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  1. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

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    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  2. Juvenile female rats, but not male rats, show renewal, reinstatement, and spontaneous recovery following extinction of conditioned fear.

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    Park, Chun Hui J; Ganella, Despina E; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety disorders emerge early, and girls are significantly more likely to develop anxiety compared to boys. However, sex differences in fear during development are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated juvenile male and female rats in the relapse behaviors following extinction of conditioned fear. In all experiments, 18-d-old rats first received three white-noise-footshock pairings on day 1. On day 2, extinction involved 60 white-noise alone trials. In experiment 1, we examined renewal by testing the rats in either the same or different context as extinction on day 3. Male rats did not show renewal, however, female rats showed renewal. Experiment 2 investigated reinstatement by giving rats either a mild reminder footshock or context exposure on day 3. When tested the next day, male rats did not show reinstatement, whereas female rats showed reinstatement. Experiment 3 investigated spontaneous recovery by testing the rats either 1 or 5 d following extinction. Male rats did not show any spontaneous recovery whereas female rats did. Taken together, fear regulation appear to be different in males versus females from early in development, which may explain why girls are more prone to suffer from anxiety disorders compared to boys. © 2017 Park et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  3. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

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    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  4. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

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    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  5. Rats with decreased brain cholecystokinin levels show increased responsiveness to peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia.

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    Zhang, L X; Li, X L; Wang, L; Han, J S

    1997-01-16

    Using the P77PMC strain of rat, which is genetically prone to audiogenic seizures, and also has decreased levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), we examined the analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, which is, in part, opiate-mediated. A number of studies have suggested that CCK may function as an antagonist to endogenous opiate effects. Therefore, we hypothesized that the P77PMC animals would show an enhanced analgesic response based on their decreased CCK levels producing a diminished endogenous opiate antagonism. We found that the analgesic effect on tail flick latency produced by 100 Hz peripheral electrical stimulation was more potent and longer lasting in P77PMC rats than in control rats. Moreover, the potency of the stimulation-produced analgesia correlated with the vulnerability to audiogenic seizures in these rats. We were able to block the peripheral electrical stimulation-induced analgesia (PSIA) using a cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administered parenterally. Radioimmunoassay showed that the content of CCK-8 in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and periaqueductal gray was much lower in P77PMC rat than in controls. These results suggest that low CCK-8 content in the central nervous system of the P77PMC rats may be related to the high analgesic response to peripheral electrical stimulation, and further support the notion that CCK may be endogenous opiate antagonist.

  6. Rats socially-reared and full fed learned an autoshaping task, showing less levels of fear-like behaviour than fasted or singly-reared rats.

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    Molina-Hernández, Miguel; Téllez-Alcántara, N Patricia

    2004-07-01

    During the learning of instrumental tasks, rats are usually fasted to increase reinforced learning. However, fasting produces several undesirable side effects. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that control rats, i.e. full-fed and group-reared rats, will learn an autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. The interaction between fasting and single-rearing of rats was also tested. Results showed that control rats and fasted rats acquired the autoshaping task similarly, independently of rearing condition or gender. However, fasted or singly-reared rats produced fear-like behaviour, since male rats group-reared and fasted (85% body/wt, P autoshaping task to the same level as fasted or singly-reared rats. However, fasting or single-rearing produced fear-like behaviour. Thus, the training of control rats in autoshaping tasks may be an option that improves animal welfare.

  7. Chlropyrifos-methyl shows anti-androgenic activity without estrogenic activity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Jeong, Sang Hee; Cho, Joon Hyoung; Kim, Dong Gyu; Park, Jong Myung; Cho, Myung Haing

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM), an organophosphate insecticide, widely used for grain storage and agriculture, has been suspected as endocrine disrupter by a few in vitro studies. This study was performed to investigate the (anti-) estrogenicity and (anti-) androgenicity of CPM in vivo using immature rat uterotrophic assay and rat Hershberger assay. CPM with or without 17β-estradiol were administered to 20 days old female rats to investigate its (anti-) estrogenic activity. Uterine and vaginal weight, uterine epithelial cell height were not affected by the treatment of CPM (2, 10, 50, 250 mg/kg). CPM 250 mg/kg potentiated relative vagina weight in 17β-estradiol treated immature female rats without any changing of uterine weight. Relative liver weight was increased with decrease of body weight by CPM 250 mg/kg treatment. Uterine cell proliferation tested with bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was not observed in CPM treated rats. CPM with or without testosterone propionate were administered to castrated rat of 51 days old for 10 days to investigate the (anti-)androgenic activity,. The weight of relative and absolute androgen-dependent accessory sex organs; seminal vesicle with coagulating glands (SV/CG), ventral prostate gland (VP), glans penis (GP), levator ani plus bulbocarvernosus muscle (LABC) and Cowper's gland (CG,) were unchanged by the treatment of CPM alone. While CPM induced the increase of relative adrenal gland weight, CPM 50 mg/kg decreased the weights of CV/CG, VP, CG and LABC without change of GP without changing of GP when it was treated with TP. In conclusion, CPM dose not show estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity in immature female rats, but it represents anti-androgenic activity by inhibition of the TP-stimulated increase of the weight of accessory sex organs

  8. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

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    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  9. Optical spectroscopy of radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy responses in normal rat skin shows vascular breakdown products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles de Andrade, Cintia; Nogueira, Marcelo S.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason; Andreozzi, Jacqueline; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Kurachi, Cristina; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radiotherapy are non-systemic cancer treatment options with different mechanisms of damage. So combining these techniques has been shown to have some synergy, and can mitigate their limitations such as low PDT light penetration or radiotherapy side effects. The present study monitored the induced tissue changes after PDT, radiotherapy, and a combination protocol in normal rat skin, using an optical spectroscopy system to track the observed biophysical changes. The Wistar rats were treated with one of the protocols: PDT followed by radiotherapy, PDT, radiotherapy and radiotherapy followed by PDT. Reflectance spectra were collected in order to observe the effects of these combined therapies, especially targeting vascular response. From the reflectance, information about oxygen saturation, met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentration, blood volume fraction (BVF) and vessel radius were extracted from model fitting of the spectra. The rats were monitored for 24 hours after treatment. Results showed that there was no significant variation in the vessel size or BVF after the treatments. However, the PDT caused a significant increase in the met-hemoglobin and bilirubin concentrations, indicating an important blood breakdown. These results may provide an important clue on how the damage establishment takes place, helping to understand the effect of the combination of those techniques in order to verify the existence of a known synergistic effect.

  10. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

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    Peña-Oliver, Yolanda; Giuliano, Chiara; Economidou, Daina; Goodlett, Charles R; Robbins, Trevor W; Dalley, Jeffrey W; Everitt, Barry J

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  11. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Peña-Oliver

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT, a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  12. Astrocytes from adult Wistar rats aged in vitro show changes in glial functions.

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    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Raupp, Gustavo Santos; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2015-11-01

    Astrocytes, the most versatile cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the regulation of neurotransmitter homeostasis, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses and the anti-inflammatory response. Recently, our group characterized cortical astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. In line with that work, we studied glial function using an experimental in vitro model of aging astrocytes (30 days in vitro after reaching confluence) from newborn (NB), adult (AD) and aged (AG) Wistar rats. We evaluated metabolic parameters, such as the glucose uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity, and glutathione (GSH) content, as well as the GFAP, GLUT-1 and xCT expression. AD and AG astrocytes take up less glucose than NB astrocytes and had decreased GLUT1 expression levels. Furthermore, AD and AG astrocytes exhibited decreased GS activity compared to NB cells. Simultaneously, AD and AG astrocytes showed an increase in GSH levels, along with an increase in xCT expression. NB, AD and AG astrocytes presented similar morphology; however, differences in GFAP levels were observed. Taken together, these results improve the knowledge of cerebral senescence and represent an innovative tool for brain studies of aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pirchl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux , blue (1.3–2.3 lux, and red light (0.8–1.4 lux affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. However, dim blue and red light significantly reduced spatial learning of female rats in the 8-arm radial maze in the last training session (session 5. In conclusion, we suggest that female Sprague Dawley rats show reduced learning under blue and red light.

  14. Diethylene glycol-induced toxicities show marked threshold dose response in rats

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    Landry, Greg M., E-mail: Landry.Greg@mayo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Dunning, Cody L., E-mail: cdunni@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Abreo, Fleurette, E-mail: fabreo@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Latimer, Brian, E-mail: blatim@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Orchard, Elysse, E-mail: eorcha@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Division of Animal Resources, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); McMartin, Kenneth E., E-mail: kmcmar@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) exposure poses risks to human health because of widespread industrial use and accidental exposures from contaminated products. To enhance the understanding of the mechanistic role of metabolites in DEG toxicity, this study used a dose response paradigm to determine a rat model that would best mimic DEG exposure in humans. Wistar and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats were treated by oral gavage with 0, 2, 5, or 10 g/kg DEG and blood, kidney and liver tissues were collected at 48 h. Both rat strains treated with 10 g/kg DEG had equivalent degrees of metabolic acidosis, renal toxicity (increased BUN and creatinine and cortical necrosis) and liver toxicity (increased serum enzyme levels, centrilobular necrosis and severe glycogen depletion). There was no liver or kidney toxicity at the lower DEG doses (2 and 5 g/kg) regardless of strain, demonstrating a steep threshold dose response. Kidney diglycolic acid (DGA), the presumed nephrotoxic metabolite of DEG, was markedly elevated in both rat strains administered 10 g/kg DEG, but no DGA was present at 2 or 5 g/kg, asserting its necessary role in DEG-induced toxicity. These results indicate that mechanistically in order to produce toxicity, metabolism to and significant target organ accumulation of DGA are required and that both strains would be useful for DEG risk assessments. - Highlights: • DEG produces a steep threshold dose response for kidney injury in rats. • Wistar and F-344 rats do not differ in response to DEG-induced renal injury. • The dose response for renal injury closely mirrors that for renal DGA accumulation. • Results demonstrate the importance of DGA accumulation in producing kidney injury.

  15. Rats Housed on Corncob Bedding Show Less Slow-Wave Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Leys, Laura J; McGaraughty, Steve; Radek, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Despite the reported advantages of corncob bedding, questions have emerged about how comfortable animals find this type of bedding as a resting surface. In this study, encephalography (EEG) was used to compare the effects of corncob and aspen-chip bedding on rat slow-wave sleep (SWS). According to a facility-wide initiative, rats that were weaned on aspen-chip bedding were switched to corncob bedding in home cages and EEG recording chambers. Spontaneous EEG recordings obtained for 5 wk after ...

  16. Rats with congenital learned helplessness respond less to sucrose but show no deficits in activity or learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmayr, Barbara; Bachteler, Daniel; Vengeliene, Valentina; Gass, Peter; Spanagel, Rainer; Henn, Fritz

    2004-04-02

    Inbred rat strains for congenital learned helplessness (cLH) and for congenital resistance to learned helplessness (cNLH) were investigated as a model to study genetic predisposition to major depression. Congenitally helpless rats respond less to sucrose under a progressive ratio schedule. This is not confounded by locomotor hypoactivity: in contrast, cLH rats show a slight hyperactivity during the first 5 min of an open field test. cLH rats acquire operant responding to sucrose as readily as cNLH rats and exhibit normal memory acquisition and retrieval in the Morris water maze, thus ruling out general learning deficits as the cause of the decreased response to sucrose. Reduced total responses and reduced breaking points for sucrose in the cLH strain argue for anhedonia, which is an analogue to loss of pleasure essential for the diagnosis of major depressive episodes, and thus confirm the validity of congenitally learned helpless rats as a model of major depression.

  17. Female Sprague Dawley Rats Show Impaired Spatial Memory in the 8-Arm Radial Maze under Dim Blue and Red Light

    OpenAIRE

    Pirchl, Michael; Kemmler, Georg; Humpel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Light intensity and wavelength strongly influence mood and cognition in humans and rodent animal models. The aim of the present study was to explore if dim white (7.6–17.7 lux) , blue (1.3–2.3 lux), and red light (0.8–1.4 lux) affect spatial memory of male and female Sprague Dawley rats in the 8-arm radial maze. Our data show that spatial memory significantly improved within 5 daily learning sessions (each 5 trials) under dim white light, which was not different between male and female rats. ...

  18. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Specific Deficits in a Test Battery of Motor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Clemensson, Erik K H; Kyriakou, Elisavet I; Clemensson, Laura E; van der Harst, Johanneke E; Homberg, Judith R; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    Rationale : Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype. Objective : The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping. Methods : Wild-type (WT) and transgenic animals were tested longitudinally from 2 to 12 months of age. To measure fine motor control, rats were challenged with the pasta handling test and the pellet reaching test. To evaluate gross motor function, animals were assessed by using the holding bar and the grip strength tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity and circadian rhythmicity were assessed in an automated home-cage environment, namely the PhenoTyper. We then integrated existing classical methodologies to test motor function with automated home-cage assessment of motor performance. Results : BACHD rats showed strong impairment in muscle endurance at 2 months of age. Altered circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity were observed in transgenic animals. On the other hand, reaching behavior, forepaw dexterity and muscle strength were unaffected. Conclusions : The BACHD rat model exhibits certain features of HD patients, like muscle weakness and changes in circadian behavior. We have observed modest but clear-cut deficits in distinct motor phenotypes, thus confirming the validity of this transgenic rat model for treatment and drug discovery purposes.

  19. Transgenic rats overexpressing the human MrgX3 gene show cataracts and an abnormal skin phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaisho, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Takuya; Nakata, Mitsugu; Yano, Takashi; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Shimakawa, Kozo; Mori, Ikuo; Sakura, Yasufumi; Terao, Yasuko; Matsui, Hideki; Taketomi, Shigehisa

    2005-01-01

    The human MrgX3 gene, belonging to the mrgs/SNSRs (mass related genes/sensory neuron specific receptors) family, was overexpressed in transgenic rats using the actin promoter. Two animal lines showed cataracts with liquification/degeneration and swelling of the lens fiber cells. The transient epidermal desquamation was observed in line with higher gene expression. Histopathology of the transgenic rats showed acanthosis and focal parakeratosis. In the epidermis, there was an increase in cellular keratin 14, keratin 10, and loricrin, as well as PGP 9.5 in innervating nerve fibers. These phenotypes accompanied an increase in the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that overexpression of the human MrgX3 gene causes a disturbance of the normal cell-differentiation process

  20. MicroRNAs show mutually exclusive expression patterns in the brain of adult male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Line; Klausen, Mikkel; Helboe, Lone

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The brain is a major site of microRNA (miRNA) gene expression, but the spatial expression patterns of miRNAs within the brain have not yet been fully covered. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have characterized the regional expression profiles of miRNAs in five distinct regions...... of the adult rat brain: amygdala, cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and substantia nigra. Microarray profiling uncovered 48 miRNAs displaying more than three-fold enrichment between two or more brain regions. Notably, we found reciprocal expression profiles for a subset of the miRNAs predominantly found...... (> ten times) in either the cerebellum (miR-206 and miR-497) or the forebrain regions (miR-132, miR-212, miR-221 and miR-222). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that some miRNAs could be important for area-specific functions in the brain. Our data, combined with previous studies in mice...

  1. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  2. RNA–Stable-Isotope Probing Shows Utilization of Carbon from Inulin by Specific Bacterial Populations in the Rat Large Bowel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Sims, Ian M.; Lee, Julian; Butts, Christine A.; Roy, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the trophisms that underpin bowel microbiota composition is required in order to understand its complex phylogeny and function. Stable-isotope (13C)-labeled inulin was added to the diet of rats on a single occasion in order to detect utilization of inulin-derived substrates by particular members of the cecal microbiota. Cecal digesta from Fibruline-inulin-fed rats was collected prior to (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h following provision of the [13C]inulin diet. RNA was extracted from these cecal specimens and fractionated in isopycnic buoyant density gradients in order to detect 13C-labeled nucleic acid originating in bacterial cells that had metabolized the labeled dietary constituent. RNA extracted from specimens collected after provision of the labeled diet was more dense than 0-h RNA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from cDNA obtained from these fractions showed that Bacteroides uniformis, Blautia glucerasea, Clostridium indolis, and Bifidobacterium animalis were the main users of the 13C-labeled substrate. Culture-based studies of strains of these bacterial species enabled trophisms associated with inulin and its hydrolysis products to be identified. B. uniformis utilized Fibruline-inulin for growth, whereas the other species used fructo-oligosaccharide and monosaccharides. Thus, RNA–stable-isotope probing (RNA-SIP) provided new information about the use of carbon from inulin in microbiota metabolism. PMID:24487527

  3. Novel AAV-based rat model of forebrain synucleinopathy shows extensive pathologies and progressive loss of cholinergic interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Aldrin-Kirk

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies, characterized by intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein protein, share a number of features in pathology and disease progression. However, the vulnerable cell population differs significantly between the disorders, despite being caused by the same protein. While the vulnerability of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra to α-synuclein over-expression, and its link to Parkinson's disease, is well studied, animal models recapitulating the cortical degeneration in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB are much less mature. The aim of this study was to develop a first rat model of widespread progressive synucleinopathy throughout the forebrain using adeno-associated viral (AAV vector mediated gene delivery. Through bilateral injection of an AAV6 vector expressing human wild-type α-synuclein into the forebrain of neonatal rats, we were able to achieve widespread, robust α-synuclein expression with preferential expression in the frontal cortex. These animals displayed a progressive emergence of hyper-locomotion and dysregulated response to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The animals receiving the α-synuclein vector displayed significant α-synuclein pathology including intra-cellular inclusion bodies, axonal pathology and elevated levels of phosphorylated α-synuclein, accompanied by significant loss of cortical neurons and a progressive reduction in both cortical and striatal ChAT positive interneurons. Furthermore, we found evidence of α-synuclein sequestered by IBA-1 positive microglia, which was coupled with a distinct change in morphology. In areas of most prominent pathology, the total α-synuclein levels were increased to, on average, two-fold, which is similar to the levels observed in patients with SNCA gene triplication, associated with cortical Lewy body pathology. This study provides a novel rat model of progressive cortical synucleinopathy, showing for the first time that cholinergic interneurons are vulnerable

  4. Neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rat show stimulus-specific adaptation for frequency, but not for intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Daniel; Wang, Xin; Nieto-Diego, Javier; Krumbholz, Katrin; Malmierca, Manuel S.

    2016-01-01

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to a low-intensity probe sound tend to be suppressed by a preceding high-intensity adaptor sound. Nevertheless, rare low-intensity deviant sounds presented among frequent high-intensity standard sounds in an intensity oddball paradigm can elicit an electroencephalographic mismatch negativity (MMN) response. This has been taken to suggest that the MMN is a correlate of true change or “deviance” detection. A key question is where in the ascending auditory pathway true deviance sensitivity first emerges. Here, we addressed this question by measuring low-intensity deviant responses from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized rats. If the IC exhibits true deviance sensitivity to intensity, IC neurons should show enhanced responses to low-intensity deviant sounds presented among high-intensity standards. Contrary to this prediction, deviant responses were only enhanced when the standards and deviants differed in frequency. The results could be explained with a model assuming that IC neurons integrate over multiple frequency-tuned channels and that adaptation occurs within each channel independently. We used an adaptation paradigm with multiple repeated adaptors to measure the tuning widths of these adaption channels in relation to the neurons’ overall tuning widths. PMID:27066835

  5. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Karl Håkan Clemensson

    Full Text Available The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  6. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  7. A novel rat genomic simple repeat DNA with RNA-homology shows triplex (H-DNA)-like structure and tissue-specific RNA expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranil; Rath, Pramod C.

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian genome contains a wide variety of repetitive DNA sequences of relatively unknown function. We report a novel 227 bp simple repeat DNA (3.3 DNA) with a d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } dinucleotide mirror repeat from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) genome. 3.3 DNA showed 75-85% homology with several eukaryotic mRNAs due to (GA/CU) n dinucleotide repeats by nBlast search and a dispersed distribution in the rat genome by Southern blot hybridization with [ 32 P]3.3 DNA. The d {(GA) 7 A (AG) 7 } mirror repeat formed a triplex (H-DNA)-like structure in vitro. Two large RNAs of 9.1 and 7.5 kb were detected by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA in rat brain by Northern blot hybridization indicating expression of such simple sequence repeats at RNA level in vivo. Further, several cDNAs were isolated from a rat cDNA library by [ 32 P]3.3 DNA probe. Three such cDNAs showed tissue-specific RNA expression in rat. pRT 4.1 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.39 kb RNA in brain and spleen, pRT 5.5 cDNA showed strong expression of a 2.8 kb RNA in brain and a 3.9 kb RNA in lungs, and pRT 11.4 cDNA showed weak expression of a 2.4 kb RNA in lungs. Thus, genomic simple sequence repeats containing d (GA/CT) n dinucleotides are transcriptionally expressed and regulated in rat tissues. Such d (GA/CT) n dinucleotide repeats may form structural elements (e.g., triplex) which may be sites for functional regulation of genomic coding sequences as well as RNAs. This may be a general function of such transcriptionally active simple sequence repeats widely dispersed in mammalian genome

  8. The VGF-Derived Neuropeptide TLQP-21 Shows No Impact on Hormone Secretion in the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Svendsen, B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    investigated the impact of TLQP-21 on insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. We found that administration of 5 and 50 nM TLQP-21 had no impact on pancreatic hormone secretion at 3.5 or 8 mM glucose levels. Increasing TLQP-21 (200 nM) and glucose concentration (3.5 and 16 m...

  9. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  10. Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq., Rubiaceae, extract shows hypoglycemic effect and eases oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb. Miq., Rubiaceae, a Bangladeshi medicinal plant, was studied for its potential hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant property in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract induced significant reduction in serum glucose, and transaminases, e.g. aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatases (ALP, activities. Significant changes in the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, peroxidase and catalase levels during the experimental period were also observed. The results established that the hydroethanolic extract of the flowering tops of A. cadamba possesses hypoglycemic property and is able to protect liver and brain from oxidative damages caused by diabetes.

  11. Effects of stress or infection on rat behavior show robust reversals due to environmental disturbance [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Abdulai-Saiku

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The behavior of animals is intricately linked to the environment; a relationship that is often studied in laboratory conditions by using environmental perturbations to study biological mechanisms underlying the behavioral change.  Methods: This study pertains to two such well-studied and well-replicated perturbations, i.e., stress-induced anxiogenesis and Toxoplasma gondii -induced loss of innate fear. Here, we demonstrate that behavioral outcomes of these experimental manipulations are contingent upon the ambient quality of the wider environment where animal facilities are situated. Results: During late 2014 and early 2015, a building construction project started adjacent to our animal facility. During this phase, we observed that maternal separation stress caused anxiolysis, rather than historically observed anxiogenesis, in laboratory rats. We also found that Toxoplasma gondii infection caused an increase, rather than historically observed decrease, in innate aversion to predator odors in rats. Conclusion: These observations suggest that effects of stress and Toxoplasma gondii are dependent on variables in the environment that often go unreported in the published literature.

  12. A window into extreme longevity; the circulating metabolomic signature of the naked mole-rat, a mammal that shows negligible senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Rubinstein, Nimrod D; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2018-04-20

    Mouse-sized naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber), unlike other mammals, do not conform to Gompertzian laws of age-related mortality; adults show no age-related change in mortality risk. Moreover, we observe negligible hallmarks of aging with well-maintained physiological and molecular functions, commonly altered with age in other species. We questioned whether naked mole-rats, living an order of magnitude longer than laboratory mice, exhibit different plasma metabolite profiles, which could then highlight novel mechanisms or targets involved in disease and longevity. Using a comprehensive, unbiased metabolomics screen, we observe striking inter-species differences in amino acid, peptide, and lipid metabolites. Low circulating levels of specific amino acids, particularly those linked to the methionine pathway, resemble those observed during the fasting period at late torpor in hibernating ground squirrels and those seen in longer-lived methionine-restricted rats. These data also concur with metabolome reports on long-lived mutant mice, including the Ames dwarf mice and calorically restricted mice, as well as fruit flies, and even show similarities to circulating metabolite differences observed in young human adults when compared to older humans. During evolution, some of these beneficial nutrient/stress response pathways may have been positively selected in the naked mole-rat. These observations suggest that interventions that modify the aging metabolomic profile to a more youthful one may enable people to lead healthier and longer lives.

  13. Site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modelling studies show the role of Asp82 and cysteines in rat acylase 1, a member of the M20 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herga, Sameh; Brutus, Alexandre; Vitale, Rosa Maria; Miche, Helene; Perrier, Josette; Puigserver, Antoine; Scaloni, Andrea; Giardina, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    Acylase 1 from rat kidney catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyl-amino acids. Sequence alignment has shown that this enzyme belongs to the metalloprotein family M20. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments led to the identification of one functionally important amino acid residue located near one of the zinc coordinating residues, which play a critical role in the enzymatic activity. The D82N- and D82E-substituted forms showed no significant activity and very low activity, respectively, along with a loss of zinc coordination. Molecular modelling investigations indicated a putative role of D82 in ensuring a proper protonation of catalytic histidine. In addition, none of the five cysteine residues present in the rat kidney acylase 1 sequence seemed involved in the catalytic process: the loss of activity induced by the C294A substitution was probably due to a conformational change in the 3D structure

  14. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) by normalizing NLRP3 inflammasome showed potential neuroprotective effects in Amyloid-β induced toxicity and high-fat diet fed rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Khazaei, Mozafar; Komaki, Alireza; Amiri, Iraj; Jalili, Cyrus

    2018-05-02

    Both dyslipidemia and Alzheimer disease (AD) are associated with aging. In this study, the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on inflammasome and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's model (receiving Amyloid-β (Aβ)) and high-fat diet (HFD) model were determined. A total of 120 male Wistar rats, were divided into 12 groups (n = 10), including; healthy control, sham surgery, sham surgery receiving normal saline, HFD, HFD + 8% VCO, HFD + 10% VCO, Aβ received rats, Aβ + 8%VCO, Aβ + 10%VCO, HFD + Aβ, HFD + Aβ+8%VCO, and HFD + Aβ + 10%VCO. Following memory and learning tests, blood sample prepared from the heart and hippocampus of rats in each group was kept at -70 °C for genes expression, oxidative stress, and biochemical tests. Aβ and HFD significantly impaired memory and learning by activating of both NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and oxidative stress (p<0.05), while treatment with both 8 and 10% VCO normalized inflammasome genes expression and oxidative stress (p<0.05). The Congo Red, Cresyl Violet staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC) test revealed that VCO improved hippocampus histological changes, reduced Aβ plaques and phosphorylated Tau. High-fat diet has exacerbated the effects of Aβ, while VCO showed potential neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced imaging techniques show progressive arthropathy following experimentally induced knee bleeding in a factor VIII-/- rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, K. R.; Roepstorff, K.; Petersen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Joint pathology is most commonly assessed by radiogra-phy, but ultrasonography (US) is increasingly recognized for its acces-sibility, safety and ability to show soft tissue changes, the earliestindicators of haemophilic arthropathy (HA). US, however, lacks theability to visualize...

  16. Extract of Bauhinia vahlii Shows Antihyperglycemic Activity, Reverses Oxidative Stress, and Protects against Liver Damage in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbanna, Ahmed H.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Mahrous, Engy A.; Khaleel, Amal E.; Elalfy, Taha S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have affirmed the effectiveness of some Bauhinia plants as antihyperglycemic agents. Objective: We investigated the possible effect of Bauhinia vahlii leaves extract in reducing hyperglycemia and reversing signs of organ damage associated with diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ) rat model. Materials and Methods: Both polar fraction of the B. vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) and nonpolar fraction (n-hexane extract) were evaluated in vitro for α-glucosidase inhibition and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging potential. DEE was selected for further in vivo studies and was administered at two doses, i.e., 150 or 300 mg/kg to STZ-diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Results: Only DEE exhibited in vitro antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities and its oral administration at both dose levels resulted in significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, signs of oxidative stress as indicated by hepatic reduced glutathione, nitric oxide, and malondialdehyde levels were completely reversed. In addition, histopathological examination and measurement of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels showed that DEE protected the liver from signs of liver pathogenesis when compared to diabetic untreated animals and those treated with metformin. Phytochemical analysis of DEE showed high flavonoids content with quercitrin as the major constituent along with other quercetin glycosides. Conclusion: This study strongly highlights the possible beneficial effect of B. vahlii leaves extract in relieving hyperglycemia and liver damage in STZ-diabetic rats and recommends further investigation of the value of quercetin derivatives in controlling diabetes and ameliorating liver damage associated with it. SUMMARY The polar fraction of the Bauhinia vahlii leaves (defatted ethanolic extract [DEE]) exhibited both in vitro antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and

  17. A dual inhibitor of FAAH and TRPV1 channels shows dose-dependent effect on depression-like behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkedal, Christian; Wegener, Gregers; Moreira, Fabricio; Joca, Sâmia Regiane Lourenco; Liebenberg, Nico

    2017-12-01

    The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) are proposed to mediate opposite behavioural responses. Their common denominator is the endocannabinoid ligand anandamide (AEA), which is believed to mediate antidepressant-like effect via CB1-R stimulation and depressive-like effect via TRPV1 activation. This is supposed to explain the bell-shaped dose-response curve for anandamide in preclinical models. We investigated this assumption by administering the dual inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis and TRPV1 activation N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5HT) into the medial prefrontal cortex of rats. AA-5HT was given in three different doses (0.125, 0.250, 0.500 nmol/0.4 µl/side) and rat behaviour was assessed in the forced swim test. Our results show significant antidepressant-like effect of AA-5HT (0.250 nmol) but no effects of low or high doses. The effect of 0.250 nmol AA-5HT was partially attenuated when coadministering the inverse CB1-agonist rimonabant (1.6 µg). A 0.250 nmol of AA-5HT administration into the medial prefrontal cortex induced a significant antidepressant-like effect that was partially attenuated by locally blocking CB1-receptor.

  18. Novel G Protein-Coupled Oestrogen Receptor GPR30 Shows Changes in mRNA Expression in the Rat Brain over the Oestrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Spary

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oestrogen influences autonomic function via actions at classical nuclear oestrogen receptors α and β in the brain, and recent evidence suggests the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 may also function as a cytoplasmic oestrogen receptor. We investigated the expression of GPR30 in female rat brains throughout the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy to determine whether GPR30 expression in central autonomic nuclei is correlated with circulating oestrogen levels. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, ventrolateral medulla (VLM and periaqueductal gray (PAG GPR30 mRNA, quantified by real-time PCR, was increased in proestrus and oestrus. In ovariectomised (OVX rats, expression in NTS and VLM appeared increased compared to metoestrus, but in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and PAG lower mRNA levels were seen in OVX. GPR30-like immunoreactivity (GPR30-LI colocalised with Golgi in neurones in many brain areas associated with autonomic pathways, and analysis of numbers of immunoreactive neurones showed differences consistent with the PCR data. GPR30-LI was found in a variety of transmitter phenotypes, including cholinergic, serotonergic, catecholaminergic and nitrergic neurones in different neuronal groups. These observations support the view that GPR30 could act as a rapid transducer responding to oestrogen levels and thus modulate the activity of central autonomic pathways.

  19. Transformation of Lettuce with rol ABC Genes: Extracts Show Enhanced Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antidepressant, and Anticoagulant Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Dilshad, Erum; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mirza, Bushra

    2017-03-01

    Lettuce is an edible crop that is well known for dietary and antioxidant benefits. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rol ABC genes on antioxidant and medicinal potential of lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed through PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The transformed plants showed 91-102 % increase in total phenolic contents and 53-65 % increase in total flavonoid contents compared to untransformed plants. Total antioxidant capacity and total reducing power increased up to 112 and 133 % in transformed plants, respectively. Results of DPPH assay showed maximum 51 % increase, and lipid peroxidation assay exhibited 20 % increase in antioxidant activity of transformed plants compared to controls. Different in vivo assays were carried out in rats. The transgenic plants showed up to 80 % inhibition in both hot plate analgesic assay and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test, while untransformed plants showed only 45 % inhibition. Antidepressant and anticoagulant potential of transformed plants was also significantly enhanced compared to untransformed plants. Taken together, the present work highlights the use of rol genes to enhance the secondary metabolite production in lettuce and improve its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticoagulatory properties.

  20. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi; Aleo, Michael D.; Strock, Christopher J.; Stedman, Donald B.; Wang, Huijun; Will, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary

  1. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Aleo, Michael D. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Strock, Christopher J. [Cyprotex US, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Stedman, Donald B. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Wang, Huijun [Computational Sciences, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Will, Yvonne, E-mail: yvonne.will@pfizer.com [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary.

  2. Type 2 Diabetic Rats on Diet Supplemented With Chromium Malate Show Improved Glycometabolism, Glycometabolism-Related Enzyme Levels and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weiwei; Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Wang, Wei; Feng, Yun; Li, Fang; Zheng, Daheng; Wu, Huiyu; Jin, Dun; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes. PMID:25942313

  3. Data showing non-conventional HLA-B27 expression in axial joints and gut tissue from B27 transgenic rats, and in frozen and paraffin-fixed synovial SpA tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rysnik, Oliwia; McHugh, Kirsty; van Duivenvoorde, Leonie; van Tok, Melissa; Taurog, Joel; Kollnberger, Simon; Baeten, Dominique; Bowness, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Data is presented showing expression of non-conventional (NC) heavy chain forms of B27 in synovial tissues from SpA patients. Data is presented showing the expression patterns of NC-B27 in joint, gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues from B27 transgenic (TG(1)) rats with M. tuberculosis-induced SpA.

  4. Glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid show no beneficial effect on the chemical composition and mechanical properties of bones in ovariectomized rats, when administered in moderate dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk-Sedlak, Ilona; Klasik-Ciszewska, Sylwia; Wojnar, Weronika

    2016-10-01

    One of the major causes of osteoporosis and bone fracture in postmenopausal women is estrogen deficiency. To prevent the fractures, and avoid the side effects of hormone replacement therapy, phytoestrogens including the isoflavonoids are used. In the presented study two constituents occurring in the licorice root-the isoflavane glabridin and triterpenoid saponin glycyrrhizic acid were examined on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats. The female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group, ovariectomized group as well as three ovariectomized groups treated with estradiol (0.2mg/kg), glabridin (5mg/kg) or glycyrrhizic acid (15mg/kg). All substances were administered orally for 4 weeks. The estradiol served as a positive control. The mechanical properties of femoral diaphysis, tibial metaphysis and femoral neck were assessed using bending and compression tests. Moreover the chemical composition of the femur, tibia and L-4 vertebra - content of water, organic substances and minerals - was determined. Ovariectomy induced unfavorable changes in the skeletal system of the rats. Administration of glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid to the ovariectomized rats did not improve analyzed parameters of the bones. Obtained results indicate, that the tested substances revealed no beneficial effect on the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the tested bones, thus they cannot be used as the osteoporosis protective agents. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. A combination of a dairy product fermented by lactobacilli and galactooligosaccharides shows additive effects on mineral balances in growing rats with hypochlorhydria induced by a proton pump inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Ashida, Kinya; Maruyama, Suyaka; Matsukiyo, Yukari; Kaneko, Tetsuo; Yamaji, Taketo

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a combination of a dairy product fermented by lactobacilli (DFL) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on mineral balances in growing rats with hypochlorhydria induced by a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Three-week-old male rats were assigned to receive one of six diets: a control diet, control diets containing 1.6 or 5.0 % GOS, a DFL diet and DFL diets containing 1.6 or 5.0 % GOS for 9 days. From day 5 of the feeding period, half of the rats fed with control diets were subcutaneously administered with saline, whereas the remaining rats were administered with PPI for 5 days. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) balances were determined from days 6 to 9. PPI administration significantly decreased the apparent absorption of Ca and Fe and increased urinary P excretion, resulting in decreased Ca, Fe and P retention. GOS dose-dependently increased the apparent absorption of Ca, Mg and Fe and urinary Mg excretion and decreased urinary P excretion. DFL significantly increased the apparent absorption of Ca and Mg and urinary Mg excretion. The combination of DFL and GOS additively affected these parameters, resulting in increased Ca, P and Fe retention, and it further increased the apparent absorption and retention of Zn at 5.0 % GOS. In conclusion, the combination of DFL and GOS improves Ca, P and Fe retention in an additive manner and increases the Zn retention in growing rats with hypochlorhydria induced by PPI.

  6. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  7. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Berner, Laura A; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-10-24

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet or a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was also not seen in rats fed a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize "food addiction" may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The flinders sensitive line rats, a genetic model of depression, show abnormal serotonin receptor mRNA expression in the brain that is reversed by 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, M K; Overstreet, D H; Hurd, Y L

    1999-12-10

    The possible link between estrogen and serotonin (5-HT) in depression was investigated using a genetic animal model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, in comparison to control Flinders Resistant Line rats. The mRNA levels of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta subtypes and the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors were analyzed in several limbic-related areas of ovariectomized FSL and FRL rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (0.15 microg/g) or vehicle. The FSL animals were shown to express significantly lower levels of the 5-HT(2A) receptor transcripts in the perirhinal cortex, piriform cortex, and medial anterodorsal amygdala and higher levels in the CA 2-3 region of the hippocampus. The only significant difference between the rat lines in ER mRNA expression was found in the medial posterodorsal amygdala, where the FSL rats showed lower ERalpha expression levels. Overall, estradiol treatment increased 5-HT(2A) and decreased 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA levels in several of the examined regions of both lines. Thus, in many areas, estradiol was found to regulate the 5-HT receptor mRNA expression in the opposite direction to the alterations found in the FSL rats. These findings further support the implication of 5-HT receptors, in particular the 5-HT(2A) subtype, in the etiology of affective disorders. Moreover, the ability of estradiol to regulate the expression of the 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor genes might account for the reported influence of gonadal hormones in mood and depression.

  9. Diffusion tensor MRI shows progressive changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus after status epilepticus in rat - histological validation with Fourier-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Raimo A; Miettinen, Tuukka; Laitinen, Teemu; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra

    2017-05-15

    Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE. In order to tie the DTI findings to changes in the tissue microstructure, myelin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-stained sections from the same animals underwent Fourier analysis. We compared the Fourier analysis parameters, anisotropy index and angle of myelinated axons or astrocyte processes, to corresponding DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the orientation angle of the principal eigenvector. We found progressive detectable changes in DTI parameters in both the dentate gyrus (FA, axial diffusivity [D || ], linear anisotropy [CL] and spherical anisotropy [CS], pFourier analysis revealed that both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes played a role in the water diffusion anisotropy changes detected by DTI in individual portions of the dentate gyrus (suprapyramidal blade, mid-portion, and infrapyramidal blade). In the whole dentate gyrus, myelinated axons markedly contributed to the water diffusion changes. In CA3bc as well as in CA3b and CA3c, both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes contributed to water diffusion anisotropy and orientation. Our study revealed that DTI is a promising method for noninvasive detection of microstructural alterations in the hippocampus proper. These alterations may be potential imaging markers for epileptogenesis

  10. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes.

  11. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  12. Anti-nucleosome antibodies complexed to nucleosomal antigens show anti-DNA reactivity and bind to rat glomerular basement membrane in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramers, C; Hylkema, M N; van Bruggen, M C; van de Lagemaat, R; Dijkman, H B; Assmann, K J; Smeenk, R J; Berden, J H

    1994-01-01

    Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM, and if so, whether the ligand in the GBM is HS. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) complexed to nucleosomal antigens and noncomplexed mAbs were isolated from culture supernatants of four IgG anti-nuclear mAbs. All noncomplexed mAbs showed strong anti-nucleosome reactivity in ELISA. One of them showed in addition anti-DNA reactivity in noncomplexed form. The other three mAbs only showed anti-DNA reactivity when they were complexed to nucleosomal antigens. After renal perfusion a fine granular binding of complexed mAbs to the glomerular capillary wall and activation of complement was observed in immunofluorescence, whereas noncomplexed mAbs did not bind. Immuno-electron microscopy showed binding of complexes to the whole width of the GBM. When HS in the GBM was removed by renal heparinase perfusion the binding of complexed mAb decreased, but did not disappear completely. We conclude that anti-nucleosome mAbs, which do not bind DNA, become DNA reactive once complexed to nucleosomal antigens. These complexed mAbs can bind to the GBM. The binding ligand in the GBM is partly, but not solely, HS. Binding to the GBM of immune complexes containing nucleosomal material might be an important event in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Images PMID:8040312

  13. Background synaptic activity in rat entorhinal cortex shows a progressively greater dominance of inhibition over excitation from deep to superficial layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart David Greenhill

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC controls hippocampal input and output, playing major roles in memory and spatial navigation. Different layers of the EC subserve different functions and a number of studies have compared properties of neurones across layers. We have studied synaptic inhibition and excitation in EC neurones, and we have previously compared spontaneous synaptic release of glutamate and GABA using patch clamp recordings of synaptic currents in principal neurones of layers II (L2 and V (L5. Here, we add comparative studies in layer III (L3. Such studies essentially look at neuronal activity from a presynaptic viewpoint. To correlate this with the postsynaptic consequences of spontaneous transmitter release, we have determined global postsynaptic conductances mediated by the two transmitters, using a method to estimate conductances from membrane potential fluctuations. We have previously presented some of this data for L3 and now extend to L2 and L5. Inhibition dominates excitation in all layers but the ratio follows a clear rank order (highest to lowest of L2>L3>L5. The variance of the background conductances was markedly higher for excitation and inhibition in L2 compared to L3 or L5. We also show that induction of synchronized network epileptiform activity by blockade of GABA inhibition reveals a relative reluctance of L2 to participate in such activity. This was associated with maintenance of a dominant background inhibition in L2, whereas in L3 and L5 the absolute level of inhibition fell below that of excitation, coincident with the appearance of synchronized discharges. Further experiments identified potential roles for competition for bicuculline by ambient GABA at the GABAA receptor, and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in residual inhibition in L2. We discuss our results in terms of control of excitability in neuronal subpopulations of EC neurones and what these may suggest for their functional roles.

  14. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Cerling, Thure E; Uno, Kevin T; Ferguson, Kurt M; Flynn, Lawrence J; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13)C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  15. Fossil Mice and Rats Show Isotopic Evidence of Niche Partitioning and Change in Dental Ecomorphology Related to Dietary Shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Cerling, Thure E.; Uno, Kevin T.; Ferguson, Kurt M.; Flynn, Lawrence J.; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible. PMID:23936324

  16. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kimura

    Full Text Available Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13C with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  17. Data showing non-conventional HLA-B27 expression in axial joints and gut tissue from B27 transgenic rats, and in frozen and paraffin-fixed synovial SpA tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliwia Rysnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Data is presented showing expression of non-conventional (NC heavy chain forms of B27 in synovial tissues from SpA patients. Data is presented showing the expression patterns of NC-B27 in joint, gastrointestinal and lymphoid tissues from B27 transgenic (TG1 rats with M. tuberculosis-induced SpA. Expression of NC-B27 was determined by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry using HC10 and HD6 antibodies. These data are the extension of the data presented and discussed in “Non-conventional forms of HLA-B27 are expressed in Spondyloarthritis joints and gut tissue” (O. Rysnik, K. McHugh, L. M. van Duivenvoorde, M. N. van Tok, G. Guggino, J. D. Taurog, S. Kollnberger, F. Ciccia, D. L. Baeten, P. Bowness, 2016 [1].

  18. Post-cancer Treatment with Condurango 30C Shows Amelioration of Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer in Rats Through the Molecular Pathway of Caspa- se-3-mediated Apoptosis Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikdar Sourav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present investigation aimed at examining if post-cancer treatment with a potentized homeopathic drug, Condurango 30C, which is generally used to treat oesophageal cancer, could also show an ameliorating effect through apoptosis induction on lung cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP in white rats (Rattus norvegicus. Methods: Lung cancer was induced after four months by chronic feeding of BaP to rats through gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for one month. After four months, the lung-cancer-bearing rats were treated with Condurango 30C for the next one (5th, two (5th-6th and three (5th-7th months, respectively, and were sacrificed at the corresponding time- points. The ameliorating effect, if any, after Condurango 30C treatment for the various periods was evaluated by using protocols such as histology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, annexinV-FITC/PI assay, flow cytometry of the apoptosis marker, DNA fragmentation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analyses of lung tissue samples. Results: Striking recovery of lung tissue to a near normal status was noticed after post-cancerous drug treatment, as evidenced by SEM and histology, especially after one and two months of drug treatment. Data from the annexinV-FITC/PI and DNA fragmentation assays revealed that Condurango 30C could induce apoptosis in cancer cells after post-cancer treatment. A critical analysis of signalling cascade, evidenced through a RT-PCR study, demonstrated up-regulation and down-regulation of different pro- and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively, related to a caspase-3-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was especially discernible after one-month and two- month drug treatments. Correspondingly, Western blot and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the ameliorative potential of Condurango 30C by its ability to down-regulate the elevated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression, a

  19. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  20. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  1. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  2. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  4. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  5. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  6. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... nucleus, bizarre segmentation; (I) shows hypersegmentation, bizarre segmentation of neutrophils in the shape of ring nucleus with polychromatophilic RBCs. 1998; Muller and Tobin, 1980). The current study shows that rats administered C. edulis hydro-ethanol extract, orally for 28 days, developed anemia, ...

  7. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  8. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  9. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  10. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  11. Individually reared rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeuchi, K.; Gentsch, C.; Feer, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of social isolation in rats on postsynaptic alpha 1 - and beta-adrenergic receptors, on the cAMP generating system and on the presynaptic uptake mechanism in the central noradrenergic system was examined in different brain regions. Rearing rats in isolation from the 19th day of life for 12 weeks leads in all regions to a general tendency for a reduction in 3 H-DHA binding, to an enhanced 3 H-WB4101 binding and to a decreased responsiveness of the noradrenaline sensitive cAMP generating system. These changes reach significance only in the pons-medulla-thallamusregion. Isolated rats showed an increased synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, most pronounced and significant in the hypothalamus. Our data provide further support for a disturbance in central noradrenergic function in isolated rats. (author)

  12. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...

  13. Treatment of diabetic rats with encapsulated islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Ian R; Yanay, Ofer; Waldron, Lanaya; Gilbert, Merle; Fuller, Jessica M; Tupling, Terry; Lernmark, Ake; Osborne, William R A

    2008-12-01

    Immunoprotection of islets using bioisolator systems permits introduction of allogeneic cells to diabetic patients without the need for immunosuppression. Using TheraCyte immunoisolation devices, we investigated two rat models of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), BB rats and rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment. We chose to implant islets after the onset of diabetes to mimic the probable treatment of children with T1DM as they are usually diagnosed after disease onset. We encapsulated 1000 rat islets and implanted them subcutaneously (SQ) into diabetic biobreeding (BB) rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats, defined as two or more consecutive days of blood glucose>350 mg/dl. Rats were monitored for weight and blood glucose. Untreated BB rats rapidly lost weight and were euthanized at >20% weight loss that occurred between 4 and 10 days from implantation. For period of 30-40 days following islet implantation weights of treated rats remained steady or increased. Rapid weight loss occurred after surgical removal of devices that contained insulin positive islets. STZ-treated rats that received encapsulated islets showed steady weight gain for up to 130 days, whereas untreated control rats showed steady weight loss that achieved >20% at around 55 days. Although islet implants did not normalize blood glucose, treated rats were apparently healthy and groomed normally. Autologous or allogeneic islets were equally effective in providing treatment. TheraCyte devices can sustain islets, protect allogeneic cells from immune attack and provide treatment for diabetic-mediated weight loss in both BB rats and STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  14. [Pituitary function of dysgenesic femal rats. Studies with grafting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhems, E; Busquet, J

    1975-01-01

    Misulban administered to pregnant rats on the 15th day of gestation provoked gonadal dysgenesia in the offspring. Study of the pituitary function of dysgenesic female rats, realized by grafting method, showed gonadotrophic hypersecretion.

  15. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-01

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-β endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I 125 h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  16. Beta-endorphin in genetically hypoprolactinemic rat: IPL nude rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, H.; Sabbagh, I.; Abou-Samra, A.B.; Bertrand, J.

    1986-01-20

    Beta-endorphin has been reported to regulate not only stress- and suckling-induced but also basal prolactin secretion. In the aim to better evaluate the endogenous beta-endorphin-prolactin interrelation, the authors measured beta-endorphin levels in a new rat strain, genetically hypoprolactinemic and characterized by a total lack of lactation: IPL nude rat. Beta-endorphin was measured using a specific anti-h-..beta.. endorphin in plasma and extracts of anterior and neurointermediate lobes of the pituitary, hypothalamus and brain. Pituitary extracts were also chromatographed on Sephadex G50 column. Results obtained showed that in IPL nude females on diestrus and males, the beta-endorphin contents of the neurointermediate lobe was significantly lower than in normal rats, while the values found in the other organs and plasma were similar. However, elution pattern of the anterior pituitary extracts from male rats showed greater immunoactivity eluting as I/sup 125/ h-beta-endorphin than in normal rat; this was not the case for the female rat. These results are consistent with a differential regulation of beta-endorphin levels of anterior and neurointermediate lobe by catecholamines. Moreover they suggest that PRL secretion was more related to neurointermediate beta-endorphin. 40 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Enteric neurons show a primary cilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luesma, Ma José; Cantarero, Irene; Castiella, Tomás; Soriano, Mario; Garcia-Verdugo, José Manuel; Junquera, Concepción

    2013-01-01

    The primary cilium is a non-motile cilium whose structure is 9+0. It is involved in co-ordinating cellular signal transduction pathways, developmental processes and tissue homeostasis. Defects in the structure or function of the primary cilium underlie numerous human diseases, collectively termed ciliopathies. The presence of single cilia in the central nervous system (CNS) is well documented, including some choroid plexus cells, neural stem cells, neurons and astrocytes, but the presence of primary cilia in differentiated neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has not yet been described in mammals to the best of our knowledge. The enteric nervous system closely resembles the central nervous system. In fact, the ultrastructure of the ENS is more similar to the CNS ultrastructure than to the rest of the peripheral nervous system. This research work describes for the first time the ultrastructural characteristics of the single cilium in neurons of rat duodenum myenteric plexus, and reviews the cilium function in the CNS to propose the possible role of cilia in the ENS cells. © 2012 The Authors. Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  18. Cerveau isolé and pretrigeminal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernicki, B; Gandolfo, G; Glin, L; Gottesmann, C

    1984-01-01

    Cortical and hippocampal EEG activity was analysed in 14 cerveau isole and 8 pretrigerninal rats. In the acute stage, waking EEG patterns were absent in the cerveau isole, whereas sleep EEG patterns were absent in the pretrigeminal preparations. However, already on the second day the EEG waking-sleep cycle recovered in the majority of rats. Paradoxically, stimuli directed to the caudal part of preparations evoked stronger cortical and hippocampal EEG arousal than olfactory and visual stimuli. The behavior of the caudal part was observed in 25 preparations. Although in abortive form, the rats did show some locomotor and grooming behavior, and could be fed orally. The peripheral events of paradoxical sleep appeared only on the fourth or fifth day of survival of the cerveau isole rats. It is concluded that the activity of the isolated cerebrum of the rat is similar to that of cat preparations, but that functions of the caudal neuraxis are superior in rats.

  19. Effects of heroin on rat prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Seven E; Stegmann, Gabriela M; Olive, M Foster

    2018-05-04

    Opioid use disorders are characterized in part by impairments in social functioning. Previous research indicates that laboratory rats, which are frequently used as animal models of addiction-related behaviors, are capable of prosocial behavior. For example, under normal conditions, when a 'free' rat is placed in the vicinity of rat trapped in a plastic restrainer, the rat will release or 'rescue' the other rat from confinement. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of heroin on prosocial behavior in rats. For 2 weeks, rats were given the opportunity to rescue their cagemate from confinement, and the occurrence of and latency to free the confined rat was recorded. After baseline rescuing behavior was established, rats were randomly selected to self-administer heroin (0.06 mg/kg/infusion i.v.) or sucrose pellets (orally) for 14 days. Next, rats were retested for rescuing behavior once daily for 3 days, during which they were provided with a choice between freeing the trapped cagemate and continuing to self-administer their respective reinforcer. Our results indicate that rats self-administering sucrose continued to rescue their cagemate, whereas heroin rats chose to self-administer heroin and not rescue their cagemate. These findings suggest that rats with a history of heroin self-administration show deficits in prosocial behavior, consistent with specific diagnostic criteria for opioid use disorder. Behavioral paradigms providing a choice between engaging in prosocial behavior and continuing drug use may be useful in modeling and investigating the neural basis of social functioning deficits in opioid addiction. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Modulation of rat behaviour by using a rat-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Qing; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Shinichi; Takanishi, Atsuo; Okabayashi, Satoshi; Iida, Naritoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the response of a rat to a rat-like robot capable of generating different types of behaviour (stressful, friendly, neutral). Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a rat-like robot called WR-4 is put together with live rats. The activity level of each rat subject is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing (rising up on its hind limbs) and body grooming (body cuddling and head curling) actions, whereas the degree of preference of that is indicated by the robot–rat distance and the frequency of contacting WR-4. The moving speed and behaviour of WR-4 are controlled in real-time based on the feedback from rat motion. The activity level and degree of preference of rats for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of robot behaviour. The results of this study show that the activity level and degree of preference of the rat decrease when exposed to a stressful robot, and increase when the robot exhibit friendly behaviour, suggesting that a rat-like robot can modulate rat behaviour in a controllable, predictable way. (paper)

  1. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  2. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  3. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  4. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  5. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  6. RatMap--rat genome tools and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB-Genetics at Goteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided.

  7. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  8. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  9. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  10. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  11. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  12. CCl4 cirrhosis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1991-01-01

    Cirrhosis of the rat liver was induced by a 12 week individualized CCl4/phenobarbital treatment. After treatment, all surviving animals (81%) showed cirrhosis of the liver. The cirrhosis induced was irreversible when evaluated 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. Quantitative liver function...

  13. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  14. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  15. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  16. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  17. Genetic profiling of two phenotypically distinct outbred rats derived from a colony of the Zucker fatty rats maintained at Tokyo Medical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Satoshi; Kuramoto, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Naomi; Yokoi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    The Zucker fatty (ZF) rat is an outbred rat and a well-known model of obesity without diabetes, harboring a missense mutation (fatty, abbreviated as fa) in the leptin receptor gene (Lepr). Slc:Zucker (Slc:ZF) outbred rats exhibit obesity while Hos:ZFDM-Leprfa (Hos:ZFDM) outbred rats exhibit obesity and type 2 diabetes. Both outbred rats have been derived from an outbred ZF rat colony maintained at Tokyo Medical University. So far, genetic profiles of these outbred rats remain unknown. Here, we applied a simple genotyping method using Ampdirect reagents and FTA cards (Amp-FTA) in combination with simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLP) markers to determine genetic profiles of Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM rats. Among 27 SSLP marker loci, 24 loci (89%) were fixed for specific allele at each locus in Slc:ZF rats and 26 loci (96%) were fixed in Hos:ZFDM rats, respectively. This indicates the low genetic heterogeneity in both colonies of outbred rats. Nine loci (33%) showed different alleles between the two outbred rats, suggesting considerably different genetic profiles between the two outbred rats in spite of the same origin. Additional analysis using 72 SSLP markers further supported these results and clarified the profiles in detail. This study revealed that genetic profiles of the Slc:ZF and Hos:ZFDM outbred rats are different for about 30% of the SSLP marker loci, which is the underlying basis for the phenotypic difference between the two outbred rats. PMID:27795491

  18. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  19. Abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniuchi, Tohru; Sugihara, Junko; Wakashima, Mariko; Kamijo, Makiko

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we examined rats' discrimination learning of the numerical ordering positions of objects. In Experiments 1 and 2, five out of seven rats successfully learned to respond to the third of six identical objects in a row and showed reliable transfer of this discrimination to novel stimuli after being trained with three different training stimuli. In Experiment 3, the three rats from Experiment 2 continued to be trained to respond to the third object in an object array, which included an odd object that needed to be excluded when identifying the target third object. All three rats acquired this selective-counting task of specific stimuli, and two rats showed reliable transfer of this selective-counting performance to test sets of novel stimuli. In Experiment 4, the three rats from Experiment 3 quickly learned to respond to the third stimulus in object rows consisting of either six identical or six different objects. These results offer strong evidence for abstract numerical discrimination learning in rats.

  20. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  1. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  2. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  3. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, H.; Bartlett, F.; Dreyfuss, R.; Karliner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  4. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diuron-induced rat bladder epithelial cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, Mitscheli S; Arnold, Lora L; Pennington, Karen L; Muirhead, David; Dodmane, Puttappa R; Anwar, Muhammad M; Battalora, Michael; De Camargo, João Lauro V; Cohen, Samuel M

    2012-12-01

    Diuron, a substituted urea herbicide, is carcinogenic to the rat urinary bladder at high dietary levels (2500 ppm). To further elucidate the mode of action, this study aimed to determine the time course and sequence of bladder cytotoxic and proliferative changes induced by diuron treatment of male Wistar rats. Rats were randomized into two groups (control and 2500 ppm diuron) and treated for 28 days. Ten rats from each group were terminated on each of study days 1, 3, 7, or 28. Scanning electron micro scopy (SEM) showed urothelial cell swelling beginning on day 1, and by day 28, showed extensive necrosis, exfoliation and piling up of cells suggestive of hyperplasia. No difference in the bromo deoxyuridine labeling index was detected. In a second experiment, rats were randomized into control and diuron-treated groups and treated for 7 days or 8 weeks. After 7 days, transmission electron microscopy showed cell degenerative changes and distention of the cytoplasm, organelles, and nuclei characteristic of cytolysis. This resulted in protrusion of the superficial cells into the lumen, corresponding to the cell swelling observed previously by SEM. After 8 weeks, bladders in the diuron-treated group showed an increased incidence of simple hyperplasia by light microscopy (6/10, p diuron exposure in rats.

  6. Rats demonstrate helping behavior toward a soaked conspecific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nobuya; Tan, Ling; Tate, Kazushi; Okada, Maya

    2015-09-01

    Helping behavior is a prosocial behavior whereby an individual helps another irrespective of disadvantages to him or herself. In the present study, we examined whether rats would help distressed, conspecific rats that had been soaked with water. In Experiment 1, rats quickly learned to liberate a soaked cagemate from the water area by opening the door to allow the trapped rat into a safe area. Additional tests showed that the presentation of a distressed cagemate was necessary to induce rapid door-opening behavior. In addition, it was shown that rats dislike soaking and that rats that had previously experienced a soaking were quicker to learn how to help a cagemate than those that had never been soaked. In Experiment 2, the results indicated that rats did not open the door to a cagemate that was not distressed. In Experiment 3, we tested behavior when rats were forced to choose between opening the door to help a distressed cagemate and opening a different door to obtain a food reward. Irrespective of how they learned to open the door, in most test trials, rats chose to help the cagemate before obtaining a food reward, suggesting that the relative value of helping others is greater than the value of a food reward. These results suggest that rats can behave prosocially and that helper rats may be motivated by empathy-like feelings toward their distressed cagemate.

  7. Monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens correlate with male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Houng-Wei; Shui, Hao-Ai; Liu, Hang-Shen; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2006-02-01

    The correlation between monoamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and male sexual behavior was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE consisted of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI was composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC were non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5months), displaying complete copulatory behavior, were used as the control group. Levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin, and norepinephrine and their metabolites in the NAcc were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. No difference was seen in DA levels between MIE rats and young controls, whereas DA levels in NC rats were significantly lower than those in both MIE and MI rats. Serotonin levels in NC rats were significantly higher than those in MIE and MI rats. Conversely, norepinephrine levels in NC rats were lower than those in MIE rats. These results suggest that monoamine levels in the NAcc correlate with sexual performance in male rats and that changes in NAcc monoamine levels might affect male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  8. Combretum lanceolatum flowers extract shows antidiabetic activity through activation of AMPK by quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Porto Dechandt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum Pohl ex Eichler, Combretaceae, flowers extract (ClEtOH in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were divided into four groups: diabetic control, diabetic treated with 500 mg/kg of metformin and diabetic treated with 250 or 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH for 21 days. The treatment of diabetic rats with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH promoted an increase in the weight of liver, white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles, improving body weight gain. Diabetic rats treated with 500 mg/kg of ClEtOH also presented reduction in glycemia, glycosuria and urinary urea levels, and increase in liver glycogen content. HPLC chromatogram showed that quercetin is the major compound in the extract. The phosphorylation levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase were increased in liver slices incubated in vitro with 50 µg/mL of ClEtOH, similarly to the incubation with metformin (50 µg/mL or quercetin (10 µg/mL. The antihyperglycemic effect of ClEtOH was similar to that of metformin and appears to be through inhibition of gluconeogenesis, since urinary urea was reduced and skeletal muscle mass was increased. These data indicate that the antidiabetic activity of the Combretum lanceolatum extract could be mediated, at least in part, through activation of adenosine monophosphateactivated protein kinase by quercetin.

  9. Total parenteral nutrition in diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norcross, E.D.; Stein, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    Parenteral Nutrition with hypertonic glucose is frequently given to diabetic patients. Large amounts of insulin can be required. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a totally parenterally nourished diabetic rat model. 200 g Female Sprague Dawley rats were made diabetic by i.v. injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Rats were then allowed to recover for at least 1 week before undergoing surgical insertion of a central venous catheter for parenteral feeding. TPN was begun 3 days after surgery. Prior to this they were allowed unlimited access to food and water. Control (non-streptozotocin treated) rats were run at the same time. Protein turnover was investigated by using 15 N glycine. Preliminary results: diabetic rats given mostly fat as a calorie source survived well in the absence of exogenous insulin whereas those that were given glucose only as their non-protein calorie source showed poor survival even with exogenous insulin. N balance and protein turnover in the lipid treated diabetic rats were comparable to the non-diabetic control rats

  10. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (PDA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (PDA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (PDA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (PDA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (PDA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of the vomeronasal organ on the estral cycle reduction by pheromones in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, O A; Sánchez-Criado, J E; Guisado, S

    1985-09-01

    The role of he vomeronasal organ on the estral cycle reduction induced by pheromones is studied in adult female wistar rats. The animals were divided in three groups: I, intact rats; II, vomeronasalectomized rats (VNX); and III, sham operated rats (sham). Each group was submitted to another three distinct conditions from the day they were weaned (21 days old): Isolated female rats; with male odors from two adult males of tested sexual potency, and isolated rats again. The isolated intact rats show mainly 5 day length cycles. The groups I and III (intacts and sham) with male odors, show 4 day length cycles. The VNX animals show 5 day cycles in any one experimental conditions. These results support the idea that the vomeronasal organ is the receptor of the male reducing cycle pheromone in the female rat.

  12. [Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on INF-γ levels in ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Revilla, Johanna; Guerra-Castañon, Félix; Olcese-Mori, Paola; Lozada, Iván; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Carla; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2014-01-01

    Compare the effect of different doses of red maca on gamma interferon (IFN-γ) levels in ovariectomized rats (OVX). Adult female rats were randomly divided into the following six groups: Group 1: pseudo-ovariectomized rats (PO); Group 2: OVX rats; Group 3: OVX rats treated with 4 ug/kg estradiol; and Group 4, 5 and 6: OVX rats treated with red maca extracts with 2.15, 4.3 and 8.6 mg polyphenols/body weight kilogram, respectively. OVX rats showed low levels of IFN-γ compared to PO rats. Estradiol and red maca reversed the effect of ovariectomy on the IFN-γ levels. A positive dose-response effect of red maca on IFN-γ levels was shown (r = 0.57, p maca administration increases levels of IFN-γ in ovariectomized rats.

  13. Autoshaping in micrencephalic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, L.H.; Oakley, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    An autoshaping procedure in which the illumination of a lever was predictive of food reinforcement was used to compare learning in rats with micrencephaly induced by irradiation on the 16th day of gestation and in sham-irradiated controls. Both groups showed equivalent levels of lever-directed activity, and the micrencephalic animals differentiated as well as the control animals between the predictive lever and a nonpredictive lever. The micrencephalic animals were able to redistribute their lever-directed activity when the significance of the levers was reversed and did so more readily than the control animals. Results support the claim that association learning survives either traumatic or developmental neocortical damage and have implications for remedial procedures following both head injury and developmental cerebral pathology in humans

  14. Autoshaping in micrencephalic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, L H; Oakley, D A

    1989-06-01

    An autoshaping procedure in which the illumination of a lever was predictive of food reinforcement was used to compare learning in rats with micrencephaly induced by irradiation on the 16th day of gestation and in sham-irradiated controls. Both groups showed equivalent levels of lever-directed activity, and the micrencephalic animals differentiated as well as the control animals between the predictive lever and a nonpredictive lever. The micrencephalic animals were able to redistribute their lever-directed activity when the significance of the levers was reversed and did so more readily than the control animals. Results support the claim that association learning survives either traumatic or developmental neocortical damage and have implications for remedial procedures following both head injury and developmental cerebral pathology in humans.

  15. The petit rat (pet/pet), a new semilethal mutant dwarf rat with thymic and testicular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-12-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and their longitudinal bones were shorter than those of controls without skeletal malformations. Most organs of male pet/pet rats, especially the thymus, testis, adipose tissue surrounding the kidney, and accessory sex organs, weighed markedly less at 140 d of age than did those of their normal counterparts. The thymus of pet/pet rats was small with abnormal thymic follicles. Testes from pet/pet rats exhibited 2 patterns of abnormal histology. Spermatogenesis was present in testes that were only slightly anomalous, but the seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter. In severely affected testes, most of the seminiferous tubules showed degeneration, and interstitial tissue was increased. Plasma growth hormone concentrations did not differ between pet/pet and normal male rats. The dwarf phenotype of pet/pet rats was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. These results indicate that the pet/pet rat has a semilethal growth-hormone-independent dwarf phenotype that is accompanied by thymic and testicular anomalies and low birth weight.

  16. Sexual dimorphism in hybrids rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Pinos, Helena; Fernández, Rosa; Collado, Paloma; Pasaro, Eduardo; Segovia, Santiago; Guillamon, Antonio

    2006-12-06

    Laboratory rat strains descend from Wistar rats as a consequence of artificial selection. Previously we reported that the medial posterior division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTMP) was sexually dimorphic in Wistar and Long-Evans strains while the medial anterior division (BSTMA) and the locus coeruleus (LC) only showed sex differences in the ancestor Wistar strain. The lateral posterior division (BSTLP) was isomorphic in both strains. The present work studies the number of neurons in the BSTMP, BSTMA, BSTLP and LC of male and female Wistar and Long-Evans rats (F(0)) and their hybrid F(1) and F(2) generations. The BSTMP is sexually dimorphic in the F(0), F(1) and F(2) generations while sex differences in the LC are only seen in F(0) Wistar rats but not in the F(0) Long-Evans or the F(1) and F(2) hybrid generations. Sex differences in the BSTMA are seen in F(0) Wistar but not in F(0) Long-Evans rats and completely disappear in the F(2) generations. The number of neurons in the LC of both males and females decreased in heterozygotic individuals (F(1)) but increased in homozygotic (F(2)). However, the number of neurons in the BSTMP changes significantly over the generations, although the ratio of neurons (female/male) is stable and unaffected in homo- or heterozygosis. Thus, the mechanism that regulates the neuronal female/male ratio would be different from the one that controls the number of neurons. The facts that sex differences in the BSTMP are not affected by homo- or heterozygosis and that they are seen in several mammalian orders suggest the existence of a "fixed" type of brain sex differences in the Mammalia Class.

  17. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  18. Ethanol extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. shows anti-thrombosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TXB2 decreased and 6-keto-PGF1α increased with CTL and aspirin, with an association between 6-keto-PGF1α/TXB2 and arterial or venous thrombus weight for all products, and for occlusion time with CTL but not for aspirin. Conclusion: The experimental effects of CTL on thrombosis in rats were confirmed. Again, further ...

  19. Tellurium-123m-labeled isosteres of palmitoleic and oleic acids show high myocardial uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Ambrose, K.R.; Callahan, A.P.; Grigsby, R.A.; Irgolic, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    These studies were directed at determining if the telluro fatty acids prepared by the isosteric replacement of the Δ 9 -double bonds of oleic and palmitoleic acids with /sup 123m/Te would show heart uptake in rats. The isostere of palmitoleic acid, 9-tellurapentadecanoic acid(II), was prepared by basic hydrolysis of the product formed by the coupling of /sup 123m/Te-sodium hexyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Similarly, the isostere of oleic acid, 9-telluraheptadecanoic acid(IV), was prepared by the same route beginning with the reaction of /sup 123m/Te-sodium octyl tellurol with methyl-8-bromooctadecanoate. Both /sup 123m/Te-(II) and /sup 123m/Te-(IV) showed remarkably high heart uptake in rats (2 to 3% dose/gm) ten minutes after intravenous administration, and the heart/blood ratios were high (20-30/1). Finally, the hearts of rats injected with /sup 123m/Te-(IV) have been clearly imaged with a rectilinear scanner

  20. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  1. High prevalence of Leptospira spp. in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøjgaard, L H; Villumsen, S; Markussen, M D K

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies on the ecology of leptospirosis in temperate regions focused mainly on free-ranging rats in rural areas. Here we report on the occurrence of Leptospira spp. in Rattus norvegicus living in sewers in a suburban area in Copenhagen, Denmark. In 2006-2007, about 30 rats were captured...... in sewers at each of six different locations. Rat kidneys were screened by PCR for pathogenic Leptospira spp. In one location no infected rats were found, whereas the prevalence in the remaining five locations ranged between 48% and 89%. Micro-agglutination tests showed that serogroup Pomona, Sejroe...

  2. Spreading depression analysis of contact behaviour of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1977-08-01

    Social contact behaviour induced by spreading cortical depression was studied in rats. The controls looked for and remained in contact, whereas between the rats with spreading cortical depression and their other partners there was no contact. This phenomenon is due mainly to the absence of an active urge for contact. The contact behaviour of rats is evidently controlled by the cerebral cortex or by subcortical areas of the brain which are inhibited after the elicitation of spreading depression. The experiments show that the contact behaviour of rats has at least two components - an active urge for contact and passive tolerance of contact.

  3. Effect of moderate exercise on peritoneal neutrophils from juvenile rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, Glauber Ruda; Ferreira, Diorginis Soares; Pedroza, Anderson Apolonio; da Silva, Aline Isabel; Sousa, Shirley Maria; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Lagranha, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies showed that moderate exercise in adult rats enhances neutrophil function, although no studies were performed in juvenile rats. We evaluated the effects of moderate exercise on the neutrophil function in juvenile rats. Viability and neutrophils function were evaluated. Moderate exercise did not impair the viability and mitochondrial transmembrane potential of neutrophils, whereas there was greater reactive oxygen species production (164%; p < 0.001) and phagocytic capacity (29%; p < 0.05). Our results suggest that moderate exercise in juvenile rats improves neutrophil function, similar to adults.

  4. Secretion of hepatic triglycerides into plasma of rats fed retinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahuja, H.C.; Misra, U.K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of feeding 33 mg of retinol daily for two days on liver and plasma lipids of rats has been studied. The secretion of liver TG into plasma of retinol fed rats has been measured by the use of palmitic acid-1- 14 C and of Triton WR 1339. Liver and plasma lipids, TG, phospholipids and PC were significantly higher in retinol fed rats as compared to control rats. The incorporation of palmitic acid-1- 14 C into liver TG, PC and PE was significantly higher in retinol fed rats. The labelling pattern with time of liver and plasma TG and PC shows that the secretion of liver TG and PC into plasma was impaired in retinol fed rats. (auth.)

  5. Influence of Dietary Avocado on Gut Health in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Butts, Christine A; Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of diets containing various levels of avocado (5, 10 and 15%) on gut health in rats fed for six weeks. Avocado-fed rats had significantly higher food intakes while their body weights remained similar to the control diet-fed rats. No significant changes in intestinal bacterial populations (ileum, cecum and colon) were found in rats fed avocado diets compared to the control diet. Ileum and colon tissues of rats fed avocado diets showed significantly higher expression of genes (β-defensin 1, mucin 3 or mucin 4) and a greater number of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon. The percentage of avocado in the diet had varying effects in altering the biomarkers, whereby diet containing 15% avocado was the more effective diet. This study delivers new knowledge on the role of avocado on gut health in rats.

  6. Immunology taught by rats

    OpenAIRE

    Klenerman, P; Barnes, EJ

    2017-01-01

    Immunology may be best taught by viruses, and possibly by humans, but the rats of New York City surprisingly also have plenty to offer. A survey published in 2014 of the pathogens carried by rats trapped in houses and parks in Manhattan identified a huge burden of infectious agents in these animals, including several novel viruses. Among these are Norway rat hepaciviruses (NrHVs), which belong to the same family as hepatitis C virus (HCV). NrHVs were found in rat livers, raising the possibili...

  7. The influence of sexual hormones on lipogenesis and lipolysis in rat fat cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Mølgård; Fahmy, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1980-01-01

    and prooestrus than in dioestrus. Oestradiol treatment of both female and male rats and testosterone treatment of male rats for three days lowered the fatty acid synthesis and increased the lipolysis. The metabolic oscillation disappeared in ovariectomized rats, and the fat cells from these animals showed...

  8. Daily Rhythms of Feeding in the Genetically Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alingh Prins, Ab; Jong-Nagelsmit, Annemarie de; Keijser, Jan; Strubbe, Jan H.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding patterns were examined in obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/-) adult Zucker rats over the light-dark cycle during 14 days. Obese rats eat more than lean rats especially during the dark phase. Light and dark feeding expressed as percentage of 24 hr intake showed no significant differences between

  9. Frequency of polyploid cells in the bone marrow of rats fed irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.P.; Chaubey, R.C.; Sundaram, K.; Gopal-Ayengar, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Diets containing different proportions of non-irradiated or irradiated wheat were fed to Wistar rats for 1 or 6 wk. Cytological analysis of the bone marrow showed no significant difference in the frequency of polyploid cells in the rats fed non-irradiated or irradiated wheat diets, even when the treated wheat was fed to the rats within 24 hr of irradiation. (author)

  10. Differential effects of hypercaloric choice diets on insulin sensitivity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepenbroek, Charlene; Eggels, Leslie; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries; Serlie, Mireille J.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    We showed previously that rats on a free-choice high-fat, high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet become rapidly obese and develop glucose intolerance within a week. Interestingly, neither rats on a free-choice high-fat diet (fcHF), although equally obese and hyperphagic, nor rats on a free-choice high-sugar

  11. Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical and pathological studies in rats following dietary supplementation with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E. ... Furthermore, high dietary supplementation of vitamin E showed no deleterious effects on rats and no pathological changes in the liver, kidney and heart tissues were observed in the ...

  12. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  14. Radiation nephropathy in young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences

  15. Radio protective effects of selenium on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, A.; Alya, G

    2005-11-01

    Potential radio-protective effects of different selenium supplement concentrations of 4, 8, 15 and 30 ppm were evaluated in rats. Four groups of rats were administered different concentrations of selenium in drinking water for 30 days before irradiation starting from the ablactation which considered as day 0. The results showed that the sodium selenite of 4 ppm and 8 ppm enhance the 30-day survival of irradiated rats at 7 Gy ( sup 6 sup 0 Co source, whole body irradiation dose rate of 1 Gy x min sup - sup 1) compared to the control group. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 69%+-6 (mean+-S.E.) and 77%+-6 in 4 and 8 ppm groups, respectively, versus 42%+-9 for control group (P<0.001). It was also indicated that sodium selenite with concentrations of 15 and 30 ppm had no significant reduction in mortality. The mean cumulated probability of survival of rats was 50%+-12 (P=0.39) and 49%+-14 (P=0.04), respectively. The toxic effects of selenium were observed at 15 ppm and 30 ppm, survivals after 30 days of selenium intake were 76% and 46%, respectively. It was concluded that 4 and 8 ppm sodium selenite have a radio-protective effect. 15 and 30 ppm sodium selenite had no radio-protective effects in rats, this may be due to a synergism of toxicity and radiation effects. (author)

  16. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  17. RatMap—rat genome tools and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Greta; Johnson, Per; Andersson, Lars; Klinga-Levan, Karin; Gómez-Fabre, Pedro M.; Ståhl, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The rat genome database RatMap (http://ratmap.org or http://ratmap.gen.gu.se) has been one of the main resources for rat genome information since 1994. The database is maintained by CMB–Genetics at Göteborg University in Sweden and provides information on rat genes, polymorphic rat DNA-markers and rat quantitative trait loci (QTLs), all curated at RatMap. The database is under the supervision of the Rat Gene and Nomenclature Committee (RGNC); thus much attention is paid to rat gene nomenclature. RatMap presents information on rat idiograms, karyotypes and provides a unified presentation of the rat genome sequence and integrated rat linkage maps. A set of tools is also available to facilitate the identification and characterization of rat QTLs, as well as the estimation of exon/intron number and sizes in individual rat genes. Furthermore, comparative gene maps of rat in regard to mouse and human are provided. PMID:15608244

  18. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  19. Colon of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, C.G.; Rosengren, J.-E.; Fork, F.-T.

    1979-01-01

    The anatomy and radiologic appearance of the colon in rats are described on the basis of 300 animals treated with carcinogenic agents and 40 normal rats. The macroscopic and microscopic appearance of the mucosa varies in the different parts of the colon. Lymphoid plaques are normal structures. The results justify a new anatomic nomenclature. (Auth.)

  20. Influence of Samarium on Learning and Memory Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-four Spraque-Dawley(SD)big rats with weaning weight of (195±15) g were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 males and 8 females each group. One group drunk with de-ionized water served as control and was also used for analysis of the background. The other three groups rats were raised by de-ionized water containing low, middle and high concentrations of Sm for four months, then learning and memory tests were carried out in Y-electric maze. Compared with the control rats, the learning and memory of rats in low and middle groups shows a deterioration trend, exhibiting the function degradation of rats' brain. It may results from the rare earth elements through blood-brain barrier affecting the normal physiological functions of rats' brain. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rats' brain decreases, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increases. The decreased SOD activity and the increased MDA mean the degeneration the ability of anti-oxidation in rats' brain, which are accordance with the degradation of learning and memory function of rats in low and middle Sm groups.

  1. Suppressed serum prolactin in sinoaortic-denervated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, N.; Melmed, S.; Morris, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of arterial baroreceptor deafferentation on serum and pituitary prolactin (PRL) and on catecholamines in median eminence (ME) and anterior and posterior pituitaries. Male Wistar rats were sinoaortic denervated (SAD) or sham operated (SO). Three days after surgery serum prolactin, measured by radioimmunoassay, was suppressed in SAD rats, and dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, measured by radioenzymatic or high-performance liquid chromatography electron capture methods, were significantly reduced in ME of SAD rats. Simultaneously, anterior pituitary of SAD rats had significant increases in both catecholamines, whereas posterior pituitary showed no changes. Four hours after surgery serum PRL was also reduced in SAD rats, but no changes in ME catecholamines were found. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured before and after injection of bromocriptine in SAD and SO rats 3 days after surgery. Bromocriptine markedly suppressed serum PRL in both groups and reduced MAP from 144 +/- 10 to 84 +/- 5 and from 116 +/- 2 to 99 +/- 3 in SAD and SO rats, respectively; heart rate was reduced in SAD rats. They conclude that the SAD rat is a model of hypertension with suppressed serum PRL and that interruption of arterial baroreceptor nerves suppresses PRL secretion probably by modulating tuberoinfundibular turnover of catecholamines

  2. Effect of high dietary calcium on weight management in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to find out a suitable dietary regime to maintain a lower prevalence of overweight or obesity by adjusting the diet components. Therefore, male Swiss albino rats were selected according to their ages and divided into two main groups, i.e., premature and mature groups. Each rat group was divided into 4 subgroups and each subgroup was fed on a diet of varied composition. Serum levels of lipids, calcium, phosphorous and testosterone were determined in addition to body weight measurement. The results indicate non-significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in premature rats fed on high-calcium diets while significant decrease of percentage of body weight gain in mature rats fed on the same diet composition. The levels of serum HDL-C, LDL-C, triglycerides and testosterone were significantly decreased in premature rats fed high- calcium diets. In premature rats, only rat subgroup fed on high calcium from milk, showed a significant decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Calcium and phosphorus levels exhibited non- significant change between premature rats. In mature rats, LDL-C data demonstrate nonsignificant changes while cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in rats fed high -calcium diet compared to control. HDL-C level revealed a significant decrease in sera of mature rats fed on high calcium from milk. Serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in mature rats fed low- fat diets or low fat diets supplemented with high- calcium level. In general, one would suggest to consume low fat diet (4%) supplemented with high calcium from dry skimmed milk fortified with hydroxyapatite as suitable dietary program to avoid overweight or obesity.

  3. Blood Pressure Interventions Affect Acute and Four-Week Diesel Exhaust Induced Pulmonary Injury in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicits changes in cardiac gene expression that broadly mimics expression in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats without DE. We hypothesized that pharmacol...

  4. The Influence of a High Salt Diet on a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat models of heart failure (HF) show varied pathology and time to disease outcome, dependent on induction method. We found that subchronic (4 weeks) isoproterenol (ISO) infusion exacerbated cardiomyopathy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats. Others have shown...

  5. Efficacy and Safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-San Retention Enema in Normal Rats and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a protocol of retention-enema experiments and evaluate the antihypertensive effect and the safety of Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema. Normal and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were divided into treatment and control groups, respectively. We applied the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san extract by decoction and 0.9% NaCl in each group, estimated the blood pressure and body weight, and performed HPLC analysis. ALT, AST, BUN, and creatinine were examined. The systolic blood pressure within each group in normal rats differed significantly in time effect, and so did the diastolic blood pressure in the treatment group of normal rats. The systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure showed significant differences in group effect in the treatment group of the SHRs. The time effect of the body weight in both groups of normal rats differed significantly, so did group × time and time effects in both groups of SHRs. AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine showed no significant difference between groups. We concluded that the Gwakhyangjeonggi-san retention enema has a hypotensive effect in normal rats within the regular range of blood pressure, but an antihypertensive effect in SHRs. Also, the intervention is safe and does not affect the liver and kidney functions in normal rats.

  6. LONG TERM EFFECT OF CHROMIUM ON LIPID PROFILE AND SOME HORMONES IN OBESE RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABR, S.A.; ABDEL-KHALEK, L.G.; GHAREIB, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the long term effect of chromium picolinate (intake 30 and 60 days) on lipid profile, testosterone, thyroid hormones, corticosterone and insulin was studied in obese male rats. A total of 48 male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. The rats were distributed into four equal main groups: 1- Normal rats left without any treatment and served as a control group. 2- Normal rats treated with chromium picolinate at a dose of 40 μg/kg/day. 3-Obese rats (after the induction of obesity) using fed high fat diet. 4- Obese rats treated with chromium picolinate. The results obtained showed that normal rats treated with chromium picolinate for 30 or 60 days had no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) when compared with the control group. The testosterone and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats treated with chromium picolinate for 60 days. Insulin level was significantly increased in treated rats for 60 days when compared with the control ones. In obese rats, the lipid profile and corticosterone were significantly increased at 30 and 60 days, while the insulin levels were increased in obese rats fed on high fat diet for 30 days as compared with the control rats. The administration of chromium picolinate to obese rats succeeded to decrease the lipid profile, corticosterone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 days) when compared with the obese rats. It could be concluded from this study that chromium picolinate possess beneficial effects in decreasing lipid profile in obese rats. Therefore, additional of chromium picolinate may be useful in obese rats to burn excess body fat and in treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Since it cause decrease in testosterone level, its use was advised to restrict to relatively old age

  7. Agmatine ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis and inflammatory cachexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacological effect of agmatine in Complete Freud Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis and cachexia in rats. The rats were injected with CFA (0.1ml/rat) to induced symptoms of arthritis. Day 8 onwards of CFA administration, rats were injected daily with agmatine for next 7days, and arthritis score, body weights and food intake were monitored daily (g). Since cachexia is known to produce severe inflammation, malnutrition and inhibition of albumin gene expression, we have also monitored the total proteins, albumin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritic rats and its modulation by agmatine. In the present study, CFA treated rats showed a progressive reduction in both food intake and body weight. In addition analysis of blood serum of arthritis animals showed a significant reduction in proteins and albumin and significant elevation in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukins (IL)-6. Chronic agmatine (20-40mg/kg, ip) treatment not only attenuated the signs of arthritis but also reverses anorexia and body weight loss in CFA treated rats. In addition, agmatine restored total protein and albumin and reduces TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritis rats. These results suggest that agmatine administration can prevent the body weights loss and symptoms of arthritis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression relieves depressive-like behaviors in male rats subjected to chronic mild stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng; Ji, Xiao-wei; Wu, Chun-ling; Li, Zi-fa; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jie-qiong; Zhao, Qi-tao; Gao, Jie; Guo, Ying-hui; Sun, Shi-guang; Qiao, Ming-qi

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that life event stressors are major vulnerability factors for psychiatric diseases such as major depression. It is also well known that the resident intruder paradigm (RIP) results in aggressive behavior in male rats. However, it is not known how resident intruder paradigm-induced aggression affects depressive-like behavior in isolated male rats subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS), which is an animal model of depression. Material/Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: non-stressed controls, isolated rats subjected to the CMS protocol, and resident intruder paradigm-exposed rats subjected to the CMS protocol. Results In the sucrose intake test, ingestion of a 1% sucrose solution by rats in the CMS group was significantly lower than in control and CMS+RIP rats after 3 weeks of stress. In the open-field test, CMS rats had significantly lower open-field scores compared to control rats. Furthermore, the total scores given the CMS group were significantly lower than in the CMS+RIP rats. In the forced swimming test (FST), the immobility times of CMS rats were significantly longer than those of the control or CMS+RIP rats. However, no differences were observed between controls and CMS+RIP rats. Conclusions Our data show that aggressive behavior evoked by the resident intruder paradigm could relieve broad-spectrum depressive-like behaviors in isolated adult male rats subjected to CMS. PMID:24911067

  9. Effect of radiation on rat skin collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Akira

    1980-01-01

    I. Albino male rats were exposed for 16 weeks to ultraviolet light (UVL) which has principle emission at 305 nm. There were no significant changes between control and UVL-exposed skins in the total hydroxyproline content. However, a little increase of citrate-soluble collagen, a little decrease of insoluble collagen and a decrease of aldehyde content in soluble collagen were observed with UVL exposure. Total acid glycosaminoglycan in skin increased 30% or more from control. These results show that the effect of UVL on rat skin in vivo was merely inflammation phenomenon and that the 'aging' process of skin was not caused in our experimental conditions. II. The effects of radiation on the solubility of rat skin collagen were examined under various conditions. 1) When intact rats were exposed to a single dose of radiation from 43 kVp X-ray source, the solubility in skin collagen did not change at 4,000 R dosage, while in irradiation of 40,000 R a decreased solubility in collagen was observed. When rats were given 400 R a week for 12 weeks, there was no changes in the solubility of collagen during experimental period. 2) In vitro exposure to skins, an irradiation of 40,000 R from 43 kVp X-ray source caused a decrease in the solubility of collagen. While an irradiation of 40,000 R of dosage from 200 kVp X-ray source resulted in the increase in soluble collagen and the decrease in insoluble collagen. 3) When intact rats were given a single dose of 40,000 R from 60 Co- gamma -ray, insoluble collagen decreased in both young and adult rats. Similar changes in collagen solubility were observed in vitro gamma -irradiation. (author)

  10. Spatial Memory in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sontag, Thomas-A.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Hauser, Joachim; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W.

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an established animal model of ADHD. It has been suggested that ADHD symptoms arise from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, attentional control and decision making. Both ADHD patients and SHRs show deficits in spatial working memory.

  11. Cytoarchitecture in cultured rat neocortex explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B. M.; Ruijter, J. M.; Romijn, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    Neocortex explants obtained from 6-day-old rat pups and cultured in a serum-free medium from 5 hr to 13 days in vitro (DIV) show preservation of cytoarchitectural characteristics. Major changes in the size of the explants and their layers occur during the first 2 DIV. A radial arrangement of neurons

  12. Housing conditions influence motor functions and exploratory behavior following focal damage of the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornicka-Pawlak, Elzbieta; Jabłońska, Anna; Chyliński, Andrzej; Domańska-Janik, Krystyna

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated influence of housing conditions on motor functions recovery and exploratory behavior following ouabain focal brain lesion in the rat. During 30 days post-surgery period rats were housed individually in standard cages (IS) or in groups in enriched environment (EE) and behaviorally tested. The EE lesioned rats showed enhanced recovery from motor impairments in walking beam task, comparing with IS animals. Contrarily, in the open field IS rats (both lesioned and control) traveled a longer distance, showed less habituation and spent less time resting at the home base than the EE animals. Unlike the EE lesioned animals, the lesioned IS rats, presented a tendency to hyperactivity in postinjury period. Turning tendency was significantly affected by unilateral brain lesion only in the EE rats. We can conclude that housing conditions distinctly affected the rat's behavior in classical laboratory tests.

  13. Effect of Kaempferol Pretreatment on Myocardial Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Anamika; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Rungsung, Soya; Kumar, Tarun; Kandasamy, Arunvikram; Parida, Subhashree; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Asok; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-01-20

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in isoprenaline (ISP)-induced myocardial injury in rats. ISP was administered subcutaneously for two subsequent days to induce myocardial injury. Assessment of myocardial injury was done by estimation of hemodynamic functions, myocardial infarcted area, cardiac injury markers, lipid profile, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology of heart and liver. Rats pretreated with kaempferol showed reduction in the myocardial infarcted area and heart rate. However, no improvement was observed in change in body weight, mean arterial, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Kaempferol showed significant decrease in serum LDH, CK-MB, troponin-I and lipid profile. However, highest dose of kaempferol did not reduce the serum triglyceride level. Further, antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase, were also higher. However, reduced glutathione, serum SGOT and creatinine did not show any improvement. Kaempferol showed reduction in MDA level. Kaempferol at highest dose showed reduction in pro-MMP-2 expression and MMP-9 level. mRNA expression level of TNF-α was not different in kaempferol-pretreated myocardial injured rats with ISP-alone group. Pretreatment with kaempferol at highest dose showed mild mononuclear infiltration and degenerative changes in heart tissue section of myocardial injured rats. Rats pretreated with kaempferol at higher concentration showed normal cordlike arrangement of hepatocytes with moderate swelling of hepatocytes (vacuolar degeneration) around the central vein. Study suggests that kaempferol attenuated lipid profile, infarcted area and oxidative stress in ISP-induced myocardial injury in rats.

  14. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  15. The Effect of Scalp Point Cluster-Needling on Learning and Memory Function and Neurotransmitter Levels in Rats with Vascular Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Junli; Litscher, Gerhard; Li, Haitao; Guo, Wenhai; Liang, Zhang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Weihua; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Yao; Zhao, Bing; Rong, Qi; Sheng, Zemin; Gaischek, Ingrid; Litscher, Daniela; Wang, Lu

    2014-01-01

    We observed the effect of scalp point cluster-needling treatment on learning and memory function and neurotransmitter levels in rats with vascular dementia (VD). Permanent ligation of the bilateral carotid arteries was used to create the VD rat model. A Morris water maze was used to measure the rats' learning and memory function, and the changes in neurotransmitter levels in the rats' hippocampus were analyzed. The results show that scalp point cluster-needling can increase the VD rat model's...

  16. Peculiarities of autonomic regulation assessed by variability of hemodynamic parameters in rats with different stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillina, T N; Usacheva, M A; Belkina, L M

    2006-10-01

    Analysis of contribution of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems into heart rate variability carried out using atenolol and atropine showed that August rats are characterized by enhanced tone of the sympathetic system and reduced tone of the parasympathetic system compared to Wistar rats. Reduced tone of the parasympathetic system is also confirmed by lower sensitivity of the baroreflex. Blockade of NO synthesis with Nw-nitro-L-arginine more markedly increased blood pressure variability in August rats compared to Wistar rats. The data attest to a certain rigidity of the autonomic cardiovascular regulation in August rats.

  17. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  18. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  19. Iron appetite and latent learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Milam, K M

    1977-11-01

    Two experiments are reported which show that rats are capable of forming an association between the presence of iron in a solution when it is not specifically needed and a subsequent state of iron deficiency. Specifically, rats were trained to lever press for water while thirsty. One group received ferrous ions in addition to the water. When these rats were subsequently rendered iron deficient, they lever pressed more under extinction conditions as a graded function of lower hemoglobin levels. Controls that either did not receive ferrous ions during training or received solutions other than ferrous solutions during training did not respond this way under extinction conditions. This is therefore a type of latent learning previously demonstrated only for sodium appetite.

  20. [Subcutaneous transplants of juvenile rat testicular tissues continue to develop and secret androgen in adult rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhou; Wang, Tong; Cui, Jiangbo; Song, Yajuan; Ma, Xianjie; Su, Yingjun; Peng, Pai

    2017-12-01

    Objective To explore the effects of subcutaneous microenvironment of adult rats on survival, development and androgen secretion of Leydig cells of transplanted juvenile rat testis. Methods Healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into control group, sham group, castrated group and non-castrated group. Rats in the control group were kept intact, no testis was transplanted subcutaneously after adult recipients were castrated in the sham group; 5-7-day juvenile rat testes were transplanted subcutaneously in the castrated group, with one testis per side; Testes resected from juvenile rats were directly transplanted subcutaneously on both sides of the recipients in the non-castrated group. The grafts were obtained and weighed 4 weeks later. Then the histological features of the grafts were examined by HE staining; the expression and distribution of hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD-17β1) were investigated by immunohistochemistry; and the serum androgen level was determined by ELISA. Results The average mass of grafts obtained from the castrated group was significantly higher than that of the non-castrated group. Immunohistochemistry indicated that Leydig cells were visible in the tissues from both the castrated and non-castrated groups, but the number of HSD-17β1-posotive cells in the castrated group was larger than that in the non-castrated group. ELISA results showed that the serum androgen level was higher in the control group and non-castrated group than in the sham group and castrated group, and compared with the sham group, the serum androgen level in the castrated group was significantly higher. Conclusion The juvenile rat testis subcutaneously transplanted could further develop under the adult recipient rat skin, and the Leydig cells of grafts harbored the ability to produce and secret androgen.

  1. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  2. Grape Powder Improves Age-Related Decline in Mitochondrial and Kidney Functions in Fischer 344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Pokkunuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects and mechanism of grape powder- (GP- mediated improvement, if any, on aging kidney function. Adult (3-month and aged (21-month Fischer 344 rats were treated without (controls and with GP (1.5% in drinking water and kidney parameters were measured. Control aged rats showed higher levels of proteinuria and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1, which decreased with GP treatment in these rats. Renal protein carbonyls (protein oxidation and gp91phox-NADPH oxidase levels were high in control aged rats, suggesting oxidative stress burden in these rats. GP treatment in aged rats restored these parameters to the levels of adult rats. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion were low in control aged rats suggesting compromised kidney function, which improved with GP treatment in aged rats. Interestingly, low renal mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels in control aged rats were associated with reduced levels of mitochondrial biogenesis marker MtTFA. Also, Nrf2 proteins levels were reduced in control aged rats. GP treatment increased levels of MtTFA and Nrf2 in aged rats. These results suggest that GP by potentially regulating Nrf2 improves aging mitochondrial and kidney functions.

  3. Radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction in 4-month old male wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Bok, B.; Vranckx, R.; Delattre, J.Y.; Boisserie, G.; Mazeron, J.J.; Baillet, F.

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral dysfunction of memory process arising 4 months after whole brain irradiation (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days) has been demonstrated in 16-27 month old rats, as compared with non irradiated rats. This study was therefore aimed at delivering the same irradiation in young rats and comparing results with those previously obtained in old rats. Thirty-three 4-month old rats were included into the study. Eighteen received whole brain irradiation (30 Gy/10 fractions/12 days), and 18 were given sham irradiation. Sequential behavior studies were done before irradiation and during the 7 months following irradiation. Significant decrease in memory function was observed in irradiated rats 1 month (p<0.001), 3 months (p<0.013), and 6 months (p=0.007) post-irradiation. This was accompanied by learning deficit 1 month (p=0.01), 4.5 months (p=0.003), and 7 months (p=0.009) post-irradiation. Response to radiation therapy observed in young rats differed from that observed in old rats. Young rats showed earlier decrease in memory function than old rats, but this deficit also arose earlier in young rats than in old rats. In two cases this deficit was permanent. (authors)

  4. Locomotor damage in rats after x-irradiation in Utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullenix, P.; Norton, S.; Culver, B.

    1975-01-01

    Alterations in gait were found in rats after whole-body irradiation with 125 R on day 14, 15, and 16 of gestation. No effects on locomotion were detected after irradiation on day 17 with 125 R or after irradiation on day 14 with 50 R. A technique was set up for quantitative evaluation of locomotion based on a modification of other methods. Walking patterns of irradiated rats were recorded, when they were adults, by requiring them to walk up a 10 0 incline through a corridor after their feet had been dipped in ink. Rats irradiated on gestational day 14 had an in-phase, hopping gait with the sine of the angle between the hind feet and the direction of progression over 0.9. Rats irradiated on gestational days 15 and 16 had an alternating, waddling gait with wider stance and broader angle than control rats. Histologic examination of serial sections of the brains of these rats showed that the 14-day rats lacked all telencephalic commissures except for a few fibers which crossed in some rats. There was a progressive improvement in the condition of the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures up to day 17, but the corpus callosum and doral hippocampal commissure were lacking or markedly reduced in all day 17 rats. No animals showed damage to the mesencephalic posterior commissure. Since rats which used the in-phase mode of locomotion were never observed to use alternating gait, the possible causal relationship of the commissural damage to the altered locomotor patterns was considered. In view of the restricted period of damage found for the anterior and ventral hippocampal commissures and the restriction of altered locomotion to damage in the same period, primary involvement of the corpus callosum and dorsal hippocampal commissure could be excluded, but a possible role for the other telencephalic commissures remained

  5. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  6. Course of Schistosoma mansoni infection in thymectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioli, D.; Dennert, G.

    1976-01-01

    Inbred rats were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T cell-free bone marrow cells. Thymectomized-reconstituted (B rats) and control rats were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the number of worms recovered was determined at various times after infection. The extent of immunosuppression was assessed by two criteria: response to an injection of sheep erythrocytes; response to schistosome antigens. Humoral responses to worm antigens were completely suppressed in almost all instances and anti-sheep erythrocytes responses showed a more variable but always very definite depression in B rats. The number of worms in B rats was about 4 times higher than in control animals at 5 weeks and about 3 times higher at 6 weeks. In a different experiment, rats were perfused at 4, 6, and 9 weeks after infection and the number of worms was found to be consistently higher in B rats, by a factor of about 2 at 4 weeks to a factor of about 4 or 6 at subsequent times. Although B rats had more worms than controls even at 9 weeks, a slow drop in their worm burden was noticeable with time in both experiments. Moreover, the size of worms in B rats was smaller than in controls and even 9-week-old worms failed to develop to normal size and appearance and could not be shown to produce fertile eggs. These experiments show a definite involvement of the immune system in the ''self-cure'' phenomenon, but may at the same time suggest that other non-immune mechanisms are involved in determining the pattern of S. mansoni infection in the rat

  7. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Yu

    Full Text Available Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs. They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  8. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  9. Effect of housing rats within a pyramid on stress parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Surekha; Rao, Guruprasad; Murthy, K Dilip; Bhat, P Gopalakrishna

    2003-11-01

    The Giza pyramids of Egypt have been the subject of much research. Pyramid models with the same base to height ratio as of the Great Pyramid of Giza, when aligned on a true north-south axis, are believed to generate, transform and transmit energy. Research done with such pyramid models has shown that they induced greater relaxation in human subjects, promoted better wound healing in rats and afforded protection against stress-induced neurodegnerative changes in mice. The present study was done to assess the effects of housing Wistar rats within the pyramid on the status of oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in their erythrocytes and cortisol levels in their plasma. Rats were housed in cages under standard laboratory conditions. Cages were left in the open (normal control), under a wooden pyramid model (experimental rats) or in a cubical box of comparable dimensions (6 hr/day for 14 days). Erythrocyte malondialdehyde and plasma cortisol levels were significantly decreased in rats kept within the pyramid as compared to the normal control and those within the square box. Erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly increased in the rats kept in the pyramid as compared to the other two groups. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters between the normal control and rats kept in the square box. The results showed that exposure of adult female Wistar rats to pyramid environment reduces stress oxidative stress and increases antioxidant defense in them.

  10. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  12. EEG differences between the opioid and adrenergic psyhoneuroendocrine rat types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristea, A; Moldovan, M; Munteanu, A M

    2000-01-01

    (BEA) of the "O" and "A" rat types during restrained wakefulness and anesthesia with Ether and chloral hydrate (CHL). The differentiation of the psyhoneuroendocrine rat types was made using the level of painful sensitivity. 13 hypersensitive "A" and 14 hyposensitive "O" rats were selected from a 91......% (SEF95) and the relative spectral power (RSP) within the Theta (4.5-7.5 Hz), Alpha (7.5-12 Hz) and Beta (12.5-30 Hz) bands. The quantification method used was able to detect statistically significant differences between the two psyhoneuroendocrine rat types during consciousness and light ether...... anesthesia but failed to show any differences during the deep CHL anesthesia. The particularities were shown to be topographically related with the fronto-parietal regions were "O" type showed a higher SEF95 during the awake restrained state. The pain sensitive "A" type showed a significant intrahemispheric...

  13. ZINC-INDUCED HYPERLEPTINEMIA IN RATS RELATED TO THE AMELIORATION OF SUCROSE-INDUCED OBESITY WITH ZINC REPLETION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEIBASHY, M.I.; EL-NAHLA, A.M.; ASHOUR, I.; SALEH, SH.Y.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty adult albino rats (Rattus rattus) at 6 weeks of age were divided into three groups (ten for each). The first group was fed a standard laboratory diet for 8 weeks (control). The second group was made obese by giving them 32% sucrose solution in addition to the standard laboratory diet .The third group was received zinc supplementation (50 mg zinc acetate/ litre) with their sucrose solution. Body weight of all rats was measured weekly for 8 weeks. At 14 weeks of age, rats were killed and fasting blood samples were obtained. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride, leptin, tumour necrosis factor-α and zinc were measured.Results showed remarkable changes in body weights in sucrose fed rats only when compared to control and supplemented zinc rats group. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in sucrose fed rats than both control and sucrose with zinc group. Serum leptin showed significant increase in sucrose fed rats than control and also showed higher significant value in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc comparing with sucrose fed rats and control ones. Tumour necrosis factor-? did not show any significant difference between all groups. Serum zinc concentration was decreased significantly in sucrose fed rats as compared to control. On the other hand, it was increased significantly in sucrose fed rats supplemented with zinc than other both groups. It could be concluded that zinc supplementation induced hyperleptinemia caused ameliorating effects in obese rats

  14. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  15. Effects of adrenalectomy and constant light on the rat estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J C

    1978-01-01

    Adult female ARS/Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to acclimatize to a a lighting schedule of 12L:12D (LD) for 5 weeks. At that time, half the animals were adrenalectomized, and all rats remained in LD for an additional 4 to 5 weeks. Subsequently, half of the control and half of the adrenalectomized rats were exposed to constant light (LL) for an additional 8 weeks, at which time all animals were sacificed. Operated rats with regenerated adrenal tissue, determined either by macroscopic examination or serum corticosterone assay (about 50% of the rats), were excluded from all data calculations. Acute disturbances of estrous cycle length were minor. The long-term effects revealed a significant increase in 5-day cycles among the adrenalectomized rats, although the majority of cycles recorded (80%) were still 4 days in length. None of the rats in LD showed spontaneous persistent estrus. Adrenalectomy did not affect the number of ova shed. When placed in LL, the adrenalectomized rats continued to cycle longer than the unoperated controls, but all rats showed persistent estrus (5 or more consecutive days of vaginal cornification) within 7--8 weeks. Adrenalectomized rats had significantly higher body weights than controls. Relative uterine weight was decreased in these animals in both lighting regimens but only reached statistical significance in LD. Ovarian weight, by contrast, was significantly increased among adrenalectomized rats in LD but was identical in both groups in LL. Adrenal weight of intact rats was not altered by LL. Since estrous cycles can continue for at least 6 months in the absence of the adrenal gland, the persistent estrus that occurs in LL is not merely due to the loss of a diurnal rhythm of corticosteroids. Indeed, when adrenalectomized rats are placed in LL, they continue to show estrous cycles longer than do intact rats. Adrenalectomy does appear to increase the length of the cycle in some animals, and the hormonal basis for this warrants further

  16. Social stress contagion in rats: Behavioural, autonomic and neuroendocrine correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevali, Luca; Montano, Nicola; Statello, Rosario; Coudé, Gino; Vacondio, Federica; Rivara, Silvia; Ferrari, Pier Francesco; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    The negative emotional consequences associated with life stress exposure in an individual can affect the emotional state of social partners. In this study, we describe an experimental rat model of social stress contagion and its effects on social behaviour and cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine functions. Adult male Wistar rats were pair-housed and one animal (designated as "demonstrator" (DEM)) was submitted to either social defeat stress (STR) by an aggressive male Wild-type rat in a separate room or just exposed to an unfamiliar empty cage (control condition, CTR), once a day for 4 consecutive days. We evaluated the influence of cohabitation with a STR DEM on behavioural, cardiac autonomic and neuroendocrine outcomes in the cagemate (defined "observer" (OBS)). After repeated social stress, STR DEM rats showed clear signs of social avoidance when tested in a new social context compared to CTR DEM rats. Interestingly, also their cagemate STR OBSs showed higher levels of social avoidance compared to CTR OBSs. Moreover, STR OBS rats exhibited a higher heart rate and a larger shift of cardiac autonomic balance toward sympathetic prevalence (as indexed by heart rate variability analysis) immediately after the first reunification with their STR DEMs, compared to the control condition. This heightened cardiac autonomic responsiveness habituated over time. Finally, STR OBSs showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels at the end of the experimental protocol compared to CTR OBSs. These findings demonstrate that cohabitation with a DEM rat, which has experienced repeated social defeat stress, substantially disrupts social behaviour and induces short-lasting cardiac autonomic activation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity in the OBS rat, thus suggesting emotional state-matching between the OBS and the DEM rats. We conclude that this rodent model may be further exploited for investigating the neurobiological bases of negative affective sharing between

  17. Endothelin mechanisms in altered thyroid states in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, S; Thompson, E B; Gulati, A

    1993-06-11

    Endothelin (ET) and its receptor characteristics were studied in hyper- and hypo-thyroid states in the rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily administration of thyroxine (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) for 8 weeks, while hypothyrodism was induced by daily administration of methimazole (10 mg/kg i.p.) for 8 weeks. The chronic administration of thyroxine to rats decreased their rate of gain of body weight, increased serum T3 and T4 concentration, blood pressure and heart rate. The chronic administration of methimazole decreased the rate of gain of body weight, serum T3 and T4 concentration, blood pressure and heart rate as compared to vehicle-treated control. Plasma ET-1 levels were found to be similar in control and methimazole-treated rats, while the levels were found to be significantly (P < 0.002) increased in thyroxine-treated rats as compared to control rats. Binding studies showed that [125I]ET-1 bound to a single, high affinity binding site in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and pituitary. The density (Bmax) and the affinity (Kd) of [125I]ET-1 binding in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus were found to be similar in control, methimazole- and thyroxine-treated rats. The pituitary of thyroxine-treated rats showed a decrease in the binding (34.3% decrease in the density) of [125I]ET-1 as compared to control rats. No difference was observed in the binding of [125I]ET-1 to pituitary membranes from control and methimazole-treated rats. Competition studies showed that the IC50 and Ki values of ET-3 for [125]ET-1 binding were about 8 to 11 times higher than ET-1 in cerebral cortex, hypothalamus and pituitary.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Protection against Escherichia coli K1 infection in newborn rats by antibody to K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolussi, R; Ferrier, P

    1980-01-01

    The protective value of antibody to the K1 capsular polysaccharide antigen of Escherichia coli was investigated in a newborn rat model of E. coli K1 infection. Pregnant rats were immunized intravenously with E. coli, and the agglutinating titer to meningococcal group B polysaccharide, which is identical to K1 polysaccharide, was measured in the serum of rats and their offspring. Convalescent serum from rat mothers showed an increased antibody titer in animals injected twice but not once with ...

  19. A comparative study of myosin and its subunits in adult and neonatal-rat hearts and in rat heart cells from young and old cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanbari, H A; McCarl, R L

    1980-01-01

    A possible explanation for the decrease in myosin Ca2+-dependent ATPase activity as rat heart cells age in culture is presented. The subunit structure and enzyme kinetics of myosin from adult and neonatal rat hearts and from rat heart cells of young and old cultures are compared. These studies indicate that the loss in Ca-ATPase activity of myosin from older cultures was an intrinsic property of the myosin itself. Myofibrillar fractions from the indicated four sources showed no qualitative or...

  20. The Pathophysiological Effects of Acrylamide in Albino Wister Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shler Akram Faqe Mahmood

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the pathophysiological effects of suspected compounds are conducted in rodent species, especially rats and mice, to determine the potential toxic effects of a particular compound. In the assessment of acrylamide (ACR which is available as a dietary compound in daily food stuffs, the potential toxicity was determined following the method described earlier. In this study, Albino Wister rats were used and were observed for clinical abnormalities, changes in food consumption, a n d s y m p t o m s o f toxicity over a period of two months following the oral administration of ACR. Among the parameters used to assess the effect of ACR were include ovarian histopathology, blood sugar, haemogram and lipid profile. The most notable clinical abnormalities observed in a few rats were a rough coat and decreased activity. None of the rats died or howedbehavioural change resulting from treatment with ACR. The concentration of serum biochemical parameters and haemogram showed significant differences between normal and treated rats. Histological examination of the ovaries of the treated rats showed great abnormalities as well. In fact, oral ACR doses are practically toxic with regard to rats after exposure for two months at a dose rate of 30 mg/kg, suggesting the compound is quite non-innocuous.

  1. Effects of aging and resistance training in rat tendon remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueti, Rita C; Durigan, João L Q; Oliveira, Anderson José S; Mekaro, Marcelo Shinyu; Guzzoni, Vinicius; Aro, Andrea A; Pimentel, Edson Rosa; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S

    2018-01-01

    In elderly persons, weak tendons contribute to functional limitations, injuries, and disability, but resistance training can attenuate this age-related decline. We evaluated the effects of resistance training on the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the calcaneal tendon (CT) in young and old rats and its effect on tendon remodeling. Wistar rats aged 3 mo (young, n = 30) and 20 mo (old, n = 30) were divided into 4 groups: young sedentary, young trained, old sedentary (OS), and old trained (OT). The training sessions were conducted over a 12-wk period. Aging in sedentary rats showed down-regulation in key genes that regulated ECM remodeling. Moreover, the OS group showed a calcification focus in the distal region of the CT, with reduced blood vessel volume density. In contrast, resistance training was effective in up-regulating connective tissue growth factor, VEGF, and decorin gene expression in old rats. Resistance training also increased proteoglycan content in young and old rats in special small leucine-rich proteoglycans and blood vessels and prevented calcification in OT rats. These findings confirm that resistance training is a potential mechanism in the prevention of aging-related loss in ECM and that it attenuates the detrimental effects of aging in tendons, such as ruptures and tendinopathies.-Marqueti, R. C., Durigan, J. L. Q., Oliveira, A. J. S., Mekaro, M. S., Guzzoni, V., Aro, A. A., Pimentel, E. R., Selistre-de-Araujo, H. S. Effects of aging and resistance training in rat tendon remodeling. © FASEB.

  2. [Age-related aspects of male rats sexual behavior with different senescence rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstislavskaia, T G; Gladkikh, D V; Belousova, I I; Maslova, L N; Kolosova, N G

    2010-01-01

    Social and sexual behavior of males Wistar and senescence-accelerated OXYS rats was studied. The experimental model excluding direct interaction between partners showed that the exploratory activity decreased with aging in rats of both strains, but social motivation didn't change. No interstrain differences in intensity of sexual motivation in the presence of an inaccessible receptive female were observed in 4-month rats. The level of sexual motivation of 12-month Wistar rats didn't differ from that of 4-month animals. However, in 12-month OXYS males, sexual motivation was decreased as compared to both 4- and 12-month Wistar rats. The same regularities were found under conditions of direct interaction with a partner. Behavioral changes in 12-month OXYS rats were considered as genetically determinate abnormality at the initial stage of sexual behavior, i.e., sexual motivation. The results suggest the accelerated senescence of the reproductive system of OXYS rats.

  3. Iron metabolism in experimental rickets. Pt. 1. Intestinal absorption of iron in rat rickets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pronicka, E.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on iron 59 Fe absorption in rats with experimental rickets. It was found that rats with rickets as compared with controls do not show any significant differences in the degree of iron absorption in fasting state. The percent of absorbed iron increases when it is administered after previous feeding of rats. A greater rise in iron absorption after feeding was shown also by rats with rickets. On the other hand, administration of a shock dose of vitamin D at the time of rickets development causes after 7 days a significant decrease in total iron absorption given to fed rats. An excess of calcium in the diet of rats does not seem to impair directly the absorption of iron. The possibility of the causative effect of vitamin D deficiency on the composition of intestinal contents on changes in the degree of iron absorption observed after feeding of rats with rickets, is discussed. (author)

  4. Iron metabolism in experimental rickets. I. Intestinal absorption of iron in rat rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pronicka, E [Pomorska Akademia Medyczna, Szczecin (Poland)

    1975-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on iron /sup 59/Fe absorption in rats with experimental rickets. It was found that rats with rickets as compared with controls do not show any significant differences in the degree of iron absorption in fasting state. The percent of absorbed iron increases when it is administered after previous feeding of rats. A greater rise in iron absorption after feeding was shown also by rats with rickets. On the other hand, administration of a shock dose of vitamin D at the time of rickets development causes after 7 days a significant decrease in total iron absorption given to fed rats. An excess of calcium in the diet of rats does not seem to impair directly the absorption of iron. The possibility of the causative effect of vitamin D deficiency on the composition of intestinal contents on changes in the degree of iron absorption observed after feeding of rats with rickets, is discussed.

  5. Enzymatic and ultrastructural study of lysosomes in rats bearing radiation-induced thyroid follicular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starling, J.R.; Clifton, K.H.; Norback, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced well-differentiated and poorly differentiated follicular thyroid cancers were transplanted into the intrascapular fat pads of male Fisher 144 rats. The tumors grew in the recipient rats and after a time interval were removed and studied along with normal rat thyroids for lysosomal activity and ultrastructural characteristics. Plasma from experimental and control rats was also studied for lysosomal activity. Rats with radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma had a decrease in growth rate compared with normal rats. There was no significant increase in plasma lysosomal enzymes in the experimental rats. Well-differentiated thyroid carcinomatous tissue showed increased total activities of lysosomal enzymes as well as a difference in subcellular distribution compared with normal and poorly differentiated carcinomatous tissue. Electron microscopy of normal and carcinomatous tissue demonstrated the greatest number of lysosomes in the well-differentiated carcinoma and the fewest in the poorly differentiated carcinoma

  6. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Impaired myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries from overweight rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweazea Karen L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rats fed high fat (HFD or high sucrose (HSD diets develop increased adiposity as well as impaired vasodilatory responsiveness stemming from oxidative stress. Moreover, HFD rats become hypertensive compared to either control (Chow or HSD fed rats, suggesting elevated vascular tone. We hypothesized that rats with increased adiposity and oxidative stress demonstrate augmented pressure-induced vasoconstriction (i.e. myogenic tone that could account for the hypertensive state. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Chow, HFD or HSD for 6 weeks. The effects of oxidative stress and endogenous nitric oxide on myogenic responses were examined in small mesenteric arteries by exposing the arteries to incremental intraluminal pressure steps in the presence of antioxidants or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, LNNA (100 μM. Results Contrary to the hypothesis, rats fed either HSD or HFD had significantly impaired myogenic responses despite similar vascular morphology and passive diameter responses to increasing pressures. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM calcium levels were normal in HFD arteries suggesting that diminished calcium sensitivity was responsible for the impaired myogenic response. In contrast, VSM calcium levels were reduced in HSD arteries but were increased with pre-exposure of arteries to the antioxidants tiron (10 mM and catalase (1200 U/mL, also resulting in enhanced myogenic tone. These findings show that oxidative stress impairs myogenic tone in arteries from HSD rats by decreasing VSM calcium. Similarly, VSM calcium responses were increased in arteries from HFD rats following treatment with tiron and catalase, but this did not result in improved myogenic tone. Nitric oxide is involved in the impaired myogenic response in HFD, but not HSD, rats since inhibition with LNNA resulted in maximal myogenic responses at lower intraluminal pressures and VSM calcium levels, further implicating reduced calcium sensitivity in

  8. Speed and accuracy of visual image discrimination by rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eReinagel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The trade-off between speed and accuracy of sensory discrimination has most often been studying using sensory stimuli that evolve over time, such as random dot motion discrimination tasks. We previously reported that when rats perform motion discrimination, correct trials have longer reaction times than errors, accuracy increases with reaction time, and reaction time increases with stimulus ambiguity. In such experiments, new sensory information is continually presented, which could partly explain interactions between reaction time and accuracy. The present study shows that a changing physical stimulus is not essential to those findings. Freely behaving rats were trained to discriminate between two static visual images in a self-paced, 2-alternative forced-choice (2AFC reaction time task. Each trial was initiated by the rat, and the two images were presented simultaneously and persisted until the rat responded, with no time limit. Reaction times were longer in correct trials than in error trials, and accuracy increased with reaction time, comparable to results previously reported for rats performing motion discrimination. In the motion task, coherence has been used to vary discrimination difficulty. Here morphs between the previously learned images were used to parametrically vary the image similarity. In randomly interleaved trials, rats took more time on average to respond in trials in which they had to discriminate more similar stimuli. For both the motion and image tasks, the dependence of reaction time on ambiguity is weak, as if rats prioritized speed over accuracy. Therefore we asked whether rats can change the priority of speed and accuracy adaptively in response to a change in reward contingencies. For two rats, the penalty delay was increased from two to six seconds. When the penalty was longer, reaction times increased, and accuracy improved. This demonstrates that rats can flexibly adjust their behavioral strategy in response to the

  9. Episodic-like memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Stephanie J; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2006-07-11

    A fundamental question in comparative cognition is whether animals remember unique, personal past experiences. It has long been argued that memories for specific events (referred to as episodic memory) are unique to humans. Recently, considerable evidence has accumulated to show that food-storing birds possess critical behavioral elements of episodic memory, referred to as episodic-like memory in acknowledgment of the fact that behavioral criteria do not assess subjective experiences. Here we show that rats have a detailed representation of remembered events and meet behavioral criteria for episodic-like memory. We provided rats with access to locations baited with distinctive (e.g., grape and raspberry) or nondistinctive (regular chow) flavors. Locations with a distinctive flavor replenished after a long but not a short delay, and locations with the nondistinctive flavor never replenished. One distinctive flavor was devalued after encoding its location by prefeeding that flavor (satiation) or by pairing it with lithium chloride (acquired taste aversion), while the other distinctive flavor was not devalued. The rats selectively decreased revisits to the devalued distinctive flavor but not to the nondevalued distinctive flavor. The present studies demonstrate that rats selectively encode the content of episodic-like memories.

  10. Hepato-toxic effect of diuron in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R C; Kumar, S

    1999-05-01

    Tumour initiating/promoting effect of diuron, a widely used substituted urea herbicide, was studied in rats using liver tumour model. Chronic exposure to diuron at a dose of 250 mg/kg body wt resulted in high mortality and weight loss in treated animals. The animals which received diuron + HCH treatment showed an increase in size and weight of liver as compared to controls. Liver tumours were not observed in any of the treated group whereas some significant histological changes were seen in diuron treated rat liver. Diuron thus has been found to be hepatotoxic albeit neither tumour initiating nor promoting in rat liver tumorigenesis assay system.

  11. Risperidone treatment increases CB1 receptor binding in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna; Husum, Henriette; Holst, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    , the ghrelin receptor, neuropeptide Y, adiponectin and proopiomelanocortin. We investigated whether the expression of these factors was affected in rats chronically treated with the antipsychotic risperidone. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with risperidone (1.0 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (20...... showed that risperidone treatment altered CB(1) receptor binding in the rat brain. Risperidone-induced adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in the clinic may be explained by increased CB(1) receptor density in brain regions involved in appetite and regulation of metabolic function....

  12. Potential Effects of Desalinated Seawater on Arteriosclerosis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Zhang, Li Xia; Zhang, Shao Ping; Kong, Jian; Zhi, Hong; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Kai; Zhang, Hong Wei

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the potential risk of arteriosclerosis caused by desalinated seawater, Wistar rats were provided desalinated seawater over a 1-year period, and blood samples were collected at 0, 90, 180, and 360 days. Blood calcium, magnesium, and arteriosclerosis-related indicators were investigated. Female rats treated with desalinated seawater for 180 days showed lower magnesium levels than the control rats (P seawater for 360 days (P seawater, and no increase in risk of arteriosclerosis was observed. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. Antioxidant activity of citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in the RBC's of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallak, M.; Jaliah, B.I.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects in alloxan induced diabetes. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the mechanism of damage of red blood cells and anaemia in diabetic patients. So the current study was carried out to investigate the protective role of citrullus colocynthis against oxidative stress in the RBC's of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glibenclamide (a positive control) orally. Evaluations were made for haematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC's of all experimental rats. Results: The diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in total erythrocytes count and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and a normal Haemoglobin (Hb) value in the blood. They also showed decreased levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the RBC's hemolysate. On other hand, oral administration of citrullus colocynthis or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats, they resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in the in total erythrocytes count and PCV (Haematocrit) values in the blood and caused a significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT in the RBC's of those diabetic treated rats when compared to diabetic rats given normal saline. The effect was more profound in citrullus colocynthis treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a potent antioxidant property

  14. Correlation of catecholamine levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and reduced sexual behavior in middle-aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2008-07-01

    The correlation between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and male sexual behavior was examined in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were divided into: (a) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (b) Group MI, composed of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (c) Group NC, consisting of noncopulators. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control. Tissue levels of DA, NE, and DA metabolites in the BNST were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. DA, but not NE, levels in MIE rats were significantly lower than those in young controls. DA and NE levels in MIE rats were significantly higher than those in NC rats. These results suggest that DA and NE in the BNST might play an important role in the control of male sexual behavior in middle-aged rats.

  15. Sex differences in MDMA-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl, Sara Soleimani; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Artimani, Tayebeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence demonstrates that female subjects show exaggerated responses to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) compared with males. The aim of our study was to evaluate sex differences and the role of endogenous gonadal hormones on the effects of MDMA. Fifty-six intact and gonadectomized male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either MDMA (5 mg/kg) or saline treatment. Learning and memory were assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM). The expression of Bax and Bcl-2 in the hippocampus was detected by Western blotting. Behavioral analysis showed that MDMA led to memory impairment in both male and female rats. The female rats showed more sensitivity to impairment than the males, as assessed using all the memory parameters in the MWM. Ovariectomy attenuated the MDMA-induced memory impairment. By contrast, orchiectomized rats showed more impairment than MDMA-treated intact male rats. Bcl-2 and Bax were down-regulated and up-regulated in MDMA-treated male and female rats, respectively. MDMA treatment in the orchiectomized rats led to up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Ovariectomy attenuated the MDMA-induced up-regulation of Bax and caused more expression of Bcl-2 compared with what was observed in the MDMA-treated intact female rats. In summary, female rats showed exaggerated responses to the effects of MDMA and this may be explained by endogenous gonadal hormones. PMID:26415786

  16. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  17. [The effects of strontium in drinking water on growth and development of rat bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Zhang, X; Liu, J; Fan, M

    1997-05-01

    Effects of strontium at a high level in drinking water on growth and development of rat bone were studied. The results showed that Sr2+ concentration from 5 to 500 mg/L in drinking water could increase the contents of strontium in blood serum, urine, femur, mixilla and tooth in Wistar rats exposed to Sr2+ for 12 weeks with an obvious dose-response relationship. In addition, strontium at over 50 mg/L could decrease the contents of calcium in bone, increase the contents of calcium in tooth and bone density, and decrease the levels of calcium in blood serum except female rats at the 12th week. Effects of Sr2+ on body weight, body length, AKP activity of serum, calcium content of urine and breaking load of bended femur for rats were not found. However, there are differences in the effects of strontium on growth and development of bone between male and female rats. At the 12th week the content of calcium in blood serum decreased in male rats but increased in female rats in exposed groups. At the 4th and 8th weeks, urine Hop/Cr in male rats increased but it remained normal level in female rats. Sr2+ increased the bone density of mixilla in male rats but it did not increase that of femur in female rats. It is suggested that such changes may be a result of the differences in endocritic regulation and metabolic process between two sexes.

  18. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annida, B; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the lipid-lowering effect of fenugreek leaves in diabetes mellitus. Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal untreated rats; streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats; STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (0.5 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + fenugreek leaves (1 g/kg of body weight); STZ-induced rats + glibenclamide (600 microg/kg of body weight); and STZ-induced rats + insulin (6 units/kg of body weight). Rats were made diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg) injected intraperitoneally. Fenugreek leaves were supplemented in the diet daily to diabetic rats for 45 days, and food intake was recorded daily. Blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids were determined in serum, liver, heart, and kidney. Our results show that blood glucose and serum and tissue lipids were elevated in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lowered the lipid profile in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  19. Ascorbic acid deficiency aggravates stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Y; Chiba, S; Imai, Y; Kamiya, Y; Arisawa, T; Kitagawa, A

    2006-12-01

    We examined whether ascorbic acid (AA) deficiency aggravates water immersion restraint stress (WIRS)-induced gastric mucosal lesions in genetically scorbutic ODS rats. ODS rats received scorbutic diet with either distilled water containing AA (1 g/l) or distilled water for 2 weeks. AA-deficient rats had 12% of gastric mucosal AA content in AA-sufficient rats. AA-deficient rats showed more severe gastric mucosal lesions than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h after the onset of WIRS, although AA-deficient rats had a slight decrease in gastric mucosal AA content, while AA-sufficient rats had a large decrease in that content. AA-deficient rats had more decreased gastric mucosal nonprotein SH and vitamin E contents and increased gastric mucosal lipid peroxide content than AA-sufficient rats at 1, 3 or 6 h of WIRS. These results indicate that AA deficiency aggravates WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions in ODS rats by enhancing oxidative damage in the gastric mucosa.

  20. Rat maintenance in the Research Animal Holding Facility during the flight of Space Lab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, T.; Grindeland, R.; Kraft, L.; Ruder, M.; Vasques, M.

    1985-01-01

    To test the husbandry capabilities of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) during space flight, 24 male rats were flown on Spacelab 3 for 7 days. Twelve large rats (400 g, LF), 5 of which had telemetry devices implanted (IF), and 12 small rats (200 g, SF) were housed in the RAHF. Examination 3 hr after landing (R + 3) revealed the rats to be free of injury, well nourished, and stained with urine. At R + 10 the rats were lethargic and atonic with hyperemia of the extremities and well groomed except for a middorsal area stained with urine and food. Both LF and SF rats showed weight gains comparable to their IG controls; IF rats grew less than controls. Food and water consumption were similar for flight and control groups. Plasma concentrations of total protein, sodium, albumin and creatinine did not differ between flight and control groups. LF and SF rats had elevated plasma glucose, and SF rats had increased blood urea nitrogen, potassium and glutamic pyruvic transaminase. These observations indicate that rats maintained in the RAHF were healthy, well nourished and experienced minimal stress; physiological changes in the rats can thus be attributed to the effects of space flight.

  1. Bone turnover is altered in transgenic rats overexpressing the P2Y2 purinergic receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Agca, Cansu; Petersen, Solveig

    2017-01-01

    overexpression on bone status and bone cell function using a transgenic rat. Three-month-old female transgenic Sprague Dawley rats overexpressing P2Y2R (P2Y2R-Tg) showed higher bone strength of the femoral neck. Histomorphometry showed increase in resorptive surfaces and reduction in mineralizing surfaces. Both...

  2. PAT1 (SLC36A1) shows nuclear localization and affect growth of smooth muscle cells from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel; Holm, René

    2014-01-01

    The proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) is a transporter of amino acids in small intestinal enterocytes. PAT1 is, however, also capable of regulating cell growth and sensing the availability of amino acids in other cell types. The aim of the present study was to investigate the localiz...

  3. Moderate voluntary exercise attenuates the metabolic syndrome in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats showing central dopaminergic dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Obici

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Central dopamine dysregulation during VWR reinforces the link between MC4R function and molecular and behavioral responding to rewards. The data also suggest that exercise can be a successful lifestyle intervention in MC4R-haploinsufficient individuals despite reduced positive reinforcement during exercise training.

  4. Nogo-A-deficient Transgenic Rats Show Deficits in Higher Cognitive Functions, Decreased Anxiety, and Altered Circadian Activity Patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrásek, Tomáš; Prokopová, Iva; Sládek, Martin; Weissová, Kamila; Vojtěchová, Iveta; Bahník, Štěpán; Zemanová, Anna; Schönig, K.; Berger, S.; Tews, B.; Bartsch, D.; Schwab, M. E.; Sumová, Alena; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 8, Mar 18 (2014), s. 90 ISSN 1662-5153 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13386 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200111204; Univerzita Karlova(CZ) 365911 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : behavior * Nogo-A * circadian system * learning * memory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.270, year: 2014

  5. Monoamines and sexual function in rats bred for increased catatonic reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkov, D V; Alekhina, T A; Kuznetsova, E G; Barykina, N N

    2009-07-01

    Body weight, ovary and uterus weight, the nature of estral cycles, and hypothalamus dopamine and noradrenaline levels and plasma testosterone levels were studied in female GC rats, bred for increased catatonic reactivity, at different stages of the estral cycle (estrus, proestrus). The outbred Wistar strain served as controls. On the background of decreased body weight, GC females showed impairments to the morphological cyclical changes in the ovaries and uterus, with a reduction in ovary weight in diestrus (p rats showed higher levels of these monoamines in estrus and lower levels in diestrus. Plasma testosterone levels in female GC rats were higher in diestrus than in estrus and in Wistar rats.

  6. The Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist Almorexant Promotes Sleep Without Impairment of Performance in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypocretin receptor (HcrtR antagonist almorexant (ALM has potent hypnotic actions but little is known about neurocognitive performance in the presence of ALM. HcrtR antagonists are hypothesized to induce sleep by disfacilitation of wake-promoting systems whereas GABAA receptor modulators such as zolpidem (ZOL induce sleep through general inhibition of neural activity. To test the hypothesis that less functional impairment results from HcrtR antagonist-induced sleep, we evaluated the performance of rats in the Morris Water Maze in the presence of ALM vs. ZOL. Performance in spatial reference memory (SRM and spatial working memory (SWM tasks were assessed during the dark period after equipotent sleep-promoting doses (100 mg/kg, po following undisturbed and sleep deprivation (SD conditions. ALM-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle (VEH-treated rats for all SRM performance measures (distance travelled, latency to enter, time within, and number of entries into, the target quadrant after both the undisturbed and 6 h SD conditions. In contrast, rats administered ZOL showed impairments in all parameters measured compared to VEH or ALM in the undisturbed conditions. Following SD, ZOL-treated rats also showed impairments in all measures. ALM-treated rats were similar to VEH-treated rats for all SWM measures (velocity, time to locate the platform and success rate at finding the platform within 60 s after both the undisturbed and SD conditions. In contrast, ZOL-treated rats showed impairments in velocity and in the time to locate the platform. Importantly, ZOL rats only completed the task 23-50% of the time while ALM and VEH rats completed the task 79-100% of the time. Thus, following equipotent sleep-promoting doses, ZOL impaired rats in both memory tasks while ALM rats performed at levels comparable to VEH rats. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that less impairment results from HcrtR antagonism than from GABAA

  7. Structure of the vitreoretinal border region in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR rats)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    1993-01-01

    Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure......Øjenpatologi, vitreoretinal border region, inner limiting membrane of the retina, spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHR rats, ultrastructure...

  8. Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Liver using Different Vegetable Oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eqbal Dauqan; Aminah Abdullah; Halimah Abdullah Sani

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different vegetable oils (Red Palm Olien (RPO), Palm Olein (PO), Corn Oil (CO) and Coconut Oil on lipid peroxidation of rat liver. One hundred and thirty two Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into two groups. The first group contains seventy two rats were divided into twelve groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with different concentrations of RPO (5 %, 10 % and 15 %) for 2, 4 and 8 weeks. The second group contains sixty male rats were randomly divided into ten groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15 % of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. The results shows that after 8 weeks of treatment the malonaldehyde (MDA) value in RPO group was significantly lower (P≤0.05) than control or vegetable oils studied. These experiments suggested that red palm olein antioxidants present in rat diets may better attenuate peroxyl radical than other vegetable oil studied. (author)

  9. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  10. POST-RETRIEVAL EXTINCTION ATTENUATES ALCOHOL CUE REACTIVITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofresí, Roberto U.; Lewis, Suzanne M.; Chaudhri, Nadia; Lee, Hongjoo J.; Monfils, Marie-H.; Gonzales, Rueben A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Conditioned responses to alcohol-associated cues can hinder recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD). Cue exposure (extinction) therapy (CET) can reduce reactivity to alcohol cues, but its efficacy is limited by phenomena such as spontaneous recovery and reinstatement that can cause a return of conditioned responding after extinction. Using a preclinical model of alcohol cue reactivity in rats, we evaluated whether the efficacy of alcohol CET could be improved by conducting CET during the memory reconsolidation window after retrieval of a cue-alcohol association. METHODS Rats were provided with intermittent access to unsweetened alcohol. Rats were then trained to predict alcohol access based on a visual cue. Next, rats were treated with either standard extinction (n=14) or post-retrieval extinction (n=13). Rats were then tested for long-term memory of extinction and susceptibility to spontaneous recovery and reinstatement. RESULTS Despite equivalent extinction, rats treated with post-retrieval extinction exhibited reduced spontaneous recovery and reinstatement relative to rats treated with standard extinction. CONCLUSIONS Post-retrieval CET shows promise for persistently attenuating the risk to relapse posed by alcohol cues in individuals with AUD. PMID:28169439

  11. Genetic control of differential acetylation in diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela J Kaisaki

    Full Text Available Post-translational protein modifications such as acetylation have significant regulatory roles in metabolic processes, but their relationship to both variation in gene expression and DNA sequence is unclear. We address this question in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK rat inbred strain, a model of polygenic type 2 diabetes. Expression of the NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuin-3 is down-regulated in GK rats compared to normoglycemic Brown Norway (BN rats. We show first that a promoter SNP causes down-regulation of Sirtuin-3 expression in GK rats. We then use mass-spectrometry to identify proteome-wide differential lysine acetylation of putative Sirtuin-3 protein targets in livers of GK and BN rats. These include many proteins in pathways connected to diabetes and metabolic syndrome. We finally sequence GK and BN liver transcriptomes and find that mRNA expression of these targets does not differ significantly between GK and BN rats, in contrast to other components of the same pathways. We conclude that physiological differences between GK and BN rats are mediated by a combination of differential protein acetylation and gene transcription and that genetic variation can modulate acetylation independently of expression.

  12. Enhanced post-ischemic neurogenesis in aging rats

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    Yao-Fang Tan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis persists in adult mammals, but its rate declines dramatically with age. Evidence indicates that experimentally-reduced levels of neurogenesis (e.g. by irradiation in young rats has profound influence on cognition as determined by learning and memory tests. In the present study we asked whether in middle-aged, 10-13 months old rats, cell production can be restored towards the level present in young rats. To manipulate neurogenesis we induced bilateral carotid occlusion with hypotension. This procedure is known to increase neurogenesis in young rats, presumably in a compensatory manner, but until now, has never been tested in aging rats. Cell production was measured at 10, 35 and 90 days after ischemia. The results indicate that neuronal proliferation and differentiation can be transiently restored in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, the effects are more pronounced in the dorsal as opposed to ventral hippocampus thus restoring the dorso-ventral gradient seen in younger rats. Our results support previous findings showing that some of the essential features of the age-dependent decline in neurogenesis are reversible. Thus, it may be possible to manipulate neurogenesis and improve learning and memory in old age.

  13. Metallothionein metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier reports from their laboratory showed the induction of the insulin-deficient diabetic state in adult rats was associated with an accumulation of zinc, copper, and a metallothionein-like zinc and copper binding protein in the soluble fraction of liver and kidney. Based upon chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, -SH to metal ratio and amino acid composition, they now report that elevated concentrations of metallothioneins (MT)-I and -II are indeed present in diabetic rat liver and kidney cytosol. The relative rates of MT synthesis in tissues from diabetic and control rats were measured by comparing incorporation of 35 S-cysteine into MT vs. total cytoplasmic proteins at 5 h after injection of the precursor. The relative rates of MT synthesis in livers from rats diabetic for 10 d and fed either chow or purified diet containing 13 or 35 ppm copper were 1.4, 2.3 and 2.8 times greater, respectively, than control rats fed the same diets. Higher relative rates of MT synthesis were also observed in kidneys from diabetic rats fed purified diets compared to controls. Maximal relative rates of MT synthesis in diabetic liver and kidney were observed at 4 and 10 d, respectively, after onset of diabetes. The half-lives of cytoplasmic MT in liver and kidney from diabetic (10 d) rats were 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively; half-lives of MT in control liver and kidney were 5.0 and 2.1 days, respectively

  14. Synchrotron Based Phase Contrast Tomography of Hyper cholesteromic Rat Liver

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    Fatima A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available X-ray phase contrast imaging technique has been applied for the study of morphological variations in soft tissues. The effect of an antioxidant, α-lipoic acid in reducing hypercholesterolemia in rats is investigated. The experiment was conducted to measure serum lipid profile and diameter of vessels in rat liver, as liver is the most vital organ in hypolipidemic activity studies. Methods: Four groups of male Wistar rats, control (Group I, hyperlipidemic (Group II, positive control (Group III and treated Group IV were studied for serum lipid profile and liver vessels with synchrotron X-ray phase tomography. The Group I rats received chow diet, in Group II rats, administration of 20% butter rich diet induced hyperlipidemia. Group III, treated rats received hypolipidemic drug Atorvastatin and Group IV animals received a potent antioxidant DL-α-Lipoic acid. The excised liver tissue immersed in 10% formalin. X-ray phase contrast tomography was performed for comparison of diameter of liver vessels. Results: Among the four group of animals, the diameter of liver vessels was much larger in hypercholesterolemic rat (Group II. The liver vessel diameter comparison with X-ray phase contrast tomography and the lipid profile shows reduction in serum lipids and lipoproteins by ALA treatment.

  15. Genome Stability Maintenance in Naked Mole-Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruseva, I O; Evdokimov, A N; Lavrik, O I

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat ( Heterocephalus glaber ) is one of the most promising models used to study genome maintenance systems, including the effective repair of damage to DNA. The naked mole-rat is the longest lived rodent species, which is extraordinarily resistant to cancer and has a number of other unique phenotypic traits. For at least 80% of its lifespan, this animal shows no signs of aging or any increased likelihood of death and retains the ability to reproduce. The naked mole-rat draws the heightened attention of researchers who study the molecular basis of lengthy lifespan and cancer resistance. Despite the fact that the naked mole-rat lives under genotoxic stress conditions (oxidative, etc.), the main characteristics of its genome and proteome are a high stability and effective functioning. Replicative senescence in the somatic cells of naked mole-rats is missing, while an additional p53/pRb-dependent mechanism of early contact inhibition has been revealed in its fibroblasts, which controls cell proliferation and its mechanism of arf- dependent aging. The unique traits of phenotypic and molecular adaptations found in the naked mole-rat speak to a high stability and effective functioning of the molecular machinery that counteract damage accumulation in its genome. This review analyzes existing results in the study of the molecular basis of longevity and high cancer resistance in naked mole-rats.

  16. The effect of interleukin-1 on iron metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Yamagiwa, Akio; Nakamura, Kenichi (The First Department of Internal Medicine, Fukushima Medical College, Fukushima (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of interleukin-1 on iron metabolism in rats was evaluated. Plasma iron decreased from 184 +- 16 {mu}g/dl (mean +- SE) to 24 +- 12 at 6 hours after interleukin-1 intramuscular administration in non-fasting rats and 109 +- 6 {mu}g/dl to 12 +- 1 {mu}g/dl in fasting rats, which was significantly lower than in control rats. Ferrokinetic studies showed a more rapid disapperance rate and lower iron turnover in interleukin-1-injected rats. The release of iron from the mononuclear phagocyte system to plasma was studied at 3 h after interleukin-1 administration. Although the percent of radioactivity in plasma of the total injected dose was 3.2 +- 0.6% in interleukin-1, which was significantly lower than in the control rats (5.4 +- 0.6%) at 9 h after intravenous injection of {sup 59}Fe chondroitin ferrous sulfate, there was no differnece between the amount of {sup 59}Fe released from the mononuclear phagocyte system over the first 9 h in interleukin-1 and control rats. These data appear to imply that iron release is unimpaired but that, for some reason, there is an enhanced rate of clearance of the {sup 59}Fe once it has been released from the mononuclear phagocyte system into the plasma. (author).

  17. Conditioned insulin secretion and meal feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Kaestner, E; Szakmary, G A; Milburn, P; Vitiello, M V

    1977-02-01

    Previous researchers have reported that rats placed upon a feeding regimen such that they receive only 2 hr of food per day (meal-fed rats) develop hyperinsulinemia at the time of the day associated with feeding, even in the absence of food. Controls fed ad lib had no such response. In a series of several experiments, meal-fed rats had elevated insulin levels at only the specific time of the day associated with feeding, and the increment of insulin at that time could be eliminated with atropine. Free-feeding controls, on the other hand, always had higher insulin levels than the meal-fed rats, did not have an elevation of insulin at the time of the day that the meal-fed rats normally ate, and had insulin values that were unaffected by atropine. Further experimentation showed that hyperinsulinemia could become associated with arbitrary stimuli always associated with eating for meal-fed rats. It is concluded that the hyperinsulinemia of meal-fed rats associated with their feeding time is a learned response.

  18. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity in rat occipital cortex after callosotomy

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    G Lepore

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal steroidogenesis can be influenced by direct neural links between the central nervous system and the gonads. It is known that androgen receptor (AR is expressed in many areas of the rat brain involved in neuroendocrine control of reproduction, such as the cerebral cortex. It has been recently shown that the occipital cortex exerts an inhibitory effect on testicular stereoidogenesis by a pituitary-independent neural mechanism. Moreover, the complete transection of the corpus callosum leads to an increase in testosterone (T secretion of hemigonadectomized rats. The present study was undertaken to analyze the possible corticocortical influences regulating male reproductive activities. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: 1 intact animals as control; 2 rats undergoing sham callosotomy; 3 posterior callosotomy; 4 gonadectomy and posterior callosotomy. Western blot analysis showed no remarkable variations in cortical AR expression in any of the groups except in group I where a significant decrease in AR levels was found. Similarly, both immunocytochemical study and cell count estimation showed a lower AR immunoreactivity in occipital cortex of callosotomized rats than in other groups. In addition, there was no difference in serum T and LH concentration between sham-callosotomized and callosotomized rats. In conclusion, our results show that posterior callosotomy led to a reduction in AR in the right occipital cortex suggesting a putative inhibiting effect of the contralateral cortical area.

  19. Hemodynamic characterization of chronic bile duct-ligated rats: effect of pentobarbital sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.S.; Girod, C.; Braillon, A.; Hadengue, A.; Lebrec, D.

    1986-01-01

    Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics of the chronic bile duct-ligated rat were characterized by radioactive microspheres. Conscious and pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized, bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats had cardiac output and regional organ blood flows determined. The conscious bile duct-ligated rat compared with the sham-operated showed a hyperdynamic circulation with an increased cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow. Pentobarbital sodium anesthesia induced marked hemodynamic changes in both sham-operated and bile duct-ligated rats. The latter group was especially sensitive to its effects; thus, comparison of cardiac output and portal tributary blood flow between anesthetized bile duct-ligated and sham-operated rats showed no significant differences. The authors conclude that the rat with cirrhosis due to chronic bile duct ligation is an excellent model for hemodynamic investigations but should be studied in the conscious state, since pentobarbital sodium anesthesia eliminated the hyperdynamic circulation

  20. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS IN ACCELERATED AGING

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    K. Yu. Maksimova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the analysis of structural changes with age in the hippocampus of senescenceaccelerated OXYS rats when signs of accelerated brain aging are missing (age 14 days, developments (age 5 months, and active progresses (age 15 months. The study was performed on 15 OXYS rats and 15 Wistar rats (as a control. After dislocation, brains were dissected, fixed with 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin, and serially cut in coronal sections (5μm thickness. These sections were stained with Cresyl violet and examined with a photomicroscope (Carl Zeiss Axiostar plus, Germany. The total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions were estimated in 14-dayold, 5and 15-month-old OXYS and Wistar rats (n = 5 on the 5 slices of each brain sections. The number of neurons with chromatolysis, hyperchromatic with darkly stained cytoplasm and shrunken neurons were calculated as degenerative neurons. The pictures obtained with the program Carl Zeiss Axio Vision 8.0 with increasing 10  100, determined the average area bodies and nuclei of neurons (mkm2. The significant structural changes of neurons in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus in OXYS rats at 5 month of age are revealed by light microscopy. This results indicates the early develop neurodegeneration in OXYS rats. The most pronounced morphological changes occur in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats and irreversible. The degenerative changes of neurons in the hippocampus increases by the age of 15 months. Morphometric analysis of the average area of bodies and the nuclei of hippocampal neurons in CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions of OXYS and Wistar rats at 14 days of age showed no significant interline differences. At 5 months of age in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats was determined a significantly lower average body size and nuclei of pyramidal neurons compared with Wistar rats. With age, these

  1. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Peng; Li, Xin; Lin, Hao-Jie; Peng, Wei-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ying; Ma, Yu; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-20

    Curcumin can reduce the severity of seizures induced by kainate acid (KA), but the role of curcumin in amygdaloid kindled models is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in amygdaloid kindled rats. With an amygdaloid kindled Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and an electrophysiological method, different doses of curcumin (10 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 30 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as low dose groups, 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as high dose groups) were administrated intraperitoneally during the whole kindling days, by comparison with the course of kindling, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds and the number of ADs to reach the stages of class I to V seizures in the rats between control and experimental groups. One-way or two-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test were used for statistical analyses. Curcumin (both 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) significantly inhibited the behavioral seizure development in the (19.80 +/- 2.25) and (21.70 +/- 2.21) stimulations respectively required to reach the kindled state. Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin 30 minutes before kindling stimulation showed an obvious increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (703.3 +/- 85.9) microA to (960.0 +/- 116.5) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin showed a significant increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (735.0 +/- 65.2) microA to (867.0 +/- 93.4) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class both IV (as (199.83 +/- 12.47) seconds) and V seizures (as (210.66 +/- 10.68) seconds). Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class V seizures (as (219.56 +/- 18.24) seconds). Our study suggests that curcumin has

  2. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  3. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  4. Hibiscus vitifolius (Linn.) root extracts shows potent protective action against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Anbu Jeba Sunilson John; Mohan, Syam; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal; Ariamuthu, Saraswathi

    2012-05-07

    The roots of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) is used for the treatment of jaundice in the folklore system of medicine in India. This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the roots of Hibiscus vitifolius against anti-tubercular drug induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity was induced in albino rats of either sex by oral administration of a combination of three anti-tubercular drugs. Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of Hibiscus vitifolius (400mg/kg/day) were evaluated for their possible hepatoprotective potential. All the extracts were found to be safe up to a dose of 2000mg/kg. Among the four extracts studied, oral administration of methanol extract of Hibiscus vitifolius at 400mg/kg showed significant difference in all the parameters when compared to control. There was a significant (PHibiscus vitifolius have potent hepatoprotective activity, thereby justifying its ethnopharmacological claim. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  6. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  7. Effect of growth hormone on glycogenesis in rat cerebral cortical slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visweswaran, P.; Binod Kumar; Azad, V.S.S.; Brahamchari, A.K.; Singh, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    Incubation of cerebral cortical slices of growth hormone treated diabetic and normal rats with U- 14 C glucose showed a two-fold increase in glycogenesis in diabetic rats. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was lowered while the activities of phosphoglucomutase and phosphorylase were elevated in the cerebral cortex of diabetic rats treated with growth hormone. However, glycogen synthetase activity was slightly depressed. (author). 13 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Vanillin Differentially Affects Azoxymethane-Injected Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rat...

  9. Absorption and transport of radioactive 57Co-vitamin B12 in experimental giardiasis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deka, N.C.; Sehgal, A.K.; Chnuttani, P.N.

    1981-01-01

    Giardiasis was produced in weanling albino rats by feeding suspension of Giardia lamblia cysts isolated from human stool. Experiments were carried out to assess the absorption and transport through intestinal wall of 57 Co-vitamin B 12 in these rats. The results showed a significant impairment of the absorption of the vitamin in the rats with experimental giardiasis. However, the transport of the vitamin B 12 was unimpaired. (author)

  10. Effect of two mobilizing agents on the elimination of 147Pm from rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Kunyuan; Gao Xianhua; Lao Qinhua

    1984-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the effect of two new mobilizing agents: N,N-bis-carboxymethyl amino acetylcysteine and hyaluronidase on the elimination of intracheally-injected 147 Pm from rats. The results showed that both the two agents could promote the elimination of 147 Pm from rats and decrease the body retention of rats. The former agent is much more effective in elimination than the other

  11. [The research of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid on experiment hyperlipoidemic rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donghui; Mei, Xueting; Xu, Shibo

    2002-05-01

    To study the pharmacological effect of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid(10-HDA) in experiment hyperlipoidemic rat. Preventive and therapeutic effects of 10-HDA were tested on hyperlioidemic rat model induced by high fat food. 10-HDA could reduce the content of TC, TG and beta-lioprotein, raise the content of HDL, which showed 10-HDA had preventive and therapeutic effects on hyperlipoidemic rat. 10-HDA was functional factor of preventive and therapeutic effects of royal jelly on hyperlipoidemia.

  12. Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hanci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the anesthetic and mucosal effects of the rectal application of dexmedetomidine to rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: Group S (n = 8 was a sham group that served as a baseline for the normal basal values; Group C (n = 8 consisted of rats that received the rectal application of saline alone; Group IPDex (n = 8 included rats that received the intraperitoneal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1; and Group RecDex (n = 8 included rats that received the rectal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1. For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. The latency and anesthesia time (min were measured. Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg-1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. We histopathologically examined and scored the rectums. RESULTS: Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The onset of anesthesia in the Group RecDex was significantly later and of a shorter duration than in the Group IPDEx (p < 0.05. In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. CONCLUSION: Although 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the

  13. Type 2 diabetic rats are sensitive to thioacetamide hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Sharmilee P.; Dnyanmote, Ankur V.; Warbritton, Alan; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we reported high hepatotoxic sensitivity of type 2 diabetic (DB) rats to three dissimilar hepatotoxicants. Additional work revealed that a normally nonlethal dose of CCl 4 was lethal in DB rats due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair. The present study was conducted to investigate the importance of compensatory tissue repair in determining the final outcome of hepatotoxicity in diabetes, using another structurally and mechanistically dissimilar hepatotoxicant, thioacetamide (TA), to initiate liver injury. A normally nonlethal dose of TA (300 mg/kg, ip), caused 100% mortality in DB rats. Time course studies (0 to 96 h) showed that in the non-DB rats, liver injury initiated by TA as assessed by plasma alanine or aspartate aminotransferase and hepatic necrosis progressed up to 48 h and regressed to normal at 96 h resulting in 100% survival. In the DB rats, liver injury rapidly progressed resulting in progressively deteriorating liver due to rapidly expanding injury, hepatic failure, and 100% mortality between 24 and 48 h post-TA treatment. Covalent binding of 14 C-TA-derived radiolabel to liver tissue did not differ from that observed in the non-DB rats, indicating similar bioactivation-based initiation of hepatotoxicity. S-phase DNA synthesis measured by [ 3 H]-thymidine incorporation, and advancement of cells through the cell division cycle measured by PCNA immunohistochemistry, were substantially inhibited in the DB rats compared to the non-DB rats challenged with TA. Thus, inhibited cell division and compromised tissue repair in the DB rats resulted in progressive expansion of liver injury culminating in mortality. In conclusion, it appears that similar to type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes also increases sensitivity to dissimilar hepatotoxicants due to inhibited compensatory tissue repair, suggesting that sensitivity to hepatotoxicity in diabetes occurs in the absence as well as presence of insulin

  14. Drug specificity in drug versus food choice in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Brendan J; Riley, Anthony L; Kearns, David N

    2014-08-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by users of these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/infusion) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of 2 forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10-min intertrial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although 1 of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a nondrug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena.

  15. Effects of Arginase Inhibition in Hypertensive Hyperthyroid Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Manuel Moreno, Juan; Jimenez, Rosario; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2015-12-01

    This study analyzed the effects of chronic administration of N[omega]-hydroxy-nor-l-arginine (nor-NOHA), an inhibitor of arginase, on the hemodynamic, oxidative stress, morphologic, metabolic, and renal manifestations of hyperthyroidism in rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats were used: control, nor-NOHA-treated (10 mg/kg/day), thyroxine (T4)-treated (75 μg/rat/day), and thyroxine- plus nor-NOHA-treated rats. All treatments were maintained for 4 weeks. Body weight, tail systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded weekly. Finally, morphologic, metabolic, plasma, and renal variables were measured. Arginase I and II protein abundance and arginase activity were measured in aorta, heart, and kidney. The T4 group showed increased arginase I and II protein abundance, arginase activity, SBP, HR, plasma nitrates/nitrites (NOx), brainstem and urinary isoprostanes, proteinuria and cardiac and renal hypertrophy in comparison to control rats. In hyperthyroid rats, chronic nor-NOHA prevented the increase in SBP and HR and decreased proteinuria in association with an increase in plasma NOx and a decrease in brainstem and urinary isoprostanes. In normal rats, nor-NOHA treatment did not significantly change any hemodynamic, morphologic, or renal variables. Acute nor-NOHA administration did not affect renal or systemic hemodynamic variables in normal or T4-treated rats. Hyperthyroidism in rats is associated with the increased expression and activity of arginase in aorta, heart, and kidney. Chronic arginase inhibition with nor-NOHA suppresses the characteristic hemodynamic manifestations of hyperthyroidism in association with a reduced oxidative stress. These results indicate an important role for arginase pathway alterations in the cardiovascular and renal abnormalities of hyperthyroidism. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Intracerebroventricular administration of taurine impairs learning and memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichi; Arko, Matevž; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Kikusui, Takefumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2012-03-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid widely distributed in the body and we take in it from a wide range of nutritive-tonic drinks to improve health. To date, we have elucidated that oral supplementation of taurine does not affect learning and memory in the rat. However, there are few studies concerning the direct effects of taurine in the brain at the behavior level. In this study, we intracerebroventricularly administered taurine to rats and aimed to elucidate the acute effects on learning and memory using the Morris water maze method. Escape latency, swim distance, and distance to zone, which is the integral of the distance between the rats and the platform for every 0.16 seconds, were adopted as parameters of the ability of learning and memory. We also tried to evaluate the effect of intraperitoneal taurine administration. Escape latency, swim distance, and distance to zone were significantly longer in the intracerebroventricularly taurine-administered rats than in the saline-administered rats. Mean swimming velocity was comparable between these two groups, although the physical performance was improved by taurine administration. Probe trials showed that the manner of the rats in finding the platform was comparable. In contrast, no significant differences were found between the intraperitoneally taurine-administered rats and the saline-administered rats. These results indicate that taurine administered directly into the brain ventricle suppresses and delays the ability of learning and memory in rats. In contrast, it is implied that taurine administered peripherally was not involved in learning and memory.

  17. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  18. Andrographis Paniculata shows anti-nociceptive effects in an animal model of sensory hypersensitivity associated with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Rosaria; Siani, Francesca; Demartini, Chiara; Zanaboni, Annamaria; Nappi, Giuseppe; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Tassorelli, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Administration of nitroglycerin (NTG) to rats induces a hyperalgesic condition and neuronal activation of central structures involved in migraine pain. In order to identify therapeutic strategies for migraine pain, we evaluated the anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis Paniculata (AP), a herbaceous plant, in the hyperalgesia induced by NTG administration in the formalin test. We also analyzed mRNA expression of cytokines in specific brain areas after AP treatment. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with AP extract 30 minutes before NTG or vehicle injection. The data show that AP extract significantly reduced NTG-induced hyperalgesia in phase II of the test, 4 hours after NTG injection. In addition, AP extract reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in the medulla and mesencephalon and also mRNA levels of TNFalpha in the mesencephalic region. These findings suggest that AP extract may be a potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of general pain, and possibly of migraine.

  19. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Papacostas-Quintanilla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks, and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased

  20. Beaming into the rat world: enabling real-time interaction between rat and human each at their own scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Normand

    Full Text Available Immersive virtual reality (IVR typically generates the illusion in participants that they are in the displayed virtual scene where they can experience and interact in events as if they were really happening. Teleoperator (TO systems place people at a remote physical destination embodied as a robotic device, and where typically participants have the sensation of being at the destination, with the ability to interact with entities there. In this paper, we show how to combine IVR and TO to allow a new class of application. The participant in the IVR is represented in the destination by a physical robot (TO and simultaneously the remote place and entities within it are represented to the participant in the IVR. Hence, the IVR participant has a normal virtual reality experience, but where his or her actions and behaviour control the remote robot and can therefore have physical consequences. Here, we show how such a system can be deployed to allow a human and a rat to operate together, but the human interacting with the rat on a human scale, and the rat interacting with the human on the rat scale. The human is represented in a rat arena by a small robot that is slaved to the human's movements, whereas the tracked rat is represented to the human in the virtual reality by a humanoid avatar. We describe the system and also a study that was designed to test whether humans can successfully play a game with the rat. The results show that the system functioned well and that the humans were able to interact with the rat to fulfil the tasks of the game. This system opens up the possibility of new applications in the life sciences involving participant observation of and interaction with animals but at human scale.

  1. Beaming into the rat world: enabling real-time interaction between rat and human each at their own scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Jean-Marie; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Waechter, Christian; Giannopoulos, Elias; Grosswindhager, Bernhard; Spanlang, Bernhard; Guger, Christoph; Klinker, Gudrun; Srinivasan, Mandayam A; Slater, Mel

    2012-01-01

    Immersive virtual reality (IVR) typically generates the illusion in participants that they are in the displayed virtual scene where they can experience and interact in events as if they were really happening. Teleoperator (TO) systems place people at a remote physical destination embodied as a robotic device, and where typically participants have the sensation of being at the destination, with the ability to interact with entities there. In this paper, we show how to combine IVR and TO to allow a new class of application. The participant in the IVR is represented in the destination by a physical robot (TO) and simultaneously the remote place and entities within it are represented to the participant in the IVR. Hence, the IVR participant has a normal virtual reality experience, but where his or her actions and behaviour control the remote robot and can therefore have physical consequences. Here, we show how such a system can be deployed to allow a human and a rat to operate together, but the human interacting with the rat on a human scale, and the rat interacting with the human on the rat scale. The human is represented in a rat arena by a small robot that is slaved to the human's movements, whereas the tracked rat is represented to the human in the virtual reality by a humanoid avatar. We describe the system and also a study that was designed to test whether humans can successfully play a game with the rat. The results show that the system functioned well and that the humans were able to interact with the rat to fulfil the tasks of the game. This system opens up the possibility of new applications in the life sciences involving participant observation of and interaction with animals but at human scale.

  2. Profile of blood glucose and ultrastucture of beta cells pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is marked by elevated levels of blood glucose, and progressive changes of the structure of pancreatic islet histopathology. The objective of this research was to analyse the glucose level and histophatological feature in pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats. A total of ten male Spraque Dawley rats of 2 months old were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups: (1 negative control group (K-, and (2 positif induced alloxan group (diabetic group =DM. The rats were induced by a single dose intraperitonial injection of alloxan compound 120 mg/kg of body weight. The treatment was conducted for 28 days. Blood glucose levels of rats were analysed at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following treatment. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Pancreas was collected for analysis of histopathological study by Immunohistochemical technique, and ultrastructural study using transmission electron microscope (TEM. The result showed that Langerhans islet of diabetic rat (rat of DM group showed a marked reduction of size, number of Langerhans islet of diabetic rat decrease, and characterized by hyperglycemic condition. By using TEM, beta cells of DM group showed the rupture of mitochondrial membrane, the lost of cisternal structure of inner membrane of mitocondria, reduction of insulin secretory granules, linkage between cells acinar with free Langerhans islet, and the caryopicnotic of nucleus.

  3. Diet-Induced Ketosis Improves Cognitive Performance in Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Eroku, Bernadette O.; Tsipis, Constantinos P.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; LaManna, Joseph C.

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic insult and declines in behavioral function which may be due to attenuated adaptive/defense responses. We investigated if diet-induced ketosis would improve behavioral performance in the aged rats. Fischer 344 rats (3- and 22-month-old) were fed standard (STD) or ketogenic (KG) diet for 3 weeks and then exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Cognitive function was measured using the T-maze and object recognition tests. Motor function was measured using the inclined-screen test. Results showed that KG diet significantly increased blood ketone levels in both young and old rats. In the aged rats, the KG diet improved cognitive performance under normoxic and hypoxic conditions; while motor performance remained unchanged. Capillary density and HIF-1α levels were elevated in the aged ketotic group independent of hypoxic challenge. These data suggest that diet-induced ketosis may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:20204773

  4. Comparative toxicology of carfene in male and female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanin, M.M.; Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the potential toxicity associated with daily oral administrations of carfene (2.5 mg/kg body weight) for 15 consecutive days on protein level in liver, kidney, brain and spleen tissues of male and female rats after 1, 5, 10 and 15 days of treatment. Evaluation of the trace elements, zinc and copper in serum, revealed that zinc level was decreased significantly while that of copper was increased in both male and female rats compared to controls. The incorporation rate of 14 C-isoleucine for synthesis of protein tended to decrease in liver tissues and increase in brain tissues of rats. Kidney and spleen tissues showed fluctuated changes. It was noticed in the present investigation that the incorporation rate of I4 C-radioactivity in different selected tissues under estimation was more pronounced in male than in female rats

  5. Biochemical changes in rats under the influence of cesium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Melnikova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cesium is lately accumulated actively in the environment, but its influence on human and ani­mal organism is the least studied among heavy metals. It is shown that the action of cesium chloride in rats caused significant changes in blood chemistry, which are characterized by a decrease of total protein content, pH, an increase in the level of urea, creatinine, glucose and total hemoglobin. The results showed that potassium content in all the studied organs and tissues of poisoned rats decreases under the action of cesium chloride. Histological examination of the heart tissue in rats poisoned with cesium chloride indicates the onset of pathology of cardiovascular system. It was found out that use of the drug “Asparkam” reduces the negative effect of cesium chloride on the body of rats.

  6. Carbohydrate metabolism in erythrocytes of copper deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, S P J; Cockell, K A; Dawson, B A; Ratnayake, W M N; Lampi, B J; Belonje, B; Black, D B; Plouffe, L J

    2003-11-01

    Dietary copper deficiency is known to adversely affect the circulatory system of fructose-fed rats. Part of the problem may lie in the effect of copper deficiency on intermediary metabolism. To test this, weanling male Long-Evans rats were fed for 4 or 8 weeks on sucrose-based diets containing low or adequate copper content. Copper deficient rats had significantly lower plasma and tissue copper as well as lower plasma copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase activity. Copper deficient rats also had a significantly higher heart:body weight ratio when compared to pair-fed controls. Direct measurement of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway flux in erythrocytes using (13)C NMR showed no differences in carbon flux from glucose or fructose to pyruvate but a significantly higher flux through the lactate dehydrogenase locus in copper deficient rats (approximately 1.3 times, average of glucose and glucose + fructose measurements). Copper-deficient animals had significantly higher erythrocyte concentrations of glucose, fructose, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and NAD(+). Liver metabolite levels were also affected by copper deficiency being elevated in glycogen and fructose 1-phosphate content. The results show small changes in carbohydrate metabolism of copper deficient rats.

  7. Stress triggers anhedonia in rats bred for learned helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkel, Thomas; Spanagel, Rainer; Vollmayr, Barbara; Schneider, Miriam

    2010-05-01

    Congenitally helpless (cLH) rats, a well-accepted model for depression, show reduced consumption of sweet solutions only under single-housing conditions, indicating anhedonia under stress. We investigated if anhedonic-like behaviour, measured by a reduction of sweetened-condensed milk (SCM) intake and the pleasure-attenuated startle response (PAS), could be induced by an electric foot-shock stress challenge in group-housed rats. After foot-shock stress, reduced SCM intake was observed in cLH rats compared to non-helpless (cNLH) rats. Furthermore, cLH rats also showed a decreased PAS, indicating deficient reward perception. In summary, we demonstrate that a predisposition for learned helplessness interacts with stress to trigger anhedonic-like behaviour in cLH rats. These findings further add to the validity of congenitally learned helplessness as an animal model of depression, since gene-environment interactions are considered to play a role in the etiology of this disorder.

  8. Hypercholesterolemia downregulates autophagy in the rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giricz, Zoltán; Koncsos, Gábor; Rajtík, Tomáš; Varga, Zoltán V; Baranyai, Tamás; Csonka, Csaba; Szobi, Adrián; Adameová, Adriana; Gottlieb, Roberta A; Ferdinandy, Péter

    2017-03-23

    We have previously shown that efficiency of ischemic conditioning is diminished in hypercholesterolemia and that autophagy is necessary for cardioprotection. However, it is unknown whether isolated hypercholesterolemia disturbs autophagy or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether isolated hypercholesterolemia modulates cardiac autophagy-related pathways or programmed cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necroptosis in rat heart. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal chow (NORM; n = 9) or with 2% cholesterol and 0.25% cholic acid-enriched diet (CHOL; n = 9) for 12 weeks. CHOL rats exhibited a 41% increase in plasma total cholesterol level over that of NORM rats (4.09 mmol/L vs. 2.89 mmol/L) at the end of diet period. Animals were sacrificed, hearts were excised and briefly washed out. Left ventricles were snap-frozen for determination of markers of autophagy, mTOR pathway, apoptosis, and necroptosis by Western blot. Isolated hypercholesterolemia was associated with a significant reduction in expression of cardiac autophagy markers such as LC3-II, Beclin-1, Rubicon and RAB7 as compared to controls. Phosphorylation of ribosomal S6, a surrogate marker for mTOR activity, was increased in CHOL samples. Cleaved caspase-3, a marker of apoptosis, increased in CHOL hearts, while no difference in the expression of necroptotic marker RIP1, RIP3 and MLKL was detected between treatments. This is the first comprehensive analysis of autophagy and programmed cell death pathways of apoptosis and necroptosis in hearts of hypercholesterolemic rats. Our data show that isolated hypercholesterolemia suppresses basal cardiac autophagy and that the decrease in autophagy may be a result of an activated mTOR pathway. Reduced autophagy was accompanied by increased apoptosis, while cardiac necroptosis was not modulated by isolated hypercholesterolemia. Decreased basal autophagy and elevated apoptosis may be responsible for the

  9. Telmisartan attenuates diabetes induced depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswar, Urmila; Chepurwar, Shilpa; Shintre, Sumit; Aswar, Manoj

    2017-04-01

    Role of brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) is well understood and various clinical studies have proposed neuroprotective effects of ARB's. It is also assumed that diabetic depression is associated with activation of brain RAS, HPA axis dysregulation and brain inflammatory events. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antidepressant effect of low dose telmisartan (TMS) in diabetes induced depression (DID) in rats. Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin. After 21days of treatment the rats were subjected to forced swim test (FST). The rats, with increased immobility time, were considered depressed and were treated with vehicle or TMS (0.05mg/kg, po) or metformin (200mg/kg, po) or fluoxetine (20mg/kg, po). A separate group was also maintained to study the combination of metformin and TMS. At the end of 21days of treatments, FST, open field test (OFT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) paradigm were performed. Blood was drawn to estimate serum cortisol, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Persistent hyperglycemia resulted in depression and anxiety in rats as observed by increased immobility, reduced latency for immobility, reduced open arm entries and time spent. The depressed rats showed a significant rise in serum cortisol, NO, IL-6 and IL-1β (pdepression and anxiety. It also significantly attenuated serum cortisol, NO, IL-6 and IL-1β (pdepressive mood, reduces pro-inflammatory mediators and ameliorates the HPA axis function; thereby providing beneficial effects in DID. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  10. Thallium kinetics in rat cardiac transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barak, J.H.; LaRaia, P.J.; Boucher, C.A.; Fallon, J.T.; Buckley, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cardiac transplant rejection is a very complex process involving both cellular and vascular injury. Recently, thallium imaging has been used to assess acute transplant rejection. It has been suggested that changes in thallium kinetics might be a sensitive indicator of transplant rejection. Accordingly, thallium kinetics were assessed in vivo in acute untreated rat heterotopic (cervical) transplant rejection. Male Lewis rats weighing 225-250 g received heterotopic heart transplants from syngeneic Lewis rats (group A; n = 13), or allogeneic Brown Norway rats (group B; n = 11). Rats were imaged serially on the 2nd and the 7th postoperative days. Serial cardiac thallium content was determined utilizing data collected every 150 sec for 2 hr. The data were fit to a monoexponential curve and the decay rate constant (/sec) derived. By day 7 all group B hearts had histological evidence of severe acute rejection, and demonstrated decreased global contraction. Group A hearts showed normal histology and contractility. However, thallium uptakes and washout of the two groups were the same. Peak thallium uptake of group B was +/- 3758 1166 counts compared with 3553 +/- 950 counts in the control group A (P = 0.6395); The 2-hr percentage of washout was 12.1 +/- 1.04 compared with 12.1 +/- 9.3 (P = 1.0000); and the decay constant was -0.00002065 +/- 0.00001799 compared with -0.00002202 +/- 0.00001508 (P = 0.8409). These data indicate that in vivo global thallium kinetics are preserved during mild-to-severe acute transplant rejection. These findings suggest that the complex cellular and extracellular processes of acute rejection limit the usefulness of thallium kinetics in the detection of acute transplant rejection

  11. NMR characteristics of rat mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.; Kreider, J.; Taczanowsky, P.

    1984-01-01

    12 rats were injected intradermally with 13762A rat mammary adenocarcinoma (1 x 10/sup 6/ cells). 3 rats died before completion of the study and 2 rat had tumor regression; the first 3 were excluded from data analysis. NMR imaging with a 1.5K gauss resistive magnet at 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks after injection demonstrated increasing tumor mass. Saturation recovery (SR), inversion recovery (IR), and spin echo (SE) pulse sequence images and T/sub 1/ calculation were done for tumor characterization. (Tumor size was too small to identify at 2 weeks.) 3 rats were sacrificed after the last 3 imaging periods for histological studies, done to distinguish solid tumor mass from necrosis. Planimetry of tumor areas showed that as tumors grew in size, the ratio of necrotic area to area of solid tumor increased (week 3 = .3 +- .11; week 4 = .45 +- .07; week 5 = .51 +- 05); simultaneous calculated T/sub 1/ values also increased (week 3 = .35 +- .15; week 4 = .45 +- .06; week 5 = .42 +- 03). Qualitative NMR image T/sub 1/ values also increased as evidenced by progression of SR and IR tumor image intensity from very bright compared to the rest of the body at week 3 to less intense than other structures at week 5. These findings indicate that change in T/sub 1/ may be secondary to the pathophysiological change in the tumor (the increasing in necrosis, associated with increased free water). Thus, the range of T/sub 1/ values obtained in tumors in this study (and in previous studies) may be due to change in tumor physiology and anatomy. Careful correlation of histological with NMR data may allow ultimate use of NMR relaxation characteristics for determination of the physiological state of tumors

  12. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  13. Beer improves copper metabolism and increases longevity in Cu-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.J.; Klevay, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages decreases risk of death from ischemic heart disease (IHD). Evidence suggests that Cu-deficiency is important in the etiology and pathophysiology of IHD. The effect of beer (25 ng Cu/ml) drinking on the severity of Cu-deficiency was examined in weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a low Cu diet (0.84 μg Cu/g). Beer drinking increased median longevity to 204 or 299 d from 62 or 42 d respectively in rats drinking water in two experiments (15 rats/group). In experiment 3, a single dose of 67 Cu (3.3 μCi as chloride) was added to 1 g of feed and given to 12-h fasted rats 30 d after the start of the experiment. Whole body counting over 13 d showed apparent Cu absorption and t 1/2 (biological) were greater in Cu-deficient rats drinking beer than in similar rats drinking water. Plasma cholesterol was lower but hematocrit and liver Cu were higher in surviving rats drinking beer than in rats drinking water. Body weight was not affected by beer in any experiment. In experiment 4, a 4% aqueous ethanol solution had no effect on longevity of copper deficient rats. A non-alcohol component of beer alters Cu metabolism and mitigates the severity of nutritional Cu-deficiency in rats

  14. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapamycin suppresses brain aging in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, Nataliya G; Vitovtov, Anton O; Muraleva, Natalia A; Akulov, Andrey E; Stefanova, Natalia A; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-06-01

    Cellular and organismal aging are driven in part by the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway and rapamycin extends life span inC elegans, Drosophila and mice. Herein, we investigated effects of rapamycin on brain aging in OXYS rats. Previously we found, in OXYS rats, an early development of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders in humans, including cerebral dysfunctions. Behavioral alterations as well as learning and memory deficits develop by 3 months. Here we show that rapamycin treatment (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg as a food mixture daily from the age of 1.5 to 3.5 months) decreased anxiety and improved locomotor and exploratory behavior in OXYS rats. In untreated OXYS rats, MRI revealed an increase of the area of hippocampus, substantial hydrocephalus and 2-fold increased area of the lateral ventricles. Rapamycin treatment prevented these abnormalities, erasing the difference between OXYS and Wister rats (used as control). All untreated OXYS rats showed signs of neurodegeneration, manifested by loci of demyelination. Rapamycin decreased the percentage of animals with demyelination and the number of loci. Levels of Tau and phospho-Tau (T181) were increased in OXYS rats (compared with Wistar). Rapamycin significantly decreased Tau and inhibited its phosphorylation in the hippocampus of OXYS and Wistar rats. Importantly, rapamycin treatment caused a compensatory increase in levels of S6 and correspondingly levels of phospo-S6 in the frontal cortex, indicating that some downstream events were compensatory preserved, explaining the lack of toxicity. We conclude that rapamycin in low chronic doses can suppress brain aging.

  16. Sex differences underlying orofacial varicella zoster associated pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Crystal; Deng, Mohong; Yee, Michael B; Bellinger, Larry L; Kinchington, Paul R; Kramer, Phillip R

    2017-05-17

    Most people are initially infected with varicella zoster virus (VZV) at a young age and this infection results in chickenpox. VZV then becomes latent and reactivates later in life resulting in herpes zoster (HZ) or "shingles". Often VZV infects neurons of the trigeminal ganglia to cause ocular problems, orofacial disease and occasionally a chronic pain condition termed post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN). To date, no model has been developed to study orofacial pain related to varicella zoster. Importantly, the incidence of zoster associated pain and PHN is known to be higher in women, although reasons for this sex difference remain unclear. Prior to this work, no animal model was available to study these sex-differences. Our goal was to develop an orofacial animal model for zoster associated pain which could be utilized to study the mechanisms contributing to this sex difference. To develop this model VZV was injected into the whisker pad of rats resulting in IE62 protein expression in the trigeminal ganglia; IE62 is an immediate early gene in the VZV replication program. Similar to PHN patients, rats showed retraction of neurites after VZV infection. Treatment of rats with gabapentin, an agent often used to combat PHN, ameliorated the pain response after whisker pad injection. Aversive behavior was significantly greater for up to 7 weeks in VZV injected rats over control inoculated rats. Sex differences were also seen such that ovariectomized and intact female rats given the lower dose of VZV showed a longer affective response than male rats. The phase of the estrous cycle also affected the aversive response suggesting a role for sex steroids in modulating VZV pain. These results suggest that this rat model can be utilized to study the mechanisms of 1) orofacial zoster associated pain and 2) the sex differences underlying zoster associated pain.

  17. SU-E-T-492: Implementing a Method for Brain Irradiation in Rats Utilizing a Commercially Available Radiosurgery Irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, J; Drzymala, R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to implement a method for accurate rat brain irradiation using the Gamma Knife Perfexion unit. The system needed to be repeatable, efficient, and dosimetrically and spatially accurate. Methods: A platform (“rat holder”) was made such that it is attachable to the Leskell Gamma Knife G Frame. The rat holder utilizes two ear bars contacting bony anatomy and a front tooth bar to secure the rat. The rat holder fits inside of the Leskell localizer box, which utilizes fiducial markers to register with the GammaPlan planning system. This method allows for accurate, repeatable setup.A cylindrical phantom was made so that film can be placed axially in the phantom. We then acquired CT image sets of the rat holder and localizer box with both a rat and the phantom. Three treatment plans were created: a plan on the rat CT dataset, a phantom plan with the same prescription dose as the rat plan, and a phantom plan with the same delivery time as the rat plan. Results: Film analysis from the phantom showed that our setup is spatially accurate and repeatable. It is also dosimetrically accurate, with an difference between predicted and measured dose of 2.9%. Film analysis with prescription dose equal between rat and phantom plans showed a difference of 3.8%, showing that our phantom is a good representation of the rat for dosimetry purposes, allowing for +/- 3mm diameter variation. Film analysis with treatment time equal showed an error of 2.6%, which means we can deliver a prescription dose within 3% accuracy. Conclusion: Our method for irradiation of rat brain has been shown to be repeatable, efficient, and accurate, both dosimetrically and spatially. We can treat a large number of rats efficiently while delivering prescription doses within 3% at millimeter level accuracy

  18. [Potential endocrine disrupting effects of bifenthrin in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yanjun; Wang, Hengjuan; Song, Yan; Yang, Hui; Jia, Xudong; Li, Ning

    2012-05-01

    To study the potential endocrine disrupting effects of bifenthrin (BIF) by using uterotrophic assay and Hershberger assay. In uterotrophic assay, 60 female SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, 10 rats per group. Rats in bifenthrin-treated groups were given different doses of bifenthrin (1.47, 4.41 and 13.23 mg/kg BW by gavage for 3 consecutive days). Rats in negative control groups were given corn oil by gavage. Rats in ethinyl estradiol (EE) oral positive control groups were given EE 1.0 microg/kg BW by gavage. Rats in EE injected positive groups were given 0.6 microg/kg BW EE by subcutaneously injection while given corn oil by gavage. At necropsy, the wet and blotted uteri were weighed. The relative uteri weights were calculated, and the histology of uteri was observed. In Hershberger assay, 60 castrated male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, with 10 rats in each group. Rats in BIF-treated groups were given different doses of BIF (1.4, 4.2 and 12.6 mg/kg BW) by gavage. Flutamide (3.0 mg/kg BW) were given to animals in the positive control group by gavage. Rats in the negative control group and testosterone propionate group were given corn oil by gavage for 10 consecutive days. Rats in all groups except the negative control group were also treated with testosterone propionate (TP, 0.2 mg/kg BW) by subcutaneous injection. At necropsy, ventral prostate (VP), seminal vesicle plus fluids and coagulating glands (SVCG), levator ani-bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC), paired Cowper's glands (COW) and the glands penis (GP), liver, kidneys, adrenals were weighed. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were determined. In uterotrophic assay, compared with the negative control group, the mean relative wet weight and relative blotted weight of uterine were increased significantly in the female rats given by BIF at 13.23 mg/kg BW for 3 days (P < 0.05). BIF resulted in a significant increase of epithelial cell heights of uteri at 4.41 and 13.23 mg/kg BW

  19. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  20. Entertaining politics, seriously?! : How talk show formats blur conceptual boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohaus, Birte

    2017-01-01

    What happens behind the scenes of a talk show? Why do some politicians seem to appear on every show while others are hardly ever seen? Birte Schohaus conducted a multi-layered research in which she conducted interviews with journalists, producers, PR advisors and (former) politicians and combined

  1. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  2. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  3. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  4. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  5. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a...

  6. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition exacerbates renal dysfunction in cirrhotic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, M.; Brond, L.; Christensen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated sodium balance and renal tubular function in cirrhotic rats with chronic blockade of the nitric oxide (NO) system. Rats were treated with the nonselective NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) starting on the day of common bile duct ligation...... (CBL). Three weeks of daily sodium balance studies showed that CBL rats developed sodium retention compared with sham-operated rats and that l-NAME treatment dose dependently deteriorated cumulative sodium balance by reducing urinary sodium excretion. Five weeks after CBL, renal clearance studies were...

  7. Serosurvey of Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii in rats captured from two zoos in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, Maysa; Conrado, Francisco de Oliveira; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Joaquim, Sâmea Fernandes; Ferreira, Fernando; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2017-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are zoonotic reservoirs for Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii, and influence diseases in urban areas. Free-ranging and laboratory-raised rats from two zoos in southern Brazil were tested for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii using microscopic agglutination and modified agglutination tests, respectively. Overall, 25.6% and 4.6% free-ranging rats tested positive for Leptospira spp. and T. gondii, respectively, with co-seropositivity occurring in two animals. For laboratory-raised rats, 20% tested positive for Leptospira spp. Also, Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc and Leptospira noguchii serovar Panama were found. Serosurveys can show the environmental prevalence of zoonotic pathogens.

  8. Role of the collecting duct in the exaggerated natriuresis of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, L.L.; DiBona, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    To carry out a comparative examination of exaggerated natriumresis in the kidneys with essential hypertonia, 2 rat populations consisting of 11 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and, for controlling, 9 Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), were chosen. In rats of the same age and weight, there was a significant arterial difference in the blood pressure. After the intravenous administration of isotonic NaCl, the urinary flow rate and sodium excretion are increased. The end-distal tubule-microinjection showed the 14 C-inulin recovery while that of 22 Na was significantly higher in SHR than in WKY. (APR) [de

  9. High molecular weight hyaluronan mediates the cancer resistance of the naked mole-rat

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xiao; Azpurua, Jorge; Hine, Christopher; Vaidya, Amita; Myakishev-Rempel, Max; Ablaeva, Julia; Mao, Zhiyong; Nevo, Eviatar; Gorbunova, Vera; Seluanov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    The naked mole-rat displays exceptional longevity, with a maximum lifespan exceeding 30 years 1–3 . This is the longest reported lifespan for a rodent species and is especially striking considering the small body mass of the naked mole-rat. In comparison, a similarly sized house mouse has a maximum lifespan of 4 years 4,5 . In addition to their longevity, naked mole-rats show an unusual resistance to cancer. Multi-year observations of large naked mole-rat colonies did not detect a single inci...

  10. Energy Metabolism in the Bone is Associated with Histomorphometric Changes in Rats with Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqing Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this study we assessed histomorphometric changes induced by thyroxine (T4 in 3-month-old hyperthyroid male rats and examined whether the potential mechanism of these changes is related to bone changes. Methods: Rats were classified as either hyperthyroid following administration of 250 µg/kg/day freshly prepared T4 by gavage for 2 months or euthyroid following administration of vehicle alone (n = 8 per group. We measured bone mineral density (BMD, bone biomechanical properties, and bone histomorphometric changes. Levels of serum indicators were also measured, and three right femurs from the two groups were selected for proteomic investigation. Results: Compared with the control rats, hyperthyroid rats showed a reduction in the fifth lumbar vertebral BMD as well as in the entire femoral BMD (p = 0.033 and 0.026, respectively. Histomorphometric analysis of the proximal tibial metaphysis showed that the percentage of the trabecular area, trabecular number, and percentage of the cortical bone area in the hyperthyroid rats significantly decreased compared with those of the control rats. Conversely, bone formation rate (per unit of bone surface and bone volume, percentage of the osteoclast perimeter, trabecular separation, and endosteal mineral apposition rate in the hyperthyroid rats significantly increased compared with the control rats (all p < 0.05. Except for stiffness (p = 0.24, all bone biomechanical properties of the femur showed a significant decreasing trend in the hyperthyroid rats versus the control rats (all p < 0.05. Serum levels of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, terminal telopeptides of type β collagen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were higher in the hyperthyroid rats than in the control rats (all p < 0.05. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ, the expression levels of 1,310 proteins were found to be significantly different between the hyperthyroid and control rats (711

  11. Bioavailability in rats of bound residues from radishes treated with either radiolabeled dieldrin or carbofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.U.; Kacew, S.; Dupont, S.; Stratton, G.D. Jr.; Wheeler, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The bioavailability of bound residues from radishes treated with [ 14 C]dieldrin and [ 14 C]carbofuran was investigated by feeding the rats 14 C material obtained after exhaustive solvent extraction. For comparison, nonextracted radishes were also fed to rats. The 14 C residues were predominantly excreted in feces. Urinary excretion of 14 C from rats fed nonextracted material was relatively greater than from those fed extracted radishes. The excreted material from rats fed dieldrin-treated radishes contained mainly parent compounds as residue. However, carbofuran and two of its metabolites, 3-hydroxycarbofuran and 3-ketocarbofuran, were present in feces and urine samples of rats fed carbofuran-treated radishes. These data demonstrated that bound residues in radishes treated with dieldrin and carbofuran have a low degree of bioavailability in rats. The results also show that bound residues in dieldrin-treated radishes would be more bioavailable than in the carbofuran-treated samples

  12. Hypoglycemic of Cajanus scarabaeoides in glucose overloaded and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Pattanayak, Siva Shankar Nayak, Durgaprasad Panda and Vikas Shende

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In light of traditional claim of Cajanus scarabaeoides (L in the treatment of diabetes, we studied the effects of different solvent extracts in normal, glucose over loaded normal rats and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The methanolic extract (500 mg/kg orally was produce significantly reduce blood glucose level at normal, glucose over loaded normal rats, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after 15 days treatment; whereas petroleum ether and chloroform extract (500 mg/kg orally did not exhibit any significant effect on three groups of rats. Histopathology studies on pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats shows inflammatory changes in pancreatic islets, results from selective destroy of insulin producing β-cells. These changes are inhibited by C. scarabaeoides methanolic extract and gliclazide. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract may be due to the presence of flavonoids.

  13. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  14. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1994-01-01

    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  15. Epidermal growth factor and lung development in the offspring of the diabetic rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    2000-01-01

    Fetuses of diabetic mothers who were exposed to excessive glucose show delayed maturation. Under these conditions, altered growth factor expression or signaling may have important regulatory influences. We examined the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in lung development and maternal diabetes...... in the rat. In order to evaluate the possible role of glucose for the expression of EGF and the growth of lung tissue, we performed in vitro studies with organotypic cultures of fetal alveolar cells obtained from control rats. Compared to pups of normal rats, the newborn rats of untreated diabetic rats had...... and was associated with a reduced intensity of surfactant protein A-IR. The only difference observed between pups of treated diabetic rats and controls was a decrease in the lung weight:body weight ratio. In organotypic cultures, the presence of 13 mmol/L glucose in the cell media increased immunoreactive staining...

  16. Response of copper deficient rats to inhibitors of renal sodium reabsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noordewier, B.; Saari, J.T. (Northwestern College, Orange City, IA (United States) USDA/ARS, Grand Forks, ND (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study examined the effects of furosemide (Furo), a Loop diuretic, and amiloride (Am), a potassium (K)-sparing diuretic, on the excretion of sodium (Na) and K in copper-adequate (CuAdeq) and copper-deficient (CuDef) rats. Weanling male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a CuDef or CuAdeq diet ad libitum and given deionized water to drink. After 5 weeks on the diets, rats were assigned to one of four treatment regimens: Furo, Am or Furo + Am. Rats were anesthetized and electrolyte excretion was measured in 2 {times} 15 min control periods followed by 3 {times} 15 min treatment periods. Furo increased Na excretion in a dose dependent manner in both the CuAdeq and the CuDef rats. The response of the CuAdeq rats was slightly greater than that of the CuDef rats in each of the 3 treatment groups in which Furo was given. K excretion following Furo increased to the same extent in the CuAdeq and CuDef rats. The natriuretic response to Am alone was slightly greater in the CuDef than the CuAdeq rats. The antikaliuretic response of the CuDef rats was similar to that of the CuAdeq rats whether Am was given alone or in combination with Furo. These data show that CuDef rats respond to Furo and Am in a manner which is similar to that of CuAdeq rats, this indicates that the sensitivity of the Na reabsorption mechanisms to inhibition by diuretics is not markedly affected by copper deficiency.

  17. Altered explorative strategies and reactive coping style in the FSL rat model of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eMagara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling depression in animals is based on the observation of behaviors interpreted as analogue to human symptoms. Typical tests used in experimental depression research are designed to evoke an either-or outcome. It is known that explorative and coping strategies are relevant for depression, however these aspects are generally not considered in animal behavioral testing. Here we investigate the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL, a rat model of depression, compared to the Sprague-Dawley (SD rat in three independent tests where the animals are allowed to express a more extensive behavioral repertoire. The multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF and the novel cage tests evoke exploratory behaviors in a novel environment and the home cage change test evokes social behaviors in the re-establishment of a social hierarchy. In the MCSF test, FSL rats exhibited less exploratory drive and more risk-assessment behavior compared to SD rats. When re-exposed to the arena, FSL, but not SD rats, increased their exploratory behavior compared to the first trial and displayed risk-assessment behavior to the same extent as SD rats. Thus, the behavior of FSL rats was more similar to that of SDs when the rats were familiar with the arena. In the novel cage test FSL rats exhibited a reactive coping style, consistent with the reduced exploration observed in the MCSF. Reactive coping is associated with less aggressive behavior. Accordingly, FSL rats displayed less aggressive behavior in the home cage change test. Taken together, our data show that FSL rats express altered explorative behavior and reactive coping style. Reduced interest is a core symptom of depression, and individuals with a reactive coping style are more vulnerable to the disease. Our results support the use of FSL rats as an animal model of depression and increase our understanding of the FSL rat beyond the behavioral dimensions targeted by the traditional depression-related tests.

  18. Davedan Show Di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini disusun dari hasil penelitian yang bertujuan untuk dapat memahami pertunjukan Davedan Show di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena adanya ketimpangan antara asumsi dan kenyataan di lapangan. Pada umumnya wisatawan yang datang ke Bali hanya senang dan antusias menonton seni pertunjukan pariwisata berbasis seni budaya lokal saja. Tetapi kenyataan ini berbeda. Walaupun Davedan Show tidak dibangun dari seni budaya lokal saja, tetapi kenyataannya wisatawan sangat senang menonton pertunjukan tersebut. Pertanyaannya: bagaimanakah bentuk pertunjukan Davedan Show tersebut?; mengapa wisatawan senang menonton pertunjukan itu?; apa implikasinya bagi pelaku, masyarakat, dan industri pariwisata di Nusa Dua, Bali?. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif, khususnya implementatif partisipatoris yang mengutamakan kerjasama antara periset dengan para informan terkait. Sumber data penelitian ini adalah pertunjukan Davedan itu sendiri, pihak manajemen, para penari, penonton, hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah ada sebelumnya. Seluruh data yang telah dikumpulkan dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, FGD, dan studi kepustakaan itu dianalisis secara kritis dengan menggunakan teori estetika postmodern, teori praktik, dan teori relasi kuasa pengetahuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa: (1 Davedan Show disajikan dalam bentuk oratorium. Hal itu dapat dilihat dari cara penyajian, koreografi, dan iringan pertunjukannya. Davedan Show yang menampilkan tema Treasure of The Archipelago, membuka gerbang petualangan baru itu diiringi musik rekaman etnik Nusantara secara medley, berkelanjutan dengan struktur pertunjukan: seni budaya Bali, Sumatra, Sunda, Solo, Kalimantan, dan seni budaya Papua; (2 Davedan Show banyak diminati wisatawan manca negara karena penciptaan pertunjukan itu dilatari oleh ideologi pasar, ideologi estetika, dan ideologi budaya Nusantara; (3 Hingga kini Davedan Show berkembang secara berkelanjutan di Nusa Dua

  19. Metabolic Disorders and Diabetic Complications in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa Rat: A New Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kemmochi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty rat, established by introducing the fa allele of the Zucker fatty rat into SDT rat genome, is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. Both male and female SDT fatty rats show overt obesity, and hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are observed at a young age as compared with SDT rats. With early incidence of diabetes mellitus, diabetic complications, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, in SDT fatty rats were seen at younger ages compared to those in the SDT rats. In this paper, we overview pathophysiological features in SDT fatty rats and also describe new insights regarding the hematology, blood pressure, renal complications, and sexual dysfunction. The SDT fatty rats showed an increase of leukocytes, especially the monocyte count, prominent hypertension associated with salt drinking, end-stage renal disease with aging, and hypogonadism. Unlike other diabetic models, the characteristic of SDT fatty rat is to present an incidence of diabetes in females, hypertension, and retinopathy. SDT fatty rat is a useful model for analysis of various metabolic disorders and the evaluation of drugs related to metabolic disease.

  20. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  1. Laughing rats are optimistic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Rygula

    Full Text Available Emotions can bias human decisions- for example depressed or anxious people tend to make pessimistic judgements while those in positive affective states are often more optimistic. Several studies have reported that affect contingent judgement biases can also be produced in animals. The animals, however, cannot self-report; therefore, the valence of their emotions, to date, could only be assumed. Here we present the results of an experiment where the affect-contingent judgement bias has been produced by objectively measured positive emotions. We trained rats in operant Skinner boxes to press one lever in response to one tone to receive a food reward and to press another lever in response to a different tone to avoid punishment by electric foot shock. After attaining a stable level of discrimination performance, the animals were subjected to either handling or playful, experimenter-administered manual stimulation - tickling. This procedure has been confirmed to induce a positive affective state in rats, and the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (rat laughter emitted by animals in response to tickling have been postulated to index positive emotions akin to human joy. During the tickling and handling sessions, the numbers of emitted high-frequency 50-kHz calls were scored. Immediately after tickling or handling, the animals were tested for their responses to a tone of intermediate frequency, and the pattern of their responses to this ambiguous cue was taken as an indicator of the animals' optimism. Our findings indicate that tickling induced positive emotions which are directly indexed in rats by laughter, can make animals more optimistic. We demonstrate for the first time a link between the directly measured positive affective state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model. We also introduce innovative tandem-approach for studying emotional-cognitive interplay in animals, which may be of great value for understanding the emotional

  2. marker development for two novel rice genes showing differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... School of Crop Improvement, College of PostGraduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, ... from the root transcriptome data for tolerance to low P. .... Values show a representative result of three independent experiments ...

  3. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  4. Effect of Iron Enriched Bread Intake on the Oxidative Stress Indices in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Heidari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Contrary to the proven benefits of iron, few concerns in producing the oxidative stress is remained problematic. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in the male Wistar rats fed bread supplemented with iron in different doses i.e., 35 (basic, 70 (two fold, 140 (four fold, and 210 mg/kg (six fold with or without NaHCO3 (250 mg/kg. Methods In this experimental study Iron, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, albumin, total protein, uric acid and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC, were evaluated in 30 rats at the first and last day of the experiment (day 30. In addition, phytic acid levels were detected in all baked breads. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test procedure though SPSS statistical software version 20. Results Serum iron level in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 decreased significantly in the last day of the trial. Higher level of serum iron was seen in rats that received iron twofold, fourfold and sixfold and rats that received iron fourfold plus NaHCO3. Serum ceruloplasmin and ferritin in groups of rats that received fourfold level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received iron sixfold showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05. Serum total protein and uric acid in rats that received basic level of iron plus NaHCO3 and rats that received twofold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Serum total protein levels in rats that received fourfold level of iron showed a significant decrease. Bread with NaHCO3 showed higher phytic acid levels than other groups. Conclusions These results indicate that oxidative stress was not induced, whereas some antioxidant activities were significantly changed in rats that received iron-enriched bread.

  5. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Du

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS, and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT. Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were significantly higher (p<0.05 in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05 of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05 of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78 and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury, and may trigger hepatic apoptosis. Resistance training slightly improved hepatic damage.

  6. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Naked DNA Immunization for Prevention of Prostate Cancer in a Dunning Rat Prostate Tumor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mincheff, Milcho

    2003-01-01

    ...: H-PSMA-T, R-"PSMA"-T, H-PSA, H-PSA-T, H-PAP-T and R"PSMA"-S. Preliminary studies using the Copenhagen rat tumor prostate model showed uniform tumor development in rats that were injected subcutaneously with 100 000 AT3B-lPSMA,PSA cells...

  8. Differential susceptibility of rats and guinea pigs to the ototoxic effects of ethyl benzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappaert, N.L.M.; Klis, S.F.L.; Muijser, H.; Kulig, B.M.; Ravensberg, L.C.; Smoorenburg, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the ototoxic effects of volatile ethyl benzene in guinea pigs and rats. Rats showed deteriorated auditory thresholds in the mid-frequency range, based on electrocochleography, after 550-ppm ethyl benzene (8 h/day, 5 days). Outer hair cell (OHC) loss was

  9. Effects of bentonite on plasma urea and creatinine of wistar albino rats.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The in vivo effect of Nigerian calcium bentonite clay on wistar albino rat plasma urea and creatinine levels were investigated. The rats were fed for a period of four weeks with varying concentrations of the bentonite clay, and the urea and creatinine levels determined using spectrophotometric methods. Test results showed ...

  10. A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE INDUCED BY ISOPROTERENOL AND A HIGH SALT DIET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat models of heart failure (HF) show varied pathology and time to disease outcome, dependent on induction method. We found that subchronic (4wk) isoproterenol (ISO) infusion in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats caused cardiac injury with minimal hypertrophy. O...

  11. Pharmacokinetics of vinyl chloride in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.M.; Laib, R.J.; Kappus, H.; Buchter, A.

    1977-01-01

    When rats are exposed to [ 14 C]vinyl chloride in a closed system, the vinyl chloride present in the atmosphere equilibrates with the animals' organism within 15 min. The course of equilibration could be determined using rats which had been given 6-nitro-1,2,3-benzothiadiazole. This compound completely blocks metabolism of vinyl chloride. The enzymes responsible for metabolism of vinyl chloride are saturated at an atmospheric concentration of vinyl chloride of 250 ppm. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that no significant cumulation of vinyl chloride or its major metabolites is to be expected on repeated administration of vinyl chlorides. This may be consistent with the theory that a reactive, shortly living metabolite which occurs in low concentration only, may be responsible for the toxic effects of vinyl chloride

  12. Radiation-induced mesotheliomas in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Haley, P.J.; Hubbs, A.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Mesotheliomas have been reported in rats that inhaled plutonium, but these tumors have not been extensively studied. To investigate a possible role for inhaled radionuclides in the induction of mesotheliomas, four life-span studies conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute are reviewed. A total of 3076 F344 rats were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 239 PuO 2 , mixed uranium-plutonium oxide, or 144 CeO 2 . Results showed that a low incidence of pleural mesotheliomas was induced by either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung. Chronic alpha irradiation was more effective per unit dose in producing mesotheliomas than chronic beta irradiation of the lung by a factor of 15. 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  13. Radiation-induced mesotheliomas in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Haley, P.J.; Hubbs, A.F.; Hoover, M.D.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Mesotheliomas have been reported in rats that inhaled plutonium, but these tumors have not been extensively studied. To investigate a possible role for inhaled radionuclides in the induction of mesotheliomas, four life-span studies conducted at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute are reviewed. A total of 3076 F344 rats were exposed by inhalation to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, mixed uranium-plutonium oxide, or {sup 144}CeO{sub 2}. Results showed that a low incidence of pleural mesotheliomas was induced by either alpha- or beta-emitting radionuclides deposited and retained in the lung. Chronic alpha irradiation was more effective per unit dose in producing mesotheliomas than chronic beta irradiation of the lung by a factor of 15. 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs. (MHB)

  14. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M.

    1983-01-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U- 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis. (author)

  15. Gluconeogenesis in lethally X-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulikova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Praslicka, M. (Univerzita P.J. Safarika, Kosice (Czechoslovakia). Katedra Vseobecnej Biologie)

    1983-02-01

    The in vivo incorporation of U-/sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen was measured in rats irradiated with a single whole body lethal dose of X-rays. Changes in gluconeogenic enzyme activities were studied in the liver. Increased incorporation of /sup 14/C-alanine into blood glucose and liver glycogen were found after irradiation. Liver phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogenic activity underwent almost parallel changes and were significantly elevated from the 6th to the 48th hour, with resultant accumulation of glycogen. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was depressed and there was a negative correlation between it and liver glycogen concentration. Maximum fructose-1,6-diphosphatase activity was found at 48 hours. The results show that glycogen accumulation in the liver and the raised blood glucose level in X-irradiated rats are based on raised gluconeogenesis.

  16. Concussion: comparison of humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, D; West, M; Pathiraja, T

    1978-01-01

    Concussion is the most primitive and probably the most simple central nervous system response to an outside agent. Although millions of neurons undergo a very rapid reversal with loss and restoration of function, many physicians argue that every knockout blow leaves some residual damage, i.e., some or all of these neurons stop short of recovery. Clinical experience shows a wide discrepancy in the appearance or persistence of certain signs and symptoms after all types of head injury, but particularly after concussing blows, when third party or grievance cases are involved. Using slow motion filmstrips of boxing ring knockouts, we established a grading system for concussion and duplicated these grades in nonanesthetized rats. When we compared the performance, learning, and memory of concussed rats with their preconcussion performance and with the performance of nonconcussed controls, we were unable to find any differences.

  17. Autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, we have sought to isolate in vitro, from acutely diabetic BB rats, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which exhibit specific cytotoxicity toward islet cells. Thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) from acutely diabetic BB rats cultured with irradiated MHC matched (RT1.u) islet cells and dendritic cells in vitro were shown to be specifically cytotoxic to MHC matched and mismatched allogeneic (RT1.1) and xenogeneic (hamster) islet target cells in a 3 H-leucine release assay. Two cell lines (V1A8 and V1D11) derived from the TDL culture showed similar patterns of non-MHC restricted islet cell killing which could be blocked by islet cells and cultured rat insulinoma cells (RIN5mF) but not by non-islet cells of various tissue origins. Both V1A8 and V1D11 were not cytotoxic to Natural Killer (NK) sensitive target cells, G1TC and YAC-1. Conventional surface markers for rat helper and suppressor/cytotoxic T cells were not detectable on either cell lines. The V1D11 cell line was positive for W 3/13 (rat T/NK marker) on OX-19 (rat T/macrophage marker), whereas the V1A8 cell line was only positive for W 3/13

  18. Effects of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on rat myometrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zi-gang; ZHOU Liang; TANG Hui-fang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine on the contractility of isolated uterine muscle strips from pregnant and non-pregnant female rats. Methods: Full-thick myometrial strips were prepared from 18- to 21-day pregnant (n=g) and non-pregnant rats (n=7). After contractions became regular, strips were exposed to cumulative concentrations of the two drugs from 10-8 to 10-4 mol/L, amplitude and frequency of the uterine contraction was recorded. Results: Two local anesthetics caused a concentration dependent inhibition on contractility of myometrial strips from pregnant and non-pregnant rats. In the myometrium from non-pregnant rats, -logIC50 of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were 4.85 and 4.25 respectively. In the myometrium from pregnant rats, similar concentrations of levobupivacaine and bupivacaine were observed, -logIC50 were 2.7 and 2.9respectively. Levobupivacaine produced an increase in amplitude of contractions, while bupivacaine showed an increased trend in frequency. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that levobupivacaine and bupivacaine may inhibit myometrium contractility.The inhibitory effect of levobupivacaine or bupivacaine is not enhanced by gestation in rat. Levobupivacaine may have more positive influence than bupivacaine in pregnant myometrium.

  19. Basolateral amygdala lesions abolish mutual reward preferences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schäble, Sandra; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that rats prefer mutual rewards in a Prosocial Choice Task. Here, employing the same task, we show that the integrity of basolateral amygdala was necessary for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Actor rats received bilateral excitotoxic (n=12) or sham lesions (n=10) targeting the basolateral amygdala and were subsequently tested in a Prosocial Choice Task where they could decide between rewarding ("Both Reward") or not rewarding a partner rat ("Own Reward"), either choice yielding identical reward to the actors themselves. To manipulate the social context and control for secondary reinforcement sources, actor rats were paired with either a partner rat (partner condition) or with an inanimate rat toy (toy condition). Sham-operated animals revealed a significant preference for the Both-Reward-option in the partner condition, but not in the toy condition. Amygdala-lesioned animals exhibited significantly lower Both-Reward preferences than the sham group in the partner but not in the toy condition, suggesting that basolateral amygdala was required for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Critically, in a reward magnitude discrimination task in the same experimental setup, both sham-operated and amygdala-lesioned animals preferred large over small rewards, suggesting that amygdala lesion effects were restricted to decision making in social contexts, leaving self-oriented behavior unaffected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental study of sucralfate intervention for paraquat poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junbo, Zhu; Yongtao, Yu; Hongbo, Li; Fenshuang, Zheng; Ruyun, Lin; Chun'ai, Yang

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the effects of sucralfate intervention as a novel treatment for paraquat (PQ) poisoning in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After PQ poisoning, the SD rats were randomly divided into the PQ control group (treated with normal saline), the sodium bicarbonate (SB) treatment group, and the sucralfate (LTL) treatment group. Then, the rats were administered normal saline, sodium bicarbonate solution, or sucralfate suspension as an intervention by gastric lavage. At 1, 3, 6, and 10days after poisoning, the left lungs of some rats were removed to determine the lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. Additionally, the serum cytokine levels were measured, and the lung and kidney tissues were pathologically examined. After treatment, the signs and symptoms of the rats were improved, the mortality rate was reduced, the W/D weight ratio of the lung was lower, the cytokine levels [transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interleukin (IL)-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] were decreased, and the pathological injuries of the lungs and kidneys were improved. Moreover, sucralfate was significantly more effective than the control (normal saline) group and the SB treatment group. The results showed that early gastrointestinal lavage with sucralfate effectively reduced the inflammatory response and lung and kidney injuries and improved the survival of the SD rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Borax counteracts genotoxicity of aluminum in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkez, Hasan; Geyikoğlu, Fatime; Tatar, Abdulgani

    2013-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of borax (BX) on genotoxicity induced by aluminum (Al) in rat liver, using liver micronucleus assay as an indicator of genotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into six groups and each group had four animals. Aluminum chloride (AlCl₃; 5 mg/kg b.w.) and BX (3.25 and 13 mg/kg b.w.) were injected intraperitoneally to rats. Besides, animals were also treated with Al for 4 consecutive days followed by BX for 10 days. Rats were anesthetized after Al and BX injections and the hepatocytes were isolated for counting the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs). AlCl₃ was found to significantly (p < 0.05) increase the number of MNHEPs. Rats treated with BX, however, showed no increase in MNHEPs. Moreover, simultaneous treatments with BX significantly modulated the genotoxic effects of AlCl₃ in rats. It can be concluded that BX has beneficial influences and has the ability to antagonize Al toxicity.

  2. Acrylamide neurotoxicity on the cerebrum of weaning rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-min Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying acrylamide-induced neurotoxicity remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on acrylamide-induced toxicity in adult rodents, but neurotoxicity in weaning rats has not been investigated. To explore the neurotoxic effect of acrylamide on the developing brain, weaning rats were gavaged with 0, 5, 15, and 30 mg/kg acrylamide for 4 consecutive weeks. No obvious neurotoxicity was observed in weaning rats in the low-dose acrylamide group (5 mg/kg. However, rats from the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups (15 and 30 mg/kg had an abnormal gait. Furthermore, biochemical tests in these rats demonstrated that glutamate concentration was significantly reduced, and γ-aminobutyric acid content was significantly increased and was dependent on acrylamide dose. Immunohistochemical staining showed that in the cerebral cortex, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamic acid decarboxylase and glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased remarkably in the moderate- and high-dose acrylamide groups. These results indicate that in weaning rats, acrylamide is positively associated with neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner, which may correlate with upregulation of γ-aminobutyric acid and subsequent neuronal degeneration after the initial acrylamide exposure.

  3. Piracetam and vinpocetine ameliorate rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitone, Sawsan A; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Elshazly, Shimaa M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of the nootropic drugs, piracetam (PIR) and vinpocetine (VIN), in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism in rats. Sixty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 10 rats each. The groups were administered vehicle, control (rotenone, 1.5 mg/kg/48 h/6 doses, s.c.), PIR (100 and 200 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and VIN (3 and 6 mg/kg/day, p.o.). The motor performance of the rats was evaluated by the open field and pole test. Striatal dopamine level, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were assayed. Histopathological study of the substantia nigra was also done. Results showed that rotenone-treated rats exhibited bradykinesia and motor impairment in the open-field test. In addition, GSH level was decreased whereas MDA and TNF-α increased in striata of rotenone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats. Marked degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) neurons and depletion of striatal dopamine was also observed in the rotenone-treated rats. Treatment with PIR or VIN significantly reversed the locomotor deficits and increased striatal dopamine level. Treatment with VIN significantly (P<0.05) reduced the striatal level of MDA and GSH in comparison to rotenone group whereas TNF-α production was found to be significantly decreased in PIR group (P<0.05). VIN and PIR exhibit neuroprotective activity in rotenone-induced Parkinsonism. Hence, these nootropic agents may be considered as possible candidates in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Deferiprone attenuates inflammation and myocardial fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Chunbo; Liu, Xiaogang; Xie, Rujuan; Bao, Yushi; Jin, Qing; Jia, Xibei; Li, Li; Liu, Ruichan

    2017-01-01

    We attempted to investigate the therapeutic effects of deferiprone on DC rats and explore the underlying mechanism. Total 24 6-week-old male Wistar rats (weighing from 180 g to 220 g) were subjected to DC model construction and then randomly divided to three groups (8 rats per group): DC group, DC + 50 mg, and DC + 100 mg deferiprone treatment group. The 8 normal rats were considered as controls. After deferiprone treatment for 20 weeks, the blood samples were collected for the biochemical parameters test, including fasting glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of the insulin resistance), serum iron, ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS). The oxidative stress was assessed by detecting the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Histopathologic changes were determined by Masson's trichrome staining and electron microscopy imaging. The expression levels of NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B), COX2 (cytochrome c oxidase), tenascin C, collagen IV were measured by RT-PCR and western blotting. The expression of nitrotyrosine and MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Deferiprone treatment reduced iron deposition and IR in DC rats except for blood glucose. After deferiprone treatment, MDA level was significantly decreased and SOD level was increased significantly. The level of NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, tenascin C, collagen IV MCP-1 and nitrotyrosine were significantly reduced. There was no significant difference in the effect of deferiprone at 50 and 100 mg doses. Deferiprone showed therapeutic effects on DC by regulating the pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors. - Highlights: • The expression of serum iron, ferritin and TS were elevated in DC rats. • Oxidative stress related MDA and SOD were upregulated in DC rats. • NF-κB, COX2, tenascin C, collagen IV were accumulated in DC rats. • All the changes were reversed by deferiprone treatment.

  5. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effect of Batroxobin on Expression of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule in Temporal Infarction Rats and Spatial Learning and Memory Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of Batroxobin expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in left temporal ischemic rats with spatial memory disorder was investigated by means of Morri's water maze and immunohistochemical methods. The results showed that the mean reaction time and distance of temporal ischemic rats for searching a goal were significantly longer than those of sham-operated rats and at the same time NCAM expression of left temporal ischemic region was significantly increased. However, the mean reaction time and distance of Batroxobin-treated rats were shorter and they used normal strategies more often and earlier than those of ischemic rats. The number of NCAM immune reactive cells of Batroxobin-treated rats was more than that of ischemic group. In conclusion, Batroxobin can improve spatial memory disorder of temporal ischemic rats and the regulation of the expression of NCAM is probably related to the neuroprotective mechanism.

  7. Prebiotic and Synbiotic Modifications of Beta Oxidation and Lipogenic Gene Expression after Experimental Hypercholesterolemia in Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia C. Alves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by the presence of fat in hepatocytes because of decreased β-oxidation and increased lipogenesis. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotic have modulatory effects on intestinal microbiota and may influence the gut-liver axis. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of prebiotic, probiotics, and synbiotic on liver histopathology and gene expression related to β-oxidation and lipogenesis after hypercholesterolemia.Methods: Wistar male adult rats (n = 40 were submitted to hypercholesterolemic conditions (HPC (60 days. On Day 30 of HPC, rats were subdivided in 5 groups: negative control (NC: without HPC + Gv (distilled water; positive control (PC: with HPC + Gv (distilled water; prebiotic (PRE: HPC + Gv with prebiotic (Fiber FOS®; probiotic (PRO: HPC + Gv with probiotic strains Gv (Probiatop®; and synbiotic (SYN: HPC + Gv with synbiotic (Simbioflora®. All rats were sacrificed on Day 30 post-treatment. Blood was collected to verify total serum cholesterol, and liver tissue was sampled to verify histopathological changes and gene expression. Gene expression related to ß-oxidation (PPAR-α and CPT-1 and lipogenesis (SREBP-1c, FAS and ME was evaluated in liver tissue using RT-qPCR.Results: PC had higher cholesterol levels when compared to NC. PRE and SYN rats had lower cholesterol levels than PC. PC rats showed more histopathological changes than NC rats; PRE and SYN rats showed fewer alterations than PC rats. PPAR-α was expressed at higher levels in SYN and PC rats compared with PRE and PRO rats. CPT-1 expression was similar in all groups. SREBP-1c was expressed at higher levels in PC rats compared with NC rats; levels were lower in SYN rats compared with PRO rats; levels were lower in PRE rats compared with PC and PRO rats. FAS was expressed at lower levels in PRE rats compared with SYN rats. ME expression was lower in PC rats compared with NC rats.Conclusion: Prebiotic and

  8. Pedagogical Techniques Employed by the Television Show "MythBusters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik

    2016-11-01

    "MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These techniques include: achieving active learning, avoiding jargon, employing repetition to ensure comprehension, using captivating demonstrations, cultivating an enthusiastic disposition, and increasing intrinsic motivation to learn. In this content analysis, episodes from the show's 10-year history were examined for these techniques. "MythBusters" represents an untapped source of pedagogical techniques, which science educators may consider availing themselves of in their tireless effort to better reach their students. Physics educators in particular may look to "MythBusters" for inspiration and guidance in how to incorporate these techniques into their own teaching and help their students in the learning process.

  9. Implications of the Goal Theory on air show programs planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Events have long played an important role in human society (Shone & Parry, 2010: 3. The toils and efforts of daily lives have often been broken up by events of all kinds as humans seek an escape from the harsh reality of existence and events provide the outlet. Events are classified into four categories according to Shone and Parry (2010: 5 namely leisure (sport, recreation, personal (weddings, birthdays, cultural (art, folklore and organizational (politics, commercial. Successful events either match or exceed visitor motives and goals. It is critical that data be collected from visitors to determine their motives and goals in order to satisfy them and thereby encouraging repeat visits. One such event is the annual air show held at the Zwartkop Air Force Base (AFB in Pretoria, South Africa. Zwartkop AFB is also home to the South African Air Force (SAAF museum that also the hosts of the air show. Much of the museum‟s funds are generated through hosting the air show and sponsor contributions. Visitor goal satisfaction should therefore be of critically importance to the program planners. Military hardware has long held a fascination for those who used them and inspired the imagination of young and old. Such hardware often serves as a remembrance of times passed and as a testament to those who perished. For many visiting museums and air shows, curiosity plays a big role. The particular focus of this article will be on how the goal theory of leisure travel can be utilized by the air show organizers to enhance visitor experience to an air show.

  10. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, M; Moradpoor, H; Emamghorashi, F; Owji, S M; Roodaki, M; Khamoushi, M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth). In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1%) showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  11. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zarepour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group. In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth. In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1% showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  12. Drug gastrointestinal absorption in rat: Strain and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltra-Noguera, Davinia; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Colon-Useche, Sarin; González-Álvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-10-12

    Predictive animal models of intestinal drug absorption are essential tools in drug development to identify compounds with promising biopharmaceutical properties. In situ perfusion absorption studies are routinely used in the preclinical setting to screen drug candidates. The objective of this work is to explore the differences in magnitude and variability on intestinal absorption associated with rat strain and gender. Metoprolol and Verapamil absorption rate coefficients were determined using the in situ closed loop perfusion model in four strains of rats and in both genders. Strains used were Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Han, Wistar-Unilever, Long-Evans and CD∗IGS. In the case of Metoprolol only CD∗IGS and Wistar Unilever showed differences between males and females. For Verapamil, Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley strains do not show differences between male and female rats. That means that in these strains permeability data from male and female could be combined. In male rats, which are commonly used for permeability estimation, there were differences for Metoprolol permeability between Sprague-Dawley (with lower permeability values) and the other strains, while for Verapamil Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Han showed the lower permeability values. In conclusion, the selection of rat's strain and gender for intestinal absorption experiments is a relevant element during study design and data from different strains may not be always comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  14. The Biochemistry Show: a new and fun tool for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Ono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods to teach biochemistry in most universities are based on the memorization of chemical structures,  biochemical  pathways  and  reagent  names,  which  is  many  times  dismotivating  for  the  students.  We presently describe an innovative, interactive and alternative method for teaching biochemistry to medical and nutrition undergraduate students, called the Biochemistry Show (BioBio Show.The Biobio show is based on active participation of the students. They are divided in groups and the groups face each other. One group faces another one group at a time, in a game based on true or false questions that involve subjects of applied biochemistry (exercise, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, free radicals, among others. The questions of the Show are previously elaborated by senior students. The Biobio Show has four phases, the first one is a selection exam, and from the second to the fourth phase, eliminatory confrontations happen. On a confrontation, the first group must select a certain quantity of questions for the opponent to answer.  The group who choses the questions must know how to answer and justify the selected questions. This procedure is repeated on all phases of the show. On the last phase, the questions used are taken from an exam previously performed by the students: either the 9-hour biochemistry exam (Sé et al. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students? SBBq 2005, abstract K-6 or the True-or-False exam (TFE (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstract K-18. The winner group receives an extra 0,5 point on the final grade. Over 70% of the students informed on a questionnaire that the Biobio Show is a valuable tool for learning biochemistry.    That is a new way to enrich the discussion of biochemistry in the classroom without the students getting bored. Moreover, learning

  15. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Russell; Lifshitz, Fima

    2006-01-31

    Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN). In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight) and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight) were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 +/- 12.0 and 61.6 +/- 11.0 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 +/- 32.3 g). The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 +/- 10.5 g). Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 +/- 8.7 and 142.0 +/- 7.6 g) in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 +/- 17.5 g) as compared with controls (201.6 +/- 33.4 g). Body fat (g) decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 +/- 5.3), 70% (15.3 +/- 3.5) and 60% (9.6 +/- 2.7) of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 +/- 6.7). EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 +/- 0.8 and 1.7 +/- 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 +/- 1.4 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 9.0 +/- 1.2 and 9.7 +/- 0.8; p vs. 4.1 +/- 0.9 and 2.4 +/- 0.4; p vs. 0.95 +/- 0.03 and 0.91 +/- 0.05 p light (7.1 +/- 1.4) and dark period (6.2 +/- 1.0) EE and PA (3.4 +/- 0.9 and 2.5 +/- 0.5 respectively) were reduced in rats fed 60% of ad-libitum energy intake. CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  16. Circadian clock components in the rat neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin Fredensborg; Rohde, Kristian; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2013-01-01

    in the rat neocortex. Among these, Per1, Per2, Per3, Cry1, Bmal1, Nr1d1 and Dbp were found to exhibit daily rhythms. The amplitude of circadian oscillation in neocortical clock gene expression was damped and the peak delayed as compared with the SCN. Lesions of the SCN revealed that rhythmic clock gene...... expression in the neocortex is dependent on the SCN. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that products of the canonical clock gene Per2 are located in perikarya throughout all areas of the neocortex. These findings show that local circadian oscillators driven by the SCN reside within...... neurons of the neocortex....

  17. Treatment with low-dose resveratrol reverses cardiac impairment in obese prone but not in obese resistant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Xavier L; Thandapilly, Sijo J; MohanKumar, Suresh K; Yu, Liping; Taylor, Carla G; Zahradka, Peter; Netticadan, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    We hypothesized that a low-dose resveratrol will reverse cardiovascular abnormalities in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Obese prone (OP) and obese resistant (OR) rats were fed an HF diet for 17 weeks; Sprague-Dawley rats fed laboratory chow served as control animals. During the last 5 weeks of study, treatment group received resveratrol daily by oral gavage at a dosage of 2.5 mg/kg body weight. Assessments included echocardiography, blood pressure, adiposity, glycemia, insulinemia, lipidemia, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Body weight and adiposity were significantly higher in OP rats when compared to OR rats. Echocardiographic measurements showed prolonged isovolumic relaxation time in HF-fed OP and OR rats. Treatment with resveratrol significantly improved diastolic function in OP but not in OR rats without affecting adiposity. OP and OR rats had increased blood pressure which remained unchanged with treatment. OP rats had elevated fasting serum glucose and insulin, whereas OR rats had increased serum glucose and normal insulin concentrations. Resveratrol treatment significantly reduced serum glucose while increasing serum insulin in both OP and OR rats. Inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein were higher in OP rats, which were significantly reduced with treatment. In conclusion, HF induced cardiac dysfunction in both OP and OR rats. Treatment reversed abnormalities in diastolic heart function associated with HF feeding in OP rats, but not in OR rats. The beneficial effects of resveratrol may be mediated through regression of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term organ culture of adult rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamsuddin, A.K.M.; Barrett, L.A.; Autrup, Herman

    1978-01-01

    . The effect of in vivo carcinogen pretreatment was also studied. The explant culture from control untreated animals showed good epithelial differentiation with crypts until 6 weeks. In contrast, the explants from animals pretreated with 4 weekly doses of azoxymethane consistently showed epithelial......Colon explants from adult rats were maintained in culture for over 3 months in our laboratories with good epithelial preservation and cellular differentiation. The light and transmission electron microscopic features of rat colon mucosa during the culture period are described. In all the explants...

  19. An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi

    1983-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  1. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Wiersinga-Post, J Esther C

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  2. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  3. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    aditya

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAI a. , UTTARA BASU a. , ILA PANT b. , PATURU KONDAIAH*. ,b. AND. AKHIL R. CHAKRAVARTY*. ,a a. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 560012, India. E-mail: ...

  4. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  5. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets a...

  6. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  7. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  8. A Progress Evaluation of Four Bilingual Children's Television Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    An evaluation of a bilingual education TV series was conducted involving 6-year-old English speaking, Spanish speaking, and bilingual children at four sites. Children were assigned to control and experimental groups with the latter group seeing four 30 minute shows. A pretest-posttest design was employed with the pretest serving as the covariate…

  9. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  10. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  11. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An individual applicant applying for a right-of-way under any right-of-way act, except the Act of March 3, 1891... applicant resided in the United States thereafter while a minor, should be furnished. Where the husband and...

  12. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  13. Television Judge Shows: Nordic and U.S. Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsdam, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Legal discourse is language that people use in a globalizing and multicultural society to negotiate acceptable behaviors and values. We see this played out in popular cultural forums such as judicial television dramas. In the American context, television judge shows are virtually synonymous...

  14. Mixed cultures of Kimchi lactic acid bacteria show increased cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ufuoma

    anaerobic organisms that are highly resistant to salts. Probiotic cultures for use in ... kimchi have a superior ability to decompose and utilize nutrients, and show ... citrate, 5 g sodium acetate, 1 g Tween, 2 g K2HPO4, 0.2 g. MgSO4•7H2O, 0.2 g ...

  15. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  16. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  17. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells. YUKI TAKAUJI KENSUKE ... with the cellscultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of themolecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  18. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access during Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…

  19. Soil bacteria show different tolerance ranges to an unprecedented disturbance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ines Marques; Jurburg, Stephanie; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste

    2018-01-01

    stress doses. FRG1, the most sensitive group, was dominated by Actinobacteria. FRG2 and FRG3, with intermediate tolerance, displayed prevalence of Proteobacteria, while FRG4, the most resistant group, was driven by Firmicutes. While the most sensitive FRGs showed predictable responses linked to changes...

  20. Genoa Boat Show – Good Example of Event Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Demirović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available International Boat Show, a business and tourist event, has been held annually in Italian city of Genoa since 1962. The fair is one of the oldest, largest and best known in the field of boating industry worldwide, primarily due to good management of the event and it can serve as case study for domestic fair organizers to improve the quality of their business and services. Since Belgrade is the city of fairs, but compared to Genoa still underdeveloped in terms of trade shows, the following tasks imposed naturally in this study: to determine the relationship of the organizers of Genoa Boat Show in the sector of preparation and fair offer, in the sector of selection and communication with specific target groups (especially visitors, services during the fair and functioning of the city during the fair. During the research the authors have mostly used historical method, comparison, synthesis and the interview method. The results of theoretical research, in addition, may help not only managers of fair shows and of exhibitions, but also to organizers of other events in our country

  1. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  2. Neutron radiography of osteopetrotic rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, B.; Renard, G.; Le Gall, J.; Laporte, A.

    1983-01-01

    The osteopetrotic disease is characterized by bone and cartilage tissue coexistence in the medullary space of long bones. The authors have studied ''congenital osteopetrosis'' of ''op'' rats. Comparing radiography, neutrography and histology, the evolution of the ''osteopetrotic disease'' and the healing of the ill rats by a single injection of bone marrow from normal animals is shown. (Auth.)

  3. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  4. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppen, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  5. A diet containing the soy phytoestrogen genistein causes infertility in female rats partially deficient in UDP glucuronyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppen, Jurgen, E-mail: j.seppen@amc.uva.nl

    2012-11-01

    Soy beans contain genistein, a natural compound that has estrogenic effects because it binds the estrogen receptor with relatively high affinity. Genistein is therefore the most important environmental estrogen in the human diet. Detoxification of genistein is mediated through conjugation by UDP-glucuronyltransferase 1 and 2 (UGT1 and UGT2) isoenzymes. Gunn rats have a genetic deficiency in UGT1 activity, UGT2 activities are not affected. Because our Gunn rats stopped breeding after the animal chow was changed to a type with much higher soy content, we examined the mechanism behind this soy diet induced infertility. Gunn and control rats were fed diets with and without genistein. In these rats, plasma levels of genistein and metabolites, fertility and reproductive parameters were determined. Enzyme assays showed reduced genistein UGT activity in Gunn rats, as compared to wild type rats. Female Gunn rats were completely infertile on a genistein diet, wild type rats were fertile. Genistein diet caused a persistent estrus, lowered serum progesterone and inhibited development of corpora lutea in Gunn rats. Concentrations of total genistein in Gunn and control rat plasma were identical and within the range observed in humans after soy consumption. However, Gunn rat plasma contained 25% unconjugated genistein, compared to 3.6% in control rats. This study shows that, under conditions of reduced glucuronidation, dietary genistein exhibits a strongly increased estrogenic effect. Because polymorphisms that reduce UGT1 expression are prevalent in the human population, these results suggest a cautionary attitude towards the consumption of large amounts of soy or soy supplements. -- Highlights: ► Gunn rats are partially deficient in detoxification by UDP glucuronyltransferases. ► Female Gunn rats are infertile on a soy containing diet. ► Soy contains genistein, a potent phytoestrogen. ► Inefficient glucuronidation of genistein causes female infertility.

  6. Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation plue previous blood transfusion on rats with total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongtang; Ran Xinze; Wei Shuqing

    1988-01-01

    Therapeutic effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and blood transfusion on different groups of rats subjected to various doses of total body irradiation (TBI) was studied. In the control group, 80 rats that received TBI of 8,9,10,11 and 12 Gy died between 3∼14 days. In the second group, 67 rats that received the same doses of irradiation were treated with BMT. Except that 8 rats died from lung hemorrhages at 4∼6 days after TBI. 85% of these animals (500/59) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups at 90 days after BMT were 90%, 56%, 56%, 25% and 0% respectively. In the third group, 82 rats receive TBI and blood transfusion prior to BMT. Except that 8 rats subjected to 11∼12 Gy irradiation died from lung hemorrhage at 4∼6 days after BMT, 97% of these animals (72/74) showed hemopoietic engraftment. The 90-day survival rates of 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 Gy subgroups were 93%, 80%, 80%, 60% and 6% respectively. The 90-day survival rate of 50 rats subjected to 9∼11 Gy TBI and treated with blood transfusion and BMT, was 72%, while that 47 rats treated simply with BMT was only 42%. These results showed clearly that previous blood transfusion could increase the rate of hemopoietic engraftment, reduce the incidence if rejection, and raise the survival rate

  7. Decreased erythrocyte CCS content is a biomarker of copper overload in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinato, Jesse; Sherrard, Lindsey; Plouffe, Louise J

    2010-07-02

    Copper (Cu) is an essential trace metal that is toxic in excess. It is therefore important to be able to accurately assess Cu deficiency or overload. Cu chaperone for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (CCS) protein expression is elevated in tissues of Cu-deficient animals. Increased CCS content in erythrocytes is particularly sensitive to decreased Cu status. Given the lack of a non-invasive, sensitive and specific biomarker for the assessment of Cu excess, we investigated whether CCS expression in erythrocytes reflects Cu overload. Rats were fed diets containing normal or high levels of Cu for 13 weeks. Diets contained 6.3 +/- 0.6 (Cu-N), 985 +/- 14 (Cu-1000) or 1944 +/- 19 (Cu-2000) mg Cu/kg diet. Rats showed a variable response to the high Cu diets. Some rats showed severe Cu toxicity, while other rats showed no visible signs of toxicity and grew normally. Also, some rats had high levels of Cu in liver, whereas others had liver Cu concentrations within the normal range. Erythrocyte CCS protein expression was 30% lower in Cu-2000 rats compared to Cu-N rats (P CCS (47% reduction, P CCS content is associated with Cu overload in rats and should be evaluated further as a potential biomarker for assessing Cu excess in humans.

  8. Binding of radiolabelled luteinizing hormone to intact and ovariectomised rat uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

    1992-01-01

    Binding of ovine LH to uterine tissue preparation from intact and ovariectomised rat clearly indicates that uterus possesses specific binding sites for LH. Binding characteristics of LH to uterine tissue preparation from intact rat showed saturability with high affinity and low capacity. Scatchard plot analysis showed dissociation constant of the specific binding site to be 0.12 x 10 -9 mol/l and the number of binding sites was 2.31±0.05 fmol/mg protein. Ovariectomy did not change the binding affinity but effected a decrease in the number of binding sites (1.7 ± 0.08 f mol/mg protein). LH treatment of ovariectomized (ovx) rat had no effect on binding affinity but significantly increased the number of binding sites (3.23 ± 0.1 f mol/mg protein). Reduction of uterine weight due to ovariectomy and marked increase of ovx rat uterine weight by LH administration indicate a source of estrogen in ovx rat. An in vitro uterine tissue slice (from intact and ovx rat) incubation showed depletion of 17 β-estradiol (E 2 ) content in ovx rat which significantly elevated on LH addition. Data suggest the LH binding to rat uterine tissue has biological relevance. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  9. Maternal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Moazzami, Kasra; Shabani, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    Some studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) may result in structural damage to neurons. In this study, we have elucidated the alteration in the hippocampal function of offspring Wistar rats (n = 8 rats in each group) that were chronically exposed to mobile phones during their gestational period by applying behavioral, histological, and electrophysiological tests. Rats in the EMF group were exposed to 900 MHz pulsed-EMF irradiation for 6 h/day. Whole cell recordings in hippocampal pyramidal cells in the mobile phone groups did show a decrease in neuronal excitability. Mobile phone exposure was mostly associated with a decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection in both male and female groups. There was an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in mobile phone rats compared with the control. The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats. Light microscopy study of brain sections of the control and mobile phone-exposed rats showed normal morphology.Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Sex-dependent effects of high-fat-diet feeding on rat pancreas oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, Yolanda; Gianotti, Magdalena; Lladó, Isabel; Proenza, Ana M

    2011-07-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether sex differences in oxidative stress-associated insulin resistance previously reported in rats could be attributed to a possible sex dimorphism in pancreas redox status. Fifteen-month-old male and female Wistar rats were fed a control diet or a high-fat diet for 14 weeks. Serum glucose, lipids, and hormone levels were measured. Insulin immunohistochemistry and morphometric analysis of islets were performed. Pancreas triglyceride content, oxidative damage, and antioxidant enzymatic activities were determined. Lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) levels were also measured. Male rats showed a more marked insulin resistance profile than females. In control female rats, pancreas Mn-superoxide dismutase activity and UCP2 levels were higher, and oxidative damage was lower compared with males. High-fat-diet feeding decreased pancreas triglyceride content in female rats and UCP2 levels in male rats. High-fat-diet female rats showed larger islets than both their control and sex counterparts. These results confirm the existence of a sex dimorphism in pancreas oxidative status in both control and high-fat-diet feeding situations, with female rats showing higher protection against oxidative stress, thus maintaining pancreatic function and contributing to a lower risk of insulin resistance.

  11. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  12. Antidiabetic Potential of Kefir Combination from Goat Milk and Soy Milk in Rats Induced with Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmayani, Eni; Sunarti

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of kefir combination from goat milk and soy milk on lipid profile, plasma glucose, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and the improvement of pancreatic β-cell in diabetic rats. Male rats were divided into five treatments: normal control, diabetic control, goat milk kefir, combination of goat milk-soy milk kefir and soy milk kefir. All rats were induced by streptooztocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA), except for normal control. After 35 d experiment, the rats were sampled for blood, sacrificed and sampled for pancreatic tissues. Results showed that diabetic rats fed kefir combination had higher (p<0.05) triglyceride than the rats fed goat milk or soy milk kefir. Decreasing of plasma glucose in diabetic rats fed kefir combination was higher (p<0.05) than rats fed goat millk kefir. The activity of GPx in diabetic rats fed three kinds of kefir were higher (p<0.01) than untreated diabetic rats. The average number of Langerhans and β-cells in diabetic rats fed kefir combination was the same as the normal control, but it was higher than diabetic control. It was concluded that kefir combination can be used as antidiabetic through maintaining in serum triglyceride, decreasing in plasma glucose, increasing in GPx activity and improving in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:26877646

  13. Effect of Folic Acid Supplementation on Renal Phenotype and Epigenotype in Early Weanling Intrauterine Growth Retarded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaori He

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to examine the responses of p53 promoter methylation involved in kidney structure and function of early weaning intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR rats to dietary folic acid supplementation. Method: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed isocaloric diets containing either 21% protein diet (normal feed or 10% protein diet throughout pregnancy and normal feed during lactation. After weaning, Offspring were then fed onto normal feed and normal feed supplemented with 5 mg folic acid/kg feed for a month, this produced 4 dietary groups (maternal diet/ weanling diet: Con, Folic, IUGR and IUGR+Folic. Renal function, renal structure, p53 promoter methylation and protein expression of offspring rats were measured at postnatal 2 months and 3 months. Results: Glomerular volume, blood urea nitrogen, 24 hours urine protein were significantly elevated in IUGR rats compared with Con rats but were decreased by dietary folic acid supplementation. p53 protein expression in IUGR rats were significantly higher than that in Con rats, and p53 promoter methylation status in IUGR rats was reduced significantly compared with Con rats. However, the changes in p53 gene expression and DNA methylation status of IUGR rats were reversed by dietary folic acid supplementation. Conclusions: Our study showed for the first time that folic acid supplementation during early period of life could reverse the abnormality in renal p53 methylation status and protein expression, glomerular volume and renal function of IUGR rats offspring.

  14. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  15. Political Show-Technology in the Post-Soviet Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Grishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern political process of Russia actively used technology show. With their help, political actors can influence public opinion and shape the public interest in certain issues. In Russia, these technologies are relevant, and are especially well developed. The pressing of the problem is due to a new round of information war on the territory of Ukraine. Inclusion in the information space, and discuss the pressing issues of modern Ukraine by media people such as C. Shuster and V. Solovyov, suggests that the political show has entertainment figures, actuality, the ambiguity of the proposed conclusions. At the same time it becomes part of the information war and political reality of the normal state.

  16. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  17. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  18. CT findings of rectosigmoid carcinoma showing exophytic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgi, Kazuyuki; Kohno, Atsushi; Higuchi, Mutsumi

    1987-01-01

    CT findings of 7 rectosigmoid carcinomas showing exophytic growth were evaluated. All cases had bulky masses, ranging from 6.0 to 11.5 cm in maximum diameter. All masses were difficult to differentiate from the other pelvic masses on CT, presumably due to their exophytic growth and/or invasion to the surrounding organs. However, 3 out of 7 cases showed diffuse rectosigmoidal wall thickening adjacent to the primary tumor, and it is considered to be valuable in the determination of primary site. All female cases had gynecological symptom such as genital bleeding, due to uterine and/or vaginal invasion. When indeterminate pelvic mass is revealed by CT, rectosigmoid carcinoma should be considered into differential diagnosis. (author)

  19. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  20. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persigue esclarecer algunas de sus características y funciones, especialmente su función socializadora, a través del mecanismo biográfico y del concepto de habitus tomado de Pierre Bourdieu.

  1. In vitro comparison of rat and chicken brain neurotoxic esterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, R.; Padilla, S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic comparison was undertaken to characterize neurotoxic esterase (NTE) from rat and chicken brain in terms of inhibitor sensitivities, pH optima, and molecular weights. Paraoxon titration of phenyl valerate (PV)-hydrolyzing carboxylesterases showed that rat esterases were more sensitive than chicken to paraoxon inhibition at concentrations less than or equal to microM and superimposable with chicken esterases at concentrations of 2.5-1000 microM. Mipafox titration of the paraoxon-resistant esterases at a fixed paraoxon concentration of 100 microM (mipafox concentration: 0-1000 microM) resulted in a mipafox I50 of 7.3 microM for chicken brain NTE and 11.6 microM for rat brain NTE. NTE (i.e., paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive esterase activity) comprised 80% of chicken and 60% of rat brain paraoxon-resistant activity with the specific activity of chicken brain NTE approximately twice that of rat brain NTE. The pH maxima for NTE from both species was similar showing broad, slightly alkaline optima from pH 7.9 to 8.6. [ 3 H]Diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP)-labeled NTE from the brains of both species had an apparent mol wt of 160,000 measured by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In conclusion, NTE from both species was very similar, with the mipafox I50 for rat NTE within the range of reported values for chicken and human NTE, and the inhibitor parameters of the chicken NTE assay were applicable for the rat NTE assay

  2. Simvastatin Exposure and Rotator Cuff Repair in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Matthew E; Ehteshami, John R; Dines, Joshua S; Drakos, Mark C; Behrens, Steve B; Doty, Stephen; Coleman, Struan H

    2017-03-01

    Simvastatin is a common medication prescribed for hypercholesterolemia that accelerates local bone formation. It is unclear whether simvastatin can accelerate healing at the tendon-bone interface after rotator cuff repair. This study was conducted to investigate whether local and systemic administration of simvastatin increased tendon-bone healing of the rotator cuff as detected by maximum load to failure in a controlled animal-based model. Supraspinatus tendon repair was performed on 120 Sprague-Dawley rats. Sixty rats had a polylactic acid membrane overlying the repair site. Of these, 30 contained simvastatin and 30 did not contain medication. Sixty rats underwent repair without a polylactic acid membrane. Of these, 30 received oral simvastatin (25 mg/kg/d) and 30 received a regular diet. At 4 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis. At 8 weeks, 5 rats from each group were killed for histologic analysis and the remaining 20 rats were killed for biomechanical analysis. One rat that received oral simvastatin died of muscle necrosis. Average maximum load to failure was 35.2±6.2 N for those receiving oral simvastatin, 36.8±9.0 N for oral control subjects, 39.5±12.8 N for those receiving local simvastatin, and 39.1±9.3 N for control subjects with a polylactic acid membrane. No statistically significant differences were found between any of the 4 groups (P>.05). Qualitative histologic findings showed that all groups showed increased collagen formation and organization at 8 weeks compared with 4 weeks, with no differences between the 4 groups at each time point. The use of systemic and local simvastatin offered no benefit over control groups. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e288-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. High-frequency parameters of magnetic films showing magnetization dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorenkov, V.V.; Zimin, A.B.; Kornev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization dispersion leads to skewed resonance curves shifted towards higher magnetizing fields, together with considerable reduction in the resonant absorption, while the FMR line width is considerably increased. These effects increase considerably with frequency, in contrast to films showing magnetic-anisotropy dispersion, where they decrease. It is concluded that there may be anomalies in the frequency dependence of the resonance parameters for polycrystalline magnetic films

  4. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Keefe, Richard S. E.; McDonald, Kay; Ward, Aimee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly, adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to test the association between persistent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline and determine whether decline is concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users. Participants were members of the Dunedin Study, a prospecti...

  5. Intestinal metaplasia induced by x-irradiation in different strains of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Naito, Masashi; Kawashima, Kengo; Ito, Akihiro

    1985-01-01

    Attempts were made to examine strain differences in the susceptibility of rats to intestinal metaplasia induced by X-irradiation. The gastric regions of 4 inbred male rats (SHR, F344, WKY, and LEW strains) in 5-week-old and 2 random bred male rats (SD, and WIS strains) were irradiated with a total dose of 20 Gy X-ray given in two equal fractions separated by three days. Upon sacrifice at 6 months after the last irradiation, the number of intestinal metaplastic crypts with positive reaction to alkaline phosphatase (ALP) appeared highest in the SHR and lowest in the WIS rats. Morphologically, the number of crypts with intestinal metaplasia in whole glandular stomachs of SHR, WIS, F344, and SD rats were higher than those in WKY and LEW rats. In the pyloric gland, it was highest in WIS rats, while in the fundic gland it was highest in SHR rats. The results show that the appearance and location of intestinal metaplasia by X-irradiation are greatly influenced by the strain of the rat. (author)

  6. Alleviation in the rat of a GABA-induced reduction in food intake and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, J K; Repa, J J; Harper, A E

    1984-07-01

    Cold exposure and diet dilution which stimulate food intake of normal rats lessened depressions of food intake and growth induced by dietary GABA. During a 3-day adaptation to the cold, rats fed a diet containing 4.5% GABA lost weight; thereafter, food intake and growth rate differed little from those of cold control rats and were usually greater than those of normal rats fed GABA. Hepatic GABA-aminotransferase activity of cold-exposed rats fed the GABA diet increased to about twice that of normal control rats. Rats fed a control diet diluted by half with cellulose ate 50% more of this diet than of the undiluted diet but gained only 20% less weight. Rats ate twice as much of a diluted, 9% GABA diet as of an undiluted, 4.5% GABA diet (thus doubling their GABA intake) and gained three times as much weight. A novel food (condensed milk) barely lessened the adverse responses to GABA. These results show that conditions requiring rats to increase their food intake in order to maintain body weight can also increase their acceptance of a diet high in GABA.

  7. Effect of diet protein quality on growth and protein synthesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinchalkar, D.V.; Mehta, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of diet protein quality on albino rats was studied by feeding normal and opaque-2 maize. The weight gain in rats was 60 percent higher on opaque-2 maize as compared to those fed on normal maize. Rats converted 1.0 g of dietary opaque-2 maize to 0.226 g weight gain as compared to 0.131 g for normal maize. The protein content per liver was higher with opaque-2 maize diet suggesting a higher net protein synthesis in opaque-2 maize fed rat livers. In vitro 14 C-phenylalanine incorporation showed that polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rat livers were more efficient in protein synthesis than those from normal maize fed rat livers. Addition of poly-U resulted in more enhanced amino acid incorporation with polysomes from normal maize fed rats as compared to other group indicating greater limitation of mRNA in polysomes from normal maize fed rats. The total yield of liver polysomes from opaque-2 maize fed rats was substantially higher. (author)

  8. Protective Effects of Sinomenine on CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yan; Zhang, Yongjun; He, Xiaofeng; Fan, Shengdeng

    2018-04-05

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sinomenine (SIN) on CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS To determine the potential influences of SIN in the pathogenesis of inflammatory pain, an inflammatory pain (IP) mouse model was established and rats were treated with SIN (30 mg/kg). Behavioral tests were used to assess the MWT and TWL of the rats. ELISA assay was used to detect the level of inflammation cytokines. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were carried out to measure the related protein and mRNA expression level, respectively. RESULTS We found that the MWT and TWL of the CFA-treated rats were markedly lower than that of the control rats, and they were significantly increased by SIN administration. The results suggest that IP rats had higher levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 compared with the control rats. SIN administration decreased the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. In addition, we found that p-p65 and p-p38 expression notably decreased after SIN treatment in IP rats. Moreover, the results showed that SIN inhibited Cox-2 and PGE2 expression in IP rats. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that SIN had a protective role in inflammatory pain through repressing inflammatory mediators via preventing the p38MAPK-NF-κB pathway.

  9. [The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy and neonatal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Jun; Sheng, Wen-Jie; Guo, Yin-Hua; Tan, Yong

    2015-10-25

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of interfered circadian rhythm on pregnancy of rats and growth of neonatal rats, and to explore the relationship between the interfered circadian rhythm and the changes of melatonin and progesterone. Continuous light was used to inhibit melatonin secretion and therefore the interfered circadian rhythm animal model was obtained. The influence of interfered circadian rhythm on delivery of pregnant rats was observed. Serum was collected from rats during different stages of pregnancy to measure the concentrations of melatonin and progesterone. In order to observe the embryo resorption rate, half of pregnant rats were randomly selected to undergo a laparotomy, and the remainder was used to observe delivery and assess the growth of neonatal rats after delivery. The results showed that the interfered circadian rhythm induced adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes, including an increase of embryo resorption rate and a decrease in the number of live births; inhibited the secretion of melatonin along with decreased serum progesterone level; prolonged the stage of labor, but not the duration of pregnancy; and disturbed the fetal intrauterine growth and the growth of neonatal rats. The results suggest that interfered circadian rhythm condition made by continuous light could make adverse effects on both pregnant rats and neonatal rats. The results of our study may provide a way to modulate pregnant women's circadian rhythm and a possibility of application of melatonin on pregnant women.

  10. Moringa oleifera-rich diet and T cell calcium signaling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attakpa, E S; Bertin, G A; Chabi, N W; Ategbo, J-M; Seri, B; Khan, N A

    2017-11-24

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose fruits, roots and leaves have been advocated for traditional medicinal uses. The physicochemical analysis shows that Moringa oleifera contains more dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than saturated fatty acids (SFA). The consumption of an experimental diet enriched with Moringa oleifera extracts lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as compared to rats fed an unsupplemented control diet. Anti-CD3-stimulated T cell proliferation was diminished in both strains of rats fed the Moringa oleifera. The experimental diet lowered secretion of interleukin-2 in SHR, but not in WKY rats compared with rats fed the control diet. Studies of platelets from patients with primary hypertension and from SHR support the notion that the concentration of intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)](i) is modified in both clinical and experimental hypertension. We observed that the basal, [Ca(2+)](i) was lower in T cells of SHR than in those of WKY rats fed the control diet. Feeding the diet with Moringa oleifera extracts to WKY rats did not alter basal [Ca(2+)](i) in T cells but increased basal [Ca(2+)](i) in SHR. Our study clearly demonstrated that Moringa oleifera exerts antihypertensive effects by inhibiting the secretion of IL-2 and modulates T cell calcium signaling in hypertensive rats.

  11. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) show an attentional bias toward conspecifics' emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; Jaasma, Linda; Bionda, Thomas; Wijnen, Jasper G

    2016-04-05

    In social animals, the fast detection of group members' emotional expressions promotes swift and adequate responses, which is crucial for the maintenance of social bonds and ultimately for group survival. The dot-probe task is a well-established paradigm in psychology, measuring emotional attention through reaction times. Humans tend to be biased toward emotional images, especially when the emotion is of a threatening nature. Bonobos have rich, social emotional lives and are known for their soft and friendly character. In the present study, we investigated (i) whether bonobos, similar to humans, have an attentional bias toward emotional scenes compared with conspecifics showing a neutral expression, and (ii) which emotional behaviors attract their attention the most. As predicted, results consistently showed that bonobos' attention was biased toward the location of the emotional versus neutral scene. Interestingly, their attention was grabbed most by images showing conspecifics such as sexual behavior, yawning, or grooming, and not as much-as is often observed in humans-by signs of distress or aggression. The results suggest that protective and affiliative behaviors are pivotal in bonobo society and therefore attract immediate attention in this species.

  12. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  13. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  14. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  15. Compliance With Recommended Food Safety Practices in Television Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nancy L; Olson, Rita Brennan

    Examine compliance with recommended food safety practices in television cooking shows. Using a tool based on the Massachusetts Food Establishment Inspection Report, raters examined 39 episodes from 10 television cooking shows. Chefs demonstrated conformance with good retail practices for proper use and storage of utensils in 78% of episodes; preventing contamination (62%), and fingernail care (82%). However, 50% to 88% of episodes were found to be out of compliance with other personal hygiene practices, proper use of gloves and barriers (85% to 100%), and maintaining proper time and temperature controls (93%). Over 90% failed to conform to recommendations regarding preventing contamination through wiping cloths and washing produce. In only 13% of episodes were food safety practices mentioned. There appears to be little attention to food safety during most cooking shows. Celebrity and competing chefs have the opportunity to model and teach good food safety practices for millions of viewers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Architectures for Quantum Simulation Showing a Quantum Speedup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Hangleiter, Dominik; Schwarz, Martin; Raussendorf, Robert; Eisert, Jens

    2018-04-01

    One of the main aims in the field of quantum simulation is to achieve a quantum speedup, often referred to as "quantum computational supremacy," referring to the experimental realization of a quantum device that computationally outperforms classical computers. In this work, we show that one can devise versatile and feasible schemes of two-dimensional, dynamical, quantum simulators showing such a quantum speedup, building on intermediate problems involving nonadaptive, measurement-based, quantum computation. In each of the schemes, an initial product state is prepared, potentially involving an element of randomness as in disordered models, followed by a short-time evolution under a basic translationally invariant Hamiltonian with simple nearest-neighbor interactions and a mere sampling measurement in a fixed basis. The correctness of the final-state preparation in each scheme is fully efficiently certifiable. We discuss experimental necessities and possible physical architectures, inspired by platforms of cold atoms in optical lattices and a number of others, as well as specific assumptions that enter the complexity-theoretic arguments. This work shows that benchmark settings exhibiting a quantum speedup may require little control, in contrast to universal quantum computing. Thus, our proposal puts a convincing experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup within reach in the near term.

  17. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Fat stigmatization in television shows and movies: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Susan M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To examine the phenomenon of fat stigmatization messages presented in television shows and movies, a content analysis was used to quantify and categorize fat-specific commentary and humor. Fat stigmatization vignettes were identified using a targeted sampling procedure, and 135 scenes were excised from movies and television shows. The material was coded by trained raters. Reliability indices were uniformly high for the seven categories (percentage agreement ranged from 0.90 to 0.98; kappas ranged from 0.66 to 0.94). Results indicated that fat stigmatization commentary and fat humor were often verbal, directed toward another person, and often presented directly in the presence of the overweight target. Results also indicated that male characters were three times more likely to engage in fat stigmatization commentary or fat humor than female characters. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first information regarding the specific gender, age, and types of fat stigmatization that occur frequently in movies and television shows. The stimuli should prove useful in future research examining the role of individual difference factors (e.g., BMI) in the reaction to viewing such vignettes.

  19. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J.

    2009-01-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  20. Brain Insulin Administration Triggers Distinct Cognitive and Neurotrophic Responses in Young and Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Clarissa B; Kalinine, Eduardo; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Hansel, Gisele; Brochier, Andressa W; Oses, Jean P; Portela, Luis V; Muller, Alexandre P

    2016-11-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative disorders, and impaired brain insulin receptor (IR) signaling is mechanistically linked to these abnormalities. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether brain insulin infusions improve spatial memory in aged and young rats. Aged (24 months) and young (4 months) male Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly injected with insulin (20 mU) or vehicle for five consecutive days. The animals were then assessed for spatial memory using a Morris water maze. Insulin increased memory performance in young rats, but not in aged rats. Thus, we searched for cellular and molecular mechanisms that might account for this distinct memory response. In contrast with our expectation, insulin treatment increased the proliferative activity in aged rats, but not in young rats, implying that neurogenesis-related effects do not explain the lack of insulin effects on memory in aged rats. Furthermore, the expression levels of the IR and downstream signaling proteins such as GSK3-β, mTOR, and presynaptic protein synaptophysin were increased in aged rats in response to insulin. Interestingly, insulin treatment increased the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptors in the hippocampus of young rats, but not of aged rats. Our data therefore indicate that aged rats can have normal IR downstream protein expression but failed to mount a BDNF response after challenge in a spatial memory test. In contrast, young rats showed insulin-mediated TrkB/BDNF response, which paralleled with improved memory performance.

  1. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, attenuates cerebral infarction and hemorrhagic infarction in rats with hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Koichi; Tsubokawa, Tamiji; Johshita, Hiroo; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Thrombolysis due to acute ischemic stroke is associated with the risk of hemorrhagic infarction, especially after reperfusion. Recent experimental studies suggest that the main mechanism contributing to hemorrhagic infarction is oxidative stress caused by disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, decreases oxidative stress, thereby preventing hemorrhagic infarction during ischemia and reperfusion. In this study, we investigated the effects of edaravone on hemorrhagic infarction in a rat model of hemorrhagic transformation. We used a previously established hemorrhagic transformation model of rats with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of glucose to all rats (n  =  20). The rats with hyperglycemia showed a high incidence of hemorrhagic infarction. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1.5 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours was performed in edaravone-treated rats (n  =  10) and control rats (n  =  10). Upon completion of reperfusion, both groups were evaluated for infarct size and hemorrhage volume and the results obtained were compared. Edaravone significantly decreased infarct volume, with the average infarct volume in the edaravone-treated rats (227.6 mm(3)) being significantly lower than that in the control rats (264.0 mm(3)). Edaravone treatment also decreased the postischemic hemorrhage volumes (53.4 mm(3) in edaravone-treated rats vs 176.4 mm(3) in controls). In addition, the ratio of hemorrhage volume to infarct volume was lower in the edaravone-treated rats (23.5%) than in the untreated rats (63.2%). Edaravone attenuates cerebral infarction and hemorrhagic infarction in rats with hyperglycemia.

  2. Obesity does not aggravate osteoporosis or osteoblastic insulin resistance in orchiectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potikanond, Saranyapin; Rattanachote, Pinyada; Pintana, Hiranya; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that testosterone deprivation impairs osteoblastic insulin signaling, decreases osteoblast survival, reduces bone density, and that obesity aggravates those deleterious effects in testosterone-deprived rats. Twenty four male Wistar rats underwent either a bilateral orchiectomy (O, n=12) or a sham operation (S, n=12). Then the rats in each group were further divided into two subgroups fed with either a normal diet (ND) or a high-fat diet (HF) for 12 weeks. At the end of the protocol, blood samples were collected to determine metabolic parameters and osteocalcin ratios. The tibiae were collected to determine bone mass using microcomputed tomography and for osteoblast isolation. The results showed that rats fed with HF (sham-operated HF-fed rats (HFS) and ORX HF-fed rats (HFO)) developed peripheral insulin resistance and had decreased trabecular bone density. In ND-fed rats, only the ORX ND-fed rats (NDO) group had decreased trabecular bone density. In addition, osteoblastic insulin resistance, as indicated by a decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and Akt, were observed in all groups except the sham-operated ND-fed rats (NDS) rats. Those groups, again with the exception of the NDS rats, also had decreased osteoblastic survival. No differences in the levels of osteoblastic insulin resistance and osteoblastic survival were found among the NDO, HFS, and HFO groups. These findings suggest that either testosterone deprivation or obesity alone can impair osteoblastic insulin signaling and decrease osteoblastic survival leading to the development of osteoporosis. However, obesity does not aggravate those deleterious effects in the bone of testosterone-deprived rats. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmgard eAmrein

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae are small to medium sized, long-lived and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of one year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin. Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis, social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae, and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean

  4. Adult neurogenesis and its anatomical context in the hippocampus of three mole-rat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrein, Irmgard; Becker, Anton S; Engler, Stefanie; Huang, Shih-Hui; Müller, Julian; Slomianka, Lutz; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) are small to medium sized, long-lived, and strictly subterranean rodents that became valuable animal models as a result of their longevity and diversity in social organization. The formation and integration of new hippocampal neurons in adult mammals (adult hippocampal neurogenesis, AHN) correlates negatively with age and positively with habitat complexity. Here we present quantitative data on AHN in wild-derived mole-rats of 1 year and older, and briefly describe its anatomical context including markers of neuronal function (calbindin and parvalbumin). Solitary Cape mole-rats (Georychus capensis), social highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae), and eusocial naked mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber) were assessed. Compared to other rodents, the hippocampal formation in mole-rats is small, but shows a distinct cytoarchitecture in the dentate gyrus and CA1. Distributions of the calcium-binding proteins differ from those seen in rodents; e.g., calbindin in CA3 of naked mole-rats distributes similar to the pattern seen in early primate development, and calbindin staining extends into the stratum lacunosum-moleculare of Cape mole-rats. Proliferating cells and young neurons are found in low numbers in the hippocampus of all three mole-rat species. Resident granule cell numbers are low as well. Proliferating cells expressed as a percentage of resident granule cells are in the range of other rodents, while the percentage of young neurons is lower than that observed in surface dwelling rodents. Between mole-rat species, we observed no difference in the percentage of proliferating cells. The percentages of young neurons are high in social highveld and naked mole-rats, and low in solitary Cape mole-rats. The findings support that proliferation is regulated independently of average life expectancy and habitat. Instead, neuronal differentiation reflects species-specific demands, which appear lower in subterranean rodents.

  5. Effect of tetrahydrocurcumin on lipid peroxidation and lipids in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Pidaran; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2006-08-01

    Hyperlipidaemia is an associated complication of diabetes mellitus. We recently reported that tetrahydrocurcumin lowered the blood glucose in diabetic rats. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of tetrahydrocurcumin, one of the active metabolites of curcumin on lipid profile and lipid peroxidation in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Tetrahydrocurcumin 80 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to diabetic rats for 45 days, resulted a significant reduction in blood glucose and significant increase in plasma insulin in diabetic rats, which proved its antidiabetic effect. Tetrahydrocurcumin also caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides) and lipids (cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids) in serum and tissues, suggesting its role in protection against lipid peroxidation and its antihyperlipidemic effect. Tetrahydrocurcumin showed a better effect when compared with curcumin. Results of the present study indicate that tetrahydrocurcumin showed antihyperlipidaemic effect in addition to its antidiabetic effect in type 2 diabetic rats.

  6. Optimizing hyaluronidase dose and plasmid DNA delivery greatly improves gene electrotransfer efficiency in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Vedel, Kenneth; Needham Andersen, Josefine

    2015-01-01

    Transfection of rat skeletal muscle in vivo is a widely used research model. However, gene electrotransfer protocols have been developed for mice and yield variable results in rats. We investigated whether changes in hyaluronidase pre-treatment and plasmid DNA delivery can improve transfection...... with a homogenous distribution. We also show that transfection was stable over five weeks of regular exercise or inactivity. Our findings show that species-specific plasmid DNA delivery and hyaluronidase pre-treatment greatly improves transfection efficiency in rat skeletal muscle....... efficiency in rat skeletal muscle. We found that pre-treating the muscle with a hyaluronidase dose suitable for rats (0.56. U/g b.w.) prior to plasmid DNA injection increased transfection efficiency by >200% whereas timing of the pre-treatment did not affect efficiency. Uniformly distributing plasmid DNA...

  7. Genome sequencing reveals insights into physiology and longevity of the naked mole rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Eun Bae; Fang, Xiaodong; Fushan, Alexey A

    2011-01-01

    The naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a strictly subterranean, extraordinarily long-lived eusocial mammal. Although it is the size of a mouse, its maximum lifespan exceeds 30 years, making this animal the longest-living rodent. Naked mole rats show negligible senescence, no age......-related increase in mortality, and high fecundity until death. In addition to delayed ageing, they are resistant to both spontaneous cancer and experimentally induced tumorigenesis. Naked mole rats pose a challenge to the theories that link ageing, cancer and redox homeostasis. Although characterized...... by significant oxidative stress, the naked mole rat proteome does not show age-related susceptibility to oxidative damage or increased ubiquitination. Naked mole rats naturally reside in large colonies with a single breeding female, the 'queen', who suppresses the sexual maturity of her subordinates. They also...

  8. Irradiated diets and its effect on testes and adrenal gland of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the feeding effects of irradiated normal diet (consisting of equal parts of gram and wheat) and irradiated low protein diet (consisting one part of normal diet and three parts of wheat) on male rats for various periods starting from weaning time. Rats maintained on irradiated low protein diets showed decrease in the activity of androgen sensitive enzymes i.e., alkaline and acid phosphatase while an increase in the cholesterol content of the testes compared with irradiated normal controls. Diminution in androgen sensitive enzymes and accumulation of cholesterol in the rat testes suggest non-conversion of cholesterol into steriod hormones after feeding of irradiated low protein. Besides, rats fed on irradiated low protein diet showed increased cellular activity in the adrenal cortex and medulla as compared to rats fed on the irradiated normal diet. (author). 12 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Do rats have orgasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaus, James G.; Scardochio, Tina; Parada, Mayte; Gerson, Christine; Quintana, Gonzalo R.; Coria-Avila, Genaro A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs) in other species: 1) physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2) short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3) long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research. PMID:27799081

  10. Do rats have orgasms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Pfaus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although humans experience orgasms with a degree of statistical regularity, they remain among the most enigmatic of sexual responses; difficult to define and even more difficult to study empirically. The question of whether animals experience orgasms is hampered by similar lack of definition and the additional necessity of making inferences from behavioral responses. Method: Here we define three behavioral criteria, based on dimensions of the subjective experience of human orgasms described by Mah and Binik, to infer orgasm-like responses (OLRs in other species: 1 physiological criteria that include pelvic floor and anal muscle contractions that stimulate seminal emission and/or ejaculation in the male, or that stimulate uterine and cervical contractions in the female; 2 short-term behavioral changes that reflect immediate awareness of a pleasurable hedonic reward state during copulation; and 3 long-term behavioral changes that depend on the reward state induced by the OLR, including sexual satiety, the strengthening of patterns of sexual arousal and desire in subsequent copulations, and the generation of conditioned place and partner preferences for contextual and partner-related cues associated with the reward state. We then examine whether physiological and behavioral data from observations of male and female rats during copulation, and in sexually-conditioned place- and partner-preference paradigms, are consistent with these criteria. Results: Both male and female rats display behavioral patterns consistent with OLRs. Conclusions: The ability to infer OLRs in rats offers new possibilities to study the phenomenon in neurobiological and molecular detail, and to provide both comparative and translational perspectives that would be useful for both basic and clinical research.

  11. Contraceptive Efficacy and Local Effects of Bioceramic IUD in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan; ZHANG Yuanzhen; YAN Yuhua; CHEN Weimin; LIU Wenhui; ZU Meiping

    2006-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy and local effects of bioceramic IUD in rat were studied. The experiment was divided into four groups: bioceramic IUD group; stainless steel IUD group; operation control group; normal control group. All IUD samples were put into uterus of rats. The experimental results show that the alumina bioceramic has a strong contraceptive effect for those rats. In bioceramic IUD group the endometrial inflammation reaction was as mild as that in stainless IUD group during the early days (30 days ) and gradually abated with time during the late days (60 days ). The experiments show that the alumina bioceramic has a good biocompatibility and contraceptive effects and hint at the alumina bioceramic IUD may become a more safety reproduction family planning IUD.

  12. Short-term toxicity study of carnauba was in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, I R; Butterworth, K R; Gaunt, I F; Grasso, P; Gangolli, S D

    1982-08-01

    Groups of 15 male and 15 female rats were fed diet containing 0 (control), 1, 5 or 10% carnauba wax or 10% cellulose powder for 13 wk and groups of five rats of each sex were given these treatments, except the 1% carnauba wax, for 2 or 6 wk. Rats given 10% carnauba wax or 10% cellulose consumed more food than the controls but showed no differences in body weight, an effect attributed to the dilution of the diet by non-nutrient test materials. The study showed no treatment-related differences in body weights, water intakes, haematological values, serum-enzyme activities, urinary concentration and 'dilution' tests, organ weights or histological findings. The no-untoward-effect level for carnauba wax in the diet was 10%, which represented a mean intake of approximately 8.8 and 10.2 g/kg body weight/day in males and females, respectively.

  13. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2012-01-01

    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  14. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Growth hormone aggregates in the rat adenohypophysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, M.; Hymer, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    Although it has been known for some time that GH aggregates are contained within the rat anterior pituitary gland, the role that they might play in pituitary function is unknown. The present study examines this issue using the technique of Western blotting, which permitted visualization of 11 GH variants with apparent mol wt ranging from 14-88K. Electroelution of the higher mol wt variants from gels followed by their chemical reduction with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. With the blot procedure we found 1) that GH aggregates greater than 44K were associated with a 40,000 x g sedimentable fraction; 2) that GH aggregates were not present in glands from thyroidectomized rats, but were in glands from the thyroidectomized rats injected with T4; 3) that GH aggregates were uniquely associated with a heavily granulated somatotroph subpopulation isolated by density gradient centrifugation; and 4) that high mol wt GH forms were released from the dense somatotrophs in culture, since treatment of the culture medium with beta-mercaptoethanol increased GH immunoassayability by about 5-fold. Taken together, the results show that high mol wt GH aggregates are contained in secretory granules of certain somatotrophs and are also released in aggregate form from these cells in vitro.

  16. Visual Categorization of Natural Movies by Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. PMID:25100598

  17. Visual categorization of natural movies by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Kasper; Vermaercke, Ben; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-08-06

    Visual categorization of complex, natural stimuli has been studied for some time in human and nonhuman primates. Recent interest in the rodent as a model for visual perception, including higher-level functional specialization, leads to the question of how rodents would perform on a categorization task using natural stimuli. To answer this question, rats were trained in a two-alternative forced choice task to discriminate movies containing rats from movies containing other objects and from scrambled movies (ordinate-level categorization). Subsequently, transfer to novel, previously unseen stimuli was tested, followed by a series of control probes. The results show that the animals are capable of acquiring a decision rule by abstracting common features from natural movies to generalize categorization to new stimuli. Control probes demonstrate that they did not use single low-level features, such as motion energy or (local) luminance. Significant generalization was even present with stationary snapshots from untrained movies. The variability within and between training and test stimuli, the complexity of natural movies, and the control experiments and analyses all suggest that a more high-level rule based on more complex stimulus features than local luminance-based cues was used to classify the novel stimuli. In conclusion, natural stimuli can be used to probe ordinate-level categorization in rats. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410645-14$15.00/0.

  18. Metabolism and pharmacokinetics of rhynchophylline in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Chao-Mei; Hattori, Masao

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloid, rhynchophylline (RHY), from the stems and hooks of Uncaria rhynchophylla was revealed in recent years to have protective effect on neuronal damage. The present research was carried out to investigate the in vivo metabolism of this bioactive alkaloid. After administering RHY to rats, LC-MS detected RHY in plasma, bile, brain, urine and feces, the glucuronides, 11-hydroxyrhynchophylline 11-O-beta-D-glucuronide (M1) and 10-hydroxyrhynchophylline 10-O-beta-D-glucuronide (M2) in bile, and 11-hydroxyrhynchophylline (M3) and 10-hydroxyrhynchophylline (M4) in urine and feces. Within 24 h, 78.0% of RHY was excreted into the feces and 12.6% into the urine of rats after oral administration of 37.5 mg/kg. Monitoring by LC-MS showed that 9.4% of RHY was metabolized to M3 and M4 in a ratio of about 1 : 1. RHY was also detected in the brain (0.650 ng/g) at 3 h after oral administration of the same dose. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) in rat liver microsomes played a key role in RHY hydroxylation. Specific inhibition of CYP isozymes indicated that CYP2D, CYP1A1/2 and CYP2C participated in RHY hydroxylation, but not CYP3A.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of dimethoate in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the harmful effects and biochemical changes caused by dimethoate, an organophosphorus insecticide, at two different doses which represents 1/50 of LD 5 0 (4.3 mg/kg body weight/day) or 1/10 of LD 5 0 (21.5 mg/kg body weight/day). After thirty days of daily oral administrations to male rats, serum total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein levels were estimated. Also, its toxic effects on serum total protein, albumin, globulin and glucose levels were studied. The glucose level at the early periods after the treatment with dimethoate using D-(U-I4C) glucose was studied. The results showed significant increases in serum total lipids, triglycerides, y-globulin and glucose levels. On the other hand, cholesterol, HDL, total protein and albumin levels in serum of rats were decreased after dimethoate treatment. In conclusion, the data obtained in the present study indicated that dimethoate has harmful effects on the parameters under investigation after thirty days of daily treatments and also on glucose level after few hours of its administration compared to control rats

  20. Remembering Operación Triunfo: a Latin Music Reality Show in the Era of Talent Shows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savini, Paola

    2016-01-01

    abstractThe music format Operación Triunfo (2001–2011), which aired on RTVE for the first time in 2001, started as a television (TV) and musical success in Spain and today is one of the most famous shows around the world as well as an incredible socio-economic phenomenon in Spanish TV. This paper

  1. Chronic intrathecal cannulation enhances nociceptive responses in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida F.R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chronically implanted spinal cannula on the nociceptive response induced by mechanical, chemical or thermal stimuli was evaluated. The hyperalgesia in response to mechanical stimulation induced by carrageenin or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 was significantly increased in cannulated (Cn rats, compared with naive (Nv or sham-operated (Sh rats. Only Cn animals presented an enhanced nociceptive response in the first phase of the formalin test when low doses were used (0.3 and 1%. The withdrawal latency to thermal stimulation of a paw inflamed by carrageenin was significantly reduced in Cn rats but not in Nv or Sh rats. In contrast to Nv and Sh rats, injection in Cn animals of a standard non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, either intraperitoneally or into the spinal cord via an implanted cannula or by direct puncture of the intrathecal space significantly blocked the intensity of the hyperalgesia induced by PGE2. Cannulated animals treated with indomethacin also showed a significant inhibition of second phase formalin-induced paw flinches. Histopathological analysis of the spinal cord showed an increased frequency of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the Cn groups. Thus, the presence of a chronically implanted cannula seems to cause nociceptive spinal sensitization to mechanical, chemical and thermal stimulation, which can be blocked by indomethacin, thus suggesting that it may result from the spinal release of prostaglandins due to an ongoing mild inflammation.

  2. Oxidative stress in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Verônica S P; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Thomé, Gustavo R; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Castro, Jorge L C; Costa, Márcio M; Graça, Dominguita L; Oliveira, Daniele C; Alves, Sydney H; Schetinger, Maria R C; Lopes, Sonia T A; Stefani, Lenita M; Azevedo, Maria I; Baldissera, Matheus D; Andrade, Cinthia M

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress occurs in rats experimentally infected by Sporothrix schenckii, and its possible effect on disease pathogenesis. Thirty rats were divided into two groups: the group A (uninfected, n = 18) and the group B (infected by S. schenckii, n=21). Blood samples were collected on days 15, 30 and 40 post-infection (PI). At each sampling time, six rats of the group A, and seven of the group B were bled. TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) levels in serum samples were measured to evaluate lipid peroxidation. In addition, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, known as biomarkers of antioxidants levels, were verified in whole blood. Seric pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were measured (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6), which showed that these inflammatory mediators were at higher levels in the infected rats (P sporotrichosis showed significantly higher (p sporotrichosis is a likely mechanism for redox imbalance, and consequently cause the oxidative stress in experimentally infected rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nickel Nanoparticles Exposure and Reproductive Toxicity in Healthy Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kong

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH, and lowered etradiol (E2 serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  4. Melatonin Alleviates Liver Apoptosis in Bile Duct Ligation Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Li, Shih-Wen; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-08-20

    Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats display cholestasis and liver damages. The potential protective activity of melatonin in young BDL rats in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has not yet been evaluated. Three groups of young male Sprague-Dawley rats were used: one group received laparotomy (Sham), a second group received BDL for two weeks (BDL), and a third group received BDL and intraperitoneal melatonin (100 mg/day) for two weeks (BDL + M). BDL group rats showed liver apoptosis, increased pro-inflamamtory mediators, caspases alterations, anti-apoptotic factors changes, and dysfunction of ER homeostasis. Melatonin effectively reversed apoptosis, mainly through intrinsic pathway and reversed ER stress. In addition, in vitro study showed melatonin exerted its effect mainly through the melatonin 2 receptor (MT2) in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, BDL in young rats caused liver apoptosis. Melatonin rescued the apoptotic changes via the intrinsic pathway, and possibly through the MT2 receptor. Melatonin also reversed ER stress induced by BDL.

  5. Hypoglycemic effect of instant aloe vera on the diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Instant aloe vera contains phenolic compounds which has antioxidative activity. However, this product is hygroscopic and damaged easily during storage. The critical condition of the instant occurs at the moisture content of 12.52 ± 0.24% (wb. Increasing the moisture content could accelerate oxidation of the phenolic compounds, thus decrease the antioxidative activity. Previous research showed that the antioxidative activity of instant aloe vera could lower the blood glucose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of instant aloe vera during storage until the critical condition. The hypoglycemic effect was determined with the in vivo method using diabetic Wistar rats as experimental animals. The diabetic rats were fed with a standard feed combined with instant aloe vera which has been stored at various storage time i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks and used normal rats fed without instant aloe vera as a control. The blood glucose was analyzed every week until 4 weeks. The research showed that the diabetic rats fed with standard feed without instant aloe vera had high blood glucose (219.40 mg/dL after 4 weeks treatment. Otherwise, the blood glucose of diabetic rats fed with instant aloe vera decreased from 214.00 mg/dL to 97.57 mg/dL after 4 weeks.

  6. Neuronal Function in Male Sprague Dawley Rats During Normal Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, A J; Olatunji-Bello, I I; Olagunju, J A

    2017-03-06

    During normal ageing, there are physiological changes especially in high energy demanding tissues including the brain and skeletal muscles. Ageing may disrupt homeostasis and allow tissue vulnerability to disease. To establish an appropriate animal model which is readily available and will be useful to test therapeutic strategies during normal ageing, we applied behavioral approaches to study age-related changes in memory and motor function as a basis for neuronal function in ageing in male Sprague Dawley rats. 3 months, n=5; 6 months, n=5 and 18 months, n=5 male Sprague Dawley Rats were tested using the Novel Object Recognition Task (NORT) and the Elevated plus Maze (EPM) Test. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The results showed an age-related gradual decline in exploratory behavior and locomotor activity with increasing age in 3 months, 6 months and 18 months old rats, although the values were not statistically significant, but grooming activity significantly increased with increasing age. Importantly, we established a novel finding that the minimum distance from the novel object was statistically significant between 3 months and 18 months old rats and this may be an index for age-related memory impairment in the NORT. Altogether, we conclude that the male Sprague Dawley rat show age-related changes in neuronal function and may be a useful model for carrying out investigations into the mechanisms involved in normal ageing.

  7. EVALUATIN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ACTIVITY OF SONCHUS ASPER L. IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Alamgeer; Ahmad, Taseer; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Ahsan, Haseeb; Naz, Huma; Asif, Hira; Younis, Waqas; Tabassum, Nazia

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of aerial parts of Sonchus asper L. in normotensive, glucose and egg feed diet induced hypertensive rats. Aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper in 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses was studied in normotensive and glucose induced hypertensive rats using the non-invasive technique. The results obtained showed that the extract has significantly (p < 0.5 - p < 0.001) decreased the blood pressure and heart rate in dose dependent manner. The dose 1000 mg/kg of the extract produced the maximum antihypertensive effect and was selected for further experiments. The extract was found to prevent the rise in blood pressure of egg and glucose fed rats as compared to control group in 21 days study. The LD50 of the plant extract was 3500 mg/kg b.w. in mice and sub-chronic toxicity study showed that there was no significant alteration in the blood chemistry of the extract treated rats. It is conceivable, therefore, that the aqueous-methanolic extract of Sonchus asper has exerted considerable antihypertensive activity in rats and has duly supported traditional medicinal use of plant in hypertension.

  8. Nickel nanoparticles exposure and reproductive toxicity in healthy adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lu; Tang, Meng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Dayong; Hu, Ke; Lu, Weiqi; Wei, Chao; Liang, Geyu; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-11-17

    Nickel is associated with reproductive toxicity. However, the reproductive toxicity of nickel nanoparticles (Ni NPs) is unclear. Our goal was to determine the association between nickel nanoparticle exposure and reproductive toxicity. According to the one-generation reproductive toxicity standard, rats were exposed to nickel nanoparticles by gavage and we selected indicators including sex hormone levels, sperm motility, histopathology, and reproductive outcome etc. Experimental results showed nickel nanoparticles increased follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and lowered etradiol (E2) serum levels at a dose of 15 and 45 mg/kg in female rats. Ovarian lymphocytosis, vascular dilatation and congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, and increase in apoptotic cells were found in ovary tissues in exposure groups. For male rats, the weights decreased gradually, the ratio of epididymis weight over body weight increased, the motility of rat sperm changed, and the levels of FSH and testosterone (T) diminished. Pathological results showed the shedding of epithelial cells of raw seminiferous tubule, disordered arrangement of cells in the tube, and the appearance of cell apoptosis and death in the exposure group. At the same time, Ni NPs resulted in a change of the reproductive index and the offspring development of rats. Further research is needed to elucidate exposure to human populations and mechanism of actions.

  9. Perforating pilomatrixoma showing atypical presentation: A rare clinical variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevra Seyhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma, also known as calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a rare benign skin tumor arising from hair follicle stem cells. The most common localization is the head and neck region. Female/male ratio is 3/2. It shows deep subcutaneous placement and occurs in the first two decades of life. Its diameter ranges from 0.5 cm to 3 cm. Multiple lesions are rarely seen. Histopathologically it is characterized by basoloid and ghost cells. Perforating type is a rare clinical variant. Treatment is surgical excision. Our case is presented to draw attention to a rare clinical variant of pilomatrixioma.

  10. PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  11. Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails

    OpenAIRE

    Bauke, Heiko; Mertens, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Tossing a coin is the most elementary Monte Carlo experiment. In a computer the coin is replaced by a pseudo random number generator. It can be shown analytically and by exact enumerations that popular random number generators are not capable of imitating a fair coin: pseudo random coins show more heads than tails. This bias explains the empirically observed failure of some random number generators in random walk experiments. It can be traced down to the special role of the value zero in the ...

  12. Model shows future cut in U.S. ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A joint U.S. auto-oil industry research program says modeling shows that changing gasoline composition can reduce ozone levels for Los Angeles in 2010 and for New York City and Dallas-Fort Worth in 2005. The air quality modeling was based on vehicle emissions research data released late last year (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 20). The effort is sponsored by the big three auto manufacturers and 14 oil companies. Sponsors the cars and small trucks account for about one third of ozone generated in the three cities studied but by 2005-10 will account for only 5-9%

  13. The use of computerized tomography in patients showing tardive dyskinesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Themelis, I.

    1983-01-01

    29 patients showing moderate to markedly pronounced tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a further 29 control patients (C) under a similar long-term medication with neuroleptics that had been so chosen as to match the age and sex distributions of the former group were subjected to computered tomography, neurological examination and psychological testing. The results did not point to any correlations between the structural changes and duration of treatment and the clinical signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder. This was taken as further evidence in support of the theory that the initial damage in tardive dyskinesia mainly is at the level of the basal ganglia. (orig./MG) [de

  14. DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  15. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  16. MRI and morphological observation in C6 glioma model rats and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Yuan Bo; Wang Hao; Lu Jin; Yuan Changji; Ma Yue; Tong Dan; Zhang Kun; Gao Feng; Wu Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish stable and reliable rat C6 glioma model, and to perform MRI dynamic observation and pathomorphological observation in model animal brain, and to provide experimental basis for pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. Methods: The C6 glioma cells were cultured and 20 μL cultural fluid containing 1×10 6 C6 cells was sterotactically implanted into the left caudate nuclei in 10 male Wistar rats, respectively. The changes in the behavior of the rats after implantation were observed and recorded. MRI dynamic scanning was performed in 10 rats 2, 3 and 4 weeks after implantation and the brain tissues were taken for general and pathological examination when the 10 rats were naturally dead. The survival period of tumor-bearing rats was calculated. Results: 2 weeks after implantation the rats showed decreased activities and food intake, fur lackluster, and conjunctival congestion and so on; 3 weeks later, some rats appeared nerve symptoms such as body twitch, body hemiplegy, body distortion, rotation and so on. All the 10 rats died in 8-30 d. The median survival period of the tumor-bearing rats was 18 d, the average survival period was (18.3±7.3) d. The pathological examination showed that the tumor cells were arranged irregularly closely and karyokinesis was easy to see; tumor vascular tissue proliferation and tumor invasive growth into surrounding normal tissues were found. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was positive in the tumors. Conclusion: A stable animal model of intracranial glioma is successfully established by stereotactic implantation of C6 cells into the rat caudate nucleus. The results of MRI dynamic observation and pathohistological observation on the model animal brain tissue. Can provide experimental basis for selecting the appropriate time window to perform the pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. (authors)

  17. Reproductive experience modified dendritic spines on cortical pyramidal neurons to enhance sensory perception and spatial learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jeng-Rung; Lim, Seh Hong; Chung, Sin-Cun; Lee, Yee-Fun; Wang, Yueh-Jan; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Wang, Tsyr-Jiuan

    2017-01-27

    Behavioral adaptations during motherhood are aimed at increasing reproductive success. Alterations of hormones during motherhood could trigger brain morphological changes to underlie behavioral alterations. Here we investigated whether motherhood changes a rat's sensory perception and spatial memory in conjunction with cortical neuronal structural changes. Female rats of different statuses, including virgin, pregnant, lactating, and primiparous rats were studied. Behavioral test showed that the lactating rats were most sensitive to heat, while rats with motherhood and reproduction experience outperformed virgin rats in a water maze task. By intracellular dye injection and computer-assisted 3-dimensional reconstruction, the dendritic arbors and spines of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were revealed for closer analysis. The results showed that motherhood and reproductive experience increased dendritic spines but not arbors or the lengths of the layer III and V pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, lactating rats had a higher incidence of spines than pregnant or primiparous rats. The increase of dendritic spines was coupled with increased expression of the glutamatergic postsynaptic marker protein (PSD-95), especially in lactating rats. On the basis of the present results, it is concluded that motherhood enhanced rat sensory perception and spatial memory and was accompanied by increases in dendritic spines on output neurons of the somatosensory cortex and CA1 hippocampus. The effect was sustained for at least 6 weeks after the weaning of the pups.

  18. Influence of estrogen replacement and aging on the expression of nerve growth factor in the urethra of female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchi, Eliana V M; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna I K; Castro, Rodrigo A; Takano, Claudia C; Simões, Manuel J; Girão, Manoel J B C; Sartori, Marair G F

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the urethra of adult female rats in different hormonal status using immunohistochemical assay. Forty-eight rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia) from the CEDEME-UNIFESP laboratory animal facility were used in the study. Rats were divided into four groups: group A, 12 non-neutered rats; group B, 12 oophorectomized rats; group C, 12 castrated rats treated with 17β-estradiol for 30 days; and group D, 12 aging rats. Animals were killed by lethal injection and their urethra was removed. NGF expression was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry using mouse monoclonal primary IgG antibody anti-NGF diluted 1:600, and read under 400× magnification. Digital analysis of the images was done by Imagelab software. The intensity of the dark brown color was used as a measure of NGF cytoplasmatic expression, and was used to quantify the percentage of epithelial and muscular layer cells showing this neurotrophin. After oophorectomy, rats showed a significant increase in NGF expression in the periurethral muscular layer. Compared with oophorectomized rats, NGF expression increased in the epithelial layer and diminished in the periurethral smooth muscle following estrogen administration. In 18-month-old rats, NGF expression was diminished in both epithelial and muscular layers. Hormonal status led to significant differences in NGF protein expression in urethral epithelium and periurethral smooth muscle. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  20. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  1. [How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.

  2. Double polymer sheathed carbon nanotube supercapacitors show enhanced cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqi; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Chunhui; Wu, Shiting; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Yibin

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices.Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05978j

  3. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  4. Fish kidney cells show higher tolerance to hyperosmolality than amphibian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Gui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to fish, amphibians inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. To better understand osmoregulation in fish and amphibian, we have investigated the morphological changes in kidney cells to osmotic stress. To address this, kidney cell line isolated from the freshwater grass carp (CIK and Chinese giant salamander (GSK were challenged to different mediums with distinct osmotic pressures (100, 300 and 700 mOsm. Morphological alterations of the fish and amphibian cells were compared by optical and electron microscopy. Following hyposmotic treatment (100 mOsm, both CIK and GSK cells became unhealthy and show condensed chromatin, swollen mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuole. Meanwhile, after hyperosmotic treatment (700 mOsm, shrunken CIK cells with multipolar shape, pale or lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed chromatin, vacuoles and swollen mitochondria were detected. GSK cells were seriously damaged and most were completely lysed. The results suggest that fish kidney cells show a higher degree of tolerance to hyperosmoticity by comparing to amphibians and provide novel insights on the osmoregulatory capacity and adaptability of kidney cells between the two animal groups.

  5. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  6. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  8. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  9. Talk shows, fascinación o rechazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Acevedo Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infidelidades, odio, violencia, alcoholismo, mentira y traiciones, entre otras debilidades humanas, han pasado a formar parte de las programaciones de televisión en América Latina, durante la década de los 90 a través de los programas de Talk Shows. Cristina, El Padre Alberto, Laura en América, Mary Tere, entre los más vistos. Da cuenta de lo que hay detrás de estos programas; por qué se muestra la vida íntima; por qué se los dirige a sectores socioeconómicos bajos; por qué los excesos y degradación humana. Será que esta televisión basura está al servicio del poder.

  10. Machine-Learning-Based No Show Prediction in Outpatient Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Elvira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A recurring problem in healthcare is the high percentage of patients who miss their appointment, be it a consultation or a hospital test. The present study seeks patient’s behavioural patterns that allow predicting the probability of no- shows. We explore the convenience of using Big Data Machine Learning models to accomplish this task. To begin with, a predictive model based only on variables associated with the target appointment is built. Then the model is improved by considering the patient’s history of appointments. In both cases, the Gradient Boosting algorithm was the predictor of choice. Our numerical results are considered promising given the small amount of information available. However, there seems to be plenty of room to improve the model if we manage to collect additional data for both patients and appointments.

  11. Showing Off in Humans: Male Generosity as a Mating Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Iredale

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined people's charity contributions while in the presence of an observer of the same sex, opposite sex, or no observer. Inspired by costly signaling theory, we hypothesized that men would be more generous in the presence of a potential mate. Men and women played a number of experimental games in which they could earn money. On completion of these games participants were asked what percentage of their earned money they would be willing to donate to charity. Our results show that men contribute more to charity when observed by a member of the opposite sex than by a member of the same sex or no observer. Conversely, female charity donations did not significantly vary across the three observer conditions. Findings support the notion that men's generosity might have evolved as a mating signal.

  12. KAKO PREDŠKOLSKA DJECA VIDE "BIG BROTHER" SHOW?

    OpenAIRE

    Janković, Andrea; Sindik, Joško; Jaman, Kamea

    2007-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja bio je ispitivanje nekih karakteristika gledanosti Big Brother show-a kod djece predškolske dobi, razloga gledanja te emisije, s aspekta preferiranih sadržaja emisije te ličnosti (kandidata) koje preferiraju djeca. Ispitan je prigodni uzorak djece srednje i starije vrtićke dobi iz 3 dječja vrtića iz Zagreba (Dječjeg vrtića Grigora Viteza i Dječjeg vrtića "Maksimir" i "Trnoružica", N = 142). Utvrđene su čestine razloga preferencije pojedinih sudionika show–a te pojedinih s...

  13. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    bachelor program, followed by two years of master studies. The courses are offered equally to students from other design disciplines, e.g. industrial design. Teaching is mainly in English as the program is attended by a relatively large group of non-Danish students, who seek exactly this combination......3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...

  14. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Hyung; Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca 2+ /CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

  15. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  16. Prestin shows divergent evolution between constant frequency echolocating bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Avila-Flores, Rafael; Liu, Yang; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-10-01

    The gene Prestin encodes a motor protein that is thought to confer the high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity that characterizes the mammalian auditory system. Recent research shows that the Prestin gene has undergone a burst of positive selection on the ancestral branch of the Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats (Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, respectively), and also on the branch leading to echolocating cetaceans. Moreover, these two groups share a large number of convergent amino acid sequence replacements. Horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats exhibit narrowband echolocation, in which the emitted calls are based on the second harmonic of a predominantly constant frequency (CF) component, the frequency of which is also over-represented in the cochlea. This highly specialized form of echolocation has also evolved independently in the neotropical Parnell's mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii). To test whether the convergent evolution of CF echolocation between lineages has arisen from common changes in the Prestin gene, we sequenced the Prestin coding region (~2,212 bp, >99% coverage) in P. parnellii and several related species that use broadband echolocation calls. Our reconstructed Prestin gene tree and amino acid tree showed that P. parnellii did not group together with Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats, but rather clustered within its true sister species. Comparisons of sequences confirmed that P. parnellii shared most amino acid changes with its congeners, and we found no evidence of positive selection in the branch leading to the genus of Pteronotus. Our result suggests that the adaptive changes seen in Prestin in horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats are not necessary for CF echolocation in P. parnellii.

  17. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  18. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T E; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Dollinger, G; Schmid, E

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

  19. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  20. Energy expenditures & physical activity in rats with chronic suboptimal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-optimally nourished rats show reduced growth, biochemical and physiological changes. However, no one has assessed metabolic rate adaptations in rats subjected to chronic suboptimal nutrition (CSN. In this study energy expenditure (EE; kcal/100 g body weight and physical activity (PA; oscillations in weight/min/kg body weight were assessed in rats subjected to three levels of CSN. Results Body weight gain was diminished (76.7 ± 12.0 and 61.6 ± 11.0 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of the ad-libitum fed controls which gained more weight (148.5 ± 32.3 g. The rats fed 80% gained weight similarly to controls (136.3 ± 10.5 g. Percent Fat-free body mass was reduced (143.8 ± 8.7 and 142.0 ± 7.6 g in rats fed 70 and 60% of ad-libitum, but not in those fed 80% (200.8 ± 17.5 g as compared with controls (201.6 ± 33.4 g. Body fat (g decreased in rats fed 80% (19.7 ± 5.3, 70% (15.3 ± 3.5 and 60% (9.6 ± 2.7 of ad-libitum in comparison to controls (26.0 ± 6.7. EE and PA were also altered by CSN. The control rats increased their EE and PA during the dark periods by 1.4 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 1.1 respectively, as compared with light the period; whereas CSN rats fed 80 and 70% of ad-libitum energy intake had reduced EE and PA during the dark periods as compared with the light period EE(7.5 ± 1.4 and 7.8 ± 0.6 vs. 9.0 ± 1.2 and 9.7 ± 0.8; p Conclusion CSN rats adapt to mild energy restriction by reducing body fat, EE and PA mainly during the dark period while growth proceeds and lean body mass is preserved. At higher levels of energy restrictions there is decreased growth, body fat and lean mass. Moreover EE and PA are also reduced during both light and dark periods.

  1. Intermittent hypoxia in obese Zucker rats: cardiometabolic and inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briançon-Marjollet, Anne; Monneret, Denis; Henri, Marion; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Totoson, Perle; Cachot, Sandrine; Faure, Patrice; Godin-Ribuot, Diane

    2016-11-01

    obese rats and increased cardiac endothelin-1 in lean but not obese rats. In conclusion, this study shows that the dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance induced by obesity of genetic origin does not enhance the deleterious cardiovascular response to IH and may even partly protect against IH-induced inflammation. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  2. Small GSK-3 Inhibitor Shows Efficacy in a Motor Neuron Disease Murine Model Modulating Autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía de Munck

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive motor neuron degenerative disease that has no effective treatment up to date. Drug discovery tasks have been hampered due to the lack of knowledge in its molecular etiology together with the limited animal models for research. Recently, a motor neuron disease animal model has been developed using β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA, a neurotoxic amino acid related to the appearing of ALS. In the present work, the neuroprotective role of VP2.51, a small heterocyclic GSK-3 inhibitor, is analysed in this novel murine model together with the analysis of autophagy. VP2.51 daily administration for two weeks, starting the first day after L-BMAA treatment, leads to total recovery of neurological symptoms and prevents the activation of autophagic processes in rats. These results show that the L-BMAA murine model can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs. In addition, the results confirm the therapeutic potential of GSK-3 inhibitors, and specially VP2.51, for the disease-modifying future treatment of motor neuron disorders like ALS.

  3. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF PUNICA GRANATUM FLOWER ON BIOMARKERS AND ECG CHANGES IN ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib N.A; Patel Jignesh; Medi Swathi

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum flower (PG) against isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by studying cardiac markers and electrocardiographic changes. MI was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of ISO (150mg/kg b.w) at an interval of 24 hours for 2 days. ISO treated rats showed significant increase in cardiac markers such as Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatine kinase (CK-MB), Alanine aminotransfer...

  4. Protective effect of Kombucha tea on brain damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rat

    OpenAIRE

    Najmeh Kabiri; Mahbubeh Setorki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of Kombucha on cerebral damage induced by ischemia in rats (n=99). Cerebral infarct volume in the ischemic rats received Kombucha solution showed no significance alteration. However, the permeability of blood-brain barrier significantly decreased in both ischemic rats received 15 mg/kg Kombucha tea and Sham group. In addition, brain water content in the ischemic groups treated with Kombucha solution was significantly hi...

  5. Effect of liposome entrapped Cu/Zn bovine superoxide dismutase in rat after total body (neutron-gamma) irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamproglou, I.; Martin, S.; Lambert, F.; Fontanille, P.; Fessi, H.; Puisieux, F.; Colas-Linhart, N.; Bok, B.; Fatome, M.; Martin, C.

    1998-01-01

    Our purpose was, to study in rat the effects of (neutron-gamma) exposure and of LIPSOD treatment (liposomal Cu/Zn super-oxide dismutase) on cognitive functions. Our data demonstrate that whole-body irradiation induces in Sprague-Dawley rats some cognitive dysfunction. Treatment using LIPSOD corrects in a significantly way this trend. Moreover, in sham-irradiated rats, this treatment shows an inhibitory effect. (authors)

  6. Pumilio2-deficient mice show a predisposition for epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Follwaczny

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disease that is caused by abnormal hypersynchronous activities of neuronal ensembles leading to recurrent and spontaneous seizures in human patients. Enhanced neuronal excitability and a high level of synchrony between neurons seem to trigger these spontaneous seizures. The molecular mechanisms, however, regarding the development of neuronal hyperexcitability and maintenance of epilepsy are still poorly understood. Here, we show that pumilio RNA-binding family member 2 (Pumilio2; Pum2 plays a role in the regulation of excitability in hippocampal neurons of weaned and 5-month-old male mice. Almost complete deficiency of Pum2 in adult Pum2 gene-trap mice (Pum2 GT causes misregulation of genes involved in neuronal excitability control. Interestingly, this finding is accompanied by the development of spontaneous epileptic seizures in Pum2 GT mice. Furthermore, we detect an age-dependent increase in Scn1a (Nav1.1 and Scn8a (Nav1.6 mRNA levels together with a decrease in Scn2a (Nav1.2 transcript levels in weaned Pum2 GT that is absent in older mice. Moreover, field recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons show a tendency towards a reduced paired-pulse inhibition after stimulation of the Schaffer-collateral-commissural pathway in Pum2 GT mice, indicating a predisposition to the development of spontaneous seizures at later stages. With the onset of spontaneous seizures at the age of 5 months, we detect increased protein levels of Nav1.1 and Nav1.2 as well as decreased protein levels of Nav1.6 in those mice. In addition, GABA receptor subunit alpha-2 (Gabra2 mRNA levels are increased in weaned and adult mice. Furthermore, we observe an enhanced GABRA2 protein level in the dendritic field of the CA1 subregion in the Pum2 GT hippocampus. We conclude that altered expression levels of known epileptic risk factors such as Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and GABRA2 result in enhanced seizure susceptibility and manifestation of epilepsy in the

  7. Serotonin metabolism in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of serotonin in rat brain was studied by measuring specific activities of tryptophan in plasma and of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid and tryptophan in the brain after intravenous injection of tritiated tryptophan. For a detailed analysis of the specific activities, a computer simulation technique was used. It was found that only a minor part of serotonin in rat brain is synthesized from tryptophan rapidly transported from the blood. It is suggested that the brain tryptophan originates from brain proteins. It was also found that the serotonin in rat brain is divided into more than one metabolic compartment

  8. Reiki improves heart rate homeostasis in laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Ann Linda; Wagers, Christina; Schwartz, Gary E

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether application of Reiki to noise-stressed rats can reduce their heart rates (HRs) and blood pressures. In a previous study, we showed that exposure of rats to 90 dB white noise for 15 minutes caused their HRs and blood pressures to significantly increase. Reiki has been shown to significantly decrease HR and blood pressure in a small group of healthy human subjects. However, use of humans in such studies has the disadvantage that experimental interpretations are encumbered by the variable of belief or skepticism regarding Reiki. For that reason, noise-stressed rats were used as an animal model to test the efficacy of Reiki in reducing elevated HR and blood pressure. Three unrestrained, male Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with radiotelemetric transducers were exposed daily for 8 days to a 15-minute white noise regimen (90 dB). For the last 5 days, the rats received 15 minutes of Reiki immediately before the noise and during the noise period. The experiment was repeated on the same animals but using sham Reiki. The animals were housed in a quiet room in University of Arizona Animal Facility. Mean HRs and blood pressure were determined before Reiki/sham Reiki, during Reiki/sham Reiki, and during the noise in each case. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced HR compared to initial values. With Reiki, there was a high correlation between change in HR and initial HR, suggesting a homeostatic effect. Reiki, but not sham Reiki, significantly reduced the rise in HR produced by exposure of the rats to loud noise. Neither Reiki nor sham Reiki significantly affected blood pressure. Reiki is effective in modulating HR in stressed and unstressed rats, supporting its use as a stress-reducer in humans.

  9. Histopathological, Ultrastructural and Apoptotic Changes in Diabetic Rat Placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gül

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The exchange of substances between mother and fetus via the placenta plays a vital role during development. A number of developmental disorders in the fetus and placenta are observed during diabetic pregnancies. Diabetes, together with placental apoptosis, can lead to developmental and functional disorders. Aims: Histological, ultrastructural and apoptotic changes were investigated in the placenta of streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: In this study, a total of 12 female Wistar Albino rats (control (n=6 and diabetic (n=6 were used. Rats in the diabetic group, following the administration of a single dose of STZ, showed blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL after 72 hours. When pregnancy was detected after the rats were bred, two pieces of placenta and the fetuses were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy by cesarean incision under ketamine/xylazine anesthesia from in four rats from the control and diabetic groups. Placenta tissues were processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE and periodic acid Schiff-diastase (PAS-D staining for light microscopic and caspase-3 staining for immunohistochemical investigations were performed for each placenta. Electron microscopy was performed on thin sections contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead nitrate. Results: Weight gain in the placenta and fetuses of diabetic rats and thinning of the decidual layer, thickening of the hemal membrane, apoptotic bodies, congestion in intervillous spaces, increased PAS-D staining in decidual cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were observed in the diabetic group. After the ultrastructural examination, the apoptotic appearance of the nuclei of trophoblastic cells, edema and intracytoplasmic vacuolization, glycogen accumulation, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum and myelin figures were observed. In addition, capillary basement membrane thickening

  10. Effect of Weightlessness on Neutrophils and Lymphocytes of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khusi Muhammad Saqib, Zia-ur-Rahman1 and Saeed Ahmad Nagra2

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, two hundreds and forty healthy albino young (n=120 and old (n=120 rats were used during winter and summer season. Rats were divided into four groups in each season i.e. young and old, consisting of male (n=30 and female (n=30 in each age category. In each age  sex matched rats, three subgroups were made and have been given the name as cage control (CC group, horizontal restrained group (HR and head down suspended (HDS group. For winter season, the room temperature of experimental period ranged from 20 to 23°C and for summer season, the experimental room temperature ranged from 30 to 33°C. A 12 hours light/12 hours dark cycle with ad libitum food offered each day to an individual rats as well as fresh water (at normal temperature were provided every day from 9-10 h (morning Rats were decapitated on day 7th (n=5 and day 28th (n=5 of experimental period from all groups to collected the blood in a hepranized tubes for the estimation of lymphocytes and neutrophils. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed to estimate the difference between age, days, treatments and their possible interactions during each season. During winter and summer seasons, male and female rats did show a significant decrease in lymphocytes, however a significant increase in the neutrophils percent was also observed in the HR and HDS groups. During summer, a significant increase in neutrophils and a decrease in lymphocytes were observed in male and female rats of HR and HDS groups.

  11. Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Propolis in Gamma Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; El-Shahat, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to stimulate the generation of oxygen radicals which destabilize organic molecules resulting in a decrease of the system's antioxidant potential. Propolis (bee glue) is a complex mixture of natural substances that exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities. As the possibility exists that it may exert a radio protections role, the present study aimed to examine the preventive and therapeutic effects of propolis on the gamma irradiation-induced changes in antioxidant status and certain biochemical parameters. HPLC chromatography for analysis of propolis showed that the number of identified phenols was 6 compounds (natural antioxidants). Male albino rats were exposed to 6 Gy of gamma radiation. The efficiency of propolis was evaluated when propolis was administered orally to rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg as follow: non-irradiated rats received orally propolis extract for 6 weeks (positive control) and rats received orally propolis extract for 3 weeks before or after gamma irradiation. The obtained results revealed that propolis given to rats before gamma irradiation protect the hazardous effects of gamma irradiation. In addition, administration of propolis to gamma irradiated rats caused significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes (glutathion reductase; GR and catalase; CAT) and total antioxidant capacity associated with a remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Also, it significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum levels of glucose and liver enzymes; aminotransferases (AST, ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In addition, a significant improvement was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In conclusion, the positive results obtained in the gamma irradiated rats given propolis indicated that propolis could be considered as effective

  12. Physiological effects of some synthetic food colouring additives on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboel-Zahab, H; el-Khyat, Z; Sidhom, G; Awadallah, R; Abdel-al, W; Mahdy, K

    1997-11-01

    Three different synthetic chocolate colourant agents (A, B and C) were administered to healthy adult male albino rats for 30 and 60 day periods to evaluate their effects on body weight, blood picture, liver and kidney functions, blood glucose, serum and liver lipids, liver nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and growth hormone. In addition, histopathological examinations of liver, kidney and stomach sections were studied. These parameters were also investigated 30 days after colourant stoppage (post effect). Ingestion of colourant C (brown HT and indigocarmine) significantly decreased rat body weight, serum cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol fraction, while, T4 hormone, liver RNA content, liver enzymes (S. GOT, S. GPT and alkaline phosphatase), total protein and globulin fractions were significantly elevated. Significant increases were observed in serum total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, globulin and serum transaminases in rats whose diets were supplemented with chocolate colours A and B (sunset yellow, tartrazine, carmoisine and brilliant blue in varying concentrations). Haematological investigations demonstrated selective neutropenia and lymphocytosis with no significant alterations of total white blood cell counts in all rat groups, while haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts were significantly decreased in the rats who were administered food additives A and B. Eosinophilia was noted in rats fed on colourant A only. No changes were recorded for blood glucose, growth hormone and kidney function tests. Histopathological studies showed brown pigment deposition in the portal tracts and Van Küpffer cells of the liver as well as in the interstitial tissue and renal tubular cells of the kidney mainly induced by colourant A. Congested blood vessels and areas of haemorrhage in both liver and renal sections were revealed in those rats who were given colourants B and C. There were no-untoward-effects recorded in the

  13. Orally administered nicotine induces urothelial hyperplasia in rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodmane, Puttappa R.; Arnold, Lora L.; Pennington, Karen L.; Cohen, Samuel M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rats and mice orally administered with nicotine tartrate for total of 4 weeks. • No treatment-related death or whole body toxicity observed in any of the groups. • Urothelium showed simple hyperplasia in treated rats and mice. • No significant change in BrdU labeling index or SEM classification of urothelium. - Abstract: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for multiple human cancers including urinary bladder carcinoma. Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture containing chemicals that are known carcinogens in humans and/or animals. Aromatic amines a major class of DNA-reactive carcinogens in cigarette smoke, are not present at sufficiently high levels to fully explain the incidence of bladder cancer in cigarette smokers. Other agents in tobacco smoke could be excreted in urine and enhance the carcinogenic process by increasing urothelial cell proliferation. Nicotine is one such major component, as it has been shown to induce cell proliferation in multiple cell types in vitro. However, in vivo evidence specifically for the urothelium is lacking. We previously showed that cigarette smoke induces increased urothelial cell proliferation in mice. In the present study, urothelial proliferative and cytotoxic effects were examined after nicotine treatment in mice and rats. Nicotine hydrogen tartrate was administered in drinking water to rats (52 ppm nicotine) and mice (514 ppm nicotine) for 4 weeks and urothelial changes were evaluated. Histopathologically, 7/10 rats and 4/10 mice showed simple hyperplasia following nicotine treatment compared to none in the controls. Rats had an increased mean BrdU labeling index compared to controls, although it was not statistically significantly elevated in either species. Scanning electron microscopic visualization of the urothelium did not reveal significant cytotoxicity. These findings suggest that oral nicotine administration induced urothelial hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation), possibly due to a

  14. Young children show representational flexibility when interpreting drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa L; Nurmsoo, Erika; Freeman, Norman

    2016-02-01

    Drawings can be ambiguous and represent more than one entity. In three experiments, we examine whether young children show representational flexibility by allowing one picture to be called by a second name. We also evaluate the hypothesis that children who are representationally flexible see the artist's intention as binding, rather than changeable. In Experiment 1, an artist declared what she intended to draw (e.g. a balloon) but then produced an ambiguous drawing. Children were asked whether the drawings could be interpreted differently (e.g. 'could this be a lollipop?') in the presence of a perceptually similar or dissimilar distractor (e.g., lollipop or snake). Six-year-olds accepted two labels for drawings in both conditions, but four-year-olds only did so in the dissimilar condition. Experiment 2 probed each possible interpretation more deeply by asking property questions (e.g., 'does it float?, does it taste good?'). Preschoolers who understood that the ambiguous drawing could be given two interpretations nevertheless mostly endorsed only properties associated with the prior intent. Experiment 3 provided converging evidence that 4-year-olds were representationally flexible using a paradigm that did not rely upon modal questioning. Taken together, our results indicate that even 4-year-olds understand that pictures may denote more than one referent, they still think of the symbol as consistent with the artist's original intention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database ( n  = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten , while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  16. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  17. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiling Xu

    Full Text Available Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma.

  18. Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

  19. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  20. Active explorers show low learning performance in a social insect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eve UDINO; Margot PEREZ; Claudio CARERE; Patrizia d'ETTORRE

    2017-01-01

    An intriguing question in behavioral biology is whether consistent individual differences (called animal personalities) relate to variation in cognitive performance because commonly measured personality traits may be associated with risk-reward trade-offs.Social insects,whose learning abilities have been extensively characterized,show consistent behavioral variability,both at colony and at individual level.We investigated the possible link between personality traits and learning performance in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops.Exploratory activity,sociability,and aggression were assessed twice in ant foragers.Behaviors differed among individuals,they were partly repeatable across time and exploratory activity correlated positively with aggression.Learning abilities were quantified by differential conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response,a task that requires cue perception and information storage.We found that exploratory activity of individual ants significantly predicted learning performance:"active-explorers" were slower in learning the task than "inactive-explorers".The results suggest for the first time a link between a personality trait and cognitive performance in eusocial insects,and that the underlying individual variability could affect colony performance and success.

  1. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa; Gamarro, Francisco; Pérez-Victoria, José M

    2015-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz.   Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...

  3. Insect immunity shows specificity in protection upon secondary pathogen exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadd, Ben M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2006-06-20

    Immunological memory in vertebrates, conferring lasting specific protection after an initial pathogen exposure, has implications for a broad spectrum of evolutionary, epidemiological, and medical phenomena . However, the existence of specificity in protection upon secondary pathogen exposure in invertebrates remains controversial . To separate this functional phenomenon from a particular mechanism, we refer to it as specific immune priming. We investigate the presence of specific immune priming in workers of the social insect Bombus terrestris. Using three bacterial pathogens, we test whether a prior homologous pathogen exposure gives a benefit in terms of long-term protection against a later challenge, over and above a heterologous combination. With a reciprocally designed initial and second-exposure protocol (i.e., all combinations of bacteria were tested), we demonstrate, even several weeks after the clearance of a first exposure, increased protection and narrow specificity upon secondary exposure. This demonstrates that the invertebrate immune system is functionally capable of unexpectedly specific and durable induced protection. Ultimately, despite general broad differences between vertebrates and invertebrates, the ability of both immune systems to show specificity in protection suggests that their immune defenses have found comparable solutions to similar selective pressures over evolutionary time.

  4. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-02-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day(-1)), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to "total metal", the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  7. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  8. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Carter E; Todd, Douglas H; Binder, Scott W; Cassarino, David S

    2009-05-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with a solitary, erythematous, rapidly growing 1-cm nodule on his scalp that had arisen over the previous 3 months. He had no history of skin cancer. An excisional biopsy of the lesion showed a fairly well-circumscribed but focally invasive tumor consisting of areas of typical-appearing clear cell hidradenoma as well as areas with mucinous goblet-type cells and cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and decapitation-type secretion. There was marked cellular atypia, numerous atypical mitotic figures and focal necrosis. The tumor cells focally involved the overlying epidermis (Paget's disease). Large areas of mucin were identified throughout the lesion. The tumor cells stained with markers for cytokeratin 7 and focally for EMA and CEA, confirming ductal differentiation. The goblet cells and mucinous areas stained with mucicarmine and PASD. The patient was diagnosed with hidradenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation. Associated Paget's disease has only rarely been reported, and mucinous metaplasia is a previously unreported feature in hidradenocarcinoma.

  9. Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M; Mundry, Roger; Bodamer, Mark D

    2012-11-07

    Grooming handclasp (GHC) behaviour was originally advocated as the first evidence of social culture in chimpanzees owing to the finding that some populations engaged in the behaviour and others do not. To date, however, the validity of this claim and the extent to which this social behaviour varies between groups is unclear. Here, we measured (i) variation, (ii) durability and (iii) expansion of the GHC behaviour in four chimpanzee communities that do not systematically differ in their genetic backgrounds and live in similar ecological environments. Ninety chimpanzees were studied for a total of 1029 h; 1394 GHC bouts were observed between 2010 and 2012. Critically, GHC style (defined by points of bodily contact) could be systematically linked to the chimpanzee's group identity, showed temporal consistency both within and between groups, and could not be accounted for by the arm-length differential between partners. GHC has been part of the behavioural repertoire of the chimpanzees under study for more than 9 years (surpassing durability criterion) and spread across generations (surpassing expansion criterion). These results strongly indicate that chimpanzees' social behaviour is not only motivated by innate predispositions and individual inclinations, but may also be partly cultural in nature.

  10. Ameliorative effect of the sea cucumber Holothuria arenicola extract against gastric ulcer in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohair R. Fahmy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Holothuria arenicola is the most important and abundant sea cucumber species in the Mediterranean Sea on the Egyptian coast. This work aimed to investigate the prophylactic and the curative effects of H. arenicola extract HaE (200 mg/kg on gastric mucosal damage following indomethacin and cold stress in healthy rats. Sixty-four rats were randomly divided into four main groups. Rats of the first group (8 rats/group were administered distilled water orally (control group, rats of the second group (8 rats/group were administered single oral dose of indomethacin (150 mg/kg and exposed to cold stress (4 ± 1 °C for 30 min to induce gastric ulcer (GU model (ulcer group, rats of the third group, prophylactic group (24 rats/group were treated with HaE and/or ranitidine (RAN and then exposed to GU and rats of the fourth group, curative group (24 rats/group were exposed firstly to GU and then treated with HaE and/or RAN. The results clearly indicate that pre-treatment with HaE and/or ranitidine significantly decreases the ulcer index, showing 72.50%, 53.11% and 80.56% ulceration inhibition, respectively. However, post-treatment with HaE and/or ranitidine significantly decreases the ulcer index, showing 51.66%, 62.41% and 67.78% ulceration inhibition, respectively. The results also showed that pre and post-treatment with HaE and/or RAN significantly decreased gastric malondialdehyde (MDA level and enhanced reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase (CAT, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels. The results clearly indicate that pre-treatment with HaE is preferable.

  11. Clinical and pathological manifestations of cardiovascular disease in rat models: the influence of acute ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper shows that rat models of cardiovascular diseases have differential degrees of underlying pathologies at a young age. Rodent models of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and metabolic disorders are used for examining susceptibility variations to environmental exposures. How...

  12. Tart cherries improve working memory in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and...

  13. Effects of synbiotics on intestinal mucosal barrier in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xue

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Probiotics can improve the concentration of colonic probiotics, while synbiotics can improve probiotics concentration and mucosa thickness in colon, decrease L/M ratio and bacterial translocation. Synbiotics shows more protective effects on intestinal mucosal barrier in rats after cecectomy and gastrostomy and the intervention of specific antibiotics.

  14. Repeated Recall and PKM? Maintain Fear Memories in Juvenile Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Chicora F.; Kabitzke, Patricia; Serrano, Peter; Egan, Laura J.; Barr, Gordon A.; Shair, Harry N.; Wiedenmayer, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We examined the neural substrates of fear memory formation and maintenance when repeated recall was used to prevent forgetting in young animals. In contrast to adult rats, juveniles failed to show contextual fear responses at 4 d post-fear conditioning. Reconsolidation sessions 3 and 6 d after conditioning restored contextual fear responses in…

  15. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  16. Monitoring of gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulikova, E.; Sedlakova, A.; Praslicka, M.

    1984-01-01

    A dose dependent cumulation of liver glycogen with the maximum on the day 120 was observed as was an increased incorporation of 14 C-alanine in liver glycogen (statistically nonsignificant changes). The contribution of 14 C-acetate to gluconeogenesis was negligible. The results showed increased gluconeogenesis in rats following chronic gamma irradiation with small daily dose rates (0.0957 Gy)

  17. Formation of reactive oxygen species in rat epithelial cells upon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In our study, we investigated the influence of fly ash on the promotion of early inflammatory reactions like the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN). Furthermore, we determined the formation of nitric oxide (NO). The cells show a clear dose-response relationship concerning the ...

  18. Resistance to BN myelogenous leukemia in rat radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, D.E.; Haynor, D.R.; Williams, R.M

    1980-01-01

    Lewis → LBNFl rat radiation chimeras showed marked resistance to transplanted BN myelogenous leukemia when compared to naive LBNFl, LBNFl → LBNFl, or BN → LBNFl. This occurred in the absence of overt graft versus host disease or of anti-BN response in mixed lymphocyte culture. Bone marrow specific antigens may serve as the target of the resistance mechanism. (author)

  19. Municipal landfill leachates induced chromosome aberrations in rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and heavy metal analysis of the test samples showed that they contained high concentrations of toxic anions and cations that are capable of inducing mutation in living cells. The interaction of these constituents with the genetic material in the bone marrow cells of rat caused the observed chromosome ...

  20. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  1. Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz M. Saraiva-Romanholo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group, 12 asthmatics (Asthma group and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group. All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion, spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05. The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26] or the Control group [0.0 (0] (p <0.05; exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7] (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.

  2. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rinku; Harikrishnan, K.P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  3. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rinku, E-mail: rinku.jacob.vallanat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Harikrishnan, K.P., E-mail: kp_hk2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Misra, R., E-mail: rmisra@iucaa.in [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, 411007 (India); Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, 411008 (India)

    2016-08-12

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  4. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M. Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day"−"1), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to “total metal”, the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. - Highlights: • Low plant available zinc and copper concentrations in roadside soils of the southeast U.S. • Metals from vehicular traffic may not be adversely affecting plants in roadside environment. • Traffic volume and site age better predictor of metal pollution than traffic volume alone. - Mobile concentrations of Zn and Cu in roadside soils were below toxic levels. Zn and Cu concentrations were better correlated with lifetime vehicle load, as opposed to traffic volume.

  6. A case of osseous scintigraphy showing focuses of multifocal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faurous-Vanaud, R.; Faurous, P.; Kalfa, G.; Collet, H.; Couty, H.; Artus, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Incidence of tuberculosis in developed countries presents in the last years a spectacular boost. However, the osteo-articular system is afflicted by tuberculosis only in a few percent of cases and the multifocal character represents less than 5% of osseous tuberculosis. It is presented here a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis only to stress its rarity. A woman 28 years old from Djibouti presents since 8 months an asthenia and dorsal pains long thought as psychalgia. The examination has shown a major vertebral stiffness and limitation of right haunch. The radiographs showed a scoliosis centered on D8 with modifications. The biologic data are VS = 90, CRP = 124 and the hemogram is normal. The intradermal reaction (10 U of tuberculin) is phlyctenular. The TDM indicates lytic vertebral extension on D7 - D8, the osseous scintigraphy with MDP - 99 mTc indicates no anomaly in the vascular arrival time; a few minutes after injection: dorsal and upper and of right femur hyperactivity; 2 h after injection: hyper-fixation of D7 to D9 and of the upper end of right femur. The IRM indicates para-vertebral abscess of D7 to D9 with epidural abscess; abscess in the upper part of the loge of right adductors with osseous affliction of the femur's upper end; a bacillary infectious process was a priori evoked. The patient was then placed under quadruple antibiotic-therapy anti-tuberculous care. In case of anomalous multifocal osseous scintigraphy the tuberculous affliction is part of the differential diagnosis, particularly in the immigrant populations or in HIV+ persons

  7. Gluconeogenesis in rat placenta during foetal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagewadikar, R.S.; Sharma, C.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in glycogen levels in rat placenta have been correlated with gluconeogenesis in this tissue. Placental homogenate could synthesize substantial amounts of glucose from L-alanine-U- 14 C in early pregnancy. This has been substantiated by the observed enhancement in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Gluconeogenic activity in placenta could proceed till the foetal liver was able to take over this function. The increase or decrease in placental glycogen is concomitant with glycogen synthetase, but not phosphorylase, activity. The reversible catalytic properties of placental aldolase also show subtle functional changes during and late phases of gestation. (author)

  8. Gluconeogenesis in rat placenta during foetal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagewadikar, R S; Sharma, C; Nadkarni, G B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biochemistry and Food Technology Div.

    1977-01-01

    Variations in glycogen levels in rat placenta have been correlated with gluconeogenesis in this tissue. Placental homogenate could synthesize substantial amounts of glucose from L-alanine-U-/sup 14/C in early pregnancy. This has been substantiated by the observed enhancement in the activities of glucose 6-phosphatase, fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Gluconeogenic activity in placenta could proceed till the foetal liver was able to take over this function. The increase or decrease in placental glycogen is concomitant with glycogen synthetase, but not phosphorylase, activity. The reversible catalytic properties of placental aldolase also show subtle functional changes during and late phases of gestation.

  9. Parsley oil boosting anti oxidation capacity in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, M.M.; Osman, S.A.A.; Abu-Ghadeer, A.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Many synthetic antioxidant components have shown toxic and/or mutagenic effects, which have directed most of the attention on the naturally occurring antioxidants. The present study aims to evaluate the possible antioxidant effects of parsley on levels of lipid peroxides, glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood and certain tissues (liver, spleen and intestine) of whole body gamma irradiated rats (4.5 Gy). Parsley oil was orally administrated to rats (100 mg/kg bod. wt) for 7 days before radiation exposure. The data showed that parsley significantly ameliorates the decrease in the antioxidant system (GSH and SOD) and the increase in the lipid peroxides level caused by radiation exposure

  10. The reproductive dysfunction effects of gasoline inhalation in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwoke, C C; Nwobodo, E D; Unekwe, P; Odike, M; Chukwumai, S T; Amilo, G

    2005-01-01

    Daily exposure to fuel vapour may pose significant health risk to exposed individuals. Fifteen each of male and female albino rats weighing between 110-230g were divided into test (10) and control (5) groups each. The test animals; were exposed to inhalation gasoline for one hour daily for twenty-one consecutive days. All animals were then bled and the serum levels of the reproductive hormones determined. The results showed significant [P inhalation gasoline exposure significantly [P < 0.05] lowers the levels of reproductive hormones in albino rats and may thus interfere with reproduction.

  11. Substance P release from rat hypothalamus and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronheim, S.; Sheppard, M.C.; Pimstone, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for substance P has been developed to study the release of immunoreactive substance P from incubated rat hypothalamus and rat spinal cord in vitro. Release was significantly increased in the presence of two depolarizing stimuli (56 mM KCl and 75 μM veratrine) and was calcium-dependent. The released immunoreactive material diluted in parallel with synthetic substance P and showed close identity on Sephadex chromatography. A neuromodulator role for the peptide in the central nervous system is suggested

  12. Histopathological alterations in neonate after in utero irradiation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Gawad, I.I.

    2000-01-01

    Series of experiments were performed to study the histopathological changes induced in embryonic tissue during various stages of gestation in female rats after gamma irradiation. Pregnant rats were exposed to doses 0.5, 1,2 and 3 Gy on 9 th 12 th and 15 th days of gestation. Histopathological changes were detected in tissues of neonates, namely, liver ileum, kidney, brain, spleen, suprarenal, thymus, lungs and heart. These tissues showed variable degrees of radiation induced tissue changes. For quantifying these changes arbitrary scores were formulated to assess the type and severity of changes observed tissues of thirty six neonates randomly selected after radiation exposure of pregnant animals as scheduled

  13. Bacterial clearance after total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, R.G. E-mail: rmarques@uerj.br; Petroianu, Andy; Oliveira, M.B.N. de; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Portela, M.C

    2002-12-01

    Wistar rats submitted to isolated total splenectomy or total splenectomy combined with splenic autotransplantation were inoculated with {sup 99m}technetium-labeled Escherichia coli. Measurement of isotope uptake in the organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system showed a greater bacterial bloodstream clearance in rats with splenic autotransplantation. Although uptake of bacteria in the spleen was higher in the control group, the number of bacteria remaining in the bloodstream did not differ between groups. These results indicate that splenic autotransplantation preserves the phagocytic function of the spleen.

  14. Bacterial clearance after total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, R.G.; Petroianu, Andy; Oliveira, M.B.N. de; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Portela, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Wistar rats submitted to isolated total splenectomy or total splenectomy combined with splenic autotransplantation were inoculated with 99m technetium-labeled Escherichia coli. Measurement of isotope uptake in the organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system showed a greater bacterial bloodstream clearance in rats with splenic autotransplantation. Although uptake of bacteria in the spleen was higher in the control group, the number of bacteria remaining in the bloodstream did not differ between groups. These results indicate that splenic autotransplantation preserves the phagocytic function of the spleen

  15. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Lu, Ying; Jüttner, René; Smith, Ewan St J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  16. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  17. "The show must go on!" Beserings van dramastudente tydens opleiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Deacon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "THE SHOW MUST GO ON!" LIABILITY WHEN IT COMES TO DRAMA STUDENTS WHEN INJURED WHILE IN TRAININGThis article emphasises the uncertainty in the relationship between a student undergoing practical training and his/her lecturer or university, if the student should be injured and wants to claim compensation. One must first establish whether the student can be described as an employee of the lecturer or university, or as a vocational worker or independent contractor. Once the status of the student has been established, the relevant legislation can be determined, whether it is the Labour Relations Act or the Basic Conditions of Employment. It is, however, not that simple and a person in the capacity of a student does not accord with the definition of an employee or an independent contractor or a vocational worker. One will have to rely on the assumption in section 83A in the Basic Conditions of Employment that a student is an employee when he does practical training for the benefit of the university. The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires employers to assure that the workplace is a safe environment for employees, with the minimum risks involved. The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act makes it possible for an employee to claim compensation when such a risk becomes a reality.This article also tries to compare the situation of a student sports person injured while participating in university sports, and a drama student injured during a performance or rehearsal of a play. It is stated that the relationship between the drama student and lecturer is similar to the relationship between a sports person and his/her coach, but the relationship differs in that a sports person’s risk of getting hurt is much greater than that of a drama student, The contracts between sports players and their authorities are also stipulated in much more detail than the contracts (if any between the drama students and the university. It is concluded

  18. Calorie restriction attenuates cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Miwa; Nakashima, Chieko; Takahashi, Keiji; Murase, Tamayo; Hattori, Takuya; Ito, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2013-11-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) can modulate the features of obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently characterized DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats develop hypertension and manifest left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, as well as increased cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. We have now investigated the effects of CR on cardiac pathophysiology in DS/obese rats. DS/obese rats were fed either normal laboratory chow ad libitum or a calorie-restricted diet (65% of the average food intake for ad libitum) from 9 to 13 weeks. Age-matched homozygous lean (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+) or DS/lean) littermates served as controls. CR reduced body weight in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats, as well as attenuated the development of hypertension in DS/obese rats without affecting blood pressure in DS/lean rats. CR also reduced body fat content, ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, and attenuated cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation in DS/obese rats. In addition, it increased serum adiponectin concentration, as well as downregulated the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1A receptor genes in the heart of DS/obese rats. Our results thus show that CR attenuated obesity and hypertension, as well as left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in DS/obese rats, with these latter effects being associated with reduced cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation.

  19. Alterations of the tunica vasculosa lentis in the rat model of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Tara L; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Munro, Robert J; Beck, Susanne C; Garcia Garrido, Marina; Seide, Christina; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Hansen, Ronald M; Fulton, Anne B; Seeliger, Mathias W; Akula, James D

    2013-08-01

    To study the relationship between retinal and tunica vasculosa lentis (TVL) disease in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Although the clinical hallmark of ROP is abnormal retinal blood vessels, the vessels of the anterior segment, including the TVL, are also altered. ROP was induced in Long-Evans pigmented and Sprague Dawley albino rats; room-air-reared (RAR) rats served as controls. Then, fluorescein angiographic images of the TVL and retinal vessels were serially obtained with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope near the height of retinal vascular disease, ~20 days of age, and again at 30 and 64 days of age. Additionally, electroretinograms (ERGs) were obtained prior to the first imaging session. The TVL images were analyzed for percent coverage of the posterior lens. The tortuosity of the retinal arterioles was determined using Retinal Image multiScale Analysis (Gelman et al. in Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46:4734-4738, 2005). In the youngest ROP rats, the TVL was dense, while in RAR rats, it was relatively sparse. By 30 days, the TVL in RAR rats had almost fully regressed, while in ROP rats, it was still pronounced. By the final test age, the TVL had completely regressed in both ROP and RAR rats. In parallel, the tortuous retinal arterioles in ROP rats resolved with increasing age. ERG components indicating postreceptoral dysfunction, the b-wave, and oscillatory potentials were attenuated in ROP rats. These findings underscore the retinal vascular abnormalities and, for the first time, show abnormal anterior segment vasculature in the rat model of ROP. There is delayed regression of the TVL in the rat model of ROP. This demonstrates that ROP is a disease of the whole eye.

  20. Relationship between blood-retinal barrier development and formation of selenite nuclear cataract in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between development of blood-retinal barrier and formation of selenite nuclear cataract in rat. METHODS: Activity of GPx, MDA level in lens and selenium content in the eyeballs of different ages rats were determined. Besides, lanthanum hydroxide \\〖La(OH3\\〗 tracer method was used to detect development status of blood-retina barrier at different ages. RESULTS: The result showed that the enzyme activity of GPx was highest in young rats before open eyes, but then decreased gradually with age. Distribution of La(OH3 in retinal pigment epithelial layer of 20-day-old rats was significantly less than 11-day-old rats. Injecting sodium selenite to 9-day-old rats, lanthanum hydroxide increased obviously and extended to the inner layers of the retina after 48h, and the retinal pigment epithelial layer was damaged seriously; while injecting sodium selenite to 18-day-old rats with the same dose, number of lanthanum hydroxide decreased significantly and did not extend to the inner layer after 48h.Before opening eyes, the content of MDA in the lens of rats was the highest, and decreased significantly after opening eyes. The Se group was 5 times as that of the control group. Besides, in these groups of rats, selenium content in the eyeballs and MDA level in the lens were in agreement with the change of La(OH3 distribution. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that antioxidant capacity in the eyelid unopened rats is not the main reason for selenite induced cataract formation. The real reason is that blood-retina barrier development is not mature in the eyelid unopened rats.