WorldWideScience

Sample records for vlpo-lesioned rats showed

  1. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid A-receptor antagonist on sleep-wakefulness cycles following lesion to the ventrolateral preoptic area in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zhang; Yina Sun; Peng Xie; Xuguang Yang; Yiping Hou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurons expressing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an important role in the regulation of wakefulness to sleep, as well as the maintenance of sleep. However, the role of GABAergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMn), with regard to the sleep-wakefulness cycle, is poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of GABAergic neurons in the TMn on the sleep-wakefulness cycle.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized controlled study, performed at the Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University from July 2007 to February 2008.MATERIALS: Fifteen healthy, adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups(n = 5): control, ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) lesion, and VLPO lesion plus GABAA receptor antagonist-treated. Ibotenic acid and bicuculline were provided by Sigma (St. Louis, USA). METHODS: Four electroencephalogram screw electrodes were implanted into the skull at a frontal region (two) and parietal bones (two) on each side. Three flexible electromyogram wire electrodes were placed into the nuchal muscles. On day 8, a fine glass micropipette (10-20 mm tip diameter) containing ibotenic acid solution (10 nmol/L) was injected into the VLPO in both hemispheres following bone wax removal under anesthesia. One week after the second surgery, sleep-wakefulness states were recorded in rats from the VLPO lesion group. On day 10 after VLPO lesion, bicuculline (10 nmol/L), a GABAA-receptor antagonist, was microinjected into the TMn and sleep-wakefulness states were recorded for 24 hours.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Duration of the sleep-wakefulness cycle in each group using a Data acquisition unit (Micro1 401 mk2) and Data collection software (Spike Ⅱ). RESULTS: VLPO lesion induced an increased duration of wakefulness (W, 13.17%) and light slow-wave sleep (SWS1, 28.9%), respectively. Deep slow-wave sleep (SWS2, 43.74%) and paradoxical sleep (PS

  2. Immature rats show ovulatory defects similar to those in adult rats lacking prostaglandin and progesterone actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Criado Jose E

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gonadotropin-primed immature rats (GPIR constitute a widely used model for the study of ovulation. Although the equivalence between the ovulatory process in immature and adult rats is generally assumed, the morphological and functional characteristics of ovulation in immature rats have been scarcely considered. We describe herein the morphological aspects of the ovulatory process in GPIR and their response to classical ovulation inhibitors, such as the inhibitor of prostaglandin (PG synthesis indomethacin (INDO and a progesterone (P receptor (PR antagonist (RU486. Immature Wistar rats were primed with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG at 21, 23 or 25 days of age, injected with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later, and sacrificed 16 h after hCG treatment, to assess follicle rupture and ovulation. Surprisingly, GPIR showed age-related ovulatory defects close similar to those in adult rats lacking P and PG actions. Rats primed with eCG at 21 or 23 days of age showed abnormally ruptured corpora lutea in which the cumulus-oocyte complex (COC was trapped or had been released to the ovarian interstitum, invading the ovarian stroma and blood and lymphatic vessels. Supplementation of immature rats with exogenous P and/or PG of the E series did not significantly inhibit abnormal follicle rupture. Otherwise, ovulatory defects were practically absent in rats primed with eCG at 25 days of age. GPIR treated with INDO showed the same ovulatory alterations than vehicle-treated ones, although affecting to a higher proportion of follicles. Blocking P actions with RU486 increased the number of COC trapped inside corpora lutea and decreased ovulation. The presence of ovulatory defects in GPIR, suggests that the capacity of the immature ovary to undergo the coordinate changes leading to effective ovulation is not fully established in Wistar rats primed with eCG before 25 days of age.

  3. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  4. Male Wistar rats show individual differences in an animal model of conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Jolle W; de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud

    2011-09-01

    Conformity refers to the act of changing one's behaviour to match that of others. Recent studies in humans have shown that individual differences exist in conformity and that these differences are related to differences in neuronal activity. To understand the neuronal mechanisms in more detail, animal tests to assess conformity are needed. Here, we used a test of conformity in rats that has previously been evaluated in female, but not male, rats and assessed the nature of individual differences in conformity. Male Wistar rats were given the opportunity to learn that two diets differed in palatability. They were subsequently exposed to a demonstrator that had consumed the less palatable food. Thereafter, they were exposed to the same diets again. Just like female rats, male rats decreased their preference for the more palatable food after interaction with demonstrator rats that had eaten the less palatable food. Individual differences existed for this shift, which were only weakly related to an interaction between their own initial preference and the amount consumed by the demonstrator rat. The data show that this conformity test in rats is a promising tool to study the neurobiology of conformity.

  5. Progesterone Treatment Shows Benefit in Female Rats in a Pediatric Model of Controlled Cortical Impact Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastafa I Geddes

    Full Text Available We recently showed that progesterone treatment can reduce lesion size and behavioral deficits after moderate-to-severe bilateral injury to the medial prefrontal cortex in immature male rats. Whether there are important sex differences in response to injury and progesterone treatment in very young subjects has not been given sufficient attention. Here we investigated progesterone's effects in the same model of brain injury but with pre-pubescent females.Twenty-eight-day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats received sham (n = 14 or controlled cortical impact (CCI (n = 21 injury, were given progesterone (8 mg/kg body weight or vehicle injections on post-injury days (PID 1-7, and underwent behavioral testing from PID 9-27. Brains were evaluated for lesion size at PID 28.Lesion size in vehicle-treated female rats with CCI injury was smaller than that previously reported for similarly treated age-matched male rats. Treatment with progesterone reduced the effect of CCI on extent of damage and behavioral deficits.Pre-pubescent female rats with midline CCI injury to the frontal cortex have reduced morphological and functional deficits following progesterone treatment. While gender differences in susceptibility to this injury were observed, progesterone treatment produced beneficial effects in young rats of both sexes following CCI.

  6. Human apolipoprotein B transgenic SHR/NDmcr-cp rats show exacerbated kidney dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASAHINA, Makoto; SHIMIZU, Fumi; OHTA, Masayuki; TAKEYAMA, Michiyasu; TOZAWA, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    Nephropathy frequently co-occurs with metabolic syndrome in humans. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, and some previous studies revealed that dyslipidemia contributes to the progression of kidney dysfunction. To establish a new nephropathy model with metabolic syndrome, we produced human apolipoprotein B (apoB) transgenic (Tg.) SHR/NDmcr-cp (SHR-cp/cp) rats, in which dyslipidemia is exacerbated more than in an established metabolic syndrome model, SHR-cp/cp rats. Human apoB Tg. SHR-cp/cp rats showed obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and severe hyperlipidemia. They also exhibited exacerbated early-onset proteinuria, accompanied by increased kidney injury and increased oxidative and inflammatory markers. Histological analyses revealed the characteristic features of human apoB Tg. SHR-cp/cp rats including prominent glomerulosclerosis with lipid accumulation. Our newly established human apoB Tg. SHR-cp/cp rat could be a useful model for the nephropathy in metabolic syndrome and for understanding the interaction between dyslipidemia and renal dysfunction in metabolic syndrome. PMID:25912321

  7. Tissue expression of TRPC3 and TRPC6 in hypertensive Munich Wistar Frömter rats showing proteinuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Thilo, Florian; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats.......We investigated whether alterations of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channel expression may be observed in tissues from Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF) rats showing proteinuria compared to control Wistar rats....

  8. Activity/inactivity circadian rhythm shows high similarities between young obesity-induced rats and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo Santos, R; Delgado, J; Cubero, J; Franco, L; Ruiz-Moyano, S; Mesa, M; Rodríguez, A B; Uguz, C; Barriga, C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare differences between elderly rats and young obesity-induced rats in their activity/inactivity circadian rhythm. The investigation was motivated by the differences reported previously for the circadian rhythms of both obese and elderly humans (and other animals), and those of healthy, young or mature individuals. Three groups of rats were formed: a young control group which was fed a standard chow for rodents; a young obesity-induced group which was fed a high-fat diet for four months; and an elderly control group with rats aged 2.5 years that was fed a standard chow for rodents. Activity/inactivity data were registered through actimetry using infrared actimeter systems in each cage to detect activity. Data were logged on a computer and chronobiological analysis were performed. The results showed diurnal activity (sleep time), nocturnal activity (awake time), amplitude, acrophase, and interdaily stability to be similar between the young obesity-induced group and the elderly control group, but different in the young control group. We have concluded that obesity leads to a chronodisruption status in the body similar to the circadian rhythm degradation observed in the elderly.

  9. BRAIN VOLUMES OF THE LAMB, RAT AND BIRD DO NOT SHOW HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY: A STEREOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bünyamin Sahin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that there are functional differences between right and left brain hemispheres. However, it is not clear whether these functional differences are reflected in morphometric differences. This study was carried out to investigate the right-left asymmetry, and sex and species differences of the brains using the Cavalieri principle for volume estimation. Seventeen lambs, 10 rats and 12 avian brains were used to estimate brain volumes. A transparent point grid was superimposed on the slices of lamb brains directly and the slices of the rat and avian brains were projected onto a screen at 10x magnification. Surface areas of the cut slice faces were estimated by simply counting the points that hit the slices. Mean brain volumes were 37.74 cm3, 598.95 mm3 and 730.38 mm3 and the coefficients of variations were 0.08, 0.05 and 0.05 for lamb, rat and avian brains respectively. The differences between left and right hemispheres did not show statistical significance (P > 0.05. However, the male brain volumes were larger than the females for the lamb and bird (P < 0.05. In light of such findings, it will be necessary to evaluate neuron number of the brain hemispheres to provide more useful data regarding inter-hemispheric brain asymmetry.

  10. Icariin combined with snailase shows improved intestinal hydrolysis and absorption in osteoporosis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Congyan; Gao, Xia; Liu, Yuping; Huang, Mengmeng; Qu, Ding; Chen, Yan

    2017-08-11

    Icariin has a significant anti-osteoporotic activity, but its clinical application is limited due to a poor oral bioavailability especially under pathological conditions like osteoporosis. Based on the intestinal absorption and metabolism characteristics of icariin in the osteoporosis rats, a kind of simple enteric capsules containing icariin and snailase was designed to overcome this issue in this study. Snailase was secleted as the most efficient exogenous hydrolase of icariin and the related hydrolysis reaction parameters were optimized in the artificial intestinal liquid. Moreover, the hydrolysates of icariin were proved more effective in promoting the rat calvarial osteoblast proliferation than icariin by the MTT assay. Therefore, snailase and icariin were packed into the enteric-coated capsules at an appropriate mass ratio of 1:1 to prepare the icariin loaded enteric-coated capsules (IECs), and then the in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic behavior of IECs was evaluated. Icariin was almost completely hydrolyzed within 4h and approximately 89% of the total flavonoid had been released from IECs at 0.75h in the release medium, which met the requirement of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia on enteric preparations and the Weibull function model. The pharmacokinetic data showed IECs could significantly improved the integrated oral bioavailability of icariin by 50% compared to the IP (icariin without the snailase) in the ovariectomized rats, but no obvious difference was observed in the sham rats. The aforementioned results suggested that such a strategy of icariin combined with the snailase held a great potential in promoting the intestinal hydrolysis and absorption of icariin in the osteoporosis status, providing new research ideas for the active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine with similar properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Female rats exposed to stress and alcohol show impaired memory and increased depressive-like behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, J L; Luine, V N

    2014-01-17

    Exposure to daily life stressors is associated with increases in anxiety, depression, and overall negative affect. Alcohol or other psychoactive drugs are often used to alleviate stress effects. While females are more than twice as likely to develop mood disorders and are more susceptible to dependency than males, they are infrequently examined. In this study, female rats received no stress/no alcohol control (CON), alcohol alone (ALC), stress alone (STR), or stress plus alcohol (STR+ALC). Stress consisted of restraint for 6h/day/7days, and alcohol was administered immediately following restraint via gastric gavage at a dose of 2.0g/kg. Dependent measures included tests utilizing object recognition (OR), Y-maze, elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim (FST), blood alcohol content, corticosterone levels, and body weights. ALC, STR+ALC, but not stress alone, impaired memory on OR. All treatments impaired spatial memory on the Y-maze. Anxiety was not affected on the EPM, but rats treated with alcohol or in combination with stress showed increased immobility on the FST, suggestive of alcohol-induced depression. Previously, we found alcohol reversed deleterious effects of stress on memory and mood in males, but current results show that females reacted negatively when the two treatments were combined. Thus, responses to alcohol, stress and their combination suggest that sex specific treatments are needed for stress-induced behavioral changes and that self-medicating with alcohol to cope with stress maybe deleterious in females.

  12. Alcohol-Preferring Rats Show Goal Oriented Behaviour to Food Incentives but Are Neither Sign-Trackers Nor Impulsive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Peña-Oliver

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is often associated with impulsivity and altered behavioural responses to both primary and conditioned rewards. Here we investigated whether selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP rats show differential levels of impulsivity and conditioned behavioural responses to food incentives. P and NP rats were assessed for impulsivity in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT, a widely used translational task in humans and other animals, as well as Pavlovian conditioned approach to measure sign- and goal-tracking behaviour. Drug-naïve P and NP rats showed similar levels of impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT, assessed by the number of premature, anticipatory responses, even when the waiting interval to respond was increased. However, unlike NP rats, P rats were faster to enter the food magazine and spent more time in this area. In addition, P rats showed higher levels of goal-tracking responses than NP rats, as measured by the number of magazine nose-pokes during the presentation of a food conditioned stimulus. By contrast, NP showed higher levels of sign-tracking behaviour than P rats. Following a 4-week exposure to intermittent alcohol we confirmed that P rats had a marked preference for, and consumed more alcohol than, NP rats, but were not more impulsive when re-tested in the 5-CSRTT. These findings indicate that high alcohol preferring and drinking P rats are neither intrinsically impulsive nor do they exhibit impulsivity after exposure to alcohol. However, P rats do show increased goal-directed behaviour to food incentives and this may be associated with their strong preference for alcohol.

  13. The gut microbiota in young and middle-aged rats showed different responses to chicken protein in their diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Li, He; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-11-25

    Meat protein in the diet has been shown to be beneficial for the growth of Lactobacillus in the caecum of growing rats; however, it is unknown whether gut microbiota in middle-aged animals have the same responses to meat protein diets. This study compared the composition of the gut microbiota between young and middle-aged rats after being fed 17.7% chicken protein diet for 14 days. Feces were collected on day 0 and day 14 from young rats (4 weeks old) and middle-aged rats (64 weeks old) fed with 17.7% chicken protein diets. The composition of the gut bacteria was analyzed by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The results showed that the composition of the gut microbiota was significantly different between young and middle-aged rats on both day 0 and day 14. The percentage of Firmicutes decreased for middle-aged rats (72.1% versus 58.1% for day 0 and day 14, respectively) but increased for young rats (41.5 versus 57.7% for day 0 and day 14, respectively). The percentage of Bacteroidetes increased to 31.2% (20.5% on day 0) for middle-aged rats and decreased to 29.6% (41.3% on day 0) for young rats. The relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus increased in response to the intake of chicken protein in the young group, while it had the opposite effect in the middle-aged group. The results of our study demonstrated that 17.7% chicken protein diet promoted the beneficial genus Lactobacillus in young rats, but the opposite effect were found in the middle-aged group. To evaluate the linkage between diet and host health, age effect should be considered in the future studies.

  14. Diethylene glycol-induced toxicities show marked threshold dose response in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Greg M., E-mail: Landry.Greg@mayo.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Dunning, Cody L., E-mail: cdunni@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Abreo, Fleurette, E-mail: fabreo@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pathology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Latimer, Brian, E-mail: blatim@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Orchard, Elysse, E-mail: eorcha@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); Division of Animal Resources, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States); McMartin, Kenneth E., E-mail: kmcmar@lsuhsc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, & Neuroscience, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) exposure poses risks to human health because of widespread industrial use and accidental exposures from contaminated products. To enhance the understanding of the mechanistic role of metabolites in DEG toxicity, this study used a dose response paradigm to determine a rat model that would best mimic DEG exposure in humans. Wistar and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats were treated by oral gavage with 0, 2, 5, or 10 g/kg DEG and blood, kidney and liver tissues were collected at 48 h. Both rat strains treated with 10 g/kg DEG had equivalent degrees of metabolic acidosis, renal toxicity (increased BUN and creatinine and cortical necrosis) and liver toxicity (increased serum enzyme levels, centrilobular necrosis and severe glycogen depletion). There was no liver or kidney toxicity at the lower DEG doses (2 and 5 g/kg) regardless of strain, demonstrating a steep threshold dose response. Kidney diglycolic acid (DGA), the presumed nephrotoxic metabolite of DEG, was markedly elevated in both rat strains administered 10 g/kg DEG, but no DGA was present at 2 or 5 g/kg, asserting its necessary role in DEG-induced toxicity. These results indicate that mechanistically in order to produce toxicity, metabolism to and significant target organ accumulation of DGA are required and that both strains would be useful for DEG risk assessments. - Highlights: • DEG produces a steep threshold dose response for kidney injury in rats. • Wistar and F-344 rats do not differ in response to DEG-induced renal injury. • The dose response for renal injury closely mirrors that for renal DGA accumulation. • Results demonstrate the importance of DGA accumulation in producing kidney injury.

  15. Dexmedetomidine and ketamine show distinct patterns of cell degeneration and apoptosis in the developing rat neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaro, Carlo; Segal, B Scott; Sikes, Robert W; Almeer, Zainab; Schumann, Roman; Azocar, Ruben J; Marchand, James E

    2016-12-01

    Early exposure to common anesthetic and sedative agents causes widespread brain cell degeneration and apoptosis in the developing rat brain, associated with persistent learning deficits in rats. This study was designed to determine whether the α2 adrenergic receptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, produces brain cell degeneration and apoptosis in postnatal day-7 rats in the same brain areas when compared to ketamine. Systemic saline, ketamine 20 mg/kg, or dexmedetomidine at 30 or 45 μg/kg were given six times to postnatal day 7 rats (n  =  6/group) every 90 min. Twenty-four hours after the initial injection, brain regions were processed and analyzed for cell degeneration using the silver stain and for apoptosis using activated caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. Exposure to ketamine resulted in significant cellular degeneration and apoptosis in limbic brain regions, but nonsignificant changes in primary sensory brain regions. In contrast, dexmedetomidine produced significant cellular degeneration and apoptosis in primary sensory brain regions, but nonsignificant changes in limbic regions. These data show that ketamine and dexmedetomidine result in anatomically distinct patterns of cell degeneration and apoptosis in the brains of 7-day-old rat pups. The meaning and the clinical significance of these findings remain to be established.

  16. Does the morphology of the ear of the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis) show "Subterranean" characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleštilová, Lucie; Hrouzková, Ema; Burda, Hynek; Šumbera, Radim

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the growing interest in rodents with subterranean activity in general and the spalacids (Spalacidae) in particular, little is known about the biology of most members of this clade, such as the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis). Here, we analyzed the ear morphology of R. sinensis with respect to hearing specialization for subterranean or aboveground modes of communication. It is well-known that ecology and style of life of a particular species can be reflected in morphology of its ear, its hearing and vocalization, so we expect that such information could provide us insight into its style of life and its sensory environment. The ratio between the eardrum and stapedial footplate areas, which influences the efficiency of middle ear sound transmission, suggests low hearing sensitivity, as is typical for subterranean species. The cochlea had 3.25 coils and resembled species with good low frequency hearing typical for subterranean mammals. The length of the basilar membrane was 18.9 ± 0.8 mm and its width slowly increased towards the cochlear apex from 60 to 85 μm. The mean density of outer hair cells was 344 ± 22 and of inner hair cells 114 ± 7.3 per 1 mm length of the organ of Corti, and increased apically. These values (except for relatively low hair cell density) usually characterize ears specialized for low frequency hearing. There was no evidence for an acoustic fovea. Apart of low hair cell density which is common in aboveground animals, this species has also relatively large auricles, suggesting the importance of sound localization during surface activity. The ear of the Chinese bamboo rat thus contains features typical for both aboveground and subterranean mammals and suggests that this spalacid has fossorial habits combined with regular aboveground activity.

  17. Triclosan exhibits a tendency to accumulate in the epididymis and shows sperm toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Zhou; Hyung Kim, Tae; Shun Bi, Kai; Hui Chen, Xiao; Sik Kim, Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is considered a potent endocrine disruptor that causes reproductive toxicity in non-mammals, but it is still unclear exactly whether TCS has adverse effects on the sperm or reproductive organs in mammals. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the distribution status of TCS in male reproductive organs of rats, and seek the correlation with the TCS-induced sperm toxicity or reproductive organ damage. Male rats were intragastrically administered with TCS at a dose of 50 mg/kg, the kinetics of TCS in the plasma and reproductive organs were investigated. TCS in testes and prostates both showed a lower-level distribution compared to that in the plasma, which indicates it has no tendency to accumulate in those organs. However, TCS in the epididymides showed a longer elimination half-life (t1/2 z), a longer the mean retention time (MRT), and a lower clearance (CLZ /F) compared with those in the plasma. Besides, the ratios of mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-96 h(epididymides/plasma)) and AUC(0-∞(epididymides/plasma)) were 1.13 and 1.51, respectively. These kinetic parameters suggest TCS has an accumulation tendency in the epididymides. Based on this, we investigated the TCS-induced sperm toxicity and histopathological changes of reproductive organs in rats. TCS was given intragastrically at doses of 10, 50, and 200 mg/kg for 8 weeks. Rats treated with the high dose (200 mg/kg) of TCS showed a significant decrease in daily sperm production (DSP), changes in sperm morphology and epididymal histopathology. Considering the histopathological change in the epididymides, TCS may induce the epididymal damage due to the epididymal accumulation of that.

  18. Serotonin transporter knockout rats show improved strategy set-shifting and reduced latent inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonkes, L.J.P.; Vondervoort, I.I.G.M. van de; Leeuw, M.J.C. de; Wijlaars, L.P.; Maes, J.H.R.; Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT−/−) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, ext

  19. Serotonin transporter knockout rats show improved strategy set-shifting and reduced latent inhibition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonkes, L.J.P.; Vondervoort, I.I. van de; Leeuw, M.J. de; Wijlaars, L.P.; Maes, J.H.; Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT(-/-)) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, e

  20. Serotonin transporter knockout rats show improved strategy set-shifting and reduced latent inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonkes, L.J.P.; Vondervoort, I.I.G.M. van de; Leeuw, M.J.C. de; Wijlaars, L.P.; Maes, J.H.R.; Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT−/−) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, ext

  1. Serotonin transporter knockout rats show improved strategy set-shifting and reduced latent inhibition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonkes, L.J.P.; Vondervoort, I.I. van de; Leeuw, M.J. de; Wijlaars, L.P.; Maes, J.H.; Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT(-/-)) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, e

  2. Coadministration of black seeds and turmeric shows enhanced efficacy in preventing metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Faridah; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Siddiqui, Bina S; Khatoon, Nasima

    2015-02-01

    Among noncommunicable diseases, metabolic syndrome (MS), a cluster of metabolic disorders including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hypertension, is highly prevalent in modern society. Its management requires lifestyle modifications and/or the life-long use of multiple medications, hence demanding development of safe alternative remedies. This study was aimed to establish the efficacy of combined use of black seeds and turmeric using fructose-fed rat model of MS. The high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints of turmeric and black seeds showed the presence of curcumin and thymoquinone, respectively, as their major constitutes. Different doses of black seeds and turmeric, individually and in combination, were administered to fructose-fed rats for up to 6 weeks representing characteristic features of MS. At 3 weeks of the treatment, black seeds and turmeric lowered (P turmeric at low doses over individually tested herbs, in improving features of MS.

  3. Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. suspension cell extract show antidiabetic potential in Alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Karthic; S Nagaraj; P Arulmurugan; S Seshadri; R Rengasamy; K Kathiravan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic effects of suspension cell extract of Gymnema sylvestre (G.sylvestre in vitro grown suspension cells of G. sylvestre along with field grown and wild plant leaves of G.sylvestre was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results: While oral administration of the extracts reduced the glucose content in blood and urine, sugar and lipids in serum significantly (P≤0.05), it also increased the body weight, total haemoglobin and plasma protein content.Conclusions:It can be concluded that G. sylvestre suspension cell extract show excellent) along with field grown and wild plants. Methods: The effect of ethanolic extracts of the antidiabetic potential against alloxan induced diabetic albino male rats therefore be considered as potent antidiabetic drug.

  4. Serotonin Transporter Knockout Rats Show Improved Strategy Set-Shifting and Reduced Latent Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonkes, Lourens J. P.; van de Vondervoort, Ilse I. G. M.; de Leeuw, Mark J. C.; Wijlaars, Linda P.; Maes, Joseph H. R.; Homberg, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral flexibility is a cognitive process depending on prefrontal areas allowing adaptive responses to environmental changes. Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT[superscript -/-]) rodents show improved reversal learning in addition to orbitofrontal cortex changes. Another form of behavioral flexibility, extradimensional strategy set-shifting…

  5. Comparative Proteomic Analysis Shows an Elevation of Mdh1 Associated with Hepatotoxicity Induced by Copper Nanoparticle in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Shu-wei; GAO Zhao-hui; SHEN Xiao-yun; XUE Hui-wen; LI Xia

    2014-01-01

    Copper nanoparticle is a new material widely used in biological medicine, animal husbandry and industrial areas, but its potential toxicity to human health and environment remains unclear. In order to study the hepatotoxic mechanisms of nanoparticles copper, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF MS) of proteomics technology were used to isolate and identify the differentially expressed proteins from liver, which associated with hepatotoxicity induced by copper nanoparticle in rats. In this study, we have screened 15 kinds of proteins related with hepatotoxicity, of which spot8212 was identiifed as Malate dehydrogenase (Mdh1). The mRNA expression trend of Mdh1 was consistent with the result of 2-DE by RT-PCR validation. Bioinformatics analysis showed that Mdh1 was stable and no signal peptides, subcellular location was in endoplasmic reticulum;it contained many functional sites such as malate dehydrogenase activity signal sites 155LTRLDHNRAKSQI167; α helixes and random coils were the two main elements. Homologous analysis demonstrated high homologous of Mdh1 in rats with mouse and human, and the phylogenetic tree of Mdh1 was constructed. The result indicated that copper nanoparticle could regulate up the Mdh1 protein expression so as to compensate the energy deifcit. Energy metabolic disturbance may be a pathway for copper nanoparticle particles to exert the hepatotoxic effects in rats.

  6. Prematurely delivered rats show improved motor coordination during sensory-evoked motor responses compared to age-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Megan E; Brumley, Michele R

    2014-05-10

    The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat.

  7. Rats fed the dietary supplement vitamix® (ceregumil® with vitamins) show greater physical resistance and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llebrez, Pedro; López-Ávalos, María Dolores; Grondona, Jesús M; Pérez-Martín, Margarita; Cifuentes, Manuel; Pedraza, Carmen; de Andrés, Amelia Victoria; Jiménez-Palomo, Pedro; Casares-Mira, Jose Esteban; López-Arillo, Isabel

    2008-10-01

    Vitamix® is a dietary product composed of a hydro-alcoholic extract of cereals and pulses with honey, calcium glycerophosphate, vitamins B and D, selenium and fluoride. The basic product, Ceregumil®, patented in 1912, was highly popular as tonic and consumers reported a feeling of health, resistance to illness, and increased predisposition to work and exercise. In the present study we analysed the effect of Vitamix® used as dietary supplement, on several physiological parameters in laboratory rats. We periodically performed hemograms and measured intake and weight, as well as blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, transaminases and malondialdehyde, a lipoperoxidation product. Physical probes were performed and a histochemical study was done in the liver. Rats fed with Vitamix® displayed lower intake and body weight in adult ages, showed and increased antioxidant activity, higher resistance in the wire hang test and lower fatigue in the Morris pool, specially those specimens considered as bad performers supplemented with Vitamix®. The rest of the measured parameters remained similar to control and no hepatic alterations were found. This study supports a scientific basis to know the effect of these complements over physiological parameters. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. RNA-stable-isotope probing shows utilization of carbon from inulin by specific bacterial populations in the rat large bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Sims, Ian M; Lee, Julian; Butts, Christine A; Roy, Nicole

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge of the trophisms that underpin bowel microbiota composition is required in order to understand its complex phylogeny and function. Stable-isotope ((13)C)-labeled inulin was added to the diet of rats on a single occasion in order to detect utilization of inulin-derived substrates by particular members of the cecal microbiota. Cecal digesta from Fibruline-inulin-fed rats was collected prior to (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h following provision of the [(13)C]inulin diet. RNA was extracted from these cecal specimens and fractionated in isopycnic buoyant density gradients in order to detect (13)C-labeled nucleic acid originating in bacterial cells that had metabolized the labeled dietary constituent. RNA extracted from specimens collected after provision of the labeled diet was more dense than 0-h RNA. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from cDNA obtained from these fractions showed that Bacteroides uniformis, Blautia glucerasea, Clostridium indolis, and Bifidobacterium animalis were the main users of the (13)C-labeled substrate. Culture-based studies of strains of these bacterial species enabled trophisms associated with inulin and its hydrolysis products to be identified. B. uniformis utilized Fibruline-inulin for growth, whereas the other species used fructo-oligosaccharide and monosaccharides. Thus, RNA-stable-isotope probing (RNA-SIP) provided new information about the use of carbon from inulin in microbiota metabolism.

  9. Rats with minimal hepatic encephalopathy show reduced cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity in hypothalamus correlating with circadian rhythms alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipo, Vicente; Piedrafita, Blanca; Barios, Juan A; Agustí, Ana; Ahabrach, Hanan; Romero-Vives, María; Barrio, Luis C; Rey, Beatriz; Gaztelu, Jose M; Llansola, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Patients with liver cirrhosis show disturbances in sleep and in its circadian rhythms which are an early sign of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The mechanisms of these disturbances are poorly understood. Rats with porta-caval shunt (PCS), a model of MHE, show sleep disturbances reproducing those of cirrhotic patients. The aims of this work were to characterize the alterations in circadian rhythms in PCS rats and analyze the underlying mechanisms. To reach these aims, we analyzed in control and PCS rats: (a) daily rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activity and of temperature, (b) timing of the onset of activity following turning-off the light, (c) synchronization to light after a phase advance and (d) the molecular mechanisms contributing to these alterations in circadian rhythms. PCS rats show altered circadian rhythms of spontaneous and rewarding activities (wheel running). PCS rats show more rest bouts during the active phase, more errors in the onset of motor activity and need less time to re-synchronize after a phase advance than control rats. Circadian rhythm of body temperature is also slightly altered in PCS rats. The internal period length (tau) of circadian rhythm of motor activity is longer in PCS rats. We analyzed some mechanisms by which hypothalamus modulate circadian rhythms. PCS rats show increased content of cGMP in hypothalamus while the activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase was reduced by 41% compared to control rats. Altered cGMP-PKG pathway in hypothalamus would contribute to altered circadian rhythms and synchronization to light.

  10. Novel AAV-based rat model of forebrain synucleinopathy shows extensive pathologies and progressive loss of cholinergic interneurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Aldrin-Kirk

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies, characterized by intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein protein, share a number of features in pathology and disease progression. However, the vulnerable cell population differs significantly between the disorders, despite being caused by the same protein. While the vulnerability of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra to α-synuclein over-expression, and its link to Parkinson's disease, is well studied, animal models recapitulating the cortical degeneration in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB are much less mature. The aim of this study was to develop a first rat model of widespread progressive synucleinopathy throughout the forebrain using adeno-associated viral (AAV vector mediated gene delivery. Through bilateral injection of an AAV6 vector expressing human wild-type α-synuclein into the forebrain of neonatal rats, we were able to achieve widespread, robust α-synuclein expression with preferential expression in the frontal cortex. These animals displayed a progressive emergence of hyper-locomotion and dysregulated response to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine. The animals receiving the α-synuclein vector displayed significant α-synuclein pathology including intra-cellular inclusion bodies, axonal pathology and elevated levels of phosphorylated α-synuclein, accompanied by significant loss of cortical neurons and a progressive reduction in both cortical and striatal ChAT positive interneurons. Furthermore, we found evidence of α-synuclein sequestered by IBA-1 positive microglia, which was coupled with a distinct change in morphology. In areas of most prominent pathology, the total α-synuclein levels were increased to, on average, two-fold, which is similar to the levels observed in patients with SNCA gene triplication, associated with cortical Lewy body pathology. This study provides a novel rat model of progressive cortical synucleinopathy, showing for the first time that cholinergic interneurons are vulnerable

  11. PAT1 (SLC36A1) shows nuclear localization and affect growth of smooth muscle cells from rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne; Figueiredo-Larsen, Evan Manuel; Holm, René

    2014-01-01

    the localization and function of PAT1 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The PAT1 protein was found in smooth muscles from rat intestine and in the embryonic rat aorta cell line A7r5. Immunolocalization and cellular fractionation studies revealed that the majority of the PAT1 protein located within the cell nucleus...

  12. Prospective microglia and brain macrophage distribution pattern in normal rat brain shows age sensitive dispersal and stabilization with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Payel; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Mallick, Suvadip; Pal, Chiranjib; Laskar, Aparna; Ghosh, Anirban

    2015-09-01

    The monocytic lineage cells in brain, generally speaking brain macrophage and/or microglia show some dissimilar distribution patterns and disagreement regarding their origin and onset in brain. Here, we investigated its onset and distribution/colonization pattern in normal brain with development. Primarily, early and late embryonic stages, neonate and adult brains were sectioned for routine H/E staining; a modified silver-gold staining was used for discriminating monocytic lineage cells in brain; and TEM to deliver ultramicroscopic details of these cells in brain. Immunofluorescence study with CD11b marker revealed the distribution of active microglia/macrophage like cells. Overall, in early embryonic day 12, the band of densely stained cells are found at the margin of developing ventricles and cells sprout from there dispersed towards the outer edge. However, with development, this band shrunk and the dispersion trend decreased. The deeply stained macrophage like cell population migration from outer cortex to ventricle observed highest in late embryonic days, continued with decreased amount in neonates and settled down in adult. In adult, a few blood borne macrophage like cells were observed through the vascular margins. TEM study depicted less distinguishable features of cells in brain in early embryo, whereas from late embryo to adult different neuroglial populations and microglia/macrophages showed distinctive features and organization in brain. CD11b expression showed some similarity, though not fully, with the distribution pattern depending on the differentiation/activation status of these macrophage lineage cells. This study provides some generalized spatial and temporal pattern of macrophage/microglia distribution in rat brain, and further indicates some intrigue areas that need to be addressed.

  13. Syzygium jambos and Solanum guaraniticum Show Similar Antioxidant Properties but Induce Different Enzymatic Activities in the Brain of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Moretto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium jambos and Solanum guaraniticum are both employed in Brazil as medicinal plants, even though their potential toxicity is not well established and they are frequently misused. The aim of this study was investigate the effect of the aqueous leaf extracts of both plants on δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities and the antioxidant action against oxidative damage induced by sodium nitroprusside in rats, using in vitro assays. In addition, the presence of gallic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids, as well as rutin, quercetin and kaempferol as bioactive compounds in the extracts was identified by HPLC and their levels quantified. The antioxidant activities of both extracts were assessed by their capabilities to scavenge nitric oxide and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Only Syzygium jambos presented thiol-peroxidase-like activity. Although neither extract affected the AChE activity, the aqueous extract of Solanum guaraniticum inhibited brain δ-ALA-D activity, suggesting a possible impairment effect on the central nervous system. Our results showed that both extracts exhibited efficient free radical scavenger activity and are an interesting source of bioactive compounds, justifying their use in folk medicine, although Solanum guaraniticum extract could have neurotoxicity properties and we therefore suggest that its use should be restricted to ensure the health of the population.

  14. Neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rat show stimulus-specific adaptation for frequency, but not for intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Daniel; Wang, Xin; Nieto-Diego, Javier; Krumbholz, Katrin; Malmierca, Manuel S

    2016-04-12

    Electrophysiological and psychophysical responses to a low-intensity probe sound tend to be suppressed by a preceding high-intensity adaptor sound. Nevertheless, rare low-intensity deviant sounds presented among frequent high-intensity standard sounds in an intensity oddball paradigm can elicit an electroencephalographic mismatch negativity (MMN) response. This has been taken to suggest that the MMN is a correlate of true change or "deviance" detection. A key question is where in the ascending auditory pathway true deviance sensitivity first emerges. Here, we addressed this question by measuring low-intensity deviant responses from single units in the inferior colliculus (IC) of anesthetized rats. If the IC exhibits true deviance sensitivity to intensity, IC neurons should show enhanced responses to low-intensity deviant sounds presented among high-intensity standards. Contrary to this prediction, deviant responses were only enhanced when the standards and deviants differed in frequency. The results could be explained with a model assuming that IC neurons integrate over multiple frequency-tuned channels and that adaptation occurs within each channel independently. We used an adaptation paradigm with multiple repeated adaptors to measure the tuning widths of these adaption channels in relation to the neurons' overall tuning widths.

  15. Tl(+) showed negligible interaction with inner membrane sulfhydryl groups of rat liver mitochondria, but formed complexes with matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Sergey M; Brailovskaya, Irina V; Kormilitsyn, Boris N; Furaev, Viktor V

    2014-04-01

    The effects of Tl(+) on protein sulfhydryl (SH) groups, swelling, and respiration of rat liver mitochondria (RLM) were studied in a medium containing TlNO3 and sucrose, or TlNO3 and KNO3 as well as glutamate plus malate, or succinate plus rotenone. Detected with Ellman's reagent, an increase in the content of the SH groups was found in the inner membrane fraction, and a simultaneous decline was found in the content of the matrix-soluble fraction for RLM, incubated and frozen in 25-75 mM TlNO3 . This increase was greater in the medium containing KNO3 regardless of the presence of Ca(2+) . It was eliminated completely for RLM injected in the medium containing TlNO3 and then washed and frozen in the medium containing KNO3 . Calcium-loaded RLM showed increased swelling and decreased respiration. These results suggest that a ligand interaction of Tl(+) with protein SH groups, regardless of the presence of calcium, may underlie the mechanism of thallium toxicity.

  16. Combined exposure to lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury shows deviation from additivity for cardiovascular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Weber, Lynn P; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    Environmental exposure to metal mixtures in the human population is common. Mixture risk assessments are often challenging because of a lack of suitable data on the relevant mixture. A growing number of studies show an association between lead or mercury exposure and cardiovascular effects. We investigated the cardiovascular effects of single metal exposure or co-exposure to methylmercury [MeHg(I)], inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and lead [Pb(II)]. Male Wistar rats received four different metal mixtures for 28 days through the drinking water. The ratios of the metals were based on reference and environmental exposure values. Blood and pulse pressure, cardiac output and electrical activity of the heart were selected as end-points. While exposure to only MeHg(I) increased the systolic blood pressure and decreased cardiac output, the effects were reversed with combined exposures (antagonism). In contrast to these effects, combined exposures negatively affected the electrical activity of the heart (synergism). Thus, it appears that estimates of blood total Hg levels need to be paired with estimates of what species of mercury dominate exposure as well as whether lead co-exposure is present to link total blood Hg levels to cardiovascular effects. Based on current human exposure data and our results, there may be an increased risk of cardiac events as a result of combined exposures to Hg(II), MeHg(I) and Pb(II). This increased risk needs to be clarified by analyzing lead and Hg exposure data in relation to cardiac electrical activity in epidemiological studies.

  17. Rats markedly escalate their intake and show a persistent susceptibility to reinstatement only when cocaine is injected rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ken T; Weiss, Mark J; Pickup, Kristen N; Robinson, Terry E

    2010-08-25

    When drugs enter the brain rapidly, liability for addiction is increased, but why this is the case is not well understood. Here we examined the influence of varying the speed of intravenous cocaine delivery on self-administration behavior in rats given limited or extended opportunity to take drug. The speed of cocaine delivery had no effect on self-administration behavior when rats were given only 1 h each day to take cocaine. When given sixfold more time to take cocaine, rats that received cocaine rapidly (5-45 s) increased their total intake eightfold. However, rats that received cocaine more slowly (>90 s) did not avail themselves of the opportunity to take much more drug: they increased their intake only twofold. Furthermore, when tested 45 d after the last self-administration session, a drug-priming injection reinstated drug-seeking behavior only in rats that in the past had cocaine injected rapidly (5 s), and this was associated with a persistent suppression in the ability of cocaine to induce immediate early gene expression. Cocaine may be potentially more addictive when it reaches the brain rapidly because (1) this promotes a marked escalation in intake and (2) it renders individuals more susceptible to relapse long after the discontinuation of drug use. This is presumably because the rapid uptake of drug to the brain preferentially promotes persistent changes in brain systems that regulate motivation for drug, and continuing exposure to large amounts of drug produces a vicious cycle of additional maladaptive changes in brain and behavior.

  18. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients. PMID:28045968

  19. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  20. Bamboo Leaf Flavones and Tea Polyphenols Show a Lipid-lowering Effect in a Rat Model of Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Yifan, L; Dan, L; Qian, Y; Ming-yan, J

    2015-12-01

    At present, most of the lipid-lowering drugs are western medicines, which have a lot of adverse reactions. Zhucha, an age-old Uyghur medicine, is made up of bamboo leaves and tea (green tea), which has good efficacy and lipid-lowering effect. The purpose of this study was to undertake a pharmacodynamic examination of the optimal proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols required to achieve lipid lowering in rats. A hyperlipidemia rat model was used to examine the lipid lowering effects of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols. Wistar rats were divided into 13 groups including one hyperlipidemia model group and 2 positive drug groups as well as experimental groups (9 groups dosed with different proportions of bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols, the 3 dosages of bamboo leaf flavones were 75 mg/kg/d, 50 mg/kg/d and 25 mg/kg/d respectively, the 3 dosages of tea polyphenol were 750 mg/kg/d, 500 mg/kg/d and 250 mg/kg/d). The weight, the levels of triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were determined. A high dose of bamboo leaf flavones (75 mg/kg/d) combined with a medium dose of tea polyphenols (500 mg/kg/d) was deemed to be optimal for achieving a lipid-lowering effect, the weight had the smallest increase and the level of TG and HDL was similar to positive control. The bamboo leaf flavones and tea polyphenols were mixed according to a certain proportion (1:6.7), and the mixture achieved a lipid-lowering effect and might prove to be useful as a natural lipid-lowering agent.

  1. Amniotic fluid stem cells with low γ-interferon response showed behavioral improvement in Parkinsonism rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs are multipotent stem cells that may be used in transplantation medicine. In this study, AFSCs established from amniocentesis were characterized on the basis of surface marker expression and differentiation potential. To further investigate the properties of AFSCs for translational applications, we examined the cell surface expression of human leukocyte antigens (HLA of these cells and estimated the therapeutic effect of AFSCs in parkinsonian rats. The expression profiles of HLA-II and transcription factors were compared between AFSCs and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs following treatment with γ-IFN. We found that stimulation of AFSCs with γ-IFN prompted only a slight increase in the expression of HLA-Ia and HLA-E, and the rare HLA-II expression could also be observed in most AFSCs samples. Consequently, the expression of CIITA and RFX5 was weakly induced by γ-IFN stimulation of AFSCs compared to that of BMMSCs. In the transplantation test, Sprague Dawley rats with 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra were used as a parkinsonian-animal model. Following the negative γ-IFN response AFSCs injection, apomorphine-induced rotation was reduced by 75% in AFSCs engrafted parkinsonian rats but was increased by 53% in the control group after 12-weeks post-transplantation. The implanted AFSCs were viable, and were able to migrate into the brain's circuitry and express specific proteins of dopamine neurons, such as tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter. In conclusion, the relative insensitivity AFSCs to γ-IFN implies that AFSCs might have immune-tolerance in γ-IFN inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the effective improvement of AFSCs transplantation for apomorphine-induced rotation paves the way for the clinical application in parkinsonian therapy.

  2. Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells Showed Renotropic and Pericyte-Like Properties in Acute Renal Failure in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Michele A.; Martins, João Flávio Panattoni; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Wenceslau, Crisitiane Valverde; De Souza, Dener Madeiro; Kerkis, Alexandre; Câmara, Niels Olsen S.; Balieiro, Julio Cesar C.; Kerkis, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common renal disease that can lead to high mortality. Recovery from ARF occurs with the replacement of necrotic tubular cells by functional tubular epithelial cells and the normalization of microvascular endothelial cell function in the peritubular capillaries. Conventional therapeutic techniques are often ineffective against ARF. Hence, stem cell therapies, which act through multiple trophic and regenerative mechanisms, are encouraging. We investigated the homing of human immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSCs) after endovenous (EV) or intraperitoneal (IP) injection, in immunocompetent Wistar rats with ARF induced by intramuscular injection of glycerol, without the use of immunosuppression. The cells, which had been cryopreserved for 6 years, were CD105+, CD73+, CD44+, and partly, STRO-1+ and CD146+, and presented unaltered mesoderm differentiation potential. The presence of these cells in the tubular region of the kidney and in the peritubular capillaries was demonstrated. These cells accelerate tubular epithelial cell regeneration through significant increase of Ki-67-immunoreactive cells in damaged kidney. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that IDPSCs home to the kidneys (EV 34.10% and IP 33.25%); a lower percentage of cells was found in the liver (EV 19.05% and IP 9.10%), in the muscles (EV 6.30% and IP 1.35%), and in the lungs (EV 2.0% and IP 1.85%). After infusion into rat, these cells express pericyte markers, such as CD146+, STRO-1+, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF+). We found that IDPSCs demonstrate renotropic and pericyte-like properties and contributed to restore renal tubule structure in an experimental rat ARF model. PMID:26858898

  3. Methanolic Extract of Dill Leaves Inhibits AGEs Formation and Shows Potential Hepatoprotective Effects in CCl4 Induced Liver Toxicity in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at evaluating the antiglycation, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of methanolic extract of Anethum graveolens (dill. The antioxidant properties, photochemical characteristics, and antiglycation effects of dill extract were measured. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic rats were used to show the hepatoprotective activity of dill leaves. Different concentration of dill extract (0.032, 0.065, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL showed potential antioxidant ability. The extract of dill leaves significantly reduced AGEs formation and also fructosamine and protein carbonyl levels in rats’ liver. Thiol groups’ oxidation, amyloid cross-β, and protein fragmentation (P<0.001 significantly reduced in treated rats. Liver damage markers significantly reduced in dill-treated animals (P<0.05. Dill with potential antioxidant, antiglycation, and hepatoprotective effects can be suggested for treatment of diabetes complications.

  4. Late-Life Environmental Enrichment Induces Acetylation Events and Nuclear Factor κB-Dependent Regulations in the Hippocampus of Aged Rats Showing Improved Plasticity and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidl, Romain; Schneider, Anne; Bousiges, Olivier; Majchrzak, Monique; Barbelivien, Alexandra; de Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira; Dorgans, Kevin; Doussau, Frédéric; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Cassel, Jean-Christophe; Boutillier, Anne-Laurence

    2016-04-13

    Aging weakens memory functions. Exposing healthy rodents or pathological rodent models to environmental enrichment (EE) housing improves their cognitive functions by changing neuronal levels of excitation, cellular signaling, and plasticity, notably in the hippocampus. At the molecular level, brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) represents an important player that supports EE-associated changes. EE facilitation of learning was also shown to correlate with chromatin acetylation in the hippocampus. It is not known, however, whether such mechanisms are still into play during aging. In this study, we exposed a cohort of aged rats (18-month-old) to either a 6 month period of EE or standard housing conditions and investigated chromatin acetylation-associated events [histone acetyltranferase activity, gene expression, and histone 3 (H3) acetylation] and epigenetic modulation of the Bdnf gene under rest conditions and during learning. We show that EE leads to upregulation of acetylation-dependent mechanisms in aged rats, whether at rest or following a learning challenge. We found an increased expression of Bdnf through Exon-I-dependent transcription, associated with an enrichment of acetylated H3 at several sites of Bdnf promoter I, more particularly on a proximal nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) site under learning conditions. We further evidenced p65/NF-κB binding to chromatin at promoters of genes important for plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning (e.g., Bdnf, CamK2D). Altogether, our findings demonstrate that aged rats respond to a belated period of EE by increasing hippocampal plasticity, together with activating sustained acetylation-associated mechanisms recruiting NF-κB and promoting related gene transcription. These responses are likely to trigger beneficial effects associated with EE during aging. Aging weakens memory functions. Optimizing the neuronal circuitry required for normal brain function can be achieved by increasing sensory, motor, and

  5. Novel G Protein-Coupled Oestrogen Receptor GPR30 Shows Changes in mRNA Expression in the Rat Brain over the Oestrous Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J. Spary

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oestrogen influences autonomic function via actions at classical nuclear oestrogen receptors α and β in the brain, and recent evidence suggests the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 may also function as a cytoplasmic oestrogen receptor. We investigated the expression of GPR30 in female rat brains throughout the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy to determine whether GPR30 expression in central autonomic nuclei is correlated with circulating oestrogen levels. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, ventrolateral medulla (VLM and periaqueductal gray (PAG GPR30 mRNA, quantified by real-time PCR, was increased in proestrus and oestrus. In ovariectomised (OVX rats, expression in NTS and VLM appeared increased compared to metoestrus, but in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and PAG lower mRNA levels were seen in OVX. GPR30-like immunoreactivity (GPR30-LI colocalised with Golgi in neurones in many brain areas associated with autonomic pathways, and analysis of numbers of immunoreactive neurones showed differences consistent with the PCR data. GPR30-LI was found in a variety of transmitter phenotypes, including cholinergic, serotonergic, catecholaminergic and nitrergic neurones in different neuronal groups. These observations support the view that GPR30 could act as a rapid transducer responding to oestrogen levels and thus modulate the activity of central autonomic pathways.

  6. Male rats with same sex preference show high experimental anxiety and lack of anxiogenic-like effect of fluoxetine in the plus maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cárdenas, Nallely; Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Gómez-Quintanar, Blanca Nelly; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-08-01

    Homosexual men show a 2-4 higher risk to suffer anxiety in comparison with heterosexuals. It is unknown if biological factors collaborate to increase such incidence. Fluoxetine produces differential brain activation in homosexuals as compared with heterosexuals, suggesting that it may produce a divergent behavioral effect dependant on sex-preference. The first aim was to evaluate experimental anxiety in male rats that show same-sex preference in the elevated plus maze (EPM). The second goal explored the putative differential effect of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) in male rats with female and same-sex preference in the EPM. To induce same-sex preference males were prenatally treated with letrozole (0.56μg/kg, 10-20 gestation days), while controls were males prenatally treated with letrozole that retain female-preference or which mothers received oil. In both groups we found animals with male preference, but the proportion was higher in males that prenatally received letrozole (10 vs. 27%). Males with same-sex preference spent less time and showed lower number of entries to the open arms of the EPM than males that prefer females, regardless of the prenatal treatment. In males with female preference, fluoxetine reduced the time spent and number of entries to the open arms that was absent in males with same-sex preference. These data suggest that biological factors contribute to the high levels of anxiety in subjects with same-sex preference and that fluoxetine in men may produce a divergent action depending on sexual orientation.

  7. Serotonin axons of the neostriatum show a higher affinity for striatal than for ventral mesencephalic transplants: a quantitative study in adult and immature recipient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, P; Vallée, A; Bosler, O; Dorais, M; Moukhles, H; Abbaszadeh, R; Lepage, Y; Doucet, G

    1998-07-01

    We previously showed that grafts of fetal ventral mesencephalic tissue are practically not innervated by host serotonin (5-HT) axons after implantation into the striatum of rats aged more than 14 days, at variance with transplants of cortical or striatal tissue into the adult striatum, which are well innervated by these axons. Using 5-HT immunohistochemistry and in vitro [3H]5-HT uptake/autoradiography, we have examined and quantified the innervation of ventral mesencephalic versus striatal grafts several months after implantation into the striatum of neonatal (postnatal day 5 or P5), juvenile (P15), and adult rats. Ventral mesencephalic grafts implanted in P5 rats received a moderate 5-HT innervation, while similar grafts implanted in P15 or adult recipients were almost free of any 5-HT fibers (-80%, compared to P5). The density of 5-HT innervation showed a tendency toward higher values in striatal than in ventral mesencephalic grafts (1.6-2 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 4 times higher in P15 recipients). The difference was more striking, and significant, when only the true striatal portions of the striatal grafts were considered, i.e., DARPP-32-immunopositive areas (4-5 times higher in P5 and adult recipients; 10 times higher in P15 recipients). Accordingly, these DARPP-32-positive areas were also more densely innervated than the DARPP-32-negative zones of the same grafts (3 times higher at any age). The 5-HT innervation density also decreased with increasing age of the recipients in DARPP-32-positive, as well as DARPP-32-negative compartments of the striatal grafts (-75% in adults), but this decrease appeared more gradual (-50% in juveniles) than with mesencephalic grafts. It is concluded that the 5-HT axons innervating the neostriatum have a better affinity for striatal grafts than for ventral mesencephalic grafts or the nonstriatal portions of striatal grafts. In adulthood, the relative affinity of these axons for the different types of grafts is

  8. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi; Aleo, Michael D; Strock, Christopher J; Stedman, Donald B; Wang, Huijun; Will, Yvonne

    2013-10-15

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify "toxic" and "non-toxic" drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition.

  9. Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadanaciva, Sashi [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Aleo, Michael D. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Strock, Christopher J. [Cyprotex US, Watertown, MA 02472 (United States); Stedman, Donald B. [Drug Safety Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Wang, Huijun [Computational Sciences, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States); Will, Yvonne, E-mail: yvonne.will@pfizer.com [Compound Safety Prediction, Worldwide Medicinal Chemistry, Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT 06340 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify “toxic” and “non-toxic” drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition. - Highlights: • NSAIDS cause liver and GI toxicity. • Mitochondrial uncoupling contributes to NSAID liver toxicity. • ER stress is a mechanism that contributes to liver toxicity. • Zebrafish and cell based assays are complimentary.

  10. Brown Norway rats, a putative schizophrenia model, show increased electroencephalographic activity at rest and decreased event-related potential amplitude, power, and coherence in the auditory sensory gating paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Yoshiro; Hibino, Ryosuke; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    In recent schizophrenia clinical research, electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activities induced by a sensory stimulus or behavioral tasks have gained considerable interest as functional and pathophysiological biomarkers. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is a putative schizophrenia model that shows naturally low sensorimotor gating and deficits in cognitive performance, although other phenotypes have not been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the neurophysiological features of BN rats, particularly EEG/event-related potential (ERP). EEG activity was recorded at rest and during the auditory sensory gating paradigm under an awake, freely moving condition. Frequency and ERP analysis were performed along with time-frequency analysis of evoked power and intertrial coherence. Compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, a well-documented control line, BN rats showed increased EEG power at rest, particularly in the theta and gamma ranges. In ERP analysis, BN rats showed reduced N40-P20 amplitude but normal sensory gating. The rats also showed reduced evoked power and intertrial coherence against auditory stimuli. These results suggest that BN rats show features of EEG/ERP measures clinically relevant to schizophrenia and may provide additional opportunities for translational research.

  11. δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a, a Peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Venom, Shows Antinociceptive Effect Involving Opioid and Cannabinoid Systems, in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerich, Bruna Luiza; Ferreira, Renata C. M.; Cordeiro, Marta N.; Borges, Márcia Helena; Pimenta, Adriano M. C.; Figueiredo, Suely G.; Duarte, Igor Dimitri G.; de Lima, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    PnTx4(6-1), henceforth renamed δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a (δ-CNTX-Pn1a), a peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom, initially described as an insect toxin, binds to site 3 of sodium channels in nerve cord synaptosomes and slows down sodium current inactivation in isolated axons in cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). δ-CNTX-Pn1a does not cause any apparent toxicity to mice, when intracerebroventricularly injected (30 μg). In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive effect of δ-CNTX-Pn1a in three animal pain models and investigated its mechanism of action in acute pain. In the inflammatory pain model, induced by carrageenan, δ-CNTX-Pn1a restored the nociceptive threshold of rats, when intraplantarly injected, 2 h and 30 min after carrageenan administration. Concerning the neuropathic pain model, δ-CNTX-Pn1a, when intrathecally administered, reversed the hyperalgesia evoked by sciatic nerve constriction. In the acute pain model, induced by prostaglandin E2, intrathecal administration of δ-CNTX-Pn1a caused a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. Using antagonists of the receptors, we showed that the antinociceptive effect of δ-CNTX-Pn1a involves both the cannabinoid system, through CB1 receptors, and the opioid system, through μ and δ receptors. Our data show, for the first time, that δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a is able to induce antinociception in inflammatory, neuropathic and acute pain models. PMID:27077886

  12. Type 2 diabetic rats on diet supplemented with chromium malate show improved glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzyme levels and lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Feng

    Full Text Available Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.

  13. Human ESC-derived dopamine neurons show similar preclinical efficacy and potency to fetal neurons when grafted in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Shane; Diguet, Elsa; Kirkeby, Agnete; Mattsson, Bengt; Heuer, Andreas; Bramoulle, Yann; Van Camp, Nadja; Perrier, Anselme L; Hantraye, Philippe; Björklund, Anders; Parmar, Malin

    2014-11-06

    Considerable progress has been made in generating fully functional and transplantable dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Before these cells can be used for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is important to verify their functional properties and efficacy in animal models. Here we provide a comprehensive preclinical assessment of hESC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons in a rat model of PD. We show long-term survival and functionality using clinically relevant MRI and PET imaging techniques and demonstrate efficacy in restoration of motor function with a potency comparable to that seen with human fetal dopamine neurons. Furthermore, we show that hESC-derived dopamine neurons can project sufficiently long distances for use in humans, fully regenerate midbrain-to-forebrain projections, and innervate correct target structures. This provides strong preclinical support for clinical translation of hESC-derived dopamine neurons using approaches similar to those established with fetal cells for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human ESC-Derived Dopamine Neurons Show Similar Preclinical Efficacy and Potency to Fetal Neurons when Grafted in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Shane; Diguet, Elsa; Kirkeby, Agnete; Mattsson, Bengt; Heuer, Andreas; Bramoulle, Yann; Van Camp, Nadja; Perrier, Anselme L.; Hantraye, Philippe; Björklund, Anders; Parmar, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Considerable progress has been made in generating fully functional and transplantable dopamine neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Before these cells can be used for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD), it is important to verify their functional properties and efficacy in animal models. Here we provide a comprehensive preclinical assessment of hESC-derived midbrain dopamine neurons in a rat model of PD. We show long-term survival and functionality using clinically relevant MRI and PET imaging techniques and demonstrate efficacy in restoration of motor function with a potency comparable to that seen with human fetal dopamine neurons. Furthermore, we show that hESC-derived dopamine neurons can project sufficiently long distances for use in humans, fully regenerate midbrain-to-forebrain projections, and innervate correct target structures. This provides strong preclinical support for clinical translation of hESC-derived dopamine neurons using approaches similar to those established with fetal cells for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25517469

  15. δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a, a Peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Venom, Shows Antinociceptive Effect Involving Opioid and Cannabinoid Systems, in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Luiza Emerich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available PnTx4(6-1, henceforth renamed δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a (δ-CNTX-Pn1a, a peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer spider venom, initially described as an insect toxin, binds to site 3 of sodium channels in nerve cord synaptosomes and slows down sodium current inactivation in isolated axons in cockroaches (Periplaneta americana. δ-CNTX-Pn1a does not cause any apparent toxicity to mice, when intracerebroventricularly injected (30 μg. In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive effect of δ-CNTX-Pn1a in three animal pain models and investigated its mechanism of action in acute pain. In the inflammatory pain model, induced by carrageenan, δ-CNTX-Pn1a restored the nociceptive threshold of rats, when intraplantarly injected, 2 h and 30 min after carrageenan administration. Concerning the neuropathic pain model, δ-CNTX-Pn1a, when intrathecally administered, reversed the hyperalgesia evoked by sciatic nerve constriction. In the acute pain model, induced by prostaglandin E2, intrathecal administration of δ-CNTX-Pn1a caused a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. Using antagonists of the receptors, we showed that the antinociceptive effect of δ-CNTX-Pn1a involves both the cannabinoid system, through CB1 receptors, and the opioid system, through μ and δ receptors. Our data show, for the first time, that δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a is able to induce antinociception in inflammatory, neuropathic and acute pain models.

  16. Gedunin and photogedunin of Xylocarpus granatum show significant anti-secretory effects and protect the gastric mucosa of peptic ulcer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V; Singh, N; Shrivastva, S; Mishra, S K; Dharmani, P; Mishra, V; Palit, G

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, the gastroprotective mechanism of Xylocarpus granatum fruit and its active constituents gedunin and photogedunin was investigated. Chloroform fraction (Fr-CHCl(3)) of X. granatum fruit was evaluated against cold restraint (CRU), aspirin (AS), alcohol (AL) and pyloric ligation (PL) induced gastric ulcer models in rats and histamine (HA) induced duodenal ulcer model in guinea pigs. Potential anti-ulcer activity of Fr-CHCl(3) was observed against CRU (58.28%), AS (67.81%), AL (84.38%), PL (65.66%) and HA (61.93%) induced ulcer models. The standard drug omeprazole (10mg/kg, p.o.) showed 68.25% protection against CRU, 57.08% against AS and 69.42% against PL model and 70.79% against HA induced duodenal ulcer. Sucralfate, another standard drug (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed 62.72% protection in AL induced ulcer model. Fr-CHCl(3) significantly reduced free acidity (51.42%), total acidity (30.76%) and upregulated mucin secretion by 58.37% respectively. Phytochemical investigations of Fr-CHCl(3) yielded gedunin (36%), photogedunin (2%). Further, Fr-CHCl(3) and its compounds gedunin and photogedunin significantly inhibited H(+) K(+)-ATPase activity in vitro with IC(50) of 89.37, 56.86 and 66.54 microg/ml respectively as compared to the IC(50) value of omeprazole (30.24 microg/ml) confirming their anti-secretory activity. Conclusively, Fr-CHCl(3) of Xylocarpus granatum was found to possess anti-ulcerogenic activity which might be due to its anti-secretory activity and subsequent strengthening of the defensive mechanism. This study is the first of its kind to show significant anti-secretory effect of gedunin and photogedunin. Therefore it could act as a potent therapeutic agent against peptic ulcer disease.

  17. Show Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.

  18. Snobbish Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  19. A novel underuse model shows that inactivity but not ovariectomy determines the deteriorated material properties and geometry of cortical bone in the tibia of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Kozai, Yusuke; Ito, Yumi; Furuhama, Takami; Naruse, Kouji; Nonaka, Kiichi; Nagai, Yumiko; Yamato, Hideyuki; Kashima, Isamu; Ohya, Keiichi; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko

    2011-07-01

    Our goal in this study was to determine to what extent the physiologic consequences of ovariectomy (OVX) in bones are exacerbated by a lack of daily activity such as walking. We forced 14-week-old female rats to be inactive for 15 weeks with a unique experimental system that prevents standing and walking while allowing other movements. Tibiae, femora, and 4th lumbar vertebrae were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), microfocused X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT), histology, histomorphometry, Raman spectroscopy, and the three-point bending test. Contrary to our expectation, the exacerbation was very much limited to the cancellous bone parameters. Parameters of femur and tibia cortical bone were affected by the forced inactivity but not by OVX: (1) cross-sectional moment of inertia was significantly smaller in Sham-Inactive rat bones than that of their walking counterparts; (2) the number of sclerostin-positive osteocytes per unit cross-sectional area was larger in Sham-Inactive rat bones than in Sham-Walking rat bones; and (3) material properties such as ultimate stress of inactive rat tibia was lower than that of their walking counterparts. Of note, the additive effect of inactivity and OVX was seen only in a few parameters, such as the cancellous bone mineral density of the lumbar vertebrae and the structural parameters of cancellous bone in the lumbar vertebrae/tibiae. It is concluded that the lack of daily activity is detrimental to the strength and quality of cortical bone in the femur and tibia of rats, while lack of estrogen is not. Our inactive rat model, with the older rats, will aid the study of postmenopausal osteoporosis, the etiology of which may be both hormonal and mechanical.

  20. EROBATIC SHOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.

  1. Methotrexate-conjugated PEGylated dendrimers show differential patterns of deposition and activity in tumor-burdened lymph nodes after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskas, Lisa M; McLeod, Victoria M; Ascher, David B; Ryan, Gemma M; Jones, Seth; Haynes, John M; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Chan, Linda J; Sloan, Erica K; Finnin, Benjamin A; Williamson, Mark; Velkov, Tony; Williams, Elizabeth D; Kelly, Brian D; Owen, David J; Porter, Christopher J H

    2015-02-02

    The current study sought to explore whether the subcutaneous administration of lymph targeted dendrimers, conjugated with a model chemotherapeutic (methotrexate, MTX), was able to enhance anticancer activity against lymph node metastases. The lymphatic pharmacokinetics and antitumor activity of PEGylated polylysine dendrimers conjugated to MTX [D-MTX(OH)] via a tumor-labile hexapeptide linker was examined in rats and compared to a similar system where MTX was α-carboxyl O-tert-butylated [D-MTX(OtBu)]. The latter has previously been shown to exhibit longer plasma circulation times. D-MTX(OtBu) was well absorbed from the subcutaneous injection site via the lymph, and 3 to 4%/g of the dose was retained by sentinel lymph nodes. In contrast, D-MTX(OH) showed limited absorption from the subcutaneous injection site, but absorption was almost exclusively via the lymph. The retention of D-MTX(OH) by sentinel lymph nodes was also significantly elevated (approximately 30% dose/g). MTX alone was not absorbed into the lymph. All dendrimers displayed lower lymph node targeting after intravenous administration. Despite significant differences in the lymph node retention of D-MTX(OH) and D-MTX(OtBu) after subcutaneous and intravenous administration, the growth of lymph node metastases was similarly inhibited. In contrast, the administration of MTX alone did not significantly reduce lymph node tumor growth. Subcutaneous administration of drug-conjugated dendrimers therefore provides an opportunity to improve drug deposition in downstream tumor-burdened lymph nodes. In this case, however, increased lymph node biodistribution did not correlate well with antitumor activity, possibly suggesting constrained drug release at the site of action.

  2. In utero/lactational and adult exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) show differential effects on craniofacial development and growth in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholts, Sabrina B; Korkalainen, Merja; Simanainen, Ulla; Miettinen, Hanna M; Håkansson, Helen; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-11-04

    In a previous study of female Han/Wistar (H/W) and Long-Evans (L-E) rats, we found that adult exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was associated with size decreases in the cranium and especially the face. In this study we compared these crania to those from male and female Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats with in utero/lactational exposure to TCDD, using morphometric variables of size, shape, and fluctuating asymmetry to quantify the effects of dose on craniofacial development and growth. At the highest levels of exposure, in utero/lactational and adult TCDD exposures both resulted in small but significant reductions in facial size parameters (i.e., 3-5%) in only females and minor effects on facial shape in both sexes. The shape effects of in utero/lactational exposure were most significant at the sutural intersections, whereas adult exposure to TCDD corresponded to dose-dependent changes of decreasing facial length and vault breadth. Fluctuating asymmetry in general explained a relatively small amount of shape variation compared with other effects, and only increased significantly in female L-E rats with high levels of adult exposure to TCDD. These results indicate that TCDD-related changes in cranial development and growth in rats can vary with the timing and duration of exposure, and with sex. Further investigations of other dioxin-like compounds and animal species will broaden our understanding of how chemicals exposure can influence the development and growth of the mammalian skeleton.

  3. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; C. SANDT; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

  4. The Multi-Target Drug M30 Shows Pro-Cognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Luisa S; Allard, Simon; Do Carmo, Sonia; Weinreb, Orly; Danik, Marc; Hanzel, Cecilia E; Youdim, Moussa B; Cuello, A Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Current therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) offer partial symptomatic relief and do not modify disease progression. There is substantial evidence indicating a disease onset years before clinical diagnosis, at which point no effective therapy has been found. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a new multi-target drug, M30, at relatively early stages of the AD-like amyloid pathology in a robust rat transgenic model. McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic rats develop the full AD-like amyloid pathology in a progressive fashion, and have a minimal genetic burden. McGill rats were given 5 mg/kg M30 or vehicle per os, every 2 days for 4 months, starting at a stage where the transgenic animals suffer detectable cognitive impairments. At the completion of the treatment, cognitive functions were assessed with Novel Object Location and Novel Object Recognition tests. The brains were then analyzed to assess amyloid-β (Aβ) burden and the levels of key inflammatory markers. Long-term treatment with M30 was associated with both the prevention and the reversal of transgene-related cognitive decline. The effects on cognition were accompanied by a shift of the Aβ-immunoreactive material toward an amyloid plaque aggregated molecular form, diminished molecular signs of CNS inflammation and a change in microglia morphology toward a surveying phenotype. This study is the first to demonstrate the therapeutic potential of M30 in a rat model of the AD amyloid pathology. It provides a rationale for further investigations with M30 and with potential multi-target approaches to delay, prevent or reverse the progression the AD pathology at early disease-stages.

  5. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guangmang; Xiao, Liang; Fang, Tingting; Cai, Yimin; Jia, Gang; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xiaoling; Wu, Caimei

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF) and wheat bran fiber (WF) supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  6. Pea fiber and wheat bran fiber show distinct metabolic profiles in rats as investigated by a 1H NMR-based metabolomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangmang Liu

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of pea fiber (PF and wheat bran fiber (WF supplementation in rat metabolism. Rats were assigned randomly to one of three dietary groups and were given a basal diet containing 15% PF, 15% WF, or no supplemental fiber. Urine and plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabolomics. PF significantly increased the plasma levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and myo-inositol as well as the urine levels of alanine, hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetyglycine, and α-ketoglutarate. However, PF significantly decreased the plasma levels of isoleucine, leucine, lactate, and pyruvate as well as the urine levels of allantoin, bile acids, and trigonelline. WF significantly increased the plasma levels of acetone, isobutyrate, lactate, myo-inositol, and lipids as well as the urine levels of alanine, lactate, dimethylglycine, N-methylniconamide, and α-ketoglutarate. However, WF significantly decreased the plasma levels of amino acids, and glucose as well as the urine levels of acetate, allantoin, citrate, creatine, hippurate, hydroxyphenylacetate, and trigonelline. Results suggest that PF and WF exposure can promote antioxidant activity and can exhibit common systemic metabolic changes, including lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, glycogenolysis and glycolysis metabolism, protein biosynthesis, and gut microbiota metabolism. PF can also decrease bile acid metabolism. These findings indicate that different fiber diet may cause differences in the biofluid profile in rats.

  7. Exendin-4 shows no effects on the prostatic index in high-fat-diet-fed rat with benign prostatic hyperplasia by improving insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J-X; Xiao, Y-C; Hu, Y-R; Hao, M; Kuang, H-Y

    2015-03-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease globally, and accumulating evidence has indicated an association between BPH, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Exendin-4 is widely used in clinics, which could enhance the proliferation of pancreatic β cells. The ability of exendin-4 to promote tumorigenesis has been of concern, and whether exendin-4 would enhance the propagation of BPH is not fully understood. We aimed to determine whether glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1Rs) were expressed in rat prostate and to determine the effect of exendin-4 on prostate of BPH. Male Wistar rats were used and assigned to six groups: normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), HFD + exendin-4, HFD + BPH, HFD + BPH + exendin-4 and HFD + BPH + rosiglitazone group. After castration, steroids were injected subcutaneously for 4 weeks to induce BPH. Rats were kept on high-fat diet to induce IR. Treatment groups were treated with exendin-4 and rosiglitazone. Prostatic index and HOMA-IR index were used to evaluate the prostatic hyperplasia status and the degree of IR respectively. The expression of GLP-1R was indicated not only by immunohistochemistry, but also by Western blot analysis. The expression of GLP-1R was significantly higher, and HOMA-IR index and body weight significantly decreased after administration of exendin-4. However, no significant differences in the prostatic index were observed between exendin-4 treatment groups and non-exendin-4 treatment groups. Prostatic index was not influenced by exendin-4 maybe by improving IR and weight loss.

  8. Rats that binge eat fat-rich food do not show somatic signs or anxiety associated with opiate-like withdrawal: implications for nutrient-specific food addiction behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarsly, Miriam E; Berner, Laura A; Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M

    2011-10-24

    Previous studies suggest that binge eating sugar leads to behavioral and neurochemical changes similar to those seen with drug addiction, including signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Studies are emerging that show multiple neurochemical and behavioral indices of addiction when animals overeat a fat-rich diet. The goal of the present study was to utilize liquid and solid diets high in sugar and fat content to determine whether opiate-like withdrawal is seen after binge consumption of these diets in Sprague-Dawley rats. Control groups were given ad libitum access to the sweet-fat food or standard chow. All rats were then given a battery of tests to measure signs of opiate-like withdrawal, which included somatic signs of distress, elevated plus-maze anxiety, and locomotor hypoactivity. Neither naloxone-precipitated (3 mg/kg) nor deprivation-induced withdrawal was observed in rats that were maintained on a nutritionally complete pelleted sweet-fat diet or a sweet, high-fat diet supplemented with standard rodent chow. Naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was also not seen in rats fed a liquid sweet-fat food. Further, body weight reduction to 85%, which is known to potentiate the reinforcing effects of substances of abuse, did not affect naloxone-precipitated signs of opiate-like withdrawal. Thus, unlike previous findings reported regarding rats with binge access to a sucrose solution, rats that binge eat sweet-fat combinations do not show signs of opiate-like withdrawal under the conditions tested. These data support the idea that excessive consumption of different nutrients can induce behaviors associated with addiction in different ways, and that the behaviors that could characterize "food addiction" may be subtyped based on the nutritional composition of the food consumed.

  9. Diffusion tensor MRI shows progressive changes in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus after status epilepticus in rat - histological validation with Fourier-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Raimo A; Miettinen, Tuukka; Laitinen, Teemu; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra

    2017-03-04

    Imaging markers for monitoring disease progression, recovery, and treatment efficacy are a major unmet need for many neurological diseases, including epilepsy. Recent evidence suggests that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides high microstructural contrast even outside major white matter tracts. We hypothesized that in vivo DTI could detect progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus and the hippocampal CA3bc in the rat brain after status epilepticus (SE). To test this hypothesis, we induced SE with systemic kainic acid or pilocarpine in adult male Wistar rats and subsequently scanned them using in vivo DTI at five time-points: prior to SE, and 10, 20, 34, and 79 days post SE. In order to tie the DTI findings to changes in the tissue microstructure, myelin- and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-stained sections from the same animals underwent Fourier analysis. We compared the Fourier analysis parameters, anisotropy index and angle of myelinated axons or astrocyte processes, to corresponding DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA) and the orientation angle of the principal eigenvector. We found progressive detectable changes in DTI parameters in both the dentate gyrus (FA, axial diffusivity [D||], linear anisotropy [CL] and spherical anisotropy [CS], pmixed-effects model [LMEM]) and the CA3bc (FA, D||, CS, and angle, p<0.001, LMEM; CL and planar anisotropy [CP], p<0.01, LMEM) post SE. The Fourier analysis revealed that both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes played a role in the water diffusion anisotropy changes detected by DTI in individual portions of the dentate gyrus (suprapyramidal blade, mid-portion, and infrapyramidal blade). In the whole dentate gyrus, myelinated axons markedly contributed to the water diffusion changes. In CA3bc as well as in CA3b and CA3c, both myelinated axons and astrocyte processes contributed to water diffusion anisotropy and orientation. Our study revealed that DTI is a promising method for noninvasive

  10. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Louis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release

  11. A novel therapeutic with two SNAP-25 inactivating proteases shows long-lasting anti-hyperalgesic activity in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiafu; Casals, Laura; Zurawski, Tomas; Meng, Jianghui; Moriarty, Orla; Nealon, John; Edupuganti, Om Prakash; Dolly, Oliver

    2017-03-24

    A pressing need exists for long-acting, non-addictive medicines to treat chronic pain, a major societal burden. Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) complex - a potent, specific and prolonged inhibitor of neuro-exocytosis - gives some relief in several pain disorders, but not for all patients. A study objective was to modify BoNT/A to overcome its inability to block transmitter release elicited by high [Ca(2+)]i and increase its restricted analgesic effects. This was achieved by fusing a BoNT/A gene to that for the light chain (LC) of type/E. The resultant purified protein, LC/E-BoNT/A, entered cultured sensory neurons and, unlike BoNT/A, inhibited release of calcitonin gene-related peptide evoked by capsaicin. Western blotting revealed that this improvement could be due to a more extensive truncation by LC/E of synaptosomal-associated protein of Mr = 25 k, essential for neuro-exocytosis. When tested in a rat spared nerve injury (SNI) model, a single intra-plantar (IPL) injection of LC/E-BoNT/A alleviated for ∼2 weeks mechanical and cold hyper-sensitivities, in a dose-dependent manner. The highest non-paralytic dose (75 U/Kg, IPL) proved significantly more efficacious than BoNT/A (15 U/Kg, IPL) or repeated systemic pregabalin (10 mg/ml, intraperitoneal), a clinically-used pain modulator. Effects of repeated or delayed injections of this fusion protein highlighted its analgesic potential. Attenuation of mechanical hyperalgesia was extended by a second administration when the effect of the first had diminished. When injected 5 weeks after injury, LC/E-BoNT/A also reversed fully-established mechanical and cold hyper-sensitivity. Thus, combining advantageous features of BoNT/E and/A yields an efficacious, locally-applied and long-acting anti-hyperalgesic.

  12. The spontaneously hypertensive rat/Izm (SHR/Izm) shows attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-like behaviors but without impulsive behavior: therapeutic implications of low-dose methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishikawa, Yuki; Kawahara, Yukie; Yamada, Makiko; Kaneko, Fumi; Kawahara, Hiroshi; Nishi, Akinori

    2014-11-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been used as a genetic animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). SHR/Izm is derived from stroke-resistant SHR as SHR/NIH and SHR/NCrl but from 22nd to 23rd generation descendants of the SHR/NIH ancestor and therefore may show different behavioral phenotypes compared to other SHR sub-strains. In this study, ADHD-like behaviors in SHR/Izm were evaluated compared to Wistar rats. SHR/Izm showed high locomotor activity in the habituation phase in a novel environment, although locomotor activity in the initial exploratory phase was low. In a behavioral test for attention, spontaneous alternation behavior in the Y-maze test was impaired in SHR/Izm. However, impulsive behavior in the elevated-plus maze test, which is designed to detect anxiety-related behavior but also reflects impulsivity for novelty seeking, was comparable to Wistar rats. Hyperactivity and inattention, detected as ADHD-like behaviors in SHR/Izm, were ameliorated with methylphenidate at a low dose (0.05mg/kg, i.p.). Therefore, SHR/Izm represents a unique animal model of ADHD without anxiety-related impulsive behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of epigenetically downregulated Tmem70 and Ube2e2 in rat liver after 28-day treatment with hepatocarcinogenic thioacetamide showing gene product downregulation in hepatocellular preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions produced by tumor promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Sayaka; Yafune, Atsunori; Watanabe, Yousuke; Nakajima, Kota; Jin, Meilan; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2017-01-15

    The present study identified genes showing promoter region hypermethylation by CpG island microarrays in the liver of rats treated with hepatocarcinogen thioacetamide (TAA) for 28days. Among 47 hypermethylated genes, Hist1h2aa, Tmem70, Ube2e2, and Slk were confirmed to show hypermethylation by methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing analyses as well as downregulation of transcript levels by real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis in the livers of rats treated with TAA. All gene products of the 4 selected genes showed decreased immunoreactivity forming negative liver cell foci in a subpopulation of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)(+) foci in TAA-promoted rat livers in a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model. Among them, TMEM70 and UBE2E2 showed increased incidences of negative foci in GST-P(+) foci by promotion of all examined TAA, β-naphthoflavone, piperonyl butoxide, fenbendazole and phenobarbital, while HIST1H2AA and SLK did not respond to all promotive treatments. In the late stage of tumor promotion by TAA, the incidence of GST-P(+) proliferative lesions with downregulation of TMEM70 or UBE2E2 was higher in adenomas and carcinomas than liver cell foci. TMEM70 plays a role in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and UBE2E2 participates in the stabilization of cell cycle regulatory proteins. Therefore, our results indicate that aberrant epigenetic gene downregulation suggestive of a metabolic shift of cellular respiration from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and aberrant cell cycle regulation facilitating cell proliferation from as early as 28days after hepatocarcinogen treatment contribute to tumor development.

  14. Background synaptic activity in rat entorhinal cortex shows a progressively greater dominance of inhibition over excitation from deep to superficial layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart David Greenhill

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC controls hippocampal input and output, playing major roles in memory and spatial navigation. Different layers of the EC subserve different functions and a number of studies have compared properties of neurones across layers. We have studied synaptic inhibition and excitation in EC neurones, and we have previously compared spontaneous synaptic release of glutamate and GABA using patch clamp recordings of synaptic currents in principal neurones of layers II (L2 and V (L5. Here, we add comparative studies in layer III (L3. Such studies essentially look at neuronal activity from a presynaptic viewpoint. To correlate this with the postsynaptic consequences of spontaneous transmitter release, we have determined global postsynaptic conductances mediated by the two transmitters, using a method to estimate conductances from membrane potential fluctuations. We have previously presented some of this data for L3 and now extend to L2 and L5. Inhibition dominates excitation in all layers but the ratio follows a clear rank order (highest to lowest of L2>L3>L5. The variance of the background conductances was markedly higher for excitation and inhibition in L2 compared to L3 or L5. We also show that induction of synchronized network epileptiform activity by blockade of GABA inhibition reveals a relative reluctance of L2 to participate in such activity. This was associated with maintenance of a dominant background inhibition in L2, whereas in L3 and L5 the absolute level of inhibition fell below that of excitation, coincident with the appearance of synchronized discharges. Further experiments identified potential roles for competition for bicuculline by ambient GABA at the GABAA receptor, and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in residual inhibition in L2. We discuss our results in terms of control of excitability in neuronal subpopulations of EC neurones and what these may suggest for their functional roles.

  15. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Cerling, Thure E; Uno, Kevin T; Ferguson, Kurt M; Flynn, Lawrence J; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13)C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  16. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kimura

    Full Text Available Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13C with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  17. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  18. Post-cancer Treatment with Condurango 30C Shows Amelioration of Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer in Rats Through the Molecular Pathway of Caspa- se-3-mediated Apoptosis Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikdar Sourav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present investigation aimed at examining if post-cancer treatment with a potentized homeopathic drug, Condurango 30C, which is generally used to treat oesophageal cancer, could also show an ameliorating effect through apoptosis induction on lung cancer induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP in white rats (Rattus norvegicus. Methods: Lung cancer was induced after four months by chronic feeding of BaP to rats through gavage at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for one month. After four months, the lung-cancer-bearing rats were treated with Condurango 30C for the next one (5th, two (5th-6th and three (5th-7th months, respectively, and were sacrificed at the corresponding time- points. The ameliorating effect, if any, after Condurango 30C treatment for the various periods was evaluated by using protocols such as histology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, annexinV-FITC/PI assay, flow cytometry of the apoptosis marker, DNA fragmentation, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analyses of lung tissue samples. Results: Striking recovery of lung tissue to a near normal status was noticed after post-cancerous drug treatment, as evidenced by SEM and histology, especially after one and two months of drug treatment. Data from the annexinV-FITC/PI and DNA fragmentation assays revealed that Condurango 30C could induce apoptosis in cancer cells after post-cancer treatment. A critical analysis of signalling cascade, evidenced through a RT-PCR study, demonstrated up-regulation and down-regulation of different pro- and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively, related to a caspase-3-mediated apoptotic pathway, which was especially discernible after one-month and two- month drug treatments. Correspondingly, Western blot and immunohistochemistry studies confirmed the ameliorative potential of Condurango 30C by its ability to down-regulate the elevated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression, a

  19. WAG/Rij rats show a reduced expression of CB1 receptors in thalamic nuclei and respond to the CB1 receptor agonist, R(+)WIN55,212-2, with a reduced incidence of spike-wave discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, C.M. van; Gaetani, S.; Santolini, I.; Badura, A.; Fu, J.; Watanabe, M.; Cuomo, V.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Nicoletti, F.; Ngomba, R.T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Genetically epileptic WAG/Rij rats develop spontaneous absence-like seizures after 3 months of age. We used WAG/Rij rats to examine whether absence seizures are associated with changes in the expression of type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. Methods: Receptor expression was examined by in s

  20. The Health Show

    OpenAIRE

    Swann, David

    2011-01-01

    Dr David Swann interviewed on The Health Show, Series 1, Episode 5, 2011 for BBC World about the award-winning 21st Century Nursing Bag. BBC World News reaches 241million people every week, available in 296 million homes, 1.8 million hotel rooms and has the highest average viewership on a weekday of any international news channel. The Health Show is a new 26-part series for BBC World News covering the most important news stories from around the world.

  1. A Fashion Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Story: The yearly fashion show day.The children take turns to walk on the stage and show the class their favorite clothes.Now it’s Joe’s and Phoebe’s turn.Joe walks on the stage and says,“My shorts are blue.Do you like my blue shorts?”On the other side of the stage, Phoebe is wearing her favorite pink skirt.“My skirt is pink.Do you like my pink skirt?”asks

  2. On not showing scalps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    proposed by Janet Marstine, the editor of the Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics, I show how the museum succeeded in engaging users in questions of museum ethics. However, this specific debate on human remains in museums developed into an encounter between a global, museological discourse...

  3. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  4. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  5. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  6. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  7. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  8. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  9. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  10. Public medical shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  11. The Great Cometary Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  12. treated rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... Our results show, for the first time, that oral administration of C. edulis ... the exact mechanisms of these hematological changes produced by .... Hematological analysis .... rats are subjected to the additional stress of hypoxia to.

  13. MRI shows clodronate-liposomes attenuating liverinjuryinratswithsevereacutepancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xin Zhang; Sheng-Chun Dang; Yong Zhang; Xin Sha; Li-Rong Zhang; Chuan-She Wei; Min Chen; De-Li Jiang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed that macrophages play an important role in the development of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Activated macrophages can lead to a systemic inlfammatory response, induce lipid peroxidation, impair membrane structure, result in injury to the liver and the other extrahepatic organs, and eventually result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome by promoting excessive secretion of cytokines. Liver injury can further aggravate the systemic inlfammatory response and increase mortality by affecting the metabolism of toxins and the release of excessive inlfammatory mediators. Clodronate is a synthetic bisphosphonate, which is often used for treating bone changes caused by osteoporosis and other factors. In the current study, we created liposomes containing superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) for macrophage labeling and magnetic resonance imaging, using a novel method that can bind the clodronate to induce apoptosis and deplete macrophages. METHODS: Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by chemical coprecipitation. SPIO-containing liposomes and SPIO-clodronate-containing liposomes were prepared by the thin iflm method. SAP models were prepared by injection of sodium taurocholate (2 ml/kg body weight) into the subcapsular space of the pancreas. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a control group, a SAP plus SPIO-liposome group, and a SAP plus SPIO-clodronate-containing group. Two and six hours after SAP models were available, T2-weighted MRI scans (in the same plane) of the livers of rats in each group were performed. At the end of the scans, 2 ml of blood was taken from the superior mesenteric vein to measure the levels of serum amylase, ALT, AST, TNF-α, and IL-6. Pathological changes in the liver and pancreas were assessed. RESULTS: Transmission electron microscopy showed that the liposomes had a uniform size. No pathological changes in the pancreata of rats in the control group were noted. The

  14. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  15. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  16. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  17. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  18. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2008-01-01

    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  19. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makidono, Akari; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Mori, Miki; Yagata, Hiroshi; Onoda, Yui; Kikuchi, Mari; Nozaki, Taiki; Saida, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Seigo; Suzuki, Koyu

    2013-07-01

    Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

  20. Pembrolizumab Shows Promise for NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial show that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy.

  1. Create a Polarized Light Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, William H.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson that introduces students to polarized light using a problem-solving approach. After illustrating the concept using a slinky and poster board with a vertical slot, students solve the problem of creating a polarized light show using Polya's problem-solving methods. (MDH)

  2. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  3. Picasso on Show in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A staff member of the National Picasso Museum of France checks one of the great Spanish artist Pablo Picasso’s works at the China Pavilion inside the site of the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai on October 12.Sixty-two priceless paintings and statues selected from the works of the renowned artist have been brought to the pavilion for an upcoming exhibition to premiere on October 18.Besides these representative masterpieces,50 valuable photographs showing the artist’s whole life will also be presented.The exhibition’s estimated value is 678 million euros ($934 million).It will be held until January 10,2012.

  4. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.

  5. "Medicine show." Alice in Doctorland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is an excerpt from the script of a 1939 play provided to the Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health by the Library of Congress Federal Theater Project Collection at George Mason University Library, Fairfax, Virginia, pages 2-1-8 thru 2-1-14. The Federal Theatre Project (FTP) was part of the New Deal program for the arts 1935-1939. Funded by the Works Progress Administration (WPA) its goal was to employ theater professionals from the relief rolls. A number of FTP plays deal with aspects of medicine and public health. Pageants, puppet shows and documentary plays celebrated progress in medical science while examining social controversies in medical services and the public health movement. "Medicine Show" sharply contrasts technological wonders with social backwardness. The play was rehearsed by the FTP but never opened because funding ended. A revised version ran on Broadway in 1940. The preceding comments are adapted from an excellent, well-illustrated review of five of these plays by Barabara Melosh: "The New Deal's Federal Theatre Project," Medical Heritage, Vol. 2, No. 1 (Jan/Feb 1986), pp. 36-47.

  6. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2009-01-01

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can exp...

  7. Dissection of the physiological interconversion of 5alpha-DHT and 3alpha-diol by rat 3alpha-HSD via transient kinetics shows that the chemical step is rate-determining: effect of mutating cofactor and substrate-binding pocket residues on catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Vladi V; Penning, Trevor M

    2004-09-28

    3Alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3alpha-HSDs) catalyze the interconversion between 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT), the most potent androgen, and 3alpha-androstanediol (3alpha-diol), a weak androgen metabolite. To identify the rate-determining step in this physiologically important reaction, rat liver 3alpha-HSD (AKR1C9) was used as the protein model for the human homologues in fluorescence stopped-flow transient kinetic and kinetic isotope effect studies. Using single and multiple turnover experiments to monitor the NADPH-dependent reduction of 5alpha-DHT, it was found that k(lim) and k(max) values were identical to k(cat), indicating that chemistry is rate-limiting overall. Kinetic isotope effect measurements, which gave (D)k(cat) = 2.4 and (D)2(O)k(cat) = 3.0 at pL 6.0, suggest that the slow chemical transformation is significantly rate-limiting. When the NADP(+)-dependent oxidation of 3alpha-diol was monitored, single and multiple turnover experiments showed a k(lim) and burst kinetics consistent with product release as being rate-limiting overall. When NAD(+) was substituted for NADP(+), burst phase kinetics was eliminated, and k(max) was identical to k(cat). Thus with the physiologically relevant substrates 5alpha-DHT plus NADPH and 3alpha-diol plus NAD(+), the slowest event is chemistry. R276 forms a salt-linkage with the phosphate of 2'-AMP, and when it is mutated, tight binding of NAD(P)H is no longer observed [Ratnam, K., et al. (1999) Biochemistry 38, 7856-7864]. The R276M mutant also eliminated the burst phase kinetics observed for the NADP(+)-dependent oxidation of 3alpha-diol. The data with the R276M mutant confirms that the release of the NADPH product is the slow event; and in its absence, chemistry becomes rate-limiting. W227 is a critical hydrophobic residue at the steroid binding site, and when it is mutated to alanine, k(cat)/K(m) for oxidation is significantly depressed. Burst phase kinetics for the NADP(+)-dependent turnover of 3

  8. Tubuloglomerular feedback in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1998-01-01

    in both Dahl-S and salt-resistant Dahl rats on high- and low-salt diets. TGF was investigated in the closed-loop mode with a videometric technique, in which the response in late proximal flow rate to perturbations in Henle flow rate was measured. All Dahl rats showed a similar compensatory response...

  9. Fabrics China Creation Show Hold in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ On August 5-6th.the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show(one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,aiming to providing textile producers and designers a platform to show their inspirations and creative ideas in fabric design.

  10. Serving Up Activities for TV Cooking Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katchen, Johanna E.

    This paper documents a presentation given on the use of English-language television cooking shows in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) classrooms in Taiwan. Such shows can be ideal for classroom use, since they have a predictable structure consisting of short segments, are of interest to most students,…

  11. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  12. Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163263.html Fecal Transplant Shows Early Promise Against Autism Small study found giving healthy gut bacteria to ... study suggests a novel treatment for kids with autism: Give these young patients a fresh supply of ...

  13. Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163168.html Poverty Harder on Women's Hearts, Research Shows Poor females ... reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease around the world," Peters said. The study findings were published online ...

  14. Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167612.html Diabetes Drug Shows Promise Against Parkinson's Byetta improved symptoms of motor disease in small, ... may do double duty as a treatment for Parkinson's disease, a new study suggests. "This is a ...

  15. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  16. Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162514.html Study Shows How Zika Attacks Infant Brain Virus can copy itself thousands ... New research paints a chilling portrait of how Zika ravages the infant brain. Scientists from the U.S. ...

  17. Fabrics China Creation Show Held in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    On August 5-6th,the 3rd Fabrics China Creation Show (one series events of Reach & Touch),organized by China National Textile & Apparel Council and National Textile Development Center,was held in Shanghai,

  18. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-01-01

    In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars) that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private s...

  19. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  20. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  1. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  2. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  3. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the cinem

  4. Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163824.html Gene Therapy Shows Promise for Aggressive Lymphoma Over one-third ... TUESDAY, Feb. 28, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental gene therapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma beat back more ...

  5. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  6. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  7. TV-Show Retrieval and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musto, C.; Narducci, F.; Lops, P.; Semeraro G.; Gemmis, M. de; Barbieri, M.; Korst, J.H.M.; Pronk, S.P.P.; Clout, R.A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Recommender systems are becoming popular tools to aid users in finding interesting and relevant TV-shows and other digital video assets,based on implicitly learned user preferences. In this context, a common assumption is that user preferences can be specified by program types (movie, sports, ...) a

  8. The British Show in Australia, 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1984–85, The British Show, an exhibition largely made up of New British Sculpture, was curated for Australia and New Zealand. This essay discusses the context and effects of the exhibition on art in Australia. It also seeks to define the sources of originality and innovation of the artists included.

  9. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  10. GABAergic ventrolateral pre‑optic nucleus neurons are involved in the mediation of the anesthetic hypnosis induced by propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jie; Luo, Zhuxin; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yuan; Cao, Song; Fu, Bao; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Wenjing; Yu, Tian

    2017-09-01

    Intravenous anesthetics have been used clinically to induce unconsciousness for seventeen decades, however the mechanism of anesthetic‑induced unconsciousness remains to be fully elucidated. It has previously been demonstrated that anesthetics exert sedative effects by acting on endoge-nous sleep‑arousal circuits. However, few studies focus on the ventrolateral pre‑optic (VLPO) to locus coeruleus (LC) sleep‑arousal pathway. The present study aimed to investigate if VLPO is involved in unconsciousness induced by propofol. The present study additionally investigated if the inhibitory effect of propofol on LC neurons was mediated by activating VLPO neurons. Microinjection, target lesion and extracellular single‑unit recordings were used to study the role of the VLPO‑LC pathway in propofol anesthesia. The results demonstrated that GABAA agonist (THIP) or GABAA antagonist (gabazine) microinjections into VLPO altered the time of loss of righting reflex and the time of recovery of righting reflex. Furthermore, propofol suppressed the spontaneous firing activity of LC noradrenergic neurons. There was no significant difference observed in firing activity between VLPO sham lesion and VLPO lesion rats. The findings indicate that VLPO neurons are important in propofol‑induced unconsciousness, however are unlikely to contribute to the inhibitory effect of propofol on LC spontaneous firing activity.

  11. Correction of hyperphosphatemia suppresses cardiac remodeling in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki-Nakazawa, Ai; Mizobuchi, Masahide; Ogata, Hiroaki; Kumata, Chiaki; Kondo, Fumiko; Ono, Naoko; Koiwa, Fumihiko; Uda, Susumu; Kinugasa, Eriko; Akizawa, Tadao

    2014-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is associated with cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. To examine the effects of correction of hyperphosphatemia, we investigated the association between phosphate metabolism and cardiac remodeling in uremic rats. Four groups were studied for 8 weeks: (1) control (sham), (2) 5/6 nephrectomized (Nx) rats fed a normal phosphate regular diet (Nx + NP), (3) Nx rats fed a high phosphate (1.2 %) diet (Nx + HP), and (4) Nx rats fed a high phosphate diet containing 2 % lanthanum carbonate (Nx + HP + La). The relationship between phosphate metabolism and cardiac remodeling was analyzed. Nx + HP rats showed a significant increase in serum phosphate and PTH compared with Nx + NP rats, while Nx + HP + La rats showed slight decreases in these levels. Both Nx + HP and Nx + HP + La rats showed a significant increase in fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) compared with Nx + NP rats. Urinary phosphate excretion showed a similar trend to that of FGF23. Nx + HP rats showed a significant increase in LV weight and matrix deposition compared with Nx + NP rats, and this increase was also significantly suppressed in Nx + HP + La rats. Serum phosphate levels and PTH were significantly correlated with LV weight and matrix deposition, but FGF23 levels did not show the correlation. FGF23 had a high correlation with urinary phosphate excretion. These results suggest that correction of hyperphosphatemia by lanthanum carbonate could suppress cardiac remodeling independently of changes in FGF23.

  12. La mujer, en los talk shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antrop. José Gamboa Cetina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de los medios de comunicación, uno de los que más ha impactado a la población latinoamericana ha sido la televisión, y en la barra programática de las televisoras ha surgido un tipo de programas denominados talk shows. En los últimos meses, la sociedad mexicana ha vivido el "boom" de los talk shows, que en poco tiempo han saturado la barra de la programación vespertina de las dos principales empresas televisivas de la república mexicana. Este fenómeno puede estudiarse desde diversas perspectivas. Sin embargo, por motivos de espacio, en esta ocasión analizaremos su impacto en las mujeres, desde diferentes dimensiones.

  13. 2009 Hands Across Pacific Show Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The 2009 Hands Across the Pacific Show co-sponsored by the Canadian International Cultural Exchanges (CICEX) and Hunan Provincial People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(HPPAFFC) was held respectively in the Tower Hall of Tokyo,Japan from July 2 to 7 and in the Hunan Provincial Museum from August 1 to 5.Jing Dunquan,Vice President of the

  14. The People's Show: A Critical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Francis

    1996-01-01

    The 1990s heralded a new form of museum exhibition: "The People's Show." A light-hearted celebration of popular culture, the concept has had phenomenal success throughout the United Kingdom. Beneath the humour, however, are more complex and radical agendas relating to cultural rights. The paper explores the issues associated with the rise and possible wane of this museum-based popular cultural phenomenon.

  15. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  16. Bite my art to show your love

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hye yeon

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, I came to the States for MFA program in UCSD. At first, I started making instructions for performance to communicate with people in my clumsy English, but it soon became my general process of working. In this show, I present a room surrounded by five video projections and drawings. They are documentation of performances concerning the balance of relationship. I performed two with Josh Aaron, other two with Josh Tonies, and one by myself. The performance done by myself reveals t...

  17. Showing and Saying. An Aesthetic Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sanfélix Vidarte

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein’s distinction between saying and showing and the associated thesis, what can be shown cannot be said, were crucial to his first philosophy, persisted throughout the evolution of his whole thought and played a key role in his views on aesthetics. The objective of art is access to the mystical, forcing us to become aware of the uniqueness of our own experience and life. When art is good is a perfect expression and the work of art becomes like a tautology. An important consequence of this understanding of art is the irreducibility of the aesthetic to the scientific perspective.

  18. Latest European coelacanth shows Gondwanan affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel; Forey, Peter L; Buffetaut, Eric; Tong, Haiyan

    2005-06-22

    The last European fossil occurrence of a coelacanth is from the Mid-Cretaceous of the English Chalk (Turonian, 90 million years ago). Here, we report the discovery of a coelacanth from Late Cretaceous non-marine rocks in southern France. It consists of a left angular bone showing structures that imply close phylogenetic affinities with some extinct Mawsoniidae. The closest relatives are otherwise known from Cretaceous continental deposits of southern continents and suggest that the dispersal of freshwater organisms from Africa to Europe occurred in the Late Cretaceous.

  19. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-10-01

    Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality.

  20. Figure of Beijing ABP Showing up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Last year, there were many good news from Beijing Advanced Business Park(ABP): on October 29, 2005, Xu Weiping, Chairman of the Board of ABP, was chosen as the"2005 Ten Major Chinese Administrative Person in News";On November 8,2005,CCIM (American Certified Commercial Investment Member) invited 40 world famous real estate investors to visit ABS and they showed will to cooperate; On November 22, 2005, Johnson Controls, Inc., one of World Top 500, signed the contract with Zhongguan Village Fengtai Garden that the headquarter of JCI energy administration China Branch will move to ABP to improve the energy administration and radiate all the nation; on December 10,2005, "CEO Salon" co-organized by Phoenix Satellite Television and ABP, was held in the meeting room of ABP, over 120CEOs met here to discuss the trend of China economic development and the development opportunities brought by 11th Five-Year Plan for enterprises.

  1. Lemurs and macaques show similar numerical sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah M.; Pearson, John; DeWind, Nicholas K.; Paulsen, David; Tenekedjieva, Ana-Maria; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the precision of the approximate number system (ANS) in three lemur species (Lemur catta, Eulemur mongoz, and Eulemur macaco flavifrons), one Old World monkey species (Macaca mulatta) and humans (Homo sapiens). In Experiment 1, four individuals of each nonhuman primate species were trained to select the numerically larger of two visual arrays on a touchscreen. We estimated numerical acuity by modeling Weber fractions (w) and found quantitatively equivalent performance among all four nonhuman primate species. In Experiment 2, we tested adult humans in a similar procedure, and they outperformed the four nonhuman species but showed qualitatively similar performance. These results indicate that the ANS is conserved over the primate order. PMID:24068469

  2. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  3. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  4. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  5. The great American medicine show revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomes, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1800s, changes in the advertising and marketing of medicinal drugs have produced heated debates in the United States. With the emergence of the modern prescription drug between 1938 and 1951, concerns that once focused primarily on patients' use of over-the-counter drugs were broadened to include physicians and their "doctors' drugs" as well. The medical profession's growing control over their patients' drug choices inevitably heightened the scrutiny of their own performance as consumers. Although deeply divided over issues of the patient's role in medical decision making, consumer activists and physician reformers expressed similar concerns about the impact of aggressive pharmaceutical marketing and advertising on the doctor-patient relationship, and starting in the late 1950s they employed strikingly similar strategies to counter the new corporate "medicine show." Yet their efforts to promote a more rational use of prescription drugs have usually been too little and too late to offset the effectiveness of pharmaceutical advertising and mar-keting activities.

  6. Tetrahydrobiopterin shows chaperone activity for tyrosine hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöny, Beat; Calvo, Ana C; Scherer, Tanja; Svebak, Randi M; Haavik, Jan; Blau, Nenad; Martinez, Aurora

    2008-07-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Primary inherited defects in TH have been associated with l-DOPA responsive and non-responsive dystonia and infantile parkinsonism. In this study, we show that both the cofactor (6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) and the feedback inhibitor and catecholamine product dopamine increase the kinetic stability of human TH isoform 1 in vitro. Activity measurements and synthesis of the enzyme by in vitro transcription-translation revealed a complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization. Oral BH(4) supplementation to mice increased TH activity and protein levels in brain extracts, while the Th-mRNA level was not affected. All together our results indicate that the molecular mechanisms for the stabilization are a primary folding-aid effect of BH(4) and a secondary effect by increased synthesis and binding of catecholamine ligands. Our results also establish that orally administered BH(4) crosses the blood-brain barrier and therapeutic regimes based on BH(4) supplementation should thus consider the effect on TH. Furthermore, BH(4) supplementation arises as a putative therapeutic agent in the treatment of brain disorders associated with TH misfolding, such as for the human TH isoform 1 mutation L205P.

  7. The earliest published electrocardiogram showing ventricular preexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Knorre, Georg H

    2005-03-01

    When in 1930, Wolff, Parkinson, and White published what is today known as the WPW, or preexcitation syndrome, they, and subsequently others, found few comparable cases in the preceding literature. Among these the report of Cohn and Fraser, published in 1913, was the earliest. However, another even earlier documentation in a 1909 article by Hoffmann escaped notice till now. The ECG of a patient with paroxysmal tachycardia reveals a short PR interval and a delta-wave-induced widening of the QRS complex, even though the reproduced tachycardia was not preexcitation related. The interpretation of this poorly reproduced ECG can be confirmed by another and more detailed description of the patient in an electrocardiography textbook published in 1914 by the same author. Thus, the earliest publication of an ECG showing ventricular preexcitation now can be dated back to 1909. Moreover, the Hoffmann monograph contains two additional examples of the WPW syndrome not noticed until now. All three cases published by Hoffmann had their first ECG recordings in 1912 or earlier.

  8. Ribavirin shows immunomodulatory effects on activated microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Danijela; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Herdegen, Thomas; Pekovic, Sanja

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Ribavirin (RBV) is synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, licensed as anti-viral drug that displays immunomodulatory actions on various immune cells. Our previous ex vivo studies have demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of RBV on reactive T-lymphocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Here, we examined the effects of RBV on inflammatory response of microglia. RBV potency to down-regulate microglia inflammatory response was assessed by measuring microglia cell body size, and the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. RBV exerted cytotoxic effects on LPS-stimulated microglia, leaving non-stimulated microglia unaffected. The exposure of activated microglia to RBV led to: decrease in the level of NO as a result of decreased cell number, lower average cell surface, the reduction of membrane ruffling, the suppression of interleukin-6 release and promoted interleukin-10 production. On the other hand, RBV promoted LPS-induced interleukin-1 beta release. Our results imply that RBV is a complex immunomodulator showing both anti- and pro-inflammatory effects on activated microglia.

  9. Rat-to-human transmission of Cowpox infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolfs, Tom F W; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Niesters, Hubert G M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2002-01-01

    We isolated Cowpox virus (CPXV) from the ulcerative eyelid lesions of a 14-year-old girl, who had cared for a clinically ill wild rat that later died. CPXV isolated from the rat (Rattus norvegicus) showed complete homology with the girl's virus. Our case is the first proven rat-to-human transmission

  10. Modulation of rat behaviour by using a rat-like robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Shinichi; Takanishi, Atsuo; Okabayashi, Satoshi; Iida, Naritoshi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we study the response of a rat to a rat-like robot capable of generating different types of behaviour (stressful, friendly, neutral). Experiments are conducted in an open-field where a rat-like robot called WR-4 is put together with live rats. The activity level of each rat subject is evaluated by scoring its locomotor activity and frequencies of performing rearing (rising up on its hind limbs) and body grooming (body cuddling and head curling) actions, whereas the degree of preference of that is indicated by the robot-rat distance and the frequency of contacting WR-4. The moving speed and behaviour of WR-4 are controlled in real-time based on the feedback from rat motion. The activity level and degree of preference of rats for each experimental condition are analysed and compared to understand the influence of robot behaviour. The results of this study show that the activity level and degree of preference of the rat decrease when exposed to a stressful robot, and increase when the robot exhibit friendly behaviour, suggesting that a rat-like robot can modulate rat behaviour in a controllable, predictable way.

  11. Same-Different Categorization in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Same-different categorization is a fundamental feat of human cognition. Although birds and nonhuman primates readily learn same-different discriminations and successfully transfer them to novel stimuli, no such demonstration exists for rats. Using a spatial discrimination learning task, we show that rats can both learn to discriminate arrays of…

  12. Population Structure of Rat-Derived Pneumocystis carinii in Danish Wild Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Robert J.; Settnes, Osvald P.; Lodal, Jens

    2000-01-01

    samples. We report a lack of variation in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions that is consistent with an evolutionary bottleneck in the P. carinii f. sp. carinii population. This study shows that human- and rat-derived P. carinii organisms are very different, not population. This study shows that human- and rat......The rat model of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is frequently used to study human P. carinii infection, but there are many differences between the rat and human infections. We studied naturally acquired P. carinii in wild rats to examine the relevance of the rat model for human infection. P......-derived organisms are very different, not only in genetic composition but also in population structure and natural history....

  13. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  14. Efficient single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in laboratory rat strains using wild rat-derived SNP candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrich Hans J; Wedekind Dirk; Zeegers Dimphy; Guryev Victor; Smits Bart MG; Cuppen Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an important model for studying many aspects of human health and disease. Detailed knowledge on genetic variation between strains is important from a biomedical, particularly pharmacogenetic point of view and useful for marker selection for genetic cloning and association studies. Results We show that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in commonly used rat strains are surprisingly well represented in wild rat isolates. Shotgun ...

  15. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  16. Efficient single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in laboratory rat strains using wild rat-derived SNP candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrich Hans J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus is an important model for studying many aspects of human health and disease. Detailed knowledge on genetic variation between strains is important from a biomedical, particularly pharmacogenetic point of view and useful for marker selection for genetic cloning and association studies. Results We show that Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in commonly used rat strains are surprisingly well represented in wild rat isolates. Shotgun sequencing of 814 Kbp in one wild rat resulted in the identification of 485 SNPs as compared with the Brown Norway genome sequence. Genotyping 36 commonly used inbred rat strains showed that 84% of these alleles are also polymorphic in a representative set of laboratory rat strains. Conclusion We postulate that shotgun sequencing in a wild rat sample and subsequent genotyping in multiple laboratory or domesticated strains rather than direct shotgun sequencing of multiple strains, could be the most efficient SNP discovery approach. For the rat, laboratory strains still harbor a large portion of the haplotypes present in wild isolates, suggesting a relatively recent common origin and supporting the idea that rat inbred strains, in contrast to mouse inbred strains, originate from a single species, R. norvegicus.

  17. CCl4 cirrhosis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Nielsen, A; Poulsen, H E; Hansen, B A

    1991-01-01

    Cirrhosis of the rat liver was induced by a 12 week individualized CCl4/phenobarbital treatment. After treatment, all surviving animals (81%) showed cirrhosis of the liver. The cirrhosis induced was irreversible when evaluated 24 weeks after cessation of treatment. Quantitative liver function...

  18. State Space Methods in RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Doan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several examples to show how the econometrics program RATS can be used to analyze state space models. It demonstrates Kalman filtering and smoothing, estimation of hyperparameters, unconditional and conditional simulation. It also provides a more complicated example where a dynamic simultaneous equations model is transformed into a proper state space representation and its unknown parameters are estimated.

  19. Caulis Lonicerae Japonicae extract shows protective effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a control group ... twice as common in women as in men [6], and ... old experiences an osteoporotic fracture in her ... EXPERIMENTAL ... before use. ... which was similar to that observed in the H-CLJE ..... Zhuanggu Granule on relieving pain in menopausal.

  20. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  1. Potential neoplastic effects of parathion-methyl on rat liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Nisa UNALDI CORAL; Sonay UCMAN; Hasan YILDIZ; Haydar OZTAS; Semih DALKILIC

    2009-01-01

    The mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of parathion-methyl were examined by bacterial reverse assay and a long term experiment with Wistar rats. The potential mutagenic effect of parathion-methyl in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 bacterial cells was observed without rat liver S9 metabolic activation. Parathion-methyl was further investigated for pathological changes in rat pancreas and liver. The long-term rat experiments showed that parathion-methyl exposure for 3 months can cause pathological changes in rat pancreases acinar cells and pancreatic hepatocytes. Atypical acinar cell focuses (AACF) were determined in the liver and pancreas of the rats. The results from short-term Ames test and long-term rat experiments suggest that parathion-methyl would be potential carcinogenic.

  2. Rat Genome Database (RGD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Rat Genome Database (RGD) is a collaborative effort between leading research institutions involved in rat genetic and genomic research to collect, consolidate,...

  3. [Individual sensitivity of Wistar rats to piracetam].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikol'skaia, K A; Kondrashevskaia, M V; Eremina, L V

    2007-11-01

    Effects of repeated piracetam (PIR) injections in a dose of 40 and 250 mg/kg/day on the learning in Water rats were studied. It has been found that character of the effects depends on typological features of the animals. Rats with strong predominance of excitation (choleric type) showed low sensitivity to PIR. Small dose of PIR provoked clear negative effect in rats with relative balance of the basic nervous processes: excitation and inhibition (sanguine and phlegmatic types). Despite of expressed activation of associative process, it complicated integrative activity. Small dose of PIR showed anxiolytic and psycho-stimulant actions only in initially unlearned rats characterized by high level of fear. Large dose of PIR had negative influence on the learning process in all animals, irrespective of typological features. Thus, the results of this study allow to suppose that the individual sensitivity of an animal to action of a pharmacological medication is caused by morpho-functional and neurochemical intraspecific heterogeneity.

  4. Neural plasticity occurs in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun-tao; LI Xiao-zhao; HU Cheng-ping; WANG Jun; NIE Hua-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Airway symptoms in asthma are related to decrease of epinephrine secretion, which may be ascribed to elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) in the organism.The aim of this study was to monitor the neuroendocrine alteration in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats.Methods Sixteen rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=8), control group and asthma group, and the asthmatic rats were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA).The levels of NGF, epinephrine and norepinephrine in serum were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the NGF expression in adrenal medulla was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the changes in the ultrastructure of the adrenal medulla was observed by electron microscopy.Results The NGF expression was increased in asthmatic rats compared with control rats.Compared with control rats,the results indicated that the epinephrine level was decreased in asthmatic rats, but no significant difference was found in norepinephrine levels.We found more ganglion cells in the adrenal medulla of asthmatic rats than in control rats, with NGF immunostaining mainly located in these ganglion cells.Electron microscopic images showed the density of chromaffin granula decreased and there was shrunken nucleolemma in the adrenal medullary cells of asthmatic rats.Conclusion The innervation of the adrenal medulla is changed in asthmatic rats, and it may contribute to the epinephrine decrease in asthma.

  5. Renal Function and Hemodynamic Study in Obese Zucker Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Kwang; Kang, Sung Kyew

    1995-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the renal function and hemodynamic changes in obesity and hyperinsulinemia which are characteristics of type II diabetes. Methods Studies were carried out in two groups of female Zucker rats. Group 1 rats were obese Zucker rats with hereditary insulin resistance. Group 2 rats were lean Zucker rats and served as controls. In comparison with lean Zucker rats, obese Zucker rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia but normoglycemia. Micropuncture studies and morphologic studies were performed in these rats. Results Functional studies showed that obese Zucker rats exhibited increases in kidney weight and GFR(obese Zucker, 1.23±.07)ml/min; lean Zucker, 0.93±.03ml/min). Micropuncture studies revealed that the increase in GFR in obese Zucker rats was attributable to the increases in the single nephron plasma flow rate and glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure. The glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient was the same in both groups. Morphologic studies revealed that the increase in GFR in obese Zucker rats was associated with an increase in glomerular volume. Conclusions These results suggest that obesity and hyperinsulinemia, which are the characteristics of type II diabetes, can be associated with glomerular hyperfiltration and glomerular capillary hypertension. PMID:7626557

  6. Embryolethality of butyl benzyl phthalate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ema, N.; Itami, T.; Kawasaki, H. (National Inst. Hyg. Science, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-03-15

    The developmental toxicity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) was studied in Wistar rats. Pregnant rats were given BBP at a dosage of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% in the diet from day 0 to day 20 of pregnancy. Morphological examinations of the fetuses revealed no evidence of teratogenesis. In the 2.0% group, all dams exhibited complete resorption of all the implanted embryos, and their food consumption, body weight gain and adjusted weight gain during pregnancy were markedly lowered. To determine whether the embryolethality was the result of reduced food consumption during pregnancy, a pair-feeding study was performed in which the pregnant rats received the same amount of diet consumed by the 2.0% BBP-treated pregnant rats. The pair-fed and 2.0 % BBP-treated pregnant rats showed significant and comparable reductions in the adjusted weight gain. The number of live fetuses was lowered in the pair-fed group. However, the complete resorption of all the implanted embryos was not found in any of the pair-fed pregnant rats. The data suggest that the embryolethality observed in the 2.0 % BBP-treated pregnant rats is attributable to the effects o dietary BBP.

  7. Accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity and conditioned place preference in alcohol-preferring AA rats and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats treated repeatedly with cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Kristiina; Petteri Piepponen, T; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2007-07-30

    Transcription factor DeltaFosB has been implicated in the psychomotor responses and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In the present study, we compared the effects of cocaine on the expression of DeltaFosB-like proteins by immunohistochemistry in striatal brain areas of alcohol-preferring (AA) and alcohol-avoiding (ANA) rats. Cocaine was administered using a previously verified treatment paradigm that sensitized the locomotor response to cocaine in AA but not in ANA rats. We also studied the rewarding effects of cocaine with a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in both lines of rats. Cocaine treatment increased the FosB/DeltaFosB immunoreactivity (IR) in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats but not in ANA rats. In addition, after repeated saline injections the accumbal FosB/DeltaFosB IR was significantly greater in saline-injected AA rats than in ANA rats. In the caudate-putamen cocaine significantly increased FosB/DeltaFosB IR, but no differences were found between the rats of two lines. In the CPP experiment, AA rats treated with cocaine 2.5 mg/kg preferred the cocaine-associated compartment, in contrast to ANA rats, which did not show such a preference. In conclusion, our findings show that AA rats are more sensitive to cocaine than ANA rats, and suggest that one possible mediator for this increased sensitivity could be the increased expression of fosB-derived proteins in the nucleus accumbens of AA rats.

  8. Hyperplasia of gastric mucosa in donor rats orally infected with Taenia taeniaeformis eggs and in recipient rats surgically implanted with the larvae in the abdominal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, K; Oku, Y; Nonaka, N; Kamiya, M

    1999-06-01

    Rats heavily infected with Taenia taeniaeformis larvae in the liver show a remarkable increase in their stomach weight, hyperplasia, and hypergastrinemia. However, it is unknown what causes these phenomena. Hence, as a preliminary study to investigate the importance of larval parasitism in the liver, two experiments were done. In the first experiment, 14 donor rats were orally inoculated with 3,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs. In the second experiment, 136-300 of the larvae obtained from the rats were surgically implanted into the abdominal cavity of 7 recipient rats. Gastrin levels and histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa were investigated. In all, 11 donor rats showed hypergastrinemia and hyperplasia, 5 recipient rats showed gastric mucosal hyperplasia accompanied by excessive mucous cell proliferation, and 2 recipient rats showed hypergastrinemia. These results suggest that parasitism of the liver by the larvae is not essential for the development of hyperplasia and that factors from the larvae might cause these phenomena.

  9. Role of the vomeronasal organ on the estral cycle reduction by pheromones in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, O A; Sánchez-Criado, J E; Guisado, S

    1985-09-01

    The role of he vomeronasal organ on the estral cycle reduction induced by pheromones is studied in adult female wistar rats. The animals were divided in three groups: I, intact rats; II, vomeronasalectomized rats (VNX); and III, sham operated rats (sham). Each group was submitted to another three distinct conditions from the day they were weaned (21 days old): Isolated female rats; with male odors from two adult males of tested sexual potency, and isolated rats again. The isolated intact rats show mainly 5 day length cycles. The groups I and III (intacts and sham) with male odors, show 4 day length cycles. The VNX animals show 5 day cycles in any one experimental conditions. These results support the idea that the vomeronasal organ is the receptor of the male reducing cycle pheromone in the female rat.

  10. Therapeutic effect of Captopril on rheumatoid arthritis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Liu; Kai-Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the therapeutic effect of the intervention treatment with different doses ofCaptopril onTNF-αcontents in serum of rheumatoid arthritis(RA) rats, and to provide the theoretical proofs for clinical application ofCaptopril in treatments of rheumatoid diseases. Methods:FiftyWistar rats were randomly divided into5 groups, namely,GroupA,GroupB, GroupC,GroupD,GroupE with10 ratsin each group.Injection ofFreund’s complete adjuvant was employed to establish adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats.GroupA was model group; after model establishment, rats were treated with20 mL normal saline as placebo(ip.).Rats inGroupB were treated with8 mg/kg cyclophosphamide(ip.).Rats inGroupC,D andE were intraperitoneally injected with30 mg/kg,100 mg/kg and300 mg/kgCaptopril respectively.Rats in each group were subjected to continuous treatment for3 weeks, and then sacrificed.Eyeballs of rats were excised and blood was collected.TNF-αcontent in serum were detected usingELISA; each group rats were compared for the hind legs arthrocele.Right ankle tissues of rats were collected to prepare section, and microscopic observation of pathological changes was performed. Results:TNF-αcontent in serum ofGroupA rats was significantly higher than that of rats in other4 groups(P0.05).FromDay8, ankle arthrocele of rats inGroupsB,C,D andE was obviously relieved compared with that ofGroupA rats; the anti-inflammatory effects were gradually enhanced with the extension of medication time.Treatments ofGroupsC,D andE showed significant activities against tardive arthrocele; the degree of ankle arthrocele in rats of these three groups was lower than that ofGroupA rats(P<0.01).Histological observation showed that large amount of inflammatory cells and plasmocyte infiltration was found in ankle synovial tissues ofGroupA rats.Relief of hyperaemia and edema of right ankle synovial tissues as well as significant decrease in synoviocyte layer hyperplasia, intra-articular inflammatory

  11. RGMA and IL21R show association with experimental inflammation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mero, Inger-Lise; Lorentzen, Aslaug R; Ban, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Rat chromosome 1 harbors overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for cytokine production and experimental models of inflammatory diseases. We fine-dissected this region that regulated cytokine production, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis......31 showed linkage to EAE, PIA, anti-MOG antibodies and levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6. Confidence intervals defined a limited set of potential candidate genes, with the most interesting being RGMA, IL21R and IL4R. We tested the association with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a Nordic case...... biomarkers and therapeutic targets....

  12. Elimination of mercury from amalgam in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, N. [Dept. of Dental Pathology, School of Dentistry, Zagreb (Croatia); Prpic-Mehicic, G.; Prester, Lj.; Blanusa, M. [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Krnic, Z.; Erceg, D. [Pliva Pharmaceutical Co., Biomedicine Research Inst. ' ' Pliva' ' , Zagreb (Croatia)

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the urinary mercury excretion in rats exposed to amalgam over a two months period. Animals were either exposed to mercury from 4 dental amalgams or fed the diet containing powdered amalgams. The results showed significantly higher mercury amount in urine of both exposed groups than in control. Even two months after the amalgam had been placed in rats teeth, the amount of mercury in the urine remained 4-5 times higher than in control, and 4 times higher than in rats exposed to diet containing powdered amalgam. The elevated urinary Hg amount was accompanied by an increased level of total protein in urine. In the same exposure period the excretion of total protein in urine of rats with amalgam fillings was 2 times higher than in control and 1.5 times higher than in rats exposed to amalgam through diet. Concentrations of mercury in the sera of all groups were below the detection limit of the method. The results show that amount of mercury and protein in the urine of rats were related to the mercury release from dental amalgam. (orig.)

  13. [Simvastatin's effect on insulin resistance in rats with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskakova, S; Zharmakhanova, G; Bekmukhambetov, Y; Dworacka, M; Dworacki, G

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to estimate the effect of Simvastatin on glycemic variability-related insulin resistance in the course of diabetes mellitus (DM) in rats. Fifty seven male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: I - rats with diabetes mellitus and glycemic variability treated with Simvastatin (20 mg/kg body weight, intragastral during 8 weeks); II - placebo-treated rats with DM and glycemic variability; III - placebo treated rats with DM and IV - nondiabetic control rats. DM was induced by feeding rats with high-fat diet (61%) during five weeks and low-dose of Streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Daily glucose excursions were stimulated by feeding animals twice a day. We measured fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), insulin and HOMAIR was calculated. Higher insulin resistance in diabetic rats is related to greater daily glycemic variability. In our study was installed significant increasing HOMAIR in diabetics rats with glycemic excursions comparison with the control. Our results showed that the simvastatin-treatment decreases the indices glycemic variability and HOMA in diabetic rats with glycemic excursions.

  14. Incidence of heart failure in infarcted rats that die spontaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L.G. Flumignan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports for the first time the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF in previously infarcted rats that died spontaneously. Previously, pulmonary (PWC and hepatic (HWC water contents were determined in normal rats: 14 control animals were evaluated immediately after sacrifice, 8 placed in a refrigerator for 24 h, and 10 left at room temperature for 24 h. In the infarcted group, 9 rats died before (acute and 28 died 48 h after (chronic myocardial infarction. Thirteen chronic animals were submitted only to autopsy (N = 13, whereas PWC and HWC were also determined in the others (N = 15. Seven rats survived 48 h and died during anesthesia. Notably, PWC differed in normal rats: ambient (75.7 ± 1.3% < control (77.5 ± 0.7% < refrigerator (79.1 ± 1.4% and there were no differences with respect to HWC. No clinical signs of CHF (dyspnea, lethargy or foot edema were observed in infarcted rats before death. PWC was elevated in all chronic and anesthetized rats. HWC was increased in 48% of chronic and in all anesthetized rats. Our data showed that PWC needs to be evaluated before 24 h post mortem and that CHF is the rule in chronic infarcted rats suffering natural death. The congestive syndrome cannot be diagnosed correctly in rats by clinical signs alone, as previously proposed.

  15. Ipomoea aquatica Extract Shows Protective Action Against Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months. The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time. The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  16. Ipomoea aquatica extract shows protective action against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkiyumi, Salim Said; Abdullah, Mahmood Ameen; Alrashdi, Ahmed Salim; Salama, Suzy Munir; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2012-05-22

    In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda) it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg) for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months). The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time). The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders.

  17. Intrauterine Growth Restricted Rats Exercised at Pregnancy: Maternal-Fetal Repercussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, S B; Netto, A O; Sinzato, Y K; Campos, K E; Calderon, I M P; Rudge, M V C; Volpato, G T; Zambrano, E; Damasceno, D C

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of swimming in pregnant rats born with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and their offspring, IUGR rats were obtained using the streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic (SD) rats. In this study, the nondiabetic parental generation presented 10 rats and diabetic parental generation presented 116 rats. Of these, the mated nondiabetic female rats were 10 and the number of diabetic rats was 45. In relation to term pregnancy, there were 10 animals in the nondiabetic group and 15 rats in the diabetic group. In the offspring of SD rats (IUGR group), 43 females were classified as small for pregnancy age, 19 rats were classified as appropriate for pregnancy age, and 0 female was classified as large for pregnancy age. The nondiabetic and SD pregnant rats generated offspring with appropriate (control [C]) and small (IUGR) weight for pregnancy age, respectively. At adult life, the C group was maintained as nonexercised C group and IUGR rats were distributed into 2 subgroups, namely, nonexercised (IUGR) and exercised (IUGRex). The rate of mated rats in the IUGR group was reduced compared to the C group. During pregnancy, the IUGR rats presented hyperinsulinemia, impaired reproductive outcomes, decreased body weight, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlactacidemia. The IUGRex presented reduced insulin and triglyceride levels. Thus, swimming improved lipid metabolism and increased insulin sensitivity. However, the offspring showed retarded growth, reinforcing the need to stimulate the exercise practice in women under supervision with different professional expertise to promote appropriate gestational conditions and improve perinatal outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Daily Rhythms of Feeding in the Genetically Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alingh Prins, Ab; Jong-Nagelsmit, Annemarie de; Keijser, Jan; Strubbe, Jan H.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding patterns were examined in obese (fa/fa) and lean (Fa/-) adult Zucker rats over the light-dark cycle during 14 days. Obese rats eat more than lean rats especially during the dark phase. Light and dark feeding expressed as percentage of 24 hr intake showed no significant differences between th

  19. Green tea polyphenols supplementation improves bone microstructure in orchidectomized middle-Aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our recent study shows that green tea polyphenols (GTP) attenuate trabecular bone loss in ovariectomized middle-aged female rats. To investigate whether GTP prevents bone loss in male rats, 40 rats with and without oriectomy (ORX) were assigned to 4 groups in a 2 (sham vs. ORX)× 2 (no GTP and 0.5% G...

  20. Effect of folic acid on methotrexate induction of sulfotransferases in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sangita Maiti; Maiti, Smarajit; Chen, Guangping

    2008-04-01

    Our earlier investigation showed that MTX is an inducer of rat and human sulfotransferases. Here we report that folic acid treatment inhibited MTX induction of aryl sulfotransferase (AST-IV) in female rat liver and hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase (STa) in male rat liver. This is important for understanding the clinical mechanisms of MTX.

  1. Therapeutic effect of Captopril on rheumatoid arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Mei; Wang, Kai-Jie

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of the intervention treatment with different doses of Captopril on TNF-αcontents in serum of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rats, and to provide the theoretical proofs for clinical application of Captopril in treatments of rheumatoid diseases. Fifty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely, Group A, Group B, Group C, Group D, Group E with 10 rats in each group. Injection of Freund's complete adjuvant was employed to establish adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats. Group A was model group; after model establishment, rats were treated with 20 mL normal saline as placebo (ip.). Rats in Group B were treated with 8 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (ip.). Rats in Group C, D and E were intraperitoneally injected with 30 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg Captopril respectively. Rats in each group were subjected to continuous treatment for 3 weeks, and then sacrificed. Eyeballs of rats were excised and blood was collected. TNF-αcontent in serum were detected using ELISA; each group rats were compared for the hind legs arthrocele. Right ankle tissues of rats were collected to prepare section, and microscopic observation of pathological changes was performed. TNF-αcontent in serum of Group A rats was significantly higher than that of rats in other 4 groups (P0.05). From Day 8, ankle arthrocele of rats in Groups B, C, D and E was obviously relieved compared with that of Group A rats; the anti-inflammatory effects were gradually enhanced with the extension of medication time. Treatments of Groups C, D and E showed significant activities against tardive arthrocele; the degree of ankle arthrocele in rats of these three groups was lower than that of Group A rats (Pcartilago articularis damage degree etc. were observed in Groups B, C, D and E. Intervention treatment with Captopril can effectively reduce the TNF-αcontent in serum of rheumatoid arthritis rats and inhibit the generation of inflammatory factors, so as to achieve the therapeutic

  2. Sargassum polycystum extract attenuates oxidative stress on diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhamad Firdaus; Setyawati Soeharto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To evaluate hypoglycemic, free radical scavenging and improving antioxidant enzymes activities on diabetic-induced streptozotocin rats bySargassum polycystum (S. polycystum) extract. Methods: The seaweed extract was obtained by maceration, concentration and freeze drying, respectively. Acute toxicity was investigated on 25 rats. Forty eight of rats were used to study anti-stress oxidative of extract and divided into eight groups, where the first and fifth group were normal and diabetic control. The normal and diabetic treated groups were administered orally with extracts ofS. polycystum for 28 days. The blood glucose and body weight of rats were observed each week. The blood was obtained for determination of malondialdehide, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, respectively. Results:Extract ofS. polycystum revealed no mortality and it was grouped as relatively non-toxic substance. The normal rats revealed difference statistically to the diabetic rats. The diabetic rats treated extract showed decreasing of blood glucose level and increasing of body weight. The diabetic rats were treated with 450 mg/kg of extract showed the higher oxidative stress augmentation than other diabetic treatments. It was caused free radical scavenging and induction of antioxidant enzymes activity by brown seaweed extract. Conclusions: The extract ofS. echinocarpum reduce oxidative stress on diabetic-induced streptozotocin rats and demonstrate as candidate of antioxidant diabetic substances.

  3. Dynamic autoregulation and renal injury in Dahl rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, F M; Andersen, C B; Leyssac, P P

    1997-01-01

    was preserved during a low salt diet and in rats exposed to a late-onset hypertension of short duration, only partly preserved if the late-onset hypertension was of a longer duration, and abolished in early-onset hypertension. All Dahl S rats on a high salt diet showed severe morphological changes in the kidney...

  4. The effect of dietary Cu and diabetes on indices of Cu nutriture in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucker, R.B.; Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Tinker, D.; Keen, C.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The uptake-retention of 67Cu is affected by dietary Cu and diabetes. Consequently, the functional activities of select enzymes and tissue Cu status were assessed. STZ-diabetic and control rats were fed Cu suppl. or def. diets. Rats were gavaged with 28 {mu}Ci 67Cu, and killed 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h later. Diabetic rats were hyperphagic, hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic; with no effect of diet. Plasma ceruloplasmin activity (Cp) was lower in Cu def. rats; diabetic rats tended to have higher Cp than controls. Cu def. rats had low Cu levels in liver, kidney and plasma. Cu suppl. diabetic rats had higher liver and kidney Cu compared to Cu def. diabetic rats. Gel chromatography of liver showed that with time, there was a transfer of 67Cu from low to higher MW ligands. In nondiabetic rats, more 67Cu was associated with the higher MW ligands. The converse was observed for diabetic rats. There was no effect of diabetes on liver 67Cu localization. Diabetic rats had higher metallothionein (MT) concentrations in liver and kidney compared to controls Cu deficiency lowered MT values in both diabetic and control rats. CuZn SOD Cu activity was lowered with Cu def. and diabetes, while Mn SOD activity was similar among groups. Plasma lipid peroxide levels were lower in diabetic rats than controls. The results show that Cu metabolism is affected in diabetes, and the changes are functionally significant.

  5. Leptin Influences Healing in the Sprague Dawley Rat Fracture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengcheng; Cai, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Leptin plays a crucial role in bone metabolism, and its level is related to bone callus formation in the fracture repair process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant leptin on the healing process of femoral fractures in rats. Material/Methods Forty-eight male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with an average body weight of 389 g (range: 376–398 g) and an average age of 10 weeks were included in this animal research, and all rats were randomly divided into two major groups. Then standardized femur fracture models were implemented in all SD rats. Rats in the control group were treated with only 0.5 mL of physiological saline, and rats in the experimental group were treated with recombinant leptin 5 μg/kg/d along with the same 0.5 mL of physiological saline for 42 days intraperitoneally. At the same time, each major group was evenly divided into three parallel subgroups for each parallel bone evaluation separately at the second, fourth, and sixth weeks. Each subgroup included eight rats. Results The total radiological evaluation results showed that the healing progress of femoral fracture in the experimental group was superior to that in the control group from the fourth week. At the sixth week, experimental group rats began to present significantly better femoral fracture healing progress than that of the control group rats. Results of biomechanics show the ultimate load (N) and deflection ultimate load (mm) of the experimental group rats was significantly increased compared with that of the control group rats from the fourth week. Conclusions Our results suggest that leptin may have a positive effect on SD rat femur fracture healing. PMID:28088810

  6. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes.

  7. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea.......This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  8. Isolation of rat adrenocortical mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solinas, Paola [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Fujioka, Hisashi [Electron Microscopy Facility, Department of Pharmacology, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Tandler, Bernard [Department of Biological Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Hoppel, Charles L., E-mail: charles.hoppel@case.edu [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Department of Medicine, Center for Mitochondrial Disease, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for isolation of adrenocortical mitochondria from the adrenal gland of rats is described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purified isolated mitochondria show excellent morphological integrity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The properties of oxidative phosphorylation are excellent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method increases the opportunity of direct analysis of adrenal mitochondria from small animals. -- Abstract: This report describes a relatively simple and reliable method for isolating adrenocortical mitochondria from rats in good, reasonably pure yield. These organelles, which heretofore have been unobtainable in isolated form from small laboratory animals, are now readily accessible. A high degree of mitochondrial purity is shown by the electron micrographs, as well as the structural integrity of each mitochondrion. That these organelles have retained their functional integrity is shown by their high respiratory control ratios. In general, the biochemical performance of these adrenal cortical mitochondria closely mirrors that of typical hepatic or cardiac mitochondria.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of IP-10 mRNA in rat brain and in cultured rat astrocytes and microglia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, LQ; Gourmala, N; Boddeke, HWGM; Gebicke-Haerter, PJ

    1998-01-01

    Using mRNA differential display technique, we have found a differentially expressed band in rat brain, designated HAP(2)G1, which was the strongest one induced in response to peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Sequence analysis showed that HAP(2)G1 cDNA is the rat homologue of th

  10. Thermoregulation in hypergravity-acclimated rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Conrad B.; Patterson, Susan L.; Horowitz, John M.; Oyama, Jiro

    1989-01-01

    The effect of acclimation to hypergravity on thermoregulatory responses of rats was determined by comparing data on core temperature, T(c), tail temperature, and O2 consumption in rats raised at 1 G (C) and at 2.1 G. It was found that, when C rats were exposed to an ambient temperature of 9 C concurrently with exposure to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell by about 6 C, while in rats acclimated to 2.1 G, the T(c) fell only by 1 C. Results of O2 consumption measurements showed that C rats exposed simultaneously to cold and hypergravity were not activating their thermogenic mechanism sufficiently to prevent a fall in T(c). In other experiments, rats acclimated to either 1 or 2.1 G were found to lack the ability to maintain their T(c) when exposed to a 5.8-G field or when cold-stressed at 1 G for extended times.

  11. A digital rat atlas of sectional anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Bai, Xueling; Liao, Yinping; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes a digital rat alias of sectional anatomy made by milling. Two healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat weighing 160-180 g were used for the generation of this atlas. The rats were depilated completely, then euthanized by Co II. One was via vascular perfusion, the other was directly frozen at -85 °C over 24 hour. After that, the frozen specimens were transferred into iron molds for embedding. A 3% gelatin solution colored blue was used to fill the molds and then frozen at -85 °C for one or two days. The frozen specimen-blocks were subsequently sectioned on the cryosection-milling machine in a plane oriented approximately transverse to the long axis of the body. The surface of specimen-blocks were imaged by a scanner and digitalized into 4,600 x2,580 x 24 bit array through a computer. Finally 9,475 sectional images (arterial vessel were not perfused) and 1,646 sectional images (arterial vessel were perfused) were captured, which made the volume of the digital atlas up to 369.35 Gbyte. This digital rat atlas is aimed at the whole rat and the rat arterial vessels are also presented. We have reconstructed this atlas. The information from the two-dimensional (2-D) images of serial sections and three-dimensional (3-D) surface model all shows that the digital rat atlas we constructed is high quality. This work lays the foundation for a deeper study of digital rat.

  12. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  13. Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161980.html Food Safety Not Always on Menu of TV Cooking Shows ... shows. They also noted whether the shows mentioned food safety. The findings were published in the November-December ...

  14. Blood Pressure Interventions Affect Acute and Four-Week Diesel Exhaust Induced Pulmonary Injury in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicits changes in cardiac gene expression that broadly mimics expression in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats without DE. We hypothesized that pharmacol...

  15. The Influence of a High Salt Diet on a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rat models of heart failure (HF) show varied pathology and time to disease outcome, dependent on induction method. We found that subchronic (4 weeks) isoproterenol (ISO) infusion exacerbated cardiomyopathy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats. Others have shown...

  16. Metabonomic study of rats exposed to cigarette sidestream smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Wen-liu; SHI Xian-zhe; LUO Jia; REN Feng-lian

    2016-01-01

    A metabonomic approach was undertaken in order to detect urinary endogenous and exogenous metabolites and to evaluate the effects of passive exposure to cigarette sidestream smoke on rats. Urinary samples from three groups of rats were determined including control rats, rats treated with blended cigarettes (nonmenthol cigarettes) and rats treated with menthol cigarettes. The total urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), total 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a] pyrene (3-HOBaP) were determined for assessing exposure to cigarette sidestream smoke toxins. Urinary endogenous metabolites in the three groups of rats were also analyzed and the data were processed by chemometrics. Eleven endogenous metabolites were found and identified. Their relative levels were compared among the three groups. The results show that cigarette sidestream smoke has complex effect on rats. Blended cigarette group makes difference to menthol cigarette group in the rats' urinary metabolic changes. Menthol adding to cigarettes has positive and negative effects on rats, respectively. The urinary metabolic profiling of menthol cigarette group is closer to that of control group.

  17. Influence of Samarium on Learning and Memory Function of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-four Spraque-Dawley(SD)big rats with weaning weight of (195±15) g were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 males and 8 females each group. One group drunk with de-ionized water served as control and was also used for analysis of the background. The other three groups rats were raised by de-ionized water containing low, middle and high concentrations of Sm for four months, then learning and memory tests were carried out in Y-electric maze. Compared with the control rats, the learning and memory of rats in low and middle groups shows a deterioration trend, exhibiting the function degradation of rats' brain. It may results from the rare earth elements through blood-brain barrier affecting the normal physiological functions of rats' brain. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rats' brain decreases, while the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration increases. The decreased SOD activity and the increased MDA mean the degeneration the ability of anti-oxidation in rats' brain, which are accordance with the degradation of learning and memory function of rats in low and middle Sm groups.

  18. Rat Bite Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Rat Bite Fever Page Content Article Body Rat-bite fever is a disease that occurs in humans who ... ingestion of contaminated food or milk products (Haverhill fever). Most cases in the United States are caused ...

  19. SWEEP Project RAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Madsen, Søren; Petersen, L. B.

    This report presents the results from the design analyses made for the clustered suction caisson used as foundation for a Riser Access Tower (RAT). The RAT is intended built next to the K15-FA-1 Platform in the Dutch Sector of the North Sea....

  20. 21 CFR 1314.150 - Order To show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order To show cause. 1314.150 Section 1314.150... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.150 Order To show cause. (a) If, upon information gathered by... upon the regulated seller or distributor an order to show cause why the regulated seller or...

  1. 29 CFR 34.41 - Notice to Show Cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Notice to Show Cause. 34.41 Section 34.41 Labor Office of... Show Cause. (a) The Director may issue a Notice to Show Cause to a recipient failing to comply with the... compliance review. (b) The Notice to Show Cause shall contain: (1) A description of the violation and...

  2. "The George Lopez Show": The Same Old Hispano?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, John

    2007-01-01

    "The George Lopez Show" is the first successful television show with a Latino in a leading role that features Hispanic material since Freddie Prinze's thirty-year-old sitcom, "Chico and the Man." This study seeks to assess how Latinos are presented on "The George Lopez Show." A content analysis reveals that the show perpetuates some of the…

  3. Immortalized Rat Astrocyte Strain Genetically Modified by Rat Preprogalanin Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To construct an immortalized rat astrocyte strain genetically modified by rat preprogalanin gene (IAST/GAL) and detect its galanin (GAL) expression and secretion, a cDNA fragment of rat GAL in plasmid of pBS KS(+)-GAL was inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+) by DNA recombinant technology, then the restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing were carried out to evaluate the recombinant. The pcDNA3.1 (+)-GAL and pcDNA3.1 (+) construct were transfected into immortalized rat astrocyte strain (IAST) by lipofectamine and the population of cells which stably integrated the construct was selected with 600 μg/mL G418. Individual clones were screened and expanded into clonal cell strains. Detection of Neo gene was used to validate the success of the transfection. Immunocytochemical staining, RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay were used to detect the expression and secretion level of GAL. The recombinant had been successfully constructed by restriction enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Detection of Neo gene showed that the pcDNA3.1 (+)-GAL and pcDNA3.1 (+) have been successfully transfected into IAST. After selection by using G418, IAST/GAL and IAST/Neo cell strains were obtained.IAST/GAL, IAST/Neo and IAST were immunostained positively for GAL, but the GAL average optical density of IAST/GAL was significantly higher than that of IAST/Neo and IAST (P<0.01). The level of GAL mRNA expression and the supernatant concentration of GAL in cultured IAST/GAL were significantly higher than those of IAST and IAST/Neo (P<0.01), but no significant differences were found between the IAST and IAST/Neo (P>0.05). It was concluded that IAST/GAL strain was constructed successfully and it might provide a basis for the further study of pain therapy.

  4. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  5. Potentiation of the hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin in pregnant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, I; Shibata, K; Makino, Y; Kangawa, K; Kawarabayashi, T

    1999-12-03

    The hypotensive effect of adrenomedullin, a potent vasodilator peptide, was examined in conscious pregnant (6, 13 and 20 days of pregnancy) and non-pregnant rats. The intravenous administration of adrenomedullin (0.01-3.0 nmol/kg) produced a dose-dependent depressor response in pregnant and non-pregnant rats. At low doses (0.01-0.1 nmol/kg), the maximum decrease in blood pressure was significantly higher in pregnant rats (20 days pregnant) than in non-pregnant rats. At high doses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Furthermore, the administration of adrenomedullin did not significantly affect the basal mean blood pressure (MBP) at any dose when compared to the non-pregnant group at 6 and 13 days of pregnancy. In the ovariectomized rats, the depressor responses in 17beta-estradiol-treated, progesterone-treated and 17beta-estradiol+progesterone-treated rats were not significantly different from that in the control rats, suggesting that the augmented effect on the depressor response to adrenomedullin in pregnant rats may not be due to hormonal changes during pregnancy. The adrenomedullin receptor mRNA level of the descending thoracic aorta was significantly higher in the late-pregnancy rats (20 days of pregnancy). However, the levels did not show any difference between the early-pregnant rats (6 and 13 days of pregnancy) and the non-pregnant rats. These findings suggested that the changes in the depressor response to adrenomedullin which occur at term in pregnant rats may be mediated by changes of adrenomedullin receptor gene expression rather than by sex hormones.

  6. Vitamin A deficiency causes oxidative damage to liver mitochondria in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, T; Borrás, E; Torres, L; García, C; Cabezuelo, F; Lloret, A; Pallardó, F V; Viña, J R

    2000-07-01

    Mitochondrial damage in rat liver induced by chronic vitamin A-deficiency was studied using three different groups of rats: (i) control rats, (ii) rats fed a vitamin A-free diet until 50 d after birth and (iii) vitamin A-deficient rats re-fed a control diet for 30 d. No statistical difference in body weight and food intake was found between control and vitamin A-deficient rats. Liver GSH concentration was similar in both groups. However, in vitamin A-deficient rats, the mitochondrial GSH/GSSG ratio was significantly lower and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (oxo8dG) were higher when compared to control rats. These values were partially restored in re-fed rats. The mitochondrial membrane potential of vitamin A-deficient rats was significantly lower than in control rats and returned to normal levels in restored vitamin A rats. Two populations of mitochondria were found in vitamin A-deficient rats according to the composition of membrane lipids. One population showed a similar pattern to the control mitochondria and the second population had a higher membrane lipid content. This report emphasizes the protective role of vitamin A in liver mitochondria under physiological circumstances.

  7. In vivo microvascular mosaics show air embolism reduction after perfluorocarbon emulsion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Filho, Ivo P; Torres, Luciana N; Spiess, Bruce D

    2012-11-01

    Massive arteriolar gas embolism (AGE) has never been evaluated in vivo using intravital microscopy and previous perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions were only effective in AGE when administered before AGE. We implemented a new system for quantitative studies of massive AGE using brightfield microscopy and tested a treatment with a third-generation PFC emulsion after massive AGE. We studied bubble dynamics in cremaster muscles from anesthetized rats after AGE was induced by direct air injection into the femoral artery ipsilateral to the studied muscle. Using a motorized microscope stage and a color camera, in vivo microvascular mosaics were produced on-line from over 2000 digital images to evaluate multiple networks in order to investigate the distribution, lodging, breaking, reduction and moving of 105 air bubbles in microvessels. Thirty minutes after PFC treatment, there was a reduction of 80% in bubble volume while untreated and saline-treated rats showed significantly smaller decreases of 33% and 40%, respectively (pbubbles also dissolved into a larger number of smaller bubbles after PFC treatment. The proposed methodology may prove useful for rapid in vivo data acquisition from large networks. Since large air bubbles broke-up, decreased in length and volume, and moved toward smaller microvessels, the study provides quantitative data to support a mechanism by which PFC may improve tissue blood flow following massive AGE. The findings suggest that this new generation of PFC emulsions administered after severe AGE may reach compromised microvascular networks and provide help to alleviate microvascular obstruction by increasing air bubble reabsorption.

  8. Layer-specific strain analysis by speckle tracking echocardiography reveals differences in left ventricular function between rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachner-Hinenzon, Noa; Ertracht, Offir; Leitman, Marina; Vered, Zvi; Shimoni, Sara; Beeri, Ronen; Binah, Ofer; Adam, Dan

    2010-09-01

    The rat heart is commonly used as an experimental model of the human heart in both health and disease states, assuming that heart function of rats and humans is alike. When studying a rat model, echocardiography is usually performed on sedated rats, whereas standard echocardiography on adult humans does not require any sedation. Since echocardiography results of sedated rats are usually inferred to alert humans, in the present study, we tested the hypothesis that differences in left ventricular (LV) function may be present between rats sedated by a low dose of ketamine-xylazine and alert humans. Echocardiography was applied to 110 healthy sedated rats and 120 healthy alert humans. Strain parameters were calculated from the scans using a layer-specific speckle tracking echocardiography program. The results showed that layer longitudinal strain is equal in rats and humans, whereas segmental strain is heterogeneous (P rats and humans (P rats and humans (P rats (P rats and humans, in rats the rotation was larger at the apex (P rats and humans. Thus, when evaluating LV function of sedated rats under ketamine-xylazine, it is recommended to measure the global longitudinal strain, LV twist, and torsion-to-shortening ratio, since no scaling is required when converting these parameters and inferring them to humans.

  9. Avocado oils and hepatic lipid metabolism in growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werman, M J; Neeman, I; Mokady, S

    1991-02-01

    The effect of various avocado oils on liver metabolism was studied in growing female rats. The rats were fed diets containing 10% (w/w) avocado oil for 4 wk. In comparison with rats fed refined avocado oil obtained from cored fruit by centrifugal separation, rats fed unrefined avocado oil obtained by organic solvent extraction from intact fruit, or its unsaponifiable components, showed a significant increase in total liver lipogenesis as well as in phospholipid and triglceride synthesis. Rats fed avocado-seed oil exhibited enhanced [1-14C]acetate incorporation into total liver lipids but showed the same distribution of label in the three main lipid classes as that of rats fed refined avocado oil. In addition, a significant reduction of triglycerides and protein content of plasma very-low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein fractions was observed in rats fed avocado-seed oil as compared with rats fed refined oil. Electron micrographs suggested that the alterations in hepatic lipogenesis are related to the marked proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum, which is known to be associated with induction of enzymes involved with lipid biosynthesis. The differences between the animals fed seed oil and those fed the unrefined oils, in the distribution of label within the main lipid classes, indicate that more than one factor is involved in the alterations caused by these oils.

  10. Agmatine ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis and inflammatory cachexia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksande, Brijesh G; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Umekar, Milind J; Kotagale, Nandkishor R

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacological effect of agmatine in Complete Freud Adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis and cachexia in rats. The rats were injected with CFA (0.1ml/rat) to induced symptoms of arthritis. Day 8 onwards of CFA administration, rats were injected daily with agmatine for next 7days, and arthritis score, body weights and food intake were monitored daily (g). Since cachexia is known to produce severe inflammation, malnutrition and inhibition of albumin gene expression, we have also monitored the total proteins, albumin, TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritic rats and its modulation by agmatine. In the present study, CFA treated rats showed a progressive reduction in both food intake and body weight. In addition analysis of blood serum of arthritis animals showed a significant reduction in proteins and albumin and significant elevation in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and Interleukins (IL)-6. Chronic agmatine (20-40mg/kg, ip) treatment not only attenuated the signs of arthritis but also reverses anorexia and body weight loss in CFA treated rats. In addition, agmatine restored total protein and albumin and reduces TNF-α and IL-6 levels in arthritis rats. These results suggest that agmatine administration can prevent the body weights loss and symptoms of arthritis via inhibition of inflammatory cytokines.

  11. 21 CFR 1301.37 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1301.37 Section 1301.37 Food... Suspension of Registration § 1301.37 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the application for... Administrator shall serve upon the applicant an order to show cause why the registration should not be...

  12. 47 CFR 1.701 - Show cause orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Show cause orders. 1.701 Section 1.701..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers General § 1.701 Show cause orders. (a) The Commission may... order to show cause. The order shall contain a statement of the particulars and matters concerning...

  13. 21 CFR 1309.46 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Order to show cause. 1309.46 Section 1309.46 Food... Or Suspension of Registration § 1309.46 Order to show cause. (a) If, upon examination of the... upon the applicant an order to show cause why the application for registration should not be denied....

  14. 46 CFR 502.66 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Order to show cause. 502.66 Section 502.66 Shipping... Proceedings; Pleadings; Motions; Replies § 502.66 Order to show cause. The Commission may institute a proceeding by order to show cause. The order shall be served upon all persons named therein, shall...

  15. 34 CFR 300.194 - Show cause hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Show cause hearing. 300.194 Section 300.194 Education... DISABILITIES State Eligibility By-Pass for Children in Private Schools § 300.194 Show cause hearing. (a) If a show cause hearing is requested, the Secretary— (1) Notifies the SEA and affected LEA or other...

  16. 41 CFR 60-1.28 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60-1... Procedure § 60-1.28 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe... contractor to show cause, within 30 days, why monitoring, enforcement proceedings or other appropriate...

  17. 10 CFR 590.401 - Orders to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orders to show cause. 590.401 Section 590.401 Energy... WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Opinions and Orders § 590.401 Orders to show cause... exportation of natural gas over which FE has jurisdiction. Any show cause order issued shall identify...

  18. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  19. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Mudassar; Abd Rahman Nik Adzrieman B.

    2017-01-01

    Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows ...

  20. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  1. Snacking on Television: A Content Analysis of Adolescents’ Favorite Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole I.; Gollust, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Snacking is a complex behavior that may be influenced by entertainment media. Research suggests that snacking and unhealthy foods are commonly shown in programming that targets young audiences, but shows selected for study have been limited. We conducted a content analysis on shows that were named as favorites by adolescents to characterize portrayals of snacking on popular television. Methods A diverse sample of 2,130 adolescents (mean age, 14.3 y) listed 3 favorite television shows in a 2010 school-based survey. Three episodes each of the 25 most popular shows were coded for food-related content, including healthfulness, portion size, screen time use, setting, and social context. We also analyzed the characteristics of characters involved in eating incidents, the show type, and the show rating. We used χ2 tests, binomial tests, and multilevel regression models to compare incidence of snacks versus meals, the characteristics of those involved, and snacking across show characteristics. Results Almost half of food incidents on television shows were snacks. Snacks were significantly more likely than meals to be “mostly unhealthy” (69.3% vs 22.6%, P Sitcoms and shows rated for a youth audience were significantly more likely to portray snacking than were shows for adult audiences. Conclusion Media awareness and literacy programs should include foods and snacking behaviors among the issues they address. More healthful portrayals of food and dietary intake in entertainment shows’ content would create a healthier media environment for youth. PMID:27197079

  2. Correlation Between Pancreatic Islet Uncoupling Protein-2 (UCP2) mRNA Concentration And Insulin Status in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Hypothesizing that UCP2 may influence insulin secretion by modifying the ATP/ADP ratio within pancreatic islets, we have investigated the expression of intraislet UCP2 gene in rats showing insulin oversecretion (non-diabetic Zucker fa/fa obese rats, glucose-infused Wistar rats) or insulin undersecretion (fasting and mildly diabetic rats). We found that in Zucker fa/fa obese rats, hyperinsulinemia (1222 ± 98 pmol/1 vs. 128 ± 22 pmol/1 in lean Zucker rats) was accompanied by a significant incre...

  3. RGMA and IL21R show association with experimental inflammation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nohra, R; Beyeen, A D; Guo, J P

    2010-01-01

    Rat chromosome 1 harbors overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for cytokine production and experimental models of inflammatory diseases. We fine-dissected this region that regulated cytokine production, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis......31 showed linkage to EAE, PIA, anti-MOG antibodies and levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6. Confidence intervals defined a limited set of potential candidate genes, with the most interesting being RGMA, IL21R and IL4R. We tested the association with multiple sclerosis (MS) in a Nordic case.......14) and two protective (OR=0.87 and 0.68) haplotypes. One of the protective haplotypes correlated to lower IFN-gamma expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. We conclude that RGMA and IL21R and their pathways are crucial in MS pathogenesis and warrant further studies as potential...

  4. Identification of rat mammary tumor-1 gene (RMT-1), which is highly expressed in rat mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, S; Yoo, J; Loh, K C; Guzman, R C; Gopinath, G R; Rajkumar, L; Chou, Y C; Yang, J; Popescu, N C; Nandi, S

    2001-12-10

    Full-term pregnancy early in life results in a permanent reduction in lifetime breast cancer risk in women. Parous rats and mice are also refractory to chemical carcinogenesis. Therefore, investigation of the differences between mammary glands from virgin and parous rats would provide valuable information regarding the protective effects of early full-term pregnancy. In this report, we examined the gene expression patterns in mammary glands from virgin and parous Lewis rats. Using differential display technology, a novel 4.2 kb cDNA, designated rat mammary tumor-1 (RMT-1) was isolated. Northern blot analysis of RMT-1 showed that RMT-1 expression was higher in the pre-pubertal and pubertal stages during rat mammary gland development while it was down-regulated in mammary glands from mature virgin and parous rats. RMT-1 expression was highest in rat mammary cancers compared with either the mammary glands of virgin or parous rats. At the Northern blot sensitivity level, RMT-1 expression was found only in the mammary gland. Northern blot analysis also showed that the expression of this gene was found in 74% of N-methyl-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary cancers while it was not found in MNU-induced cancers from other organs. The examination of the RMT-1 gene structure revealed that it consists of five exons spanning 5.9 kb. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, the gene was localized on rat chromosome 1 band q 43-51. The present data show that there is a correlation between high RMT-1 expression and rat mammary carcinogenesis or decreased RMT-1 expression and parity associated refractoriness to chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis. However, whether or not RMT-1 gene has a functional role in these processes remains to be investigated.

  5. The VGF-Derived Neuropeptide TLQP-21 Shows No Impact on Hormone Secretion in the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Svendsen, B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    TLQP-21 is a VGF-derived neuropeptide proposed to be involved in regulation of metabolism. More specifically it has been suggested that TLQP-21 has the ability to enhance glucose stimulated insulin secretion, making it a candidate for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.In this study, we...

  6. Moderate voluntary exercise attenuates the metabolic syndrome in melanocortin-4 receptor-deficient rats showing central dopaminergic dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Obici

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Central dopamine dysregulation during VWR reinforces the link between MC4R function and molecular and behavioral responding to rewards. The data also suggest that exercise can be a successful lifestyle intervention in MC4R-haploinsufficient individuals despite reduced positive reinforcement during exercise training.

  7. China Sport Show: More Professional and on a Larger Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 26th China Sport Show will be held in New China International Exhibition Center, Beijing, from May 20 to 23, 2010. As a fast-growing sport show, it has been playing an important role in promoting the development of Chinese brands and the cooperation of the enterprises. This year, the sport show is welcoming over 1000 exhibitors and 50,000 trade visitors from over 60 countries and regions.

  8. Branding through trade shows in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Narui, Jahan

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry is a major global industry with a great history of exhibitions. As trade shows are getting more attention within studies, the same is not the case for automotive trade shows. Noteworthy, automotive trade shows emphasize non-selling roles such as image-building. This paper seeks to investigate image-building purposes of exhibiting automotive companies using integrated marketing communications (IMC). Data has been gathered from four participating companies in the Geneva ...

  9. 34 CFR 300.193 - Request to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request to show cause. 300.193 Section 300.193... show cause. An SEA, LEA or other public agency in receipt of a notice under § 300.192 that seeks an opportunity to show cause why a by-pass should not be implemented must submit a written request for a...

  10. Branding through trade shows in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Narui, Jahan

    2013-01-01

    The automotive industry is a major global industry with a great history of exhibitions. As trade shows are getting more attention within studies, the same is not the case for automotive trade shows. Noteworthy, automotive trade shows emphasize non-selling roles such as image-building. This paper seeks to investigate image-building purposes of exhibiting automotive companies using integrated marketing communications (IMC). Data has been gathered from four participating companies in the Geneva ...

  11. Carvedilol protected diabetic rat hearts via reducing oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG He; SHAN Jiang; PAN Xiao-hong; WANG Hui-ping; QIAN Ling-bo

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Bcl-2 gene has close connection with antioxidant stress destruction in many diseases including diabetes. Carvedilol, an adrenoceptor blocker, also has antioxidant properties. To study the effect of carvedilol on the antioxidant status in diabetic hearts, we investigated carvedilol-administrated healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. After small and large dosage carvedilol-administered for 5 weeks, hemodynamic parameters, the levels of malondialdehyde, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 mRNA in the cardiac tissues were measured. The diabetic rats not only had cardiac disfunction, weaker activities of antioxidant enzymes, but also showed lower expression of Bcl-2. Carvedilol treatment increased activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression of Bcl-2 in healthy rats as well as diabetic rats. These results indicated that earvedilol partly improves cardiac function via its antioxidant properties in diabetic rats.

  12. A Study on Person Deixis Used in TV Talk Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓

    2014-01-01

    Deixis means“pointing” via language. There are many scholars who study person deixis in different discourses. However, few of them have analyzed person deixis used in TV talk show, which is more popular in our daily life. TV talk show is an important face-to-face conversation in which the participants use some person deixis to reach certain goal. This thesis studies the person deixis used in TV talk show especial y three types of unconventional usage of person deixis in the TV talk show discourse.

  13. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  14. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  15. Quantifying show jumping horse rider expertise using IMUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M; Doyle, J; Cahill, E; Caulfield, B; McCarthy Persson, U

    2010-01-01

    Horse rider ability has long been measured using horse performance, competition results and visual observation. Scientific methods of measuring rider ability on the flat are emerging such as measuring position angles and harmony of the horse-rider system. To date no research has quantified rider ability in show jumping. Kinematic analysis and motion sensors have been used in sports other than show jumping to measure the quality of motor control patterns in humans. The aim of this study was to quantify rider ability in show jumping using body-mounted IMUs. Preliminary results indicate that there are clear differences in experienced and novice riders during show jumping.

  16. Diabetic rat testes: morphological and functional alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, G; Catizone, A; Esposito, R; Pisanti, F A; Vietri, M T; Galdieri, M

    2009-12-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is a consequence of diabetes, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study investigated the histological and molecular alterations in the testes of rats injected with streptozotocin at prepuperal (SPI rats) and adult age (SAI rats) to understand whether diabetes affects testicular tissue with different severity depending on the age in which this pathological condition starts. The testes of diabetic animals showed frequent abnormal histology, and seminiferous epithelium cytoarchitecture appeared altered as well as the occludin distribution pattern. The early occurrence of diabetes increased the percentage of animals with high number of damaged tubules. The interstitial compartment of the testes was clearly hypertrophic in several portions of the organs both in SPI and SAI rats. Interestingly, fully developed Leydig cells were present in all the treated animals although abnormally distributed. Besides the above-described damages, we found a similar decrease in plasma testosterone levels both in SPI and SAI rats. Oxidative stress (OS) is involved in the pathogenesis of various diabetic complications, and in our experimental models we found that manganese superoxide dismutase was reduced in diabetic animals. We conclude that in STZ-induced diabetes, the altered spermatogenesis, more severe in SPI animals, is possibly due to the effect of OS on Leydig cell function which could cause the testosterone decrease responsible for the alterations found in the seminiferous epithelium of diabetic animals.

  17. Glutamine synthetase induced spinal seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Won; Yoon, Young Sul; Matsumoto, Masato; Huang, Wencheng; Ceraulo, Phil; Young, Wise

    2003-02-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in the regulation of glutamate neurotransmission in the central nervous system. It is responsible for converting glutamate to glutamine, consuming one ATP and NH3 in the process. Glutamate is neurotoxic when it accumulates in extracellular fluids. We investigated the effects of GS in both a spinal cord injury (SCI) model and normal rats. 0.1-ml of low (2- micro M) and high (55- micro M) concentrations of GS were applied, intrathecally, to the spinal cord of rats under pentobarbital anesthesia. Immediately after an intrathecal injection into the L1-L3 space, the rats developed convulsive movements. These movements initially consisted of myoclonic twitches of the paravertebral muscles close to the injection site, repeated tonic and clonic contractions and extensions of the hind limbs (hind limb seizures) that spread to the fore limbs, and finally rotational axial movements of the body. An EMG of the paravertebral muscles, fore and hind limbs, showed the extent of the muscle activities. GS (2- micro M) caused spinal seizures in the rats after the SCI, and GS (6- micro M) produced seizures in the uninjured anesthetized rats. Denatured GS (70 degrees C, 1 hour) also produced spinal seizures, although higher concentrations were required. We suggest that GS may be directly blocking the release of GABA, or the receptors, in the spinal cord.

  18. Site of iodination in rat mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strum, J.M.

    1978-10-01

    The ability of the mammary gland to take up and organically bind radioiodide was studied in non-pregnant, pregnant, and lactating rats. Autoradiography was used to determine whether duct cells or alveolar cells are responsible for iodination in the rat mammary gland. Iodination was not detected in mammary glands from non-pregnant rats, but occurred late in the twelfth day of gestation and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Protein-containing vacuoles in alveolar cells and casein-like proteins in milk were the major sites where iodination occurred within the gland. Milk proteins in the lumens of ductules adjacent to alveoli were also iodinated. In contrast, ducts, myoepithelial cells, fat cells, blood vessels and other histological components of the gland did not show iodinating capability. Cytochemistry was also used to identify endogenous mammary peroxidase activity in the same glands, and it was found that the presence and location of this enzyme were correlated with the ability to iodinate.

  19. Progression of nephropathy after islet of langerhans transplantation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Tadeu Spadella

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of islet of Langerhans transplantation (IT on the kidney lesions of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Forty-five inbred male Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups: group Gl included 15 non-diabetic control rats (NC, group GIT included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats (DC, and group III included 15 alloxan-induced diabetic rats that received pancreatic islet transplantation prepared by nonenzymatic method from normal donor Lewis rats and injected into the portal vein (IT. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups of 5 rats which were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 months of follow-up, respectively. Clinical and laboratorial parameters were recorded in the mentioned periods in the 3 experimental groups. For histology, the kidneys of all rats of each subgroup were studied and 50 glomeruli and 50 tubules of each kidney were analyzed using light microscopy by two different investigators in a double blind study. The results showed progressive glomerular basement membrane thickening (GBMT, mesangial enlargement (ME, and Bowman's capsule thickening (BCT in the 3 experimental groups throughout the follow-up. These alterations were significantly more severe in DC rats at 6 months when compared to NC rats (p < 0.01. However, the degree of GBMT, ME, and BCT observed in DC rats was not statistically different from IT rats at 1, 3, and 6 months. In addition, Armanni-Ebstein lesions of the tubules (AE and tubular lumen protein (PRO observed in DC rats were also observed in IT rats all over the study. These lesions were never present in NC rats. We conclude that IT did not prevent progression of kidney lesions in alloxan-induced diabetic rats within 6 months after transplantation.

  20. Identification of Differently Expressed Genes in Chemical Carcinogen-induced Rat Bladder Cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangfu CHEN; Franky L. CHAN; Xu ZHANG; Peter S.F. CHAN

    2009-01-01

    Possible altered gene expression patterns in bladder turnout carcinogenesis in rat bladder cancers induced by BBN [N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine] was examined by cDNA microarray analysis of gene expression profiles.Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were given drinking water containing 0.05% BBN ad libitum for 24 to 28-weeks.Equal numbers of control rats were given tap water without BBN.After treatment,the rat bladders were excised for RNA extraction and histopathological examinations.Total RNAs were extracted from rat transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tissues and micro-dissected normal rat bladder epithelia.The atlas glass rat microarray was used,which included oligonucleotides of 1081 rat genes.Some of the up-regulated genes in rat bladder TCCs were further confirmed by Northern blotting.Our results showed that the transcriptions of 30 genes were significantly elevated in the rat bladder TCCs,and these included fly proto-oncogene,Lipocortin 2,COX Ⅳ,COX Ⅴ a,and cathepsin D.Also,15 genes were significantly down-regulated in the rat bladder TCCs and they included B7.1,TNFrl,APOAI and VHL.The resuits of cDNA microarray analysis demonstrated that normal rat bladder epithelia and bladder TCC exhibited different and specific gene statement profiles.The increased expressions of the identified genes may play an important role in the chemically induced bladder carcinogenesis.

  1. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An individual applicant applying for a right-of-way under any right-of-way act, except the Act of March 3, 1891... marital status is not required. In other cases, a married woman or widow must show the date of her...

  2. TV shows on Light Pollution Education for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Valentin

    2015-03-01

    TV shows have the biggest impact for the public, so we can use them to inform and educate the public about light pollution and the importance of the dark sky for humanity and for the contemporary society. Some examples used in the TV show Us and the Sky at Columna TV, Romania, are presented.

  3. TV Talk: Instant Classroom Celebrities With TV Game Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Marti

    1977-01-01

    Suggests some learning activities that can be used to capitalize on the popularity of TV game shows so that students can build their learning skills. These game show formats can also strengthen and reinforce many areas of the elementary curriculum. (Author/RK)

  4. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  5. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  6. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  7. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  8. Computer Slide Shows: A Trap for Bad Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2007-01-01

    Slide shows presented with software such as PowerPoint or WordPerfect Presentations can trap instructors into bad teaching practices. Research on memory suggests that slide-show instruction can actually be less effective than traditional lecturing when the teacher uses a blackboard or overhead projector. The author proposes a model of classroom…

  9. Game Show Mathematics: Specializing, Conjecturing, Generalizing, and Convincing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Catherine Pullin; Harkness, Shelly Sheats

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the authors' use of three game shows--"Survivor," "The Biggest Loser," and "Deal or No Deal?"--to determine to what degree students engaged in mathematical thinking: specializing, conjecturing, generalizing, and convincing (Burton, 1984). Student responses to the task of creating winning strategies to these shows were…

  10. 41 CFR 60-300.64 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-300.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  11. 14 CFR 303.44 - Show cause proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show cause proceedings. 303.44 Section 303... cause proceedings. If the Assistant Secretary determines that an application, or review of a previously granted application, will be considered in a show cause proceeding, a tentative decision shall be...

  12. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  13. 41 CFR 60-250.64 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... VETERANS General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-250.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has violated the Act or this...

  14. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a) Upon a Commission determination that there exists reasonable cause to believe a former...

  15. 41 CFR 60-4.8 - Show cause notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cause which shall contain the items specified in paragraphs (i) through (iv) of 41 CFR 60-2.2(c)(1). If... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notice. 60-4.8...-CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTORS-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-4.8 Show cause notice. If an investigation...

  16. 14 CFR 314.14 - Show-cause order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Show-cause order. 314.14 Section 314.14... REGULATIONS EMPLOYEE PROTECTION PROGRAM Determination of Qualifying Dislocation § 314.14 Show-cause order. When the Department makes a preliminary determination of whether the major cause of the bankruptcy...

  17. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  18. 41 CFR 60-741.64 - Show cause notices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Show cause notices. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES General Enforcement and Complaint Procedures § 60-741.64 Show cause notices. When the Deputy Assistant Secretary has reasonable cause to believe that the contractor has...

  19. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  20. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  1. 9 CFR 354.247 - Table showing types of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Table showing types of materials. 354... Sanitary Conditions and Precautions Against Contamination of Products § 354.247 Table showing types of materials. Equipment, utensils, and facilities Iron Stainless steel and monel metal Aluminum Galvanized...

  2. 47 CFR 73.33 - Antenna systems; showing required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems; showing required. 73.33... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES AM Broadcast Stations § 73.33 Antenna systems; showing required. (a) An application for authority to install a broadcast antenna shall specify a definite site and include...

  3. Rat-bite fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptobacillary fever; Streptobacillosis; Haverhill fever; Epidemic arthritic erythema; Spirillary fever; Sodoku ... Rat-bite fever can be caused by 2 different bacteria, Streptobacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minus. Both of these are found in ...

  4. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities.

  5. ShowFlow: A practical interface for groundwater modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauxe, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    ShowFlow was created to provide a user-friendly, intuitive environment for researchers and students who use computer modeling software. What traditionally has been a workplace available only to those familiar with command-line based computer systems is now within reach of almost anyone interested in the subject of modeling. In the case of this edition of ShowFlow, the user can easily experiment with simulations using the steady state gaussian plume groundwater pollutant transport model SSGPLUME, though ShowFlow can be rewritten to provide a similar interface for any computer model. Included in this thesis is all the source code for both the ShowFlow application for Microsoft{reg sign} Windows{trademark} and the SSGPLUME model, a User's Guide, and a Developer's Guide for converting ShowFlow to run other model programs. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Lemon juice has protective activity in a rat urolithiasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama Abdelkhalek

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of herbal medicines (medicinal plants or phytotherapy has recently gained popularity in Europe and the United States. Nevertheless the exact mechanism of the preventive effects of these products is still far to be clearly established, being its knowledge necessary to successfully apply these therapies to avoid stone formation. Methods The effect of oral lemon juice administration on calcium oxalate urolithiasis was studied in male Wistar rats. Rats were rendered nephrolithic by providing drinking water containing 0.75% ethylene glycol [v/v] (EG and 2% ammonium chloride [w/v] (AC for 10 days. In addition to EG/AC treatment, three groups of rats were also gavage-administered solutions containing 100%, 75% or 50% lemon juice [v/v] (6 μl solution/g body weight. Positive control rats were treated with EG/AC but not lemon juice. Negative control rats were provided with normal drinking water, and were administered normal water by gavage. Each group contained 6 rats. After 10 days, serum samples were collected for analysis, the left kidney was removed and assessed for calcium levels using flame spectroscopy, and the right kidney was sectioned for histopathological analysis using light microscopy. Results Analysis showed that the rats treated with EG/AC alone had higher amounts of calcium in the kidneys compared to negative control rats. This EG/AC-induced increase in kidney calcium levels was inhibited by the administration of lemon juice. Histology showed that rats treated with EG/AC alone had large deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in all parts of the kidney, and that such deposits were not present in rats also treated with either 100% or 75% lemon juice. Conclusion These data suggest that lemon juice has a protective activity against urolithiasis.

  7. The course of Schistosoma mansoni infection in thymectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioli, D; Dennert, G

    1976-07-01

    Inbred rats were thymectomized, irradiated, and reconstituted with T cell-free bone marrow cells. Thymectomized-reconstituted (B rats) and control rats were infected with Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and the number of worms recovered was determined at various times after infection. The extent of immunosuppression was assessed by two criteria: 1) response to an injection of sheep erythrocytes (plaque assay, hemagglutination, hemolysis); 2) response to schistosome antigens (passive hemagglutination). Humoral responses to worm antigens were completely suppressed in almost all instances and anti-sheep erythrocyte responses showed a more variable but always very definite depression in B rats. The number of worms in B rats was about 4 times higher than in control animals at 5 weeks and about 3 times higher at 6 weeks. In a different experiment, rats were perfused at 4, 6, and 9 weeks after infection and the number of worms was found to be consistently higher in B rats, by a factor of about 2 at 4 weeks to a factor of about 4 or 6 at subsequent times. Although B rats had more worms than controls even at 9 weeks, a slow drop in their worm burden was noticeable with time in both experiments. Moreover, the size of worms in B rats was smaller than in controls and even 9-week-old worms failed to develop to normal size and appearance and could not be shown to produce fertile eggs. These experiments show a definite involvement of the immune system in the "self-cure" phenomenon, but may at the same time suggest that other non-immune mechanisms are involved in determining the pattern of S. mansoni infection in the rat.

  8. Gabapentin prevents hyperalgesia during the formalin test in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceseña, R M; Calcutt, N A

    1999-03-05

    The anticonvulsant agent gabapentin exhibits antihyperalgesic properties in animal models of neuropathic pain. Diabetic rats display increased nocifensive behavior during the formalin test of persistent chemical irritation to the paw, suggesting the presence of abnormal pain processing mechanisms. We therefore, investigated the efficacy of gabapentin on formalin-evoked behavior in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed increased (P < 0.05) flinching during the normally quiescent phase of the 5.0% formalin test. Gabapentin (50 mg/kg i.p. 30 min pre-test) suppressed flinching during phases 1 and 2 of the formalin test in both control and diabetic rats but not the increased flinching of diabetic rats during the quiescent phase. When 0.5% formalin was used, diabetic rats exhibited increased flinching during both the quiescent phase and phase 2. Gabapentin was without effect in controls but suppressed (P < 0.01) the increased flinching in diabetic rats. Gabapentin displays efficacy against abnormal sensory processing in diabetic rats and may be of benefit for treating painful diabetic neuropathy.

  9. Increased Expression of Interleukin-18 in Lenses of Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Noriaki; Ogata, Fumihiko; Kawasaki, Naohito; Ito, Yoshimasa

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed an increased prevalence of cataracts in postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated changes in the levels of calcium ion (Ca(2+)) and interleukin (IL)-18, which are factors in cataract development, in the lenses of ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a model of postmenopausal woman. Although the Ca(2+) content in the blood of OVX rats increased 1 month after ovariectomy and subsequently decreased, the Ca(2+) content in the lenses was unchanged in OVX rats 1-3 months after ovariectomy. The Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in the lenses of OVX rats peaked 1 month after ovariectomy, and the behavior of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in lenses of OVX rats was similar to that of the Ca(2+) concentration in the blood. It is possible that hypercalcemia increases the Ca(2+) inflow into the lens; however, the enhanced Ca(2+)-ATPase activity prevents the Ca(2+) level from rising. On the other hand, we found that the levels of both IL-18 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the lenses of OVX rats were significantly increased as compared with the lenses of sham (control) rats during the period 1-3 months after surgery. These results suggest that the expression of IFN-γ via IL-18 in the lenses of OVX rats is induced by ovariectomy, and that excessive IL-18 and IFN-γ production in the lenses may be related to cataract development in postmenopausal women. These findings support those of previous studies that assessed lens opacification in postmenopausal women.

  10. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sleep deprivation in pigeons and rats using motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sarah M; Paletz, Elliott M; Obermeyer, William H; Benca, Ruth M

    2009-10-01

    Forced sleep deprivation results in substantial behavioral and physiologic effects in mammals. The disk-over-water (DOW) method produces a syndrome characterized by increased energy expenditure and a robust preferentially rapid-eye-movement sleep rebound upon recovery or eventual death after several weeks of sleep deprivation. The DOW has been used successfully only in rats. This paper presents a method to enforce long-term controlled sleep deprivation across species and to compare its effects in rats and pigeons. A conveyor was substituted for the DOW disk. Behavior rather than electroencephalography was used to trigger arousal stimuli, as in gentle-handling deprivation. Rats and pigeons were deprived using this apparatus, and the results were compared with each other and with published reports. The physiologic consequences and recovery sleep in rats were like those published for DOW rats. Magnitude of sleep loss and recovery patterns in pigeons were similar to those seen in rats, but expected symptoms of the sleep deprivation syndrome were absent in pigeons. The use of a motion trigger allowed us to measure and, thus, to assess the quality and impact of the procedure. Prolonged and controlled sleep deprivation can be enforced using automated motion detection and a conveyor-over-water system. Pigeons and rats, deprived of sleep to the same extent, showed similar patterns of recovery sleep, but pigeons did not exhibit the hyperphagia, weight loss, and debilitation seen in rats.

  12. Dihydroartemisinin-Stimulated Hyperplasia of Rat Lung Smooth Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dihydroartemisinin was shown to produce two types of inhibitory effects on the cardiac muscles of rats. It was also shown to stimulate haemopoiesis in the lungs, liver, spleen, intestine and kidney of rats. This study attempted to find out the nature of the effect of oral dihydroartemisinin on the lungs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The effects of dihydroartemisinin on the tissues of the lungs of wistar albino rats were investigated with five doses of Dihydroartemisinin (DHA administered for 5 days by oral intubation. The five tested doses were 1 mg kg-1, a repeated dose of 1, 2, 60 and 80 mg kg-1 DHA. Results: Histopathological examination of the tissue micrographs of the lungs of the dihydroartemisinin treated rats showed that in comparism with those of the controls, DHA had no adverse effects on the tissues of the lungs of the rats but rather produced a direct stimulatory effect on the smooth muscles of the lungs. This stimulation caused hyperplasia of these tissues which was observable histologically in tissue micrographs of the lungs. These effects of dihydroartemisinin on the tissues of the lungs of Wistar albino rats were dose, repetition and time dependent. Conclusion: These growth hormone-like stimulatory effects of dihydroartemisinin on the smooth muscles of the lungs suggest that DHA enhanced the functioning capacity of the lungs of the DHA-treated rats. These results suggest that dihydroartemisinin has possible respiration enhancement effects.

  13. Sympathetic neuroaxonal dystrophy in the aged rat pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Parvin, Curtis A; Beaudet, Lucie N

    2006-10-01

    Dysfunction of circadian melatonin production by the pineal gland in aged humans and rats is thought to reflect the functional loss of its sympathetic innervation. Our ultrastructural neuropathologic studies of the sympathetic innervation of the pineal gland of aged (24 months old) Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats showed loss of nerve terminals as well as the development of neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), an ultrastructurally distinctive distal axonopathy, far in excess of that in young control rats. Immunolocalization of tyrosine hydroxylase confirmed the age-related loss of normal noradrenergic innervation and development of NAD. NAD was more frequent in aged female rats compared to males and was particularly severe in aged female Sprague-Dawley rats compared to Fischer-344 rats. Pineal NGF content was significantly increased or unchanged in female and male aged Fischer-344 rats, respectively, compared to young controls. The rat pineal is a sensitive experimental model for the quantitative ultrastructural examination of age-related neuropathological changes in nerve terminals of postganglionic noradrenergic sympathetic axons, changes which may reflect similar changes in the diffusely distributed sympathetic innervation of other targeted endorgans.

  14. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains. PMID:26859299

  15. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Yu

    Full Text Available Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs. They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  16. Intelligence-Augmented Rat Cyborgs in Maze Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yipeng; Pan, Gang; Gong, Yongyue; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Nenggan; Hua, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Wu, Zhaohui

    2016-01-01

    Cyborg intelligence is an emerging kind of intelligence paradigm. It aims to deeply integrate machine intelligence with biological intelligence by connecting machines and living beings via neural interfaces, enhancing strength by combining the biological cognition capability with the machine computational capability. Cyborg intelligence is considered to be a new way to augment living beings with machine intelligence. In this paper, we build rat cyborgs to demonstrate how they can expedite the maze escape task with integration of machine intelligence. We compare the performance of maze solving by computer, by individual rats, and by computer-aided rats (i.e. rat cyborgs). They were asked to find their way from a constant entrance to a constant exit in fourteen diverse mazes. Performance of maze solving was measured by steps, coverage rates, and time spent. The experimental results with six rats and their intelligence-augmented rat cyborgs show that rat cyborgs have the best performance in escaping from mazes. These results provide a proof-of-principle demonstration for cyborg intelligence. In addition, our novel cyborg intelligent system (rat cyborg) has great potential in various applications, such as search and rescue in complex terrains.

  17. Reki-Show Authoring Tools : Risk, Space and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Hanashima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In social sciences, most events occur in specific time and space. We call such events here "Spatiotemporal Events". It is obvious that events, having always a beginning and an end, appear at a specific place or in particular space. Suppose there exists an conceptual data model regulating some rules to describe those factors, it enables us to store various spatiotemporal events as data and to refer with one another. We, therefore, define a simple spatiotemporal data model, calling "Reki-Show". We also call the information system, consisting of Reki-Show data model, "Reki-Show System", and consider Reki-Show System as the basic information system to deal with the various events in human society. Accordingly, we have recognized that it is indispensable in the future social sciences to have the database and tool for both the temporal and spatial attributes, and have been developing Reki-Show Authoring Tools based on the conceptual framework in Reki-Show System. At present, the fundamental component has been developed already through some steps, and the system is now applied to the empirical research. We would like to make a report of the outline at this stage. This paper explains the basic concept in Reki-Show (Conseptual Data Modeling, followed by the outline of the implemented system.

  18. [Amino acid composition of the rat quadriceps femoris muscle after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, T F; Miroshnikova, E B; Poliakov, V V; Murugova, T P

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid composition of the quadriceps muscle of rats flown onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-936 and exposed to the ground-based synchronous control experiment was studied. The weightless rats showed changes in the amino acid concentration in the quadriceps muscle. The centrifuged flight and synchronous rats displayed an accumulation of free amino acids in the above muscle.

  19. Dietary exposure to shiitake mushroom confers reductions in serum glucose, lipids, leptin and antioxidant capacity in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previously, we showed that dietary intake of shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) decreased serum levels of polar lipids in rats. This study evaluated the effects of lifelong consumption of shiitake on body composition and serum cholesterol-related- and anti-oxidant indices in rats. Rat dams and th...

  20. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    CERN Document Server

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  1. Fasting and oxidative activity of hypothalamus, amygdala, frontal cortex and adrenal glands in female rats during different sexual situations--oestrus, dioestrus, ovariectomized--and in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez-Lozano, J A; Menéndez-Patterson, A; Marin, B

    1980-01-01

    We have studied the influence of fasting upon the oxidative metabolism of several cerebral structures (hypothalamus, amygdala and frontal cortex) as well as the adrenal glands in female rats, both during their sexual cycle and ovariectomized, and male rats under a 48h fasting period. Results show significant differences in the oxidative metabolism of the amygdala in both male rats and ovariectomized females on comparing the fasting group with controls; moreover, the frontal cortex of male rats also shows significant differences when comparing both groups. The weight of the adrenal glands is significantly lower in ovariectomized female rats under fasting conditions than in controls. Correlation between the above mentioned cerebral and glandular structures during fasting processes, as well as performance of male and female rats before that situation, is discussed.

  2. Conditioned preference for sweet stimuli in OLETF rat: effects of food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonghe, Bart C; Hajnal, Andras; Covasa, Mihai

    2007-05-01

    The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, an outbred strain of Long- Evans Tokushima Otsuka rat (LETO) that lacks CCK-1 receptor expression, is hyperphagic and develops obesity and type-2 diabetes. The present study sought to assess how OLETF rats alter intake, preference, and conditioned preference of palatable solutions after acute food deprivation. Our results show that after 24 h chow restriction, LETO rats increase both sucrose intake and two-bottle sucrose preference relative to their free-fed baseline, whereas OLETF rats do not increase sucrose intake (0.3 M or 1.0 M sucrose) or preference (1.0 M vs. 0.3 M sucrose) when they are food deprived. In contrast, OLETF rats exhibit a higher conditioned flavor preference when sucrose is used as unconditioned stimulus (US) relative to LETO rats, whether overnight food restricted (81% vs. 71% for OLETF and LETO rats, respectively) or free fed (82% vs. 54% for OLETF and LETO rats, respectively) during the test. When a noncaloric saccharin solution is used as US, OLETF rats show a higher preference for the saccharin-associated flavor relative to LETO rats when nondeprived (76% vs. 58% for OLETF and LETO rats, respectively); however, neither strain shows differential conditioned flavor preference for saccharin in the deprivation state during the test. These findings suggest that OLETF rats fail to integrate postabsorptive and orosensory effects of sucrose in a conditioning setting to influence intake. Thus, it appears that OLETF rats form preferences for sucrose based largely on orosensory and hedonic properties of the solution, rather than caloric value.

  3. Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160594.html Zika May Persist for Months in Newborns, Study Shows ... There's more bad news when it comes to Zika's effect on infants: A case study suggests the ...

  4. Parent-Led Autism Therapy Shows Lasting Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161690.html Parent-Led Autism Therapy Shows Lasting Benefits Early intervention reduced symptom ... may have lasting benefits for young children with autism, a new clinical trial suggests. Researchers from the ...

  5. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  6. RELATIONSHIP QUALITY AND EXHIBITOR'S PERFORMANCE IN LEISURE TRADE SHOWS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ainhoa Rodríguez; María Dolores Reina; Ramón Rufín

    2015-01-01

    .... Specifically, in the case of leisure trade shows the main purpose is to stimulate the rising leisure market and meet the needs of an increasingly demanding society that calls for new forms of entertainment...

  7. Chronic Bullying Can Show Up in Report Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163318.html Chronic Bullying Can Show Up in Report Cards Study found ... 2017 MONDAY, Jan. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Chronic bullying can take a toll on kids' grades. That's ...

  8. When Should Zero Be Included on a Scale Showing Magnitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an important problem of graphing quantitative data: should one include zero on the scale showing magnitude? Based on a real time series example, the problem is discussed and some recommendations are proposed.

  9. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  10. Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2014 February 2014 (historical) Protein Replacement Therapy Shows Promise in Treating Rare Skin Disorder Replacing a protein that is crucial to ensuring that the skin’s ...

  11. Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163137.html Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Animal Trials Two-pronged approach tested on lab monkeys, guinea ... vaccines have not shown very robust protection in animal and human trials. Friedman and his colleagues decided that an effective ...

  12. Web-Based Help for Insomnia Shows Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162290.html Web-Based Help for Insomnia Shows Promise Interactive program ... Now, insomnia might be one of them. A web-based interactive program may help chronically sleepless individuals ...

  13. [Keeping of horses in circus and show businesses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, U

    2002-03-01

    The conditions under which horses are kept and the performance of acts in the circus ring may give rise to animal protection-relevant aspects for circus and show horses. A number of intolerable conditions under which horses are kept and procedures adopted for the work with circus and show horses are described. In addition, attention is drawn to monitoring methods capable of exposing the deplorable shortcomings of these businesses.

  14. Chronic pulmonary thromboembolism pathologically showing homogeneous cellular alveolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Seiichi; Shirai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kaida, Yusuke; Suda, Takafumi; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Chida, Kingo

    2011-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of general malaise. Examination of arterial blood gases on room air revealed hypoxia. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive abnormality. Chest high-resolution CT showed diffuse mosaic attenuation without evident pulmonary artery abnormality on contrast chest CT. Based on these findings, interstitial pneumonia or chronic pulmonary thromboembolism was suspected. The findings of bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 4.4×10(5) cells/mL, including 89.6% macrophages, 9.4% lymphocytes, and 1.0% neutrophils. TBLB showed marked alveolitis. Moreover video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy was performed. Biopsies of the lung specimen showed focal infarct with surrounding mild mononuclear cell infiltrates (homogenous cellular alveolitis). (99m)Tc pulmonary perfusion and (81m)Kr ventilation scintigraphy showed V/Q mismatch. Furthermore, pulmonary angiography also revealed inadequate artery flow corresponding to the mismatch area of scintigraphy. Collagen vascular diseases and abnormality of coagulation factors were not detected. Multiple perfusion defects persisted for more than 6 months. Thus, finally the patient was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism, pathologically showing homogenous cellular alveolitis.

  15. Ketamine anesthesia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos Roddgo Cámara; Francisco Javier Guzmán; Ernesto Alexis Barrera; Andrés Jesús Cabello; Armando Garcia; Nancy Esthela Fernández; Eloy Caballero; Jesus Ancer

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of ketamine anesthesia on the motility alterations and tissue injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion in rats.METHODS:Thirty maIe Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used.Ischemia was induced by obstructing blood flow in 25% of the total small intestinal length(ileum)with a vascular clamp for 45 min,after which either 60 min or 24 h of reperfusion was allowed.Rats were either anesthetized with pento-barbital sodium(50 mg/kg)or ketamine(100 mg/kg).Control groups received sham surgery,After 60 min of reperfusion,the intestine was examined for mor-phological alterations,and after 24 h intestinal basic electrical rhythm(BER)frequency was calculated,and intestinal transit determined in all groups.RESULTS:The intestinal mucosa in rats that were anesthetized with ketamine showed moderate alterations such as epithelial lifting,while ulceration and hemorrhage was observed in rats that received pento-barbital sodium after 60 min of reperfusion.Quantitative analysis of structural damage using the Chiu scale showed significantly Iess injury in rats that received ketamine than in rats that did not(2.35±1.14 vs 4.58 ±0.50,P<0.0001).The distance traveled by a marker,expressed as percentage of total intestinal length,in rats that received pentobarbital sodium was 20% ± 2% in comparison with 25.9% ±1.64% in rats that received ketamine(P=0.017).BER was not statistically different between groups.CONCLUSION:Our results show that ketamine anesthesia is associated with diminished intestinal iniury and abolishes the intestinal transit delay induced by ischemia/reperfusion.(C)2008 The WJG Press.All rights reserved.

  16. Ketamine anesthesia reduces intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, Carlos Rodrigo; Guzmán, Francisco Javier; Barrera, Ernesto Alexis; Cabello, Andrés Jesús; Garcia, Armando; Fernández, Nancy Esthela; Caballero, Eloy; Ancer, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of ketamine anesthesia on the motility alterations and tissue injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion in rats. METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. Ischemia was induced by obstructing blood flow in 25% of the total small intestinal length (ileum) with a vascular clamp for 45 min, after which either 60 min or 24 h of reperfusion was allowed. Rats were either anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg) or ketamine (100 mg/kg). Control groups received sham surgery. After 60 min of reperfusion, the intestine was examined for morphological alterations, and after 24 h intestinal basic electrical rhythm (BER) frequency was calculated, and intestinal transit determined in all groups. RESULTS: The intestinal mucosa in rats that were anesthetized with ketamine showed moderate alterations such as epithelial lifting, while ulceration and hemorrhage was observed in rats that received pentobarbital sodium after 60 min of reperfusion. Quantitative analysis of structural damage using the Chiu scale showed significantly less injury in rats that received ketamine than in rats that did not (2.35 ± 1.14 vs 4.58 ± 0.50, P < 0.0001). The distance traveled by a marker, expressed as percentage of total intestinal length, in rats that received pentobarbital sodium was 20% ± 2% in comparison with 25.9% ± 1.64% in rats that received ketamine (P = 0.017). BER was not statistically different between groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show that ketamine anesthesia is associated with diminished intestinal injury and abolishes the intestinal transit delay induced by ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:18777596

  17. 916 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects rat behavior and hippocampal neuronal discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Hao; Lei Yang; Su Chen; Yonghao Tian; Shuicai Wu

    2012-01-01

    Wistar rats were exposed to a 916 MHz,10 W/m2 mobile phone electromagnetic field for 6 hours a day,5 days a week.Average completion times in an eight-arm radial maze were longer in the exposed rats than control rats after 4-5 weeks of exposure.Error rates in the exposed rats were greater than the control rats at 6 weeks.Hippocampal neurons from the exposed rats showed irregular firing patterns during the experiment,and they exhibited decreased spiking activity 6-9 weeks compared with that after 2-5 weeks of exposure.These results indicate that 916 MHz electromagnetic fields influence learning and memory in rats during exposure,but long-term effects are not obvious.

  18. Folic acid supplementation attenuates hyperhomocysteinemia-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Wang; Yan Cui; Jing Ge; Meijing Ma

    2012-01-01

    Folic acid participates in the metabolism of homocysteine and lowers plasma homocysteine levels directly or indirectly. To establish a hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rat model, 2 mL of DL-homocysteine was administered daily by intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 200 mg/kg from day 10 to day 19 of gestation. Folic acid was administered by intragastric administration at a dose of 20 mg/kg during the period of preeclampsia induction. Results showed that systolic blood pressure, proteinuria/creatinine ratio, and plasma homocysteine levels in the hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats increased significantly, and that body weight and brain weight of rat pups significantly decreased. Folic acid supplementation markedly reversed the above-mentioned abnormal changes of hyperhomocysteinemic pregnant rats and rat pups. These findings suggest that folic acid can alleviate the symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia- induced preeclampsia in pregnant rats without influencing brain development of rat pups.

  19. Rapid and Cost-Effective Gene Targeting in Rat Embryonic Stem Cells by TALENs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Tong; Guanyi Huang; Charles Ashton; Hongping Wu; Hexin Yan; Qi-Long Ying

    2012-01-01

    The rat is the preferred animal model in many areas of biomedical research and drug development.Genetic manipulation in rats has lagged behind that in mice due to the lack of efficient gene targeting tools.Previously,we generated a knockout rat via conventional homologous recombination in rat embryonic stem (ES) cells.Here,we show that efficient gene targeting in rat ES cells can be achieved quickly through transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)-mediated DNA double-strand breaks.Using the Golden Gate cloning technique,we constructed a pair of TALEN targeting vectors for the gene of interest in 5 days.After gene transfection,the targeted rat ES cell colonies were isolated,screened,and confirmed by PCR without the need of drug selection.Our results suggest that TALEN-mediated gene targeting is a superior means of establishing genetically modified rat ES cell lines with high efficiency and short turnaround time.

  20. Use of local isolate of Monascus purpureus for reducing blood cholesterol in Sprague Dawley rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNAWATI KASIM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Research using local isolate of M. purpureus to reduce the blood cholesterol total on the white rats of Sprague Dawley strain had been done. The research proposed was to obtain the best doses of fermented rice contain lovastatin to reduce the blood cholesterol content of the white rats Sprague Dawley strain. The research used 42 male rats which was devided into 6 treatments based on the food and fermented rice doses. Each rat was 2 months and 250 gram in weight. The cholesterol food and the standard food given everyday for 20 gram/day/rat. The blood rats was measured the content of cholesterol every seven days for 21 days. The result showed that the lovastatin of the fermented rice could reduce 20,78% the blood cholesterol total of the white rats Sprague Dawley strain.

  1. Pedagogical Techniques Employed by the Television Show "MythBusters"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavrel, Erik

    2016-11-01

    "MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These techniques include: achieving active learning, avoiding jargon, employing repetition to ensure comprehension, using captivating demonstrations, cultivating an enthusiastic disposition, and increasing intrinsic motivation to learn. In this content analysis, episodes from the show's 10-year history were examined for these techniques. "MythBusters" represents an untapped source of pedagogical techniques, which science educators may consider availing themselves of in their tireless effort to better reach their students. Physics educators in particular may look to "MythBusters" for inspiration and guidance in how to incorporate these techniques into their own teaching and help their students in the learning process.

  2. Filming the freak show. Non-normative bodies on screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodesco, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The article focuses on four films that display the exhibition for profit of non- normative bodies in a context that is variously called freak show, sideshow, monster show, odditorium. Freaks (Tod Browning, 1932), The Ape Woman (La donna scimmia, Marco Ferreri, 1964), Elephant Man (David Lynch, 1980) and Black Venus (Venus noire, Abdellatif Kechiche, 2010) are reflexive movies that tell stories of abnormal bodies and of people who buy a ticket to see them. They inquire the fictional nature of "freakness"--a cultural and historical artefact, a social construction, a frame of mind and a set of practices--and draw attention to the continuity between the world of the freak shows and the scientific and medical milieus. The article finally considers the new visibility of the corporeal freak in contemporary voyeuristic television programs.

  3. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H; Borucki, William J; Buchhave, Lars A; Caldwell, Douglas A; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Fressin, François; Ford, Eric B; Fortney, Jonathan J; Haas, Michael J; Holman, Matthew J; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M; Koch, David; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Moorhead, Althea V; Morehead, Robert C; Marcy, Geoffrey; MacQueen, Phillip J; Quinn, Samuel N; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F; Sasselov, Dimitar D; Seager, Sara; Torres, Guillermo; Welsh, William F

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compos...

  4. Uni Dufour | Ig Nobel Show with Marc Abrahams | 7 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 7 May, Marc Abrahams, founder of the Ig Nobel Prize, will give an "Ig Nobel show", in English at Uni Dufour. The Ig Nobel Prizes are an American parody of the Nobel Prizes. In early October of each year, they are awarded to ten unusual or trivial achievements in scientific research. The stated aim of the prizes is to "first make people laugh, and then make them think". Marc Abrahams will introduce this funny and dynamic evening with a short presentation before handing over to a selection of recipients. The show is free and open to all. Tuesday 7 May Ig Nobel Show 6:30 p.m. - Room U600 Uni Dufour

  5. Role of amygdala MAPK activation on immobility behavior of forced swim rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tung-Yi; Lin, Chih-Hung

    2006-10-01

    The role of amygdala mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in rats during a forced swim test was investigated. The variation of amygdala MAPK level was studied in control rats and early-life maternally deprived rats. A forced swim test was carried out to estimate the immobility level. The data showed that the immobility time of rats that received maternal deprivation in early life was longer than that of control rats and Western blot analysis also showed that the amygdala phospho-MAPK level in maternally deprived rats was almost two times higher than in control rats. Intra-amygdala infusion of PD098059 or U0126, MEK inhibitors, suppressed immobility behavior during the forced swim test in both rats. Western blot analysis also showed that the amygdala MAPK activities in both rats infused with MEK inhibitors were also suppressed in parallel with expression of immobility behavior. The suppressed MAPK activities as well as the restoration of immobility time returned to the original level 48 h later. These results suggest that amygdala MAPK activation might play a role in the regulation of immobility behavior in rats during the forced swim test. Moreover, it could provide a hint that amygdala MAPK activation might be involved in the formation of depression-like behavior.

  6. The Biochemistry Show: a new and fun tool for learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H Ono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods to teach biochemistry in most universities are based on the memorization of chemical structures,  biochemical  pathways  and  reagent  names,  which  is  many  times  dismotivating  for  the  students.  We presently describe an innovative, interactive and alternative method for teaching biochemistry to medical and nutrition undergraduate students, called the Biochemistry Show (BioBio Show.The Biobio show is based on active participation of the students. They are divided in groups and the groups face each other. One group faces another one group at a time, in a game based on true or false questions that involve subjects of applied biochemistry (exercise, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, free radicals, among others. The questions of the Show are previously elaborated by senior students. The Biobio Show has four phases, the first one is a selection exam, and from the second to the fourth phase, eliminatory confrontations happen. On a confrontation, the first group must select a certain quantity of questions for the opponent to answer.  The group who choses the questions must know how to answer and justify the selected questions. This procedure is repeated on all phases of the show. On the last phase, the questions used are taken from an exam previously performed by the students: either the 9-hour biochemistry exam (Sé et al. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students? SBBq 2005, abstract K-6 or the True-or-False exam (TFE (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstract K-18. The winner group receives an extra 0,5 point on the final grade. Over 70% of the students informed on a questionnaire that the Biobio Show is a valuable tool for learning biochemistry.    That is a new way to enrich the discussion of biochemistry in the classroom without the students getting bored. Moreover, learning

  7. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  8. Modelli televisivi e apprendimento. Il talk show “Gladiattori”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Denicolai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo presenta il talk show “Gladiattori”, format per web tv ideato e sviluppato dal centro interdipartimentale di ricerca Cinedumedia, Dipartimento di Filosofia e Scienze dell’Educazione, Università degli Studi di Torino. Lo scopo del progetto è sperimentare una metodologia didattica innovativa con il video e i linguaggi multimediali. Partendo dalla teoria del dialogo platonico e da alcuni studi di pragmatica, comunicazione, antropologia della performance e televisione, l’articolo analizza come il talk show (e, in genere, il video possa essere utilizzato nella didattica e nella formazione per acquisire competenze e conoscenza e applicare un nuovo interattivo, collaborativo e collettivo metodo di studio.

  9. Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS, albino and pigmented laboratory rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Stryjek

    Full Text Available The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS, two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans, and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar. Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups.

  10. INHIBITION OF RAT LENS ALDOSE REDUCTASE BY QUERCETAGETIN AND PATULETIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the results of inhibition of the Aldose reductase(AR) activity on Wistar rat lens by Quercetagetin extracted from Tagetes erects Linn and by Patuletin extracted from Tagetes patula Linn are reported.Quercetagetin inhibited AR of the rat lens by 93.9% at 10~(-4)M, 76.0% at 10~(-5)M and 13.3% at 10~(-6)M. Patuletin inhibited AR of the rat lens by 100% at 10~(-1)M, 80% at 10~(-5)M and 22.7% at 10~(-6)M respectively. The results show that these two flavones are lens AR Inhibitors, but further ...

  11. The effects of exposure to electromagnetic field on rat myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiray, Amac; Tayefi, Hamid; Kiray, Muge; Bagriyanik, Husnu Alper; Pekcetin, Cetin; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Ozogul, Candan

    2013-06-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) causes increased adverse effects on biological systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EMF on heart tissue by biochemical and histomorphological evaluations in EMF-exposed adult rats. In this study, 28 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were used. The rats were divided into two groups: sham group (n = 14) and EMF group (n = 14). Rats in sham group were exposed to same conditions as the EMF group except the exposure to EMF. Rats in EMF group were exposed to a 50-Hz EMF of 3 mT for 4 h/day and 7 days/week for 2 months. After 2 months of exposure, rats were killed; the hearts were excised and evaluated. Determination of oxidative stress parameters was performed spectrophotometrically. To detect apoptotic cells, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 immunohistochemistry were performed. In EMF-exposed group, levels of lipid peroxidation significantly increased and activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased compared with sham group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity increased in EMF-exposed rats compared with sham. Under electron microscopy, there were mitochondrial degeneration, reduction in myofibrils, dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum and perinuclear vacuolization in EMF-exposed rats. In conclusion, the results show that the exposure to EMF causes oxidative stress, apoptosis and morphologic damage in myocardium of adult rats. The results of our study indicate that EMF-related changes in rat myocardium could be the result of increased oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether the exposure to EMF can induce adverse effects on myocardium.

  12. Olive Oil effectively mitigates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Hanan A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoporosis, a reduction in bone mineral density, represents the most common metabolic bone disease. Postmenopausal women are particularly susceptible to osteoporosis when their production of estrogen declines. For these women, fracture is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of olive oil supplementation against osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Methods We studied adult female Wistar rats aged 12-14 months, divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM, ovariectomized (OVX, and ovariectomized rats supplemented with extravirgin olive oil (Olive-OVX orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected. Plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitrates were assayed. Specimens from both the tibia and the liver were processed for light microscopic examination. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results The OVX-rats showed a significant decrease in plasma calcium levels, and a significant increase in plasma ALP, MDA, and nitrates levels. These changes were attenuated by olive oil supplementation in the Olive-OVX rats. Light microscopic examination of the tibia of the OVX rats revealed a significant decrease in the cortical bone thickness (CBT and the trabecular bone thickness (TBT. In addition, there was a significant increase in the osteoclast number denoting bone resorption. In the Olive-OVX rats these parameters were markedly improved as compared to the OVX group. Examination of the liver specimens revealed mononuclear cellular infiltration in the portal areas in the OVX-rats which was not detected in the Olive-OVX rats. Conclusions Olive oil effectively mitigated ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats, and is a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  13. Vldlr overexpression causes hyperactivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Keiko; Izumo, Nobuo; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Manabe, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Yukiko; Ichitani, Yukio; Yamada, Kazuo; Thanseem, Ismail; Anitha, Ayyappan; Vasu, Mahesh Mundalil; Shimmura, Chie; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Kameno, Yosuke; Takahashi, Taro; Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Mori, Norio

    2012-10-30

    Reelin regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures and neuronal migration via binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and Lrp8. Reeler mutant mice display severe brain morphological defects and behavioral abnormalities. Several reports have implicated reelin signaling in the etiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that VLDLR mRNA levels are increased in the post-mortem brain of autistic patients. We generated transgenic (Tg) rats overexpressing Vldlr, and examined their histological and behavioral features. Spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly increased in Tg rats, without detectable changes in brain histology. Additionally, Tg rats tended to show performance deficits in the radial maze task, suggesting that their spatial working memory was slightly impaired. Thus, Vldlr levels may be involved in determining locomotor activity and memory function. Unlike reeler mice, patients with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders do not show striking neuroanatomical aberrations. Therefore, it is notable, from a clinical point of view, that we observed behavioral phenotypes in Vldlr-Tg rats in the absence of neuroanatomical abnormalities.

  14. Vldlr overexpression causes hyperactivity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Keiko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reelin regulates neuronal positioning in cortical brain structures and neuronal migration via binding to the lipoprotein receptors Vldlr and Lrp8. Reeler mutant mice display severe brain morphological defects and behavioral abnormalities. Several reports have implicated reelin signaling in the etiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders, including autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Moreover, it has been reported that VLDLR mRNA levels are increased in the post-mortem brain of autistic patients. Methods We generated transgenic (Tg rats overexpressing Vldlr, and examined their histological and behavioral features. Results Spontaneous locomotor activity was significantly increased in Tg rats, without detectable changes in brain histology. Additionally, Tg rats tended to show performance deficits in the radial maze task, suggesting that their spatial working memory was slightly impaired. Thus, Vldlr levels may be involved in determining locomotor activity and memory function. Conclusions Unlike reeler mice, patients with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disorders do not show striking neuroanatomical aberrations. Therefore, it is notable, from a clinical point of view, that we observed behavioral phenotypes in Vldlr-Tg rats in the absence of neuroanatomical abnormalities.

  15. comparison of serum visfatin levels in restricted diet rats,type2 diabetic rats and insulin resistance rats with normal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammadali ghaffari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Adipose tissue is not only a site of triglycerides storage, but also an active endocrine organ that secretes many biologically active mediators refered to as "adipokines". Visfatin, as a new adipokine has an important role in Homeostasis of energy and glucose metabolism. In the present study serum visfatin levels in restricted diet rats,type2 diabetic rats and insulin resistant rats has been measured and compared with control group. relationship between Visfatin and blood sugar, lipid profile, insulin, and HOMA-IR in these groups has been investigated Methods and Materials: 32 male wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (8 rats in each group.group 1 was control,with free access to diet, group 2 or restricted diet group using 65% of normal diet , group3 orinduced type2 diabetic group with nicotinamide and streptozocin and group 4 was insulin resistance ,induced with fructose diet. After 6 weeks animals weight and other biochemical factors such as FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar, lipid profile, insulin and visfatin were measured. Results of this study were analyzed using SPSS16.and then examined and reported as ±average of standard deviation. Values of p< 0.05 were considered statistically significant . Results: Results of this study showed that body weight increased in all groups except diabetic group. Triglyceride were increased in all groups, in this order,restricted diet, control, insulin resistance and diabetic groups. visfatin, insulin, and Homa-IR increase significantly in type 2 diabetic rats and insulin resistant group. Conclusion: There was a positive and significant relationship between visfatin and HOMA-IR, and between visfain and FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar, while there was a negative relationship between visfatin and insulin, but this relationship was not significant.

  16. Deaf Individuals Show a Leftward Bias in Numerical Bisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Cecchetto, Carlo; Papagno, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence suggests that deaf individuals conceive of numerical magnitude as a left-to-right-oriented mental number line, as typically observed in hearing individuals. When accessing this spatial representation of numbers, normally hearing individuals typically show an attentional bias to the left (pseudoneglect), resembling the attentional bias they show in physical space. Deaf individuals do not show pseudoneglect in representing external space, as assessed by a visual line bisection task. However, whether deaf individuals show attentional biases in representing numerical space has never been investigated before. Here we instructed groups of deaf and hearing individuals to quickly estimate (without calculating) the midpoint of a series of numerical intervals presented in ascending and descending order. Both hearing and deaf individuals were significantly biased toward lower numbers (i.e., the leftward side of the mental number line) in their estimations. Nonetheless, the underestimation bias was smaller in deaf individuals than in the hearing when bisecting pairs of numbers given in descending order. This result may depend on the use of different strategies by deaf and hearing participants or a less pronounced lateralization of deaf individuals in the control of spatial attention.

  17. Graduate Students' Pay and Benefits Vary Widely, Survey Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey Williams

    2008-01-01

    Graduate students face an array of choices when evaluating compensation-and-benefits packages that make comparisons difficult. A "Chronicle" survey shows that the offers to teaching assistants and research assistants vary widely. Some institutions cover 100 percent of graduate students' tuition, while others waive only a portion. It is possible to…

  18. Distributing and Showing Farmer Learning Videos in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Jeffery W.; Van Mele, Paul; Harun-ar-Rashid, Md.; Krupnik, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the results of showing farmer learning videos through different types of volunteers. Design/Methodology/Approach: Semi-structured interviews with volunteers from different occupational groups in Bangladesh, and a phone survey with 227 respondents. Findings: Each occupational group acted differently. Shop keepers, tillage…

  19. Using "The Daily Show" to Promote Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. James; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    Social studies teachers are tasked with aiding their students' abilities to engage in public debate and make politically sound decisions. One way the authors have found to help facilitate this is to draw connections between content knowledge and current political conversations through the use of clips from "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart." While…

  20. French City Calais Shows Great Appetite for Chinese Stone Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hao

    2005-01-01

    @@ A French government delegation headed by the President of the Municipal Planning & Design Bureau of Calais City and Mr. Han Guogang, President of France China International Development Institution investigated Chinese stone materials market during April 28 to April 29, they showed great interest in some stone materials in good quality such as "China Black".

  1. Autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi (Iwate Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan))

    1983-11-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis.

  2. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets...

  3. "Country Life"? Rurality, Folk Music and "Show of Hands"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarwood, Richard; Charlton, Clive

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of folk music to understanding the dynamic, fluid and multi-experiential nature of the countryside. Drawing from literature on the geographies of music, it examines the work of "Show of Hands", a contemporary folk band from Devon in England. Three areas are studied. First, the paper examines the…

  4. Genoa Boat Show – Good Example of Event Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Demirović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available International Boat Show, a business and tourist event, has been held annually in Italian city of Genoa since 1962. The fair is one of the oldest, largest and best known in the field of boating industry worldwide, primarily due to good management of the event and it can serve as case study for domestic fair organizers to improve the quality of their business and services. Since Belgrade is the city of fairs, but compared to Genoa still underdeveloped in terms of trade shows, the following tasks imposed naturally in this study: to determine the relationship of the organizers of Genoa Boat Show in the sector of preparation and fair offer, in the sector of selection and communication with specific target groups (especially visitors, services during the fair and functioning of the city during the fair. During the research the authors have mostly used historical method, comparison, synthesis and the interview method. The results of theoretical research, in addition, may help not only managers of fair shows and of exhibitions, but also to organizers of other events in our country

  5. Strobes: Pyrotechnic compositions that show a curious oscillatory combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; Lingen, J.N.J. van; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2013-01-01

    Strobes are pyrotechnic compositions which show an oscillatory combustion; a dark phase and a flash phase alternate periodically. The strobe effect has applications in various fields, most notably in the fireworks industry and in the military area. All strobe compositions mentioned in the literature

  6. Strobes: Pyrotechnic Compositions That Show a Curious Oscillatory Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbel, J.M.L.; van Lingen, J.N.J.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Gijzeman, O.L.J.; Meijerink, A.

    2013-01-01

    Strobes are pyrotechnic compositions which show an oscillatory combustion; a dark phase and a flash phase alternate periodically. The strobe effect has applications in various fields, most notably in the fireworks industry and in the military area. All strobe compositions mentioned in the literature

  7. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  8. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  9. Data from the Television Game Show "Friend or Foe?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalist, David E.

    2004-01-01

    The data discussed in this paper are from the television game show "Friend or Foe", and can be used to examine whether age, gender, race, and the amount of prize money affect contestants' strategies. The data are suitable for a variety of statistical analyses, such as descriptive statistics, testing for differences in means or proportions, and…

  10. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of al

  11. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  12. Design Your Organization's Own Slide-Tape Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilden, Scott W.

    1975-01-01

    Slide-tape shows offer a relatively inexpensive, easy-to-assemble means of informing a wide variety of groups interested in education. This article outlines a seven-step procedure to produce a coherent, professional-looking slide-tape presentation. (DS)

  13. Authenticity and TV Shows: A Multidimensional Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Surmi, Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    Television shows, especially soap operas and sitcoms, are usually considered by English as a second language practitioners as a source of authentic spoken conversational materials presumably because they reflect the linguistic features of natural conversation. However, practitioners are faced with the dilemma of how to assess whether such…

  14. Using "The Daily Show" to Promote Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, H. James; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    Social studies teachers are tasked with aiding their students' abilities to engage in public debate and make politically sound decisions. One way the authors have found to help facilitate this is to draw connections between content knowledge and current political conversations through the use of clips from "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart." While…

  15. Reciprocal Ontological Models Show Indeterminism Comparable to Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

    2016-12-01

    We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism comparable to that in quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model.

  16. Auto Show Exhibition:An Interests-Powered Lever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Many years in the segment,Li Cheng(not his real name )still can not tell for sure whether the auto development leads auto show exhibitions or the reverse."Both of them have been doing the leadership job,"he said.His passion

  17. Reciprocal Ontological Models Show Indeterminism Comparable to Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Banik, Manik; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Ghosh, Sibasish; Kar, Guruprasad; Mukherjee, Amit; Roy, Arup

    2017-02-01

    We show that within the class of ontological models due to Harrigan and Spekkens, those satisfying preparation-measurement reciprocity must allow indeterminism comparable to that in quantum theory. Our result implies that one can design quantum random number generator, for which it is impossible, even in principle, to construct a reciprocal deterministic model.

  18. Fun While Showing, Not Telling: Crafting Vivid Detail in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nero, Jennifer Renner

    2017-01-01

    This teaching tip highlights three writing minilessons that help students construct vivid sensory detail (textual detail related to the five senses) in their fiction and creative nonfiction writing. Learning to show, not tell, is a difficult task for novice writers. The author explores reasons why this is the case and provides directions for the…

  19. Giant primary angiosarcoma of the small intestine showing severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mizuna; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Domen, Hiromitsu; Yamabuki, Takumi; Komuro, Kazuteru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Hirano, Satoshi; Iwashiro, Nozomu

    2014-11-21

    Primary malignant tumors of the small intestine are rare, comprising less than 2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. An 85-year-old woman was admitted with fever of 40 °C and marked abdominal distension. Her medical history was unremarkable, but blood examination showed elevated inflammatory markers. Abdominal computed tomography showed a giant tumor with central necrosis, extending from the epigastrium to the pelvic cavity. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small intestine communicating with the gastrointestinal tract or with superimposed infection was suspected. Because no improvement occurred in response to antibiotics, surgery was performed. Laparotomy revealed giant hemorrhagic tumor adherent to the small intestine and occupying the peritoneal cavity. The giant tumor was a solid tumor weighing 3490 g, measuring 24 cm × 17.5 cm × 18 cm and showing marked necrosis. Histologically, the tumor comprised spindle-shaped cells with anaplastic large nuclei. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for vimentin, CD31, and factor VIII-related antigen, but negative for c-kit and CD34. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed. Although no postoperative complications occurred, the patient experienced enlargement of multiple metastatic tumors in the abdominal cavity and died 42 d postoperatively. The prognosis of small intestinal angiosarcoma is very poor, even after volume-reducing palliative surgery.

  20. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  1. Anxiety responses and neurochemical changes in a kaolin-induced rat model of hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Sup; Shim, Insop; Chang, Jin Woo

    2011-04-01

    Hydrocephalus is a pathological enlargement of the ventricles of the brain, which can result from various diseases of the central nervous system. Patients with hydrocephalus frequently show motor abnormalities, such as abnormal gait and posture, as well as intellectual and emotional impairment. The present study was designed to investigate anxiety responses in rats with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. A total of 26 Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. Hydrocephalus was induced in 14 Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 0.1 ml of 20% kaolin solution into the cisterna magna; 12 rats were administered the same volume of saline in the same fashion and served as controls. Seven of the rats that were injected with kaolin and 6 of the rats injected with saline were killed 3 days after injection (Group 1); the remaining rats were killed 4 weeks after injection (Group 2) to evaluate effects related to acute and chronic hydrocephalus. The rats were tested in an elevated plus maze after induction of hydrocephalus by kaolin injection. After the animals were killed, brain sections were immunostained for cholecystokinin and neuropeptide Y. In addition, tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in the ventral tegmental area was evaluated by immunohistological staining. The rats with acute hydrocephalus showed decreased entry into and spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze as compared with the control rats. The hydrocephalic rats had significantly more cholecystokinin-immunoreactive neurons and fewer neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive neurons in their brains. In addition, hydrocephalus progress in this model was positively correlated with the anxiety response. The numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons were decreased significantly in the hydrocephalic rats as compared with the control rats. These results suggest that the rat model of hydrocephalus is characterized by increased anxiety response and is associated with the functional impairment of the

  2. Behavioral and Neurochemical Studies in Stressed and Unstressed Rats Fed on Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat Rich Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Moin§, Saida Haider*, Saima Khaliq1, Saiqa Tabassum and Darakhshan J. Haleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress produces behavioral and neurochemical deficits. To study the relationship between adaptation to stress and macronutrient intake, the present study was designed to monitor the effects of different diets on feed intake, growth rate and serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT metabolism following exposure to restraint stress in rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=12 as control, sugar, protein and fat rich diet fed rats. After 5 weeks of treatment animals of each group were divided into unrestrained and restrained animals (n=6. Rats of restrained group were given immobilization stress for 2 hours/day for 5 days. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were monitored daily. Rats were decapitated on 6th day to collect brain samples for neurochemical estimation. Results show that sugar diet fed rats produced adaptation to stress early as compared to normal diet fed rats. Food intake and growth rates of unrestrained and restrained rats were comparable on 3rd day in sugar diet fed rats and on 4th day in normal diet fed rats. Stress decreased food intake and growth rates of protein and fat treated rats. Repeated stress did not alter brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels of normal diet fed rats and sugar diet fed rats. Protein diet fed restrained rats showed elevated brain 5-HT levels. Fat diet fed restrained rats significantly decreased brain TRP and 5-HIAA levels. Finding suggested that carbohydrate diet might protect against stressful conditions. Study also showed that nutritional status could alter different behaviors in response to a stressful environment.

  3. Bacterial melanin promotes recovery after sciatic nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga V Gevorkyan; Irina B Meliksetyan; Tigran R Petrosyan; Anichka S Hovsepyan

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial melanin, obtained from the mutant strain ofBacillus Thuringiensis, has been shown to promote recovery after central nervous system injury. It is hypothesized, in this study, that bacterial melanin can promote structural and functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Rats subjected to sciatic nerve transection were intramuscularly administered bacterial melanin. The sciatic nerve transected rats that did not receive intramuscular administration of bacterial melanin served as controls. Behavior tests showed that compared to control rats, the time taken for instrumental conditioned relfex recovery was signiifcantly shorter and the ability to keep the balance on the rotating bar was signiifcantly better in bacterial melanin-treated rats. Histomor-phological tests showed that bacterial melanin promoted axon regeneration after sciatic nerve injury. These ifndings suggest that bacterial melanin exhibits neuroprotective effects on injured sciatic nerve, contributes to limb motor function recovery, and therefore can be used for rehabil-itation treatment of peripheral nerve injury.

  4. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  5. Parameter estimation of feedback gain in a stochastic model of renal hemodynamics: differences between spontaneously hypertensive and Sprague-Dawley rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Yip, Kay-Pong; Marsh, Donald J;

    2006-01-01

    Proximal tubular pressure shows periodic self-sustained oscillations in normotensive rats but highly irregular fluctuations in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Although we have suggested that the irregular fluctuations in SHR represent low-dimensional deterministic chaos in tubuloglomerular...

  6. Arterial hypoxemia and intrapulmonary vasodilatation in rat models of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Yasumi; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Ohsuga, Masaru; Akimoto, Toshio; Komeichi, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Shuji; Kato, Yoshihito; Miyamoto, Akiko; Satomura, Katsuaki; Takano, Teruo

    2005-08-01

    Rats with chronic bile duct ligation (CBDL) and portal vein ligation (PVL) are used as models of portal hypertension. CBDL rats show hypoxemia with intrapulmonary vasodilatation (IPVD), and are recognized as a model of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), while PVL rats are normoxemic. We investigated the differences in arterial oxygenation between these models, and the key factors leading to HPS. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared as CBDL or PVL models, or as Sham rats. Arterial oxygenation, hemodynamics (reference sample method), and IPVD were simultaneously evaluated in conscious and unrestrained animals, using (141)Ce- or (113)Sn-labeled microspheres (15 microm in diameter), respectively. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitrate/nitrite (end products of nitric oxide; NOx) production by the lung tissue (increment across the lungs) was also determined. The extent of IPVD was similar in both models, but hypoxemia was only observed in CBDL rats. The ET-1 level and the increment in NOx were significantly increased in CBDL rats, and the increment was directly correlated with impairment of oxygenation. Blood flow through the bronchial arteries (anatomical shunting) was increased in CBDL rats, reaching more than three times the level in PVL rats or Sham rats. These results support the hypothesis that NO derived from the lung tissues contributes to hypoxemia, and IPVD appears to be a prerequisite for impaired oxygenation. The considerable increase of anatomical shunting may potentially contribute to impaired oxygenation in CBDL rats.

  7. Antidepressant-like actions of pregnancy, and progesterone in Wistar rats forced to swim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Hernández, M; Téllez-Alcántara, N P

    2001-07-01

    In rats, some behavioral changes occurring during pregnancy related to the presence of progesterone may be analyzed in the forced swimming task (FST), which is designed to test the antidepressant profile of drugs. The present study was aimed to analyze in pregnant rats, in rats after delivery, or in rats after receiving progesterone those behavioral changes displayed in the FST. We hypothesize that pregnancy and progesterone will produce antidepressant-like effects in rats forced to swim. Therefore, pregnant rats (14th, 17th, and 20th days), or rats after delivery (3rd, and 7th days) were tested in the FST. Ovariectomized rats receiving saline (0.9%; i.p.), clomipramine (1.25 mg/kg; i.p.), or desipramine (2.14 mg/kg; i.p.) for 28 days were also tested in the FST. In a second series of experiments, ovariectomized rats receiving vehicle or progesterone (0.5 mg/kg; or 2.0 mg/kg; sc.) were tested in the FST. Locomotion was evaluated in the open field test. Results showed that in the FST: 1) pregnancy (P swimming; 3) rats tested after delivery displayed similar behavior than control rats. A lower locomotion was observed only at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, results suggest that during pregnancy, a reproductive process characterized by its high levels of progesterone, antidepressant-like effects can be found.

  8. Specificity of Metabolic Syndrome Model Reproduction at Pubertal and Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Larysa Borysivna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Comparative estimation of metabolic syndrome (MS mediated changes of blood, cardio-vascular system, liver, pancreas and kidneys morphologic structure in adult and pubertal rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar albino male rats of two age categories (young animals of 21 days age (50-70g and adults (160-180g were divided into 4 groups (8 animals in each: 1 - Control 1 (intact young rats; 2 - Control 2 (intact adult rats; 3 - MS3 (young rats with MS and 4 - MS4 (adult rats with MS. The metabolic syndrome model was induced by full replacement of drinking water with 20% fructose solution (200g/l. After 60 days of MS modeling, determination of rat hematological and serum biochemical parameters, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, liver rates of lipid peroxydation and chromatin DNA fragmentation, as well as morphological macroscopic and microscopic studies were carried out. Results: In pubertal rats, glucose tolerance, hypertension, blood clotting disturbances, DNAfragmentation and lipid peroxydation rates were affected more profoundly, while mature rats showed greater Pseudo Pelger-Huet anomaly development, serum cholesterol and lipoproteins increases, liver and kidney morphology changes. Conclusions: Our current data combined with previous results of other authors allow us to conclude that an animal model (Wistar rats of MS is quite easily obtained in a full age range, from juvenile to mature rats.

  9. Gastrodin inhibits neuroinflammation in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Li; Xin Chen; Nan Zhang; Yangwen Song; Yang Mu

    2012-01-01

    The present study showed that the latency of rats moving on a vertical grid was significantly prolonged, and the number of rats sliding down from the declined plane was increased remarkably, in rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease model rats compared with control rats. The moving latency recovered to normal levels, but the number of slides was significantly increased at 28 days after model establishment. The slope test is a meaningful approach to evaluate the symptoms of Parkinson's disease model rats treated with rotenone. In addition, loss of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurons in model rats was observed at 1 day after the model was established, and continued gradually at 14 and 28 days. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells was significantly increased in gastrodin-treated rats at 14 days. Significant numbers of activated microglia cells were observed in model rats at 14 and 28 days; treatment of rats with Madopar at 28 days suppressed microglial activation. Treatment of rats with gastrodin or Madopar at 28 days significantly reduced interleukin-1β expression. The loss of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurons paralleled the microglial activation in Parkinson's disease model rats treated with rotenone. The inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β are involved in the substantia nigral damage. Gastrodin could protect dopaminergic neurons via inhibition of interleukin-1β expression and neuroinflammation in the substantia nigra.

  10. Dietary choline deprivation impairs rat brain mitochondrial function and behavioral phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, Consiglia; Coluccia, Addolorata; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Cocco, Tiziana; Petrosillo, Giuseppe; Paradies, Giuseppe; De Nitto, Emanuele; Massaro, Antonio; Persichella, Michele; Borracci, Pietro; Portincasa, Piero; Carratù, Maria Rosaria

    2010-06-01

    Dietary choline deprivation (CD) is associated with behavioral changes, but mechanisms underlying these detrimental effects are not well characterized. For instance, no literature data are available concerning the CD effects on brain mitochondrial function related to impairment in cognition. Therefore, we investigated brain mitochondrial function and redox status in male Wistar rats fed a CD diet for 28 d. Moreover, the CD behavioral phenotype was characterized. Compared with rats fed a control diet (CTRL), CD rats showed lower NAD-dependent mitochondrial state III and state IV respiration, 40% lower complex I activity, and significantly higher reactive oxygen species production. Total glutathione was oxidatively consumed more in CD than in CTRL rats and the rate of protein oxidation was 40% higher in CD than in CTRL rats, reflecting an oxidative stress condition. The mitochondrial concentrations of cardiolipin, a phospholipid required for optimal activity of complex I, was 20% lower in CD rats than in CTRL rats. Compared with CTRL rats, the behavioral phenotype of CD rats was characterized by impairment in motor coordination and motor learning assessed with the rotarod/accelerod test. Furthermore, compared with CTRL rats, CD rats were less capable of learning the active avoidance task and the number of attempts they made to avoid foot shock was fewer. The results suggest that CD-induced dysfunction in brain mitochondria may be responsible for impairment in cognition and underline that, similar to the liver, the brain also needs an adequate choline supply for its normal functioning.

  11. Neuro-Behcet's disease showing severe atrophy of the cerebrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, T; Murayama, E; Deshimaru, M; Shikai, I; Kozuma, S

    1976-03-15

    A 38-year-old female died 6 years after the onset of what was, clinically and histopathologically, consistent with neuro-Behcet's disease. Pathologically the cerebrum showed severe atrophy. The main changes were observed in the grey and white matter, the diencephalon and the basal ganglia by light microscopy. All these changes originated in softenings around blood vessels, especially small vessels or capillaries. These foci fused together to form large regions of softening. Glial or mesenchymal reactions were minimal. In the white matter there was slight perivascular-infiltration, mainly consisting of lymphocytes. In view of these findings, it is suggested that these changes were caused by an allergic vasculitis. The present case of Neuro-Behcet's disease is the first one showing general atrophy of the cerebrum. It is very important in relation to demyelinating encephalitis.

  12. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  13. Severe weather as a spectacle: the Meteo-Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Orbe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we focus on perhaps one of the worst journalist practice when dealing with severe weather, the Meteo-Show or the extended practice, especially in TV, for using weather and meteorology for spectacle. Journalism today has found weather information in a real goldmine in terms of audience due to the growing public interest in this matter. However, as it happens with other content, sensationalism and exaggeration have also reached weather information, primarily when episodes of adverse nature (snow, heavy rain, floods, etc. are addressed. In this paper we look to identify the worst practices in weather communication through analysis of examples from real journalist work. We present some keys to understand this trend, highlighting the ingredients that are present in the worst Meteo-show.

  14. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persigue esclarecer algunas de sus características y funciones, especialmente su función socializadora, a través del mecanismo biográfico y del concepto de habitus tomado de Pierre Bourdieu.

  15. Human DNA methylomes of neurodegenerative diseases show common epigenomic patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, J V; Heyn, H; Vidal, E; Moran, S; Sayols, S; Delgado-Morales, R; Schultz, M D; Ansoleaga, B; Garcia-Esparcia, P; Pons-Espinal, M; de Lagran, M M; Dopazo, J; Rabano, A; Avila, J; Dierssen, M; Lott, I; Ferrer, I; Ecker, J R; Esteller, M

    2016-01-01

    Different neurodegenerative disorders often show similar lesions, such as the presence of amyloid plaques, TAU-neurotangles and synuclein inclusions. The genetically inherited forms are rare, so we wondered whether shared epigenetic aberrations, such as those affecting DNA methylation, might also exist. The studied samples were gray matter samples from the prefrontal cortex of control and neurodegenerative disease-associated cases. We performed the DNA methylation analyses of Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer-like neurodegenerative profile associated with Down's syndrome samples. The DNA methylation landscapes obtained show that neurodegenerative diseases share similar aberrant CpG methylation shifts targeting a defined gene set. Our findings suggest that neurodegenerative disorders might have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that subsequently evolve into different clinical entities. The identified aberrant DNA methylation changes can be used as biomarkers of the disorders and as potential new targets for the development of new therapies. PMID:26784972

  16. Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, S; Smith, A B

    2012-01-22

    Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids.

  17. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  18. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  19. Revisiting Dystopia: the Reality Show Biopolitics of "The Hunger Games"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Cettl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dystopian imaginaries of the recent popular novel trilogy The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins and its film adaptations. Having put the narrative into a genealogy of dystopian fiction concerned with the historical nation-state totalitarianisms, I ask what is specifically contemporary about The Hunger Games. I explore this by focusing on the functioning of the reality show format in the narrative, which I link to G. Agamben’s understanding of the spectacle, as part of his wider biopolitical theories. I apply an Agambenian biopolitical reading to the narrative, seeing it as a production of bare life through the camp of the reality show arena. I suggest that The Hunger Games offer a critique of contemporary liberal democracies by calling attention to their production of underclassed and expendable life, which is imagined as an eruption of the nation-state right to kill, similarly as in Agamben’s theories.

  20. Earth, the "star" of an original Planetarium show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, G.; Acker, A.

    2003-04-01

    Thanks the spatial observations, the astronomers are abble to complete their representations of the universe, and scientists can observe the Earth as a planet like Venus or Mars. A collaboration between the CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and the APLF (Association des Planétariums de Langue Française or French speaking Planetariums Association) allowed the presentation into the Planetariums of (1) images and data related to spatial news, and (2) a specific show constructed by the CNES and the APLF, and devoted to Earth as an astronomical object. This original show is presented in 5 langages by 36 Planétariums since 2002, April, and we report on the reactions of both the visitors and the animators.

  1. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  2. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persi...

  3. Studies on responsiveness of hepatoma cells to catecholamines. II. Comparison of beta-adrenergic responsiveness of rat ascites hepatoma cells with cultured normal rat liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Matsunaga, T; Takemoto, N; Sanae, F; Koshiura, R

    1985-05-01

    The pharmacological properties of beta-adrenoceptors in rat ascites hepatoma cells were compared with those in normal rat liver cells which were cultured for 24 hr after collagenase digestion. Adenylate cyclases in the homogenates of cultured normal rat liver cells and rat ascites hepatoma cells, AH44, AH66, AH109A, AH130 and AH7974, were all activated by isoproterenol or NaF to different degrees. The enzyme in rat liver cells was activated by several beta 2-agonists but those in all hepatoma cells hardly responded. Furthermore, salbutamol, a beta 2-partial agonist, antagonized the cyclase activation by isoproterenol in AH130 cells. The Kact value of isoproterenol for the activation of adenylate cyclase in AH130 cells was smaller than that in rat liver cells. A comparison of the Ki values of beta-antagonists for the inhibition of isoproterenol-stimulated cyclase activity shows that while the Ki values of propranolol and butoxamine in AH130 cells were similar to those in rat liver cells, a significant difference was observed in the values for beta 1-selective antagonists between AH130 cells and rat liver cells. The Ki values of metoprolol and atenolol for AH130 cells were 137- and 90-fold lower, respectively, than for normal rat liver cells. From these findings, it is strongly suggested that beta-adrenoceptors in rat ascites hepatoma cells including AH130 cells have similar properties to the mammalian beta 1-receptor.

  4. Sidelights on Peking Opera and Kabuki Joint Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Yaqin

    2015-01-01

    On April 2 and April 3,Chinese Peking Opera and Japanese Kabuki were performed on the same stage to sellout audiences at the Beijing Mei Lanfang Grand Theater.Two classics of Peking Opera,Farewell My Concubine and The Great Enthronement,were performed respectively in the first half of the show,followed in the second half by a famous Kabuki play,The Mirror Lion—A Spring Entertainment.

  5. Size and depth of vocabulary knowledge: what the research shows

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    When discussing vocabulary, a distinction is often made between size of vocabulary (number of known words) and depth of knowledge (how well those words are known). However, the relationship between the two constructs is still unclear. Some scholars argue that there is little real difference between the two, while regression analyses show that depth typically adds unique explanatory power compared to size alone. Ultimately, the relationship between size and depth of vocabulary knowledge depend...

  6. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Abellán Hernández

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female), the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade). The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude ...

  7. Learning from a dive show in an aquarium setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lori M.

    A study was conducted at an aquarium next to a theme park to understand information recalled from two versions of shows viewed at the largest display. The goal of this research was to determine if learning was enhanced by having a diver in water as the treatment group. This project focused on the knowledge recalled about shark and ray feeding adaptations, the information recalled about the mentioned conservation message about sustainable seafood and the potential of the two shows to make memorable experiences. During the project, 30 adult participants from each group were given a survey with five open-ended questions. Results suggest that the diver might distract from biological content information, or that the diver is such a novel element that it interferes with recall. While guests seemed to recall information about rays and sharks, the amount of information was not substantial. It appears that the diver does not affect content messaging but does impact whether guests attend to Seafood Watch messaging. The diver may have been so novel that the treatment group could not attend to the conservation message that was delivered, regardless of topic, or the control group recalled the message because the guests were not distracted by the diver or feeding. The absence of a diver seems to allow the guests to better attend to what is happening outside of the tank. While adding a diver increases photo opportunities and may bring guests to a show, the results seem to indicate that it does not significantly increase recall. The results of this study show that guests in a theme park setting can recall information from an educational program. Guests may not enter this hybrid aquarium with the intention of learning, but recall, one of the components in learning, does occur.

  8. A Solved Model to Show Insufficiency of Quantitative Adiabatic Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Long-Jiang; LIU Yu-Zhen; TONG Dian-Min

    2009-01-01

    The adiabatic theorem is a useful tool in processing quantum systems slowly evolving,but its practical application depends on the quantitative condition expressed by Hamiltonian's eigenvalues and eigenstates,which is usually taken as a sufficient condition.Recently,the sumciency of the condition was questioned,and several counterex amples have been reported.Here we present a new solved model to show the insufficiency of the traditional quantitative adiabatic condition.

  9. All the new Styles Showing on Auto China 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Canhua; Ren; Lin

    2006-01-01

      On the occasion of Auto China 2006 from November 18 to 27, 2006, as the representative of China independent brands, Land Wind will take the theme of "Roads in the World, I Drive Anywhere I Like",leads all the new styles of automobiles to show on Auto China 2006, including X6, X9, Land Wind Fashion, and the economical coupe Land Wind CV7,which will be put into market next year..……

  10. All the new Styles Showing on Auto China 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Canhua; Ren Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of Auto China 2006 from November 18 to 27, 2006, as the representative of China independent brands, Land Wind will take the theme of "Roads in the World, I Drive Anywhere I Like",leads all the new styles of automobiles to show on Auto China 2006, including X6, X9, Land Wind Fashion, and the economical coupe Land Wind CV7,which will be put into market next year..

  11. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Abellán Hernández

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female), the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade). The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude ...

  12. Inducible gene manipulations in brain serotonergic neurons of transgenic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillmann Weber

    Full Text Available The serotonergic (5-HT system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP, in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system.

  13. A duplex kidney with dromedary hump showing altered hilar anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tallapaneni S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive knowledge of the wide range of variations of renal vasculature and renal pelvis is mandatory to the anatomists for a better understanding of the embryology. It remains as the key issue in determining the technical feasibility of various endourologic procedures and innumerable intervention techniques besides kidney retrievals for transplantation. In the present case the duplex kidney showed lobulations on the anterior surface just adjacent to the hilar region. The midlateral portion of the convex lateral border of the kidney showed a small focal bulge –dromedary hump. At the hilum reversed anterio-posterior disposition of renal vasculature with anteriorly placed renal artery which bifurcated into two upper and lower anterior segmental branches. The renal vein formed by large tributaries arising from the hilum running towards the inferior vena cava. The renal pelvis was most posteriorly placed which showed a double pelvis. The upper pelvis was seen arising behind the renal vein and the lower pelvis arising inferomedial to the lower anterior segmental artery.Both the pelvises were seen uniting medial to the lower part of hilum and continued as a single ureter which opened into the bladder. The thorough knowledge of these anatomical variations is necessary to avoid iatrogenic injuries and enable the surgeon and radiologists approach unusual situations with confidence rather than surprise.

  14. The postmitotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae after spaceflight showed higher viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zong-Chun; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jie; Sun, Yan; Zhuang, Feng-Yuan

    2011-06-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been proposed as an ideal model organism for clarifying the biological effects caused by spaceflight conditions. The postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells onboard Practice eight recoverable satellite were subjected to spaceflight for 15 days. After recovery, the viability, the glycogen content, the activities of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes, the DNA content and the lipid peroxidation level in yeast cells were analyzed. The viability of the postmitotic yeast cells after spaceflight showed a three-fold increase as compared with that of the ground control cells. Compared to the ground control cells, the lipid peroxidation level in the spaceflight yeast cells markedly decreased. The spaceflight yeast cells also showed an increase in G2/M cell population and a decrease in Sub-G1 cell population. The glycogen content and the activities of hexokinase and succinate dehydrogenase significantly decreased in the yeast cells after spaceflight. In contrast, the activity of malate dehydrogenase showed an obvious increase after spaceflight. These results suggested that microgravity or spaceflight could promote the survival of postmitotic S. cerevisiae cells through regulating carbohydrate metabolism, ROS level and cell cycle progression.

  15. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  16. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  17. Slide shows vs graphic tablet live drawing for anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaid, B

    2016-12-01

    Blackboard drawing is the traditional and still widely learned method for anatomy teachers. However, for practical reasons, more and more lessons are done using slide shows. New digital learning tools are developed to create a more attractive teaching method. The objective of this study was to compare the use of graphic tablet live drawing versus slide shows. Sixty-five second-year students of the Faculty of Medicine participated in this study during their first semester of 2013-2014 academic year. The selected lecture dealt about neuroanatomy; two brain sections were taught: median sagittal and transverse. The sagittal section was presented via a slide show. The transverse section was taught using a graphics tablet using drawing software. Students were evaluated three times: before the lecture, immediately after the lecture and 8 weeks later. Means were compared using a t-test. Scores were significantly higher immediately after the lecture and 8 weeks later tests in comparing the transverse section (using the graphics tablet) versus the sagittal section (using PowerPoint(®)). Student satisfaction regarding the use of the tablet was high. The graphics tablet is a usable and efficient drawing tool in anatomy teaching. This tool requires a specific teacher training and preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Five Kepler Target Stars That Show Multiple Transiting Exoplanet Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Borucki, William J.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fressin, François; Ford, Eric B.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Haas, Michael J.; Holman, Matthew J.; Howell, Steve B.; Isaacson, Howard; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David; Latham, David W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Moorhead, Althea V.; Morehead, Robert C.; Marcy, Geoffrey; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Ragozzine, Darin; Rowe, Jason F.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Seager, Sara; Torres, Guillermo; Welsh, William F.

    2010-12-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities—two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multi-transiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories, as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTVs) due to gravitational interactions, though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  19. Cystinosis (ctns) zebrafish mutant shows pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmonem, Mohamed A.; Khalil, Ramzi; Khodaparast, Ladan; Khodaparast, Laleh; Arcolino, Fanny O.; Morgan, Joseph; Pastore, Anna; Tylzanowski, Przemko; Ny, Annelii; Lowe, Martin; de Witte, Peter A.; Baelde, Hans J.; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P.; Levtchenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The human ubiquitous protein cystinosin is responsible for transporting the disulphide amino acid cystine from the lysosomal compartment into the cytosol. In humans, Pathogenic mutations of CTNS lead to defective cystinosin function, intralysosomal cystine accumulation and the development of cystinosis. Kidneys are initially affected with generalized proximal tubular dysfunction (renal Fanconi syndrome), then the disease rapidly affects glomeruli and progresses towards end stage renal failure and multiple organ dysfunction. Animal models of cystinosis are limited, with only a Ctns knockout mouse reported, showing cystine accumulation and late signs of tubular dysfunction but lacking the glomerular phenotype. We established and characterized a mutant zebrafish model with a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.706 C > T; p.Q236X) in exon 8 of ctns. Cystinotic mutant larvae showed cystine accumulation, delayed development, and signs of pronephric glomerular and tubular dysfunction mimicking the early phenotype of human cystinotic patients. Furthermore, cystinotic larvae showed a significantly increased rate of apoptosis that could be ameliorated with cysteamine, the human cystine depleting therapy. Our data demonstrate that, ctns gene is essential for zebrafish pronephric podocyte and proximal tubular function and that the ctns-mutant can be used for studying the disease pathogenic mechanisms and for testing novel therapies for cystinosis. PMID:28198397

  20. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  1. PARK2 patient neuroprogenitors show increased mitochondrial sensitivity to copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Asad A; Tidball, Andrew M; Kumar, Kevin K; Neely, M Diana; Han, Bingying; Ess, Kevin C; Hong, Charles C; Erikson, Keith M; Hedera, Peter; Bowman, Aaron B

    2015-01-01

    Poorly-defined interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors underlie Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology. Here we tested the hypothesis that human stem cell derived forebrain neuroprogenitors from patients with known familial risk for early onset PD will exhibit enhanced sensitivity to PD environmental risk factors compared to healthy control subjects without a family history of PD. Two male siblings (SM and PM) with biallelic loss-of-function mutations in PARK2 were identified. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from SM, PM, and four control subjects with no known family histories of PD or related neurodegenerative diseases were utilized. We tested the hypothesis that hiPSC-derived neuroprogenitors from patients with PARK2 mutations would show heightened cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, and reactive oxygen species generation compared to control cells as a result of exposure to heavy metals (PD environmental risk factors). We report that PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors showed increased cytotoxicity with copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) exposure but not manganese (Mn) or methyl mercury (MeHg) relative to control neuroprogenitors. PARK2 mutant neuroprogenitors also showed a substantial increase in mitochondrial fragmentation, initial ROS generation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential following Cu exposure. Our data substantiate Cu exposure as an environmental risk factor for PD. Furthermore, we report a shift in the lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for greater sensitivity to Cu-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in patients SM and PM relative to controls, correlating with their increased genetic risk for PD.

  2. Effects of rat cytomegalovirus on the nervous system of the early rat embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuning; Guan, YingJun; Li, Fengjie; Li, Xutong; Wang, Xiaowen; Guan, Zhiyu; Sheng, Kai; Yu, Li; Liu, Zhijun

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) infection on the development of the nervous system in rat embryos, and to evaluate the involvement of Wnt signaling pathway key molecules and the downstream gene neurogenin 1 (Ngn1) in RCMV infected neural stem cells (NSCs). Infection and control groups were established, each containing 20 pregnant Wistar rats. Rats in the infection group were inoculated with RCMV by intraperitoneal injection on the first day of pregnancy. Rat E20 embryos were taken to evaluate the teratogenic rate. NSCs were isolated from E13 embryos, and maintained in vitro. We found: 1) Poor fetal development was found in the infection group with low survival and high malformation rates. 2) The proliferation and differentiation of NSCs were affected. In the infection group, NSCs proliferated more slowly and had a lower neurosphere formation rate than the control. The differentiation ratio from NSCs to neurons and glial cells was significantly different from that of the control, showed by immunofluorescence staining. 3) Ngn1 mRNA expression and the nuclear β-catenin protein level were significantly lower than the control on day 2 when NSCs differentiated. 4) The Morris water maze test was performed on 4-week pups, and the infected rats were found worse in learning and memory ability. In a summary, RCMV infection caused abnormalities in the rat embryonic nervous system, significantly inhibited NSC proliferation and differentiation, and inhibited the expression of key molecules in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway so as to affect NSCs differentiation. This may be an important mechanism by which RCMV causes embryonic nervous system abnormalities.

  3. Effects of Rat Cytomegalovirus on the Nervous System of the Early Rat Embryo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuning Sun; YingJun Guan; Fengjie Li; Xutong Li; Xiaowen Wang; Zhiyu Guan; Kai Sheng; Li Yu; Zhijun Liu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of rat cytomegalovirus(RCMV) infection on the development of the nervous system in rat embryos,and to evaluate the involvement of Wnt signaling pathway key molecules and the downstream gene neurogenin 1(Ngn1) In RCMV infected neural stem cells(NSCs).Infection and control groups were established,each containing 20 pregnant Wistar rats.Rats in the infection group were inoculated with RCMV by intraperitoneal injection on the first day of pregnancy.Rat E20 embryos were taken to evaluate the teratogenic rate.NSCs were isolated from E13 embryos,and maintained in vitro.We found:1) Poor fetal development was found in the infection group with low survival and high malformation rates.2) The proliferation and differentiation of NSCs were affected.In the infection group,NSCs proliferated more slowly and had a lower neurosphere formation rate than the control.The differentiation ratio from NSCs to neurons and glial cells was significantly different from that of the control,showed by immunofluorescence staining.3) Ngn1 mRNA expression and the nuclear β-catenin protein level were significantly lower than the control on day 2 when NSCs differentiated.4) The Morris water maze test was performed on 4-week pups,and the infected rats were found worse in learning and memory ability.In a summary,RCMV infection caused abnormalities in the rat embryonic nervous system,significantly inhibited NSC proliferation and differentiation,and inhibited the expression of key molecules in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway so as to affect NSCs differentiation.This may be an important mechanism by which RCMV causes embryonic nervous system abnormalities.

  4. Monoamines and sexual function in rats bred for increased catatonic reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klochkov, D V; Alekhina, T A; Kuznetsova, E G; Barykina, N N

    2009-07-01

    Body weight, ovary and uterus weight, the nature of estral cycles, and hypothalamus dopamine and noradrenaline levels and plasma testosterone levels were studied in female GC rats, bred for increased catatonic reactivity, at different stages of the estral cycle (estrus, proestrus). The outbred Wistar strain served as controls. On the background of decreased body weight, GC females showed impairments to the morphological cyclical changes in the ovaries and uterus, with a reduction in ovary weight in diestrus (p rats showed higher levels of these monoamines in estrus and lower levels in diestrus. Plasma testosterone levels in female GC rats were higher in diestrus than in estrus and in Wistar rats.

  5. Pharmacological and molecular comparison of K(ATP) channels in rat basilar and middle cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Edvinsson, Lars; Olesen, Jes;

    2006-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels play an important role in the regulation of cerebral vascular tone. In vitro studies using synthetic K(ATP) channel openers suggest that the pharmacological profiles differ between rat basilar arteries and rat middle cerebral arteries. To address this issue....... Densitometric measurements of the Western blot signals further showed higher expression levels of Kir6.1 and SUR2B proteins in rat middle cerebral arteries than was found in rat basilar arteries. In conclusion, our in vitro pharmacological studies showed no evidence for functional endothelial K(ATP) channels...

  6. Effect of Common Vegetables on Thyroid Function in Rats-A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Sarkar

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available Goitrogenic potency of some vegetables of Delhi were studied in rats. Adult male rats were fed separately on thiouracil, thiocyanate and extracts of carrot, cabbage and turnip procured from Delhi market for 26 days. Cabbage and turnip showed high thiocyanate contents while carrot did not show any measurable amount. Appreciable increase in thyroid weight to body weight ratio, plasma thiocyanate, plasma/sup 131/1 contents and protein bound/sup 131/ 1 or plasma were observed in all groups of experimental, rats, except carrot. Results indicated goitrogenic nature of cabbage and turnip in rats.

  7. Smell facilitates auditory contagious yawning in stranger rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyaho, Alejandro; Rivas-Zamudio, Xaman; Ugarte, Araceli; Eguibar, José R; Valencia, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Most vertebrates yawn in situations ranging from relaxation to tension, but only humans and other primate species that show mental state attribution skills have been convincingly shown to display yawn contagion. Whether complex forms of empathy are necessary for yawn contagion to occur is still unclear. As empathy is a phylogenetically continuous trait, simple forms of empathy, such as emotional contagion, might be sufficient for non-primate species to show contagious yawning. In this study, we exposed pairs of male rats, which were selected for high yawning, with each other through a perforated wall and found that olfactory cues stimulated yawning, whereas visual cues inhibited it. Unexpectedly, cage-mate rats failed to show yawn contagion, although they did show correlated emotional reactivity. In contrast, stranger rats showed auditory contagious yawning and greater rates of smell-facilitated auditory contagious yawning, although they did not show correlated emotional reactivity. Strikingly, they did not show contagious yawning to rats from a low-yawning strain. These findings indicate that contagious yawning may be a widespread trait amongst vertebrates and that mechanisms other than empathy may be involved. We suggest that a communicatory function of yawning may be the mechanism responsible for yawn contagion in rats, as contagiousness was strain-specific and increased with olfactory cues, which are involved in mutual recognition.

  8. Structure of cristae in cardiac mitochondria of aged rat

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Alessandro; Tandler, Bernard; Lesnefsky, Edward J.; Conti, Gabriele; Loffredo, Felice; Vazquez, Edwin; Charles L Hoppel

    2006-01-01

    Interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) of the heart in aged Fischer 344 rats show a biochemical defect which might be reflected in their morphology. We examined by high resolution scanning electron microscopy over 5,500 mitochondria to determine if a concomitant structural alteration existed. This methodology provides a means of examining mitochondrial cristae in three dimensions. Cristae of in situ subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and of IFM in both 6 and 24 month old Fischer rats are predominan...

  9. Rat reaction to hypokinesia after prior adaptation to hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashova, Z. I.; Tarakanova, O. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of prior hypoxia adaptation on body tolerance to hypokinesia was investigated. Rats trained to a 50 day period of hypokinesia and hypoxia with a preliminary month of adaptation to hypoxia showed less weight loss, higher indices for red blood content, heightened reactivity of the overall organism and the central nervous system to acute hypoxia, and decreased modification of the skeletal muscles compared to rats subjected to hypokinesia alone.

  10. The Hypocretin/Orexin Antagonist Almorexant Promotes Sleep Without Impairment of Performance in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Morairty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypocretin receptor (HcrtR antagonist almorexant (ALM has potent hypnotic actions but little is known about neurocognitive performance in the presence of ALM. HcrtR antagonists are hypothesized to induce sleep by disfacilitation of wake-promoting systems whereas GABAA receptor modulators such as zolpidem (ZOL induce sleep through general inhibition of neural activity. To test the hypothesis that less functional impairment results from HcrtR antagonist-induced sleep, we evaluated the performance of rats in the Morris Water Maze in the presence of ALM vs. ZOL. Performance in spatial reference memory (SRM and spatial working memory (SWM tasks were assessed during the dark period after equipotent sleep-promoting doses (100 mg/kg, po following undisturbed and sleep deprivation (SD conditions. ALM-treated rats were indistinguishable from vehicle (VEH-treated rats for all SRM performance measures (distance travelled, latency to enter, time within, and number of entries into, the target quadrant after both the undisturbed and 6 h SD conditions. In contrast, rats administered ZOL showed impairments in all parameters measured compared to VEH or ALM in the undisturbed conditions. Following SD, ZOL-treated rats also showed impairments in all measures. ALM-treated rats were similar to VEH-treated rats for all SWM measures (velocity, time to locate the platform and success rate at finding the platform within 60 s after both the undisturbed and SD conditions. In contrast, ZOL-treated rats showed impairments in velocity and in the time to locate the platform. Importantly, ZOL rats only completed the task 23-50% of the time while ALM and VEH rats completed the task 79-100% of the time. Thus, following equipotent sleep-promoting doses, ZOL impaired rats in both memory tasks while ALM rats performed at levels comparable to VEH rats. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that less impairment results from HcrtR antagonism than from GABAA

  11. TAHU MENGHAMBAT KEHILANGAN TULANG LUMBAR TIKUS BETINA OVARIEKTOMI [Tofu Attenuates Lumbar Bone Loss of Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyanto Pawiroharsono 4

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to examine the efeects of feed containing soybean tofu and tempeh on lumbar bone density and mass of ovariectomized female rats. Twenty four 17 weeks-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four group, i.e.: (1 non-ovariectomized rats fed casein based diet (NonOvx, (2 ovariectomized rats fed casein based diet (OvxC, (3 ovariectomized rats fed diet containing soybean tofu (OvxH, and (4 ovariectomized rats fed diet containing soybean tempeh (OvxT; in three block based on their body weight. The result show that body weight gram of ovariectomized rats was greater than nonovariectomized. Ovariectomy caused atrophy of the uterus, and resulted in higher serum calcium level. The lower lumbar vertebrae density of ovariectomized rats was observed and the decrease was prevented by tofu.

  12. Quercetin diacylglycoside analogues showing dual inhibition of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV as novel antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossion, Abugafar M L; Zamami, Yoshito; Kandahary, Rafiya K; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Ogawa, Wakano; Iwado, Akimasa; Sasaki, Kenji

    2011-06-09

    A structure-guided molecular design approach was used to optimize quercetin diacylglycoside analogues that inhibit bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV and show potent antibacterial activity against a wide spectrum of relevant pathogens responsible for hospital- and community-acquired infections. In this paper, such novel 3,7-diacylquercetin, quercetin 6''-acylgalactoside, and quercetin 2'',6''-diacylgalactoside analogues of lead compound 1 were prepared to assess their target specificities and preferences in bacteria. The significant enzymatic inhibition of both Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and Staphylococcus aureus topoIV suggest that these compounds are dual inhibitors. Most of the investigated compounds exhibited pronounced inhibition with MIC values ranging from 0.13 to 128 μg/mL toward the growth of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive methicillin-resistant S. aureus, methicillin sensitive S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), vancomycin intermediate S. aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae bacterial strains. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that the acyl moiety was absolutely essential for activity against Gram-positive organisms. The most active compound 5i was 512-fold more potent than vancomycin and 16-32-fold more potent than 1 against VRE strains. It also has realistic in situ intestinal absorption in rats and showed very low acute toxicity in mice. So far, this compound can be regarded as a leading antibacterial agent.

  13. Remembering Operación Triunfo: a Latin Music Reality Show in the Era of Talent Shows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savini, Paola

    2016-01-01

    abstractThe music format Operación Triunfo (2001–2011), which aired on RTVE for the first time in 2001, started as a television (TV) and musical success in Spain and today is one of the most famous shows around the world as well as an incredible socio-economic phenomenon in Spanish TV. This paper de

  14. "PH Value" Design Show Unveils the Shanghai Dream%"PH Value" Design Show Unveils the Shanghai Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanzy Wang

    2012-01-01

    "PH Value" Design Show, organized by China National Textile and Apparel Council (CNTAC), undertaken by the Sub- Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT (CCPIT-TEX), China Knitting industry Association, and China National Garment Association (CNGA), will be held from October 22rid to 23rd in Shanghai, unveiling the charming mysteries of "Shanghai Dream".

  15. E-health technologies show promise in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Joaquin A; Fraser, Hamish S F; Holt, Brian

    2010-02-01

    Is there any evidence that e-health-using information technology to manage patient care-can have a positive impact in developing countries? Our systematic review of evaluations of e-health implementations in developing countries found that systems that improve communication between institutions, assist in ordering and managing medications, and help monitor and detect patients who might abandon care show promise. Evaluations of personal digital assistants and mobile devices convincingly demonstrate that such devices can be very effective in improving data collection time and quality. Donors and funders should require and sponsor outside evaluations to ensure that future e-health investments are well-targeted.

  16. Patients with polymyositis show changes in muscle protein charges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E M; Jacobsen, Søren; Rasmussen, L

    1989-01-01

    Polymyositis (PM) appears with indolent proximal muscle weakness and is an inflammatory disease with breakdown of muscle cells. In our study the protein charge concentrations of the contractile proteins in the A and I bands were determined, applying a microelectrode technique. Patients with PM show...... a lower protein charge concentration than healthy control subjects which may be caused by the breakdown and removal of the proteins in the contractile filaments. A tool to judge the state of the disease as well as an aid in diagnosis may have been found in this method....

  17. Attitudes towards disability showed by future physical education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Abellán Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the attitudes towards disability of future physical education teachers. For this purpose two questionnaires were administered and the results were compared by gender (male and female, the participants' experience in dealing with people with disabilities and the particants’ course level (third or fourth grade. The results show that students in the Minor in Physical Education have a very positive attitude towards disability. Men obtain a more positive attitude in RICE variable, also is observed the trend of the previous contact with people with disabilities positively affects attitudes towards disability. Finally higher values in CG variable will be obtained by students of fourth grade.

  18. Electricity show and related educational programming. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-19

    The on-site version of Balance of Power reached a total audience of 21,331 between November 10, 1994 and January 31, 1996; in addition, the Physics on Wheels van offered exhibits and programs to an additional 30,000 students in the 1995-1996 school year. The program provided a groundbreaking new approach to informal science education, combining a dynamic demonstration with an intensely interactive game show. Between the on-site programming and the Physics on Wheels van programs, 51,331 students were impacted by the activities, exhibits and energy-conservation message of Balance of Power.

  19. DIY identity kit: the Great American Lesbian Art Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margo Hobbs

    2010-01-01

    The Great American Lesbian Art Show, which opened at the Woman's Building in Los Angeles in May 1980, was conceived to increase visibility for lesbian artists, and to forge bonds among lesbians across the United States. It comprised a curated Invitational of ten artists and scores of regional GALAS events mounted simultaneously by women from Boston to Honolulu. The art on view, documented in a slide archive, staged a critique of contemporary gender norms. Participating artists represented lesbian identities that claimed universality while they reflected the artists' particularized experience of woman-identification and sexual desire.

  20. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  1. PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  2. A Technique for Showing Causal Arguments in Accident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    In the prototypical accident report, specific findings, particularly those related to causes and contributing factors, are usually written out explicitly and clearly. Also, the evidence upon which these findings are based is typically explained in detail. Often lacking, however, is any explicit discussion, description, or depiction of the arguments that connect the findings and the evidence. That is, the reports do not make clear why the investigators believe that the specific evidence they found necessarily leads to the particular findings they enumerated. This paper shows how graphical techniques can be used to depict relevant arguments supporting alternate positions on the causes of a complex road-traffic accident.

  3. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Cara L; Malavar, Jordan C; George, Olivier; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2014-09-01

    Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol's stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning.

  4. Culture of cryopreserved rat hepatocyte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Yin; Gaojun Teng; Lifeng Wang; Baorui Liu; Xiaoping Qian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the method of cryopreserving rat hepatocytes and double collagen gel culture measurement after its cryopreservation. Methods: Rat hepatocytes, isolated by two-step perfusion with collagenase using an extra corporeal perfusion apparatus, were cryopreserved in double collagen gel with culture medium added by epidermal growth factor(EGF).The expression of cell function and cellular morphology were examined during culture. Results: The hepatocytes cryopreserved in double collagen gel concluding EGF showed good morphology and biological characteristics. After thawing, the MTT metabolism and protein synthesis of hepatocytes in sandwich ± EGF groups were better than those in control group. And the morphology and function of hepatocytes in sandwich group was better than that in EGF group(P < 0.05). Conclusion: Double collagen gel culture can keep hepatocyte's activities. Thawed hepatocytes can be cultivated with collagenous matrix, which provides an environment that more closely resembles that in vivo and maintain the expression of certain liver-specific function of hepatocytes.

  5. Identification and Characterization of Novel Rat Polyomavirus 2 in a Colony of X-SCID Rats by P-PIT assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatti, Lora H.; Toptan, Tuna; Newsome, Joseph T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polyomaviruses (PyVs) are known to infect a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates and are associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancers, particularly in immune-suppressed hosts. A novel polyomavirus, designated rat polyomavirus 2 (RatPyV2), was identified from a breeding colony of rats having X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. Using a human panpolyomavirus immunohistochemistry test (P-PIT), RatPyV2 was initially detected in the parotid salivary gland of a colony member. Rolling circle amplification using DNA from harderian and parotid glands identified a novel 5.1-kb polyomavirus genome closely related to human Washington University (WU) and Karolinska Institute (KI) and vole polyomaviruses but notably divergent from Rattus norvegicus PyV1 (RnorPyV1; also designated RatPyV1). Further screening showed RatPyV2 inclusion body infection in the lung epithelium and variably in other respiratory, reproductive, and glandular tissues of 12/12 (100%) rats. IMPORTANCE Although P-PIT was developed to detect diseases associated with known human polyomaviruses, the identification of a new polyomavirus in rats suggests that it may have utility as a broad-based screen for new, as well as known polyomaviruses. Our findings suggest that RatPyV2 may be a commensal infection of laboratory rats that can lead to disseminated disease in T cell immune-deficient rats. Infection of the X-SCID rats with RatPyV2 and Pneumocystis carinii is a potential model for coinfection pathogenesis and treatment options during transplant preclinical studies. PMID:28028546

  6. Androgen receptor immunoreactivity in rat occipital cortex after callosotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lepore

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadal steroidogenesis can be influenced by direct neural links between the central nervous system and the gonads. It is known that androgen receptor (AR is expressed in many areas of the rat brain involved in neuroendocrine control of reproduction, such as the cerebral cortex. It has been recently shown that the occipital cortex exerts an inhibitory effect on testicular stereoidogenesis by a pituitary-independent neural mechanism. Moreover, the complete transection of the corpus callosum leads to an increase in testosterone (T secretion of hemigonadectomized rats. The present study was undertaken to analyze the possible corticocortical influences regulating male reproductive activities. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: 1 intact animals as control; 2 rats undergoing sham callosotomy; 3 posterior callosotomy; 4 gonadectomy and posterior callosotomy. Western blot analysis showed no remarkable variations in cortical AR expression in any of the groups except in group I where a significant decrease in AR levels was found. Similarly, both immunocytochemical study and cell count estimation showed a lower AR immunoreactivity in occipital cortex of callosotomized rats than in other groups. In addition, there was no difference in serum T and LH concentration between sham-callosotomized and callosotomized rats. In conclusion, our results show that posterior callosotomy led to a reduction in AR in the right occipital cortex suggesting a putative inhibiting effect of the contralateral cortical area.

  7. Effect of repeated stress in early childhood on the onset of diabetes mellitus in male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ookawa, Katumasa; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2008-02-01

    Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rats were discovered from SD rats and represent a confirmed spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus model. We investigated the effect of repeated stress in early childhood on SDT rats fed a high-fat diet, on locomotor activity and on the onset of diabetes mellitus. Regarding stress, a water immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) burden was applied 10 times every other day from 4 weeks of age. The results of the study showed, that the locomotor activity of the young SDT rats was clearly lower than that of the SD rats, and their locomotor activity was inferred to be congenitally low. In addition, the stress-burdened SDT rats showed delayed onset of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance compared with the rats not receiving stress burden. The locomotor activity of SDT rats is less than that of SD rats, and they SDT rats are thought to have poor at spontaneous energy expenditure. On the other hand, the feeding efficiency of the WIRS-burdened SDT rats was reduced, and in comparison with the SDT rats with no WIRS burden, energy expenditure was increased; this is suggested to influence the onset of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Melatonin restores normal Bax and Bcl-2 protein expression in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in pinealectomized rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengchang Zhang; Shuang Zhao; Lu Bai; Mingming Guan; Jielin Mo; Ling Lan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we sought to elucidate the effects of melatonin on learning and memory as well as apoptosis and expression of the Bax or Bcl-2 proteins in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in pinealectomized rats. Using the Morris water maze and the olfactory memory tests, we found that the average escape latency in pinealectomized rats was clearly increased compared with sham-operated rats. Moreover, the average escape latency in the melatonin-treated and pinealectomized rats was longer than that in the sham-operated rats and shorter than that in the pinealectomized and untreated rats. Immunohistochemistry and terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) showed that there were fewer Bax immunoreactive cells and TUNEL-positive (apoptotic) cells but more Bcl-2 immunoreactive cells in the melatonin-treated rats compared with the pinealectomized rats. The sham-operated rats showed numbers of these cells similar to the melatonin-treated rats. These experimental findings demonstrate that melatonin treatment may reduce abnormal apoptosis by promoting gene expression of Bax and suppressing gene expression of Bcl-2 in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in pinealectomized rats. These effects appear to result in the inhibition of cellular apoptosis and the improvement of spatial learning and memory in pinealectomized rats.

  9. Strain differences in toxicity of oral cadmium intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninkov, Marina; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Mirkov, Ivana; Demenesku, Jelena; Mileusnic, Dina; Jovanovic Stojanov, Sofija; Golic, Natasa; Tolinacki, Maja; Zolotarevski, Lidija; Kataranovski, Dragan; Brceski, Ilija; Kataranovski, Milena

    2016-10-01

    Influence of genetic background on toxicity of oral cadmium (Cd) administration (30 days, in drinking water; 5 ppm and 50 ppm of cadmium) was examined in Albino Oxford (AO) and Dark Agouti (DA) rats. Similar cadmium deposition was noted in gut and draining mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of both strains but intensity and/or the pattern of responses to cadmium in these tissues differ. Less intense intestinal damage and leukocyte infiltration was observed in gut of cadmium-exposed AO rats. While gut-associated lymph node cells of DA rats responded to cadmium with an increase of cell proliferation, oxidative activity, IFN-γ, IL-17 production and expression, no changes of these activities of MLN cells of cadmium-treated AO rats were observed. Spleen, which accumulated cadmium comparable to MLN, responded to metal by drop in cell viability and by reduced responsiveness of proliferation and cytokine production to stimulation in DA rats solely, which suggest tissue dependence of cadmium effects. More pronounced cadmium effects on MLN and spleen cells of DA rats (which accumulated similar cadmium doses as AO rats), showed greater susceptibility of this strain to cadmium. The results presented, for the first time, depict the influence of genetic background to effects of oral cadmium administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced post-ischemic neurogenesis in aging rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Fang Tan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurogenesis persists in adult mammals, but its rate declines dramatically with age. Evidence indicates that experimentally-reduced levels of neurogenesis (e.g. by irradiation in young rats has profound influence on cognition as determined by learning and memory tests. In the present study we asked whether in middle-aged, 10-13 months old rats, cell production can be restored towards the level present in young rats. To manipulate neurogenesis we induced bilateral carotid occlusion with hypotension. This procedure is known to increase neurogenesis in young rats, presumably in a compensatory manner, but until now, has never been tested in aging rats. Cell production was measured at 10, 35 and 90 days after ischemia. The results indicate that neuronal proliferation and differentiation can be transiently restored in middle-aged rats. Furthermore, the effects are more pronounced in the dorsal as opposed to ventral hippocampus thus restoring the dorso-ventral gradient seen in younger rats. Our results support previous findings showing that some of the essential features of the age-dependent decline in neurogenesis are reversible. Thus, it may be possible to manipulate neurogenesis and improve learning and memory in old age.

  11. Metallothionein metabolism in the streptozotocin-diabetic rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    Earlier reports from their laboratory showed the induction of the insulin-deficient diabetic state in adult rats was associated with an accumulation of zinc, copper, and a metallothionein-like zinc and copper binding protein in the soluble fraction of liver and kidney. Based upon chromatographic and electrophoretic properties, -SH to metal ratio and amino acid composition, they now report that elevated concentrations of metallothioneins (MT)-I and -II are indeed present in diabetic rat liver and kidney cytosol. The relative rates of MT synthesis in tissues from diabetic and control rats were measured by comparing incorporation of /sup 35/S-cysteine into MT vs. total cytoplasmic proteins at 5 h after injection of the precursor. The relative rates of MT synthesis in livers from rats diabetic for 10 d and fed either chow or purified diet containing 13 or 35 ppm copper were 1.4, 2.3 and 2.8 times greater, respectively, than control rats fed the same diets. Higher relative rates of MT synthesis were also observed in kidneys from diabetic rats fed purified diets compared to controls. Maximal relative rates of MT synthesis in diabetic liver and kidney were observed at 4 and 10 d, respectively, after onset of diabetes. The half-lives of cytoplasmic MT in liver and kidney from diabetic (10 d) rats were 1.3 and 2.6 days, respectively; half-lives of MT in control liver and kidney were 5.0 and 2.1 days, respectively.

  12. Adenosine receptor blockade reduces splanchnic hyperemia in cirrhotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S S; Chilton, E L; Pak, J M

    1992-06-01

    To explore a possible role for adenosine in the pathogenesis of the splanchnic hyperemia of cirrhosis, we administered 8-phenyltheophylline, a specific adenosine receptor antagonist, to rats with biliary cirrhosis caused by bile duct ligation and to control sham-operated rats. Micro-Doppler flow studies showed that a 10-mumol/kg dose of 8-phenyltheophylline completely abolished the superior mesenteric hyperemic response to infusions of exogenous adenosine in both cirrhotic and control rats. Analysis of regional blood flows by radioactive microspheres demonstrated that this dose of 8-phenyltheophylline in cirrhotic rats significantly increased portal tributary vascular resistance by 60% and decreased portal tributary blood flow by 26%. This decrease was entirely the result of a 42% reduction in the intestinal blood flow. 8-phenyltheophylline did not affect cardiac output, arterial pressure or any other extrasplanchnic hemodynamic variables in cirrhotic rats. No detectable effect of 8-phenyltheophylline was seen in sham-operated rats. These results suggest that adenosine may be involved in the genesis of splanchnic hyperemia in cirrhotic rats.

  13. Reproductive experience influences grooming behavior during pregnancy in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafim A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pregnancy-induced increase in self-licking observed in rats is important for mammary gland development and lactation. Reproductive experience has epidemiologial implications such as a decrease in the incidence of mammary gland cancer in women and it also influences various behavioral, neurochemical and endocrine parameters. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive experience on grooming behavior patterns during pregnancy in rats. Self-grooming behavior was measured in age-matched virgin, primi- and multigravid (days 7, 8, 9, 19, and 20 of pregnancy rats. General grooming (head, forelimbs and shoulders was not significantly different among virgin, primi- and multigravid rats during pregnancy. Confirming previous work, pregnant rats spent significantly more time in specific grooming (mammary glands, nipple lines, genital and pelvic regions than did virgin animals. In addition, self- licking of mammary glands was significantly increased in multi- as compared to primigravid rats on days 8, 9, 19 and 20 of pregnancy. The increase in mammary gland grooming observed in multigravid rats appears to be a consequence of previous reproductive experience. These data show that reproductive experience modulates mammary gland grooming during pregnancy, possibly contributing to successful reproduction.

  14. The effects of sex on brain iron status in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Qian; CHANG Yanzhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Iron plays essential roles in the human body. Studies have shown that iron is dis-tributed differently in male and female Rats in liver, spleen, bone marrow, kidney, heart. However, the effects of sex on iron distribution in central nervous system are not well established. Methods:To explore the effects of the above mentioned, in this study, female and male Sprague Dawley rats were used at 4 months of age. The synthesis of ferritin light chain (FTL), transferrin receptor1 (TfR1), ferroportin 1 (FPN1), divalent metal transporter 1 ( DMT1) in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb was determined by Western blot a-nalysis. Results:The results showed that the levels of FTL protein in the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, cerebel-lum, and olfactory bulb were higher in female rats than in male rats, but the levels of TfR1 protein were lower in female rats than in male rats. There was no significant change in FPN1 and DMT1 expression in brain. Conclu-sions:These data suggest that sex have effects on brain iron status. Iron is distributed differently in central nervous system in male and female rats. However, the precise mechanisms need further study.

  15. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dawei [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Han, Baoqin, E-mail: baoqinh@ouc.edu.cn [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Dong, Wen; Yang, Zhao; Lv, You; Liu, Wanshun [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  16. Subacute Toxicity Profile of Lacidipine Nanoformulation in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Shirodkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the safety of Lacidipine (LCDP loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs in Wistar rats. NLCs were formulated using ultrasound dispersion technique. Animals were orally treated once daily with NLCs containing 0.140 mg, 0.350 mg, and 0.875 mg of LCDP as low, medium, and high dose per kg body weight, respectively, during 28 days along with blank formulation and pure LCDP. Control rats were fed with water. Animals were observed throughout experiment period and their body weight was recorded once weekly. Overnight fasted rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. Study revealed no signs or symptoms of toxicity or morbidity. No significant changes in the body weight were observed between treated and control group. Significant increase in left testis weight and liver weight was observed in male and female rats, respectively. Haematological estimation revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin count in male rats while female rats showed significant increase in granulocyte count. All the serum clinical parameters were within the normal range and no gross histopathological changes were observed. No delayed effect was noted in satellite group. The results indicate that developed LCDP loaded NLCs are safe when administered orally in rats.

  17. Platelets from pulmonary hypertension patients show increased mitochondrial reserve capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quyen L.; Corey, Catherine; White, Pamela; Watson, Annie; Gladwin, Mark T.; Simon, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is systemic in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and central to disease pathogenesis. However, bioenergetic changes in PH patients and their association with disease severity remain unclear. Here, we hypothesize that alteration in bioenergetic function is present in platelets from PH patients and correlates with clinical parameters of PH. Platelets isolated from controls and PH patients (n = 28) were subjected to extracellular flux analysis to determine oxygen consumption and glycolytic rates. Platelets from PH patients showed greater glycolytic rates than controls. Surprisingly, this was accompanied by significant increases in the maximal capacity for oxygen consumption, leading to enhanced respiratory reserve capacity in PH platelets. This increased platelet reserve capacity correlated with mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular stroke work index in PH patients and was abolished by the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Consistent with a shift to FAO, PH platelets showed augmented enzymatic activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 and electron transport chain complex II. These data extend the observation of a metabolic alteration in PH from the pulmonary vascular axis to the hematologic compartment and suggest that measurement of platelet bioenergetics is potentially useful in assessment of disease progression and severity. PMID:28289721

  18. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  19. Tropical Aquatic Archaea Show Environment-Specific Community Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Lima, Joyce L.; Pinto, Leonardo H.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Clementino, Maysa M.; Martins, Orlando B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.

    2013-01-01

    The Archaea domain is ubiquitously distributed and extremely diverse, however, environmental factors that shape archaeal community structure are not well known. Aquatic environments, including the water column and sediments harbor many new uncultured archaeal species from which metabolic and ecological roles remain elusive. Some environments are especially neglected in terms of archaeal diversity, as is the case of pristine tropical areas. Here we investigate the archaeal composition in marine and freshwater systems from Ilha Grande, a South Atlantic tropical environment. All sampled habitats showed high archaeal diversity. No OTUs were shared between freshwater, marine and mangrove sediment samples, yet these environments are interconnected and geographically close, indicating environment-specific community structuring. Group II Euryarchaeota was the main clade in marine samples, while the new putative phylum Thaumarchaeota and LDS/RCV Euryarchaeota dominated freshwaters. Group III Euryarchaeota, a rare clade, was also retrieved in reasonable abundance in marine samples. The archaeal community from mangrove sediments was composed mainly by members of mesophilic Crenarchaeota and by a distinct clade forming a sister-group to Crenarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. Our results show strong environment-specific community structuring in tropical aquatic Archaea, as previously seen for Bacteria. PMID:24086729

  20. Inconsistent handers show higher psychopathy than consistent handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Elizabeth; Desimone, Kailey

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-two university students completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3) and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Inconsistent handers showed higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers, and no handedness differences were observed for narcissism or Machiavellianism. Participants were further subdivided by quartile into low, moderately low, moderately high, and high psychopathy groups (non-clinical). Absolute EHI scores were equally distributed among low and moderate groups, but were significantly lower for the high psychopathy group. These findings suggest that inconsistent handedness is only associated with the upper quartile of psychopathy scores. Also, males showed significantly higher psychopathy scores than females, and the ratio of male to female inconsistent handers decreased as psychopathy score increased. No gender × handedness interaction indicated that both female and male inconsistent handers have higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers. Although significant, the effects were small and 99.6% of participants were not in the range of a potential clinical diagnosis. The reader, therefore, is strongly cautioned against equating inconsistent handedness with psychopathy.

  1. Human hyolaryngeal movements show adaptive motor learning during swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Christopherson, Heather; Lokhande, Akshay; German, Rebecca; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    The hyoid bone and larynx elevate to protect the airway during swallowing. However, it is unknown whether hyolaryngeal movements during swallowing can adjust and adapt to predict the presence of a persistent perturbation in a feed-forward manner (adaptive motor learning). We investigated adaptive motor learning in nine healthy adults. Electrical stimulation was administered to the anterior neck to reduce hyolaryngeal elevation, requiring more strength to swallow during the perturbation period of this study. We assessed peak hyoid bone and laryngeal movements using videofluoroscopy across thirty-five 5-ml water swallows. Evidence of adaptive motor learning of hyolaryngeal movements was found when (1) participants showed systematic gradual increases in elevation against the force of electrical stimulation and (2) hyolaryngeal elevation overshot the baseline (preperturbation) range of motion, showing behavioral aftereffects, when the perturbation was unexpectedly removed. Hyolaryngeal kinematics demonstrates adaptive, error-reducing movements in the presence of changing and unexpected demands. This is significant because individuals with dysphagia often aspirate due to disordered hyolaryngeal movements. Thus, if rapid motor learning is accessible during swallowing in healthy adults, patients may be taught to predict the presence of perturbations and reduce errors in swallowing before they occur.

  2. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  3. Mixtures of thermostable enzymes show high performance in biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallioinen, Anne; Puranen, Terhi; Siika-aho, Matti

    2014-07-01

    Optimal enzyme mixtures of six Trichoderma reesei enzymes and five thermostable enzyme components were developed for the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw, alkaline oxidised sugar cane bagasse and steam-exploded bagasse by statistically designed experiments. Preliminary studies to narrow down the optimization parameters showed that a cellobiohydrolase/endoglucanase (CBH/EG) ratio of 4:1 or higher of thermostable enzymes gave the maximal CBH-EG synergy in the hydrolysis of hydrothermally pretreated wheat straw. The composition of optimal enzyme mixtures depended clearly on the substrate and on the enzyme system studied. The optimal enzyme mixture of thermostable enzymes was dominated by Cel7A and required a relatively high amount of xylanase, whereas with T. reesei enzymes, the high proportion of Cel7B appeared to provide the required xylanase activity. The main effect of the pretreatment method was that the required proportion of xylanase was higher and the proportion of Cel7A lower in the optimized mixture for hydrolysis of alkaline oxidised bagasse than steam-exploded bagasse. In prolonged hydrolyses, less Cel7A was generally required in the optimal mixture. Five-component mixtures of thermostable enzymes showed comparable hydrolysis yields to those of commercial enzyme mixtures.

  4. Drilling and production - Economics show CO2 EOR potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    CO2 EOR may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. A simple model aided in assessing the economics of CO2 EOR for central Kansas and the Midcontinent. The model used CO2 Prophet, a DOE freeware reservoir numerical simulation program, to determine reservoir performance, including injected and produced fluid rates, and CO2 utilization. Economic parameters, e.g., oil price, CO2 costs, capital costs, net revenue interest, production taxes, and lease operating expenses, are typical for anticipated conditions in the region and present price climate. Preliminary economic analysis shows that CO2 EOR should give an internal rate of return (IRR) > 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for $20/bbl, CO2 costs $1/million cu ft, and gross utilization is 10 million cu ft of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 is reduced to $0.75/million cu ft, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling shows that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost.

  5. Dogs show left facial lateralization upon reunion with their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Miho; Kawai, Emi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2013-09-01

    Domestic dogs demonstrate behavioral laterality in response to emotional stimuli; those responses include tail wagging and head turning. The dog is the species with the closest relationship to humans; dogs can express strong social emotions (e.g., attachment and separation anxiety) to specific persons, such as their owners. In this study, we examined whether dogs demonstrate more facial laterality when reunited with their owners than when they encounter an unfamiliar person in an unfamiliar situation. We also examined whether the observed laterality was specific to positive social stimuli (i.e., the owner) or a general response to nonsocial positive stimuli (i.e., toys). The dogs' facial expressions were recorded by a high-speed video camera during the presentation of emotional stimuli and the acceleration rates of parts of their faces were analyzed. The results showed that the left eyebrow moved more when the owner was present than at baseline. No bias in terms of eyebrow movement was observed when the dogs saw attractive toys. These results suggest that dogs show facial laterality in response to emotional stimuli. This laterality was specific to social stimuli, probably reflecting the dog's attachment to the owner.

  6. Highly reflective reasoners show no signs of belief inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M

    2015-01-01

    The processes underlying individual differences in reasoning performance are not entirely understood. What do people who do well on reasoning tasks where beliefs and logic conflict do differently from other people? Because abundant evidence shows that even poorer reasoners detect these conflicts, it has been suggested that individual differences in reasoning performance arise from inhibition failures later in the reasoning process. The present paper argues that a minority of highly skilled reasoners may deviate from this general reasoning process from an early stage. Two studies investigated signs of belief inhibition using a lexical access paradigm (Study 1) and a negative priming paradigm (Study 2). Study 1 showed that while other people exhibited signs of belief inhibition following a belief-logic conflict, people with the highest disposition for cognitive reflection did not. In Study 2, this finding was replicated and similar results were also obtained when comparing groups with higher and lower general cognitive ability. Two possible explanations are discussed. The reasoners with a highly reflective cognitive style or high general cognitive ability may have engaged and inhibited belief processing but if so, they may have been exceptionally efficient at recovering from it, wherefore no belief inhibition effects were found. An alternative account is that these reasoners started Type 2 processing directly, without first engaging in and then inhibiting belief-based processing. Under either explanation, the results indicate that individual differences in reasoning may partly arise from differences that occur early in the reasoning process.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF RATS IN ACCELERATED AGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Maksimova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the analysis of structural changes with age in the hippocampus of senescenceaccelerated OXYS rats when signs of accelerated brain aging are missing (age 14 days, developments (age 5 months, and active progresses (age 15 months. The study was performed on 15 OXYS rats and 15 Wistar rats (as a control. After dislocation, brains were dissected, fixed with 10% formalin, embedded in paraffin, and serially cut in coronal sections (5μm thickness. These sections were stained with Cresyl violet and examined with a photomicroscope (Carl Zeiss Axiostar plus, Germany. The total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions were estimated in 14-dayold, 5and 15-month-old OXYS and Wistar rats (n = 5 on the 5 slices of each brain sections. The number of neurons with chromatolysis, hyperchromatic with darkly stained cytoplasm and shrunken neurons were calculated as degenerative neurons. The pictures obtained with the program Carl Zeiss Axio Vision 8.0 with increasing 10  100, determined the average area bodies and nuclei of neurons (mkm2. The significant structural changes of neurons in the CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus regions of the hippocampus in OXYS rats at 5 month of age are revealed by light microscopy. This results indicates the early develop neurodegeneration in OXYS rats. The most pronounced morphological changes occur in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats and irreversible. The degenerative changes of neurons in the hippocampus increases by the age of 15 months. Morphometric analysis of the average area of bodies and the nuclei of hippocampal neurons in CA1, CA3 and the dentate gyrus regions of OXYS and Wistar rats at 14 days of age showed no significant interline differences. At 5 months of age in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of OXYS rats was determined a significantly lower average body size and nuclei of pyramidal neurons compared with Wistar rats. With age, these

  8. Satellite signal shows storage-unloading subsidence in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiwo, J. P.; Tao, F.

    2015-06-01

    Worsening water storage depletion (WSD) contributes to environmental degradation, land subsidence and earthquake and could disrupt food production/security and social stability. There is need for efficient water use strategies in North China, a pivotal agrarian, industrial and political base in China with a widespread WSD. This study integrates satellite, model and field data products to investigate WSD and land subsidence in North China. In the first step, GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mass rates are used to show WSD in the region. Next, GRACE total water storage (TWS) is corrected for soil water storage (SWS) to derive groundwater storage (GWS) using GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) data products. The derived GWS is compared with GWS obtained from field-measured groundwater level to show land subsidence in the study area. Then GPS (Global Positioning System) data of relative land surface change (LSC) are used to confirm the subsidence due to WSD. A total of ~ 96 near-consecutive months (January 2002 through December 2009) of datasets are used in the study. Based on GRACE mass rates, TWS depletion is 23.76 ± 1.74 mm yr-1 or 13.73 ± 1.01 km3 yr-1 in the 578 000 km2 study area. This is ~ 31 % of the slated 45 km3 yr-1 water delivery in 2050 via the South-North Water Diversion Project. Analysis of relative LSC shows subsidence of 7.29 ± 0.35 mm yr-1 in Beijing and 2.74 ± 0.16 mm yr-1 in North China. About 11.53 % (2.74 ± 0.18 mm or 1.58 ± 0.12 km3) of the TWS and 8.37 % (1.52 ± 0.70 mm or 0.88 ± 0.03 km3) of the GWS are attributed to storage reductions accompanying subsidence in the region. Although interpretations of the findings require caution due to the short temporal and large spatial coverage, the concurrence of WSD and land subsidence could have adverse implications for the study area. It is critical that the relevant stakeholders embark on resource-efficient measures to ensure water availability, food security, ecological

  9. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-12-01

    This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes.

  10. THE HEROIC CULT IN RADIO SHOWS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florica IUHAȘ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A people’s cultural and historical past, represented as community’s destiny, is memorized and sent down, from one generation to the next, through the many channels of popular orality: legends, ballads, popular poetry and also through those chanels more specific to modern times, such as patriotic songs, cultivated poetry, fiction (especially historical novels, history, histories, films, etc. Through their educational purpose, but also through their emotional/affective packaging, all these do manage the collective past and determine the manner in which the historical time is perceived in a patromonial and affective fashion, as national past. The present study wishes to analyze the manner in which Romanian radio stations covered the events organized on the Heroes’ Day in 2014, to identify the themes of the radio coverage and to assess whether the current radio shows are able to ensure a memory link or connection between generations.

  11. Case histories show real-time information reduces uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, R. [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge, MA (United States); Nutt, L. [Schlumberger Wireline and Testing, Houston, TX (United States); Dutta, N. [BP Exploration, Houston, TX (United States); Menzies, J. [Lasmo plc, London (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-18

    Drill-bit seismic technology provides useful real-time information that reduces uncertainty for the driller. This second part of a two-part series provides real examples, describes the current state of technology and experience, and discusses techniques that will add value through the incorporation of additional information sources. To date, this technology has been used on more than 50 wells in all areas of the world, including a deepwater job in 1,200 m of water. As of March 1998, there were five ongoing jobs in Oman, Indonesia, Malaysia, Gulf of Mexico, and South America. The following examples of oil and gas wells demonstrate the application of the drill-bit seismic technique and show benefits that can be brought to the drilling process.

  12. Impact Factors Show Increased Use of AGU Journals in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Barbara Meyers

    2009-07-01

    The latest numbers released from Journal Citation Reports (JCR), published annually by Thomson Reuters, show large increases in the impact factor (IF) for several AGU journals. IFs are one way for publishers to know that readers have found their journals useful and of value in research. A journal's IF is calculated by taking the total number of citations to articles published by a given journal in the past 2 years and dividing it by the total number of papers published by the journal in the same time period. More generally, it can be seen as the frequency with which articles in a journal have been cited over the past year. The numbers speak for themselves (see Table 1).

  13. Measuring Political Polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Benito, R M

    2015-01-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Ch\\'avez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  14. A distal renal tubular acidosis showing hyperammonemia and hyperlactacidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ripoli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA presents itself with variable clinical manifestations and often with late expressions that impact on prognosis. Case report: A 45-day-old male infant was admitted with stopping growth, difficult feeding and vomiting after meals. Clinical tests and labs revealed a type 1 renal tubular acidosis, even if the first blood tests showed ammonium and lactate increase. We had to exclude metabolic diseases before having a certain diagnosis. Conclusions: blood and urine investigations and genetic tests are fundamental to formulate dRTA diagnosis and to plan follow-up, according to possible phenotypic expressions of recessive and dominant autosomal forms in patients with dRTA.

  15. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  16. Astronomers Make "Movie" of Radio Images Showing Supernova Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Astronomers using an international network of radio telescopes have produced a "movie" showing details of the expansion of debris from an exploding star. Their sequence of images constitutes the best determination yet made of the details of a new supernova remnant, and already has raised new questions about such events. The scientists used radio telescopes in Europe and the United States, including the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), to make very high- resolution images of Supernova 1993J, which was discovered by a Spanish amateur astronomer on March 28, 1993 in the galaxy M81, some 11 million light-years distant in the constellation Ursa Major. Their results are reported in the December 1 issue of the journal Science. The "movie" is based on five images of the supernova, made during 1993 and 1994. The work was done by: Jon Marcaide and Eduardo Ros of the University of Valencia, Spain; Antxon Alberdi of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Institute of Astrophysics at Andalucia, Spain; Philip Diamond of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Socorro, NM; Irwin Shapiro of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Jose-Carlos Guirado, Dayton Jones and Robert Preston of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA; Thomas Krichbaum and Arno Witzel of the Max-Planck Institute for Radioastronomy in Bonn, Germany; Franco Mantovani of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Bologna, Italy; Antonio Rius of the Special Laboratory for Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics of Madrid, Spain and the Center for Advanced Studies at Blanes, Spain; Richard Schilizzi of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe and Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands; Corrado Trigilio of the Institute of Radioastronomy in Noto, Italy; and Alan Whitney of the MIT- Haystack Observatory in Massachusetts. The capability to make such high-quality images with widely

  17. Children with specific language impairment show difficulties in sensory modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Marion N; Rietman, André B; Meulen, Sjoeke V D; Schipper, Maria; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a group of 116 Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) shows differences in sensory processing when compared to a control group of age-matched 4-7-year-old typical peers. The Sensory Profile-NL-a standardized questionnaire of 125 items-was completed by caregivers of children in both groups. Children with SLI differed significantly from the control group on all 14 section scores and 4 quadrant scores of the Sensory Profile-NL. The effect size of the difference in sensory modulation patterns of children with and without SLI on this measure was large (Cohen's d ≥ 0.80). Difficulties in sensory modulation can be characterized as frequent co-morbid problems in children with SLI.

  18. Ferrous polycrystalline shape-memory alloy showing huge superelasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Himuro, Y; Kainuma, R; Sutou, Y; Omori, T; Ishida, K

    2010-03-19

    Shape-memory alloys, such as Ni-Ti and Cu-Zn-Al, show a large reversible strain of more than several percent due to superelasticity. In particular, the Ni-Ti-based alloy, which exhibits some ductility and excellent superelastic strain, is the only superelastic material available for practical applications at present. We herein describe a ferrous polycrystalline, high-strength, shape-memory alloy exhibiting a superelastic strain of more than 13%, with a tensile strength above 1 gigapascal, which is almost twice the maximum superelastic strain obtained in the Ni-Ti alloys. Furthermore, this ferrous alloy has a very large damping capacity and exhibits a large reversible change in magnetization during loading and unloading. This ferrous shape-memory alloy has great potential as a high-damping and sensor material.

  19. Myopes Show Greater Visually Induced Postural Responses Than Emmetropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayah, Diane N; Asaad, Kristin; Hanssens, Jean-Marie; Giraudet, Guillaume; Faubert, Jocelyn

    2016-02-01

    The literature already establishes that vision plays a crucial role in postural control and that this visual dependence shows intra- and interindividual variability. However, does ametropia also have an effect on postural control? This question leads to our study, which aims primarily to determine if myopes and emmetropes behave differently in terms of postural control when subjected to visual stimulation, and secondarily, if this difference persists in the presence of barrel and pincushion distortions. The results could lead, among other things, to improved lens design. Twenty-four subjects (12 myopes of -2.00 to -9.00 diopters [D] and 12 emmetropes of -0.50 to +0.50 D), between 19 and 35 years of age, participated in the study after comprehensive eye examinations were carried out. Of the 12 myopes, the preferred type of correction was divided equally within the group. While standing in front of a projection system and fixating on an immobile point, a checkerboard stimulus was displayed in their peripheral visual field, in either a static or dynamic state. Three conditions of optical distortion (plan, pincushion, and barrel distortions) were presented to the subjects. Their postural response was measured and recorded using a system of infrared cameras and optical sensors positioned on a helmet. The results show that postural instability induced by a dynamic peripheral stimulus is higher for myopes compared with emmetropes (ANOVA Refractive Error, F1,22 = 5.92, P = 0.0235). When exposed to optical distortions, the two groups also have significant differences in postural behaviors (ANOVA Refractive Error*Optical Distortion, F2,44 = 5.67, P = 0.0064). These results suggest that refractive error could be a factor in explaining individual variations of the role of vision in postural control.

  20. Curcumin inhibits amygdaloid kindled seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DU, Peng; Li, Xin; Lin, Hao-Jie; Peng, Wei-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ying; Ma, Yu; Fan, Wei; Wang, Xin

    2009-06-20

    Curcumin can reduce the severity of seizures induced by kainate acid (KA), but the role of curcumin in amygdaloid kindled models is still unknown. This study aimed to explore the effect of curcumin on the development of kindling in amygdaloid kindled rats. With an amygdaloid kindled Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model and an electrophysiological method, different doses of curcumin (10 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 30 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as low dose groups, 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) as high dose groups) were administrated intraperitoneally during the whole kindling days, by comparison with the course of kindling, afterdischarge (AD) thresholds and the number of ADs to reach the stages of class I to V seizures in the rats between control and experimental groups. One-way or two-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference post hoc test were used for statistical analyses. Curcumin (both 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) and 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1)) significantly inhibited the behavioral seizure development in the (19.80 +/- 2.25) and (21.70 +/- 2.21) stimulations respectively required to reach the kindled state. Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin 30 minutes before kindling stimulation showed an obvious increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (703.3 +/- 85.9) microA to (960.0 +/- 116.5) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin showed a significant increase in the stimulation current intensity required to evoke AD from (735.0 +/- 65.2) microA to (867.0 +/- 93.4) microA during the progression to class V seizures. Rats treated with 300 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class both IV (as (199.83 +/- 12.47) seconds) and V seizures (as (210.66 +/- 10.68) seconds). Rats treated with 100 mgxkg(-1)xd(-1) curcumin required much more evoked ADs to reach the stage of class V seizures (as (219.56 +/- 18.24) seconds). Our study suggests that curcumin has

  1. Age-associated changes in hearts of male Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ernest M; Nillas, Michael S; Mangiarua, Elsa I; Cansino, Sylvestre; Morrison, Ryan G; Perdue, Romaine R; Triest, William E; Wright, Gary L; Studeny, Mark; Wehner, Paulette; Rice, Kevin M; Blough, Eric R

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, dilatation, and fibrosis of the heart. The Fischer 344/Brown Norway F1 (F344/BNF1) rat is recommended for age-related studies by the National Institutes on Aging because this hybrid rat lives longer and has a lower rate of pathological conditions than inbred rats. However, little is known about age-associated changes in cardiac and aortic function and structure in this model. This study evaluated age-related cardiac changes in male F344/BNF1 rats using ECHO, gross, and microscopic examinations. Rats aged 6-, 30-, and 36-mo were anesthetized and two-dimensional ECHO measurements, two-dimensional guided M-mode, Doppler M-mode, and other recordings from parasternal long- and short-axis views were obtained using a Phillips 5500 ECHO system with a 12 megahertz transducer. Hearts and aortas from sacrificed rats were evaluated grossly and microscopically. The ECHO studies revealed persistent cardiac arrhythmias (chiefly PVCs) in 72% (13/18) of 36-mo rats, 10% (1/10) of 30-mo rats, and none in 6-mo rats (0/16). Gross and microscopic studies showed left ventricular (LV) dilatation, borderline to mild hypertrophy, and areas of fibrosis that were common in 36-mo rats, less evident in 30-mo rats, and absent in 6-mo rats. Aging was associated with mild to moderate decreases of LV diastolic and systolic function. Thus, male F344/BN F1 rats demonstrated progressive age-related (a) decline in cardiac function (diastolic and systolic indices), (b) LV structural changes (chamber dimensions, volumes, and wall thicknesses), and (c) persistent arrhythmias. These changes are consistent with those in humans. The noninvasive ECHO technique offers a means to monitor serial age-related cardiac failure and therapeutic responses in the same rats over designated time intervals.

  2. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yadegari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group. In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results: Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05. There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion: These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats.

  3. Spatial memory in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas-A Sontag

    Full Text Available The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR is an established animal model of ADHD. It has been suggested that ADHD symptoms arise from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, attentional control and decision making. Both ADHD patients and SHRs show deficits in spatial working memory. However, the data on spatial working memory deficits in SHRs are not consistent. It has been suggested that the reported cognitive deficits of SHRs may be related to the SHRs' locomotor activity. We have used a holeboard (COGITAT to study both cognition and activity in order to evaluate the influence of the activity on the cognitive performance of SHRs. In comparison to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats, SHRs did not have any impairment in spatial working memory and reference memory. When the rats' locomotor activity was taken into account, the SHRs' working memory and reference memory were significantly better than in WKY rats. The locomotor activity appears to be a confounding factor in spatial memory tasks and should therefore be controlled for in future studies. In the SHR model of ADHD, we were unable to demonstrate an impairment of working memory which has been reported in patients with ADHD.

  4. Voluntary Oral Administration of Losartan in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Lucília N; Faustino, Inês V; Afonso, Ricardo A; Pereira, Sofia A; Monteiro, Emília C; Santos, Ana I

    2015-09-01

    Gavage is a widely performed technique for daily dosing in laboratory rodents. Although effective, gavage comprises a sequence of potentially stressful procedures for laboratory animals that may introduce bias into experimental results, especially when the drugs to be tested interfere with stress-dependent parameters. We aimed to test vehicles suitable for drug delivery by voluntary ingestion in rats. Specifically, Male Wistar rats (age, 2 to 3 mo) were used to test nut paste (NUT), peanut butter (PB), and sugar paste (SUG) as vehicles for long-term voluntary oral administration of losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker. Vehicles were administered for 28 d without drug to assess effects on the glucose level and serum lipid profile. Losartan was mixed with vehicles and either offered to the rats or administered by gavage (14 d) for subsequent quantification of losartan plasma levels by HPLC. After a 2-d acclimation period, all rats voluntarily ate the vehicles, either alone or mixed with losartan. NUT administration reduced blood glucose levels. The SUG group had higher concentrations of losartan than did the gavage group, without changes in lipid and glucose profiles. Our results showed that NUT, PB, and SUG all are viable for daily single-dose voluntary ingestion of losartan and that SUG was the best alternative overall. Drug bioavailability was not reduced after voluntary ingestion, suggesting that this method is highly effective for chronic oral administration of losartan to laboratory rodents.

  5. Zuogui pills for myelinolysis in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongping Fan; Kelong Chen; Kangning Li; Jianping Zhou; Yan Shao; Hongyan Liu; Wenjing Yang

    2011-01-01

    Zuogui pills have been shown to attenuate the inflammatory reaction in a rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The present study attempted to investigate the pathology underlying the influence of Zuogui pills on myelinolysis in EAE rats. Hematoxylin-eosin and Luxol fast blue staining showed that the myelinolysis foci in the cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, and the spinal cord of EAE rats were significantly decreased, along with serum myelin basic protein content following treatment with Zuogui pills.

  6. [Immunological reactivity of rats exposed on the Kosmos-605 and 690 biosatellites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A A; Shvets, V N

    1979-01-01

    Immunological reactivity of rats flown aboard the biosatellites Cosmos-605 and Cosmos-690 was compared with respect to the complementary activity of serum and frequency antibodies to sheep red blood cells. Cosmos-605 rats showed changes that rapidly returned to the normal whereas Cosmos-690 rats irradiated inflight with a dose of 800 rad exhibited significant and stable changes in immunological reactivity. Those latter seemed to be associated with the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other space flight factors.

  7. [Medullary layer activity of the rat adrenals after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvetnanský, R; Blazicek, P; Tigranian, R A

    1982-01-01

    After a 18.5-day space flight on Cosmos-1129 rat adrenals were investigated for the concentration of catecholamines and activity of enzymes involved in their synthesis, i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and phenyl ethanol amine-N-methyl transferase. It was found that inflight the sympatho-adreno-medullary system of rats was not exposed to a prolonged or strong stressogenic effect. Postflight the rats showed an increased reactivity to the immobilization stress.

  8. MODEST EFFECTS OF REPEATED FLUOXETINE ON ESTROUS CYCLICITY AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN SPRAGUE DAWLEY FEMALE RATS

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In an earlier study, we reported that daily fluoxetine treatment (10 mg/kg/day) rapidly disrupted estrous cyclicity and sexual receptivity in adult, regularly cycling Fischer rats. The current study was designed to investigate if comparable fluoxetine treatment would similarly affect intact, regularly cycling Sprague Dawley rats. In the first experiment, fluoxetine was injected for 24 days. After 11–14 days of daily fluoxetine treatment, 40% of the rats showed a transient disturbance of the e...

  9. Hypolipidimic effect of some medicinal plants on diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E.Helal * and Mohamed M. A. Shahat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the hypolipidimic effect of aqueous extract of a famous mixture used in Saudi Arabia folk medicine that consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa-foetida and Aloe vera and also the extract of each plant alone on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Material and Methods :-The present study was carried out on 80 adult male albino rats (120 ± 20 g.b.wt. , the rats were divided randomly into 8 groups, the first group served as control group, the second group as alloxan induced diabetic rats, the third group was diabetic rats treated with mixture of folk medicinal plant ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. ,the fourth group: diabetic rats treated with Nigella sativa ( 0.01g /100 g b. wt. , the fifth group: diabetic rats treated with Aloe vera ( 0.005g /100 g b. wt. , the sixth group: diabetic rats treated with Ferule assa-foetida ( 0.01 g /100 g b. wt., the seventh: diabetic rats treated with Boswellia carterii Birdw ( 1ml/100 g b. wt. and the eighth group: diabetic rats treated with Commiphora myrrha ( 0.01 g ml/100 g b. wt. Results :- Serum total lipid, serum total cholesterol, LDL­cholesterol, and triglyceride recorded significant increases in diabetic, Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii birdw and Aloe vera treated group. While the mixture and Ferule assa-foetida treated group, showed insignificant changes in serum total lipid, triglyceride, serum total cholesterol and LDL­cholesterol. On other hand, the mixture treated group and Ferule assa-foetida treated group showed significant decreased in the previous parameters. The serum HDL­cholesterol was significantly reduced in diabetic group throughout the experimental periods, otherwise, all treated group revealed insignificant changes till the end of experiment when compare with undiabetic rats. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of a mixture consists of Nigella sativa, Commiphora myrrha, Boswellia carterii Birdw, Ferule assa

  10. Different effects of diazepam in Fischer rats and two stocks of Wistar rats in tests of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bert, B; Fink, H; Sohr, R; Rex, A

    2001-01-01

    The behaviour of animals in tests of anxiety varies between strains, even in identical tests and surroundings. To evaluate the results obtained, a more detailed knowledge of the behaviour of different rat strains is indispensable. Identically raised Fischer 344 rats and two stocks of Wistar rats were examined in two animal tests of anxiety: the X-maze and a modified open-field test following diazepam treatment (0.5-4.0 mg/kg). Harlan-Wistar rats were the least 'anxious' when the behaviour of vehicle treated controls was compared. The largest effect of the anxiolytic diazepam, however, was observed in Harlan-Fischer rats. To determine possible reasons for strain and stock differences, plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites and concentrations of serotonin (5-HT) in the CNS were measured. Plasma concentrations of diazepam and metabolites differed between the strains with the Harlan-Fischer rats showing higher diazepam concentrations. 5-HT levels in discrete brain regions varied with Harlan-Fischer rats having higher 5-HT concentrations. Strain differences influence the anxiety-associated behaviour of untreated animals and the effect of anxiolytics.

  11. Rat-derived processed nerve allografts support more axon regeneration in rat than human-derived processed nerve xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Matthew D; Kemp, Stephen W P; Liu, Edward H; Szynkaruk, Mark; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2014-04-01

    Processed nerve allografts are increasingly used as "off the shelf" nerve replacements for surgically bridging nerve gaps. Benchmarking the regenerative capacity of a commercially available human-derived nerve or xenograft in a rat nerve injury model would provide a convenient platform for future studies seeking to modify the processed nerve graft. Human and rat processed nerve grafts were used to bridge a 14 mm defect in a Sprague-Dawley rat sciatic nerve. Reversed autografts served as a positive control group. Twelve weeks following surgery, the distal nerve stumps were retrograde labeled and harvested for histology and histomorphometry. The cross-sectional areas of the human- and rat-derived processed nerve grafts were similar. Neuron counts and myelinated axon counts following use of the human-derived processed xenografts were decreased compared with those obtained from both the rat-derived processed nerve allografts and the autografts; the rat-derived processed nerve allografts were statistically equivalent to autografts. Measures of nerve fiber diameter and myelination revealed inferior axon regeneration maturity in both processed nerve grafts compared with autografts. Processed xenografts showed significantly reduced regeneration compared with autografts or processed allografts indicating that cross-species immunological reactions are important considerations in this rat model. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Haploinsufficiency of the Transcription Factor Ets-1 Is Renoprotective in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenguang; Chen, Bo; Xing, Dongqi; Li, Xingsheng; Fatima, Huma; Jaimes, Edgar A; Sanders, Paul W

    2017-07-10

    Studies using Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats identified specific quantitative trait loci that predispose animals to hypertension-associated albuminuria and kidney injury. We explored the hypothesis that kidney-specific expression of the transcription factor Ets-1, located within one of these loci on chromosome 8, mediates glomerular injury in SS hypertension. During the first week on a high-salt diet, SS rats and SS rats with only one functioning Ets-1 gene (ES rats) demonstrated similar increases in BP. However, serum creatinine concentration, albuminuria, and glomerular expression of ETS-1 and two ETS-1 targets, MCP-1 and MMP2, did not increase as substantially in ES rats as in SS rats. Mean BP subsequently increased further in SS rats and remained higher than that of ES rats for the rest of the study. After 4 weeks of high-salt intake, ES rats still showed a lower mean serum creatinine concentration and less albuminuria, as well as less histologic evidence of glomerular injury and kidney fibrosis, than SS rats did. To investigate the specific contribution of renal Ets-1, we transplanted kidneys from ES or SS rats into salt-resistant SS-Chr 13(BN/McwiCrl) (SS-13BN) rats. Within 10 days on a high-salt diet, BP increased similarly in ES and SS allograft recipients, becoming significantly higher than the BP of control isograft recipients. However, mean serum creatinine concentration and albuminuria remained lower in ES allograft recipients than in SS allograft recipients at 2 weeks, and ES allografts showed less glomerular injury and interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, reduced renal expression of ETS-1 prevented hypertension-associated kidney injury in SS rats. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Amelioration of experimental autoimmune uveitis by leflunomide in Lewis rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-bo Fang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of leflunomide in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU in rats. METHODS: Lewis rats were immunized with interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding peptide (IRBP in order to generate EAU. Rats received three dose of leflunomide through intragastric administration (prevention or treatment protocols after immunization at three separate doses (3 mg/kg/d; 6 mg/kg/d; 12 mg/kg/d. Cyclosporin A was administered as a positive control. Rats were euthanized during peak disease activity (day 14 or 15. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated in vivo using clinical EAU scoring (d14 and histopathological evaluation of enucleated eyes after experimental termination. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum were quantified by ELISA. Eyeball of rats were harvested and mRNA expression of interleukin 17 (IL17 and IFN-γ were quantified through RT-PCR. Intracellular expression of interleukin (IL-17 in the activated CD4(+ T cells was assessed by flow cytometry. The effects of leflunomide inhibition on immune responses in rats were investigated in isolated lymphocytes. RESULTS: Histopathological and clinical data revealed severe intraocular inflammation in the immunized rat. Inflammation reached its peak on day 14 in this EAU model. Treatment with leflunomide significantly prevented and treated EAU-induced ocular inflammation and decreased clinical and pathological scores compared to vehicle-treated eyes. Gene expression of IL17 and IFN-γ was markedly reduced in leflunomide-treated eyes. Leflunomide significantly decreased the serum levels of IL17 and IFN-γ. The study of IL17+ T cells in peripheral blood and spleen by flow cytometry showed a decreased number of Th17 cell in rats of leflunomide prevented group. Lymphocytes from animals treated with leflunomide had decreased antigen-specific proliferation in vitro compared with lymphocytes from untreated animals. CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of leflunomide

  14. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  15. Drug specificity in drug versus food choice in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunstall, Brendan J; Riley, Anthony L; Kearns, David N

    2014-08-01

    Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by users of these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/infusion) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of 2 forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10-min intertrial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although 1 of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a nondrug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena.

  16. Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hanci

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the anesthetic and mucosal effects of the rectal application of dexmedetomidine to rats. METHODS: Male Wistar albino rats weighing 250-300 g were divided into four groups: Group S (n = 8 was a sham group that served as a baseline for the normal basal values; Group C (n = 8 consisted of rats that received the rectal application of saline alone; Group IPDex (n = 8 included rats that received the intraperitoneal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1; and Group RecDex (n = 8 included rats that received the rectal application of dexmedetomidine (100 µg kg-1. For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. The latency and anesthesia time (min were measured. Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg-1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. We histopathologically examined and scored the rectums. RESULTS: Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. The onset of anesthesia in the Group RecDex was significantly later and of a shorter duration than in the Group IPDEx (p < 0.05. In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. CONCLUSION: Although 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the

  17. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF IVABRADINE VERSUS CARVEDILOL IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El sayed A. Osman MD, Nasr N. Zaki MD, Samia M. M. Elshiaty MD, Hanan T. Emam MD and Fatma F. Hendawi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the f-channel and its role in regulating pacemaker activity lead to the development of new pharmacological agents such as ivabradine, which target these f-channels causing a reduction in heart rate by inhibiting the /fcurrent. The aim of the present work was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of ivabradine on experimentally- induced myocardial infarction and adrenaline-induced arrhythmia in rats. In addition, the present work studied the effect of ivabradine on isolated rabbit's aortic spiral strip and isolated rabbit's heart. Acute myocardial infarction in rats was induced by isoperameline (150mg/kg subcutenous injection, once 24 rats were divided into the following groups: group (1 control normal rats, group (II myocardial infarction – induced rats with no previous treatment, group (III myocardial infarction – induced rats pretreated with ivabradine (10mg/kg/day for one week and group (IV myocardial infarction – induced rats pretreated with carvedilol (1mg/kg/day for one week. Electrophysiological, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated. pretreatment with either ivabradine or carvedilol show significant improvement in all these parameters with insignificant difference between them. In the current work 20 rats were used to investigate the protective effects of ivabradine (10mg/kg and carvedilol (1mg/kg on adrenaline- induced arrhythmia in anaesthetized rats and the results revealed that both drugs had a prophylactive effect. Also data obtained in the present work pointed out that ivabradine in gradually increasing doses produce no significant effect on the isolated rabbit's aortic strip and basal myocardial contractility of isolated rabbit's heart. Both ivabradine and carvedilol have cardioprotective effect against acute MI as well as adrenaline- induced arrhythmia with no significant difference between them, also ivabradine has no effect on contractility of the heart. So, the choice of

  18. Establishment of intramedullary spinal cord glioma model in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Tian-jian; WANG Zhong-cheng; ZHANG Ya-zhuo; LI Dan; WANG Hong-yun; LI Zhen-zong

    2010-01-01

    Background Treating intramedullary spinal cord gliomas is a big challenge because of limited options, high recurrence rate and poor prognosis. An intramedullary glioma model is prerequisite for testing new treatments. This paper describes the establishment of a rodent intramedullary glioma model and presents functional progression, neuroimaging and histopathological characterization of the tumour model.Methods Fischer344 rats (n=24) were randomized into two groups. Group 1 (n=16) received a 5 μl intramedullary implantation of 9L gliosarcomal (105) cells. Group 2 (n=8) received a 5 μl intramedullary injection of Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium. The rats were anesthetized, the spinous process of the T10 vertebra and the ligamentum flavum were removed to expose the T10-11 intervertebral space and an intramedullary injection was conducted into the spinal cord. The rats were evaluated preoperatively and daily postoperatively for neurological deficits using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale. High resolution magnetic resonance images were acquired preoperatively and weekly postoperatively.When score equal to 0, rats were sacrificed for histopathological examination.Results Rats implanted with 9L gliosarcoma cells had a statistically significant median onset of hind limb paraplegia at (16.0±0.4) days, compared with rats in the control group in which neurological deficits were absent. Imaging and pathological cross sections confirmed intramedullary 9L gliosarcoma invading the spinal cord. Rats in the control group showed no significant functional, radiological or histopathological findings of tumour.Conclusions Rats implanted with 9L cells regularly develop paraplegia in a reliable and reproducible manner. The progression of neurological deficits, neuroimaging and histopathological characteristics of intramedullary spinal cord gliomas in rats is comparable with the behaviour of infiltrative intramedullary spinal cord gliomas in patients.

  19. Intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Zhao, Tong; Huang, Xin; Wu, Liying; Wu, Kuiwu; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2016-05-01

    Increasing studies have shown protective effects of intermittent hypoxia on brain injury and heart ischemia. However, the effect of intermittent hypoxia on blood glucose metabolism, especially in diabetic conditions, is rarely observed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intermittent hypoxia influences blood glucose metabolism in type 1 diabetic rats. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic adult rats and age-matched control rats were treated with intermittent hypoxia (at an altitude of 3 km, 4 h per day for 3 weeks) or normoxia as control. Fasting blood glucose, body weight, plasma fructosamine, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), pancreas β-cell mass, and hepatic and soleus glycogen were measured. Compared with diabetic rats before treatment, the level of fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment was increased (19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L vs. 14.79 ± 5.84 mmol/L, p  0.05). Meanwhile, fasting blood glucose in diabetic rats after hypoxic treatment was also lower than that in diabetic rats after normoxic treatment (13.14 ± 5.77 mmol/L vs. 19.88 ± 5.69 mmol/L, pintermittent hypoxia was significantly lower than that in diabetic rats receiving normoxia (1.28 ± 0.11 vs. 1.39 ± 0.11, p intermittent hypoxia showed effect on the increase of soleus glycogen but not hepatic glycogen. We conclude that intermittent hypoxia maintains glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and its regulation on muscular glycogenesis may play a role in the underlying mechanism.

  20. Venus Flytrap Seedlings Show Growth-Related Prey Size Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Hatcher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula has had a conservation status of vulnerable since the 1970s. Little research has focussed on the ecology and even less has examined its juvenile stages. For the first time, reliance on invertebrate prey for growth was assessed in seedling Venus flytrap by systematic elimination of invertebrates from the growing environment. Prey were experimentally removed from a subset of Venus flytrap seedlings within a laboratory environment. The amount of growth was measured by measuring trap midrib length as a function of overall growth as well as prey spectrum. There was significantly lower growth in prey-eliminated plants than those utilising prey. This finding, although initially unsurprising, is actually contrary to the consensus that seedlings (traps < 5 mm do not catch prey. Furthermore, flytrap was shown to have prey specificity at its different growth stages; the dominant prey size for seedlings did not trigger mature traps. Seedlings are capturing and utilising prey for nutrients to increase their overall trap size. These novel findings show Venus flytrap to have a much more complex evolutionary ecology than previously thought.

  1. Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz.   Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...

  2. Different training schedules influence platelet aggregation in show jumping horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, C; Arfuso, F; Fazio, F; Giudice, E; Pietro, S Di; Bruschetta, D; Piccione, G

    2017-03-28

    Depending on the intensity, duration and type of physical exercise, equine metabolism has to adapt to nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory system requirements. In horses, exercise and training are known to have considerable effects on the mechanisms of hemostatic system involving platelet activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different training schedules on platelet aggregation in 15 Italian Saddle jumping horses. Animals were divided into three equal groups: Group A was subjected to a high intensity-training program; group B to a light training program, group C included sedentary horses. From each animal, blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture at rest on the 1st, 3rd and 5th days, and afterwards, once a week, for a total of 5 weeks data recording, in order to assess the maximum degree of platelet aggregation and the initial velocity of aggregation (slope) platelet aggregation. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant effect of the different training schedules on studied parameters. The results revealed a different degree of platelet aggregation and a different initial velocity of platelet aggregation that changes during the different training schedules in horses that could represent a different protective endothelial mechanism. These findings could have an important role for a clearer knowledge of the physiological reference values of platelet aggregation and for a better interpretation of these variations during the training.

  3. Earthquake data visualization shows ground motion in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-12-01

    On 11 March 2011 a magnitude 9.0 earthquake shattered the seabed off the eastern coast of Japan's Honshu Island. Visualizations of scientific data showing the peaks of a seismograph or maps overlain with the locations and magnitudes of the earthquake and its numerous aftershocks were brought out to help explain the devastation to the public. While dramatic, such displays can be difficult for the public to interpret clearly because people have trouble trying to picture what the recordings of a seismograph might look like on the ground or because they have trouble understanding the logarithmic relationship between earthquake magnitude and energy. Drawing on the three-dimensional position records of a dense web of high-frequency GPS ground receiver stations, Grapenthin and Freymueller developed an animation of the abrupt horizontal and vertical motions that pulled parts of the country more than 4 meters to the east and sank large portions of its eastern shore more than half a meter into the sea.

  4. Reactive glia show increased immunoproteasome activity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orre, Marie; Kamphuis, Willem; Dooves, Stephanie; Kooijman, Lieneke; Chan, Elena T; Kirk, Christopher J; Dimayuga Smith, Vanessa; Koot, Sanne; Mamber, Carlyn; Jansen, Anne H; Ovaa, Huib; Hol, Elly M

    2013-05-01

    The proteasome is the major protein degradation system within the cell, comprised of different proteolytic subunits; amyloid-β is thought to impair its activity in Alzheimer's disease. Neuroinflammation is a prominent hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, which may implicate an activation of the immunoproteasome, a specific proteasome variant induced by immune signalling that holds slightly different proteolytic properties than the constitutive proteasome. Using a novel cell-permeable proteasome activity probe, we found that amyloid-β enhances proteasome activity in glial and neuronal cultures. Additionally, using a subunit-specific proteasome activity assay we showed that in the cortex of the APPswePS1dE9 plaque pathology mouse model, immunoproteasome activities were strongly increased together with increased messenger RNA and protein expression in reactive glia surrounding plaques. Importantly, this elevated activity was confirmed in human post-mortem tissue from donors with Alzheimer's disease. These findings are in contrast with earlier studies, which reported impairment of proteasome activity in human Alzheimer's disease tissue and mouse models. Targeting the increased immunoproteasome activity with a specific inhibitor resulted in a decreased expression of inflammatory markers in ex vivo microglia. This may serve as a potential novel approach to modulate sustained neuroinflammation and glial dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease.

  5. A structural approach in networks: showing patterns, possibilities and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Alves

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a noticeable shift in evaluation paradigms away from positivist, individualist and atomistic explanations of phenomena to those seeking a more relational, contextual and systemic understanding. This growing shift in interest to the interrelationships or networks of connections between entities is apparent in fields as organizations in networks, knowledge transmission between social groups and so. A growing theoretical and methodological base is providing enhanced capacities to uncover the actual topologies or patterns of connections between entities, elements, people, organizations or communities and deliver a more fine grained analysis of their elements. In this way network analysis differs from conventional evaluation and research modes since its focus is on the interrelationships of entities not the characteristics of individuals. In this paper, we review and analyze the emerging capacity of the network paradigm as an evaluation method and show how this model can be applied t a range of evaluation arenas. In doing so, we outline a framework to guide network evaluation, establish some key network indicators and highlight key methodological aspects and pitfalls.

  6. Insertion Sequences show diverse recent activities in Cyanobacteria and Archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ying

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile genetic elements (MGEs play an essential role in genome rearrangement and evolution, and are widely used as an important genetic tool. Results In this article, we present genetic maps of recently active Insertion Sequence (IS elements, the simplest form of MGEs, for all sequenced cyanobacteria and archaea, predicted based on the previously identified ~1,500 IS elements. Our predicted IS maps are consistent with the NCBI annotations of the IS elements. By linking the predicted IS elements to various characteristics of the organisms under study and the organism's living conditions, we found that (a the activities of IS elements heavily depend on the environments where the host organisms live; (b the number of recently active IS elements in a genome tends to increase with the genome size; (c the flanking regions of the recently active IS elements are significantly enriched with genes encoding DNA binding factors, transporters and enzymes; and (d IS movements show no tendency to disrupt operonic structures. Conclusion This is the first genome-scale maps of IS elements with detailed structural information on the sequence level. These genetic maps of recently active IS elements and the several interesting observations would help to improve our understanding of how IS elements proliferate and how they are involved in the evolution of the host genomes.

  7. Quantifying causal emergence shows that macro can beat micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Erik P; Albantakis, Larissa; Tononi, Giulio

    2013-12-01

    Causal interactions within complex systems can be analyzed at multiple spatial and temporal scales. For example, the brain can be analyzed at the level of neurons, neuronal groups, and areas, over tens, hundreds, or thousands of milliseconds. It is widely assumed that, once a micro level is fixed, macro levels are fixed too, a relation called supervenience. It is also assumed that, although macro descriptions may be convenient, only the micro level is causally complete, because it includes every detail, thus leaving no room for causation at the macro level. However, this assumption can only be evaluated under a proper measure of causation. Here, we use a measure [effective information (EI)] that depends on both the effectiveness of a system's mechanisms and the size of its state space: EI is higher the more the mechanisms constrain the system's possible past and future states. By measuring EI at micro and macro levels in simple systems whose micro mechanisms are fixed, we show that for certain causal architectures EI can peak at a macro level in space and/or time. This happens when coarse-grained macro mechanisms are more effective (more deterministic and/or less degenerate) than the underlying micro mechanisms, to an extent that overcomes the smaller state space. Thus, although the macro level supervenes upon the micro, it can supersede it causally, leading to genuine causal emergence--the gain in EI when moving from a micro to a macro level of analysis.

  8. Limb proportions show developmental plasticity in response to embryo movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A. S.; Charlton, B. G.; Hutchinson, J. R.; Gustafsson, T.; McGonnell, I. M.; Timmons, J. A.; Pitsillides, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Animals have evolved limb proportions adapted to different environments, but it is not yet clear to what extent these proportions are directly influenced by the environment during prenatal development. The developing skeleton experiences mechanical loading resulting from embryo movement. We tested the hypothesis that environmentally-induced changes in prenatal movement influence embryonic limb growth to alter proportions. We show that incubation temperature influences motility and limb bone growth in West African Dwarf crocodiles, producing altered limb proportions which may, influence post-hatching performance. Pharmacological immobilisation of embryonic chickens revealed that altered motility, independent of temperature, may underpin this growth regulation. Use of the chick also allowed us to merge histological, immunochemical and cell proliferation labelling studies to evaluate changes in growth plate organisation, and unbiased array profiling to identify specific cellular and transcriptional targets of embryo movement. This disclosed that movement alters limb proportions and regulates chondrocyte proliferation in only specific growth plates. This selective targeting is related to intrinsic mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway activity in individual growth plates. Our findings provide new insights into how environmental factors can be integrated to influence cellular activity in growing bones and ultimately gross limb morphology, to generate phenotypic variation during prenatal development. PMID:28165010

  9. Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

  10. Warthin-starry Silver Method Showing Particulate Matter in Macrophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG-GANG LIU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To verify whether Warthin-Starry(WS)silver method could detect the air particulate matter(PM)/dust particles(Ps)located within the macrophages in situ. Methods There were 26 antopsy cases that resulted from cerebral hemorrhage(group A),silicosis(group B),and fetal death during pregnancy(group C).Samples were collected separately and serial sections were prepared from the lungs and lymph nodes and stained with hematoxylin and eosin(HE),WS silver,immunohistochemistry of CD68.Furthermore,ultrathin sections were taken from the WS positive serial sections of groups A and B.Ps were observed under a transmission electron microscope(TEM)and the elements of Ps were measured by X-ray spectrum analysis(X-RSA).Results In both groups A and B,WS staining was positive for the larger and fine Ps,the so called"dust cells",but HE staining Was almost negative for fine Ps.In group C,no larger or fine Ps were found.Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 certified that the"dust cells"containing Ps were macrophages.The results of TEM and X-RSA proved that the structure and elements of Ps belonged to PM indeed.Conclusion WS staining is a better than HE staining in showing the location of PM within macrophages.

  11. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  12. Winter wren populations show adaptation to local climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Catriona A; Robinson, Robert A; Pearce-Higgins, James W

    2016-06-01

    Most studies of evolutionary responses to climate change have focused on phenological responses to warming, and provide only weak evidence for evolutionary adaptation. This could be because phenological changes are more weakly linked to fitness than more direct mechanisms of climate change impacts, such as selective mortality during extreme weather events which have immediate fitness consequences for the individuals involved. Studies examining these other mechanisms may be more likely to show evidence for evolutionary adaptation. To test this, we quantify regional population responses of a small resident passerine (winter wren Troglodytes troglodytes) to a measure of winter severity (number of frost days). Annual population growth rate was consistently negatively correlated with this measure, but the point at which different populations achieved stability (λ = 1) varied across regions and was closely correlated with the historic average number of frost days, providing strong evidence for local adaptation. Despite this, regional variation in abundance remained negatively related to the regional mean number of winter frost days, potentially as a result of a time-lag in the rate of evolutionary response to climate change. As expected from Bergmann's rule, individual wrens were heavier in colder regions, suggesting that local adaptation may be mediated through body size. However, there was no evidence for selective mortality of small individuals in cold years, with annual variation in mean body size uncorrelated with the number of winter frost days, so the extent to which local adaptation occurs through changes in body size, or another mechanism remains uncertain.

  13. Transcriptome characterization of Ishige okamurae (Phaeophyceae) shows strong environmental acclimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jieqiong; WANG Xumin; CHI Shan; WU Shuangxiu; SUN Jing; LIU Cui; CHEN Shengping; YU Jun; LIU Tao

    2014-01-01

    Ishige okamurae, with leathery branched narrow fronds consisting of cylindrical hairs, is the typical species of the genus Ishige, which is considered as one of the most basal genera in the phylogeny of the Phaeophy-ceae. Apart from great public interest from the evolutionary respect, more attention has been brought on the abundant bioactive compounds in I. okamurae for therapeutic or economic considerations, such as di-phlorethohydroxycarmalol and ishigoside. Yet little is known about related key genes or metabolic pathways involved in I. okamurae, which calls upon us to carry out global analyses of transcriptome by next generation sequencing. Altogether, we obtained 78 583 assembled scaffolds with N50 of 1 709 nucleotides, and 25 357 unigenes with significant BLAST matches (E-value cutoff of 10-5). In terms of characterization of the tran-scriptome of I. okamurae, we focused on anti-stress metabolic pathways and synthetic routes of bioactive compounds in an attempt to obtain a better understanding of the interactive organism-environment regula-tory networks. Pathway-based analysis helped us to deepen our comprehension of the interaction between I. okamurae and its surroundings, with MAPK signal pathway as an example. Furthermore, we discovered a wide range of novel putative functional proteins that could be of wide application, such as Rab family, using sequence-based transcriptome. In conclusion, transcriptome characterization of I. okamurae (Phaeophy-ceae) shows strong environmental acclimation.

  14. Maps showing seismic landslide hazards in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Randall W.

    2014-01-01

    The devastating landslides that accompanied the great 1964 Alaska earthquake showed that seismically triggered landslides are one of the greatest geologic hazards in Anchorage. Maps quantifying seismic landslide hazards are therefore important for planning, zoning, and emergency-response preparation. The accompanying maps portray seismic landslide hazards for the following conditions: (1) deep, translational landslides, which occur only during great subduction-zone earthquakes that have return periods of =300-900 yr; (2) shallow landslides for a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.69 g, which has a return period of 2,475 yr, or a 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr; and (3) shallow landslides for a PGA of 0.43 g, which has a return period of 475 yr, or a 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 yr. Deep, translational landslide hazards were delineated based on previous studies of such landslides, with some modifications based on field observations of locations of deep landslides. Shallow-landslide hazards were delineated using a Newmark-type displacement analysis for the two probabilistic ground motions modeled.

  15. Papillary thyroid carcinoma shows elevated levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakheja, Dinesh; Boriack, Richard L; Mitui, Midori; Khokhar, Shama; Holt, Shelby A; Kapur, Payal

    2011-04-01

    Elevated levels of D: -2-hydroxyglutarate (D: -2-HG) occur in gliomas and myeloid leukemias associated with mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, an inherited metabolic disorder, predisposes to brain tumors. Therefore, we asked whether sporadic cancers, without IDH1 or IDH2 hot-spot mutations, show elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate levels. We retrieved 15 pairs of frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid, and 14 pairs of hyperplastic nodule (HN) and adjacent non-hyperplastic thyroid. In all lesions, exon 4 sequencing confirmed the absence of known mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. We measured 2-hydroxyglutarate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to normal thyroid, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG and L: -2-hydroxyglutarate (L: -2-HG) levels, and compared to HNs, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG levels. D: -2-HG/L: -2-HG levels were not significantly different between HNs and normal thyroid. Further studies should clarify if elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate in PTC may be useful as cancer biomarker and evaluate the role of 2-hydroxyglutarate in cancer biology.

  16. RR Pictoris: an old nova showing superhumps and QPOs

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidtobreick, L; Tappert, C; Ederoclite, A

    2008-01-01

    We present time-resolved V-photometry of the old nova RR Pic. Apart from the hump-like variability, the light curves show the strong flickering and random variation typical for RR Pic. We do not find any convincing evidence for the previously reported eclipse. The extrapolated eclipse phase coincides with a broad minimum, but comparing the overall shape of the light curve suggests that the eclipse should actually be located around phase 0.2. The orbital period which we derive from these data agrees well with the old one, any uncertainty is too small to account for the possible phase shift. Apart from the 3.48h period, which is usually interpreted as the orbital one, we find an additional period at P=3.78h, which we interpret as the superhump period of the system; the corresponding precession period at 1.79d is also present in the data. We also find indications for the presence of a 13min quasi-periodic oscillation.

  17. Congenital myotonic dystrophy can show congenital fiber type disproportion pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Kayo; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Goto, Kanako; Minami, Narihiro; Noguchi, Satoru; Nonaka, Ikuya; Miki, Tetsuro; Nishino, Ichizo

    2010-04-01

    Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CDM) is associated with markedly expanded CTG repeats in DMPK. The presence of numerous immature fibers with peripheral halo is a characteristic feature of CDM muscles together with hypotrophy of type 1 fibers. Smaller type 1 fibers with no structural abnormality are a definitive criterion of congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD). Nonetheless, we recently came across a patient who was genetically confirmed as CDM, but had been earlier diagnosed as CFTD when he was an infant. In this study, we performed clinical, pathological, and genetic analyses in infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD to evaluate CDM patients indistinguishable from CFTD. We examined CTG repeat expansion in DMPK in 28 infantile patients pathologically diagnosed as CFTD. Mutation screening of ACTA1 and TPM3 was performed, and we compared clinical and pathological findings of 20 CDM patients with those of the other cohorts. We identified four (14%) patients with CTG expansion in DMPK. ACTA1 mutation was identified in four (14%), and TPM3 mutation was found in two (7%) patients. Fiber size disproportion was more prominent in patients with ACTA1 or TPM3 mutations as compared to CFTD patients with CTG expansion. A further three patients among 20 CDM patients showed pathological findings similar to CFTD. From our results, CDM should be excluded in CFTD patients.

  18. Rat bite fever.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, W.; Boot, R.G.A.; Ho, H.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Rat bite fever (RBF) is a bacterial zoonosis for which two causal bacterial species have been identified: Streptobacillis moniliformis and Spirillum minus. Haverhill fever (HF) is a form of S. moniliformis infection believed to develop after ingestion of contaminated food or water. Here the

  19. Attachment behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigling, H.O.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes studies into the rat as an animal model for attachment, along the lines of Bowlby's attachment theory. First, the relation between attachment and human psychopathology is reviewed. The conclusion is that psychopathology is more frequent in insecure attached persons and that the

  20. Culturing rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audesirk, G; Audesirk, T; Ferguson, C

    2001-01-01

    Cultured neurons are widely used to investigate the mechanisms of neurotoxicity. Embryonic rat hippocampal neurons may be grown as described under a wide variety of conditions to suit differing experimental procedures, including electrophysiology, morphological analysis of neurite development, and various biochemical and molecular analyses.

  1. Wistar-Kyoto Female Rats Are More Susceptible to Develop Sugar Binging: A Comparison with Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacostas-Quintanilla, Helena; Ortiz-Ortega, Víctor Manuel; López-Rubalcava, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The hedonic component of the feeding behavior involves the mesolimbic reward system and resembles addictions. Nowadays, the excessive consumption of sucrose is considered addictive. The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat strain is prone to develop anxiety and addiction-like behavior; nevertheless, a lack of information regarding their vulnerability to develop sugar binging-like behavior (SBLB) and how it affects the reward system persist. Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to compare the different predisposition of two rat strains, Wistar (W) and WKY to develop the SBLB in female and male rats. Also, we studied if the SBLB-inducing protocol produces changes in anxiety-like behavior using the plus-maze test (PMT) and, analyzed serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations in brain areas related to anxiety and ingestive behavior (brain stem, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala). Finally, we evaluated whether fluoxetine, a drug that has been effective in reducing the binge-eating frequency, body weight, and severity of binge eating disorder, could also block this behavior. Briefly, WKY and W female rats were exposed to 30% sucrose solution (2 h, 3 days/week for 4 weeks), and fed up ad libitum. PMT was performed between the last two test periods. Immediately after the last test where sucrose access was available, rats were decapitated and brain areas extracted for high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The results showed that both W and WKY female and male rats developed the SBLB. WKY rats consumed more calories and ingested a bigger amount of sucrose solution than their W counterpart. This behavior was reversed by using fluoxetine, rats exposed to the SBLB-inducing protocol presented a rebound effect during the washout period. On female rats, the SBLB-inducing protocol induced changes in NA concentrations on WKY, but not on W rats. No changes were found in 5-HT levels. Finally, animals that developed SBLB showed increased anxiety

  2. Profile of blood glucose and ultrastucture of beta cells pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Suarsana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is marked by elevated levels of blood glucose, and progressive changes of the structure of pancreatic islet histopathology. The objective of this research was to analyse the glucose level and histophatological feature in pancreatic islet in alloxan compound induced rats. A total of ten male Spraque Dawley rats of 2 months old were used in this study. The rats were divided into two groups: (1 negative control group (K-, and (2 positif induced alloxan group (diabetic group =DM. The rats were induced by a single dose intraperitonial injection of alloxan compound 120 mg/kg of body weight. The treatment was conducted for 28 days. Blood glucose levels of rats were analysed at 0, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days following treatment. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Pancreas was collected for analysis of histopathological study by Immunohistochemical technique, and ultrastructural study using transmission electron microscope (TEM. The result showed that Langerhans islet of diabetic rat (rat of DM group showed a marked reduction of size, number of Langerhans islet of diabetic rat decrease, and characterized by hyperglycemic condition. By using TEM, beta cells of DM group showed the rupture of mitochondrial membrane, the lost of cisternal structure of inner membrane of mitocondria, reduction of insulin secretory granules, linkage between cells acinar with free Langerhans islet, and the caryopicnotic of nucleus.

  3. Phase precession in hippocampal interneurons showing strong functional coupling to individual pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Andrew P; Cowen, Stephen L; Burke, Sara N; Barnes, Carol A; McNaughton, Bruce L

    2006-12-27

    Although hippocampal interneurons typically do not show discrete regions of elevated firing in an environment, such as seen in pyramidal cell place fields, they do exhibit significant spatial modulation (McNaughton et al., 1983a). Strong monosynaptic coupling between pyramidal neurons and nearby interneurons in the CA1 stratum pyramidale has been strongly implicated on the basis of significant, short-latency peaks in cross-correlogram plots (Csicsvari et al., 1998). Furthermore, interneurons receiving a putative monosynaptic connection from a simultaneously recorded pyramidal cell appear to inherit the spatial modulation of the latter (Marshall et al., 2002). Buzsaki and colleagues hypothesize that interneurons may also adopt the firing phase dynamics of their afferent place cells, which show a phase shift relative to the hippocampal theta rhythm as a rat passes through the place field ("phase precession"). This study confirms and extends the previous reports by showing that interneurons in the dorsal and middle hippocampus with putative monosynaptic connections with place cells recorded on the same tetrode share other properties with their pyramidal cell afferents, including the spatial scale of the place field of pyramidal cell, a characteristic of the septotemporal level of the hippocampus from which the cells are recorded, and the rate of phase precession, which is slower in middle regions. Furthermore, variations in pyramidal cell place field scale within each septotemporal level attributable to task variations are similarly associated with variations in interneuron place field scale. The available data strongly suggest that spatial selectivity of CA1 stratum pyramidale interneurons is inherited from a small cluster of local pyramidal cells and is not a consequence of spatially selective synaptic input from CA3 or other sources.

  4. [Cycloferon in treating duodenal ulcers in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bul'on, V V; Khnychenko, L K; Sapronov, N S; Kuznetsova, N N; Anikin, V B; arinenko, R Iu; Kovalenko, A L; Alekseeva, L E

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of using cycloferon (interferon inductor) for a complex treatment (in combination with the main drug solcoseryl possessing pronounced therapeutic properties) of duodenum ulcers was experimentally studied in male rats. The experiments showed a considerable difference in the interferon status of animals with model duodenum ulcers treated with cycloferon, solcoseryl, their combination, and placebo (control). The healing effect of solcoseryl administered in combination with cycloferon exceeded that of each component administered separately.

  5. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rinku, E-mail: rinku.jacob.vallanat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Harikrishnan, K.P., E-mail: kp_hk2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Misra, R., E-mail: rmisra@iucaa.in [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, 411007 (India); Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, 411008 (India)

    2016-08-12

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  6. VLA's Sharpened Vision Shows Details of Still-Forming Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    available for routine astronomical observations last autumn. In late November, the scientists pointed the sharpened vision of the combined telescopes at an object called G192.16-3.82, more than 6,000 light-years distant in the constellation Orion. First observed in 1990, G192.16-3.82 was found to be a massive young star powering one of the largest stellar outflows -- extending more than 30 light years from end to end -- in the entire Milky Way Galaxy. Earlier observations showed the young star is surrounded by a large, rotating disk with a diameter greater than 1,000 times the Sun-Earth distance. Astronomers, however, believed that the outflow had to originate from a structure much smaller than this disk. The VLA-Pie Town system gave them their first glimpse of the suspected smaller structure, another disk slightly larger than our own Solar System containing enough gas and dust to make 20 Suns. In addition, they saw the inner portion of the outflow of material powered by that disk. The new observations also showed that the smaller disk probably is truncated by the gravitational pull of another, previously-unseen young star less massive than the first. Close to the larger protostar, the outflow is wide, covering an angle of about 40 degrees. "With smaller protostars, the outflow begins wide but then is narrowed down to a thin jet relatively close to its origin. However, when the protostar is more massive, the outflow tends to remain wide," Shepherd said. "We think that magnetic fields narrow down the flow from the smaller protostars. It's possible that when the flow contains much more mass, such as in this system, the magnetic fields may be just too weak in most cases to get this done," she said. "Our new observations now make it possible to test this idea by comparing computer simulations to what we see in the real universe," Shepherd said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y

  7. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

  8. A plastic stabilizer dibutyltin dilaurate induces subchronic neurotoxicity in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minghua Jin; Peilin Song; Na Li; Xuejun Li; Jiajun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Dibutyltin dilaurate functions as a stabilizer for polyvinyl chloride.In this study,experimental rats were intragastrically administered 5,10,or 20 mg/kg dibutyltin dilaurate to model sub-chronic poisoning.After exposure,our results showed the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase decreased in rat brain tissue,while the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide content,as well as nitric oxide synthase activity in rat brain tissue increased.The cell cycle in the right parietal cortex was disordered and the rate of apoptosis increased.DNA damage was aggravated in the cerebral cortex,and the ultrastructure of the right parietal cortex tissues was altered.The above changes became more apparent with exposure to increasing doses of dibutyltin dilaurate.Our experimental findings confirmed the neurotoxicity of dibutyltin dilaurate in rat brain tissues,and demonstrated that the poisoning was dose-dependent.

  9. Remembering Operación Triunfo: a Latin Music Reality Show in the Era of Talent Shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Savini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The music format Operación Triunfo (2001–2011, which aired on RTVE for the first time in 2001, started as a television (TV and musical success in Spain and today is one of the most famous shows around the world as well as an incredible socio-economic phenomenon in Spanish TV. This paper describes the format concept and results. Both commercial and social aspects are introduced to understand why, after 15 years, it is remembered with nostalgia and remains a shining example of a good communication project and a perfect balance between the global and the local, despite the lack of great success in the following years in Spain and abroad.

  10. Development of hepatorenal syndrome in bile duct ligated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Regina M Pereira; Ana Cristina Sim(o)es e Silva; Robson AS dos Santos; Eduardo A Oliveira; Virg(i)nia HR Leite; Filipi LC Dias; Alysson S Rezende; Lincoln P Costa; Luciola S Barcelos; Mauro M Teixeira

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate in bile duct ligated rats whether there were progressive alterations of renal function without changes in histopathology.METHODS: Male Wistar rats were submitted to sham-surgery or bile duct ligation (BDL) and divided according to the post-procedure time (2, 4 and 6-wk).To determine renal function parameters, rats were placed in metabolic cages and, at the end of the experiment, blood and urine samples were obtained.Histology and hydroxyproline content were analyzed in liver and renal tissue.RESULTS: Rats with 2 wk of BDL increased free water clearance (P = 0.02), reduced urinary osmolality (P =0.03) and serum creatinine (P = 0.01) in comparison to the sham group. In contrast, rats at 6 wk of BDL showed features of HRS, including significant increase in serum creatinine and reductions in creatinine clearance,water excretion and urinary sodium concentration. Rats with 4 wk of BDL exhibited an intermediate stage of renal dysfunction. Progressive hepatic fibrosis according to post-procedure time was confirmed by histology.The increased levels of liver hydroxyproline contrasted with the absence of structural changes in the kidney, as assessed by histology and unchanged hydroxyproline content in renal tissue.CONCLUSION: Our data show that BDL produced progressive renal dysfunction without structural changes in the kidney, characterizing HRS. The present model will be useful to understand the pathophysiology of HRS.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute renal failure in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Thomas E N; Graebe, Martin; Promeneur, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In conscious, chronically instrumented rats we examined 1) renal tubular functional changes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute renal failure; 2) the effects of LPS on the expression of selected renal tubular water and sodium transporters; and 3) effects of milrinone, a phosphodies......In conscious, chronically instrumented rats we examined 1) renal tubular functional changes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute renal failure; 2) the effects of LPS on the expression of selected renal tubular water and sodium transporters; and 3) effects of milrinone......). LPS-induced fall in GFR and proximal tubular outflow were sustained on day 2. Furthermore, LPS-treated rats showed a marked increase in fractional distal water excretion, despite significantly elevated levels of plasma vasopressin (AVP). Semiquantitative immunoblotting showed that LPS increased......-alpha and lactate, inhibited the LPS-induced tachycardia, and exacerbated the acute LPS-induced fall in GFR. Furthermore, Ro-20-1724-treated rats were unable to maintain MAP. We conclude 1) PDE3 or PDE4 inhibition exacerbates LPS-induced renal failure in conscious rats; and 2) LPS treated rats develop an escape...

  12. Leptospira-rat-human relationship in Luzon, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Sharon Yvette Angelina M; Saito, Mitsumasa; Baterna, Rubelia A; Estrada, Crystal Amiel M; Rivera, Ana Kriselda B; Dato, Micaella C; Zamora, Pia Regina Fatima C; Segawa, Takaya; Cavinta, Lolita L; Fukui, Takashi; Masuzawa, Toshiyuki; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-11-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection that is caused by the pathogenic species of Leptospira. Rats are the most important reservoirs of these organisms. Our study aimed to characterize Leptospira isolates from humans and rats and elucidate the Leptospira-rat-human relationship in Luzon, Philippines. Forty strains were isolated from humans and rats. The isolates were confirmed to be Leptospira and pathogenic through rrl- and flaB-PCR, respectively. Around 73% of the isolates were found to be lethal to hamsters. Serotyping showed that there were mainly three predominant leptospiral serogroups in the study areas namely Pyrogenes, Bataviae, and Grippotyphosa. Gyrase B gene sequence analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to Leptospira interrogans. Most had 100% similarity with serovar Manilae (15/40), serovar Losbanos (8/40), and serogroup Grippotyphosa (8/40). Strains from each group had highly identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and were further grouped as A (Pyrogenes, 14), B (Bataviae, 8), and C (Grippotyphosa, 10). Results further revealed that similar serotypes were isolated from both humans and rats in the same areas. It is suggested that these three predominant groups with highly similar intra-group PFGE patterns may have been primarily transmitted by rats and persistently caused leptospirosis in humans particularly in the Luzon islands.

  13. The Gene Expression Profile of D-galactose Induced Aging Model Rat Using cDNA Microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Min(李珉); Wang Gang; Zhang Wei; Wang Miqu; Zhang Yizheng

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the molecular mechanism of D-galactose induced aging model, cDNA microarray is used to analyze gene expression profiles of both normal and D-galactose induced aging model rats. D-galactose induced aging model rats are injected with D-galactose, while normal rats are injected with physiological saline as control. After 7 weeks, the two groups of rats are killed simultaneously. Their livers are harvested for genome-wide expression analysis. D-galactose treated rats showed changes in gene expression associated with increase or decrease in xenobiotic metabolism, protein metabolism and energy metabolism.

  14. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Dadda, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The novel object recognition (NOR) test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test. PMID:27305102

  15. Small GSK-3 Inhibitor Shows Efficacy in a Motor Neuron Disease Murine Model Modulating Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munck, Estefanía; Palomo, Valle; Muñoz-Sáez, Emma; Perez, Daniel I; Gómez-Miguel, Begoña; Solas, M Teresa; Gil, Carmen; Martínez, Ana; Arahuetes, Rosa M

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron degenerative disease that has no effective treatment up to date. Drug discovery tasks have been hampered due to the lack of knowledge in its molecular etiology together with the limited animal models for research. Recently, a motor neuron disease animal model has been developed using β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid related to the appearing of ALS. In the present work, the neuroprotective role of VP2.51, a small heterocyclic GSK-3 inhibitor, is analysed in this novel murine model together with the analysis of autophagy. VP2.51 daily administration for two weeks, starting the first day after L-BMAA treatment, leads to total recovery of neurological symptoms and prevents the activation of autophagic processes in rats. These results show that the L-BMAA murine model can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs. In addition, the results confirm the therapeutic potential of GSK-3 inhibitors, and specially VP2.51, for the disease-modifying future treatment of motor neuron disorders like ALS.

  16. The Phenolics from the Roots of Livistona chinensis Show Antioxidative and Obsteoblast Differentiation Promoting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin Zeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antioxidative and obsteoblast differentiation promoting activity of the phenolics isolated from the 70% ethanol extract of the roots of Livistona chinensis. Two new phenolics, (2R,3R-3,5,6,7,3',4'-hexahydroxyflavane (1, and phenanthrene-2,4,9-triol (2, together with six known phenolics 3–8, were isolated and identified on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. The antioxidative and obsteoblast differentiation promoting abilities of the compounds 1–3, 7–8 were tested, the phenolics 1–3, 7 showed effects on proliferation of osteoblastic cells and antioxidative activity of 3.125–50 µg/mL. In addition, the phenolics 1–3 observably increased alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin content and hydroxyproline content in osteoblastic cells. Phenolic 1 at 12.5 µg/mL concentration significantly increased the area of nodules by about 9.35-fold. The antioxidative activity results indicated that the anti-osteoporosis effects of these phenolics may be linked to a reduction of oxidative stress. The observed effects of these phenolics on bone formation by rat osteoblastic cells suggest that these phenolics may have beneficial effects on bone health.

  17. Small GSK-3 Inhibitor Shows Efficacy in a Motor Neuron Disease Murine Model Modulating Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munck, Estefanía; Palomo, Valle; Muñoz-Sáez, Emma; Perez, Daniel I.; Gómez-Miguel, Begoña; Solas, M. Teresa; Gil, Carmen; Martínez, Ana; Arahuetes, Rosa M.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron degenerative disease that has no effective treatment up to date. Drug discovery tasks have been hampered due to the lack of knowledge in its molecular etiology together with the limited animal models for research. Recently, a motor neuron disease animal model has been developed using β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA), a neurotoxic amino acid related to the appearing of ALS. In the present work, the neuroprotective role of VP2.51, a small heterocyclic GSK-3 inhibitor, is analysed in this novel murine model together with the analysis of autophagy. VP2.51 daily administration for two weeks, starting the first day after L-BMAA treatment, leads to total recovery of neurological symptoms and prevents the activation of autophagic processes in rats. These results show that the L-BMAA murine model can be used to test the efficacy of new drugs. In addition, the results confirm the therapeutic potential of GSK-3 inhibitors, and specially VP2.51, for the disease-modifying future treatment of motor neuron disorders like ALS. PMID:27631495

  18. The azo dye Disperse Red 13 and its oxidation and reduction products showed mutagenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chequer, Farah Maria Drumond; Lizier, Thiago Mescoloto; de Felício, Rafael; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Debonsi, Hosana Maria; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2015-10-01

    Common water pollutants, azo dyes and their degradation products have frequently shown toxicity, including carcinogenic and mutagenic effects, and can induce serious damage in aquatic organisms and humans. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the azo dye Disperse Red 13 (DR13) was first evaluated using the Micronucleus Assay in human lymphocytes. Subsequently, in order to mimic hepatic biotransformation, controlled potential electrolysis was carried out with a DR13 solution using a Potentiostat/Galvanostat. In addition, a DR13 solution was oxidized using S9 (homogenate of rat liver cells). DR13 oxidation and the reduction products were identified using HPLC-DAD and GC/MS, and their mutagenic potential investigated by way of a Salmonella/microsome assay using TA98 and YG1041 strains, with no S9. The original azo dye DR13 induced chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes, and the respective oxidation and reduction products also showed mutagenic activity, as detected by the Salmonella/microsome assay. Furthermore sulfate 2-[(4-aminophenyl)ethylamino]-ethanol monohydrate, 2-chloro-4-nitro-benzamine, 4-nitro-benzamine and 2-(ethylphenylamine)-ethanol were identified as products of the DR13 reduction/oxidation reactions. Thus it was concluded that the contamination of water effluents with DR13 is a health risk not only due to the dye itself, but also due to the possibility of drinking contaminated water, considering the harmful compounds that can be produced after hepatic biotransformation.

  19. Segmental fibre type composition of the rat iliopsoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovic, Hrvoje; Bazdaric, Ksenija; Marijancic, Verner; Soic-Vranic, Tamara; Malnar, Daniela; Arbanas, Juraj

    2017-01-18

    The iliopsoas of the rat is composed of two muscles - the psoas major muscle and the iliacus muscle. The psoas major muscle arises from all the lumbar vertebrae and the iliacus muscle from the fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae and ilium. Their common insertion point is the lesser trochanter of the femur, and their common action is the lateral rotation of the femur and flexion of the hip joint. Unlike humans, the rat is a quadruped and only occasionally rises up on its hind legs. Therefore, it is expected that the fibre type composition of the rat iliopsoas muscle will be different than that of humans. The iliopsoas muscle of the rat is generally considered to be a fast muscle. However, previous studies of the fibre type composition of the rat psoas muscle showed different results. Moreover, very little is known about the composition of the rat iliacus muscle. The aim of our study was to examine the fibre type composition of the rat iliopsoas muscle in order to better understand the complex function of the listed muscle. The psoas major muscle was examined segmentally at four different levels of its origin. Type I, IIA, IIB and IIX muscle fibres were typed using monoclonal antibodies for myosin heavy chain identification. The percentage of muscle fibre types and muscle fibre cross-sectional areas were calculated. In our study we showed that in the rat iliopsoas muscle both the iliacus and the psoas major muscles had a predominance of fast muscle fibre types, with the highest percentage of the fastest IIB muscle fibres. Also, the IIB muscle fibres showed the largest cross-sectional area (CSA) in both muscles. As well, the psoas major muscle showed segmental differences of fibre type composition. Our results showed changes in percentages, as well as the CSAs of muscle fibre types in cranio-caudal direction. The most significant changes were visible in type IIB muscle fibres, where there was a decrease of percentages and the CSAs from the cranial towards the caudal part

  20. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Rodolfo-Metalpa, Riccardo; Martin, Sophie; Ransome, Emma; Fine, Maoz; Turner, Suzanne M; Rowley, Sonia J; Tedesco, Dario; Buia, Maria-Cristina

    2008-07-01

    The atmospheric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (p(CO(2))) will almost certainly be double that of pre-industrial levels by 2100 and will be considerably higher than at any time during the past few million years. The oceans are a principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) where it is estimated to have caused a 30% increase in the concentration of H(+) in ocean surface waters since the early 1900s and may lead to a drop in seawater pH of up to 0.5 units by 2100 (refs 2, 3). Our understanding of how increased ocean acidity may affect marine ecosystems is at present very limited as almost all studies have been in vitro, short-term, rapid perturbation experiments on isolated elements of the ecosystem. Here we show the effects of acidification on benthic ecosystems at shallow coastal sites where volcanic CO(2) vents lower the pH of the water column. Along gradients of normal pH (8.1-8.2) to lowered pH (mean 7.8-7.9, minimum 7.4-7.5), typical rocky shore communities with abundant calcareous organisms shifted to communities lacking scleractinian corals with significant reductions in sea urchin and coralline algal abundance. To our knowledge, this is the first ecosystem-scale validation of predictions that these important groups of organisms are susceptible to elevated amounts of p(CO(2)). Sea-grass production was highest in an area at mean pH 7.6 (1,827 (mu)atm p(CO(2))) where coralline algal biomass was significantly reduced and gastropod shells were dissolving due to periods of carbonate sub-saturation. The species populating the vent sites comprise a suite of organisms that are resilient to naturally high concentrations of p(CO(2)) and indicate that ocean acidification may benefit highly invasive non-native algal species. Our results provide the first in situ insights into how shallow water marine communities might change when susceptible organisms are removed owing to ocean acidification.