcinogen AOM. All animals received the designated diet for 2 weeks before AOM induction and continued on the designated diet throughout the experiment. Rats were euthanized 18 weeks after the first AOM injection and macroscopic polyp/cancers were measured, harvested and stained for histology. The difference in sizes of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were analysed in a Wilcoxon rank sum test, in which the median number of small ACF was 218 in controls and 145 in polyacetylene treated rats (P < 0.001). Fifteen control rats and 8 treated rats had macroscopic tumors (P = 0.027). The number of tumors larger than 3 mm were 6 and 1 in control and treated rats, respectively (P = 0.032). In conclusion dietary supplements with FaOH and FaDOH reduced the number of neoplastic lesions as well as the growth rate of the polyps suggesting a preventive effect of FaOH and FaDOH on the development of colorectal cancer.

  7. Ingestion of dug well water from an area with high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) and development of kidney and liver lesions in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammitiyagodage, M G; Gunatillaka, M M; Ekanayaka, N; Rathnayake, C; Horadagoda, N U; Jayathissa, R; Gunaratne, U K; Kumara, W G; Abeynayake, P

    2017-03-31

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) is prevalent in the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka and ingestion of dug well water is considered a potential causative factor. Three CKDu prevalent villages were selected from the NCP based on the number of CKDu patients in the locality. Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups with 10 rats each. Group No 1, 2 and 3 were given water from selected dug wells. Control group was given tap water from Colombo. Water samples were analysed for fluoride, iron, arsenic, cadmium and calcium. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues were performed. Significant reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was observed in two test groups compared to the control group (p0.05). In one group hepatocellular carcinoma with elevated serum liver enzymes was observed whilst hepatitis was observed in another test group (p<0.05). But mixed lesions were common in all affected rats. Significantly high renal tubular lesion index was observed in all three experimental groups (p<0.05) and high glomerular lesion index (p=0.017) was observed in one test group. Cadmium, arsenic and iron contents were below detectable levels in the NCP water sources and tap water from Colombo. Different wells may have different concentrations of environmental toxins and depending on the severity of the toxin contents GFR and grade and type of liver and kidney lesions may vary. High fluoride and other undetected toxins in shallow dug wells may be the causative factors for renal and liver lesions in these Wistar rats.

  8. Multimodal Image Analysis in Acquired Vitelliform Lesions and Adult-Onset Foveomacular Vitelliform Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rocha Bastos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To characterize vitelliform lesions (VLs in adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD and acquired vitelliform (AVL patients using multimodal image analysis. Methods. Retrospective study of twenty-eight eyes from nineteen patients diagnosed with AVL or AOFVD. They were evaluated by color fundus photographs, fundus autofluorescence (FAF, fluorescein angiography (FA, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Results. Bilateral VLs were associated with AOFVD (p=0.013. Regular and centered VLs were associated with AOFVD (p=0.004 and p=0.016, whereas irregular and noncentered lesions were more frequent in AVL patients. Visual acuity, greatest linear dimension (GLD, lesion height (LH, and pseudohypopyon were similar between groups. Whereas median LH and GLD in AVL group diminished significantly during follow-up (p=0.009 and p=0.001, AOFVD lesions tended to become larger and thicker. Conclusions. When consulting a patient presenting a VL with unknown age of onset, familial history, or previous retinal diseases, some aspects of multimodal imaging assessment may lead the ophthalmologist to a correct diagnosis.

  9. Effects of exercise on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and ability of learning and memory after hippocampus lesion in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHEN; Shan GONG; Li-Dong SHAN; Wei-Ping XU; Yue-Jin ZHANG; Shi-Yu GUO; Tadashi Hisamitsu; Qi-Zhang YIN; Xing-Hong JIANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of exercise on dentate gyrus (DG) neurogenesis and the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned adult rats. Methods Hippocampus lesion was produced by intrahippocampal microinjection of kainic acid (KA). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to label dividing cells. Y maze test was used to evaluate the ability of learning and memory. Exercise was conducted in the form of forced running in a motor-driven running wheel. The speed of wheel revolution was regulated at 3 kinds of intensity: lightly running, moderately running, or heavily running. Results Hippocampus lesion could increase the number of BrdU-labeled DG cells, moderately running after lesion could further enhance the number of BrdU-labeled cells and decrease the error number (EN) in Y maze test,while neither lightly running, nor heavily running had such effects. There was a negative correlation between the number of DG BrdU-labeled cells and the EN in the Y maze test after running. Conclusion Moderate exercise could enhance the DG neurogenesis and ameliorate the ability of learning and memory in hippocampus-lesioned rats.

  10. Tolerance to repeated stress in rats with lesions of the serotoninergic neurons of the Median Raphe Nucleus and chronically treated with imipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K; Carvalho, M C; Padovan, C M

    2016-04-01

    Repeated exposure to aversive events leads to the development of tolerance to stress, which involves the serotonergic pathway originated in the Median Raphe Nucleus (MnRN) to the Dorsal Hippocampus (DH). However, it is not clear whether these lesion-induced deficits can be attenuated by treatment with antidepressants. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with Imipramine (IMI) in rats with lesions in the MnRN and exposed to restraint stress. Male Wistar rats with or without neurochemical lesions of the MnRN serotonergic neurons with the neurotoxin 5,7-DHT were submitted to acute (2h) or chronic restraint (2h/day/seven consecutive days) and treated with saline (1 ml/kg) or imipramine (15 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal twice a day during the same period. In acutely restrained rats, stress occurred on the last day of treatment. Test in the elevated plus maze (EPM) was performed 24h later. After EPM test, animals were sacrificed and had their brains removed. Dorsal hippocampus and striatum were dissected and the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) measured by HPLC analysis. Our results showed that in control rats exposure to acute restraint stress decreased exploration of the open and enclose arms of the EPM, an effect that was attenuated by imipramine. In rats with 5,7-DHT lesions, acute restraint did not change the exploration of the EPM, independently of the treatment. On the other hand, when chronically restrained, saline treated rat with 5,7-DHT lesion showed a reduced exploration of the open arms of the EPM. This effect was attenuated by simultaneous treatment with imipramine. HPLC analysis showed significantly decreases on 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum. These later results confirm that 5,7-DHT lesions of the MnRN had significant impact on the serotonergic projections to the dorsal hippocampus which seems to be essential for the development of tolerance to repeated

  11. Decreased synaptic plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex underlies short-term memory deficits in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Filipe C; Rial, Daniel; Real, Joana I; Lemos, Cristina; Ben, Juliana; Guaita, Gisele O; Pita, Inês R; Sequeira, Ana C; Pereira, Frederico C; Walz, Roger; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Bertoglio, Leandro J; Da Cunha, Cláudio; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Prediger, Rui D

    2016-03-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor dysfunction associated with dopaminergic degeneration in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). However, motor symptoms in PD are often preceded by short-term memory deficits, which have been argued to involve deregulation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We now used a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat PD model to explore if alterations of synaptic plasticity in DLS and mPFC underlie short-term memory impairments in PD prodrome. The bilateral injection of 6-OHDA (20μg/hemisphere) in the DLS caused a marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (>80%) and decreased monoamine levels in the striatum and PFC, accompanied by motor deficits evaluated after 21 days in the open field and accelerated rotarod. A lower dose of 6-OHDA (10μg/hemisphere) only induced a partial degeneration (about 60%) of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with no gross motor impairments, thus mimicking an early premotor stage of PD. Notably, 6-OHDA (10μg)-lesioned rats displayed decreased monoamine levels in the PFC as well as short-term memory deficits evaluated in the novel object discrimination and in the modified Y-maze tasks; this was accompanied by a selective decrease in the amplitude of long-term potentiation in the mPFC, but not in DLS, without changes of synaptic transmission in either brain regions. These results indicate that the short-term memory dysfunction predating the motor alterations in the 6-OHDA model of PD is associated with selective changes of information processing in PFC circuits, typified by persistent changes of synaptic plasticity.

  12. Visualization of small lesions in rat cartilage by means of laboratory-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenzana, Massimo; Hagen, Charlotte K.; Das Neves Borges, Patricia; Endrizzi, Marco; Szafraniec, Magdalena B.; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Olivo, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    Being able to quantitatively assess articular cartilage in three-dimensions (3D) in small rodent animal models, with a simple laboratory set-up, would prove extremely important for the development of pre-clinical research focusing on cartilage pathologies such as osteoarthritis (OA). These models are becoming essential tools for the development of new drugs for OA, a disease affecting up to 1/3 of the population older than 50 years for which there is no cure except prosthetic surgery. However, due to limitations in imaging technology, high-throughput 3D structural imaging has not been achievable in small rodent models, thereby limiting their translational potential and their efficiency as research tools. We show that a simple laboratory system based on coded-aperture x-ray phase contrast imaging (CAXPCi) can correctly visualize the cartilage layer in slices of an excised rat tibia imaged both in air and in saline solution. Moreover, we show that small, surgically induced lesions are also correctly detected by the CAXPCi system, and we support this finding with histopathology examination. Following these successful proof-of-concept results in rat cartilage, we expect that an upgrade of the system to higher resolutions (currently underway) will enable extending the method to the imaging of mouse cartilage as well. From a technological standpoint, by showing the capability of the system to detect cartilage also in water, we demonstrate phase sensitivity comparable to other lab-based phase methods (e.g. grating interferometry). In conclusion, CAXPCi holds a strong potential for being adopted as a routine laboratory tool for non-destructive, high throughput assessment of 3D structural changes in murine articular cartilage, with a possible impact in the field similar to the revolution that conventional microCT brought into bone research.

  13. Changes in firing rate and firing pattern of midbrain dopaminergic neurons after lesioning of the dorsal raphe nucleus by 5,7-drhydroxytryptamine in adult rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shuang; Liu Jian; Wang Tao; Han Lingna; Zhang Qiaojun; Li Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of serotonergic efferent projection of the dorsal rophe nucleus (DRN) on the activity of substantia nigro pars compacta (SNc) and ventral tegmenta area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons after lesioning of the DRN by the neurotoxin 5,7-drhydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) in rot. Methods The changes in the firing rote and firing pattern of SNc and VTA dopaminergic neurons were observed with extrocellular recording in control and the lesioned rats. Results The results showed that the mean firing rotes of the fast-firing dopaminergic neurons of the SNc in control and the lesioned rots were (5.34±0. 13 ) Hz (n = 23 ) and ( 7.13±0. 49 ) Hz (n=37), respectively. The mean firing rote of the fast-firing dopaminergic neurons of the SNc in the lesioned rats was significantly increased when compared to that of control rots (P<0.01), while the mean firing rote of the slow-firing dopaminergic neurons of the SNc did not change. The mean firing rotes of dopaminergic neurons of the VTA in control and the lesioned rots were (5.27±0. 38)Hz (n=35) and (3.6±0.2)Hz (n=52), respectively. Lesioning of the DRN induced a significant decrease in the mean firing rote of dopaminergic neurons of the VTA. The firing pattern of SNc and VTA dopaminergic neurons changed towards a more bursting or irrgular firing after the lesioning. Conlusion These data suggest that the serotonergic efferent projections of the DRN significantly affect the activity of SNe and VTA dopaminergic neurons.

  14. Celecoxib-induced gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions in rats, counteraction by BPC 157 or L-arginine, aggravation by L-NAME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmic, Domagoj; Kolenc, Danijela; Ilic, Spomenko; Bauk, Lara; Sever, Marko; Zenko Sever, Anita; Luetic, Kresimir; Suran, Jelena; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2017-08-07

    To counteract/reveal celecoxib-induced toxicity and NO system involvement. Celecoxib (1 g/kg b.w. ip) was combined with therapy with stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (known to inhibit these lesions, 10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg, or 1 ng/kg ip) and L-arginine (100 mg/kg ip), as well as NOS blockade [N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)] (5 mg/kg ip) given alone and/or combined immediately after celecoxib. Gastrointestinal, liver, and brain lesions and liver enzyme serum values in rats were assessed at 24 h and 48 h thereafter. This high-dose celecoxib administration, as a result of NO system dysfunction, led to gastric, liver, and brain lesions and increased liver enzyme serum values. The L-NAME-induced aggravation of the lesions was notable for gastric lesions, while in liver and brain lesions the beneficial effect of L-arginine was blunted. L-arginine counteracted gastric, liver and brain lesions. These findings support the NO system mechanism(s), both NO system agonization (L-arginine) and NO system antagonization (L-NAME), that on the whole are behind all of these COX phenomena. An even more complete antagonization was identified with BPC 157 (at both 24 h and 48 h). A beneficial effect was evident on all the increasingly negative effects of celecoxib and L-NAME application and in all the BPC 157 groups (L-arginine + BPC 157; L-NAME + BPC 157; L-NAME + L-arginine + BPC 157). Thus, these findings demonstrated that BPC 157 may equally counteract both COX-2 inhibition (counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib on all lesions) and additional NOS blockade (equally counteracting the noxious effects of celecoxib + L-NAME). BPC 157 and L-arginine alleviate gastrointestinal, liver and brain lesions, redressing NSAIDs' post-surgery application and NO system involvement.

  15. Effect of crush lesion on radiolabelling of ganglioside in rat peripheral nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Harty, M.; Warner, J.K.; Mancini, M.E.; Pearl, D.K.; Yates, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Left sciatic nerves of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were crushed and allowed to recover for 0, 1, 2, 4, 7, or 14 days. At each of these times both L-5 dorsal root ganglia were injected with 100 microCi of (/sup 3/H)glucosamine. Two days later, dorsal root ganglia, lumbosacral trunks, and sciatic nerves were removed bilaterally. The amounts of radiolabelled ganglioside in crushed lumbosacral trunks were consistently higher than in the controls, with the largest difference occurring within 2 days from simultaneous crush and injection to killing (specimens labelled day 0). The largest difference in the amount of radiolabelled ganglioside between crushed and control sciatic nerve (4-9 days from crush to killing) occurred later than that of lumbosacral trunk, but no significant difference occurred within the first 3 days following crush. There was only a slightly higher radioactivity in gangliosides totalled from all three anatomical specimens of crushed than in control nerves. The neutral nonganglioside lipid and acid-precipitable fraction followed patterns of synthesis and accumulation similar to those of the gangliosides. These findings indicate that after nerve crush gangliosides, glucosamine-labelled neutral nonganglioside lipids, and glycoproteins accumulate close to the proximal end of the regenerating axon. This accumulation could serve as a reservoir to increase the ganglioside concentration in the growth cone membrane.

  16. Radiological and histopathological evaluation of experimentally-induced periapical lesion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Cordeiro Teixeira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated experimentally-induced periapical bone loss sites using digital radiographic and histopathologic parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-seven Wistar rats were submitted to coronal opening of their mandibular right first molars. They were radiographed at 2, 15 and 30 days after the operative procedure by two digital radiographic storage phosphor plates (Digora®. The images were analyzed by creating a region of interest at the periapical region of each tooth (ImageJ and registering the corresponding pixel values. After the sacrifice, the specimens were submitted to microscopic analysis in order to confirm the pulpal and periapical status of the tooth. RESULTS: There was significant statistically difference between the control and test sides in all the experimental periods regarding the pixel values (two-way ANOVA; p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The microscopic analysis proved that a periapical disease development occurred during the experimental periods with an evolution from pulpal necrosis to periapical bone resorption.

  17. Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry detection of extracellular kynurenine and related metabolites in normal and lesioned rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarangelo, Francesca M; Wu, Hui-Qiu; Macherone, Anthony; Graham, David R; Schwarcz, Robert

    2012-02-15

    We describe here a gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) method for the sensitive and concurrent determination of extracellular tryptophan and the kynurenine pathway metabolites kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and quinolinic acid (QUIN) in rat brain. This metabolic cascade is increasingly linked to the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. Methodological refinements, including optimization of MS conditions and the addition of deuterated standards, resulted in assay linearity to the low nanomolar range. Measured in samples obtained by striatal microdialysis in vivo, basal levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, and QUIN were 415, 89, and 8 nM, respectively, but 3-HK levels were below the limit of detection (<2 nM). Systemic injection of kynurenine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect extracellular tryptophan but produced detectable levels of extracellular 3-HK (peak after 2-3 h: ~50 nM) and raised extracellular QUIN levels (peak after 2h: ~105 nM). The effect of this treatment on QUIN, but not on 3-HK, was potentiated in the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-lesioned striatum. Our results indicate that the novel methodology, which allowed the measurement of extracellular kynurenine and 3-HK in the brain in vivo, will facilitate studies of brain kynurenines and of the interplay between peripheral and central kynurenine pathway functions under physiological and pathological conditions.

  18. Effects of histidine and n-acetylcysteine on experimental lesions induced by doxorubicin in sciatic nerve of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshid, Amir Abbas; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Najafi, Sima

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the effect of separate and combined intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of histidine and n-acetylcysteine were investigated on experimental damage induced by doxorubicin (DOX) in sciatic nerve of rats. DOX was i.p. injected at a dose of 4 mg/kg once weekly for four weeks. Histidine and n-acetylcysteine were i.p. injected at a same dose of 20 mg/kg. Cold and mechanical allodynia were recorded using acetone spray and von Frey filaments tests, respectively. The sciatic nerve damage was evaluated by light microscopy. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Histidine and especially n-acetylcysteine at a same dose of 20 mg/kg suppressed cold and mechanical allodynia, improved sciatic nerve lesions and reversed MDA and TAC levels in DOX-treated groups. Combination treatment with histidine and n-acetylcysteine showed better responses when compared with them used alone. The results of the present study showed peripheral neuroprotective effects for histidine and n-acetylcysteine. Reduction of free radical-induced toxic effects may have a role in neuroprotective properties of histidine and n-acetylcysteine.

  19. Therapeutic Effects of Blue Honeysuckle on Lesions of Hyperthyroidism in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-In; Lee, Young Joon; Choi, Seong Hun; Park, Soo Jin; Song, Chang-Hyun; Ku, Sae-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a hypermetabolic syndrome characterized by an overproduction of thyroid hormones, which enhances the hormone-induced oxidative stress responsible for some complications in the liver, heart and muscle. Blue honeysuckle (BH) is an edible berry, rich in polyphenols, especially flavonoids or anthocyanins, known as strong antioxidants. The chemo-protective activities of the berry have been connected to the improvement of symptoms in cancer, diabetes mellitus, tumor or cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the therapeutic effects of BH were examined in hyperthyroidism rat model. The hyperthyroidism was induced by injection with levothyroxine (LT4), and the model was treated with distilled water (LT4 control), propylthiouracil (PTU) or BH at 3 dosages of 500, 250 and 125[Formula: see text]mg/kg. The treatment was performed once a day for 15 days. Compared to LT4 control, the oral administration of BH dose-dependently ameliorated the hyperthyroidism, reducing thyroid hormones and increasing thyroid stimulating hormones. These effects were accompanied by improvement of body weight loss and atrophy in the thyroid gland, liver and epididymal fat pads. BH treatments also reduced the levels of hepatic enzymes (AST and ALT), which suggests BH exerts protective effects on hepatocytes. BH might also be involved in the augmentation of the anti-oxidant activities, supported by increased endogenous antioxidant (glutathione). In addition, the histopathological analyses revealed the beneficial effects of BH on the atrophic changes and cellular injuries in the thyroid gland, liver and epididymal fat pads. The therapeutic potentials of BH were either similar or more effective than PTU. These results provide valuable information that will guide more detailed studies to use the BH as a complementary and alternative medicine.

  20. Effect of Shenqi Compound Formula on PPARγ in White Adipose Tissue of Rats with Macrovascular Lesion in Early Stage of Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongmin; Xie Chunguang; Chen Shiwei; Xie Yiqiang; Wang Youjing

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Shenqi Compound Formula(SCF)on peroxisome proliferatorsactivated receptor γ,(PPARγ)in white adipose tissue of rats with macrovascular lesion in early stage of diabetes.Methods:Corresponding treatment was given to rats in model group,Ramipril group,normal control group,low dosage SCF group and high dosage SCF group respectively for 32 days.The expressions of PPARγand adiponectin Messenger RNA(mRNA)were detected by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.Results:The expressions of PPARγand adiponectin mRNA increased significantly in both low and high dosage SCF groups as compared with the model group,and a positive linear correlation was found between the expressions of PPARγ and adiponectin mRNA.Conclusions:SCF can prevent macrovascular lesion in early stage of diabetes,which is possibly related with up-regulating expressions of PPARγ and activating PPARγ.

  1. Cysteamine-colon and cysteamine-duodenum lesions in rats. Attenuation by gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole, sulphasalazine and methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Balen, I; Aralica, G; Gjurasin, M; Komericki, L; Perovic, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Staresinic, M; Aralica, J; DiBiaggio, N; Simec, Z; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we showed cysteamine-duodenal lesions without gastric acid, since they were induced also in gastrectomized rats, as in naive rats, and they were inhibited by the novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as well as standard antiulcer drugs (i.e. cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole, bromocriptine, atropine). Therefore, as an advantage of considering cysteamine as a directly acting cytotoxic agent and mentioned agents as direct cytoprotective agents, the present focus was on the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine and protective effect of gastroduodenal antiulcer agents outside upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e. in colon). Intrarectal administration of the cysteamine (200 or 400 mg/kg b.w) produced severe colon lesions (i.e. transmural inflammation with serosal involvement) in rats (30 min-72 h-experimental period), apparently distinctive from smaller lesions after non-specific irritant enema [diluted HCl solution, pH 3.8 (adjusted to pH of cysteamine solution (pH 3.8)]. All of the tested antiulcer agents were applied simultaneously with cysteamine enema (8 cm from the anus, in a volume of the 1.0 ml/rat) intraperitoneally (i.p.), intragastrically (i.g.) or intrarectally (i.r.). Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w.), given in either regimen, previously shown to have, besides others, a particular beneficial activity just in the intestinal mucosa, inhibited these cysteamine colon lesions (assessed after 30 min, 60 min, 180 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h following cysteamine in a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg i.r.). Cysteamine-colon lesions were also attenuated by standard antiulcer agents (mg/kg b.w.), given i.p., i.g., or i.r., such as ranitidine (10), cimetidine (50), omeprazole (10), atropine (10), together with methylprednisolone (1), and sulphasalazine (50, i.r.), assessed 30 min following application of 200 mg of cysteamine. Finally, standard cysteamine duodenal lesions (assessed 24 h after a subcutaneous application of 400 mg/kg of cysteamine) were

  2. Effects of a new histamine H2-receptor antagonist, Z-300, on gastric secretion and gastro-duodenal lesions in rats: comparison with roxatidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, S; Takagi, K; Igata, H; Kato, S; Shimosako, K; Yamaji, Y; Seiki, M

    1992-07-01

    We examined the effects of a new compound, N-[3-[3-(piperidinomethyl)phenoxy]-propyl]-2-(2-hydroxyethyl-1- thio)acetamido.2-(4-hydroxy benzoyl)benzoate (Z-300), on the histamine H2-receptor, gastric secretion in rats and dogs, and acute gastro-duodenal lesions or chronic gastric ulcers in rats. Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride (roxatidine), a known histamine H2-receptor antagonist, was used as a reference compound. The pA2 values for Z-300 and roxatidine for the isolated guinea pig atrium were 6.8 and 7.0, respectively. These agents at less than 10(-5) M did not affect the contraction of guinea pig ileum in response to carbachol. Z-300, administered either orally or parenterally, significantly inhibited the basal and histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats. Gastric acid secretion stimulated by histamine, pentagastrin or carbachol in Heidenhain pouch dogs was also significantly inhibited by the compound. The effect persisted for greater than 7 hr in the case of histamine-stimulation. Oral Z-300 significantly protected the gastric mucosa from water-immersion stress-, indomethacin-, aspirin- and HCl.ethanol-induced lesions and protected the duodenal mucosa against mepirizole- and cysteamine-induced ulcers. These effects on gastric secretion and lesion formation were, as a whole, stronger than those observed with roxatidine. Z-300, but not roxatidine, significantly accelerated the spontaneous healing of acetic acid ulcers induced in rats and prevented the delay in ulcer healing caused by indomethacin. The mechanism of action of Z-300 on acute lesions and chronic ulcers appears to be mostly related to its potent antisecretory and mucosal-protective activities.

  3. Lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis do not alter the proportions of pirenzepine- and gallamine-sensitive responses of somatosensory cortical neurones to acetylcholine in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevsky, V V; Dawe, G S; Sinden, J D; Stephenson, J D

    1998-01-26

    The effects of S-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-4-isoxozolepropionic acid (AMPA) lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis on the M1/M2 nature of the responses of somatosensory cortical neurones to acetylcholine (ACh) in Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated by iontophoretic application and extracellular single unit recording. The responses were characterised using pirenzepine, an M1 receptor antagonist, and gallamine, an M2 antagonist. Eighty two neurones in control and 94 neurones in lesioned animals were studied. In control animals, 37% of responses to ACh were sensitive to pirenzepine, gallamine or to both antagonists. This increased to 62% in lesioned animals, the proportions of pirenzepine- and gallamine-sensitive responses remaining unchanged. These results provide the first electrophysiological confirmation that both pirenzepine- and gallamine-sensitive (M1 and M2) receptors occur postsynaptic to afferent cholinergic terminals and that their postsynaptic stimulation may produce both inhibition and excitation.

  4. Assessment of the healing activity of jucá pods [Libidibia ferrea (Mart. ex Tul. L. P. Queiroz] in cutaneous lesions of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frascisca Gomes Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the healing activity of the powdered pod of L. ferrea in cutaneous wound healing in preclinical test in rats. Eighteen rats were divided into two groups: the positive control group (PCG treated with Kollagenase® and the experimental group (EG treated with an ointment prepared with the powder of Libidibia ferrea. The lesions were clinically evaluated on 0 - 21st days, when histopathological analysis was also performed. In this study, the clinical analysis showed that although the rate of contraction of the lesions in EG was lower than in PCG, there was significant reduction in the wound of the group treated with ointment obtained from the powder of L. ferrea. Furthermore, the morphometric data showed that from the 3rd to 21st day after operation, the EG presented significant reduction in the rate of contraction of the skin lesions. Histological analysis revealed that the clinical and histological parameters of EG were similar to PCG. Although the biological activity of the powder remains unclarified, our results clearly showed the wound healing with the use of the powder of the pod of Libidibia ferrea in skin lesions. These finds provide subsidies for a similar research.

  5. Striatal adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor-mediated positron emission tomographic imaging in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats using [{sup 18}F]-MRS5425

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Abesh Kumar; Lang Lixin; Jacobson, Orit [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Shinkre, Bidhan [Chemical Biology Unit, Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Ma Ying [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Niu Gang [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Warren Grant Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Trenkle, William C. [Chemical Biology Unit, Laboratory of Cell Biochemistry and Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Jacobson, Kenneth A. [Molecular Recognition Section, Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Chen Xiaoyuan [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Kiesewetter, Dale O., E-mail: dk7k@nih.gov [Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Introduction: A{sub 2A} receptors are expressed in the basal ganglia, specifically in striatopallidal GABAergic neurons in the striatum (caudate-putamen). This brain region undergoes degeneration of presynaptic dopamine projections and depletion of dopamine in Parkinson's disease. We developed an {sup 18}F-labeled A{sub 2A} analog radiotracer ([{sup 18}F]-MRS5425) for A{sub 2A} receptor imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). We hypothesized that this tracer could image A{sub 2A} receptor changes in the rat model for Parkinson's disease, which is created following unilateral injection of the monoaminergic toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra. Methods: [{sup 18}F]-MRS5425 was injected intravenously in anesthetized rats, and PET imaging data were collected. Image-derived percentage injected doses per gram (%ID/g) in regions of interest was measured in the striatum of normal rats and in rats unilaterally lesioned with 6-OHDA after intravenous administration of saline (baseline), D{sub 2} agonist quinpirole (1.0 mg/kg) or D{sub 2} antagonist raclopride (6.0 mg/kg). Results: Baseline %ID/g reached a maximum at 90 s and maintained plateau for 3.5 min, and then declined slowly thereafter. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, %ID/g was significantly higher in the lesioned side compared to the intact side, and the baseline total %ID/g (data from both hemispheres were combined) was significantly higher compared to quinpirole stimulation starting from 4.5 min until the end of acquisition at 30 min. Raclopride did not produce any change in uptake compared to baseline or between the hemispheres. Conclusion: Thus, increase of A{sub 2A} receptor-mediated uptake of radioactive MRS5425 could be a superior molecular target for Parkinson's imaging.

  6. Topographical and quantitative assessment of white matter injury following a focal ischaemic lesion in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, P S; Patterson, J; Graham, D I; Takasago, T; Dewar, D; McCulloch, J

    1998-06-01

    Axonal injury following cerebral ischaemia has attracted less attention than damage in grey matter. However, it is becoming increasingly recognised that axons are highly vulnerable to focal ischaemia [D. Dewar, D.A. Dawson, Changes of cytoskeletal protein immunostaining in myelinated fibre tracts after focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat, Acta. Neuropathol., 93 (1997) 71-77] [2]; [L. Pantoni, J.H. Garcia, J.A. Gutierrez, Cerebral white matter is highly vulnerable to ischemia, Stroke, 27 (1996) 1641-1647] [10]; [P. S. Yam, T. Takasago, D. Dewar, D.I. Graham, J. McCulloch, Amyloid precursor protein accumulates in white matter at the margin of a focal ischaemic lesion, Brain Res., 760 (1997) 150-157] [15]. Since white matter does not contain neuronal cell bodies or synapses it is likely that the mechanisms of injury and strategies for its protection are different from those in grey matter. In order that the effect of therapeutic intervention on the protection of axons can be assessed, a method by which axonal injury can be mapped and quantified is required. For this purpose, we investigated immunocytochemical methods using amyloid precursor protein (APP) following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. APP is transported by fast anterograde axonal transport [E.H. Koo, S.S. Sisodia, D.R. Archer, L.J. Martin, A. Weidemann, K. Beyreuther, P. Fischer, C.L. Masters, D.L. Price, Precursor of amyloid protein in Alzheimer disease undergoes fast anterograde axonal transport, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87 (1990) 1561-1565] [7] and has been shown to accumulate following a variety of insults to axons, indicative of dysfunction of axonal transport [R.N. Kalaria, S.U. Bhatti, E.A. Palatinsky, D.H. Pennington, E.R. Shelton, H.W. Chan, G. Perry, W.D. Lust, Accumulation of the beta amyloid precursor protein at sites of ischemic injury in rat brain, Neuroreport, 4 (1993) 211-214] [4]; [T. Kawarabayashi, M. Shoji, Y. Harigaya, H. Yamaguchi, S. Hirai, Expression of APP

  7. Improvements of renal lesions and function by angiotensin and endothelin receptor antagonism in nitric oxide-deficient rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Boffa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we have observed that antagonism of angiotensin or endothelin receptors prevented the development of nephroangio- and glomerulo-sclerosis during hypertension by inhibiting collagen I gene synthesis, through a mechanism independent of systemic haemodynamics. The present study investigated whether treatment with angiotensin or endothelin receptor antagonists, given at doses that did not reduce blood pressure, could produce regression of renal sclerotic lesions and improve renal function during hypertension. Hypertension and renal vascular fibrosis were induced in rats by chronic inhibition of NO synthesis using NGnitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. Systolic blood pressure gradually increased following L-NAME administration, reaching a plateau of 170 mmHg after four weeks of treatment. At the same time, urinary protein excretion and plasma creatinine concentration were increased ten- and three-fold compared with controls, respectively (p<0.001. This increase was accompanied by the appearance of sclerotic lesions within renal vessels and glomeruli, as evidenced by Masson's trichromic staining (sclerotic index 2.34±0.29 vs. 0.10±0.01 in L-NAME four weeks and control, respectively, p<0.001. Thereafter, the L-NAME treatment was combined with either losartan (an AT1receptor antagonist, bosentan (an ETA/B antagonist, co-treatment with both agents, or vehicle for an additional period of four weeks. Blockade of AT1and/or ETA/B-receptors significantly reduced urinary protein excretion and plasma creatinine levels (p<0.01 and substantially improved renal vascular histology (sclerotic index 1.78±0.13, 1.57±0.22 and 1.85±0.15 respectively, p<0.01, vs. L-NAME eight week without altering the L-NAME-induced increase of systolic pressure. These data indicate that angiotensin II and endothelin-1 participate in the mechanism(s of renal vascular fibrosis by increasing extracellular matrix formation. Treatment with their respective

  8. Effect of Jinguo Weikang Capsule(金果胃康胶囊) on Proto-oncogene Expression of Gastric Mucosa in Rats with Gastric Precancerous Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of Jinguo Weikang Capsule (金果胃康胶囊,JWC) on the gene expression of H-ras,epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR),P53 and C-myc of the gastric mucosa in rats with gastric precancerous lesions,and to investigate the action mechanism of JWC on gastric precancerous lesions.Methods:A rat model with paratypical proliferation of the gastric epithelium mucosa was established by using 60Co irradiation.Rats were divided into the normal group,model group,high-,medium-,low-dose JWC treatment groups,and the vitacoenzyme control group,and were treated for 30 days.The expression of H-ras,EGFR,P53 and C-myc genes of the gastric mucosa was detected by using immunohistochemical methods.Results:The expression and over-expression rates of H-ras,EGFR,P53 and C-myc gene in the high- and medium-dose JWC treatment groups were significantly lower (P<0.05)as compared with those of the model group.Conclusion:JWC can inhibit the expression of the H-ras,EGFR,P53 and C-myc genes expression of the gastric mucosa in rats,which may be one of mechanisms involved in suppressing or reversing gastric carcinogenesis.

  9. A critical role of gastric mucosal ascorbic acid in the progression of acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshio Kamiya; Yoshiji Ohta; Yoichiro Imai; Tomiyasu Arisawa; Hiroshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the role of gastric mucosal ascorbic acid(AA) in the progression of acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by compound 48/80 (C48/80), a mast cell degranulator, in rats.METHODS: C48/80 (0.75 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to fasted Wistar rats. Oral administration of AA (10, 50 or 100 mg/kg) was performed 0.5 h after C48/80treatment. Determinations for gastric mucosal lesion severity and blood flow, and assays for gastric mucosal total AA, reduced AA, oxidized AA, vitamin E, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), adherent mucus, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), non-protein SH (NPSH), and myeloperoxidase(MPO), and serum total AA, reduced AA, oxidized AA,and NOx were conducted 0.5 and 3 h after C48/80treatment.RESULTS: Gastric mucosal lesions occurred 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment and progressed at 3 h. Gastric mucosal blood flow decreased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment but the decrease was recovered at 3 h. Gastric mucosal total AA, reduced AA, vitamin E, and adherent mucus concentrations decreased 3 h after C48/80 treatment.Gastric mucosal oxidized AA concentration remained unchanged after C48/80 treatment. Gastric mucosal NPSH concentration decreased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment,but the decrease was recovered at 3 h. Gastric mucosal TBARS concentration and MPO activity increased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment and further increased at 3 h.Serum total AA and reduced AA concentrations increased 0.5 h after C48/80 treatment and further increased at 3 h, while serum oxidized AA concentration increased at 0.5 h. Serum and gastric mucosal NOx concentrations increased 3 h after C48/80 treatment. AA administration to C48/80-treated rats at 0.5 h after the treatment prevented the gastric mucosal lesion progression and the changes in gastric mucosal total AA, reduced AA, vitamin E, adherent mucus, NOx, and TBARS concentrations and MPO activity and serum NOx concentration found at 3 h after the treatment dose-dependently. The AA administration to C48/80-treated

  10. One-step growth of Si 3 N 4 stem-branch featured nanostructures: Morphology control by VS and VLS mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiushi; Gao, Wei; Shan, Lianchen; Zhang, Jian; Jin, Yunxia; Cong, Ridong; Cui, Qiliang

    2011-09-01

    We report here one-step synthesis of Si 3N 4 nanodendrites by selectively applying a vapor-solid (VS) and vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) strategy via direct current arc discharge method. The resultant nanodendrites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The spine-shaped nanodendrites were generated by a noncatalytic growth following a VS mode. The uniform secondary nanowire branches were epitaxial grown from two side surfaces of the nanowire stems. The pine-shaped nanodendrites were obtained through a catalytic growth in a VLS process. These branch nanowires were unsystematically grown from the nanocone-like stems. The photoluminescence spectra of the nanodendrites show a strong white light emission around 400-750 nm, suggesting their potential applications in light and electron emission devices.

  11. Effect of acid secretion blockade on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxin in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Júnio Rios; de Araújo, Gnana Keith Marques; da Luz, Magda Maria Profeta; da Conceição, Sérgio Alexandre; Lisboa, Felipe Assis; Moraes-Santos, Tasso; Cunha-Melo, José Renan

    2006-10-01

    Scorpion venom (TX) promotes gastric acid and pepsin secretion leading to acute gastric mucosal lesions (AGML), when injected in animals. The goal of the present study was to observe the effects of acid gastric secretion blockers over the incidence of TX-induced AGML in vivo. To verify this model, we used male albino rats, fasted 18-20 h (n=122) and anaesthetized with urethane (1.4 g/kg, i.p.). Their trachea and left femoral vein were both cannulated; the first to avoid airway obstructions during scorpion intoxication and the second for administration of saline, TX and acid blockers. Following the surgical procedure, the animals were divided in 10 groups of at least 10 animals each. Control groups were injected with NaCl 0.9% 1 ml/kg (n=10) or TX 375 microg/kg (n=32). Test groups (n=10, each) received atropine 5 mg/kg, cimetidine 10mg/kg, ranitidine 2.5mg/kg, ranitidine 5mg/kg, omeprazol 1 mg/kg, omeprazol 4 mg/kg, octreotide 80 and octreotide 100 microg/kg 10 min before the TX was injected. After 1h of intoxication, the stomach was resected for macroscopic study and the gastric secretion was collected for volume, pH and acid output assessment. We observed that all blockers were able to completely or partially prevent the TX-induced acid secretion as well as the AGML (p<0.05). Our data suggest the TX-induced AGML can be prevented by different class of acid blockers injected before the intoxication.

  12. Dopaminergic neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells survive and integrate into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jingli; Yang, Ming; Poremsky, Elizabeth; Kidd, Sarah; Schneider, Jay S; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2010-07-01

    Cell replacement therapy could be an important treatment strategy for Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by the degeneration of dopamine neurons in the midbrain (mDA). The success of this approach greatly relies on the discovery of an abundant source of cells capable of mDAergic function in the brain. With the paucity of available human fetal tissue, efforts have increasingly focused on renewable stem cells. Human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells offer great promise in this regard. If hiPS cells can be differentiated into authentic mDA neuron, hiPS could provide a potential autologous source of transplant tissue when generated from PD patients, a clear advantage over human embryonic stem (hES) cells. Here, we report that mDA neurons can be derived from a commercially available hiPS cell line, IMR90 clone 4, using a modified hES differentiation protocol established in our lab. These cells express all the markers (Lmx1a, Aldh1a1, TH, TrkB), follow the same mDA lineage pathway as H9 hES cells, and have similar expression levels of DA and DOPAC. Moreover, when hiPS mDA progenitor cells are transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned PD rats, they survive long term and many develop into bona fide mDA neurons. Despite their differentiation and integration into the brain, many Nestin+ tumor-like cells remain at the site of the graft. Our data suggest that as with hES cells, selecting the appropriate population of mDA lineage cells and eliminating actively dividing hiPS cells before transplantation will be critical for the future success of hiPS cell replacement therapy in PD patients.

  13. Challenges of animal models in SCI research: Effects of pre-injury task-specific training in adult rats before lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Zacnicte; Fouad, Karim; Shum-Siu, Alice; Magnuson, David S K

    2015-09-15

    A rarely explored subject in animal research is the effect of pre-injury variables on behavioral outcome post-SCI. Low reporting of such variables may underlie some discrepancies in findings between laboratories. Particularly, intensive task-specific training before a SCI might be important, considering that sports injuries are one of the leading causes of SCI. Thus, individuals with SCI often underwent rigorous training before their injuries. In the present study, we asked whether training before SCI on a grasping task or a swimming task would influence motor recovery in rats. Swim pre-training impaired recovery of swimming 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. This result fits with the idea of motor learning interference, which posits that learning something new may disrupt learning of a new task; in this case, learning strategies to compensate for functional loss after SCI. In contrast to swimming, grasp pre-training did not influence grasping ability after SCI at any time point. However, grasp pre-trained rats attempted to grasp more times than untrained rats in the first 4 weeks post-injury. Also, lesion volume of grasp pre-trained rats was greater than that of untrained rats, a finding which may be related to stress or activity. The increased participation in rehabilitative training of the pre-trained rats in the early weeks post-injury may have potentiated spontaneous plasticity in the spinal cord and counteracted the deleterious effect of interference and bigger lesions. Thus, our findings suggest that pre-training plays a significant role in recovery after CNS damage and needs to be carefully controlled for.

  14. Investigation of techniques to quantify in vivo lesion volume based on comparison of water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with histology in focal cerebral ischemia of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Mark; Silva, Matthew D; Li, Fuhai; Fisher, Marc; Sotak, Christopher H

    2004-06-01

    Stroke lesion-volume estimates derived from calculated water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps provide a quantitative surrogate end-point for investigating the efficacy of drug treatment or studying the temporal evolution of cerebral ischemia. Methodology is described for estimating ischemic lesion volumes in a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) based on absolute and percent-reduction threshold values of the water ADC at 3 h post-MCAO. Volume estimates derived from average ADC (ADC(av)) maps were compared with those derived from post-mortem histological sections. Optimum ADC thresholds were established as those that provided the best correlation and one-to-one correspondence between ADC- and histologically derived lesion-volume estimates. At 3 h post-MCAO, an absolute-ADC(av) threshold of 47 x 10(-5) mm(2)/s (corresponding to a 33% reduction in ADC(av) based on a contralateral hemisphere comparison) provided the most accurate estimate of percent hemispheric lesion volume (%HLV). Experimental and data analysis issues for improving and validating the usefulness of DWI as a surrogate endpoint for the quantification of ischemic lesion volume are discussed.

  15. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnsorg, R.W.; Hollar, W.E. Jr.; Lau, S.K. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States). Technology Div.; Ko, F.K.; Schatz, K. [Advanced Product Development, Bristol, PA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    As reinforcements for composites, VLS SiC fibrils have attractive mechanical properties including high-strength, high modulus, and excellent creep resistance. To make use of their excellent mechanical properties in a composite, a significant volume fraction (>10%) of aligned, long fibrils (>2 mm) needs to be consolidated in the ceramic matrix. The fibrils must be processed into an assembly that will allow for composite fabrication while maintaining fibril alignment and length. With Advanced Product Development (APD) as the yam fabrication subcontractor, Carborundum investigated several approaches to achieve this goaL including traditional yam-forming processes such as carding and air-vortex spinning and nontraditional processes such as tape forming and wet casting. Carborundum additionally performed an economic analysis for producing 500 and 10,000 pounds of SiC fibrils annually using both conservative and more aggressive processing parameters. With the aggressive approach, the projected costs for SiC fibril production for 500 and 10,000 pounds per year are $1,340/pound and $340/pound, respectively.

  16. VIDEOLARYNGOSCOPIC SURGEY IN BENIGN LARYNGEAL LESIONS-OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : Benign laryngeal lesions are commonly encountered causes of dysphonia and are often surgically correctable. A prospective study on 62 cases selected for videolaryngoscopic surgery was undertaken in a single unit in the department of ENT, Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram. The male: female ratio was 1.8:1 and the most common affected age group was 35-45 yrs. The most common benign lesion was vocal polyp. Preoperative voice assessment and 70 degree endoscopy was done. Follow up visits were done at 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks and voice assessment and laryngoscopic appearances were noted. 98% reported excellent improvement of voice. The varieties of benign lesions which cause hoarseness are sources of concern and worry as it can affect the self esteem of a person. Thus videolaryngoscopic surgery (VLS coupled with voice therapy offers cost effective and safe management in benign laryngeal lesions

  17. Ventromedial and medial preoptic hypothalamic ibotenic acid lesions potentiate systemic morphine analgesia in female, but not male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Lovric, Jelena; Chen, Chia-Chien; Pytte, Carolyn L; Bodnar, Richard J

    2010-12-25

    Sex differences in systemic morphine analgesia occur with male rodents displaying significantly greater analgesic magnitudes and potencies than females. Neonatal androgenization, and to a lesser degree, adult ovariectomy enhance systemic morphine analgesia in female rats, implicating both organizational and activational effects of gonadal hormones. The neuroanatomical circuits sensitive to sex-related hormones by which females display a smaller opiate analgesic effect is not clear, but the ventromedial (VMH) and medial preoptic (MPOA) hypothalamic nuclei are critical in the monitoring of estradiol and other sex hormone levels. To assess the contribution of these nuclei to sex and adult gonadectomy differences in systemic morphine analgesia, intact male, intact female and adult ovariectomized (OVEX) female rats received bilateral saline (SAL) or ibotenic acid (IBO) microinjections into either the VMH or MPOA. Following surgeries, baseline tail-flick latencies over 120 minutes (min) were assessed over 4 days in all nine groups with intact females tested in the estrus phase of their cycle. All animals then received an ascending series of morphine (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0mg/kg) injections 30min prior to the tail-flick test time course with 8-12 day inter-injection intervals between doses. Baseline latencies failed to differ between SAL-treated intact males and females, but were significantly higher in SAL-treated OVEX females. Both VMH IBO and MPOA IBO lesions increased baseline latencies in intact male and female rats, but not in OVEX females. SAL-treated intact males (ED(50)=4.0mg/kg) and SAL-treated OVEX females (ED(50)=3.5mg/kg) displayed significantly greater potencies of systemic morphine analgesia than SAL-treated intact females (ED(50)=6.3mg/kg), confirming previous gender and gonadectomy differences. Neither VMH IBO (ED(50)=3.7 mg/kg) nor MPOA IBO (ED(50)=4.1mg/kg) males differed from SAL-treated males in the potency of systemic morphine analgesia. In

  18. Neurodegenerative Shielding by Curcumin and Its Derivatives on Brain Lesions Induced by 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sunder Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study was undertaken to evaluate the neurodegenerative defending potential of curcumin (CUR, demethoxycurcumin (DMC, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC on 6-hydroxydopamine-(6-OHDA induced Parkinsonism model in rats. Curcuminoids were administered (60 mg/kg, body weight, per oral for three weeks followed by unilateral injection of 6-OHDA on 22nd day (10 μg/2 μL into the right striatum leading to extensive loss of dopaminergic cells. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine (DA, DOPAC, and HVA followed by dopamine (D2 receptor binding assay and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, using immunohistochemistry were evaluated using HPLC after three weeks of lesion. Pretreated animals showed significant protection against neuronal degeneration compared to lesion animals by normalizing the deranged levels of biomarkers and showed the potency in the order CUR > DMC > BDMC. The same order of effectiveness was observed in D2 receptors binding assay and TH immunohistochemistry study. We conclude that curcuminoids appear to shield progressive neuronal degeneration from increased oxidative attack in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats through its free radical scavenging mechanism, and DA, DOPAC, and HVA enhancing capabilities in the sequence of efficacy CUR > DMC > BDMC. Further, curcuminoids may have potential utility in treatment of many more oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disorders.

  19. Induction of lung lesions in Wistar rats by 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone and its inhibition by aspirin and phenethyl isothiocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Dong

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of effective chemopreventive agents against cigarette smoke-induced lung cancer could be greatly facilitated by suitable laboratory animal models, such as animals treated with the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK. In the current study, we established a novel lung cancer model in Wistar rats treated with NNK. Using this model, we assessed the effects of two chemopreventive agents, aspirin and phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC, on tumor progression. Methods First, rats were treated with a single-dose of NNK by intratracheal instillation; control rats received iodized oil. The animals were then sacrificed on the indicated day after drug administration and examined for tumors in the target organs. PCNA, p63 and COX-2 expression were analyzed in the preneoplastic lung lesions. Second, rats were treated with a single-dose of NNK (25 mg/kg body weight in the absence or presence of aspirin and/or PEITC in the daily diet. The control group received only the vehicle in the regular diet. The animals were sacrificed on day 91 after bronchial instillation of NNK. Lungs were collected and processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical assays. Results NNK induced preneoplastic lesions in lungs, including 33.3% alveolar hyperplasia and 55.6% alveolar atypical dysplasia. COX-2 expression increased similarly in alveolar hyperplasia and alveolar atypical dysplasia, while PCNA expression increased more significantly in the latter than the former. No p63 expression was detected in the preneoplastic lesions. In the second study, the incidences of alveolar atypical dysplasia were reduced to 10%, 10% and 0%, respectively, in the aspirin, PEITC and aspirin and PEITC groups, compared with 62.5% in the carcinogen-treated control group. COX-2 expression decreased after dietary aspirin or aspirin and PEITC treatment. PCNA expression was significantly reduced in the aspirin and PEITC

  20. Spatial and cellular expression patterns of Erythropoietin-Receptor and Erythropoietin during a 42 day post-lesional time-course after graded thoracic spinal cord impact lesions in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Gesa; Goerden, Stephan; Lucius, Ralf; Synowitz, Michael; Mehdorn, Maximilian Hubertus; Held-Feindt, Janka; Knerlich-Lukoschus, Friederike

    2017-09-12

    Erythropoietin (Epo) exhibits promising neuroregenerative potential for spinal cord injury (SCI) and might be involved in other long-term sequelae, such as neuropathic pain development. The current studies investigated the time courses and spatial and cellular patterns of Epo and EpoR expression along the spinal axis after graded SCI. Male Long Evans rats received 100-kdyn, 150-kdyn, and 200-kdyn thoracic (T9) contusions from an Infinite Horizon Impactor. Sham controls received laminectomies. Anatomical and quantitative immunohistochemical analyses of the EpoR/Epo expression along the whole spinal axis were performed 7, 15, and 42 DPO after the lesioning. Cellular expression was investigated by double- and triple-labeling for EpoR/Epo with cellular markers and proliferating cells in subgroups of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-pre-treated animals. Prolonged EpoR/Epo-expression was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Quantified EpoR/Epo immunoreactivities in pain-related spinal cord regions and ventro-lateral white matter (VLWM) were correlated with the mechanical sensitivity thresholds and locomotor function of the respective animals. EpoR and Epo were constitutively expressed in the ventral horn neurons, vascular, and glial cells in the dorsal columns (DC) and the VLWM. After SCI, in addition to expression in the lesion core, EpoR/Epo-immunoreactivities exhibited significant time- and lesion grade-dependent induction in the DC and VLWM along the spinal axis. EpoR and Epo immunoreactive cells co-stained with markers for astroglial, neural precursor cell and vascular markers. In the VLWM, EpoR- and Epo-positive proliferating cells were co-stained with GFAP and nestin. The DC EpoR/Epo immunoreactivities exhibited linear relationships with the behavioral correlates of post-lesional chronic pain development at DPO 42. SCI leads to long-lasting multicellular EpoR/Epo induction beyond the lesion core in the spinal cord regions that are involved in central pain development and

  1. The distribution of radioactivity in brains of rats given (N-methyl- sup 11 C)PK 11195 in vivo after induction of a cortical ischaemic lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, J.E.; Hume, S.P.; Cullen, B.M.; Myers, R.; Manjil, L.G.; Turton, D.R.; Luthra, S.K.; Bateman, D.M.; Pike, V.W. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom). M.R.C. Cyclotron Unit)

    1992-02-01

    PK 11195 is a selective ligand for the peripheral-type benzodiazepine bindings site (PTBBS). There are few sites in normal brain but their number increases in association with tissue necrosis. The time-course of appearance of PTBBS around a focally induced ischaemic lesion in frontal cortex of rat brain was established by autoradiography using (N-methyl-{sup 3} H )PK 11195. Using this information and the same experimental model of ischaemia, the distribution of radioactivity after injection of carbon-11 labelled PK 11195 was studied. The purpose was to synthesize (N-methyl-{sup 11}C)PK 11195 and to test its suitability as a tracer for depicting the presence of PTBB in ischaemic lesions. The time-profiles of distribution of radioactivity in brain regions after intravenous injection of tracer and the ratio of radioactivity in lesioned compared with unlesioned cortex were determined. Data for the temporal (days after lesion induction) and for the regional retention of radioactivity were consistent with independent evidence (autoradiographic and immunohistochemical) for the occurence of increased numbers of PTBBS, predominantly in association with macrophages, in areas undergoing necrosis. (Author).

  2. K-ras mutations and mucin profile in preneoplastic lesions and colon tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Tarquini, Elena; Salvadori, Maddalena; Ferri, Stefania; Giannini, Augusto; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    K-ras and mucin profile variations, associated with intestinal carcinogenesis, were studied in the preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and in colonic tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The frequency of lesions with K-ras mutations was 23% (3/13), 5.5% (1/18) and 100% (14/14) in MDF, tumors and ACF, respectively. Two of three MDF mutated in K-ras also carried a missense mutation in Apc. We also tested the expression of MUC2, a mucin abundantly expressed in normal colon and M1/MUCA5C, up-regulated in colon carcinogenesis, using immunohistochemistry. MDF and tumors showed a dramatic reduction in the expression of MUC2, whereas ACF showed only a slight reduction. The expression of M1/MUC5AC was almost absent in normal mucosa, but was increased in all the lesions (MDF, tumors and ACF). The expression of the intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), a marker of goblet cell lineage, was reduced in MDF and tumors compared to normal mucosa but not in ACF. In conclusion, although K-ras mutations are present in all ACF, they are less frequent in MDF and tumors; M1/MUC5AC is a marker associated with all preneoplastic events while the reduction of MUC2 and ITF expression is selectively associated with more advanced lesions such as MDF and tumors. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Lesion in the lateral cerebellum specifically produces overshooting of the toe trajectory in leading forelimb during obstacle avoidance in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Sho; Sato, Yamato; Yanagihara, Dai

    2013-10-01

    During locomotion, stepping over an obstacle under visual guidance is crucial to continuous safe walking. Studies of the role of the central nervous system in stepping movements have focused on cerebral cortical areas such as the primary motor cortex and posterior parietal cortex. There is speculation that the lateral cerebellum, which has strong anatomical connections with the cerebral cortex, also plays a key role in stepping movements over an obstacle, although this function of the lateral cerebellum has not yet been elucidated. Here we investigated the role of the lateral cerebellum during obstacle avoidance locomotion in rats with a lateral cerebellar lesion. A unilateral lesion in the lateral cerebellum did not affect limb movements during overground locomotion. Importantly, however, the lesioned animals showed overshooting of the toe trajectory specific to the leading forelimb ipsilateral to the lesion when stepping over an obstacle, and the peak toe position, in which the toe is maximally raised during stepping, shifted away from the upper edge of the obstacle. Recordings of EMG activity from elbow flexor and extensor muscles suggested that the overshooting toe trajectory in the ipsilateral leading forelimb possibly resulted from sustained elbow flexion and delayed elbow extension following prolonged activity of the biceps brachii. These results suggest that the lateral cerebellum specifically contributes to generating appropriate toe trajectories in the ipsilateral leading forelimb and to controlling related muscle activities in stepping over an obstacle, especially when accurate control of the distal extremity is achieved under visual guidance.

  4. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-receptor antagonist on sleep-wakefulness cycles following lesion to the ventrolateral preoptic area in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Yina Sun; Peng Xie; Xuguang Yang; Yiping Hou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in the regulation of wakefulness to sleep, as well as the maintenance of sleep. However, the role of GABAergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMn), with regard to the sleep-wakefulness cycle, is poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of GABAergic neurons in the TMn on the sleep-wakefulness cycle.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized controlled study, performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University from July 2007 to February 2008.MATERIALS: Fifteen healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups(n = 5): control, ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) lesion, and VLPO lesion plus GABAA receptor antagonist-treated. Ibotenic acid and bicuculline were provided by Sigma (St. Louis, USA). METHODS: Four electroencephalogram screw electrodes were implanted into the skull at a frontal region (two) and parietal bones (two) on each side. Three flexible electromyogram wire electrodes were placed into the nuchal muscles. On day 8, a fine glass micropipette (10-20 mm tip diameter) containing ibotenic acid solution (10 nmol/L) was injected into the VLPO in both hemispheres following bone wax removal under anesthesia. One week after the second surgery, sleep-wakefulness states were recorded in rats from the VLPO lesion group. On day 10 after VLPO lesion, bicuculline (10 nmol/L), a GABAA-receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the TMn and sleep-wakefulness states were recorded for 24 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in each group using a Data acquisition unit (Micro1 401 mk2) and Data collection software (Spike Ⅱ). RESULTS: VLPO lesion induced an increased duration of wakefulness (W, 13.17%) and light slow-wave sleep (SWS1, 28.9%), respectively. Deep slow-wave sleep (SWS2, 43.74%) and paradoxical sleep (PS

  5. Acute toxicity and gastroprotection studies of a new schiff base derived copper (II complex against ethanol-induced acute gastric lesions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Hajrezaie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Copper is an essential element in various metabolisms. The investigation was carried out to evaluate acute gastroprotective effects of the Copper (II complex against ethanol-induced superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into 7 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were orally administered with Tween 20 (10% v/v. Group 3 was orally administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (10% Tween 20. Groups 4-7 received 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg of the complex (10% Tween 20, respectively. Tween 20 (10% v/v was given orally to group 1 and absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2-7, respectively. Rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Group 2 exhibited severe superficial hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. Gastric wall mucus was significantly preserved by the pre-treatment complex. The results showed a significant increase in glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, nitric oxide (NO, and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2 activities and a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA level. Histology showed marked reduction of hemorrhagic mucosal lesions in groups 4-7. Immunohistochemical staining showed up-regulation of Hsp70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. PAS staining of groups 4-7 showed intense stain uptake of gastric mucosa. The acute toxicity revealed the non-toxic nature of the compound. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The gastroprotective effect of the Copper (II complex may possibly be due to preservation of gastric wall mucus; increase in PGE(2 synthesis; GSH, SOD, and NO up-regulation of Hsp70 protein; decrease in MDA level; and down-regulation of Bax protein.

  6. Unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway decreases the response of fast-spiking interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex to 5-HT1A receptor agonist and expression of the receptor in parvalbumin-positive neurons in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Z H; Zhang, Q J; Liu, J; Zhang, L; Ali, U; Hou, C; Fan, L L; Sun, Y N; Wu, Z H; Hui, Y P

    2011-10-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine(1A) (5-HT(1A)) receptors are expressed in the prefrontal cortical interneurons. Among these interneurons, calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV)-positive fast spiking (FS) interneurons play an important role in regulatory function of the prefrontal cortex. In the present study, the response of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) FS interneurons to the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and change in expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor on PV-positive neurons were examined in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) by using extracellular recording and double-labeling immunofluorescence histochemistry. Systemic administration of 8-OH-DPAT (1-243 μg/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently inhibited the mean firing rate of the FS interneurons in sham-operated and the lesioned rats, respectively. The cumulative doses producing inhibition in the lesioned rats (243 μg/kg) was significantly higher than that of sham-operated rats (27 μg/kg). Furthermore, the local application of 8-OH-DPAT (0.01 μg) in the mPFC inhibited the FS interneurons in sham-operated rats, while having no effect on firing rate of the FS interneurons in the lesioned rats. In contrast to sham-operated rats, the lesion of the SNc in rats did not cause the change of PV-positive neurons in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex, a subregion of the mPFC, whereas the lesion of the SNc markedly reduced in percentage of PV-positive neurons expressing 5-HT(1A) receptors. Our results indicate that degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway results in the decreased response of FS interneurons in the mPFC to 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, which attributes to down-regulation of 5-HT(1A) receptor expression in these interneurons.

  7. Downregulation of TMEM70 in Rat Liver Cells After Hepatocarcinogen Treatment Related to the Warburg Effect in Hepatocarcinogenesis Producing GST-P-Expressing Proliferative Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Sayaka; Watanabe, Yousuke; Nakajima, Kota; Hasegawa-Baba, Yasuko; Jin, Meilan; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-09-01

    We previously observed downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation-related protein, TMEM70, which is suggestive of disrupted cellular senescence, in GST-P-expressing (+) proliferative lesions from early hepatocarcinogenesis stages in rats. The present study investigated the immunohistochemical relationship between TMEM70 downregulation and cellular metabolic changes in carcinogenic processes, as well as the onset of the liver cell respiratory changes after repeated hepatocarcinogen treatment in rats. At the early hepatocarcinogenesis stage in a 2-stage model, GST-P+ preneoplastic lesions showing TMEM70 downregulation also downregulated the mitochondrial ATPase, ATPB, but upregulated glycolysis-related glucose transporter member 1 (GLUT1) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect. Combined downregulation of TMEM70 and ATPB increased proliferation activity in GST-P+ preneoplastic lesions, suggesting cell proliferation facilitation by reducing mitochondrial respiration. Concurrent GLUT1-upregulation and TMEM70-downregulation increased nuclear phosphorylated c-MYC+ cells in GST-P+ preneoplastic lesions, suggesting c-MYC-mediated transcription facilitation to promote glycolysis and cell proliferation. The TMEM70-related metabolic shift was enhanced in GST-P+ neoplastic lesions, suggesting a contribution to tumor progression. Conversely, the TMEM70-related metabolic shift was lacking in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonist-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as in carcinogenic processes targeting other organs. Transcript expression analysis following 28- and 90-day repeated hepatocarcinogen treatment showed downregulation of Tmem70 from day 28 and upregulation of Pkm and Myc at day 90, suggesting early onset of a catastrophic cellular senescence-related metabolic shift beginning from depressed mitochondrial respiration in the liver. These

  8. Chronic administration of the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin ameliorates the behavioral and morphological changes induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ramos, Brenda; Tecuatl, Carolina; Juárez, Ismael; Adame, Anthony; de la Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio; Mena, Raúl; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) in rats has been widely used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that nVHLs result in dendritic retraction and spine loss in prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, has been reported to ameliorate the synaptic and dendritic pathology in models of aging and neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome. This study sought to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations in nVHL rats. The behavioral analysis included locomotor activity induced by novel environment and amphetamine, social interaction, and sensoriomotor gating. The morphological evaluation included dendritic analysis by using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in PFC and NAcc. Behavioral data show a reduction in the hyperresponsiveness to novel environment- and amphetamine-induced locomotion, with an increase in the total time spent in social interactions and in prepulse inhibition in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. In addition, neuropathological analysis of the limbic regions also showed amelioration of dendritic retraction and spine loss in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. Cbl treatment also ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the PFC and NAcc in nVHL rats. This study demonstrates that Cbl promotes behavioral improvements and recovery of dendritic neuronal damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that Cbl may have neurotrophic effects in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. These findings support the possibility that Cbl has beneficial effects in the management of schizophrenia symptoms.

  9. The effects of various lesions and knife-cuts on septal and amygdala kindling in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, R J; Paxinos, G; Mosher, J M; Kairiss, E W

    1988-06-28

    Large bilateral aspiration lesions of the hippocampus had no significant effect on septal kindling, whereas large bilateral DC lesions of the pyriform lobe resulted in a small but significant increase in the number of septal stimulations required to complete kindling. Bilateral aspiration lesions of the dorsal hippocampus or large bilateral DC lesions of the ventral hippocampus had no effect on amygdala kindling. Small DC lesions of the stria terminalis significantly facilitated amygdala kindling. Unilateral or bilateral ventral knife-cuts delivered in a coronal plane anterior to the amygdala, disrupting communication with anterior pyriform structures, produced a small but nearly significant increase in the number of stimulations required for amygdala kindling. Similar cuts placed posterior to the amygdala, disrupting communication with the hippocampus, significantly facilitated kindling. Cuts that were medially placed, to disrupt the ventral amygdala-fugal pathway, had no effect on amygdala kindling. These results show that the hippocampus is not critical for either septal or amygdala kindling. The pyriform lobe structures appear to play a facilitatory role in kindling, but none of the lesions or knife-cuts were capable of blocking or even severely retarding kindling.

  10. High frequency electro-acupuncture enhances striatum DAT and D1 receptor expression, but decreases D2 receptor level in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Gao; Guangjian, Zhang; Yong, Wang; Jie, Feng; Yanchao, Cui; Xi, Jia; Fen, Li

    2013-01-15

    The direct effects of electro-acupuncture (EA) on the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients remain elusive. In the present study, 0, 2 or 100Hz EA was applied to acupoints Sanyinjiao (SP6), Yanglingquan (GB34) and Zusanli (ST36) in a rat model unilaterally lesioned by 6-hydroxydopamine. Rotational behavior tests were performed and the animals were then decapitated. Levels of striatal dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter, and D1- and D2-like DA receptors were subsequently evaluated. EA at 100 Hz was shown to significantly enhance survival of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (52.10 ± 11.41% of the level on the non-lesioned rats vs. 21.22 ± 5.52% in the non-EA group, P0.05 vs. the non-EA group). There was a 253.78% increase in dopamine transporter protein expression in the striatum in the 100 Hz EA group (P0.05 vs. the sham operation group). These findings suggest that high-frequency EA might work by acting on presynaptic dopamine transporter and postsynaptic dopamine receptors simultaneously to achieve a therapeutic effect in PD patients and models. This might shed some light on the mechanism by which EA affects the DA neurotransmitter system.

  11. The H3 receptor agonist immepip does not affect l-dopa-induced abnormal involuntary movements in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanou, Maria; Jenner, Peter; Iravani, Mahmoud; Jackson, Michael; Stockwell, Kim; Strang, Isabel; Zeng, Bai-Yun; McCreary, Andrew C; Rose, Sarah

    2014-10-15

    The treatment of dyskinesia in Parkinson׳s disease remains poor but H3 receptor agonists have been suggested as a novel pharmacological approach. We examined the effects of the H3 agonist, immepip, in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats exhibiting AIMs (abnormal involuntary movements), a rat analogue of dyskinesia, in response to l-dopa compared to the known anti-dyskinetic agents amantadine, MK-801 and 8-OHDPAT. We then attempted to extend these studies in to dyskinetic 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated common marmosets. Amantadine, MK-801 and 8-OHDPAT all dose-dependently reduced l-dopa-induced axial, lingual and oral (ALO) AIMs in 6-OHDA-lesioned animals accompanied by a reduction in contralateral rotation with higher doses of amantadine and MK-801. By contrast, immepip had no effect on AIMs expression or contralateral rotation. In the MPTP-treated common marmoset exhibiting dyskinesia to l-dopa, immepip alone induced retching and in combination with l-dopa administered subcutaneously or orally induced the rapid onset of retching and vomiting which was not controlled by pretreatment with domperidone. Administration of the unrelated H3 agonist, imetit had the same effect. Despite causing negative side-effects, it appears that both agonists reduced the antiparkinsonian response to l-dopa resulting in reduced dyskinesia. H3 agonists appear unlikely candidates for the treatment of dyskinesia in PD based on lack of evidence of efficacy and potential adverse effects.

  12. Taenia taeniaeformis in rat favors protracted skin lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 are dispensable for clearance of this fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Zhang

    Full Text Available We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.

  13. Taenia taeniaeformis in rat favors protracted skin lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii infection: Dectin-1 and IL-17 are dispensable for clearance of this fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jing; Huang, Huaiqiu; Xue, Ruzeng; Hu, Xuchu; Li, Meirong; Zhong, Yi; Yuan, Liyan

    2012-01-01

    We occasionally found that cestode Taenia taeniaeformis in rats favored Sporothrix schenckii infection and survival, causing protracted cutaneous lesions. In this study, we compared the pathology and cytokines profile of rats co-infected with the two pathogens and infected with S. schenckii alone to explore underlying mechanisms. In the co-infection group, there was high expression of β-glucan receptor Dectin-1 in the cutaneous lesions and no multinucleated giant cells, but in the S. schenckii infection group the opposite was observed. Cytokines profiles demonstrated an expected finding that IL-4, commonly expressed in helminth and fungus infection, is undetectable in the two infection groups. In the single fungal infection group, cytokines IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 kept increasing in the first few weeks of infection to a peak which was followed by gradual decrease. This study showed that Dectin-1 and IL-17, which were believed to be the major anti-fungus mechanisms, are Th2 independent and dispensable for clearance of S. schenckii infection, suggesting that S. schenckii has a different molecular recognition pattern and evokes anti-infection mechanisms other than Dectin-1 and IL-17.

  14. Serotonergic and noradrenergic lesions suppress the enhancing effect of maternal exercise during pregnancy on learning and memory in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M M; Emami-Abarghoie, M; Safari, M; Sadighi-Moghaddam, B; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2008-02-19

    The beneficial effects of exercise on learning and memory are well documented but the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal exercise on offspring are not clear yet. Using a two-trial-per-day Morris water maze for five consecutive days, succeeded by a probe trial 2 days later we showed that maternal voluntary exercise (wheel running) by pregnant rats increased the acquisition phase of the pups' learning. Maternal forced swimming by pregnant rats increased both acquisition and retention phases of the pups' learning. Also we found that the rat pups whose mother was submitted to forced-swimming during pregnancy had significantly higher brain, liver, heart and kidney weights compared with their sedentary counterparts. On the other hand we estimated the cell number of different regions of the hippocampus in the rat pups. We found that both exercise models during pregnancy increased the cell number in cornus ammonis subregion 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rat pups. To determine the role that noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors hold in mediation of the maternal exercise in offspring, we used N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and MK-801 to eliminate or block the above systems, respectively. Blocking the NMDA receptors, significantly abolished learning and memory in rat pups from all three experimental groups. Elimination of noradrenergic or serotonergic input did not significantly attenuate the learning and memory in rat pups whose mothers were sedentary, while it significantly reversed the positive effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on rat pups' learning and memory. The presented results suggest that noradrenergic and serotonergic systems in offspring brain seem to have a crucial specific role in mediating the effects of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on rat pups' cognitive function in both models of voluntary and forced exercise.

  15. Engineering scale development of the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process for the production of silicon carbide fibrils and linear fibril assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenhover, M.; Biernacki, J. [Carborundum Co., Niagara Falls, NY (United States); Schatz, K.; Ko, F. [Advanced Product Development, Inc., Bristol, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    In order to exploit the superior thermomechanical properties of the VLS fibril, the feasibility of scaled-up production of the SiC fibril is demonstrated in this study. Through time series study and computer simulation, the parameters affecting the growth process and properties of the fibrils were examined. To facilitate translation of the superior mechanical properties into higher level preform structures, conventional and unconventional processing methods were evaluated. As revealed by scanning electron microscopic examination and X-ray diffractometry, high level alignment of the fibrils was achieved by the wet-laid process.

  16. Development of periradicular lesions in normal and diabetic rats Desenvolvimento de lesões perirradiculares em ratos normais e diabéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Armada-Dias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that diabetic patients are more significantly affected by problems of endodontic origin. This study sought to radiographically and histologically examine the development of periradicular inflammation in control and in diabetic rats after induction of pulpal infection. The pulps of the mandibular first molars of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were exposed and left in contact with their oral cavities for 21 and 40 days. Afterwards, the animals were sacrificed, the mandibles were surgically removed, fixed in formalin and then radiographed in a standardized position. The radiographic images of the periradicular lesions were scanned and computerized images were evaluated for the total area of the lesions using a specific software. Representative specimens were also prepared for histopathological analysis. Radiographic analysis revealed that diabetic rats presented significantly larger periradicular lesions when compared with control rats, regardless of the experimental period (pEvidências indicam que pacientes diabéticos são mais significativamente afetados por problemas de origem endodôntica. Este estudo avaliou radiográfica e histologicamente o desenvolvimento de inflamação perirradicular em ratos controle e diabéticos depois da indução de infecção pulpar. As polpas dos primeiros molares inferiores de ratos normais ou diabéticos foram expostas e deixadas em contato com a cavidade oral por 21 e 40 dias. Em seguida, os animais foram sacrificados, as mandíbulas removidas cirurgicamente, fixadas em formalina e depois radiografadas em posição padronizada. As imagens radiográficas das lesões perirradiculares foram escaneadas e as imagens computadorizadas avaliadas quanto à área total das lesões usando software específico. Espécimes representativos foram preparados também para análise histológica. A análise radiográfica revelou que os ratos diabéticos apresentaram lesões periradiculares

  17. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain lesions using S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies in arundic acid- (ONO-2506) treated stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Hideaki; Niwa, Atsuko; Satou, Takao; Ohta, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Tabuchi, Masaki; Ooshima, Kana

    2009-10-01

    Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) used as a model of essential hypertension cause a high incidence of brain stroke on the course of hypertension. Incidences and sizes of brain lesions are known to relate to the astrocyte activities. Therefore, relation between brain damage and the expression profile of the astrocytes was investigated with morphometric and immunohistochemical analyses using astrocyte marker antibodies of S100B and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with or without arundic acid administration, a suppressor on the activation of astrocytes. Arundic acid extended the average life span of SHRSP. An increase in brain tissue weight was inhibited concomitant with a lower rate of gliosis/hemosiderin deposit/scarring in brain lesions. S100B- or GFAP-positive dot and filamentous structures were decreased in arundic acid-treated SHRSP, and this effect was most pronounced in the cerebral cortex, white matter, and pons, and less so in the hippocampus, diencephalon, midbrain, and cerebellum. Blood pressure decreased after administration of arundic acid in the high-dose group (100 mg/kg/day arundic acid), but not in the low-dose group (30 mg/kg/day). These data indicate that arundic acid can prevent hypertension-induced stroke, and may inhibit the enlargement of the stroke lesion by preventing the inflammatory changes caused by overproduction of the S100B protein in the astrocytes.

  18. Co-localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and wild-type huntingtin in normal and quinolinic acid-lesioned rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Francesca R; Zuccato, Chiara; Tartari, Marzia; Martorana, Alessandro; De March, Zena; Giampà, Carmela; Cattaneo, Elena; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2003-09-01

    Loss of huntingtin-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene transcription has been described in Huntington's disease (HD) [Zuccato et al. (2001) Science, 293, 493-498]. It has been shown that BDNF is synthesized in the pyramidal layer of cerebral cortex and released in the striatum [Altar et al. (1997) Nature, 389, 856-860; Conner et al. (1997) J. Neurosci., 17, 2295-2313]. Here we show the cellular localization of BDNF in huntingtin-containing neurons in normal rat brain; our double-label immunofluorescence study shows that huntingtin and BDNF are co-contained in approximately 99% of pyramidal neurons of motor cortex. In the striatum, huntingtin is expressed in 75% of neurons containing BDNF. In normal striatum we also show that BDNF is contained in cholinergic and in NOS-containing interneurons, which are relatively resistant to HD degeneration. Furthermore, we show a reduction in huntingtin and in BDNF immunoreactivity in cortical neurons after striatal excitotoxic lesion. Our data are confirmed by an ELISA study of BDNF and by a Western blot analysis of huntingtin in cortex of quinolic acid (QUIN)-lesioned hemispheres. In the lesioned striatum we describe that the striatal subpopulation of cholinergic neurons, surviving degeneration, contain BDNF. The finding that BDNF is contained in nearly all neurons that contain huntingtin in the normal cortex, along with the reduced expression of BDNF after QUIN injection of the striatum, shows that huntingtin may be required for BDNF production in cortex.

  19. Neuroprotection from NMDA excitotoxic lesion by Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene delivery to the postnatal rat brain by a modular protein vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano Bernardo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superoxide mediated oxidative stress is a key neuropathologic mechanism in acute central nervous system injuries. We have analyzed the neuroprotective efficacy of the transient overexpression of antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD after excitotoxic injury to the immature rat brain by using a recently constructed modular protein vector for non-viral gene delivery termed NLSCt. For this purpose, animals were injected with the NLSCt vector carrying the Cu/Zn SOD or the control GFP transgenes 2 hours after intracortical N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA administration, and daily functional evaluation was performed. Moreover, 3 days after, lesion volume, neuronal degeneration and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results Overexpression of Cu/Zn SOD transgene after NMDA administration showed improved functional outcome and a reduced lesion volume at 3 days post lesion. In secondary degenerative areas, increased neuronal survival as well as decreased numbers of degenerating neurons and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity was seen. Interestingly, injection of the NLSCt vector carrying the control GFP transgene also displayed a significant neuroprotective effect but less pronounced. Conclusion When the appropriate levels of Cu/Zn SOD are expressed transiently after injury using the non-viral modular protein vector NLSCt a neuroprotective effect is seen. Thus recombinant modular protein vectors may be suitable for in vivo gene therapy, and Cu/Zn SOD should be considered as an interesting therapeutic transgene.

  20. Pre-neoplastic lesion, mucin-depleted foci, reveals de novo high-grade dysplasia in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Changxu; Takamatsu, Reika; Doguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Akiko; Saio, Masanao; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2012-05-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) have recently been recognized as pre-neoplastic lesions in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents. In the present study, we analyzed the sequential development of ACF and MDF histopathologically in the colon of rats from 5 to 40 weeks after DMH treatment. The numbers of ACF per colon increased over time during the experiment, and were much higher than the number in tumors, while the number of MDF per colon remained unchanged from the early stage (the 5th week after carcinogen exposure), and approximate to those in tumors. The incidence of ACF, which was much higher than that of tumors, also increased gradually in a time-dependent manner. The incidence of MDF, however, was similar to that of tumors and did not change significantly during the whole experiment. No lesion as dysplasia with high-grade (DHG) or adenocarcinoma (AC) were found in any large ACF from the 5th to 40th week histopathologically, whereas all of the large MDF showed DHG or AC features. Even at 5 weeks, MDF showed features of DHG. We classified these into two forms of MDF: flat and protruded MDF. At 40 weeks, the number of flat MDF per colon decreased significantly compared with that at 20 weeks (pMDF per colon increased (pMDF lesion decreased but that of AC increased remarkably. In conclusion, MDF may develop into cancer through the so-called 'de novo cancer' pathway.

  1. Electrolytic lesion of the nucleus raphe magnus reduced the antinociceptive effects of bilateral morphine microinjected into the nucleus cuneiformis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghparast, Abbas; Ordikhani-Seyedlar, Mehdi; Ziaei, Maryam

    2008-06-27

    Several lines of investigation show that the rostral ventromedial medulla is a critical relay for midbrain regions, including the nucleus cuneiformis (CnF), which control nociception at the spinal cord. There is some evidence that local stimulation or morphine administration into the CnF produces the effective analgesia through the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). The present study tries to determine the effect of morphine-induced analgesia following microinjection into the CnF in the absence of NRM. Seven days after the cannulae implantation, morphine was microinjected bilaterally into the CnF at the doses of 0.25, 1, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 microg/0.3 microl saline per side. The morphine-induced antinociceptive effect measured by tail-flick test at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after microinjection. The results showed that bilateral microinjection of morphine into the CnF dose-dependently causes increase in tail-flick latency (TFL). The 50% effective dose of morphine was determined and microinjected into the CnF (2.5 microg/0.3 microl saline per side) in rats after NRM electrolytic lesion (1 mA, 30 s). Lesion of the NRM significantly decreased TFLs, 30 (Peffects through the opioid receptors in the CnF. It is also appeared that morphine-induced antinociception decreases following the NRM lesion but it seems that there are some other descending pain modulatory pathways that activate in the absence of NRM.

  2. Impairment by 5-fluorouracil of the healing of gastric lesions in rats: effect of lafutidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, mediated by capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashima, Yukiko; Kotani, Tohru; Hayashi, Shusaku; Komatsu, Yoshino; Nakagiri, Akari; Amagase, Kikuko; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an anti-tumor agent, on the healing of gastric lesions generated by 0.6 M HCl in rats and the effect of lafutidine, a histamine H(2) receptor antagonist, on the impaired healing. Animals fasted for 18 h were given 1 ml of 0.6 M HCl p.o., fed normally from 1 h later, and killed 1-96 h thereafter. 5-FU was given i.v. twice, 1 h and 24 h after the HCl. The gastric lesions healed spontaneously within 96 h. Although it decreased acid secretion, 5-FU markedly delayed the healing. Lafutidine, but not cimetidine, given p.o. immediately after each dosing of 5-FU significantly reversed the delay in healing by 5-FU, and this effect was attenuated by the chemical ablation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons. Capsaicin also significantly reversed the delay in healing. The mucosal application of 50 mM HCl did not affect gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) in the normal stomach, but significantly increased it in the stomach damaged by 0.6 M HCl. The increases in GMBF were attenuated by 5-FU; however, the co-administration of lafutidine significantly restored the response. In addition, 5-FU inhibited both cell proliferation and migration in rat gastric epithelial cells (RGM1) in vitro. These results suggest that 5-FU delayed the healing of gastric lesions generated by 0.6 M HCl, probably through the inhibition of cell migration and proliferation, as well as the impairment of GMBF, and lafutidine reversed the delay in healing, mainly through the amelioration of the GMBF response mediated by capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons.

  3. Effects of a probiotic soy product and physical exercise on formation of pre-neoplastic lesions in rat colons in a short-term model of carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Elizeu A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose In this study the influence of moderate or intense physical exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soya product fermented with Enterococcus faecium, on the development of colon cancer induced chemically in rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, was investigated. Methods Eighty male Wistar SPF rats were randomly allocated to 8 groups (n = 10. One week after the start of the program of product ingestion and/or physical activity, all animals except the controls (group I were injected subcutaneously with 50 mg/kg b.w. of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH. This procedure was repeated at the end of the second week. At the end of the 6-week experiment, all the animals were euthanized; the colons were removed and numbers of ACF was estimated. Results Twenty-four days after the induction of pre-neoplastic lesions, it was evident that the formation of ACF was not significantly reduced by the ingestion of the fermented product, by intense or moderate physical activity or by a combination of these factors, in comparison with the positive control group of rats (p Conclusion The results reported in this article show that consumption of the fermented soy product described here and the practice of physical exercise (intense or moderate were incapable, separately or combined, of inhibiting the formation of ACF in DMH-induced rats. The intense physical exercise led to an increased number of foci in the colons of these rats and, probably, to greater susceptibility to colorectal cancer.

  4. Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant VlsE1 or peptide antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi compared with 2-tiered testing using whole-cell lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Rendi Murphree; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Schriefer, Martin E; Gilmore, Robert D; Philipp, Mario T; Steere, Allen C; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Johnson, Barbara J B

    2003-04-15

    In a study of US patients with Lyme disease, immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM antibody responses to recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi antigen VlsE1 (rVlsE1), IgG responses to a synthetic peptide homologous to a conserved internal sequence of VlsE (C6), and IgM responses to a synthetic peptide comprising the C-terminal 10 amino acid residues of a B. burgdorferi outer-surface protein C (pepC10) were evaluated by kinetic enzyme-linked immunoassay. At 99% specificity, the overall sensitivities for detecting IgG antibody to rVlsE1 or C6 in samples from patients with diverse manifestations of Lyme disease were equivalent to that of 2-tiered testing. When data were considered in parallel, 2 combinations (IgG responses to either rVlsE1 or C6 in parallel with IgM responses to pepC10) maintained high specificity (98%) and were significantly more sensitive than 2-tiered analysis in detecting antibodies to B. burgdorferi in patients with acute erythema migrans. In later stages of Lyme disease, the sensitivities of the in parallel tests and 2-tiered testing were high and statistically equivalent.

  5. Visualization of acute focal lesions in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by magnetic nanoparticles, comparing different MRI sequences including phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Marcel; Budinger, Eike; Zhong, Kai; Angenstein, Frank

    2014-05-01

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity of phase imaging (PI) with other magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods in lesion detection in rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), as an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). EAE was induced in rats (n = 14) by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of myelin basic protein (MBP) and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Control animals (n = 4) were given an s.c. injection of phosphate-buffered saline mixed with CFA. The development of local inflammatory processes, demyelinations, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruptions were monitored over 7 weeks in a 4.7T animal scanner by T1-, T2-, T2*-weighted images, magnetization transfer, and PI in the presence or absence of very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (VSOP) and confirmed by immunostaining using CD31, CD68, MBP, and albumin antibodies and Gallyas silver staining. EAE rats developed time-dependent local inflammations and BBB disruptions but no clear demyelinizations. In histological stainings these processes were trackable as accumulations of phagocytic monocytes and extravasal albumin. In MRI without application of VSOP inflammatory processes were not detectable. MRI in the presence of VSOP revealed inflammatory processes by the appearance of hypointense spots (hs). The specificity of PI to detect hs was similar to T1- and T2*-weighted images The calculated sensitivity was less than in corresponding T2*-weighted images. The diagnostic use of PI without VSOP as contrast agent to detect lesions is not recommended at field strength of 4.7T or lower. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Haloperidol treatment at pre-exposure phase reduces the disturbance of latent inhibition in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampus lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaz, Zakaria; Ba-M'hamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    Animals with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions develop during or after adolescence abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia such as anxiety and latent inhibition disruption. The aim of this study was to test whether haloperidol injection prior to pre-exposure session in the latent inhibition test would facilitate latent inhibition. Lesioned animals showed a significant decrease in the number and duration of social interactions, a decrease in the marbles buried, a significant increase in locomotor activity, and a disruption of latent inhibition. In the conditioned taste aversion test, injection of haloperidol produced the recovery of latent inhibition. These findings demonstrate that neonatal lidocaine lesion of the ventral hippocampus can induce behavioral changes related to schizophrenia, and injection of haloperidol, when restricted only to a three-day pre-exposure, is sufficient to facilitate latent inhibition.

  7. Administration of granulocyte colony stimulating factor after liver transplantation leads to an increased incidence and severity of ischemic biliary lesions in the rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olaf Dirsch; Haidong Chi; Yuan Ji; Yan Li Gu; Christoph E Broelsch; Uta Dahmen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: Recently it has been reported that granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) can induce hypercoagulability in healthy bone marrow donors. It is conceivable that the induction of a prothrombotic state in a recipient of an organ graft with already impaired perfusion might cause further deterioration in the transplanted organ. This study evaluated whether G-CSF treatment worsens liver perfusion following liver transplantation in the rat model.METHODS: A non-arterialized rat liver transplantation model was employed to evaluate the effect of G-CSF treatment on the liver in a syngeneic and allogeneic strain combination. Study outcomes included survival time and liver damage as investigated by liver enzymes and liver histology. Observation times were 1 d, 1 wk and 12 wk.RESULTS: Rats treated with G-CSF had increased incidence and severity of biliary damage following liver transplantation. In these animals, hepatocellular necrosis was accentuated in the centrilobular region. These lesions are indicative of impaired perfusion in G-CSF treated animals.CONCLUSION: G-CSF should be used with caution in recipients of liver transplantation, as treatment might enhance preexisting, undetected perfusion problems and ultimately lead to ischemia induced biliary complications.

  8. The mercapturic acid biotransformation pathway of hexachlorobenzene is not involved in the induction of splenomegaly, or skin and lung lesions in the Brown Norway rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michielsen, C.; Mil, F. van; Vos, J. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Pathology; Boeren, S.; Rietjens, I. [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Lab. of Biochemistry and Div. of Toxicology; Vos, J. [National Inst. of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven (Netherlands). Lab. for Pathology and Immunobiology; Bloksma, N. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology

    2000-12-01

    Involvement of the mercapturic acid pathway in the induction of splenomegaly and skin and lung pathology by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the rat was investigated by seeking to determine whether pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) has the same inflammatory effects as HCB, since both compounds are directly conjugated to glutathione, and further processed into the same mercapturic acid metabolites which are excreted via the urine. Female Brown Norway (BN/SsNOlaHsd) rats at 3 to 4 weeks of age were orally exposed to diets with or without supplementation with 450 mg HCB or equimolar (467 mg) or higher (934 mg) amounts of PCNB per kilogram of diet over 4 weeks. Gross skin lesion development and body weight grains were assessed during exposure and spleen and liver weights as well as histopathologic changes in skin and lung were assessed after exposure. After 3 weeks of exposure, urinary metabolites of the mercapturic acid and oxidative biotransformation pathways were identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). Oral exposure of the rats to 450 mg/kg HCB resulted in an increase in relative spleen and liver weights as well as in the development of skin and lung pathology in the absence of overall liver toxicity. Equimolar or higher concentrations of PCNB caused none of these effects. Urinary levels of the mercapturic acid N-acetyl-S-(pentachlorophenyl)-cysteine (PCP-NAC), were comparable in HCB- and PCNB-treated rats. Levels of closely related methylsulfide derivatives of PCP-NAC, also generated via the same mercapturic acid pathway, appeared to be significantly higher in PCNB- than in HCB-treated rats, whereas the reverse was true for the urinary levels of the oxidative metabolite pentachlorophenol (PCP). Thus, results indicate that metabolites of the mercapturic acid pathway are not involved in the induction of splenomegaly and skin and lung pathology caused by HCB exposure in BN rats and that the main urinary

  9. NEUROCHEMICAL LESIONING IN THE RAT-BRAIN WITH IONTOPHORETIC INJECTION OF THE 1-METHYL-4-PHENYLPYRIDINIUM ION (MPP+)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TERHORST, GJ; KNIGGE, MF; VANDERWAL, A

    1992-01-01

    Iontophoretic injections of the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) were made in the dopaminergic part of the substantia nigra to see whether this injection technique could be used for inducing localized neurochemical lesions in dopaminergic cell groups and to assess the effects of MPP+ on non-do

  10. Protective effects of progesterone against gastric mucosal lesion induced by open abdominal wound and seawater immersion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang PU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effects of progesterone on gastric mucosal inflammatory response, changes in mucosa structure, and cell apoptosis in rats with open abdominal wound and seawater immersion. Methods  Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 each. The rats in group A were subjected to open abdominal wound + subcutaneous injection of sterile water, and rats in group B to open abdominal wound + seawater immersion + subcutaneous injection of sterile water, and rats in group C to open abdominal wound + seawater immersion + progesterone treatment. The animal model of open abdominal wound and seawater immersion was reproduced, and the rats in groups B and C were given subcutaneous injection of sterile water or progesterone (16mg/kg at 1, 6 and 12h after immersion. All rats were executed at 16h after immersion. The ulcer index (UI of gastric mucosa was calculated in the three groups. The pathological changes in gastric mucosa were observed under light microscope. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL -6 in gastric mucosa were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay, the expression of caspase-3 in gastric mucosa was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the cell apoptosis of gastric mucosa was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining. Results  The UI, concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6, and injury score of gastric mucosa in group B were all significantly higher than those in group A (P<0.01 and group C (P<0.05. The expression of caspase-3 (23.8%±3.5% and apoptosis index (26.4%±2.8% of the gastric mucosa in group B were higher than those in group A (10.2%±1.6% and 8.5%±1.5% respectively, P<0.01 and group C (17.1%±2.3% and 19.8%±2.4% respectively, P<0.05. Conclusion  Progesterone administration could suppress gastric mucosa inflammation, protect gastric mucosal structure, and reduce mucosal cell apoptosis in the rats

  11. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Hao; Heintz, Ryan; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa; Scremin, Oscar; Maarek, Jean-Michel; Holschneider, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC) on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface “Cx-2D” allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex--changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and histologic

  12. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hao ePeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface Cx-2D allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex–-changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and

  13. Magnitude of GAP-43 induction following peripheral axotomy of adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons is independent of lesion distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabotis, S; Schreyer, D J

    1995-09-01

    Regenerative axon growth in peripheral neurons is accompanied by increased expression of the growth-associated protein GAP-43. We examined the increase of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in DRG neurons following lesions at different distances along the sciatic nerve, using immunocytochemistry. To control for the variable involvement of DRG axons following injury at different sites, injured neurons were identified by retrograde labeling with Fluoro-Gold. GAP-43 labeling was similar for proximal, distal, and far-distal injuries when only injured neurons are considered. Our results stand in contrast to studies which show that GAP-43 upregulation in neurons of the central nervous system occurs only when lesions are made close to the cell body. This suggests that the mechanisms which control GAP-43 expression following injury differ between central and peripheral neurons.

  14. Wistar大鼠心脏自发性病变的病理学观察%Pathological Observation of Spontaneous Heart Lesions in Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳峰; 马春梅; 黄澜; 朱华; 刘颖; 邓巍; 秦川

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to learn spontaneous lesions in the heart of Wistar rats. Methods A total of 160 male and female matched Wistar rats were studied. Forty rats were sacrificed at 9, 12, 18, 24 months of age, respectively. Histopathological changes of the heart were observed and analyzed. Results No obvious pathological changes were detected in 9-month old Wistar rats. Mild pathological changes as small foci of necrosis and degeneration were found in the heart in 2. 5% (1/40) of the 12-month old rats. The incidence of cardiomyopathy was 57. 5% (23/40) and 100% (40/40)in 18- and 24-month old rats, respectively, and there was subendocardial fibrosis in 2.5% (1/40) of the 24-month old rats. The Masson staining showed that mild collagen fibrosis developed firstly at perivascular area and under valve annulus in a few of 9-month old rats, and increased with increasing age. Conclusions Wistar rat can develop heart disease spontaneously. The incidence rises up with increasing age,mainly cardiomyopathy and occasionally subendocardial fibrosis. Collagen fiber deposition may be closely related to the genesis of rat cardiomyopathy.%目的 了解Wistar大鼠心脏自发性病变发病情况,为长期致癌性研究、老年病学研究及毒性病理学提供背景资料.方法 采用160只清洁级Wistar大鼠,雌雄各半,常规饲养,分别在9月龄、12月龄、18月龄、24月龄时处死40只大鼠,HE及Masson三色法染色,观察心脏的病理改变.结果 9月龄Wistar大鼠心脏未见明显病理改变;12月龄Wistar大鼠月龄心脏病变的发病率为2.5% (1/40),表现为少数心肌细胞变性坏死伴少量以单核细胞为主的炎细胞浸润;18月龄大鼠心脏病变的发病率为57.5%(23/40),表现为轻至中度心肌病,雄性发病率高于雌性.24月龄大鼠100% (40/40)出现不同程度的心肌病,并有2.5% (1/40)发生心内膜下纤维组织增生.Masson染色显示9月龄大鼠心脏血管周围及心脏瓣膜环

  15. Early transient presence of implanted bone marrow stem cells reduces lesion size after cerebral ischaemia in adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keimpema, E.; Fokkens, M. R.; Nagy, Z.; Agoston, V.; Luiten, P. G. M.; Nyakas, C.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Copray, J. C. V. M.

    Aims: Previous studies on the therapeutic time window for intravascular administration of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) after stroke have shown that early intervention (from 3 h after onset) in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model is the most effective approach to reduce ischaemic

  16. Exercise training improves functional recovery and motor nerve conduction velocity after sciatic nerve crush lesion in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Meeteren, N.L.U.; Brakkee, J.H.; Hamers, F.P.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of exercise training on recuperation of sensorimotor function in the early phase of regeneration, and to monitor the long-term effects of exercise on electrophysiological aspects of the regenerating nerve. Design: After sciatic nerve crush in 20 male Wistar rats, o

  17. 5,7-DHT lesion of the dorsal raphe nuclei impairs object recognition but not affective behavior and corticosterone response to stressor in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieben, Cindy K J; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Blokland, Arjan

    2006-04-03

    Previous studies with acute tryptophan depletion, leading to transient central 5-HT reductions, showed no effects on affective behavior but impaired object memory. In the present study, the behavioral effects of a 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) lesion in the dorsal raphe were evaluated in animal models of anxiety (open field test), depression (forced swimming test), behavioral inhibition (discrete fixed interval test) and cognition (object recognition task). The corticosterone response to a stress condition was examined at several intervals after 5,7-DHT treatment. The substantial reduction in neuronal 5-HT markers in the dorsal raphe did not affect anxiety-related, depressive-like or impulsive behavior. Compared to the SHAM group, the lesioned rats showed a lower response latency to obtain a reward, indicating a quick and accurate reaction to a stimulus. No differences were found in the progressive ratio test for food motivation. A marked impairment in object recognition was found. The 5,7-DHT treatment did not affect the corticosterone response to a stressful situation. Overall, these results corroborate studies with acute tryptophan depletion suggesting a role of 5-HT in object memory, but not affective behavior.

  18. Temporal changes of CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the basal ganglia as a possible structure-specific plasticity process in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela P Chaves-Kirsten

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in several neurobiological processes, including neurodegeneration, neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity. The CB1 cannabinoid receptors are abundantly expressed in the basal ganglia, the circuitry that is mostly affected in Parkinson's Disease (PD. Some studies show variation of CB1 expression in basal ganglia in different animal models of PD, however the results are quite controversial, due to the differences in the procedures employed to induce the parkinsonism and the periods analyzed after the lesion. The present study evaluated the CB1 expression in four basal ganglia structures, namely striatum, external globus pallidus (EGP, internal globus pallidus (IGP and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr of rats 1, 5, 10, 20, and 60 days after unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine injections, that causes retrograde dopaminergic degeneration. We also investigated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, parvalbumin, calbindin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD expression to verify the status of dopaminergic and GABAergic systems. We observed a structure-specific modulation of CB1 expression at different periods after lesions. In general, there were no changes in the striatum, decreased CB1 in IGP and SNpr and increased CB1 in EGP, but this increase was not sustained over time. No changes in GAD and parvalbumin expression were observed in basal ganglia, whereas TH levels were decreased and the calbindin increased in striatum in short periods after lesion. We believe that the structure-specific variation of CB1 in basal ganglia in the 6-hydroxydopamine PD model could be related to a compensatory process involving the GABAergic transmission, which is impaired due to the lack of dopamine. Our data, therefore, suggest that the changes of CB1 and calbindin expression may represent a plasticity process in this PD model.

  19. Differential Effect of the Dopamine D3 Agonist (±-7-Hydroxy-2-(N,N-di-n-propylamino Tetralin (7-OH-DPAT on Motor Activity between Adult Wistar and Sprague-Dawley Rats after a Neonatal Ventral Hippocampus Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Guzmán-Velázquez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL has been widely used as an animal model for schizophrenia. Rats with an nVHL show several delayed behavioral alterations that mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Sprague-Dawley (SD rats with an nVHL have a decrease in D3 receptors in limbic areas, but the expression of D3 receptors in Wistar (W rats with an nVHL is unknown. The 7-Hydroxy-2-(N,N-di-n-propylamino tetralin (7-OH-DPAT has been reported as a D3-preferring agonist. Thus, we investigated the effect of (±-7-OH-DPAT (0.25 mg/kg on the motor activity in male adult W and SD rats after an nVHL. The 7-OH-DPAT caused a decrease in locomotion of W rats with an nVHL, but it did not change the locomotion of SD rats with this lesion. Our results suggest that the differential effect of 7-OH-DPAT between W and SD rats with an nVHL could be caused by a different expression of the D3 receptors. These results may have implications for modeling interactions of genetic and environmental factors involved in schizophrenia.

  20. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor attenuates behavioural deficits and regulates nigrostriatal dopaminergic and peptidergic markers in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned adult rats: comparison of intraventricular and intranigral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapchak, P A; Miller, P J; Collins, F; Jiao, S

    1997-05-01

    The effects of intranigrally- or intraventricularly-administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor were tested on low dose (0.05 mg/kg) apomorphine-induced rotations and tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the substantia nigra and striatum of stable 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. In addition, we determined if 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in the absence or presence of treatment affected neuropeptide (substance P, met-enkephalin, dynorphin) content in the striatum. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, when administered intranigrally, prevented apomorphine-induced rotational behaviour for 11 weeks following a single injection. In comparison, intraventricularly-administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor produced a transient reduction in rotational behaviour that lasted for two to three weeks following a single injection. We also show that rotational behaviour is reduced following each subsequent intraventricular injection of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor given every six weeks, a time-point when baseline rotation deficits were re-established. Intranigrally- or intraventricularly-administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor significantly reduced weight gain in all 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats in this study. Following behavioural analysis where a confirmed improvement of behaviour was established, tissues were dissected for neurochemical analysis. In lesioned rats with intranigral injections of administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, significant increases of nigral, but not striatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity were measured. Additionally, 6-hydroxydopamine lesions significantly increased striatal dynorphin (61-139%) and met-enkephalin (81-139%), but not substance P levels. In these rats, intranigrally-administered glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor injections reversed lesion-induced increases in nigral dynorphin A levels and increased nigral dopamine levels, but did not alter nigral met

  1. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H.; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer’s patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO2 from dietary sources. PMID:28106049

  2. Effects of Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells in 3-Acetylpyridine-Lesioned Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatrava-Ferreras, Lucía; Gonzalo-Gobernado, Rafael; Herranz, Antonio S.; Reimers, Diana; Montero Vega, Teresa; Jiménez-Escrig, Adriano; Richart López, Luis Alberto; Bazán, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxias include a heterogeneous group of infrequent diseases characterized by lack of motor coordination caused by disturbances in the cerebellum and its associated circuits. Current therapies are based on the use of drugs that correct some of the molecular processes involved in their pathogenesis. Although these treatments yielded promising results, there is not yet an effective therapy for these diseases. Cell replacement strategies using human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HuUCBMCs) have emerged as a promising approach for restoration of function in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential therapeutic activity of HuUCBMCs in the 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP) rat model of cerebellar ataxia. Intravenous administered HuUCBMCs reached the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. Grafted cells reduced 3-AP-induced neuronal loss promoted the activation of microglia in the brain stem, and prevented the overexpression of GFAP elicited by 3-AP in the cerebellum. In addition, HuUCBMCs upregulated the expression of proteins that are critical for cell survival, such as phospho-Akt and Bcl-2, in the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. As all these effects were accompanied by a temporal but significant improvement in motor coordination, HuUCBMCs grafts can be considered as an effective cell replacement therapy for cerebellar disorders. PMID:23150735

  3. Effects of Intravenous Administration of Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells in 3-Acetylpyridine-Lesioned Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Calatrava-Ferreras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias include a heterogeneous group of infrequent diseases characterized by lack of motor coordination caused by disturbances in the cerebellum and its associated circuits. Current therapies are based on the use of drugs that correct some of the molecular processes involved in their pathogenesis. Although these treatments yielded promising results, there is not yet an effective therapy for these diseases. Cell replacement strategies using human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HuUCBMCs have emerged as a promising approach for restoration of function in neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential therapeutic activity of HuUCBMCs in the 3-acetylpyridine (3-AP rat model of cerebellar ataxia. Intravenous administered HuUCBMCs reached the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. Grafted cells reduced 3-AP-induced neuronal loss promoted the activation of microglia in the brain stem, and prevented the overexpression of GFAP elicited by 3-AP in the cerebellum. In addition, HuUCBMCs upregulated the expression of proteins that are critical for cell survival, such as phospho-Akt and Bcl-2, in the cerebellum and brain stem of 3-AP ataxic rats. As all these effects were accompanied by a temporal but significant improvement in motor coordination, HuUCBMCs grafts can be considered as an effective cell replacement therapy for cerebellar disorders.

  4. MANF alleviates the neural lesion in rat model of Parkinson's disease%MANF减轻帕金森病大鼠模型的神经损伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪运红; 沈玉君; 冯利杰; 王海萍; 方圣云; 沈玉先

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe whether MANF ( mesencephalic astrocyte -derived neurotrophic factor ) is effective in restoration of 6-OHDA lesioned dopaminergic neurons. Methods Human recombinant MANF was expressed and purified; The model of Parkinson' s disease was prepared by injecting 6-OHDA into the striatums of the rats with a stereotaxic frame; The purified protein of MANF, with three doses of 5, 10 and 20 μg, or PBS ( as a nega- tive control ) was injected into the same site of striatums of rats; Selegiline was intraperitoneally injected as a positive control; The behavioral performance was tested by counting the times of apomorphine-induced rotational activity from lesion side to the intact side; The numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase ( TH ) positive neurons and fibers in substantial nigra ( SN ) and striatum ( STR ) in each group of rats were observed by immunohistochemistry. Results 10 μg of MANF was effective to reduced the behavioral performance of the PD rats compared with PBS group. Selegiline showed the similar effect on PD rats. Meanwhile, compared with PBS treatment, the numbers of the TH positive neurons in the parts of SN and the neuronal fibers in the parts of STR was significantly increased in the PD rats which treated with MANF and selegiline. Conclusion MANF restores the impairment of dopaminergic neurons induced by 6-OHDA.%目的 观察中脑星形胶质细胞源性神经营养因子(MANF)对6-OHDA引起的多巴胺能神经元损伤的影响.方法 表达纯化人重组MANF蛋白;将6-OHDA立体定位注射至大鼠纹状体区,制备大鼠帕金森模型;将3个剂量(5、10、20 μg)纯化的MANF注射至模型大鼠纹状体区,腹腔注射司来吉兰作为阳性对照,纹状体直接注射PBS作为阴性对照;计数大鼠给药前后由阿扑吗啡诱导的由损伤侧向健侧不对称的旋转次数;免疫组化方法检测各大鼠黑质、纹状体部位酪氨酸羟化酶(TH)阳性神经元和神经纤维.结果 10 μg MANF组大鼠的旋

  5. Forelimb EMG-based trigger to control an electronic spinal bridge to enable hindlimb stepping after a complete spinal cord lesion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gad Parag

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete spinal cord transection results in loss of all supraspinal motor control below the level of the injury. The neural circuitry in the lumbosacral spinal cord, however, can generate locomotor patterns in the hindlimbs of rats and cats with the aid of motor training, epidural stimulation and/or administration of monoaminergic agonists. We hypothesized that there are patterns of EMG signals from the forelimbs during quadrupedal locomotion that uniquely represent a signal for the “intent” to step with the hindlimbs. These observations led us to determine whether this type of “indirect” volitional control of stepping can be achieved after a complete spinal cord injury. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic bridge across the lesion of the spinal cord to facilitate hindlimb stepping after a complete mid-thoracic spinal cord injury in adult rats. Methods We developed an electronic spinal bridge that can detect specific patterns of EMG activity from the forelimb muscles to initiate electrical-enabling motor control (eEmc of the lumbosacral spinal cord to enable quadrupedal stepping after a complete spinal cord transection in rats. A moving window detection algorithm was implemented in a small microprocessor to detect biceps brachii EMG activity bilaterally that then was used to initiate and terminate epidural stimulation in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We found dominant frequencies of 180–220 Hz in the EMG of the forelimb muscles during active periods, whereas these frequencies were between 0–10 Hz when the muscles were inactive. Results and conclusions Once the algorithm was validated to represent kinematically appropriate quadrupedal stepping, we observed that the algorithm could reliably detect, initiate, and facilitate stepping under different pharmacological conditions and at various treadmill speeds.

  6. BDNF and trkB mRNA expression in the rat hippocampus following entorhinal cortex lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapchak, P A; Araujo, D M; Hefti, F

    1993-02-01

    Quantitative in situ hybridization was used to determine whether the prevalence or topographical distribution of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or tyrosine receptor kinase (trk) B mRNA is altered in the hippocampal formation following lesions of excitatory afferents from the entorhinal cortex which provides an external source of innervation for the hippocampal formation. BDNF mRNA levels were not altered in the hippocampal formation up to 10 days following entorhinal cortex lesions (ECLs). The levels of mRNA coding for all known forms of trkB receptors also remained unchanged. The prevalence of the synaptic plasticity marker SNAP-25 mRNA was increased in the CA2 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers and the dentate gyrus by 6 days following ECLs and remained elevated at 10 days following ECLs. Our findings indicate that hippocampal neuron sprouting which occurs in response to ECLs is not the result of changes in the expression of the BDNF or trkB mRNA.

  7. Células ovales en el hígado de ratas con lesiones quirúrgicas severas Oval cells in the liver of rats with severe surgical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sarradell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron intervenciones quirúrgicas para visualizar histológicamente la presentación y la intervención de células madre en la restitución tisular hepática de ratas hepatectomizadas. Se trabajó con dos grupos de animales: en uno se realizó hepatectomías leves, y en el otro, hepatectomías severas. En el primer grupo se observó una cicatrización del tejido injuriado, a diferencia del segundo grupo donde se verifi có una masiva proliferación de conductos biliares de trayecto sinuoso, que generaron abundantes prolongaciones satélites. También se observó gran cantidad de células de morfología compatible con células ovales (núcleo y citoplasma ovales y relación núcleo citoplasma aumentada. Podemos concluir que la reparación hepática tras un daño menor se hace por la proliferación de células diferenciadas; en cambio, los daños mayores inician un proceso de reparación por células indiferenciadas progenitoras que generarán luego, hepatocitos y células ductales.Surgical experiences to histologically visualize the presentation and intervention of stem cells in the hepatic cellular healing of rats were drawn. In one experience the hepatic tissue was slightly injured and in other group severe lesion was done. In the fi rst group there was scaring. In the second group there was massive proliferation of biliary ducts of sinuous tract generating abundant satellital extensions when the lesion was severe. In relation to these structures, a great quantity of cells being morphologically compatible with hepatic oval cells (oval nucleus and cytoplasm and large nucleus to cytoplasm ratio were observed. In conclusion the hepatic healing after a lesser damage is made by proliferation of differentiated cells and extreme damages begin healing by non-differentiated stem cells from biliary ducts generating hepatocytes and ductal cells.

  8. Effects of extract F of red-rooted Salvia on mucosal lesions of gastric corpus and antrum induced by hemorrhagic shock-reperfusion in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Hong Zhang; Chang-Bai Yao; He-Quan Li

    2001-01-01

    AIM To compare the effects of extract F of red-rooted Salvia (EFRRS) on mucosal lesions of gastric corpus and antrum induced by hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion in rats.``METHODS The rats were subject to hemorrhagic shock and followed by reperfusion, and were divided randomly into two groups. Group 1 received saline, and group 2received EFRRS intravenously. The index of gastric mucosal lesions (IGML) was expressed as the percentage of lesional area in the corpus or antrum. The degree of gastric mucosal lesions (DGML) was catalogued grade 0,1. 2 and 3. The concentrations of prostaglandins (lags)were measured by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of MDA was measured according to the procedures of Asakawa. The activity of SOD was measured by the biochemical way. The growth rates or inhibitory rates of above-mentioned parametes were calculated.``RESULTS As compared with IGML (%), grade 3 damage (%) and MDA content (nmol/g tissue) of gastric antrum which were respectively 7.96 ± 0.59, 34.86± 4.96 and 156.98± 16.12. those of gastric corpus which were respectively 23.18 ± 6.82, 58.44 ± 9.07 and 230.56 ± 19.37increased markedly (P<0.01), whereas the grade 0damage, grade 1 damage, the concentrations of PGE2 and PGI2(pg/ mg tissue), the ratio of PGI2/ TXA2 and the activity of SOD (U/ g tissue) of corpus which were respectively 3.01 _- 1.01, 8.35 + 1.95, 540.48 _+ 182.78,714.38 ± 123.74, 17.38 ± 5.93 and 134.29 ± 13.35 were markedly lower than those of antrum which were respectively 13.92 ± 2.25, 26.78 ± 6.06, 2218.56 ± 433.12,2531.76 ± 492.35, 43.46 ± 8.51 and 187.45 ± 17.67( P<0.01 ) after hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion. After intravenous EFRRS, the growth rates (%) of grade 0damage, grade 1 damage, the concentrations of PGE2 and PGI2, the ratio of PGI2/TXA2 and the activity of SOD of corpus which were respectively 632.56, 308.62, 40.75,74.75, 92.29 and 122.25 were higher than those in antrum which were respectively 104,89, 58.40, 11.12, 56.58,30.65 and

  9. Late effects of enriched environment (EE) plus multimodal early onset stimulation (MEOS) after traumatic brain injury in rats: Ongoing improvement of neuromotor function despite sustained volume of the CNS lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert-Gruener, Marcela; Maegele, Marc; Garbe, Janika; Angelov, Doychin N

    2007-01-01

    Recently we showed that the combination between MEOS and EE applied to rats for 7-15 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with reduced CNS lesion volume and enhanced reversal of neuromotor dysfunction. In a continuation of this work, we tested whether these effects persisted for longer post-operative periods, e.g. 30 days post-injury (dpi). Rats were subjected to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) or to sham injury. After LFP, one third of the animals (injured and sham) was placed under conditions of standard housing (SH), one third was kept in EE-only, and one third received EE+MEOS. Standardized composite neuroscore (NS) for neurological functions and computerized analysis of the vibrissal motor performance were used to assess post-traumatic neuromotor deficits. These were followed by evaluation of the cortical lesion volume (CLV) after immunostaining for neuron-specific enolase, caspase 3 active, and GFAP. Finally, the volume of cortical lesion containing regeneration-associated proteins (CLV-RAP) was determined in sections stained for GAP-43, MAP2, and neuronal class III beta-tubulin. We found (i) no differences in the vibrissal motor performance; (ii) EE+MEOS rats performed significantly better than SH rats in NS; (iii) EE-only and EE+MEOS animals, but not SH rats, showed better recovery at 30 dpi than at 15 dpi; (iv) no differences among all groups in CLV (larger than that at 15 dpi) and CLV-RAP, despite a clear tendency to reduction in the EE-only and EE+MEOS rats. We conclude that EE+MEOS retards, but cannot prevent the increase of lesion volume. This retardation is sufficient for a continuous restoration of neurological functions.

  10. The effect of lesions of the sympathoadrenal system on training induced adaptations in adipocytes and pancreatic islets in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Roesdahl, M; Vinten, J

    1996-01-01

    in sham adrenodemedullated rats (P swim trained for 10 weeks or remained sedentary. Insulin stimulated 3-O-[14C]methylglucose transport......Physical training increases insulin stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and decreases insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. The mechanism behind these adaptations is not known. Because in acute exercise adrenergic activity influences both adipocytes and pancreatic islets, the sympathetic...... was measured in adipocytes from epididymal fat pads, and insulin secretion and glucose metabolism were measured in glucose stimulated pancreatic islets. Training increased insulin stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes (P

  11. Multiplex immunoassay for Lyme disease using VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies: improving test performance through bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwancher, Richard B; Hagerty, C Greg; Fan, Jianqing; Landsberg, Lisa; Johnson, Barbara J B; Kopnitsky, Mark; Steere, Allen C; Kulas, Karen; Wong, Susan J

    2011-05-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends a 2-tier serologic approach to Lyme disease laboratory diagnosis, comprised of an initial serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi followed by supplementary IgG and IgM Western blotting of EIA-positive or -equivocal samples. Western blot accuracy is limited by subjective interpretation of weakly positive bands, false-positive IgM immunoblots, and low sensitivity for detection of early disease. We developed an objective alternative second-tier immunoassay using a multiplex microsphere system that measures VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies simultaneously in the same sample. Our study population comprised 79 patients with early acute Lyme disease, 82 patients with early-convalescent-phase disease, 47 patients with stage II and III disease, 34 patients post-antibiotic treatment, and 794 controls. A bioinformatic technique called partial receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) regression was used to combine individual antibody levels into a single diagnostic score with a single cutoff; this technique enhances test performance when a high specificity is required (e.g., ≥ 95%). Compared to Western blotting, the multiplex assay was equally specific (95.6%) but 20.7% more sensitive for early-convalescent-phase disease (89.0% versus 68.3%, respectively; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] for difference, 12.1% to 30.9%) and 12.5% more sensitive overall (75.0% versus 62.5%, respectively; 95% CI for difference, 8.1% to 17.1%). As a second-tier test, a multiplex assay for VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies performed as well as or better than Western blotting for Lyme disease diagnosis. Prospective validation studies appear to be warranted.

  12. Multiplex Immunoassay for Lyme Disease Using VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM Antibodies: Improving Test Performance through Bioinformatics ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwancher, Richard B.; Hagerty, C. Greg; Fan, Jianqing; Landsberg, Lisa; Johnson, Barbara J. B.; Kopnitsky, Mark; Steere, Allen C.; Kulas, Karen; Wong, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention currently recommends a 2-tier serologic approach to Lyme disease laboratory diagnosis, comprised of an initial serum enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi followed by supplementary IgG and IgM Western blotting of EIA-positive or -equivocal samples. Western blot accuracy is limited by subjective interpretation of weakly positive bands, false-positive IgM immunoblots, and low sensitivity for detection of early disease. We developed an objective alternative second-tier immunoassay using a multiplex microsphere system that measures VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies simultaneously in the same sample. Our study population comprised 79 patients with early acute Lyme disease, 82 patients with early-convalescent-phase disease, 47 patients with stage II and III disease, 34 patients post-antibiotic treatment, and 794 controls. A bioinformatic technique called partial receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) regression was used to combine individual antibody levels into a single diagnostic score with a single cutoff; this technique enhances test performance when a high specificity is required (e.g., ≥95%). Compared to Western blotting, the multiplex assay was equally specific (95.6%) but 20.7% more sensitive for early-convalescent-phase disease (89.0% versus 68.3%, respectively; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] for difference, 12.1% to 30.9%) and 12.5% more sensitive overall (75.0% versus 62.5%, respectively; 95% CI for difference, 8.1% to 17.1%). As a second-tier test, a multiplex assay for VlsE1-IgG and pepC10-IgM antibodies performed as well as or better than Western blotting for Lyme disease diagnosis. Prospective validation studies appear to be warranted. PMID:21367982

  13. Sub-chronic exposure toEOMABRSleachate induces germinal epithelial cell lesions, sperm abnormalities and oxidative damage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akintunde JK; ObohG; AkindahunsiAA

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the possible link between reproductive abnormalities among men and exposure of toxic chemicals in the environment.Methods:The study investigated the sperm functions and the antioxidant defence system of rats exposed to leachate obtained from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling site (EOMABRSL) via oral route.Results:EOMABRSL had significant effects on both absolute and relative testicular weight. Formation of sperm abnormalities was observed following EOMABRSL exposure. Antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly altered in the testes resulting into increased lipid peroxidation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were found to be significantly (P<0.05) depleted relative to the control group. Considerable necrosis of leydig cells and loss of germ cells in the seminiferous tubules with the clumping of interstitial space were seen in EOMABRSL-treated rats. The mechanism of toxicity is linked to individual, synergistic, antagonistic, competitive or collective interaction of the metals with normal testicular biochemical processes.Conclusion:The study concluded that possible mechanisms by which EOMABRSL at the investigated doses elicits spermatotoxicity could be linked to the testicular oxidative stress and damage to germinal epithelial cells by mixed-metal exposure. However, this may suggest possible reproductive health hazards in subjects with environmental or industrial exposure.

  14. Lesion of medullary catecholaminergic neurons is associated with cardiovascular dysfunction in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Du, Xixun; Xu, Huamin; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, non-motor symptoms have been recognised as of vital importance in Parkinson's disease (PD); among these, cardiovascular dysfunctions are commonly seen in PD patients before their motor signs. The role of cardiovascular dysfunction in the progression of PD pathology, and its underlying mechanisms, are largely unknown. In the present study, in rotenone-induced PD rats, there was a gradual reduction in the number of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons after 7, 14 and 21 days treatment. With the 56% reduction in striatal dopamine content and 52% loss of TH-ir neurons on the 14th day, the rats showed motor dysfunctions. However, from ECG power spectra, reductions in normalised low-frequency power and in the low-frequency power : high-frequency power ratio, as well as in mean blood pressure, were observed as early as the 3rd day. Plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) levels were decreased by 39% and 26% respectively at the same time. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that both plasma NE and plasma E levels were positively correlated with MBP. Our results also showed that the loss of catecholaminergic neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), but not in the caudal ventrolateral medulla or the nucleus tractus solitarii, emerged earlier than the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons. This suggests that dysfunction of catecholaminergic neurons in the RVLM might account for the reduced sympathetic activity, MBP and plasma catecholamine levels in the early stages of PD.

  15. Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Characterization of Methyl Eugenol-induced Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Neuroendocrine Cell Lesions in Glandular Stomach of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhan, Kyathanahalli S; Rebolloso, Yvette; Hurlburt, Geoffrey; Olson, David; Lyght, Otis; Clayton, Natasha P; Gruebbel, Margarita; Picut, Catherine; Shackelford, Cynthia; Herbert, Ronald A

    2015-07-01

    Methyl eugenol induces neuroendocrine (NE) cell hyperplasia and tumors in F344/N rat stomach. Detailed histopathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) characterization of these tumors has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to fill that data gap. Archived slides and paraffin blocks were retrieved from the National Toxicology Program Archives. NE hyperplasias and tumors were stained with chromogranin A, synaptophysin, amylase, gastrin, H(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), pepsinogen, somatostatin, and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) antibodies. Many of the rats had gastric mucosal atrophy, due to loss of chief and parietal cells. The hyperplasias and tumors were confined to fundic stomach, and females were more affected than the males. Hyperplasia of NE cells was not observed in the pyloric region. Approximately one-third of the females with malignant NE tumors had areas of pancreatic acinar differentiation. The rate of metastasis was 21%, with liver being the most common site of metastasis. Immunohistochemically, the hyperplasias and tumors stained consistently with chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Neoplastic cells were also positive for amylase and CK18 and negative for gastrin, somatostatin, H(+)/K(+) ATPase, and pepsinogen. Metastatic neoplasms histologically similar to the primary neoplasm stained positively for chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Based on the histopathological and IHC features, the neoplasms appear to arise from enterochromaffin-like cells.

  16. Selective C1 Lesioning Slightly Decreases Angiotensin II type I Receptor Expression in the Rat Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla (RVLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Erick A.; Stedenfeld, Kristen A.; Sved, Alan F.; Speth, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular homeostasis is regulated in large part by the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in mammals. Projections from the RVLM to the intermediolateral column of the thoracolumbar spinal cord innervate preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system causing elevation of blood pressure and heart rate. A large proportion, but not all, of the neurons in the RVLM contain the enzymes necessary for the production of epinephrine and are identified as the C1 cell group. Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates the RVLM acting upon AT1 receptors. To assess the proportion of AT1 receptors that are located on C1 neurons in the rat RVLM this study employed an antibody to dopamine-beta-hydroxylase conjugated to saporin, to selectively destroy C1 neurons in the RVLM. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the RVLM was reduced by 57 % in the toxin injected RVLM compared to the contralateral RVLM. In contrast, densitometric analysis of autoradiographic images of 125I-sarcosine1, isoleucine8 Ang II binding to AT1 receptors of the injected side RVLM revealed a small (10%) reduction in AT1 receptor expression compared to the contralateral RVLM. These results suggest that the majority of AT1 receptors in the rat RVLM are located on non-C1 neurons or glia. PMID:26138553

  17. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barghash, Ziad; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Al-Bishri, Awad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod...... in the degenerative pattern; however, at day 19 the buccal branch had regenerated to the normal number of axons, whereas the mental nerve had only regained 50% of the normal number of axons. We conclude that the regenerative process is faster and/or more complete in the facial nerve (motor function) than...... for 30 s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both...

  18. Lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus alter footshock-induced cFos expression in the mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Leon Brown

    Full Text Available Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential part of the circuitry underlying motivation and reinforcement. They are activated by rewards or reward-predicting cues and inhibited by reward omission. The lateral habenula (lHb, an epithalamic structure that forms reciprocal connections with midbrain dopamine neurons, shows the opposite response being activated by reward omission or aversive stimuli and inhibited by reward-predicting cues. It has been hypothesized that habenular input to midbrain dopamine neurons is conveyed via a feedforward inhibitory pathway involving the GABAergic mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area. Here, we show that exposing rats to low-intensity footshock (four, 0.5 mA shocks over 20 min induces cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area and that this effect is prevented by lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus, the principal output pathway of the habenula. cFos expression is also observed in the medial portion of the lateral habenula, an area that receives dense DA innervation via the fr and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, a stress sensitive area that also receives dopaminergic input. High-intensity footshock (120, 0.8 mA shocks over 40 min also elevates cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area, medial and lateral aspects of the lateral habenula and the paraventricular thalamus. In contrast to low-intensity footshock, increases in cFos expression within the rostromedial tegmental area are not altered by fr lesions suggesting a role for non-habenular inputs during exposure to highly aversive stimuli. These data confirm the involvement of the lateral habenula in modulating the activity of rostromedial tegmental area neurons in response to mild aversive stimuli and suggest that dopamine input may contribute to footshock- induced activation of cFos expression in the lateral habenula.

  19. Glycyrrhizic acid suppresses the development of precancerous lesions via regulating the hyperproliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in the colon of Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colon carcinogenesis is a multistep process and it emanates from a series of molecular and histopathological alterations. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA is a natural and major pentacyclic triterpenoid glycoside of licorice roots extracts. It has several pharmacological and biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, and anti-cancer. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive potential of GA against 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH-induced precancerous lesions i.e., aberrant crypt foci (ACF and mucin depleted foci (MDF, and its role in regulating the hyperproliferation, inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis in the colon of Wistar rats. METHODS: Animals were divided into 5 groups. In group III, IV and V, GA was administered at the dose of 15 mg/kg b. wt. orally while in group II, III and IV, DMH was administered subcutaneously in the groin at the dose of 20 mg/kg b.wt once a week for first 5 weeks and animals were euthanized after 9 weeks. RESULTS: GA supplementation suppressed the development of precancerous lesions and it also reduced the infiltration of mast cells, suppressed the immunostaining of Ki-67, NF-kB-p65, COX-2, iNOS and VEGF while enhanced the immunostaining of p53, connexin-43, caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3. GA treatment significantly attenuated the level of TNF-α and it also reduced the depletion of the mucous layer as well as attenuated the shifting of sialomucin to sulphomucin. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that GA has strong chemopreventive potential against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis but further studies are warranted to elucidate the precise mechanism of action of GA.

  20. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Inhibition Reduces Progression of Early Choroidal Neovascularization Lesions in Rats: P17 and P144 Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarranz-Ventura, Javier; Fernández-Robredo, Patricia; Recalde, Sergio; Salinas-Alamán, Angel; Borrás-Cuesta, Francisco; Dotor, Javier; García-Layana, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) inhibitor peptides (P17 & P144) on early laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (LI-CNV) lesions in rats, two weeks after laser CNV induction. Seventy-one Long Evans rats underwent diode laser application in an established LI-CNV model. Baseline fluorescein angiography (FA) was performed 14 days following laser procedure, and treatments were administered 16 days post-laser application via different administration routes. Intravenous groups included control (IV-Control), P17 (IV-17), and P144 (IV-144) groups, whereas intravitreal groups included P17 (IVT-17), P144 (IVT-144), and a mixture of both peptides (IVT-17+144) (with fellow eyes receiving vehicle alone). CNV evolution was assessed using FA performed weekly for four weeks after treatment. Following sacrifice, VEGF, TGF-β, COX-2, IGF-1, PAI-1, IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-9, and TNF-α gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR. VEGF and p-SMAD2 protein levels were also assessed by western-blot, while MMP-2 activity was assessed with gelatin zymography. Regarding the FA analysis, the mean CNV area was lower from the 3rd week in IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups, and also from the 2nd week in IVT-17+144. Biochemical analysis revealed that gene expression was lower for VEGF and COX-2 genes in IV-17 and IV-144 groups, VEGF gene in IVT-17+144 group and MMP-2 gene in IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups. VEGF protein expression was also decreased in IV-17, IV-144, IVT-17 and IVT-144, whereas pSMAD-2 levels were lower in IV-17, IV-144 and IVT-17+144 groups. Zymogram analysis revealed decreased MMP-2 activity in IV-17, IV-144, IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups. These data suggest that the use of TGF-β inhibitor peptides (P17 & P144) decrease the development of early CNV lesions by targeting different mediators than those typically affected using current anti-angiogenic therapies. Its potential role in the treatment of early CNV appears promising as a single

  1. Transforming growth factor-beta inhibition reduces progression of early choroidal neovascularization lesions in rats: P17 and P144 peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Zarranz-Ventura

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β inhibitor peptides (P17 & P144 on early laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (LI-CNV lesions in rats, two weeks after laser CNV induction. Seventy-one Long Evans rats underwent diode laser application in an established LI-CNV model. Baseline fluorescein angiography (FA was performed 14 days following laser procedure, and treatments were administered 16 days post-laser application via different administration routes. Intravenous groups included control (IV-Control, P17 (IV-17, and P144 (IV-144 groups, whereas intravitreal groups included P17 (IVT-17, P144 (IVT-144, and a mixture of both peptides (IVT-17+144 (with fellow eyes receiving vehicle alone. CNV evolution was assessed using FA performed weekly for four weeks after treatment. Following sacrifice, VEGF, TGF-β, COX-2, IGF-1, PAI-1, IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-9, and TNF-α gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR. VEGF and p-SMAD2 protein levels were also assessed by western-blot, while MMP-2 activity was assessed with gelatin zymography. Regarding the FA analysis, the mean CNV area was lower from the 3(rd week in IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups, and also from the 2(nd week in IVT-17+144. Biochemical analysis revealed that gene expression was lower for VEGF and COX-2 genes in IV-17 and IV-144 groups, VEGF gene in IVT-17+144 group and MMP-2 gene in IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups. VEGF protein expression was also decreased in IV-17, IV-144, IVT-17 and IVT-144, whereas pSMAD-2 levels were lower in IV-17, IV-144 and IVT-17+144 groups. Zymogram analysis revealed decreased MMP-2 activity in IV-17, IV-144, IVT-17 and IVT-144 groups. These data suggest that the use of TGF-β inhibitor peptides (P17 & P144 decrease the development of early CNV lesions by targeting different mediators than those typically affected using current anti-angiogenic therapies. Its potential role in the treatment of early CNV appears promising

  2. Hippocampal lesions in rats impair learning and memory for locations on a touch-sensitive computer screen: the "ASAT" task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpos, J C; Dias, R; Bussey, T J; Saksida, L M

    2008-10-10

    It has been repeatedly demonstrated across species that the hippocampus is critical for spatial learning and memory. Consequently, numerous paradigms have been created to study spatial learning in the rodent. Most of these tasks, such as the Morris water maze, 8-arm radial maze, and T-maze, are non-automated procedures. It was our goal to create an automated task in the rodent that is quickly learned, hippocampal-dependent, and minimizes the confounding variables present in most tests measuring hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. To accomplish this, we created a novel search task using a standard operant box fitted with a touch-sensitive computer monitor. Subjects were required to locate an S+ "hidden" amongst other identical stimuli on the monitor. In two versions of the task the S+ stayed in the same location within a session but shifted location between sessions. In a third version of the task the S+ was moved to a new location after every 10 trials. It was found that the location of the S+ was quickly acquired each day (within 10 trials), and that the hippocampal-lesion group was impaired when compared to their control cohort. With the benefits inherent in automation, these tasks confer significant advantages over traditional tasks used to study spatial learning and memory in the rodent. When combined with previously developed non-spatial cognitive tests that can also be run in the touch-screen apparatus, the result is a powerful cognitive test battery for the rodent.

  3. Unprecedented therapeutic potential with a combination of A2A/NR2B receptor antagonists as observed in the 6-OHDA lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Michel

    Full Text Available In Parkinson's disease, the long-term use of dopamine replacing agents is associated with the development of motor complications; therefore, there is a need for non-dopaminergic drugs. This study evaluated the potential therapeutic impact of six different NR2B and A2A receptor antagonists given either alone or in combination in unilateral 6-OHDA-lesioned rats without (monotherapy or with (add-on therapy the co-administration of L-Dopa: Sch-58261+ Merck 22; Sch-58261+Co-101244; Preladenant + Merck 22; Preladenant + Radiprodil; Tozadenant + Radiprodil; Istradefylline + Co-101244. Animals given monotherapy were assessed on distance traveled and rearing, whereas those given add-on therapy were assessed on contralateral rotations. Three-way mixed ANOVA were conducted to assess the main effect of each drug separately and to determine whether any interaction between two drugs was additive or synergistic. Additional post hoc analyses were conducted to compare the effect of the combination with the effect of the drugs alone. Motor activity improved significantly and was sustained for longer when the drugs were given in combination than when administered separately at the same dose. Similarly, when tested as add-on treatment to L-Dopa, the combinations resulted in higher levels of contralateral rotation in comparison to the single drugs. Of special interest, the activity observed with some combinations could not be described by a simplistic additive effect and involved more subtle synergistic pharmacological interactions. The combined administration of A2A/NR2B-receptor antagonists improved motor behaviour in 6-OHDA rats. Given the proven translatability of this model such a combination may be expected to be effective in improving motor symptoms in patients.

  4. The CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist reduces L-DOPA-induced motor fluctuation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lu; Yang, Xinxin; Ma, Yaping; Wu, Na; Liu, Zhenguo

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine precursor L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) has been used as an effective drug for treating dopamine depletion-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long-term administration of L-DOPA produces motor complications. L-DOPA has also been found to modify the two key signaling cascades, protein kinase A/dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), in striatal neurons, which are thought to play a pivotal role in forming motor complications. In the present study, we tested the possible effect of a CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist on L-DOPA-stimulated abnormal behavioral and signaling responses in vivo. Intermittent L-DOPA administration for 3 weeks induced motor fluctuation in a rat model of PD induced by intrastriatal infusion of dopamine-depleting neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). A single injection of a CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 had no effect on L-DOPA-induced motor fluctuation. However, chronic injections of WIN-55,212-2 significantly attenuated abnormal behavioral responses to L-DOPA in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Similarly, chronic injections of WIN-55,212-2 influence the L-DOPA-induced alteration of DARPP-32 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation status in striatal neurons. These data provide evidence for the active involvement of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of L-DOPA action during PD therapy.

  5. Degeneration and regeneration of motor and sensory nerves: a stereological study of crush lesions in rat facial and mental nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghash, Z; Larsen, J O; Al-Bishri, A; Kahnberg, K-E

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degeneration and regeneration of a sensory nerve and a motor nerve at the histological level after a crush injury. Twenty-five female Wistar rats had their mental nerve and the buccal branch of their facial nerve compressed unilaterally against a glass rod for 30s. Specimens of the compressed nerves and the corresponding control nerves were dissected at 3, 7, and 19 days after surgery. Nerve cross-sections were stained with osmium tetroxide and toluidine blue and analysed using two-dimensional stereology. We found differences between the two nerves both in the normal anatomy and in the regenerative pattern. The mental nerve had a larger cross-sectional area including all tissue components. The mental nerve had a larger volume fraction of myelinated axons and a correspondingly smaller volume fraction of endoneurium. No differences were observed in the degenerative pattern; however, at day 19 the buccal branch had regenerated to the normal number of axons, whereas the mental nerve had only regained 50% of the normal number of axons. We conclude that the regenerative process is faster and/or more complete in the facial nerve (motor function) than it is in the mental nerve (somatosensory function).

  6. Promoter-region hypermethylation and expression downregulation of Yy1 (Yin yang 1) in preneoplastic liver lesions in a thioacetamide rat hepatocarcinogenesis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Ogawa, Takashi; Wang, Liyun [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kimura, Masayuki; Tanaka, Takeshi; Morita, Reiko [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Thioacetamide (TAA) has been used to develop a rodent model for hepatocarcinogenesis. To determine the genes with epigenetic modifications in early hepatocarcinogenesis, we did a genome-wide scan for hypermethylated promoter regions using CpG island microarrays in TAA-promoted rat liver tissue. Eight genes were selected based on the microarray profile; of these, Yy1 and Wdr45b were confirmed to be hypermethylated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing and downregulated by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Non-neoplastic liver cells had nuclear Yy1 immunoreactivity, while preneoplastic foci with glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) immunoreactivity had decreased Yy1 immunoreactivity. The incidence of these foci was proportional to the dose of TAA administered. Co-expression analysis of gene products downstream of Yy1 revealed increased nuclear phospho-c-Myc{sup +} foci as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic p21{sup Cip1+} foci in Yy1{sup −} or GST-P{sup +} foci in response to TAA-promotion dose. Although the absolute number of cells was low, the incidence of death receptor 5{sup −} foci was increased in Yy1{sup −} foci in proportion to the TAA dose. Yy1{sup −}/GST-P{sup +} foci revealed a higher number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells than Yy1{sup +}/GST-P{sup +} foci, while cleaved caspase-3{sup +} cells were unchanged between Yy1{sup –}/GST-P{sup +} and Yy1{sup +}/GST-P{sup +} foci. In the case of Wdr45b, most GST-P{sup +} foci were Wdr45b{sup –} and were not increased by TAA promotion. These results suggest involvement of Yy1 in the epigenetic gene regulation at the early stages of TAA promoted cell proliferation and concomitant cell cycle arrest in preneoplastic lesions. - Highlights: • Epigenetically downregulated genes were searched in TAA-promnoted rat livers. • Yy1 and Wdr45b showed promoter-region hypermethylation and mRNA downregulation. • TAA promoted

  7. 牛磺酸拮抗铅对大鼠海马NOS阳性神经元数目的影响%The effect of taurine to NOS vigor in hippocampus of rat induced lead lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李积胜; 杨峰; 刘亚华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study taurine resist lead impact ability of learning and memory. Methods: Using NADPH - dhistochemistry method to study the quantity change of the rat's NOS positive neuron in hippocampus , the rat in experi-ment sections which are feeded with distinct dosage lead acetate in drinking (0.02, 0.2g/L) and feed contain distinctdosage taurine (5, 10g/kg). Results: Taurine could increase NOS positive neuron quantity obviously in hippocampus ofrat induced lead lesion. Conclusion: Taurine could resist lead impact ability of learning and memory obviously.

  8. Metallothionein (MT)-III: generation of polyclonal antibodies, comparison with MT-I+II in the freeze lesioned rat brain and in a bioassay with astrocytes, and analysis of Alzheimer's disease brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A;

    1999-01-01

    Metallothionein-III is a low molecular weight, heavy-metal binding protein expressed mainly in the central nervous system. First identified as a growth inhibitory factor (GIF) of rat cortical neurons in vitro, it has subsequently been shown to be a member of the metallothionein (MT) gene family...... that MT-III immunoreactivity was also present in microglia, monocytes and/or macrophages in the leptomeninges and lying adjacent to major vessels. In freeze lesioned rats, both MT-I+II and MT-III immunoreactivities increased in the ipsilateral cortex. The pattern of MT-III immunoreactivity significantly...

  9. Gomisin A, a lignan component of Schizandora fruits, inhibits development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver by 3'-methyl-4-dimethylamino-azobenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, M; Nakachiyama, M; Hida, T; Ohtaki, Y; Sudo, K; Aizawa, T; Aburada, M; Miyamoto, K I

    1994-01-15

    The effects of gomisin A, a lignan component of Schizandra fruits, on development of preneoplastic lesions in the liver after a short-term (3 weeks) feeding of 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (3'-MeDAB) to male Donryu rats were investigated, and compared with the effects of phenobarbital. Gomisin A inhibited both increases of the level of glutathione-S-transferase placental form (GST-P) and the number and size of GST-P positive foci in the liver increased after treatment with 3'-MeDAB. Moreover, although the population of diploid nuclei was increased and that of tetraploid nuclei was decreased by pretreatment with 3'-MeDAB, gomisin A returned this to near the normal ploidy pattern. But phenobarbital increased the level of GST-P and the number and size of GST-P positive foci with little affect on the ploidy population changed by 3'-MeDAB. Thus, the effect of gomisin A on hepatocarcinogenesis was inhibitory in contrast with that of phenobarbital. This study suggests that gomisin A is a candidate for a chemopreventive drug inhibiting the promotion process in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  10. Gastroprotective Activity of Violacein Isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum on Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats: Investigation of Potential Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulrayer Antonisamy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromobacterium violaceum, Gram-negative bacteria species found in tropical regions of the world, produces a distinct deep violet-colored pigment called violacein. In the present study, we investigated whether violacein can promote a gastroprotective effect and verified the possible mechanisms involved in this action. For this study, an indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer rat model was used. The roles of biomolecules such as MPO, PGE2, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, caspase-3, NO, K+ATP channels, and α2-receptors were investigated. Violacein exhibited significant gastroprotective effect against indomethacin-induced lesions, while pretreatment with L-NAME and glibenclamide (but not with NEM or yohimbine was able to reverse this action. Pretreatment with violacein also restored cNOS level to normal and led to attenuation of enhanced apoptosis and gastric microvascular permeability. Our results suggest that violacein provides a significant gastroprotective effect in an indomethacin-induced ulcer model through the maintenance of some vital protein molecules, and this effect appears to be mediated, at least in part, by endogenous prostaglandins, NOS, K+ATP channel opening, and inhibition of apoptosis and gastric microvascular permeability.

  11. In vivo microdialysis studies on the effects of decortication and excitotoxic lesions on kainic acid-induced calcium fluxes, and endogenous amino acid release, in the rat striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, S.P.; Lazarewicz, J.W.; Hamberger, A.

    1987-11-01

    The in vivo effects of kainate (1 mM) on fluxes of /sup 45/Ca2+, and endogenous amino acids, were examined in the rat striatum using the brain microdialysis technique. Kainate evoked a rapid decrease in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+, and an increase in the concentration of amino acids in dialysates in Ca2+-free dialysates. Taurine was elevated six- to 10-fold, glutamate two- to threefold, and aspartate 1.5- to twofold. There was also a delayed increase in phosphoethanolamine, whereas nonneuroactive amino acids were increased only slightly. The kainic acid-evoked reduction in dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ activity was attenuated in striata lesioned previously with kainate, suggesting the involvement of intrinsic striatal neurons in this response. The increase in taurine concentration induced by kainate was slightly smaller under these conditions. Decortication did not affect the kainate-evoked alterations in either dialysate /sup 45/Ca2+ or amino acids. These data suggest that kainate does not release acidic amino acids from their transmitter pools located in corticostriatal terminals.

  12. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  13. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  14. Effects of prolonged neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibition on the development and expression of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan-Neto, Fernando Eduardo; Cavalcanti-Kiwiatkoviski, Roberta; Carolino, Ruither Oliveira Gomes; Anselmo-Franci, Janete; Del Bel, Elaine

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that nitric oxide (NO) interacts with dopamine (DA) within the striatal circuitry. The anti-dyskinetic properties of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors demonstrate the importance of NO in L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesia (LID). Here, we investigated the ability of a daily co-treatment of the preferential neuronal NOS (nNOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, 30 mg/kg), with L-DOPA (30 mg/kg) to counteract LID in unilaterally 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. We analyzed striatal nNOS-expressing interneurons, DA and 5-HT neurochemistry in the striatum and alterations of the Fos-B/ΔFosB expression in the corticostriatal, nigrostriatal and mesolimbic pathways. Prolonged administration of 7-NI inhibited the manifestation of chronic L-DOPA treatment-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs). LID was associated with an up-regulation in the number of nNOS-expressing interneurons in the lateral but not medial striatum. nNOS inhibition reduced the number of nNOS-expressing interneurons. The anti-dyskinetic effects of 7-NI correlated with a reduction in DA and 5-HT turnover in the striatum. At postsynaptic striatal sites, 7-NI prevented L-DOPA-induced Fos-B/ΔFosB up-regulation in the motor cortex, nucleus accumbens and striatum. Finally, 7-NI blocked Fos-B/ΔFosB expression in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d)-positive interneurons in the striatum. These results provide further evidence of the molecular mechanisms by which NOS-inhibiting compounds attenuate LID. The involvement of NO with DA and 5-HT neurochemistry may contribute to the understanding of this new, non-dopaminergic therapy for the management of LID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CPU0213,a novel endothelin receptor antagonist,ameliorates septic renal lesion by suppressing ET system and NF-κB in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haibo HE; De-zai DAI; Yin DAI

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To examine whether a novel endothelin receptor antagonist, CPU0213, is effective in relieving the acute renal failure (ARF) of septic shock by suppressing the activated endothelin-reactive oxygen species (ET-ROS) pathway and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Methods: The cecum was ligated and punctured in rats under anesthesia. CPU0213 (30 mg·kg-1·d-1, bid, sc×3 d) was administered 8 h after surgical operation. Results: In the untreated septic shock group, the mean arterial pressure and survival rate were markedly decreased (P<0.01), and heart rate, weight index of kidney, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, 24 h urinary protein and creatinine were significantly increased (P<0.01). The levels of ET-1, total NO synthetase (tNOS), indusible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), and ROS in serum and the renal cortex were markedly increased (P< 0.01). The upregulation of the mRNAlevels of preproET-1, endothelin converting enzyme, ETA, ETB, iNOS, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the renal cortex was significant (P<0.01). The protein amount of activated NF-κB was significantly increased (P<0.01) in comparison with the sham operation group. All of these changes were significantly reversed after CPU0213 administration. Conclusion: Upregulation of the ET signaling pathway and NF-κB play an important role in the ARF of septic shock. Amelioration of renal lesions was achieved by suppressing the ETA and ETB receptors in the renal cortex following CPU0213 medication.

  16. Effect of Topical Application of Black Seed Oil on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Lesions in the Thin Skin of Adult Male Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Ebtsam F; Bayomy, Naglaa A; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2017-09-19

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 1%-3% of the world's population. Black seed oil, i.e., the oil extracted from black seeds (Nigella sativa seeds), possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of black seed oil on imiquimod (IMQ) induced psoriasis-like skin lesions. To this end, 30 male albino rats were divided into three groups: group I, control group; group II, psoriasis-induced group receiving daily topical applications of IMQ cream (5%) on the shaved back skin for 10 consecutive days; and group III, black seed oil group receiving a daily topical dose of black seed oil 5 mg/kg body weight for 10 days after induction of psoriasis. Animals of all groups were sacrificed and specimens obtained from the skin of the central part of the back were processed for histological and immunohistochemical staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). IMQ application led to epidermal inflammation, hyperplasia and alterations in the normal appearance of keratinocytes with degenerative changes observed at both light and electron microscopic levels. Collagenous fibers were abundant in the dermis and PCNA-positive cells were detected in all layers of the epidermis. However, topical use of black seed oil strongly inhibited IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation and alleviated all epidermal and dermal changes observed after IMQ application, allowing us to conclude that black seed oil can be used as an adjuvant topical therapy for treating psoriasis. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The pathogenic potential of oral anaerobic microorganisms in rat periapical lesions%感染根管优势菌致病能力的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王变红; 葛丽华; 侯本祥

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pathological effect of three oral anaerobic bacterial species on periapical lesions. Methods Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were inoculated into the first molars' pulp of SD rats respectively, and saline inoculated as control. Another group of molars' pulp was open to the oral cavity without any inoculation. The maxillary and mandibular bone was harvested at 1, 2, 4, 8 weeks, and periapical X-ray was taken and the absorption area of the periapical bone measured and analyzed. The periapical lesions were sliced and their pathology was observed. Results The periapical bone absorption area was increased with time and became biggest at 8 weeks. There were no significant difference in area of periapical lesions and in inflammation degree between the P. e group, P. g group and saline group at 1,2, 4, 8 weeks( P >0. 05 ). At 4 weeks, the bone absorption area of F. n group was bigger than that of P. e group and P. g group ( P < 0. 01 ). The inflammation degree in F. n group was severer than that in P. e or P. g group. Conclusion Compared with P. g and P. e, the F. n plays an more important role in the progress of apical periodontitis. Mixed infection of several kinds of bacteria was the main cause of periapical diseases.%目的 研究感染根管优势菌在根尖周炎发病过程中的作用,探讨不同细菌致病能力的差异.方法 选择牙髓卟啉单胞菌(Porphyromonas endodontalis,P.e)、牙龈卟啉单胞菌(Porphyromonas gingivalis,P.g)、具核梭杆菌(Fusobacterium nudeatum,F.n)分别接种于SD大鼠第一磨牙髓腔内,以生理盐水和髓腔开放作为对照.术后1、2、4、8周处死大鼠,取上、下颌骨拍摄X线片,测量并比较各组第一磨牙根尖周透射影面积;组织学切片观察各组根尖周组织病理变化,评价根尖周组织炎症程度.结果 X线片测量结果显示根尖阴影面积在术后8周最大,组织学评价结果为术后4周

  18. 毁损伏隔核、腹侧苍白球对大鼠觅药行为的影响%The effect of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum lesions on seeking behavior in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺世明; 高国栋; 胡三觉; 王学廉

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the reinforcing effect of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum in rats.Method Electrolytic lesions of the nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum was done separately in 20 rats amd hbejavopr was ,easired by conditioned place preference paradigm in rats.Result Electrolytic lesions of the nucleus accumbens showed an extinction of the place- preference for morphine- paired environment in rats and ventral pallidum lesions significantly decreased the place- preference.Conclusion The nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum are important sites mediating the reinforcing effects of morphine and the nucleus accumbens- ventral pallidum circuit is a common pathway for opiate reinforcement.%目的探讨伏隔核和腹侧苍白球在药物强化中的作用。方法分别毁损成瘾大鼠伏隔核、腹侧苍白球,利用条件性地点偏好实验测定术前、术后成瘾大鼠对注射吗啡的偏好分,评价伏隔核和腹侧苍白球在药物强化效应的作用。结果毁损大鼠双侧伏隔核能够完全消除大鼠对注射吗啡侧的偏好,毁损腹侧苍白球明显减少成瘾大鼠的地点偏好行为。结论伏隔核和腹侧苍白球是调节强化作用的重要位置,伏隔核-腹侧苍白球通路是药物强化的共同环路。

  19. Pink lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  20. Efeitos dos corticoesteroides nas lesões por radiofrequência na coxa de ratos em diferentes faixas etárias Effects of the corticosteroids in the lesions by radiofrequency on rats' thigh in different age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieko Okada

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Os corticosteroides limitam o crescimento tardio das lesões por radiofrequência (RF no músculo da coxa de ratos filhotes, mas seus efeitos em ratos púberes e adultos são desconhecidos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos dos corticoesteroides na cicatrização das lesões por RF no músculo da coxa de ratos em diferentes faixas etárias. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se ablação no músculo da coxa de 30 ratos (1 lesão por animal: infantis (30 dias de idade, peso 73 g, n = 10, púberes (60 dias de idade, peso 230 g, n = 10 e 10 adultos (90 dias de idade, 310 g, n = 10, subdivididos em controles e tratados, que receberam Hidrocortisona (10 mg/kg IM pós-RF e Betametasona (3,5 mg/kg IM, duas vezes por semana, por 29 dias. Os ratos foram sacrificados 60 dias após a ablação para análise histopatológica e planimétrica com software específico (ImageJ®. RESULTADOS: Nos infantis, púberes e adultos o ganho de peso no seguimento não diferiu entre controles e tratados. Nos controles, as lesões dos infantis e púberes eram maiores (p = 0,01 que as dos adultos. O tratamento reduziu o tamanho da lesão nos infantis (5,58+0,61 mm² vs 4,02+0,23 mm²; p BACKGROUND: The corticosteroids limit the late growth of the lesions by radiofrequency (RF on the rats' infants' thighs, but the effects on the pubescent and adult rats are unknown. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of the corticosteroids in the healing of the lesions by RF on the rats' thighs muscles in different age groups. METHODS: Ablation was performed on the thigh muscle of 30 rats (1 lesion per animal: infants (30 days old, weight 73 g, n = 10, pubescents (60 days old, weight 230 g, n = 10 and 10 adults (90 days old, 310 g, n = 10, subdivided in control and treated groups, that received Hydrocortisone (10 mg/kg IM post-RF and Betametasone (3.5 mg/kg IM, twice a week, for 29 days. The rats were sacrificed 60 days after the ablation for hystopathological and planimetric analysis with specified

  1. Adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor imaging with [{sup 11}C]KF18446 PET in the rat brain after quinolinic acid lesion. Comparison with the dopamine receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ogi, Nobuo; Hayakawa, Nobutaka [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Gerontology, Tokyo (Japan). Positron Medical Center] [and others

    2002-11-01

    We proposed [{sup 11}C]KF18446 as a selective radioligand for mapping the adenosine A{sub 2A} receptors being highly enriched in the striatum by positron emission tomography (PET). In the present study, we investigated whether [{sup 11}C]KF18446 PET can detect the change in the striatal adenosine A{sub 2A} receptors in the rat after unilateral injection of an excitotoxin quinolinic acid into the striatum, a Huntington's disease model, to demonstrate the usefulness of [{sup 11}C]KF18446. The extent of the striatal lesion was identified based on MRI, to which the PET was co-registered. The binding potential of [{sup 11}C]KF18446 significantly decreased in the quinolinic acid-lesioned striatum. The decrease was comparable to the decrease in the potential of [{sup 11}C] raclopride binding to dopamine D{sub 2} receptors in the lesioned striatum, but seemed to be larger than the decrease in the potential of [{sup 11}C]SCH23390 binding to dopamine D{sub 1} receptors. Ex vivo and in vitro autoradiography validated the PET signals. We concluded that [{sup 11}C]KF18446 PET can detect change in the adenosine A{sub 2A} receptors in the rat model, and will provide a new diagnostic tool for characterizing post-synaptic striatopallidal neurons in the stratum. (author)

  2. Sensitive and specific serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a peptide based on an immunodominant conserved region of Borrelia burgdorferi vlsE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, F T; Steere, A C; Marques, A R; Johnson, B J; Miller, J N; Philipp, M T

    1999-12-01

    VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, contains an immunodominant conserved region named IR(6). In the present study, the diagnostic performance of a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on a 26-mer synthetic peptide (C(6)) with the IR(6) sequence was explored. Sensitivity was assessed with serum samples (n = 210) collected from patients with clinically defined Lyme disease at the acute (early localized or early disseminated disease), convalescent, or late disease phase. The sensitivities for acute-, convalescent-, and late-phase specimens were 74% (29 of 39), 85 to 90% (34 of 40 to 35 of 39), and 100% (59 of 59), respectively. Serum specimens from early neuroborreliosis patients were 95% positive (19 of 20), and those from an additional group of patients with posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome yielded a sensitivity of 62% (8 of 13). To assess the specificity of the peptide ELISA, 77 serum samples from patients with other spirochetal or chronic infections, autoimmune diseases, or neurologic diseases and 99 serum specimens from hospitalized patients in an area where Lyme disease is not endemic were examined. Only two potential false positives from the hospitalized patients were found, and the overall specificity was 99% (174 of 176). Precision, which was assessed with a panel of positive and negative serum specimens arranged in blinded duplicates, was 100%. Four serum samples with very high anti-OspA antibody titers obtained from four monkeys given the OspA vaccine did not react with the C(6) peptide. This simple, sensitive, specific, and precise ELISA may contribute to alleviate some of the remaining problems in Lyme disease serodiagnosis. Because of its synthetic peptide base, it will be inexpensive to manufacture. It also will be applicable to serum specimens from OspA-vaccinated subjects.

  3. Short-term effect of erythropoietin on brain lesions and aquaporin-4 expression in a hypoxic-ischemic neonatal rat model assessed by magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, Olivier; Villega, Frédéric; Pieter Konsman, Jan; Sanchez, Stéphane; Raffard, Gérard; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Chateil, Jean-François; Bouzier-Sore, Anne-Karine

    2010-08-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is an endogenous cytokine that regulates hematopoiesis and is widely used to treat anemia. In addition, it has recently increased interest in the neurosciences since the new concept of Epo as a neuroprotective agent has emerged. The potential protective effect of human recombinant Epo (r-hu-Epo) on a hypoxic-ischemic (HI) pup rat model was studied. Cerebral HI was obtained by permanent left carotid artery ligature of pups followed by a 2-h hypoxia. Three hours after carotid occlusion, brain lesions were assessed by magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging. Intraperitoneal administration of r-hu-Epo (30,000 U/kg dose) limited both the HI-induced brain lesion area and the decrease in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the lesion. To identify potential mechanisms underlying the effects of Epo, immunohistochemical detection of caspase-3 and water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) were performed. No early apoptosis was detected, but up-regulation of AQP4 expression was observed in HI pups that received r-hu-Epo compared with HI animals without treatment. This study demonstrates an early neuroprotective effect of Epo with regard to brain lesion area and ADC values. One possible mechanism of Epo for decreasing brain edema and cellular swelling could be a better clearance of water excess in brain tissue, a process possibly mediated by AQP4.

  4. 黑质致密部和内侧前脑束注射6-OHDA 制备的帕金森病大鼠模型纹状体中 DA 含量比较%Effects of 6-OHDA-lesioned Parkinson’s disease rat model in substantia nigra compacta and medial forebrain bundle on DA level in the striatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玲娜; 常永丽; 郭晓姝; 张翠英

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effects of substantia nigra compacta (SNc)lesioned and medial forebrain bundle (MFB)lesion Parkinson’s disease(PD)rat models by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)on the dopamine (DA)level in the striatum.Methods:Rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (n = 12),SNc-lesioned(n = 1 5 )and MFB-lesioned (n =14)groups.Changes of the DA level in the striatum were observed by the high performance liquid chromatography with elec-trochemical detection in 3 groups rats.Results:Compared to sham-operated rats,the DA levels of the SNc-lesioned and MFB-lesioned rats decreased significantly.And compared to the SNc-lesioned rats,the degree of DA levels in the MFB-lesioned rats docreased more serious (P =0.005).Conclusion:The lesioned range of DA neurons of MFB-lesioned PD rat model is wider than that of SNc-lesion,which provides a theory basis for the choice of modeling methods in different researches.%目的::比较黑质致密部(SNc)损毁和内侧前脑束(MFB)损毁2种方法制备的帕金森病(PD)大鼠模型对纹状体中多巴胺(DA)递质含量的影响。方法:将大鼠随机分为假手术组(n=12)、SNc 损毁组(n=15)和 MFB 损毁组(n=14)。采用高效液相色谱-电化学检测法,观察3组大鼠损毁侧纹状体中 DA的含量。结果:与假手术组相比较,SNc 损毁组(P <0.001)和 MFB 损毁组(P <0.001)大鼠纹状体中 DA含量均显著降低,与 SNc 损毁组相比较,MFB 损毁组大鼠纹状体中 DA 含量下降更为显著(P =0.005)。结论:MFB 损毁制备的 PD 大鼠模型对 DA 能神经元的损伤范围较 SNc 损毁有所扩大,为不同研究选择制备模型的方法提供一定的理论依据。

  5. 损毁炎症大鼠下丘脑弓状核对痛觉过敏的影响%The effect of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus lesion on the hyperalgesia of inflammatory rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴友爱; 龚珊; 蒋星红

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察损毁炎症大鼠下丘脑弓状核( ARC)对炎症大鼠痛觉过敏的影响.方法 用完全弗氏佐剂(CFA)建立大鼠外周组织炎症模型;采用新生期大鼠注射谷氨酸单钠(MSG)破坏ARC神经元或电解损毁成年大鼠的ARC;用辐射热-缩腿法测定炎症大鼠热痛阈的变化,用von Frey法测定机械痛阈的变化.结果 (1)大鼠在注射CFA后热痛阈和机械痛阈均明显降低,出现痛觉过敏,3h达到高峰,到第3天有所恢复并且稳定维持痛觉过敏状态,一直维持到本实验观察的第14天;(2)新生期注射MSG的大鼠在注射CFA后3h,热痛阈和机械痛阈也明显降低,出现痛觉过敏,但其痛阈降低的幅度明显小于注射高渗盐水对照的CFA组;(3)CFA炎症大鼠在电解损毁ARC之后,其热痛阈和机械痛阈与假损毁组相比,均明显上升,即痛觉过敏减轻.结论 在外周存在炎症条件下,两种方法损毁ARC都能减轻痛觉过敏.提示ARC参与外周组织炎症引起的痛觉过敏,对痛觉过敏的发生有下行易化作用.%Objective To study the effect of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus ( ARC) lesion on the hyperalgesia of inflammatory rats and investigate the descending modulation on hyperalgesia from ARC. Methods The peripheral inflammation model was established by sub-plantar injection of complete Freund' s adjuvant ( CFA) in rats. ARC was lesioned electrolytically and by neonatal injection of monosodium glutamate ( MSG). The thermal pain threshold was measured by radiant heat-withdrawal method and the mechanical pain threshold was measured by von Frey method. Results ( 1 ) Hyperalgesia ( decrease of thermal and mechanical pain threshold) appeared after injection of CFA, the peak time was at 3h, and the hyperalgesic state could last for 14 days (2) In MSG-treated neonatal rats the thermal and mechanical pain threshold were decreased at 3h after CFA injection, but the amplitude of decrement was significantly less as compared with

  6. Effects of Liraglutide on Renal Lesions in Diabetic Rats%利拉鲁肽对糖尿病大鼠肾脏病变的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李里; 卢松

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of liraglutide on renal lesions in diabetic rats. Methods The type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)rat model was established by feeding high - fat and high - sugar foods for 1 month and intraperitoneal injection of small dose of streptozotocin(STZ,30 mg / kg). The adult male Sprague - Dawley rats were randomly divided into the normal control group(NC group),dia-betes group(DM group),liraglutide 100 μg / kg group(L100 group)and liraglutide 200 μg / kg group(L200 group). The NC group and the DM group were intraperitoneally injected by normal saline,the L100 group and L200 groups respectively received the intervention of li-raglutide 100 μg / kg and 200 μg / kg by intraperitoneal injection,twice daily. After 12 - week intervention,the body weight( BW),kidney weight( KW),kidney / body weight ratio( KW / BW),24h urinary protein excretory(24 hUPE),serum creatinine( Scr)and blood urea nitrogen ( BUN)were detected. The changes of the renal tissue morphology and structure were observed under the optical and electron micro-scope. Results Liraglutide could inhibit the increase of KW / BW ratio,mean glomerular volume( MGV)and mesangial area ratio( FMA), decrease the urinary protein level and improve the renal function( P ﹤ 0. 05);which could alleviate the pathological changes of foot process fusion,basilar membrane thickening and mesangial hyperplasia. Compared with the L100 group,the improvement of various indexes in the L200 group was more significant and the alleviation of the pathological changes were more obvious. Conclusion Liraglutide has the pro-tective effect on the kidney in diabetic rat,the effect of 200 μg / kg(twice daily)is better than that of 100 μg / kg.%目的:探讨利拉鲁肽对糖尿病大鼠肾脏病变的影响。方法高脂高糖饲料喂养1个月后,予小剂量链脲佐菌素(STZ,30 mg / kg)腹腔注射诱导建立2型糖尿病大鼠模型。将雄性 SD 大鼠,随机分为正常对照组(NC

  7. Aquisição de uma tarefa temporal (DRL por ratos submetidos a lesão seletiva do giro denteado The acquisition of a temporal task (DRL by dentate gyrus-selective colchicine lesioned rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Oliveira Bueno

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A lesão seletiva do giro denteado (DG reduz a eficiência do desempenho de ratos treinados pré-operatoriamente em um esquema de reforçamento diferencial de baixas taxas (DRL; embora os animais lesados sejam capazes de suprimir a resposta de pressão na barra por determinado intervalo de tempo após a resposta anterior, eles subestimam esse intervalo, resultando em um desempenho menos eficiente. Como os animais tinham recebido treinamento pré-operatório, não ficou claro se a lesão interfere na aquisição da discriminação temporal. Este estudo avaliou o efeito da lesão do DG na aquisição de uma tarefa de DRL-20 s. Ratos foram submetidos à neurocirurgia e então ao treino na tarefa de DRL-20 s. Os resultados mostraram que embora os animais lesados se beneficiem do treinamento na tarefa, sua aquisição não é tão eficiente quanto a exibida pelos animais controle. Os resultados sugerem ainda que a lesão do giro denteado interfere na acuidade da discriminação temporal.Previous studies have shown that dentate gyrus damage render rats less efficient than sham-operated controls in the performance of a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL-20 s task acquired prior to the lesion; even though the lesioned rats were able to postpone their responses after a previous bar press, they seem to underestimate time relative to sham-operated controls, which interferes with their performance. This study investigated the effects of multiplesite, intradentate, colchicine injections on the acquisition and performance of a DRL-20 s task in rats not exposed to preoperatory training, i.e., trained after the lesion. Results showed that the lesioned rats improved along repetitive training in the DRL-20 s task; however, relative to the sham-operated controls, their acquisition rate was slower and the level of proficiency achieved was poorer, indicating that damage to the dentate gyrus interferes with temporal discrimination.

  8. Parasellar lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruscalleda, J. [Hospital Sant Pau, Radiology Department, Neuroradiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-03-01

    The sellar and parasellar region is an anatomically complex area that represents a crucial crossroad of important adjacent structures, e.g. orbits, cavernous sinus and its content, polygon of Willis, hypothalamus through the pituitary stalk and dural reflections forming the diaphragm sellae and the walls of the cavernous sinuses. Although the cavernous sinus represents the most relevant parasellar structure, from the practical and clinical point of view all the structures that surround the sella turcica can be included in the parasellar region. CT and, mainly, MRI are the imaging modalities to study and characterise the normal anatomy and the majority of processes in this region. We present a practical short review of the most relevant CT and MRI characteristics, such as location, nature of contrast enhancement and presence of cystic components, together with clinical findings, which permit differentiation of the most frequent and less common lesions found in the parasellar region. Learning objectives: A short review of the anatomy and clinical symptoms related to the parasellar region. Radiological characterisation, mainly by MRI, of the many lesions that alter the structure and function of sellar and parasellar anatomy. Description of the MRI features that permit differentiation among less common lesions. (orig.)

  9. The change of neurotrophin 3 in spinal motor neurons following sciatic nerve lesion in rats%周围神经损伤对脊髓运动神经元NT-3表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石向群; 范明; 陆兵勋; 杨金升; 赵友岐; 汪泳

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To study the change of neurotroph in 3(NT-3) in the spinal motor neuron and the association between it and the degree of degeneration and death in spinal motor neuron following sciatic nervele sion in the rats.Methods:The sciatic nerve lesion wa s induced with cutting and removing part of the sciatic nerve in the adult and 3 days of age rats.The rats were allowed to survive for 3,7,14,21,28 days.The ext ent of spinal motor neuron death and degeneration was examined,the level of NT- 3 in spinal motor neuron were measured with image analysis.Results :The level of NT-3 in spinal motor neuron in suckling and adultr at groap was significant reduced following sciatic nerve lesion,and it was lowest in the second week after sciatic nerve lesion.The level of NT-3 in spinal mot or neuron in the 28th day following sciatic nerve lesion did not increase to it of the control.The change of spin al motor neuron death and degeneration was similar to the change of the level of NT-3.The level of NT-3 in spinal motor neuron in suckling rat was highter than it in adult rat. Conclusion:The level of NT-3 in spinal motor neurons would take change following sciatic nerve lesion,and the de ath and degeneration of spinal motor neuron may be induced by the peripheral ner ve lesion,The level of NT-3 in spinal motor neuron was negative with the extent of spinal motor neuron death and degeneration.%目的:探讨周围神经损伤后脊髓运动神经元神经营养因子-3(NT-3)水平变化规律及与神经元病理变化的相关性。方法:切断大鼠坐骨神经复制周围神经损伤模型,免疫组织化学染色NT-3阳性脊髓运 动神经元、图像分析计算其吸光度以反映NT-3的水平。结果:成鼠或乳鼠坐骨神经损伤后运动神经元NT-3水平均很快下降,至伤后第2周降至最低 水平,随后逐渐恢复,至4周仍未恢复到对照组水平;神经元病理改变过程与此相似。但乳 鼠NT-3基

  10. Model applied to wistar rats for analysis of atrial alteration radioinduced: role of the TGFBeta1 cytokine on the lesions development; Modelo em ratos Wistar para analise de alteracoes atriais radioinduzidas: papel da citocina TGFBeta1 no desenvolvimento das lesoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Viviane Fernandes da; Andrade, Cherley Borba V. de; Nascimento, Ana Lucia Rosa do; Silva, Claudia Marcello da; Ribeiro, Andreia Fortes; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Carvalho, Jorge Jose de; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail: vivifis@gmail.co [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes

    2009-07-01

    This paper develops a radiobiological model on Wistar rats for evaluation of atrium radioinduced alterations. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetised, immobilized and irradiated with 500, 1000 and 1500 cGy irradiated doses in the cardiac volume, pre-define through tomography. The animals were sacrificed after 15 days irradiation. The atriums were collected, fixed in formaldehyde and soaked into paraffin. A part of samples were dyed with hematoxyline-eosin (HE) and another submitted to immunohistochemistry for visualization of the cytokine TGFbeta1 expression. The observation of samples with HE indicated lesions om blood vessels and discrete inflamed infiltrated on some samples. The immunohistochemistry shown an intense expression of the TGFbeta1 cytokine, mainly on the only intine of the blood vessels. The data indicate that the atria develop alterations compatible to inflammatory answer as reaction to the damage caused by the tissue irradiation, and this answer is responsible by the production of TGFbeta1 cytokine, considered a cytokine pro-fibrotic on various models of cardiac disease. The lesions at atrium level can reflect on the correct functioning of the system generator of cardiac impulse, and can induce arrythmias and to prejudice the production of natriuretic peptides, molecules involved on the cardiac homeostasis

  11. The Protective Effects of Curcumin on Experimental Acute Liver Lesion Induced by Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion through Inhibiting the Pathway of NF-κB in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In this study, we investigated the protective effect and mechanism of curcumin on a rat model of intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R, which induces an acute liver lesion. Methods. Curcumin was injected into rats in the curcumin groups through left femoral vein. The same volume of vehicle (0.9% normal saline was injected into sham and I/R groups. Blood and liver tissue were gathered for serological and histopathological determination. Results. Intestinal I/R led to severe liver injury manifested as a significant increase in serum AST and ALT levels; all of those were reduced by treatment with curcumin. Simultaneously, the activity of SOD in liver decreased after intestinal I/R, which was increased by curcumin treatment. On the other hand, curcumin reduced MPO activity of liver tissue, as well as serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels observably. This is in parallel with the decreased level of liver intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB expression. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that curcumin treatment attenuates liver lesion induced by intestinal I/R, attributable to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of the NF-κB pathway.

  12. Nephroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. on acetaminophen-induced and pleurisy-induced lesions in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pereira Müzell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the bioactive properties of an aqueous extract of M. officinalis for its anti-inflammatory activity and its protection against hepatic and renal lesions induced by acetaminophen (APAP. Animals pre-treated with the crude extract in pleurisy induced by carrageenan showed a reduction in the amounts of exudate, in the numbers of leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Intragastric administration of the extract for seven days prior to the APAP-induced lesion showed no protective effect on the liver. The treatment with the extract induced an increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase, indicating a rise of toxicity. Contrarily, the same treatment reduced the APAP induced lesion in kidney, with respect to ν-glutamyltransferase. The results suggested that the extract was not hepatoprotective and could lead to an increase in the lesions induced by the APAP. On the other hand, the extract was nephroprotective against the lesions induced by the APAP and showed an anti-inflammatory effect on pleurisy carrageenan-induced.

  13. Behavioural Assessment of the A2a/NR2B Combination in the Unilateral 6-OHDA-Lesioned Rat Model: A New Method to Examine the Therapeutic Potential of Non-Dopaminergic Drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Michel

    Full Text Available In Parkinson's disease (PD, dopaminergic therapies are often associated with the development of motor complications. Attention has therefore been focused on the use of non-dopaminergic drugs. This study developed a new behavioural method capable of demonstrating the added value of combining adenosinergic and glutamatergic receptor antagonists in unilateral 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Rats were dosed orally with Tozadenant, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, and three different doses of Radiprodil, an NR2B-selective NMDA receptor antagonist. The drugs were given alone or in combination and rats were placed in an open-field for behavioural monitoring. Video recordings were automatically analysed. Five different behaviours were scored: distance traveled, ipsi- and contraversive turns, body position, and space occupancy. The results show that A2A or NR2B receptor antagonists given alone or in combination did not produce enhanced turning as observed with an active dose of L-Dopa/benserazide. Instead the treated rats maintained a straight body position, were able to shift from one direction to the other and occupied a significantly larger space in the arena. The highest "Tozadenant/Radiprodil" dose combination significantly increased all five behavioural parameters recorded compared to rats treated with vehicle or the same doses of the drugs alone. Our data suggest that the A2A/NR2B antagonist combination may be able to stimulate motor activity to a similar level as that achieved by L-Dopa but in the absence of the side-effects that are associated with dopaminergic hyperstimulation. If these results translate into the clinic, this combination could represent an alternative symptomatic treatment option for PD.

  14. Deficit in sustained attention following selective cholinergic lesion of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in rat, as measured with both post-mortem immunocytochemistry and in vivo PET imaging with [¹⁸F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, Marilyn; Parent, Maxime J; Mechawar, Naguib; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Clark, Stewart D; Aghourian, Meghmik; Bedard, Marc-Andre

    2015-02-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are thought to be involved in cognitive functions such as sustained attention, and lesions of these cells have been documented in patients showing fluctuations of attention such as in Parkinson's disease or dementia with Lewy Body. Animal studies have been conducted to support the role of these cells in attention, but the lesions induced in these animals were not specific to the cholinergic PPTg system, and were assessed by post-mortem methods remotely performed from the in vivo behavioral assessments. Moreover, sustained attention have not been directly assessed in these studies, but rather deduced from indirect measurements. In the present study, rats were assessed on the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT), and a specific measure of variability in response latency was created. Animals were observed both before and after selective lesion of the PPTg cholinergic neurons. Brain cholinergic denervation was assessed both in vivo and ex vivo, using PET imaging with [(18)F]fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([(18)F]FEOBV) and immunocytochemistry respectively. Results showed that the number of correct responses and variability in response latency in the 5-CSRTT were the only behavioral measures affected following the lesions. These measures were found to correlate significantly with the number of PPTg cholinergic cells, as measured with both [(18)F]FEOBV and immunocytochemistry. This suggests the primary role of the PPTg cholinergic cells in sustained attention. It also allows to reliably use the PET imaging with [(18)F]FEOBV for the purpose of assessing the relationship between behavior and cholinergic innervation in living animals.

  15. Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a potential agent of bioterrorism, has a short distribution and a long elimination half-life, and induces kidney and thymus lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Nan; Wang, Sheng-Han; Li, Tao; Wang, Qin; Tu, Wei; Cai, Kun; Hou, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Ren-Mao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Hao; Xiao, Le; Shi, Jing; Cheng, Yuan-Guo; Li, Jian-Chun; Wang, Hui

    2011-09-01

    Shiga toxin type 2, a major virulence factor produced by the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, is a potential toxin agent of bioterrorism. In this study, iodine-125 (125I) was used as an indicator to describe the in vivo Stx2 biodistribution profile. The rats were injected intravenously (i.v.) with 125I-Stx2 at three doses of 5.1-127.5 μg/kg body weight. Stx2 had a short distribution half-life (t (1/2)α, less than 6 min) and a long elimination half-life in rat. The toxicokinetics of Stx2 in rats was dose dependent and nonlinear. Stx2 concentrations in various tissues were detected at 5-min, 0.5-h, and 72-h postinjection. High radioactivity was found in the lungs, kidneys, nasal turbinates, and sometimes in the eyes, which has never been reported in previous studies. In a preliminary assessment, lesions were found in the kidney and thymus.

  16. Effects of Ganshi Qingdai Cream intervening lesions of subacute eczema model in rats%甘石青黛膏对大鼠亚急性湿疹模型皮损的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙占学; 赵丽娟; 张丰川; 李元文

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察中药甘石青黛膏对大鼠亚急性湿疹模型皮损的治疗效果.方法 大鼠亚急性湿疹模型造模成功后进行中药甘石青黛膏干预,并用安慰剂(白凡士林)组进行对照,观察红斑、水肿、表皮剥脱、苔藓化等症状,以湿疹面积及严重度指数评分法评价疗效.结果 以湿疹面积及严重度指数评分法比较模型大鼠红斑、水肿、表皮剥脱以及苔藓化等各项数据,甘石青黛膏干预大鼠皮损与本组干预前相比,差异有统计学意义(P < 0.01);甘石青黛膏组干预后与安慰剂组模拟治疗后相比差异有统计学意义(P <0.01),甘石青黛膏组症状评分均优于安慰剂组;评价两组湿疹模型干预后总体疗效,安慰剂组总有效率为42.10%,甘石青黛膏组总有效率为72.22%,经统计学处理,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05),甘石青黛膏总体疗效优于安慰组.结论 中药甘石青黛膏对亚急性湿疹模型皮损具有控制红斑,消除水肿,促进破损表皮修复,抑制苔藓化的作用.%Objective To observe the therapeulic effect of Ganshi Qingdai Cream inlervening lesions of subacule eczema model in rals. Method Ganshi Qingdai Cream inlervening lesions of subacule eczema model in rals, which was lo compare with placebo (while vaseline). The change of lesions from ery-thema, edema, skin exfoliation, and moss el al as well as eczema area, severity index score were further observed. Results Though the means of eczema area, severity index score, the effects of erythema, edema, skin exfoliation, and moss from subacute eczema model of skin lesions in rats treated by Ganshi Qingdai Cream were very good, the difference of effect after treating compared with before treating was significant (P<0. 01). The effects of erythema, edema, skin exfoliation, and moss from eczema model of skin lesions in rats treated by Ganshi Qingdai Cream were superior to ones of placebo group ( P < 0. 01). The total effective rate of

  17. Failure of α-MSH to delay extinction of conditioned avoidance behavior in rats with lesions in the parafascicular nuclei of the thalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohus, B.; Wied, D. de

    1967-01-01

    Bilateral lesions in the thalamic parafascicular area facilitate the rate of extinction of a conditioned avoidance response without affecting avoidance learning. Treatment with long-acting α-MSH during extinction failed to affect the rate of extinction of the avoidance response. Since this peptide d

  18. Effects of unilateral 6-OHDA lesions on [3H]-N-propylnorapomorphine binding in striatum ex vivo and vulnerability to amphetamine-evoked dopamine release in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Kjaerby, Celia; Knudsen, Gitte M;

    2011-01-01

    ligands should likewise be fitter than antagonists for detecting responses to denervation in positron emission tomography studies of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Agonist binding increases in vivo are likely to reflect the composite of a sensitization-like phenomenon, and relatively less competition...... from endogenous dopamine, as seen in the lesioned side of 6-OHDA induced hemi-parkinsonism....

  19. Levodopa/benserazide microspheres reduced levodopa-induced dyskinesia by downregulating phosphorylated GluR1 expression in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song L,Yuan W

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Xinxin Yang,1,* Yinghui Chen,2,* Xiaoyun Hong,3 Na Wu,1 Lu Song,1 Weien Yuan,3 Zhenguo Liu11Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; 2Department of Neurology, Jinshan Hospital, Fudan University, JinShan District, Shanghai, China; 3School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Levodopa is the gold standard in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD. However, long-term levodopa replacement therapy is accompanied by abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs, known as levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. Until now, the precise mechanisms of LID were only partially understood. Previous studies have shown that continuous dopamine stimulation was helpful in reducing the expression of LID. In addition to dopamine D1 receptor, glutamatergic receptors such as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA receptor also contribute to the expression of LID. The current authors have previously reported that levodopa/benserazide-loaded microspheres could ameliorate the expression of LID by reducing the protein kinase A signaling pathway in dyskinetic rats. However, whether AMPA receptor is involved in the mechanism by which levodopa/benserazide-loaded microspheres ameliorate the expression of LID in dyskinetic rats was unknown.Methods: In the present study, as reported previously, levodopa and benserazide were loaded by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres, which can release levodopa and benserazide in a sustained manner. 6-Hydroxydopamine was injected into the right medial forebrain bundle to produce a rat model of PD. Then valid PD rats were treated with levodopa plus benserazide for 3 weeks to induce a rat model of LID. Dyskinetic rats were treated with levodopa/beserazide-loaded microspheres containing levodopa (6 mg/kg plus benserazide (15 mg/kg or same dose of levodopa plus benserazide

  20. Oxigenoterapia hiperbárica em lesões actínicas de colo de ratos: aspectos morfológicos e morfométricos Hiperbaric oxygen in actinic lesions of rat colon: morphological and morphometric aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Lyra Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a ação da oxigenação hiperbárica em lesões actínicas provocadas por radiação ionizante no colo distal de ratas. Métodos: Foram utilizadas 32 ratas adultas distribuídas em quatro grupos. I - sham; II - oxigenoterapia hiperbárica (OHT; III - radioterapia (RT, e IV - radioterapia e oxigenoterapia hiperbárica (da mesma maneira que nos grupos II e III. Segmentos de colo distal foram fixados em formol a 10% e processados para avaliação histológica e morfométrica. Resultados: Os resultados do experimento mostraram lesão das glândulas intestinais, vasodilatação e infiltrado leucocitário na lâmina própria e submucosa no colo dos animais pertencentes ao grupo RT que diminuiu acentudadamente após a oxigenioterapia hiperbárica. Conclusão: A oxigenitoterapia hiperbárica atenua as alterações morfológicas da mucosa e submucosa do cólon distal de ratas com enterite induzida por radiação ionizante.Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hiperbaric oxygen on the radiation-induced actinic lesions in the rat distal colon. Methods: Thirty-two Wistar female rats were divided into four groups: I - sham; II - hiperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT; III - radiotherapy (RT, e IV - radiotherapy and hiperbaric oxygen (the same manner of II and III group. Fragments of distal colon were fixed into 10% formadehyde and proceeded for the histological routine and morphology. Results: The experimental results showed the intestinal gland lesions, vasodilation and infiltrated leucocytes in propria laminae and submucosae in rat colon of GIII that accentuated colon after hiperbaric oxygen Conclusion: Hiperbaric oxygen attenuated the morphological changes in the mucosae and submucosae of the rat distal colon with radiation-induced inflammatory process.

  1. Ephrin-B2 and EphB2 regulation of astrocyte-meningeal fibroblast interactions in response to spinal cord lesions in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundesen, Liza Q; Scheel, Tracy Aber; Bregman, Barbara S; Kromer, Lawrence F

    2003-08-27

    The present study provides the first evidence that signaling occurs between B-ephrins and EphB receptors in the adult CNS in response to injury. Specifically, our combined histological and biochemical data indicate that two members of the B-class of ephrins and Eph receptors, ephrin-B2 and EphB2, are expressed by astrocytes and meningeal fibroblasts, respectively, in the adult spinal cord. In response to thoracic spinal cord transection lesions, ephrin-B2 and EphB2 protein levels exhibit an initial decrease (1 d after lesion), followed by a significant increase by day 14. Immunohistochemical data indicate that ephrin-B2 is expressed by reactive CNS astrocytes, and EphB2 is present on fibroblasts invading the lesion site from the adjacent meninges. During the first 3 d after injury, there is intermingling of ephrin-B2-expressing reactive astrocytes at the lesion surface with EphB2-containing fibroblasts that is concurrent with bidirectional activation (phosphorylation) of ephrin-B2 and EphB2. By 7 d, both cell types are establishing restricted cellular domains containing dense networks of cells and interweaving processes. This astroglial-meningeal fibroblast scar is fully developed by day 14 when there is strict segregation of ephrin-B2-expressing astrocytes from EphB2-positive meningeal fibroblasts. These morphological changes are concomitant with a simultaneous decrease in ephrin-B2 and EphB2 activation. These observations provide strong evidence that cell contact-mediated bidirectional signaling between ephrin-B2 on reactive astrocytes and EphB2 on meningeal fibroblasts is an early event in the cellular cascades that result in the development of the glial scar and the exclusion of meningeal fibroblasts from the injured spinal cord.

  2. Effects of unilateral 6-OHDA lesions on [3H]-N-propylnorapomorphine binding in striatum ex vivo and vulnerability to amphetamine-evoked dopamine release in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Kjaerby, Celia; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued that agonist ligands for dopamine D(2/3) receptors recognize a privileged subset of the receptors in living striatum, those which are functionally coupled to intracellular G-proteins. In support of this claim, the D(2/3) agonist [(3)H]-N-propylnorapomorphine ([(3)H]NPA) proved ...... from endogenous dopamine, as seen in the lesioned side of 6-OHDA induced hemi-parkinsonism....

  3. The mercapturic acid biotransformation pathway of hexachlorobenzene is not involved in the induction of splenomegaly, skin and lung lesions in the Brown Norway rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, C.P.P.C.; Mil, van F.; Boeren, S.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Bloksma, M.A.; Vos, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Involvement of the mercapturic acid pathway in the induction of splenomegaly and skin and lung pathology by hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the rat was investigated by seeking to determine whether pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) has the same inflammatory effects as HCB, since both compounds are directly c

  4. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL DETECTION OF THE LARVAL STAGE OF TAENIA TAENIAEFORMIS (STROBILOCERCI AND ITS ASSOCIATED LESIONS IN LIVER OF LABORATORY RATS: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remigius Ibe Onoja

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Histopathological examination of liver tissues of rats maintained in laboratory condition showed the presence of strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaformis. Infiltration of mononuclear cells such as plasma cells, lymphocytes, macrophages and occasional eosinophils were seen. Active fibroplasia was found in the surrounding tissues. The finding is having importance in zoonatic effects and also for possibility of alteration of result of biomedical research works.

  5. Changes in /sup 3/H-substance P receptor binding in the rat brain after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantyh, P.W.; Hunt, S.P.

    1986-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that the substantia nigra contains the highest concentration of substance P-like immunoreactivity (SPLI) in the brain. Paradoxically, it also appears to contain one of the lowest concentrations of substance P receptors in the brain. One possibility is that the massive amount of SPLI blocks the binding of the radioligand to the substance P receptor and/or down-regulates the number of substance P receptors present in this structure. Since greater than 95% of the SPLI within the substantia nigra originates from the corpus striatum, we have lesioned this area and measured the changes in substance P receptor concentration in the substantia nigra and other corpus striatal projection areas. A semiquantitative autoradiographic technique for measuring the binding of /sup 3/H-substance P to substance P receptors was used in conjunction with tritium-sensitive film. 3H-substance P binding was measured in both the corpus striatum and its projection areas after kainic acid lesion of the corpus striatum. At either 4 or 21 d after the lesion there was approximately a 90% loss of substance P receptors in the rostral striatum, a 74% loss in the globus pallidus, a 57% increase in receptor number in lamina I and II of the ipsilateral somatosensory cortex, and no apparent change in the number of receptors in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, superior colliculus, and central gray. These findings suggest that the low concentration of substance P receptors found within the substantia nigra is not due the massive SPLI innervation, since removal of greater than 95% of the SPLI had no measurable effect on the concentration of substance P receptors.

  6. Hepatic lesions and hemolysis following administration of 3. cap alpha. , 7. cap alpha. , 12. cap alpha. -trihydroxy-5. beta. -cholestan-26-oyl taurine to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, R.F. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis); Williams, G.C.; Hachey, D.; Sharp, H.L.

    1977-09-01

    Patients with a metabolic block in the conversion of THCA into cholic acid develop cirrhosis and hemolysis, and die of hepatic failure. In these patients, THCA is largely conjugated to taurine (tauro-THCA) and excreted instead of being converted into cholic acid. In the present study, the effects of tauro-THCA on hemolysis, bile flow, and hepatic morphology were evaluated in bile fistula rats. All rats infused with tauro-THCA at rates of 0.25, 0.50 or 0.75 ..mu..mol/min developed hemolysis with hemoglobinuria. A direct toxic effect of tauro-THCA on washed human red blood cell membranes was demonstrated at a concentration of 8 x 10/sup -4/ M. Liver biopsy sections from rats infused for a 2 hr period with tauro-THCA were examined by electron microscopy and showed dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and distortion of mitochondrial membranes. Cholestasis was not induced, since tauro-THCA actually caused a greater choleretic response for a given rate of bile salt excretion than did taurocholate. This study raises the possibility that the clinical liver disease seen in patients with a metabolic block in the conversion of THCA into cholic acid may be caused by tauro-THCA.

  7. Identification of epigenetically downregulated Tmem70 and Ube2e2 in rat liver after 28-day treatment with hepatocarcinogenic thioacetamide showing gene product downregulation in hepatocellular preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions produced by tumor promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Sayaka; Yafune, Atsunori; Watanabe, Yousuke; Nakajima, Kota; Jin, Meilan; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-01-15

    The present study identified genes showing promoter region hypermethylation by CpG island microarrays in the liver of rats treated with hepatocarcinogen thioacetamide (TAA) for 28days. Among 47 hypermethylated genes, Hist1h2aa, Tmem70, Ube2e2, and Slk were confirmed to show hypermethylation by methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing analyses as well as downregulation of transcript levels by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis in the livers of rats treated with TAA. All gene products of the 4 selected genes showed decreased immunoreactivity forming negative liver cell foci in a subpopulation of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)(+) foci in TAA-promoted rat livers in a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model. Among them, TMEM70 and UBE2E2 showed increased incidences of negative foci in GST-P(+) foci by promotion of all examined TAA, β-naphthoflavone, piperonyl butoxide, fenbendazole and phenobarbital, while HIST1H2AA and SLK did not respond to all promotive treatments. In the late stage of tumor promotion by TAA, the incidence of GST-P(+) proliferative lesions with downregulation of TMEM70 or UBE2E2 was higher in adenomas and carcinomas than liver cell foci. TMEM70 plays a role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and UBE2E2 participates in the stabilization of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Therefore, our results indicate that aberrant epigenetic gene downregulation suggestive of a metabolic shift of cellular respiration from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and aberrant cell cycle regulation facilitating cell proliferation from as early as 28days after hepatocarcinogen treatment contribute to tumor development.

  8. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for gastric precancerous lesions in a rat model%骨髓间充质干细胞移植对大鼠胃癌前病变模型的修复作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪锋; 李潞

    2016-01-01

    背景:胃癌前病变是多种因素共同参与的长期发展过程,骨髓间充质干细胞有修复组织损伤的作用。目的:探讨骨髓间充质干细胞移植对大鼠胃癌前病变的影响。  方法:将36只Wistar大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组和移植组。模型组和移植组建立大鼠胃癌前病变模型,移植组大鼠经尾静脉注射1 mL CM-dil标记的骨髓间充质干细胞(3×106个细胞),每周注射1次,一共3次,模型组和对照组同样方法经尾静脉注入等量的生理盐水。末次注射后1周处死大鼠,观察大鼠胃组织病理变化,检测胃黏膜中血管内皮生长因子的表达以及血清中细胞因子含量。  结果与结论:①移植组大鼠胃黏膜损伤较模型组轻,移植组血管内皮生长因子表达明显高于模型组和对照组(P<0.05);②模型组和移植组血清白细胞介素17和γ-干扰素水平高于对照组(P<0.05),移植组血清白细胞介素17和γ-干扰素水平低于模型组(P<0.05);③结果表明,骨髓间充质干细胞通过增加胃黏膜病变部位血管内皮生长因子的表达,降低血清白细胞介素17和γ-干扰素水平,从而提高血管通透性,减轻炎症反应,阻断或者缓解癌前病变的发生。%BACKGROUND:Precancerous lesions are a long-term development process in which many factors are involved. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s can repair tissue injury. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel transplantation on gastric precancerous lesions in the rats. METHODS:Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, model group and transplantation group. Animal models of gastric precancerous lesions were established in the model and transplantation groups. Rats in the transplantation group were given 1 mL of CM-dil-labeled bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s (3×106 cel s) via the tail vein, once a week, total y three times. Rats in the

  9. Correlation of mineral dust-induced changes in the composition of a fraction enriched in lung surfactant with pulmonary histologic lesions in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schengrund, C.-L.; Griffith, J.W.; Wilson, R.P.; Xiaoli Chi [Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

    1996-07-01

    In previous work the composition of surfactant isolated from cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage (CF-BAL) from the right lungs of monkeys instilled with 500 mg of either generic bituminous, anthracite, quartz, or titanium dioxide dust was compared with that of surfactant isolated from CF-BAL from control left lungs. Exposure to quartz, anthracite, or titanium dioxide induced a significant increase in the amount of protein recovered, which was evident throughout most of the time period (1 year) studied. Exposure to quartz also induced a significant decrease in the total amount of lipid-associated phosphorus. To determine whether dust-induced changes in surfactant composition paralleled changes in lung morphology, consecutive studies were carried out in rats. Rats were instilled with 50 mg of either quartz or anthracite dust/kilogram body weight. One milligram of bituminous dust was intilled with every 5 mg of quartz dust as a marker to indicate dust location. Histologic evaluation of quartz dust-exposed lungs showed alveolitis, including microgranulomas, which were associated with clusters of dust-containing macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells which were localized within alveoli and interstitium surrounding small bronchioles. The anthracite dust-exposed lungs contained similar cell types localized around small bronchioles, which did not form microgranulomas. Surfactant protein A was found within alveolar type II cells and macrophages of both rat and primate lungs, but not within macrophages markedly distended with dust particles. The number of alveolar type II cells appeared to increase in response to the length of time of exposure to dust, as did the total amount of protein recovered in the surfactant-enriched fractions prepared from CF-BAL from dust-instilled lungs relative to that in surfactant-enriched fractions isolated from CF-BAL from control lungs. 26 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Conditioned medium from mesenchymal stem cells induces cell death in organotypic cultures of rat hippocampus and aggravates lesion in a model of oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ana Paula; Frozza, Rudimar Luiz; Grudzinski, Patrícia Benke; Gerhardt, Daniéli; Hoppe, Juliana Bender; Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Chagastelles, Pedro; Nardi, Nance Beyer; Lenz, Guido; Salbego, Christianne

    2009-01-01

    Cell therapy using bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seems to be a new alternative for the treatment of neurological diseases, including stroke. In order to investigate the response of hippocampal tissue to factors secreted by MSC and if these factors are neuroprotective in a model of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD), we used organotypic hippocampal cultures exposed to conditioned medium from bone marrow-derived MSC. Our results suggest that the conditioned medium obtained from these cells aggravates lesion caused by OGD. In addition, the presence of the conditioned medium alone was toxic mainly to cells in the CA1, CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampal organotypic culture even in basal conditions. GABA stimulation and NMDA and AMPA receptors antagonists were able to reduce propidium iodide staining, suggesting that the cell death induced by the toxic factors secreted by MSC could involve these receptors.

  11. Lesions of cholinergic pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus neurons fail to affect cocaine or heroin self-administration or conditioned place preference in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Steidl

    Full Text Available Cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA is known to contribute to reward. Although it is known that the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg provides an important source of excitatory input to the dopamine system, the specific role of PPTg cholinergic input to the VTA in cocaine reward has not been previously determined. We used a diphtheria toxin conjugated to urotensin-II (Dtx::UII, the endogenous ligand for urotensin-II receptors expressed by PPTg cholinergic but not glutamatergic or GABAergic cells, to lesion cholinergic PPTg neurons. Dtx::UII toxin infusion resulted in the loss of 95.78 (±0.65% of PPTg cholinergic cells but did not significantly alter either cocaine or heroin self-administration or the development of cocaine or heroin conditioned place preferences. Thus, cholinergic cells originating in PPTg do not appear to be critical for the rewarding effects of cocaine or of heroin.

  12. Gastroprotection of Suaveolol, Isolated from Hyptis suaveolens, against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Wistar Rats: Role of Prostaglandins, Nitric Oxide and Sulfhydryls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Sánchez-Mendoza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens is a medicinal plant that is, according to traditional medicine, considered useful in the treatment of gastric ulcers. Although its gastroprotective activity was reported, the active compounds have not been identified. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to identify at least one active compound potentially responsible for the gastroprotective activity of H. suaveolens by using a bioassay guided study with an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer experimental model in rats. The results show that the hexane extract had protective activity (close to 70% when using doses between 10 and 100 mg/kg, and that the compound suaveolol, isolated from this extract, was one of the active gastroprotective agents. This is the first report about the gastroprotective activity of suaveolol. Rats treated with this compound at 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg showed 12.6, 21.3, 39.6 and 70.2% gastroprotection respectively. The effect elicited by suaveolol (at 100 mg/kg was attenuated by pretreatment with either NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (70 mg/kg, i.p., a nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 mg/kg, s.c., a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, or N-ethylmaleimide (10 mg/kg, s.c., a blocker of sulfhydryl groups. This suggests that the gastroprotective mechanism of action of this compound involves NO, prostaglandins and sulfhydryl groups.

  13. Protective effect of melatonin against multistress condition induced lipid peroxidation via measurement of gastric mucosal lesion and plasma malondialdehyde levels in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Kiarostami; L Samini; M Ghazi-Khansari

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effect of a natural antioxidant, melatonin, against multistress condition induced lipid peroxidation via determination of gastric damage and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level by high performance liquid chromatography in rats.METHODS: We compared indomethacin-induced gastric damage and MDA plasma level in three groups of rats: unoperated, bile duct ligated and sham-operated and evaluated the role of the melatonin on gastric damage and plasma MDA level. Indomethacin and melatonin were injected intraperitoneally in doses of 50 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively. Animals were killed 4 h after indomethacin injection.RESULTS: Indomethacin induced more severe gastric damage and plasma MDA level in bile duct ligated animals was significantly higher (3.1 ± 0.04 μmol/L) than sham (2.8 ± 0.04 μmol/L) and unoperated animals (1.4± 0.08 μmol/L). Pretreatment with melatonin reduced indomethacin-induced gastric damage and plasma MDA level.CONCLUSION: Considering the results of this study,we suggest that in multistress conditions the intensity of gastric damage and the plasma MDA level are great and melatonin reduces the negative effect of lipid peroxidation and cell damage by oxidative stress in multistress conditions due to its antioxidizing activity.

  14. Expression of p-STAT3 and vascular endothelial growth factor in MNNG-induced precancerous lesions and gastric tumors in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yan Wang; Lou-Lei Wang; Xuan Zheng; Li-Na Meng; Bin Lyu; Hai-Feng Jin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the dynamic expression of p-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3) and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in the formation of gastric tumors induced by drinking water containing N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) in Wistar rats.METHODS: One hundred and twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups(60 in each group): Control group and Model group. The rats in each group were then randomly divided into three groups(20 in each group): C/M15, C/M25 and C/M40(15, 25 and 40 represent the number of feeding weeks from termination). Rats in the control group received normal drinking water and rats in the model group received drinking water containing 100 μg/m L MNNG. Stomach tissues were collected at the end of the 15 th, 25 th and 40 th week, respectively, for microscopic measurement using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of p-STAT3 and VEGF in different pathological types of gastric tissue, including normal, inflammation, atrophy, hyperplasia and gastric stromal tumor, was observed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, and the corelation between p-STAT3 and VEGF was analyzed. RESULTS:(1) The expression of p-STAT3 in tissue with gastritis, atrophy, dysplasia and gastric stromal tumor were significantly increased in the model group compared with the control group(2.5 ± 1.0, 2.75 ±0.36, 6.2 ± 0.45, 5.67 ± 0.55 vs 0.75 ± 0.36, P = 0.026, 0.035, 0.001, 0.002, respectively); the expression of p-STAT3 in tissue with dysplasia was higher than that in samples with gastritis or atrophy(6.2 ± 0.45 vs 2.5 ± 1.0, P = 0.006; 6.2 ± 0.45 vs 2.75 ± 0.36, P = 0.005, respectively); however, the expression of p-STAT3 in gastritis and atrophy was not significantly different(P > 0.05);(2) the expression of VEGF in tissue with gastritis, atrophy, dysplasia and gastric stromal tumor was significantly increased in the model group compared with normal gastric mucosa; and the expression of VEGF in tissue

  15. [Preventive effects of troxipide on a newly developed model of acute gastric mucosal lesion (AGML) induced by ischemia/reperfusion plus ammonia in the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, K; Hoshina, K; Ishibashi, Y; Saito, T

    1994-10-01

    We have developed a unique rat AGML model produced by ischemia/reperfusion plus 0.2% ammonia (I/R.NH3), either treatment which would not induce mucosal injury when used alone. The effects of troxipide and other gastric mucosal defensive drugs were investigated with this I/R.NH3-induced AGML model and other AGML models in rats. The following results were obtained: 1) Like allopurinol, troxipide at 50-200 mg/kg, p.o. dose-dependently prevented I/R.NH3-induced development of AGML and also the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase of gastric mucosal thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substances; 2) Troxipide at 10(-6)-10(-4) M, like allopurinol, inhibited concentration-dependently in vitro xanthine oxidase activity in gastric mucosal homogenates; 3) Troxipide at 50-200 mg/kg, p.o. inhibited AGMLs induced by bleeding plus 0.2% ammonia and by 1.0% ammonia alone; and 4) Troxipide and sofalcone were similar in preventing all AGMLs tested and also the increase of mucosal TBA-reactive substances, but somewhat differed from teprenone, cetraxate hydrochloride, azulene plus L-glutamine and sucralfate. These findings suggest that troxipide may inhibit I/R.NH3-induced AGML development by preventing generation of oxygen free radicals and by protecting against mucosal fragility due to reduced energy metabolism from poor blood flow and also against ammonia-induced disruption of the gastric mucosal barrier. Therefore, troxipide may be highly effective for various AGMLs with multifactor involvement.

  16. Evaluation of N-benzyl-N-[11C]methyl-2- (7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl)acetamide ([11C]DAC) as a novel translocator protein (18 kDa) radioligand in kainic acid-lesioned rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamoto, Kazuhiko; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Kumata, Katsushi; Yui, Joji; Odawara, Chika; Kawamura, Kazunori; Hatori, Akiko; Inoue, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate N-benzyl-N-[11C]methyl-2-(7-methyl-8-oxo-2-phenyl-7,8-dihydro-9H-purin-9-yl)acetamide ([11C]DAC) as a new translocator protein (18 kDa) [TSPO, formerly known as the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR)] positron emission tomography (PET) ligand in normal mice and unilateral kainic acid (KA)-lesioned rats. DAC is a derivative of AC-5216, which is a potent and selective PET ligand for the clinical investigation of TSPO. The binding affinity and selectivity of DAC for TSPO were similar to those of AC-5216, and DAC was less lipophilic than AC-5216. The distribution pattern of [11C]DAC was in agreement with TSPO distribution in rodents. No radioactive metabolite of [11C]DAC was found in the mouse brain, although it was metabolized rapidly in mouse plasma. Using small-animal PET, we examined the in vivo binding of [11C]DAC for TSPO in KA-lesioned rats. [11C]DAC and [11C]AC-5216 exhibited similar brain uptake in the lesioned and nonlesioned striatum, respectively. The binding of [11C]DAC to TSPO was increased significantly in the lesioned striatum, and [(11)C]DAC showed good contrast between the lesioned and nonlesioned striatum (the maximum ratio was about threefold). In displacement experiments, the uptake of [11C]DAC in the lesioned striatum was eventually blocked using an excess of either unlabeled DAC or PK11195 injected. [11C]DAC had high in vivo specific binding to TSPO in the injured rat brain. Therefore, [11C]DAC is a useful PET ligand for TSPO imaging, and its specific binding to TSPO is suitable as a new biomarker for brain injury.

  17. Differential expression of Arc in the mesocorticolimbic system is involved in drug and natural rewarding behavior in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu LI; Wen-jie LIU; Bin LU; Yu-hua WANG; Jing-gen LIU

    2013-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the different effects of heroin and milk in activating the corticostriatal system that plays a critical role in reward reinforcement learning.Methods:Male SD rats were trained daily for 15 d to self-administer heroin or milk tablets in a classic runway drug self-administration model.Immunohistochemical assay was used to quantify Arc protein expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC),the nucleus accumbens (NAc),the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and the ventrolateral striatum (VLS) in response to chronic self-administration of heroin or milk tablets.NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (0.1 mg/kg) or dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.03 mg/kg) were intravenously injected at the same time as heroin was infused intravenously.Results:Runway training with heroin resulted in robust enhancement of Arc expression in the mPFC,the NAc and the DMS on d 1,7,and 15,and in the VLS on d 1 and d 7.However,runway training with milk led to increased Arc expression in the mPFC,the NAc and the DMS only on d 7 and/or d 15 but not on d 1.Moreover,runway training with milk failed to induce increased Arc protein in the VLS.Both heroin-seeking behavior and Arc protein expression were blocked by MK801 or SCH23390 administration.Conclusion:The VLS is likely to be critically involved in drug-seeking behavior.The NMDA-and D1 receptor-dependent Arc expression is important in drug-seeking behavior.

  18. Neurotoxic Dorsal CA1 Lesions versus 4 VO Ischaemic Lesions: Behavioural Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Nunn

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterograde amnesia, a common consequence of transient cerebral ischaemia, has been attributed to cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. However, variable, widespread damage outside hippocampal CA1 can also occur following ischaemia. We compared the functional consequences of ischaemia and ibotenate acid CA1 lesions on 2 spatial memory tasks (water maze ‘place’ and ‘matching-to-position’ to address the possibility that extra-CA1 loss contributes to ischaemia-induced memory deficits in the rat. During place task acquisition, ischaemic rats showed deficits on more measures than ibotenic rats, and during a 1 min probe trial, only ischaemic rats were impaired. On the matching-to-position task, ibotenic rats showed greater impairment than ischaemic rats in terms of one-trial learning, whereas ischaemic rats were more impaired after Trial 2. Ischaemia and ibotenic acid lesions resulted in equivalent CA1 loss, but silver impregnation revealed additional extra-CA1 cell loss in ischaemic rats. Together with the greater behavioural deficits of ischaemic rats, these data indicate a role for extra-CA1 cell loss in ischaemia-induced memory impairments in both animals and humans.

  19. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  20. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayah Ab. Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg.

  1. 免疫营养剂对胃癌癌前病变的调理作用%Effects of lmmunonutrition in Precancerous Lesions of Gastric Cancer in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向连斌; 陈振勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of immunonutrition formula precancerous lesions of gastric cancer in rats. Methods: The rats model with precancerous lesions of gastric cancer was established by MNNG, and 90 rats were randomized into experimental group, model group and control group. Animals in model group were fed with common diets, the experimental group were fed with an enteral diet supplemented with immunonutrition formula (120 ml/[kg · d]). The changes of the gastric mucosa were observed under microscope after 4, 8, and 12 weeks respectively. The levels of blood IgG, IgA, IgM, CD3+ ,CD4+ , and CD8+ , as well as AgNOR positive cells counting were examined. Results: In model group, gastric mucosa got thin and atrophied,and intestinal metaplasia were seen, while in experimental group, the mucosa showed no changes. The immune function of rats with precancerous lesions of gastric cancer was inhibited, IgA and IgM levels were significantly reduced, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T-cell decreased (all P< 0.05). After feeding with immunonutritions for 12 weeks, the level of IgA and IgM resumed normal, the radio of CD4+/CD8+ raised, and the AgNOR positive cells counting decreased (all P< 0.01). Conclusion: Immunonutritions could effectively reverse the precancerous lesions in gastric carcinoma and its mechanisms of reversion probably relate to the enhance immunological function and nutritional status.%目的:研究免疫营养制剂对大鼠胃癌癌前病变阶段的影响.方法:制造大鼠胃癌癌前病变的模型,90只大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组和实验组,模型组采用普通的饲料喂养,实验组在普通的饲料喂养的基础上添加免疫加强营养制剂瑞能[(120 ml/(kg·d)].分别在造模成功后4,8,12周显微镜下观察鼠胃黏膜的变化,AgNOR染色观察细胞的增殖和分化,并抽血检测IgG、IgA、IgM及T淋巴细胞亚群CD3+、CD4+和CD8+T细胞.结果:处于癌前病变阶段的大鼠胃黏膜表面部分上

  2. Effects of glutamine and arginine on the gastric precancerous lesions in rats%精氨酸和谷氨酰胺对胃黏膜癌前病变影响的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江涛; 舒晓亮; 徐涵; 曾英

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of glutamine and arginine on gastric precancerous in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: One-hundred rats were randomly divided into test A group (n = 20 ) , test B group ( n = 20 ) , test C group ( n = 20 ) , control group ( n = 20 ) , normal group ( n = 20). N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG,100μg/mL) was used feeding rats to make animal model of gastric precancerous lesions. All rats were fed with Nutrison as base enteral nutrition. The rats in testA, testB and testC groups were added with glutamine +arginine, arginine and glutamine in Nutrison,respectively. After 8 weeks,all rats were killed. Immune function were measured. Expression of oncogenes were also determined. Histopathological changes of gastric mucosa were observed. Results: The levels of T-lymphocyte subsets CD4,the ratio of CD4/CD8, immunoglobulin A(IgA)and immunoglobulin M(IgM) were higher, but the levels of tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6) were lower in test A, test B, test C groups than those in the control group. Compared with the control group, the expression of bcl-2, c-myc and the incidence of mild to severe metaplasia, dysplasia were significantly lower in test A, test B, test C groups . The expression of bcl-2,c-myc and the incidence of mild to severe metaplasia, dysplasia were lower in test A than those in test B, test C groups. There were not statistic difference among test B, test C groups. Compared with normal group,the levels of IgA,IgM, IgG,CD4 and the ratio of CD4/CD8 were lower, the levels of TNF-α,IL-6 and CD8 were significantly highter in control groups. The expression of bcl-2, c-myc and the incidence of mild to severe metaplasia, dysplasia were significantly higher in control group than those in normal group. Conclusion: Glutamine and arginine can regulate immune function and cell proliferation and effectively intervene in the development of gastric precancerous lesions in rats.%目的:研究精氨酸(Arg)和谷氨酰

  3. Efeito da cinesioterapia na lesão isquêmica e reperfusão em ratos Effects of kinesiotherapy in ischemic lesion and reperfusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Moscardini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da cinesioterapia na funcionalidade do membro pélvico de ratos após lesão isquêmica e reperfusão. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 10 ratos, divididos em dois grupos, GI (controle e GII (cinesioterapia. Todos os animais foram submetidos à isquemia por um período de três horas, seguido de reperfusão tecidual. No Grupo GII foi realizado cinesioterapia sistêmica (natação não resistida em três sessões semanais de 50 minutos durante quatro semanas, enquanto que no grupo GI os animais permaneceram em repouso. A análise funcional do comportamento motor foi realizada semanalmente. Posteriormente, os animais foram mortos e retirados os músculos sóleo, gastrocnêmio e nervo ciático para análise histopatológica. RESULTADOS: Houve uma recuperação significativa do comportamento motor com o tratamento cinesioterapêutico ao longo das quatro semanas de tratamento. No entanto, na avaliação histológica os tecidos não mostraram alterações morfológicas de lesão e reparação celular. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi possível afirmar que o exercício mostrou-se eficiente na reparação celular, pois, tanto no grupo controle como no experimental, não apresentou diferença histológica. Por outro lado, a cinesioterapia sistêmica apresentou um efeito benéfico na reabilitação funcional após isquemia e reperfusão. Nível de Evidência III, Estudo Caso-Controle.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of kinesiotherapy on the functionality of the pelvic limb of rats after ischemic and reperfusion injury. METHODS: 10 rats were divided into two groups, GI (control and GII (kinesiotherapy. All the animals underwent ischemia for a period of three hours, followed by tissue reperfusion. In Group GII, non-resistive systemic kinesiotherapy was performed (swimming in three weekly sessions of 50 minutes, over a period of four weeks, while the GI animals remained at rest. Functional analysis of motor behavior was evaluated weekly. The

  4. Unique psoriatic lesion versus multiple lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the number of lesions of psoriasis and to find risk factors for multiple lesions. Material and Methods: 1,236 patients (male 54.13%, female 45.87% with psoriasis were seen over a period of 8 years in an Outpatient Clinic. Patients filled out questionnaires containing age at onset, number of lesions and location at the beginning of the disease, gender, type and localization of psoriasis at the time of clinical examination, psoriasis family history, previous treatment, comorbidities, and social status. Results: The number of psoriasis lesions correlates with: onset age of psoriasis (F=8.902, p=0.0029; age at the moment of clinical examination (F=8.902, p=0.0029; residence in rural area (χ2=8.589, p=0.00338, 95%CI; alcohol intake (χ2=16.47, p=0.00005, 95%CI; smoking (χ2=8.408, p=0.00373, 95%CI; occupation: workers/pupils/students (χ2=14.11, p=0.0069, 95%CI. Conclusions: There is a correlation between number of psoriatic lesions and some factors. Multiple lesions were observed in older patients, smokers and drinkers, coming from rural area and social active (workers and pupils/students. No correlation was statistically proved between number of lesions and gender, comorbidities and family history of psoriasis.

  5. Gastroprotective effects of goniothalamin against ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats: Role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and sulfhydryl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Jorge, Michelle Pedroza; Tinti, Sirlene Valério; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2014-12-01

    Goniothalamin (GTN), a styryl-lactone, is a secondary metabolite naturally found in its enantiomeric form (R) in plants of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae). The antiproliferative activity against human tumor cell lines reported in several studies suggest that the α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone moiety emerges as a key Michael acceptor for cysteine residues or other nucleophilic biological molecules. Our group reported on the in vivo activity of (R)- and (S)-GTN as well as its racemic form (rac-GTN) in both Ehrlich solid tumor and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, without side effects in the effective doses. Despite the rich body of data on the in vitro GTN biological activity, much less is known about its in vivo pharmacological action. Herein we describe the gastroprotective activity of rac-GTN on chemical-induced gastric ulcers models in rats. GTN has a potent gastroprotective effect on ethanol-induced ulcers (effective dose50=18mg/kg) and this activity is dependent on sulfhydryl compounds and prostaglandins generation, but independent of nitric oxide (NO), gastric secretion and mucus production. We hypothesize that goniothalamin may act as a mild irritant, inducing the production of sulfhydryl compounds and prostaglandins, in a process known as adaptive cytoprotection. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that Michael acceptors are the most potent inducers of antioxidant response (as activation of Nrf2 pathway) through generation of mild oxidative stress and that gastroprotective activity of goniothalamin is inhibited after pre-treatment with NEM (N-ethylmaleimide) and NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), highlighting the importance of sulfhydryl compounds and prostaglandins on GTN activity.

  6. Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids is neuroprotective in malonate-lesioned rats, an inflammatory model of Huntington's disease: role of CB1 and CB2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdeolivas, Sara; Satta, Valentina; Pertwee, Roger G; Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Sagredo, Onintza

    2012-05-16

    We have investigated whether a 1:1 combination of botanical extracts enriched in either Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) or cannabidiol (CBD), which are the main constituents of the cannabis-based medicine Sativex, is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease (HD), using an experimental model of this disease generated by unilateral lesions of the striatum with the mitochondrial complex II inhibitor malonate. This toxin damages striatal neurons by mechanisms that primarily involve apoptosis and microglial activation. We monitored the extent of this damage and the possible preservation of the striatal parenchyma by treatment with a Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids using different histological and biochemical markers. Results were as follows: (i) malonate increased the volume of edema measured by in vivo NMR imaging and the Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids partially reduced this increase; (ii) malonate reduced the number of Nissl-stained cells, while enhancing the number of degenerating cells stained with FluoroJade-B, and the Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids reversed both effects; (iii) malonate caused a strong glial activation (i.e., reactive microglia labeled with Iba-1, and astrogliosis labeled with GFAP) and the Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids attenuated both responses; and (iv) malonate increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the neurotrophin IGF-1, and both responses were attenuated after the treatment with the Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids. We also wanted to establish whether targets within the endocannabinoid system (i.e., CB(1) and CB(2) receptors) are involved in the beneficial effects induced in this model by the Sativex-like combination of phytocannabinoids. This we did using selective antagonists for both receptor types (i.e., SR141716 and AM630) combined with the Sativex-like phytocannabinoid combination. Our results indicated that the effects of this

  7. Monossialogangliosídeo transdérmico com laser no tratamento de lesão medular espinal de ratos Transdermal monosialoganglioside with laser in the treatment of spinal cord lesion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Inácio de Souza

    2013-04-01

    days. the animals were evaluated by the Basso, Baettie and Bresnahan (BBB functional scale on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the injury, and by histopathology and motor evoked potential after 42 days of injury. RESULTS: the animals in group 4 had higher BBB scores compared with the other groups. there were no differences between the groups, or in the comparisons over time. Histological evaluation showed no differences, and no differences were found in the motor evoked potential tests either. CONCLUSION: gm1 associated with the use of low-temperature laser shows no superior functional, neurological or histological results in the treatment of spinal cord lesions in rats. Evidence Level I, Experimental, Controlled, Animal Study.

  8. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  9. Protective effects of melatonin on gastric mucosal lesions in rats induced by sleep deprivation%褪黑素对睡眠剥夺大鼠胃黏膜损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊; 王彬; 马珂; 闫昱博; 董开源; 刘芳娥

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究褪黑素对睡眠剥夺大鼠胃黏膜损伤的保护作用及机制。方法:将24只SD大鼠采用随机数字表法分为3组,分别为对照组(生理盐水腹腔注射)、模型组(生理盐水腹腔注射+睡眠剥夺)和实验组(15 mg/kg褪黑素腹腔注射+睡眠剥夺)。采用小平台水环境法建立大鼠睡眠剥夺模型,睡眠剥夺前大鼠适应环境7 d,从适应环境开始至睡眠剥夺期间继续给药。睡眠剥夺72 h后用相应试剂盒检测各组大鼠血清丙二醛( MDA)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)及前列腺素E2(PEG2)含量。观察胃黏膜组织病理损伤情况并进行胃黏膜损伤指数测定。结果:3组大鼠血清MDA、GSH、PEG2及胃黏膜损伤指数比较,差异均有统计学意义( F=9.441、9.667、9.747、486.804,P均<0.05)。与对照组比较,模型组胃黏膜损伤指数升高(P<0.05),血清MDA和PEG2含量升高、GSH含量降低(P均<0.05);与模型组比较,实验组胃黏膜损伤指数降低(P<0.05),血清MDA和PEG2含量降低、GSH含量升高(P均<0.05)。结论:褪黑素可通过降低血清MDA和升高GSH减轻睡眠剥夺造成的胃黏膜损伤。%Aim:To study the protective effects of melatonin on gastric mucosal lesions in rats induced by sleep depri-vation and the mechanism .Methods:A total of 24 SD rats were randomly allocated into 3 groups:the control group ( intra-peritoneal injection of normal saline ) , the model group ( sleep deprivation+intraperitoneal injection of normal saline ) and the experimental group (sleep deprivation +intraperitoneal injection of 15 mg/kg melatonin).The rats in the model group and the experimental group were set up sleep deprivation model with a small platform of water situation .The rats adapted to the situation for 7 days before sleep deprivation , and injection was kept during acclimation and the sleep deprivation days . After 72 h

  10. 6-羟多巴胺毁损的帕金森病模型大鼠脚桥核神经元放电频率和放电形式的变化%Increase of firing rate with changes in firing pattern of neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus in 6-hydrodopamine lesioned rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 张巧俊; 刘健; 冯洁; 褚玉霞; 高蕊; 刘娅萍

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore the change in the firing rate and firing pattern of pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN)neurons in 6-hydrodopamine (6-OHDA) unilaterally lesiond rats. Methods Electrophysiological recordings of PPN neurons were done in normal rats and 6-OHDA lesiond rats with standard single unit glass microelectrode method in vivo. Results The firing rate of PPN neurons in normal rats and 6-OHDA lesiond rats were (9.0 ± 0.8 ) Hz [ (0.5-25.2) Hz, n = 56 ] and ( 16. 1 ± 1.6) Hz [ (1.2-49.7) Hz, n= 57), respectively. The firing rate of 6-OHDA lesioned rats was significantly increased when compared to control rats (P < 0. 001 ). Concerning the firing pattern, 68% (38/56) of the neurons recorded discharged regularly, 27% (15/56) exhibited an irregular pattern and 5% (3/56) discharged in bursts in normal rats. In 6-OHDA lesioned rats, 39% (22/57) discharged regularly, 47% (27/57) exhibited an irregular pattern and 14% (8/57) in bursts. The number of PPN neurons in 6-OHDA lesioned rats fired irregularly was significantly higher than in control rats ( P < 0.05). Conclusion The firing rate and the percentage of the irregularly firing neuron in PPN of 6-OHDA lesioned rats increased significantly, which may be contributed to the pathophysiological changes of Parkinson's disease.%目的观察6-羟多巴胺毁损的帕金森病(Parkinson's disease,PD)模型大鼠脚桥核(pedunculopontine nucleus,PPN)神经元放电频率和放电形式的变化.方法采用在体玻璃微电极细胞外记录法,记录正常对照组和PD模型组大鼠PPN神经元的电活动.结果对照组和PD组大鼠PPN神经元的放电频率分别为(9.0±0.8)Hz[(0.5-25.2)Hz,n=56]和(16.1±1.6)Hz[(1.2-49.7)Hz,n=57],PD组大鼠的放电频率显著高于对照组(P<0.001).在对照组大鼠脚桥核,68%(38/56)的神经元呈现规则放电,27%(15/56)呈现不规则放电,5%(3/56)为爆发式放电;在PD组大鼠脚桥核,具有规则、不规则和爆发式放电的神经元比例分别为39

  11. Does troncular vagotomy modify the proliferative gastric lesions induced in rats by duodenogastric reflux? A vagotomia troncular modifica as lesões proliferativas gástricas induzidas em ratos pelo refluxo duodenogástrico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Rodrigues

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to investigate if combining VT to DGR through the pylorus can modulate the biological behavior of PL induced by DGR and to verify if TV alone can induce morphologic lesions in the gastric mucosa. METHODS: 62 male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: 1 - Control (CT gastrotomy; 2 - Troncular Vagotomy (TV plus gastrotomy; 3 - Duodenogastric reflux through the pylorus (R and 4 - Troncular vagotomy plus DGR (RTV. The animals were killed at the 54 week of the experiment. DGR was obtained by anastomosing a proximal jejunal loop to the anterior gastric wall. TV was performed through isolation and division of the vagal trunks. Gastrotomy consisted of 1 cm incision at the anterior gastric wall. PL were analyzed gross and histologically in the antral mucosa, at the gastrojejunal stoma and at the squamous portion of the gastric mucosa. RESULTS: Groups R and RTV developed exophytic lesions in the antral mucosa (R=90.9%; RTV=100% and at the gastrojejunal stoma (R=54.54%; RTV=63.63%. Histologically they consisted of proliferative benign lesions, without cellular atypias, diagnosed as adenomatous hyperplasia. Both groups exposed to DGR presented squamous hyperplasia at the squamous portion of the gastric mucosa (R= 54.5%; RTV= 45.4%. TV, alone, did not induce gross or histological alterations in the gastric mucosa. TV did note change the morphologic pattern of the proliferative lesions induced by DGR. CONCLUSIONS: DGR induces the development of PL in the pyloric mucosa and at the gastrojejunal stoma. TV does not change the morphologic pattern of the proliferative lesions induced by DGR. TV alone is not able to induce morphologic lesions in the gastric mucosa.OBJETIVO: investigar se a adição da VT ao RDG através do piloro, interfere no comportamento biológico das LP induzidas pelo RDG e observar se a VT isoladamente leva ao desenvolvimento de lesões morfológicas na mucosa gástrica. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 62 ratos Wistar machos, distribu

  12. Pulmonary injuries and cytokine levels after the intraperitoneal administration of pancreatic homogenates in rats Lesiones pulmonares y niveles de citoquinas tras la administración intraperitoneal de homogeneizado pancreático en ratas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mozo

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: our objective was to investigate the effects of the administration of pancreatic homogenates, with or without enzymatic activation, to healthy animals regarding cytokine serum levels and the development of pulmonary distress. Material and methods: 106 male Wistar rats, divided into three groups, were studied: group A, intraperitoneal administration of homogenates activated with enterokinase; group B, homogenates without enterokinase; and group C, control group with administration of physiological saline solution. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to the time of sacrifice: 0, 2, 6 and 24 hours. We studied the pulmonary and pancreatic histology, serum parameters of renal and hepatic function, and serum levels of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFa. Results: there was no mortality in any group. Pancreatic disorders in A and B groups were noted at 24 hours. These two groups had statistically significant higher transaminase serum levels than those of the control group, as well as statistically significant higher creatinine levels in group A. IL-1ß showed a statistically significant higher level at 6 h in both groups, A and B, but was higher in group A, which also exhibited significant pulmonary histologic damage with respect to controls at 6 h. Conclusions: the higher IL-1ß level in group A may result from production by peritoneal macrophages under the influence of homogenate enzymatic activation. This may be the reason for lung damage.Introducción: nuestro objetivo es investigar, en animales sanos, los efectos de la administración de homogeneizado pancreático, con y sin activación enzimática, sobre los niveles séricos de citoquinas y el desarrollo de lesiones pulmonares. Material y métodos: se estudiaron 106 ratas Wistar macho divididas en 3 grupos: A: administración intraperitoneal de homogeneizado pancreático activado con enteroquinasa; B: homogeneizado sin enteroquinasa; y C: control, con la administración de suero

  13. Ghost cell lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms.

  14. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...... the activity of primary coronal and root lesions reliably and accurately at one examination by using the combined information obtained from a range of indicators--such as visual appearance, location of the lesion, tactile sensation during probing and gingival health....

  15. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  16. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ocular appearance. is discussion does not attempt to classify lesions, but only highlights ... magnifying glass. Examine what you can see and evert the upper ... look at the cornea and feel for pre-auricular and submandibular lymph nodes.

  17. Oropharynx lesion biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003850.htm Oropharynx lesion biopsy To use the sharing features on this ... Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX. ...

  18. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    caries and control activity of existing cavitated lesions to preserve hard tissues and retain teeth long-term. Entering the restorative cycle should be avoided as far as possible. Controlling the disease in cavitated carious lesions should be attempted using methods which are aimed at biofilm removal...... or control first. Only when cavitated carious lesions either are noncleansable or can no longer be sealed are restorative interventions indicated. When a restoration is indicated, the priorities are as follows: preserving healthy and remineralizable tissue, achieving a restorative seal, maintaining pulpal...... health, and maximizing restoration success. Carious tissue is removed purely to create conditions for long-lasting restorations. Bacterially contaminated or demineralized tissues close to the pulp do not need to be removed. In deeper lesions in teeth with sensible (vital) pulps, preserving pulpal health...

  19. Unusual benign breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.J.R. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gporter@ncht.trent.nhs.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Lee, A.H.S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Hamilton, L.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); James, J.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Hucknall Rd, Nottingham NG5 1PB (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    The purpose of this article is to show examples of the radiological (mammography and/or ultrasound) and pathological appearances of unusual benign breast lesions. The conditions covered are granular cell tumours, fibromatosis, nodular fasciitis, myofibroblastomas, haemangiomas, neurofibromas, and leiomyomas. The article includes the first published description of the ultrasound appearance of a myofibroblastoma. Knowledge of these appearances may help confirm or refute radiological-pathological concordance of percutaneous biopsy results during multidisciplinary assessment of these lesions and aid patient management.

  20. Andersson Lesion in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manimegalai N, KrishnanKutty K, Panchapakesa Rajendran C, Rukmangatharajan S, Rajeswari S

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Andersson lesions are destructive foci that appear at the discovertebral junction in ankylosingspondylitis. We report three cases of ankylosing spondylitis with such lesions. These lesions simulatean infection and in our country, mimic spinal tuberculosis.

  1. Atividade elétrica cerebral do rato com lesões da formação reticular mesencefálica Electrocorticographic study of the rats's bram after lesioning of the midbrain reticular formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter C. Pereira

    1970-09-01

    , denotando fases de maior ou menor sincronização do traçado; c ondas teta nas áreas límbicas (talvez evidenciando alerta registradas simultâneamente com fusos em áreas neocorticais.Seventy three rats were prepared for acute and chronic experiments. The midbrain reticular formation was electrolitically destroyed (3,5 — 4,0 mA and 5 — 10 sec by means of an active electrode estereotactically guided according with the atlas of König an Klippel. The procedure was destined to provoke parcial, total, unilateral and bilateral lesions in different preparations. The ECoG was recorded with a 4-channel Beckman polygraph. Short bipolar leads were used in all experiments. 1. Spindling wich occurred after the operation was similar to spindling found in phisiological sleep and in barbiturate narcosis as well. Similarity was striking as to the electrophysiological properties and cortical projections. However, the duration of the individual potentials dispersed much more than in the above mentioned conditions (20 — 80 msec, wich may be related to the higlher complexity exhibited by the spindles which appear on the ECoG after destruction of the reticular formation of the midbrain, possibly due to lack of reticular timing of the thalamic synchronizing system activity, since spindling was more regular when circumscribed lesions of the midbrain were made. 2. The mechanisms involved in production of spindles during spontaneous and barbiturate sleep and after lesioning of the midbrain reticular formation are at least partially dependent upon reticular blocking. 3. The midbrain reticular formation activates mainly the ipsilateral hemisphere. The crossed component of the activating system is, probably, brought in action only when arousing stimuli are very strong. 4. Besides midbrain reticular formation other cortical activating mechanisms certainly play a role in arousing, since, in acute preparations, simultaneously with neocortical spindling, we frequently recorded: a short

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the development of preneoplasic lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques,Viviana Teixeira; Dias,Cristina Maria Ganns Chaves; Sylvia do Carmo Castro FRANCESCHINI; Sabarense,Céphora Maria; Neuza Maria Brunoro COSTA; Leite,Jacqueline Isaura Alvarez; Peluzio,Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of dietary omega-3 supplementation to reduce induced intestinal preneoplastic lesions in Wistar rats. METHODS: A total of 58 11-week-old male Wistar rats (Rattus norvergicus, albinus variety, Rodentia) were distributed into two groups: a control group (n=25) and an omega-3-treated group (n=28). Aberrant crypt foci were induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Tissue incorporation of the supplemented omega-3 fatty acids was...

  3. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  4. Efeito de um hidrolisado de proteínas de soro de leite e de seus peptídeos na proteção de lesões ulcerativas da mucosa gástrica de ratos Effects of a whey protein concentrate and it's peptides in the protection of ulcerative lesions at rat gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bertoldo Pacheco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a atividade do hidrolisado das proteínas de soro de leite bovino e uma fração de peptídeos de baixo peso molecular (peso molecular OBJECTIVE: To assess the ability of bovine whey protein hydrolysate and its low molecular weight fraction (molecular weight <1kDa to protect the gastric mucosa of rats against ulcerative process induced by three different agents. METHODS: Adult Wistar rats were subjected to the indomethacin-induced ulcer (30mg/kg body weigh, absolute ethanol (1ml/animal and immobilization and cold stress (4(0C/2h, models. RESULTS: Whey protein hydrolysate was obtained by treatment with pancreatin to a degree of hydrolysis of 20% and fractionated using a tangential flow membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1kDa to obtain the fraction containing low molecular weight peptides (<1kDa. In the ethanol-induced acute ulcer model (single dose, whey protein hydrolysate inhibited the gastric lesion index by 65.5% and the double dose resulted in a 77.4% inhibition. CONCLUSION: For the anti-inflammatory model, the cytoprotective effect of low molecular weight peptides was stronger than that of total hydrolysate (53.1 and 71.6%, ulcerative lesion index for single and double dose, respectively. No mucosa cytoprotective activity was found for whey protein concentrate, whey protein hydrolysate or WPHP in the immobilization and cold stress model.

  5. Reynosin protects against neuronal toxicity in dopamine-induced SH-SY5Y cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats as models of Parkinson's disease: Reciprocal up-regulation of E6-AP and down-regulation of α-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Ahrom; Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Lee, Sung-Jin; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon; Mar, Woongchon

    2013-08-01

    Aggregation of α-synuclein (ASYN) is considered a major determinant of neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). E6-associated protein (E6-AP), an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, has been known to promote the degradation of α-synuclein. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the sesquiterpene lactone reynosin on dopamine (DA)-induced neuronal toxicity and regulation of E6-associated protein and α-synuclein proteins in both in vitro and in vivo models of Parkinson's disease. Usi"ng flow cytometry and western blot analysis, we determined that reynosin significantly protected both against cell death from dopamine-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and against the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats (a rodent Parkinson's disease model system). In addition, reynosin made up-regulation of E6-associated protein expression and down-regulation of the over-expression of α-synuclein protein in both dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells and 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats. These results suggest that the protective effect of reynosin against dopamine-induced neuronal cell death may be due to the reciprocal up-regulation of E6-associated protein and down-regulation of α-synuclein protein expression.

  6. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... managementshould be limited to situations involving control of the disease through preventive and noninvasive means at a patient level, whereascarious lesion managementcontrols the disease symptoms at the tooth level. While it is not possible to directly relate the visual appearance of carious lesions' clinical...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  7. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participa...

  8. Traumatic plexus lesion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, R.T.M. van; Cohen, S.P.; Kleef, M. van; Mekhail, N.; Huygen, F.

    2011-01-01

    Pain, motor, and sensory deficits characterize patients with a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus. Frequently, more severe injuries co-exist that require immediate surgical attention. Early rehabilitation and physical therapy are the cornerstones of treatment. Pharmacological management can be

  9. Immunopathology of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  10. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  11. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants...

  12. Morel-Lavallee lesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui; Zhang Fangjie; Lei Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity.Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses.It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice.Data sources A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords:Morel-Lavallee lesion,closed degloving injury,concealed degloving injury,Morel-Lavallee effusion,Morel-Lavallee hematoma,posttraumatic pseudocyst,posttraumatic soft tissue cyst.Study selection Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected.Their references were also reviewed.Results Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury.It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia.Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter,MLLs have been described in other parts of the body.The natural history of MLL has not yet been established.The lesion may decrease in volume,remain stable,enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern.Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed.Ultrasonography,computed tomography,and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL.Treatment of MLL has included compression,local aspiration,open debridement,and sclerodesis.No standard treatment has been established.Conclusions A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft,fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury.Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis.Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures,the condition of the lesion,symptom and desire of the patient.

  13. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r=0.72, pEstudios previos han demostrado hemorragia ocular en ratas deficientes en colina. El objetivo de este trabajo es profundizar en la relación entre las alteraciones oculares, renales y bioquímicas en ratas deficientes en colina. Cincuenta y una ratas Wistar macho recién destetadas fueron divididas en dos grupos: treinta y una fueron alimentadas con una dieta colino deficiente y el resto con colina suplementada ad-libitum. Los animales de ambos grupos fueron sacrificados entre el quinto y el octavo día. Se midió la concentración de urea, creatinina y homocisteína en sangre. Los ojos fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz, microscopía óptica de alta resolución y para el estudio de la retina como retina plana. Los riñones fueron estudiados por microscopía de luz. Las ratas suplementadas con colina no

  14. Protective and therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture on gastric motor disorders and acute gastric mucosal lesions under psychological stress in rats%心理性应激状态下针刺对大鼠DMV放电、胃电和胃粘膜损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景杰; 黄裕新; 郭庆东; 秦明; 高巍; 王庆莉

    2001-01-01

    AIM To test the protective and therapeutic effects of electroacupuncture on gastric motor disorders and acute gastric mucosal lesions under psychological stress in rats. METHODS Ninety-six male Sprague-Dauley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CG, n=32), psychological stress group (PSG, n=32) and electroacupuncture group (EAG, n=32). Every group was randomly divided into four subgroups (CG, n=32, n=8; PSG, n=32, n=8; EAG, n=32, n=8). Animal model was constructed with impulsive stimulator of high voltage and stable currency stimulating the Chusanli with electroacupuncture. Then spontaneous electroactivity of dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) was recorded extracellularly and EGG with the serosa method, and the gastric mucosa injury index was calculated. RESULTS The spontaneous electroactivity from DMV was rarely observed in normal rats. EGG was regular with frequency 3 per minute and amplitude 360~370 μV. Gastric mucosa was normal. Under psychological stress, spontaneous electroactivity from DMV was irregular which did not significantly correlate with time and degree of psychological stress. But we observed that increasing frequency of spontaneous electroactivity from DMV was predominant. EGG was disorderly and irregular. There was no difference in frequency and amplitude of EGG between C group and A group on the 2nd day, the 4th day, the 6th day, the 8th day after psychological stress with stimulating chusanli by electroacupuncture under psychological stress. Gastric mucosal lesion appeared, even did ulcer. The degree of gastric mucosal lesion became more and more serious, and lesion index increased gradually with the continues psychological stress. But gastric mucosal lesion alleviated significantly under psychological stress with electroacupuncture stimulation. And the effect was more significant with the continues electroacupuncture stimulation. There was significant difference in lesion index between C group and B

  15. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy.

  16. Differential effects of unilateral lesions in the medial amygdala on spontaneous and induced ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M A; Dominguez, R

    1995-01-01

    The possible existence of asymmetry in the control of ovulation by the medial amygdala was explored. Unilateral lesions of the medial amygdala were performed on each day of the estrous cycle. The estral index diminished in almost all animals with a lesion in the right side of medial amygdala. Lesions of the right medial amygdala, when performed on diestrus-1, resulted in a significant decrease in the number of rats ovulating compared to controls (4/8 vs. 8/8, p rats with lesions of the right medial amygdala. However, sequential injections of PMSG-hCG did result in ovulation by all members of a group of lesioned animals. In this last condition a significant decrease in the number of ova shed by the right ovary was found compared to animals in the lesion-only condition (1.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.0 +/- 1.5, p cycle.

  17. Lesiones en el deporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio Gimeno, Silvio

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    El incremento de la actividad física y del deporte, en las sociedades llamadas desarrolladas, ha traído consigo beneficios claros para la salud, reflejados en diferentes indicadores de salud. Simultáneamente, el deporte de competición obliga a una dedicación diaria a intensidad de entrenamiento, con objeto de obtener los elevados requerimientos físicos que exige la competición. Todo ello ha traído consigo la aparición de numerosas lesiones, fundamentalmente del sistema músculo- esquelético.
    Se exponen en este trabajo consideraciones históricas, la epidemiología de la lesión deportiva y se describen, concisamente, algunas de las lesiones más habituales y significativas que afectan a músculos, tendones y sistema esquelético.

  18. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, ...

  19. Pathology of BHA- and BHT-induced lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, R W

    1986-01-01

    The pathology lesions from three studies, two with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and one with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), are reviewed. When BHA was fed at 0.5 and 2.0% of the diet to F344 rats for two years, there was an increase in epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach at both treatment levels. Papilloma and squamous-cell carcinoma of the forestomach were increased at the 2.0% level. When BHA was fed to beagle dogs at 1.0 and 1.3% of the diet for 180 days, no lesions/tumours of the distal oesophagus or stomach could be identified either at gross necropsy or by light or electron microscopy. The BHT was fed to Wistar rats at 0, 25, 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. At the highest dose there was an increase in the number of rats with hepatocellular adenoma and with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  20. Alzheimer’ s disease-like lesions may occur in and accompany the high-sugar high-fat diet-induced rat models of metabolic syndrome%高糖高脂饮食诱导大鼠代谢综合征模型并发阿尔茨海默样变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛利; 韩德五; 许瑞龄; 周鑫; 屈重霄

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relativity between Alzheimer ’ s disease ( AD)-like lesions and metabolic syndrome models induced by high-sugar high-fat diet in rats.Methods Forty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups.The control group (fed with normal diet, 12 rats) and high sugar and high fat group (fed with high-sucrose and high-fat diet, 12 rats) continuously for 12 months.At the end of 6, 9 and 12 months of the experiment , we observed the animal body weight and visceral fat weight .The blood lipid levels , blood glucose and MS-related biochemical parameters were determined . The brain tissues were examined by histopathology . The characteristic AD molecules hippocampus Aβand Tau were detected using ELISA and Western blotting to confirm the presence of AD lesions in the brain.Results Compared with the normal control group , the body weight and visceral fat weight of the rats in the high-sugar high-fat groups were significantly increased; the levels of TG , FPG, LDL, HOMA-IR and hippocampus Aβ,phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) were higher, but the level of HDL was decreased (P<0.05 for all).The histopathological examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltration in the brain tissues .Conclusions Characteristic AD-like lesions may occur and accompany the rat models of metabolic syndrome , induced by high-sugar high-fat diet, and provide a new idea for the construction of Alzheimer ’ s disease animal models .%目的:通过长期高糖高脂饮食导致动物出现代谢综合征合并阿尔茨海默( AD)样改变动物模型的研究。方法将48只SD大鼠随机分为2组,正常对照组(用普通饲料饲喂)24只,高糖高脂组(饲以高糖高脂饲料)24只,连续喂养12个月。于实验第6、9、12月末观察动物体重、肾周和附睾或子宫周围脂肪重量并计算Lee指数;检测血液中代谢综合征相关生化指标的变化;Western blotting 测定海马Tau蛋白含量及其磷酸化水平

  1. An unexpected lumbar lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Beard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report details an interesting case of suspected spinal bifida in an obstetric patient who presented for an elective cesarean section. A large scarred/dimpled area, surrounded by significant hair growth in the region of the lumbar spine had been missed in multiple antenatal and preoperative assessments and was recognized on the day of the surgery as the patient was being prepared for spinal anesthesia. The patient was uncertain regarding the pathology of the lesion, and all investigations relating to this had been undertaken in Pakistan where she lived as a child. General anesthesia was undertaken because magnetic resonance imaging had not been performed and tethering of the spinal cord could not be ruled out clinically. The patient suffered from significant blood loss intra and postoperatively, requiring a two unit blood transfusion. She was discharged after 5 days in the hospital. This case highlights the need for thorough examination in all obstetric patients presenting to the preoperative clinic, focusing on the airway, vascular access, and lumbar spine. Patients may not always disclose certain information due to a lack of understanding, embarrassment, forgetfulness, or language barriers. Significant aspects of their care may have been undertaken abroad and access to these notes is often limited. Preoperative detection of the lesion would have allowed further investigation and imaging of the lesion and enabled more comprehensive discussions with the patient regarding anesthetic options and risk.

  2. Amygdaloid lesions block the effect of neuropeptides (vasopressin, ACTH4–10) on avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Croiset, G.; Bakker, E.; Bouman, H.

    1979-01-01

    Lesions in the amygdaloid complex result in an increased activity of rats in open field behavior in that generally more exploration and rearing is observed as compared with sham-operated animals. No effect of the lesion was observed on acquisition and extinction of an active avoidance response, but

  3. Amygdaloid lesions block the effect of neuropeptides (vasopressin, ACTH4–10) on avoidance behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van; Croiset, G.; Bakker, E.; Bouman, H.

    1979-01-01

    Lesions in the amygdaloid complex result in an increased activity of rats in open field behavior in that generally more exploration and rearing is observed as compared with sham-operated animals. No effect of the lesion was observed on acquisition and extinction of an active avoidance response, but

  4. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  5. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can be class...

  6. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  7. Effects of ibotenate and 192IgG-saporin lesions of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis/substantia innominata on spontaneous sleep and wake states and on recovery sleep after sleep deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satvinder; Junek, Adrienne; Black, Michelle A; Semba, Kazue

    2008-01-09

    The basal forebrain (BF) is known for its role in cortical and behavioral activation, and has been postulated to have a role in compensatory mechanisms after sleep loss. However, specific neuronal phenotypes responsible for these roles are unclear. We investigated the effects of ibotenate (IBO) and 192IgG-saporin (SAP) lesions of the caudal BF on spontaneous sleep-waking and electroencephalogram (EEG), and recovery sleep and EEG after 6 h of sleep deprivation (SD). Relative to artificial CSF (ACSF) controls, IBO injections decreased parvalbumin and cholinergic neurons in the caudal BF by 43 and 21%, respectively, and cortical acetylcholinesterase staining by 41%. SAP injections nonsignificantly decreased parvalbumin neurons by 11%, but significantly decreased cholinergic neurons by 69% and cortical acetylcholinesterase by 84%. IBO lesions had no effect on sleep-wake states but increased baseline delta power in all states [up to 62% increase during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep]. SAP lesions transiently increased NREM sleep by 13%, predominantly during the dark phase, with no effect on EEG. During the first 12 h after SD, animals with IBO and SAP lesions showed lesser rebound NREM sleep (32 and 77% less, respectively) and delta power (78 and 53% less) relative to ACSF controls. These results suggest that noncholinergic BF neurons promote cortical activation by inhibiting delta waves, whereas cholinergic BF neurons play a nonexclusive role in promoting wake. Intriguingly, these results also suggest that both types of BF neurons play important roles, probably through different mechanisms, in increased NREM sleep and EEG delta power after sleep loss.

  8. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  9. Prefrontal Cortex Lesions and Sex Differences in Fear Extinction and Perseveration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Sarah E.; Armstrong, Charles E.; Niren, Danielle C.; Conrad, Cheryl D.

    2010-01-01

    Electrolytic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFCX) were examined using fear conditioning to assess the recall of fear extinction and performance in the Y-maze, open field, and object location/recognition in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were conditioned to seven tone/footshocks, followed by extinction after 1-h and 24-h…

  10. ALTERED SYMPATHETIC CONTROL OF NUTRIENT MOBILIZATION DURING PHYSICAL EXERCISE AFTER LESIONS IN THE VMH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkan, B.; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E.; Steffens, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    To study the impact of obesity on sympathetic nervous regulation of nutrient mobilization, obese rats and lean controls were subjected to physical exercise. Male Wistar rats, rendered obese by bilateral electrolytic lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) were subjected to 15 min swimming. Pe

  11. ALTERED SYMPATHETIC CONTROL OF NUTRIENT MOBILIZATION DURING PHYSICAL EXERCISE AFTER LESIONS IN THE VMH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkan, B.; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E.; Steffens, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    To study the impact of obesity on sympathetic nervous regulation of nutrient mobilization, obese rats and lean controls were subjected to physical exercise. Male Wistar rats, rendered obese by bilateral electrolytic lesions of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) were subjected to 15 min swimming. Pe

  12. Klatskin-Like Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5–15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature.

  13. Klatskin-like lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, M P; Marudanayagam, R

    2012-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5-15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature.

  14. Lesiones en el deporte

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Not available

    El incremento de la actividad física y del deporte, en las sociedades llamadas desarrolladas, ha traído consigo beneficios claros para la salud, reflejados en diferentes indicadores de salud. Simultáneamente, el deporte de competición obliga a una dedicación diaria a intensidad de entrenamiento, con objeto de obtener los elevados requerimientos físicos que exige la competición. Todo ello ha traído consigo la aparición de numerosas lesiones, fundamentalmen...

  15. Atrichia with Papular Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Manish; Manchanda, Kajal; Lamba, Sachin; Pandey, SS

    2011-01-01

    Atrichia with papular lesions (APL) is a rare autosomal recessive form of irreversible alopecia with onset at few months of age with papular keratin cysts over the body. It is associated with mutation in the Zinc finger domain of the human hairless gene on chromosome region 8p12. An eleven-year-old male presented with extensive alopecia starting at six months of age refractory to the treatment along with keratotic papules on the face and trunk. Biopsy from a papule showed mid-dermal keratin c...

  16. Lesiones en corredores amateurs

    OpenAIRE

    Natale, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio tomando como muestra a 100 corredores amateurs de la ciudad de Mar del Plata, en la cual el objetivo general fue determinar cuáles son las patologías más frecuentes en corredores. Correr no es solo un deporte en si mismo sino que tiene elementos de otras actividades deportivas, es decir, que las lesiones de los corredores también son comunes en otros tipos de deportes. El número de deportistas aumenta diariamente y al mismo tiempo aumentan el número de per...

  17. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses.

  18. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  19. [Bony Bankart lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegl, U J; Braun, S; Euler, S A; Warth, R J; Millett, P J

    2014-12-01

    Fractures of the anteroinferior glenoid rim, termed bony Bankart lesions, have been reported to occur in up to 22% of first time anterior shoulder dislocations. The primary goal of treatment is to create a stable glenohumeral joint and a good shoulder function. Options for therapeutic intervention are largely dependent on the chronicity of the lesion, the activity level of the patient and postreduction fracture characteristics, such as the size, location and number of fracture fragments. Non-operative treatment can be successful for small, acute fractures, which are anatomically reduced after shoulder reduction. However, in patients with a high risk profile for recurrent instability initial Bankart repair is recommended. Additionally, bony fixation is recommended for acute fractures that involve more than 15-20% of the inferior glenoid diameter. On the other hand chronic fractures are generally managed on a case-by-case basis depending on the amount of fragment resorption and bony erosion of the anterior glenoid with high recurrence rates under conservative therapy. When significant bone loss of the anterior glenoid is present, anatomical (e.g. iliac crest bone graft and osteoarticular allograft) or non-anatomical (e.g. Latarjet and Bristow) reconstruction of the anterior glenoid is often indicated.

  20. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Akitoshi; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence.

  1. 莪术油对大鼠乳腺癌癌前病变组织中VEGF mRNA表达的影响%Zedoary turmeric oil effect on rats with precancerous lesions of breast carcinoma in VEGF mRNA expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋爱莉; 许振国

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Through observing the influence of zedoary turmeric oil on rats with precancerous lesions of breast carcinoma tissue in vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) and its mRNA expression, discuss the mechanism of Zedoary turmeric oil treating preeancerous lesions of breast cancer- Method: 275 SD rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, the TAM group, injection group and zedoary turmeric oil, in small, high dose group,then use DMBA induced the model of precancerous lesions of breast cancer. After intervention treatment for 4 weeks, the animals were sacrificed in 4 batches after 8-14 weeks, using insitu method for the determination of specimens of VEGF mRNA expression. Result; Each lest group of different types of breast tissue in VEGF mRNA expression positive rate and positive cells positive rate increased, A typical hyperplasia of breast tissue,The VEGF mRNA expression positive rate in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in model group,and the intervention group VEGF mRNA positive cells positive rate were significantly lower than those in model group, Zedoary turmeric oil group is lower than injection and TAM group ,In the atypical hyperplasia specimens of VEGF mKNA expression, VEGF mRNA positive cells positive rate of Zedoary turmeric oil the in the large dose group was significantly lower than small dose group. Conclusion: Zedoary turmeric oil can effectively reduce DMBA induced rat mammary carcinoma precancerous lesion tissue VEGFmRNA expression intensity and Inhibit angiogenesis, so May he the effective mechanism of blocking in breast cancer.%目的:通过观察莪术油对大鼠乳腺癌癌前病变组织中血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)及其mRNA表达的影响,探讨莪术油治疗乳腺癌前病变的机理.方法:275只SD大鼠随机分为空白对照组、疾病模型组、三苯氧胺组、康莱特组及莪术油小、中、大剂量组.采用DMBA诱导乳腺癌癌前病变造模,干预治疗4

  2. Pharmacological response of systemically derived focal epileptic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remler, M.P.; Sigvardt, K.; Marcussen, W.H.

    1986-11-01

    Focal epileptic lesions were made in rats by systemic focal epileptogenesis. In this method, a focal lesion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is produced by focal alpha irradiation followed by repeated systemic injection of a convulsant drug that cannot cross the normal BBB, resulting in a chronic epileptic focus. Changes in the spike frequency of these foci in response to various drugs was recorded. The controls, saline and chlorpromazine, produced no change. Phenytoin, phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide, and valproic acid produced the expected decrease in spike frequency. Pentobarbital and diazepam produced a paradoxical increase in spike frequency.

  3. 冬虫夏草口服液对复合因素引起的雄性大鼠生殖系统损伤的保护作用%Protective effect of Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid on the lesion of the reproductive system induced by composite factors in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾洁; 张术; 冯旭; 汪家春; 储智勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study whether Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid has certain protective effect on the lesion of the reproductive system induced by composite factors in male rats.Methods Twenty-four Wistar rats were randomly divided into the normal control group,the model group and the Cordyceps sinensis group,each consisting of 8 rats.The rats in the Cordyceps sinensis group were fed intragastricly with Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid for 21 days,with a daily dose of 4 ml/kg.The rats in the control and model groups were given the same amount of water.One week after administration of the drug,the rats in the Cordyceps sinensis group and the model group were placed in the animal chamber,where they were exposed to composite factors.The animals in the normal control group were not housed in the experimental chamber.The composite factors the animals exposed to were:low-dose radiation,hazardous gases and noise.After termination of the experiment,testicles and epididymides of the rats were collected to measure testicle indexes,the numbers of spermatozoa and the rate of teratospermia.At the same time,ultrastructures of the testicle and epididymis were observed with electron microscopy.Results Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid could help to decrease the rate of teratospermia from (3.11 ± 0.45) % to (1.11 ± 0.35) % and increase the number of spermatozoa from (1.19 ± 1.63) × 107/ml to (2.57 ± 3.08) × 107/ml,when a comparison was made with the animals in the model group.Conclusions Cordyceps sinensis oral liquid seemed to have the protective effect on the reproductive system of rats.%目的 研究冬虫夏草口服液对复合因素引起的雄性大鼠生殖系统损伤是否具有保护作用.方法 采用数字表法将24只Wistar雄性大鼠随机分为对照组、模型组和冬虫夏草组,每组8只.冬虫夏草组大鼠连续灌胃予冬虫夏草口服