WorldWideScience

Sample records for vliet l2 spring

  1. Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James J. Kilpatrick

    2006-01-01

    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  2. Arnold van Vliet, mister natuurkalender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    De Natuurkalender die hij nu acht jaar leidt, lijkt een wat frivole verzameling van data over de eerste bloeiende planten, broedende vogels en vliegende vlinders. Achter de populaire website zit echter een integraal wetenschappelijk systeem dat erop gericht is Nederland te helpen bij de aanpassing a

  3. L2 listening at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Charlotte

    This dissertation on adult second language (L2) learning investigates individual learners’ experiences with listening in Danish as an L2 in everyday situations at work. More specifically, the study explores when international employees, who work at international companies in Denmark with English ...... oriented approaches within the research field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA)....

  4. L2 listening at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Charlotte

    This dissertation on adult second language (L2) learning investigates individual learners’ experiences with listening in Danish as an L2 in everyday situations at work. More specifically, the study explores when international employees, who work at international companies in Denmark with English...... as a corporate language, listen in Danish at work, how they handle these situations, what problems they experience, and why some situations are more difficult to listen in than others. The study makes use of qualitative research methods and theoretical aspects from psycholinguistic approaches as well as socially...

  5. Spring Outing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙芳

    2011-01-01

    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  6. Noticing in L2 writing

    OpenAIRE

    Geist, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the ways L2 learners of English reflect on their use of English while completing a writing task and the strategies learners apply in order to resolve their language-related problems. Factors which might have some influence on the learners' noticing and problem-solving behaviour were explored using a qualitative, inductive research approach involving the detailed analyses of ten participants. Think-aloud protocols and stimulated recall interviews were used to investigate...

  7. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  8. SPRING 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Unknown, [Unknown

    SPRING 2016, 11th edition of the SPRING series, is a single-track event that was sponsored by the special interest group Security – Intrusion Detection and Response (SIDAR) of the German Informatics Society (GI). The purpose of SPRING is to provide young researchers the opportunity to discuss their

  9. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  10. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  11. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  12. Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Spring Festival is the most important festival in China. It's to celebrate the lunar calendar's new year. In the evening before the Spring Festival, families get together and have a big meal. In many places people like to set off firecrackers. Dumplings are

  13. The Acquisition of L2 Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

  14. The Acquisition of L2 Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

  15. Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

  16. Quantum Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

    In this paper, we will give a short review on quantum spring, which is a Casimir effect from the helix boundary condition that proposed in our earlier works. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio r of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it quantum spring. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio r. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.

  17. A Key Factor Affecting L2 (English) Vocabulary Acquisition:L2 (English) Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周祁林

    2014-01-01

    There are some certain factors affecting L2 ( English) vocabulary acquisition such as L2 ( English) proficiency, readers’ purpose and the habit of reading, and the difficulty of target words and context, among which the first plays a key role. The paper, through a review of the relevant experimental researches, reaches a conclusion that L2 ( English) proficiency does influence much upon L2 vocabulary acquisition.

  18. The L2 Motivational Self System and L2 Achievement: A Study of Saudi EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskovsky, Christo; Assulaimani, Turki; Racheva, Silvia; Harkins, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The research reported in this article explores the relationship between Dörnyei's (2005, 2009) Second Language Motivational Self System (L2MSS) and the L2 proficiency level of Saudi learners of English as a foreign language (EFL). Male and female participants (N = 360) responded to a questionnaire relating to the main components of L2MSS, the…

  19. Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Leah; Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) researchers are becoming more interested in both L2 learners' knowledge of the target language and how that knowledge is put to use during real-time language processing. Researchers are therefore beginning to see the importance of combining traditional L2 research methods with those that capture the moment-by-moment…

  20. Floating-Point $L^2$-Approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Brisebarre, Nicolas; Hanrot, Guillaume

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Computing good polynomial approximations to usual functions is an important topic for the computer evaluation of those functions. These approximations can be good under several criteria, the most desirable being probably that the relative error is as small as possible in the $L^{\\infty}$ sense, i.e. everywhere on the interval under study. In the present paper, we investigate a simpler criterion, the $L^2$ case. Though finding a best polynomial $L^2$-approximation with ...

  1. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  2. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  3. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  4. Suggestions of keeping L2 motivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌

    2014-01-01

    How will we keep the motivation during the second language as long as we can, which confuses us, though what the L2 motivation is and how it is developed have been discussed by the psychologists, educators, etc. The aim of this passage is to clarify the basic content of motivation, including the definition, classification, importance, etc. how the current situation is in se-nior high students’English learning motivation, what should be done to keep such motivation. In the following part, it will be read that the introduction, the chapter stating the content and classification of (L 2) motivation, the chapter analyzing the necessity and state of L2 motivation at senor high, the chapter offering approach to keep that motivation, and the conclusion. All of them use the comparison, explanation and cites.

  5. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nebojša J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disease with a slowly progressive course and characterized by increased levels of hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. In this condition clinical features mainly consist of mental deterioration, ataxia and motor deficits. Case Outline. The patient is a 16-year-old girl, the first and only child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents of Serbian origin. At the age of 4 years her walk became unsteady and ataxic. Other signs of cerebellar involvement were soon observed. Head circumference was above two standard deviations (55 cm. Mild mental retardation was revealed by formal intelligence testing (IQ 60. MR examination of the brain showed confluent subcortical white matter lesions spread centripetally, and atrophy of the cerebellar vermis with involvement of dentate nuclei, without deep white matter abnormalities. Laboratory investigation revealed increased amounts and a very large peak of HGA in urine and plasma. Enantiomeric analysis confirmed the L-configuration (>90% establishing the diagnosis of L-2-HGA. The first epileptic seizure, partial with secondary generalization, occurred at age of 8 years. Favorable seizure control was achieved. A slow progression of neurological impairment was noted. Therapeutic trials with oral coenzyme Q10 and with oral riboflavin showed no biochemical and clinical effects. Recently, the diagnosis was proven by the presence of a mutation in the L-2-HGA gene. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L-2-HGA in Serbia. L-2-HGA must be considered in the differential diagnosis based on specific findings in cranial MRI.

  6. L^2-Betti numbers of hypersurface complements

    CERN Document Server

    Maxim, Laurentiu

    2012-01-01

    In \\cite{DJL07} it was shown that if $\\scra$ is an affine hyperplane arrangement in $\\C^n$, then at most one of the $L^2$--Betti numbers $b_i^{(2)}(\\C^n\\sm \\scra,\\id)$ is non--zero. In this note we prove an analogous statement for complements of complex affine hyperurfaces in general position at infinity. Furthermore, we recast and extend to this higher-dimensional setting results of \\cite{FLM,LM06} about $L^2$--Betti numbers of plane curve complements.

  7. Selective Teaching of L2 Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Olaf; Koreman, Jacques; Martínez-Paricio, Violeta; Abrahamsen, Jardar E.; Albertsen, Egil; Hedayatfar, Keivan; Bech, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    The pronunciation of a second or foreign language is often very challenging for L2 learners. It is difficult to address this topic in the classroom, because learners with different native languages (L1s) can have very different challenges. We have therefore developed a Computer-Assisted Listening and Speaking Tutor (CALST), which selectively…

  8. L2 Writing Conferences: Investigating Teacher Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Doreen E.

    2009-01-01

    Although the role of social interaction through conversational activities is well established in the L2 writing classroom in relation to idea development, understanding rhetorical modes, the creation of a sense of audience, as well as the promotion of feedback, relatively little attention has been given to the actual discourse of teachers and…

  9. Hyperbolic L2-modules with Reproducing Kernels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David EELPODE; Frank SOMMEN

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, the Dirac operator on the Klein model for the hyperbolic space is considered. A function space containing L2-functions on the sphere Sm-1 in (R)m, which are boundary values of solutions for this operator, is defined, and it is proved that this gives rise to a Hilbert module with a reproducing kernel.

  10. Phonological bases for L2 morphological learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning.

  11. Investigating L2 Performance in Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Shannon; Smith, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the linguistic complexity and lexical diversity of both overt and covert L2 output produced during synchronous written computer-mediated communication, also referred to as chat. Video enhanced chatscripts produced by university learners of German (N = 23) engaged in dyadic task-based chat interaction were coded and analyzed for…

  12. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  13. Repair Negotiation by English L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yujeong

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that L2 learners often face communication problems due to lack of competency in the target language and familiarity with its culture of origin. One way to resolve miscommunication problems is to seek clarification of the utterance; this process is called "repair negotiation" (Nakahama et al. 2001). Repair…

  14. Irregular wavelet frames on L2(Rn)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Deyun; ZHOU Xingwei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the conditions on dilation parameter {sj }j that ensure a discrete irregular wavelet system {Snj/2ψ(sj·-bk)}j∈(Z),k∈(Z)n to be a frame on L2(Rn),and for the wavelet frame we consider the perturbations of translation parameter b and frame function ψ respectively.

  15. Voice Blogging and L2 Speaking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigated the effect of extensive speaking practice on the development of L2 speaking complexity, accuracy, and fluency in voice blogging. The participants were 30 college EFL (English as a foreign language) learners in Taiwan. As a supplement to the insufficient speaking practice in class, each…

  16. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  17. Preparing an L2 Role-Play: How Students Manage L2 Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edstrom, Anne

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the implementation of role-play activities in second language (L2)/foreign language (FL) classroom settings, and little information is available about how students actually manage them, particularly with regards to overcoming their L2 deficits. This study examines the preparation of role-plays by university…

  18. Phonological Substitution Errors in L2 ASL Sentence Processing by Hearing M2L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua; Newman, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate phonological substitution errors made by hearing second language (M2L2) learners of American Sign Language (ASL) during a sentence translation task. Learners saw sentences in ASL that were signed by either a native signer or a M2L2 learner. Learners were to simply translate the sentence from ASL to…

  19. The Effects of L1 and L2 Group Discussions on L2 Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Blake; Evans, Moyra Sweetnam

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of post-reading group discussions in both first (L1) and second (L2) languages on L2 reading comprehension. The participants were fifteen Japanese university students of intermediate-level English. Three cohorts read four English texts and produced individual written recalls. Group 1 (the control…

  20. The Impact of Resilience on L2 Learners' Motivated Behaviour and Proficiency in L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on the factors that constitute second language (L2) learners' resilience, and how these factors are related to L2 learning by investigating what relation resilience may have to motivated behaviour and proficiency in English learning. A total of 1620 secondary school learners of English participated in a questionnaire…

  1. The Impact of Resilience on L2 Learners' Motivated Behaviour and Proficiency in L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Young; Kim, Yoon-Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study focused on the factors that constitute second language (L2) learners' resilience, and how these factors are related to L2 learning by investigating what relation resilience may have to motivated behaviour and proficiency in English learning. A total of 1620 secondary school learners of English participated in a questionnaire…

  2. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  3. Semantic Representation of Newly Learned L2 Words and Their Integration in the L2 Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Kirschenbaum, Amit; Rogahn, Maria; Opitz, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The present semantic priming study explores the integration of newly learnt L2 German words into the L2 semantic network of German advanced learners. It provides additional evidence in support of earlier findings reporting semantic inhibition effects for emergent representations. An inhibitory mechanism is proposed that temporarily decreases the…

  4. Development and implementation of a novel assay for L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) in cell lysates: L-2-HGDH deficiency in 15 patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranendijk, M; Salomons, G S; Gibson, K M

    2009-01-01

    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. An assay to evaluate L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) activity in fibroblast, lymphoblast and/or lymphoc...

  5. How L2 words are stored: the episodic L2 hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Naoko Ouchi; Forster, Kenneth I

    2012-11-01

    This article reports findings from 3 experiments examining whether 2nd language (L2) words are represented in episodic memory, as originally proposed by Jiang and Forster (2001). Experiment 1 was a direct replication of Jiang and Forster, testing highly proficient Chinese-English bilinguals. Masked translation priming was obtained in an episodic recognition task from L2 to the 1st language (L1) for studied "old" L1 targets but not for unstudied "new" targets. This experiment also confirmed the translation asymmetry generally found in lexical decision tasks, namely, priming in the L1-L2 direction but not in the L2-L1 direction. Experiment 2 showed that recently learned words in an unfamiliar language (therefore, words that are obviously represented episodically) could also prime their L1 translations in an episodic recognition task but not in a lexical decision task. Finally, in Experiment 3, masked repetition priming was used with an episodic recognition memory task. For native speakers of English, repetition (L1-L1) priming is obtained only for old words, because there is no episodic representation for new words. However, Chinese-English bilinguals tested with the same items showed repetition (L2-L2) priming for both old and new words, indicating that the new L2 words were represented episodically as well. Overall, the results from these 3 experiments support the hypothesis that L2 words are represented in episodic memory. Finally, the mechanisms behind why L2-L1 translation priming can be obtained in episodic recognition and not in lexical decision are discussed.

  6. The Application of L2TP VPN%L2TP VPN的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁云亭

    2009-01-01

    介绍了虚拟专用网络的产生背景、实现方式、性能特点.重点介绍了L2TP VPN与IPsec VPN虚拟专用网络,比较了构成特点和适用对象,给出了构建L2TP VPN网络实例.

  7. Orthogonal Multiwavelet Frames in L2Rd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhanwei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterize the orthogonal frames and orthogonal multiwavelet frames in L2Rd with matrix dilations of the form (Df(x=detAf(Ax, where A is an arbitrary expanding d×d matrix with integer coefficients. Firstly, through two arbitrarily multiwavelet frames, we give a simple construction of a pair of orthogonal multiwavelet frames. Then, by using the unitary extension principle, we present an algorithm for the construction of arbitrarily many orthogonal multiwavelet tight frames. Finally, we give a general construction algorithm for orthogonal multiwavelet tight frames from a scaling function.

  8. Knowledge sources in L2 learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ayliff

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2 learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that there is a high correlation between what they seemingly know implicitly and the hidden, possibly previously explicit knowledge source on which they are drawing.  The article concludes by discussing some of the theoretical implications of the research.

  9. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  10. 春天%Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  11. L2 Willingness to Communicate, Openness to Experience, Extraversion, and L2 Unwillingness to Communicate: The Iranian EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khany, Reza; Nejad, Ali Mansouri

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between L2 willingness to communicate (L2WTC), L2 unwillingness to communicate (L2UWTC) and the personality traits of openness to experience and extraversion in an Iranian context. The Pearson correlation and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the results from a study with 217 English major students. A…

  12. Transfer and Semantic Universals in the L2 Acquisition of the English Article System by Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, Alexandra; Soler, Inmaculada Gómez

    2016-01-01

    L2 learners' problems with English articles have been linked to learners' L1 and their access to universal semantic features (e.g., definiteness and specificity). Studies suggest that L2 adults rely on their L1 knowledge, while child L2 learners rely more on their access to semantic universals. The present study investigates whether child L2

  13. The L2 Acquisition of English Passive%The L2Acquisition of English Passive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽

    2015-01-01

    Passive voice is an important grammatical category in language learning while it varies in different languages.In order to diminish the negative impact on L1 transfer and maintain the originality of passive voice in L2 learning,this essay centers on the grammatical differences of passive voice both in English and Chinese and propose practical teaching strategies.

  14. On the Relationship between Iranian L2 Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs and L2 Learners' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharajabian, Maryam; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    The present study employed a descriptive survey design to investigate L2 learners' attitudes towards language learning, and the possible effects of teachers' beliefs on learners' attitudes. Participants were chosen from among 2 groups: Twenty EFL teachers were asked to take part in this study and 80 from a pool of 213 learners at 2 language…

  15. Revisiting Fluctuations in L2 Article Choice in L1-Korean L2-English Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Bijon K; Baek, Seunghyun

    2016-06-25

    The current study investigated the distinction of L2 (second language) English article choice sensitivity in fifty-three L1-Korean L2-English learners in semantic contexts. In the context of English as a foreign language, the participants were divided into two groups based on grammatical ability as determined by their performance on a cloze test. In addition, a forced-choice elicitation test and a writing production test were administered to assess, respectively, the participants' receptive and productive article choice abilities. Regardless of grammatical ability, the results disclosed the overuse of the indefinite a in the [[Formula: see text]definite, -specific] context and the definite the in the [-definite, [Formula: see text]specific] context on the forced-choice elicitation test. In the [[Formula: see text]definite, [Formula: see text]specific] and [-definite, -specific] contexts, however, the overuse of either the indefinite a or the definite the, respectively, was less likely. Furthermore, it was revealed on the writing test that the participants more accurately used the definite the than the indefinite a, and they were also found to unreasonably omit more articles than to add or substitute articles on the writing production test. The findings across the two tests indicate that L1-Korean L2-English learners are more likely to have intrinsic difficulties transferring their L1 noun phrase (NP) knowledge to L2 NP knowledge owing to structural discrepancies and complex interfaces between L1 NPs and L2 NPs with respect to syntactic, semantic and pragmatic/discourse language subsystems.

  16. Acquisition of motion in L2 Estonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liis Nelis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the acquisition of Motion in Estonian by native English speakers. The aim was to determine how English learners of Estonian are influenced by their first language (L1 when describing Motion events in Estonian as their second language (L2. Prior studies have claimed that people develop certain ways of thinking for speaking when learning their first language which affect the acquisition of other languages (e.g. Slobin 1996, Pool, Pajusalu 2012 i.a.. In order to find out how native English speakers are influenced by their L1 when acquiring Motion in Estonian, an experiment was implemented on 22 participants (11 native English speakers and 11 native Estonian speakers in which they were asked to write a short narrative in Estonian based on a picture book by Mayer (1969. The Motion events found in the narratives were analysed one by one. The findings suggest that L1 thinking patterns influence the intermediate learners more than the advanced or beginner learners, thus partly supporting the findings of Cadierno and Ruiz (2006 who reached a similar conclusion.

  17. Proficiency effect on L2 pragmatic competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper synthesizes cross-sectional studies of the effect of proficiency on second language (L2 pragmatics to answer the synthesis question: Does proficiency affect adult learners’ pragmatic competence? Findings have revealed an overall positive proficiency effect on pragmatic competence, and in most cases higher proficiency learners have higher pragmatic competence. However, increased proficiency does not guarantee a native-like pragmatic performance because proficiency effect varies depending on the nature of target pragmatic features such as types of speech acts (degrees of directness and conventionality (e.g., Cook & Liddicoat, 2002; Félix-Brasdefer, 2007, modalities of pragmatic performance (comprehension and production (e.g., Bradovi-Harlig, 2008, 2009, social variables involved in task situations, such as social status (e.g., Allami & Naeimi, 2011, social distance (e.g., Maeshiba, Yoshinaga, Kasper, & Ross, 1996, and power relationship (e.g., Al-Gahtani & Roever, 2012. Moreover, proficiency effect is mediated by contextual variables such as length of stay in the target language community (e.g., Shardakova, 2005; Taguchi, 2011, 2013; Xu, Case, & Wang, 2009.

  18. ASC Trilab L2 Codesign Milestone 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, Christian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Simon David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinge, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Paul T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vaughan, Courtenay T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cook, Jeanine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rajan, Mahesh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoekstra, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    For the FY15 ASC L2 Trilab Codesign milestone Sandia National Laboratories performed two main studies. The first study investigated three topics (performance, cross-platform portability and programmer productivity) when using OpenMP directives and the RAJA and Kokkos programming models available from LLNL and SNL respectively. The focus of this first study was the LULESH mini-application developed and maintained by LLNL. In the coming sections of the report the reader will find performance comparisons (and a demonstration of portability) for a variety of mini-application implementations produced during this study with varying levels of optimization. Of note is that the implementations utilized including optimizations across a number of programming models to help ensure claims that Kokkos can provide native-class application performance are valid. The second study performed during FY15 is a performance assessment of the MiniAero mini-application developed by Sandia. This mini-application was developed by the SIERRA Thermal-Fluid team at Sandia for the purposes of learning the Kokkos programming model and so is available in only a single implementation. For this report we studied its performance and scaling on a number of machines with the intent of providing insight into potential performance issues that may be experienced when similar algorithms are deployed on the forthcoming Trinity ASC ATS platform.

  19. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  20. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: roden@jhmi.edu [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  1. Development and implementation of a novel assay for L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) in cell lysates: L-2-HGDH deficiency in 15 patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendijk, M; Salomons, G S; Gibson, K M; Aktuglu-Zeybek, C; Bekri, S; Christensen, E; Clarke, J; Hahn, A; Korman, S H; Mejaski-Bosnjak, V; Superti-Furga, A; Vianey-Saban, C; van der Knaap, M S; Jakobs, C; Struys, E A

    2009-12-01

    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. An assay to evaluate L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) activity in fibroblast, lymphoblast and/or lymphocyte lysates has hitherto been unavailable. We developed an L-2-HGDH enzyme assay in cell lysates based on the conversion of stable-isotope-labelled L-2-hydroxyglutarate to 2-ketoglutarate, which is converted into L-glutamate in situ. The formation of stable isotope labelled L-glutamate is therefore a direct measure of L-2-HGDH activity, and this product is detected by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A deficiency of L-2-HGDH activity was detected in cell lysates from 15 out of 15 L-2-HGA patients. Therefore, this specific assay confirmed the diagnosis unambiguously affirming the relationship between molecular and biochemical observations. Residual activity was detected in cells derived from one L-2-HGA patient. The L-2-HGDH assay will be valuable for examining in vitro riboflavin/FAD therapy to rescue L-2-HGDH activity.

  2. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  3. Evidence from adult L1 Afrikaans L2 French

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (UG) is operative in adult L2 acquisition, have investigated the role that ... ungrammatical in the L2, and consists of explicit teaching and corrective feedback (Schwartz ..... unlike L1 learners, employ their general problem-solving skills (rather.

  4. Gender Bender: Gender Errors in L2 Pronoun Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton-Mendez, Ines

    2010-01-01

    To address questions about information processing at the message level, pronoun errors of second language (L2) speakers of English were studied. Some L2 pronoun errors--"he/she" confusions by Spanish speakers of L2 English--could be due to differences in the informational requirements of the speakers' two languages, providing a window into the…

  5. A Conceptual Review of Age Effect on L2 Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of age effect on an additional language (L2) acquisition has long been recognized in the field of L2 education. Research was conducted to reveal the influence of age to the rate and ultimate attainment of L2 teaching and learning, yet controversial results were discovered. Consequently, stereotypes and misunderstanding exist among…

  6. Peer Response to L2 Student Writing: Patterns and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla Salih, Abdel Rahman

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the corrective feedback patterns in L2 writing and the student writers' preferences for peer feedback. The study examines the actual focus of peer review and the types of corrective feedback provided in L2 composing process. Sixteen L2 matriculation students at a Malaysian university took part in five peer review sessions,…

  7. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L; Gravitt, Patti E; Trimble, Cornelia L; Roden, Richard B S

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies...

  8. An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis; Errami, Abdellatif;

    2010-01-01

    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of ...

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  10. An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis; Errami, Abdellatif;

    2010-01-01

    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of ...... variants (http://www.LOVD.nl/L2HGDH). Every user can access the database and submit variants/patients. Furthermore, we report on the phenotype, including neurological manifestations and urinary levels of L2HG, and we evaluate the phenotype-genotype relationship....

  11. The Role of L1 and L2 Working Memory in Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

    2010-01-01

    Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…

  12. Representation and Embodiment of Meaning in L2 Communication: Motion Events in the Speech and Gesture of Advanced L2 Korean and L2 English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojung; Lantolf, James P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the interface between speech and gesture in second language (L2) narration within Slobin's (2003) thinking-for-speaking (TFS) framework as well as with respect to McNeill's (1992, 2005) growth point (GP) hypothesis. Specifically, our interest is in whether speakers shift from a first language (L1) to a L2 TFS pattern as…

  13. Analysis list: TCF7L2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TCF7L2 Blood,Breast,Digestive tract,Liver,Pancreas,Prostate,Uterus + hg19 http://db...archive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/TCF7L2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/TCF7L2.5.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/TCF7L2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.bio...sciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/TCF7L2.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/TCF7L2.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/TCF7L2.Digestive_tract.tsv,http:

  14. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  15. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  16. L2 Learner Age from a Contextualised Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djigunovic, Jelena Mihaljevic

    2014-01-01

    In this qualitative study the author focuses on age effects on young learners' L2 development by comparing the L2 learning processes of six young learners in an instructed setting: three who had started learning English as L2 at age 6/7 and three who had started at age 9/10. Both earlier and later young beginners were followed for three years…

  17. Working memory and L2 reading: theoretical and methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Erçetin, Gülcan

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews research on working memory (WM) and its role in second language (L2) reading. After a brief theoretical account of WM, the article focuses on methods of measuring WM and issues surrounding its measurement. Next, the paper provides a review of studies on the relationship between L1 and L2 WM, their relationships with L2 reading, and the interaction between WM capacity and domain knowledge in terms of their effects on L2 reading comprehension. Conclusions regarding the role...

  18. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ~8kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. PMID:23689062

  19. Motivational dimension of willingness to communicate in L2: The impacts of criterion measure, ideal L2 self, family influence, and attitudes to L2 culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Ghanizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to explore the interrelationship between four components of Dörnyei's Motivational Self-System (criterion measure, ideal L2 self, attitudes to L2 culture and community, and family influence and willingness to communicate in the second language (L2 WTC. Questionnaire data were collected from 160 Iranian EFL learners. Results of multiple regression analysis indicated that four aforementioned motivational factors can account for approximately 10 percent of the variance in WTC among Iranian EFL learners. Furthermore, this study found that WTC correlated significantly and positively with all motivational factors except family influence. Besides, it was found that among the components of WTC, WTC in reading correlated with both criterion measure and ideal L2 self. WTC in writing did not correlate with any of the motivational factors. WTC in listening was associated with criterion measure as well as ideal L2 self, although the magnitude of correlation with ideal L2 self was higher. The discussion and implications of the findings are presented with reference to the earlier findings.

  20. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  1. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  2. Event-related brain potentials and second language learning: syntactic processing in late L2 learners at different L2 proficiency levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, J.G. van; Tokowicz, N.

    2010-01-01

    There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2 profi

  3. Event-related brain potentials and second language learning: syntactic processing in late L2 learners at different L2 proficiency levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hell, J.G. van; Tokowicz, N.

    2010-01-01

    There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2

  4. Neural changes underlying early stages of L2 vocabulary acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, He; Holcomb, Phillip J; Midgley, Katherine J

    2016-11-01

    Research has shown neural changes following second language (L2) acquisition after weeks or months of instruction. But are such changes detectable even earlier than previously shown? The present study examines the electrophysiological changes underlying the earliest stages of second language vocabulary acquisition by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) within the first week of learning. Adult native English speakers with no previous Spanish experience completed less than four hours of Spanish vocabulary training, with pre- and post-training ERPs recorded to a backward translation task. Results indicate that beginning L2 learners show rapid neural changes following learning, manifested in changes to the N400 - an ERP component sensitive to lexicosemantic processing and degree of L2 proficiency. Specifically, learners in early stages of L2 acquisition show growth in N400 amplitude to L2 words following learning as well as a backward translation N400 priming effect that was absent pre-training. These results were shown within days of minimal L2 training, suggesting that the neural changes captured during adult second language acquisition are more rapid than previously shown. Such findings are consistent with models of early stages of bilingualism in adult learners of L2 (e.g. Kroll and Stewart's RHM) and reinforce the use of ERP measures to assess L2 learning.

  5. Promoting L2 Vocabulary Learning through Narrow Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Krashen (2004) has advocated that narrow reading, i.e., reading a series of texts addressing one specific topic, is an effective method to grow vocabulary. While narrow reading has been championed to have many advantages for L2 vocabulary learning, there remains a relative dearth of empirical studies that test the impact of narrow reading on L2

  6. L2-Betti numbers of locally compact groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik Densing

    We introduce a notion of L2-Betti numbers for locally compact, second countable, unimodular groups. We study the relation to the standard notion of L2-Betti numbers of countable discrete groups for lattices. In this way, several new computations are obtained for countable groups, including lattices...

  7. Prosodic and Lexical Marking of Contrast in L2 Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Giuseppina; Dimroth, Christine; Braun, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the second language (L2) acquisition of pragmatic categories that are not as consistently and frequently encoded in the L2 than in the first language (L1). Experiment 1 showed that Italian speakers linguistically highlighted affirmative polarity contrast (e.g. "The child ate the candies" following after "The child…

  8. Proficiency and Sequential Organization of L2 Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gahtani, Saad; Roever, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    L2 requests in developmental pragmatics research are commonly investigated using non-interactive data collection techniques or sidelining the larger discourse sequence in which the request proper is embedded. This study takes a different approach to the study of L2 requests. In a cross-sectional design, we collected role play data from learners at…

  9. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  10. Vocabulary Acquisition in L2: Does CALL Really Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averianova, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Language competence in various communicative activities in L2 largely depends on the learners' size of vocabulary. The target vocabulary of adult L2 learners should be between 2,000 high frequency words (a critical threshold) and 10,000 word families (for comprehension of university texts). For a TOEIC test, the threshold is estimated to be…

  11. Lexical Patterns in L2 Textual Gist Identification Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kyoko

    2009-01-01

    Gist identification or coherent situation model construction performance is an important criterion not only in L1 and L2 reading comprehension assessment but also in every aspect of discourse processing. Whereas most previous L2 research has investigated schematic knowledge of readers about relations within a text, more recent studies have used…

  12. L2 learner age from a contextualised perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mihaljeviđ Djigunoviđ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this qualitative study the author focuses on age effects on young learners’ L2 development by comparing the L2 learning processes of six young learners in an instructed setting: three who had started learning English as L2 at age 6/7 and three who had started at age 9/10. Both earlier and later young beginners were followed for three years (during their second, third and fourth year of learning English. The participants’ L2 development was measured through their oral output elicited by a two-part speaking task administered each year. Results of the analyses are interpreted taking into account each learners’ individual characteristics (learning ability, attitudes and motivation, self-concept and the characteristics of the context in which they were learning their L2 (attitudes of school staff and parents to early L2 learning, home support, in-class and out-of-class exposure to L2, socio-economic status. The findings show that earlier and later young beginners follow different trajectories in their L2 learning, which reflects different interactions which age enters into with the other variables.

  13. Discussion: How different can perspectives on L2 development be?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this article I discuss the contributions to this special issue of Language Learning on orders and sequences in second language (L2) development. Using a list of questions, I attempt to characterize what I see as the strengths, limitations, and unresolved issues in the approaches to L2 development

  14. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  15. The Effects of L2 Experience on L3 Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the influence of experience with a second language (L2) on the perception of phonological contrasts in a third language (L3). This study contributes to L3 phonology by examining the influence of L2 phonological perception abilities on the perception of an L3 at the beginner level. Participants were native speakers of Korean…

  16. Learning L2 Rhythm : Does the direction of acquisition matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, Lieke; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of second language (L2) rhythm by speakers of Dutch and Spanish, two languages that traditionally are considered to be rhythmically different. Specifically, it investigates whether the direction in which the L2 is learned (from Dutch to Spanish, or vice versa)

  17. Learning L2 Rhythm : does the direction of acquisition matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maastricht, Lieke; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc; Prieto, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of second language (L2) rhythm by speakers of Dutch and Spanish, two languages that traditionally are considered to be rhythmically different. Specifically, it investigates whether the direction in which the L2 is learned (from Dutch to Spanish, or vice versa)

  18. L2-Betti numbers of locally compact groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik Densing

    We introduce a notion of L2-Betti numbers for locally compact, second countable, unimodular groups. We study the relation to the standard notion of L2-Betti numbers of countable discrete groups for lattices. In this way, several new computations are obtained for countable groups, including lattices...

  19. Towards Effective Instruction on Aspect in L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Paz

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether L2 instruction on the Spanish aspectual system containing a recognition task of the learners' L1 (Dutch) aspectual system helps the learner to understand and interiorise the L2 system. Second year Dutch university students (N = 20) took part in the experiment. In weekly groups of two to four, the students received…

  20. Honest Bayesian confidence sets for the L2-norm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabó, B.; van der Vaart, A.; van Zanten, H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the problem of constructing Bayesian credible sets that are honest and adaptive for the L2L2-loss over a scale of Sobolev classes with regularity ranging between [D,2D][D,2D], for some given DD in the context of the signal-in-white-noise model. We consider a scale of prior distributio

  1. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  2. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  3. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual’s L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants’ native productions were explored to assess (1) the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space), and (2) the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realizations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space. PMID:25414678

  4. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual's L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants' native productions were explored to assess (1) the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space), and (2) the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realizations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space.

  5. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia eKartushina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The speech of late second language (L2 learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual’s L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants’ native productions were explored to assess 1 the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space, and 2 the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realisations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space.

  6. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  7. How to Make L2 Easier to Process ?The Role of L2 Proficiency and Semantic Category in Translation Priming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN WANG

    2014-01-01

    The current study reports four masked translation priming experiments and demonstrates that L2 proficiency plays a role in translation priming but it is not the only factor determining translation priming patterns . Instead , language dominance might be more accurate in predicting priming patterns . Given the asymmetrical representations of L 1 and L2 as described by most bilingual models , the conditions to produce L2‐L1 priming not only depends on the task , but also the category size in semantic categorization . Relevant results will be discussed in relation to bilingual models . One implication of the current results is that processing L2 in a specific semantic context can be optimal to L2 lexical access .

  8. Studies on L2 Learning Motivation of Primary and Middle School Stu-dents from the Perspective of L2 Motivational Self System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤阁

    2013-01-01

    An empirical survey among 219 school students in the framework of L2 Motivational Self System found that Ideal L2 Self, Ought-to L2 Self and L2 Learning Experience in the System make different contributions to L2 motivation respectively and L2 Learning Experience is the largest contributor to L2 motivation for primary and middle school students. The pedagogical im⁃plications are also suggested.

  9. Integrating Portfolios into the L2 Arabic Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Husseinali, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    This is an action research study that reports on using student portfolios in a second language (L2) Arabic class. The goal of this study was to examine the validity of using portfolios as an L2assessment procedure and to ascertain the effectiveness of portfolios as an L2 learning tool. In this class, portfolios replaced weekly quizzes, which counted for 30% of the final grade. Portfolios were also used to supplement the course textbook, namely Al-Kitaab (Brustad, Al-Batal, & Al-Tonsi, 1995).D...

  10. Calibration of comprehension and performance in L2 reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda SARAC

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university students while reading expository texts in L2. The results showed that the students’ were not able to calibrate their comprehension at above chance level whereas they were able to calibrate their performance. The results were discussed comparative to findings from earlier research in L1 reading.

  11. Child L2 learning of English in a bilingual setting

    OpenAIRE

    Fleta Guillén, María Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Learning a second language (L2) in a bilingual school can be compared to first language acquisition (L1) in that both processes develop in a natural and unconscious manner. In this paper I investigate the nature of early grammars in second language acquisition. One of the main concerns is whether child learners show a developmental process in L2 acquisition and, if they do, whether there is transference from the children’s L1, and whether the L2 acquisition process resembles the L1 acquisitio...

  12. Integrating Portfolios into the L2 Arabic Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Husseinali, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    This is an action research study that reports on using student portfolios in a second language (L2) Arabic class. The goal of this study was to examine the validity of using portfolios as an L2assessment procedure and to ascertain the effectiveness of portfolios as an L2 learning tool. In this class, portfolios replaced weekly quizzes, which counted for 30% of the final grade. Portfolios were also used to supplement the course textbook, namely Al-Kitaab (Brustad, Al-Batal, & Al-Tonsi, 1995).D...

  13. The Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧平

    2005-01-01

    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  14. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood: a behavioral and ERP study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Gili Fivela, Barbara; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paavo; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed. PMID:24860470

  15. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood: a behavioral and ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Gili Fivela, Barbara; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paavo; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed.

  16. L2-gain and passivity techniques in nonlinear control

    CERN Document Server

    van der Schaft, Arjan

    2017-01-01

    This standard text gives a unified treatment of passivity and L2-gain theory for nonlinear state space systems, preceded by a compact treatment of classical passivity and small-gain theorems for nonlinear input-output maps. The synthesis between passivity and L2-gain theory is provided by the theory of dissipative systems. Specifically, the small-gain and passivity theorems and their implications for nonlinear stability and stabilization are discussed from this standpoint. The connection between L2-gain and passivity via scattering is detailed. Feedback equivalence to a passive system and resulting stabilization strategies are discussed. The passivity concepts are enriched by a generalised Hamiltonian formalism, emphasising the close relations with physical modeling and control by interconnection, and leading to novel control methodologies going beyond passivity. The potential of L2-gain techniques in nonlinear control, including a theory of all-pass factorizations of nonlinear systems, and of parametrization...

  17. Okeanos Explorer (EX1503L2): Tropical Exploration (Mapping II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During EX-15-03L2, multibeam data will be collected 24 hours a day and XBT casts will be conducted at an interval defined by prevailing oceanographic conditions, but...

  18. Recombinant expression and purification of L2 domain of human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... and plays an important role in some malignant processes. L2 domain of ..... production of monoclonal antibodies, screening for specific ligands and studies on ... Isolation and characterization of. A-431 cells that retain high ...

  19. Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance

    OpenAIRE

    Finardi, Kyria Rebeca

    2008-01-01

    This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000) whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms ...

  20. SINGULAR INTEGRAL OPERATORS IN L2 SPACE WITH CHEBYSHEV WEIGHTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a class of singular integral operators Iwj on L2wj space,where wights wj(j=1-4) are four kinds of Chebyshev weights.The authors prove that Iwj is an unique linear extension of classic singular integral operator Iwj on Holder space,some important properties of Iwj and some results of singular integral equation in L2wj space.

  1. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  2. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  3. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  4. Harbingers of Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, John

    1976-01-01

    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  5. ERP correlates of intramodal and crossmodal L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salden Uta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study compared the neural correlates of an intramodally and a crossmodally acquired second language (L2. Deaf people who had learned their L1, German Sign Language (DGS, and their L2, German, through the visual modality were compared with hearing L2 learners of German and German native speakers. Correct and incorrect German sentences were presented word by word on a computer screen while the electroencephalogram was recorded. At the end of each sentence, the participants judged whether or not the sentence was correct. Two types of violations were realized: Either a semantically implausible noun or a violation of subject-verb number agreement was embedded at a sentence medial position. Results Semantic errors elicited an N400, followed by a late positivity in all groups. In native speakers of German, verb-agreement violations were followed by a left lateralized negativity, which has been associated with an automatic parsing process. We observed a syntax related negativity in both high performing hearing and deaf L2 learners as well. Finally, this negativity was followed by a posteriorly distributed positivity in all three groups. Conclusions Although deaf learners have learned German as an L2 mainly via the visual modality they seem to engage comparable processing mechanisms as hearing L2 learners. Thus, the data underscore the modality transcendence of language.

  6. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  7. The multipath and SNR Quality in civil code L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polezel, W. G.; Souza, E. M.; Monico, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The new generation of GPS satellites, with the addition of the new L2C civil code, may provide to the users better positioning capabilities. The new code in the L2 may increase the signal robustness, improve resistance to interference, reduce tracking noise and consequently, improve accuracy and provide better positioning inside buildings and in wooded areas. The second civil frequency code will eliminate the need of using fragile semi- codeless tracking techniques currently used in connection with L2. The L2C has a different structure that allows civil and military share the same code. L2C owns two codes of different length: moderate code (CM) and long code (CL). The CM was chosen to have 10.230 chips repeated to every 20 millisecond. The CL was chosen to have 767250 chips with period of 1.5 second. The main reasons for these choices were due to excellent correlation properties. Furthermore, L2C enhances performance by having no data modulation on CL code, which improves, among others, the threshold tracking performance. Comparing the L2C acquisition with the C/A, the CM code is ten times longer than the C/A and the two components have half the total power. This is an important feature for many low-power applications. Although this signal has several advantages, some investigations about its performance are necessary, mainly about the provided accuracy under some effects, for example, multipath. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the L2C signal, as well as its quality using some parameters, such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and multipath level (MP). The experiment was realized at Sao Paulo State University UNESP in Presidente Prudente, Brazil. The data were collected by two receivers of different brands, both able to collect the L2C signal, and connected to the same antenna, thought the use of a splitter. The results showed that the MP and SNR values were better for the modernized satellites. Furthermore, the SNR values of the two receivers were similar while the

  8. A model of the effect of uncertainty on the C elegans L2/L2d decision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Avery

    Full Text Available At the end of the first larval stage, the C elegans larva chooses between two developmental pathways, an L2 committed to reproductive development and an L2d, which has the option of undergoing reproductive development or entering the dauer diapause. I develop a quantitative model of this choice using mathematical tools developed for pricing financial options. The model predicts that the optimal decision must take into account not only the expected potential for reproductive growth, but also the uncertainty in that expected potential. Because the L2d has more flexibility than the L2, it is favored in unpredictable environments. I estimate that the ability to take uncertainty into account may increase reproductive value by as much as 5%, and discuss possible experimental tests for this ability.

  9. Status of the T2L2/Jason2 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exertier, Pierre; Samain, Etienne; Bonnefond, Pascal; Guillemot, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) project, developed by CNES and OCA will permit the synchronization of remote ultra stable clocks and the determination of their performances over intercontinental distances. The principle of the experiment derives from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology with dedicated space equipment. T2L2 was accepted in 2005 to be on board the Jason2 altimetry satellite. The payload consists of both event timer and photo detection modules. The system uses the ultra-stable quartz oscillator of DORIS as on-board reference clock on one hand, and the Laser Reflector Array, making T2L2 a real two-way time transfer system on the other hand. The expected time stability of the T2L2 instrument (detection and timing), referenced by the DORIS oscillator and including all internal error sources should be at the level of 10-12 ps at 1 s and T2L2 should permit to maintain a precision of 1 to a few ps when measuring the phase of a clock during around 1000 seconds. First analysis of T2L2 data permitted to validate some important characteristics of the experiment such as the sensitivity of the instrument to laser pulse amplitude (from single to multi-photon detection mode), data noises (of different sources, SLR and T2L2), and first error budget and time stability of ground to space time transfers. The paper describes the space experiment and highlights the different steps of the data processing after a first year of operations (between July 2008 and June 2009). We show the time stability which can be reached when a laser station is equipped with an Hydrogen Maser or a Cesium clock as a time reference; thus, the first estimations give 7 ps over 30 s. We conclude by presenting the campaigns of ground to ground time transfers already planned between the Paris Observatory and different places in Europe.

  10. Event-Related Brain Potentials and Second Language Learning: Syntactic Processing in Late L2 Learners at Different L2 Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hell, Janet G.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2 proficiency? In this article, we review studies that…

  11. JINAN: the City of Springs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  12. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how relative clause (RC constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2. The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH (Keenan & Comrie, 1977. In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic environment, was audio-recorded regularly over two years, and the development of RC constructions was compared with the acquisition of other English morphological and syntactic structures as represented within Processability Theory (PT (Pienemann, 1998; Pienemann, Di Biase, & Kawaguchi, 2005; Pienemann & Keßler, 2011. Although PT predicts that subordinate clauses are acquired at the highest stage in processability hierarchy, the results in this longitudinal study show that some types of RC constructions emerge at earlier stages in L2 English acquisition. The results also show that RC constructions in the Japanese child’s English L2 develop in the similar way to those reported in L1 studies (e.g., Diessel, 2004.Keywords: relative clause constructions, English L2, Processability Theory, the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy, Japanese child

  13. Walking with springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  14. Merits and Demerits of CMC in L2 Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭熠

    2015-01-01

    In the digital era,with the rapid development of the computer technology,the possibility and interest of utilizing Internet in L2 language classrooms has gradually increased.In particular,as a useful tool for enhancing language learning and teaching the computer-mediated communication(CMC)through the Internet has become extremely popular over the last five years.Based on the previous literatures,this essay aims not only to discuss a string of actual merits of CMC in terms of L2 teaching and learning but also some demerits belong to it.Furthermore,in order to achieve the most appropriate way to implement CMC into the L2 classroom,some possible solutions for dealing with those disadvantages will also be suggested.

  15. L2TP VPN分析及配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金莲

    2012-01-01

    在微软的Windows Server 2005中,集成了VPN技术,可以实现Site to Site VPN和L2TPVPN、PPTPVPN两种形式的Eemote Access VPN,其中L2TPVPN、PPTPVPN比较常用。虽然对于大型企业而言,用Windows Server 2003做VPN的可能性不大,但对于小型企业或个人用户来说,用这种VPN实现远程接入不失为一个较好的解决方案。下面,笔者就个人配置经历来详细解析一下L2TP VPN及配置要点。

  16. The TCF7L2 locus and type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polychronakos Constantin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TCF7L2 belongs to a subfamily of TCF7-like HMG box-containing transcription factors, and maps to human chromosome 10q25.3. A recent study identified genetic association of type 2 diabetes (T2D with this gene, correlated with diminished insulin secretion. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of genetic association between TCF7L2 and type 1 diabetes (T1D. Methods The SNP most significantly associated with T2D, rs7903146, was genotyped in 886 T1D nuclear family trios with ethnic backgrounds of mixed European descent. Results This study found no T1D association with, and no age-of-onset effect from rs7903146. Conclusion This study suggests that a T2D mechanism mediated by TCF7L2 does not participate in the etiology of T1D.

  17. Relative Importance of Learning Variables on L2 Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares-Cuhat, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the results of a pilot study investigating the relative importance of various learner variables on L2 performance are presented. The study was conducted with the participation of forty students enrolled in a beginning Spanish class at a large midwestern university. The CANAL‑S test, FLCAS and SILL surveys were administered to evaluate language learning aptitude, anxiety and learning strategy use. Demographic data and exam grades were also recorded. The data was first analyzed within the framework of a causal model with correlational and multiple regression analyses. A second step involved the evaluation of the relative importance of the learner variables. Third, the validity of the causality postulated between foreign language anxiety and L2 performance was examined. Overall, this paper confirmed the prevailing role played by language learning aptitude and anxiety, and demonstrated the applicability of a multivariate model to analyze the impact of individual differences on L2 performance.

  18. Controllability of Second-Order Equations in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Leiva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple proof of the interior approximate controllability for the following broad class of second-order equations in the Hilbert space L2(Ω: ÿ+Ay=1ωu(t, t∈(0,τ], y(0=y0, ẏ(0=y1, where Ω is a domain in RN(N≥1, y0,y1∈L2(Ω, ω is an open nonempty subset of Ω, 1ω denotes the characteristic function of the set ω, the distributed control u belongs to L2(0,τ;L2(Ω, and A:D(A⊂L2(Ω→L2(Ω is an unbounded linear operator with the following spectral decomposition: Az=∑j=1∞λj∑k=1γj〈z,ϕj,k〉ϕj,k, with the eigenvalues λj given by the following formula: λj=j2mπ2m, j=1,2,3,… and m≥1 is a fixed integer number, multiplicity γj is equal to the dimension of the corresponding eigenspace, and {ϕj,k} is a complete orthonormal set of eigenvectors (eigenfunctions of A. Specifically, we prove the following statement: if for an open nonempty set ω⊂Ω the restrictions ϕj,kω=ϕj,k|ω of ϕj,k to ω are linearly independent functions on ω, then for all τ≥2/πm-1 the system is approximately controllable on [0,τ]. As an application, we prove the controllability of the 1D wave equation.

  19. Non-optionality at Zulu L2 first syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusisiwe Dube

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Valueless Features Hypothesis of Eubank (1993/94; 1994; 1996 proposes that certain types of apparently optional syntactic processes that appear in initial and not in mature state grammars are due to a lack of specification of inflectional feature values at the initial state of grammatical knowledge. Thus the apparent optionality in the placement of medial adverbs vis-a-vis thematic or finite main verbs evident in the early stages of second language (L2 acquisition is attributed to non-transfer of the strength values of morphological features instantiated in the learners' first language (LJ. This paper provides experimental evidence from Zulu L2 acquisition of verb raising by English native speakers, which suggests non-optionality in the early developmental stages of L2 syntax. The paper suggests that the initial obligaloriness of a non-verb raising syntactic analysis evident in the early stages of Zulu L2 acquisition is LJ -based; indicating transfer of [- strong] Vfeatures in T instantiated in English. Die 'Valueless Features Hypothesis' van Eubank' (1993/94; 1994; 1996 stel voor dat sekere tipes skynbare opsionele sintaktiese prosesse wat by aanvanklike grammatikas voorkom, maar nie by grammatikas in 'n gevorderde stadium nie, die gevolg is van 'n gebrek aan spesifikasie van infleksionele kenmerkwaardes tydens die aanvanklike stadium van grammatikale kennis. Derhalwe word die skynbare opsionaliteit in die plasing van tussenbywoorde teenoor tematiese of hoofwerkwoorde in 'npersoonsvorm wat by die vroee stadiums van die aankweek van 'n tweede taal (L2 duidelik blyk, toegeskryf aan die nie-oordrag van die kragwaardes van morfologiese kenmerke wat in die leerder se eerste taal (LJ geinstansieer is. Hierdie skripsie lewer eksperimentele bewyse van werkwoordverheffing by die aanleer van Zulu (L2 deur aangebore Engelssprekendes, wat nie-opsionaliteit in die vroee ontwikkelingstadia van L2- sinsleer suggereer. Die skripsie stel voor dat die

  20. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Fabiana HG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8 month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

  1. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  2. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  3. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  4. What's Behind Spring Festival?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Similar to what the Christmas Day means for the westerners,the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people.This big event according to Chinese traditional lunar calendar relaxes and pleases the whole country as the happiest gathering time of the year.National-wide crusade for going back home,too-difficult-to-get train tickets,generous family-going-out shopping,Miaohui laundering,New Year Eve reunion dinner,visiting friends and relatives,watching annual TV gala……each piece of clue reminds us of the smell of Chinese Spring Festival.

  5. Influence of Syllable Structure on L2 Auditory Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a…

  6. Deconstructing Gender Stereotyping through Literature in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulita, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that literature fosters (inter)cultural learning, few qualitative studies have sought to understand in what ways interculturality is developed. This article investigates the development of Spanish L2 students' intercultural awareness through the reading of a short story entitled "Norma y Ester" by Argentine writer,…

  7. A dynamic usage based perspective on L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspoor, M.H.; Schmid, M.S.; Xu, X.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the contribution that a dynamic usage based (DUB) perspective can bring to the establishment of objective measures to assess L2 learners' written texts and at the same time to gain insight into the dynamic process of language development. Four hundred and thirty

  8. Can Production Precede Comprehension in L2 Acquisition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasseva-Kurktchieva, Mila

    2015-01-01

    So far, the comprehension and production language modes have typically been studied separately in generative second language acquisition research, with the focus shifting from one to the other. This article revisits the asymmetric relationship between comprehension and production by examining the second language (L2) acquisition of the noun phrase…

  9. SemEval 2014 Task 5 - L2 Writing Assistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gompel, M. van; Hendrickx, I.H.E.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den; Lefever, E.; Hoste, V.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new cross-lingual task for SemEval concerning the translation of L1 fragments in an L2 context. The task is at the boundary of Cross-Lingual Word Sense Disambiguation and Machine Translation. It finds its application in the field of computer-assisted translation, particularly in the con

  10. Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Fragnelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.

  11. L2 Processing of Plural Inflection in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoonsang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates (1) whether late second language (L2) learners can attain native-like knowledge of English plural inflection even when their first language (L1) lacks an equivalent and (2) whether they construct hierarchically structured representations during online sentence processing like native speakers. In a self-paced reading task,…

  12. Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

  13. Effects and Student Perceptions of Collaborative Writing in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness and students' perceptions of collaborative writing (CW) in second language (L2). The study involved 38 first year students in two intact classes at a large university in the UAE (United Arab Emirates). One class consisted of 18 students and was considered the experimental group, and the second consisted of…

  14. The Role of Individual Differences in L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Although the role of individual differences in second language (L2) speech has been extensively studied, the impact of individual differences on the process of second language writing and the written product has been a neglected area of research. In this paper, I review the most important individual difference factors that might explain variations…

  15. PEER REVISION OF WRITING IN L2 CLASSROOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Peer revision,a supplementary strategy to teacher revisionof writing in L2 classroom,makes passive receivers of teacherrevision become active revisers,enabling students to involve inmore motivated language learning.Benefits of peer revision andits implications for teacher and student roles are discussed.Thisarticle also tentatively analyzes ways of preparing students foreffective peer revision.

  16. The Teaching of L2 Pronunciation through Processing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Bueno, Manuela; Quintana-Lara, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to pilot test whether the instructional approach known as Processing Instruction could be adapted to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation. The target sounds selected were the Spanish tap and trill. Three groups of high school students of Spanish as a foreign language participated in the study. One group…

  17. The Effectiveness of L2 Pronunciation Instruction: A Narrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ron I.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the efficacy of second language (L2) pronunciation instruction has produced mixed results, despite reports of significant improvement in many studies. Possible explanations for divergent outcomes include learner individual differences, goals and foci of instruction, type and duration of instructional input, and assessment procedures.…

  18. Affective Variables and Japanese L2 Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates how 17 affective factors are related to Japanese second language (L2) reading comprehension and "kanji" knowledge test scores of 43 university students in advanced Japanese courses. Major findings are that: a) reading comprehension ability and "kanji" knowledge have direct associations with…

  19. The Analysis of L2 Learners'Fossilization in Interlanguage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰

    2008-01-01

    The author designed a questionnaire,emailed and interviewed thirty advanced L2 learners who work as L2 lecturers in a university to get a survey on the processing of fossilization in their foreign language learning and teaching from the causes of purpose of learning.teaching tasks and other factors involved.AU of the subjects thought that their coinlnand of the target language was not as good as a native speaker's of target language in many aspects.That is.there existed fossilization among them.However,most of them agreed that their command of the target language was adequate for their professional and communication needs.Results also suggest that fossilization Can be conscious to this group of L2 learners;it is deeply related with the L2 learners'motivations;it can be affected by personal famres such as ages,learning styles and teaching tasks;it is changeable and unpredictable;and jt is diffcult to eradicate.

  20. Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

  1. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  2. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  3. L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

  4. Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

  5. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  6. Using Turnitin to Provide Feedback on L2 Writers' Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, Ilka; Maliborska, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Second language (L2) writing instructors have varying tools at their disposal for providing feedback on students' writing, including ones that enable them to provide written and audio feedback in electronic form. One tool that has been underexplored is Turnitin, a widely used software program that matches electronic text to a wide range of…

  7. Communicative adequacy and linguistic complexity in L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Kuiken; I. Vedder; R. Gilabert

    2010-01-01

    The chapter investigates the relationship between communicative adequacy and linguistic complexity (syntactic complexity, lexical diversity, accuracy) of the written output of L2 writers of Dutch, Italian and Spanish. The main goal of the CALC study (‘Communicative Adequacy and Linguistic Complexity

  8. Developing Intentionality and L2 Classroom Task-Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelma, Juup

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends work on "intentionality", from philosophy, psychology and education to an exploration of learners' meaning-making in L2 classroom task-engagement. The paper draws on both phenomenological and folk-psychological perspectives on intentionality, and employs John R. Searle's intrinsic (mental) and derived (observable)…

  9. Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

  10. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  11. Young L2 learners' performance on a novel morpheme task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Danahy, Kerry

    2007-07-01

    The teaching of an invented language rule has been proposed as a possible non-biased, language-independent assessment technique useful in differentiating young L2 learners with specific language impairment from their typically developing peers. The current study explores these notions by testing typically developing sequential bilingual children's ability to learn an invented language rule in either L1 (Spanish) or L2 (English). Participants were 20 children, age 3:6-5:8, who attended a Head Start programme. For all children, Spanish was the primary language spoken in the home and English was the primary language of instruction. Children were randomly assigned two groups. Group L1 was taught the novel language rule in Spanish; Group L2 was taught the novel language rule in English. Performance was better for the L1 group than for the L2 group. Moreover, not all of these typical language learners were able to learn the new rule, even in their strongest language. These findings suggest that even for typically developing children, specific language proficiency as well as individual differences are closely linked to performance on this novel morpheme learning task.

  12. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  13. New Perspectives on Multilingualism and L2 Acquisition: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zarobe, Leyre Ruiz; de Zarobe, Yolanda Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the description of one of the main features of current multilingualism, complexity, through a selection of issues related to its role in L2 acquisition, as the proper notion of multilingualism, multilingualism as a social phenomenon and multilingualism as a multidimensional phenomenon. We also present several aspects of…

  14. The Laplace transform and polynomial approximation in L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    in play is bounded in a neighbourhood of the origin, then the moments of all order are finite and the class of polynomials is dense in L2. The existence of the moments of all orders is well known for the case where the measure is concentrated in the positive real line (see Feller, 1966), but the result...

  15. Young L2 Learners' Performance on a Novel Morpheme Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, Kathryn; Danahy, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of an invented language rule has been proposed as a possible non-biased, language-independent assessment technique useful in differentiating young L2 learners with specific language impairment from their typically developing peers. The current study explores these notions by testing typically developing sequential bilingual children's…

  16. Implicit Learning of L2 Word Stress Regularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ricky K. W.; Leung, Janny H. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment on the implicit learning of second language stress regularities, and presents a methodological innovation on awareness measurement. After practising two-syllable Spanish words, native Cantonese speakers with English as a second language (L2) completed a judgement task. Critical items differed only in placement of…

  17. L2 English Listening:A Metacognitive Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于红霞

    2014-01-01

    Metacognitive instruction is considered to be an effective approach of teaching listening in L2 context. Related research reports positively about the relation between listening performance and metacognitive instruction. However, when implementing metacognitive instruction in English classrooms in the context of China, there are some aspects deserving our further discussion.

  18. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  19. Hedging, Inflating, and Persuading in L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Eli

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the types and frequencies of hedges and intensifiers employed in NS and NNS academic essays included in a corpus of L1 and L2 student academic texts (745 essays/220,747 words). The overarching goal of this investigation is to focus on these lexical and syntactic features of written discourse because they effectively lend…

  20. (T2L2) Time Transfer by Laser Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillet, Christian; Fridelance, Patricia

    1995-05-01

    T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) is a new generation time transfer experiment based on the principles of LASSO (Laser Synchronization from Synchronous Orbit) and used with an operational procedure developed at OCA (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur) during the active intercontinental phase of LASSO. The hardware improvements could lead to a precision better than 10 ps for time transfer (flying clock monitoring or ground based clock comparison). Such a package could fly on any spacecraft with a stable clock. It has been developed in France in the frame of the PHARAO project (cooled atom clock in orbit) involving CNES and different laboratories. But T2L2 could fly on any spacecraft carrying a stable oscillator. A GPS satellite would be a good candidate, as T2L2 could allow to link the flying clock directly to ground clocks using light, aiming to important accuracy checks, both for time and for geodesy. Radioastron (a flying VLBI antenna with a H-maser) is also envisioned, waiting for a PHARAO flight. The ultimate goal of T2L2 is to be part of more ambitious missions, as SORT (Solar Orbit Relativity Test), aiming to examine aspects of the gravitation in the vicinity of the Sun.

  1. Sociocultural Theory and L2: State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.

    2006-01-01

    This article considers the implications of two central constructs of sociocultural theory (SCT) for second language (L2) development: mediation and internalization. It first discusses Vygotsky's general theoretical claim that human mental activity arises as a consequence of the functional system formed by our biologically specified mental…

  2. Effect of Alignment on L2 Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuming; Wang, Min

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to uncover how L2 writing is affected by alignment, a socio-cognitive process involving dynamic coordination and adaptation. For this, two studies were conducted. Study 1 required two groups of 24 learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to continue in English two stories with their endings removed, both of which had a…

  3. L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

  4. New Perspectives on Multilingualism and L2 Acquisition: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zarobe, Leyre Ruiz; de Zarobe, Yolanda Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the description of one of the main features of current multilingualism, complexity, through a selection of issues related to its role in L2 acquisition, as the proper notion of multilingualism, multilingualism as a social phenomenon and multilingualism as a multidimensional phenomenon. We also present several aspects of…

  5. Strategic Processing and Predictive Inference Generation in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahatame, Shingo

    2014-01-01

    Predictive inference is the anticipation of the likely consequences of events described in a text. This study investigated predictive inference generation during second language (L2) reading, with a focus on the effects of strategy instructions. In this experiment, Japanese university students read several short narrative passages designed to…

  6. Influence of musical training on perception of L2 speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakata, M.; Zanden, L.D.T. van der; Sekiyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study reports specific cases in which a positive transfer of perceptual ability from the music domain to the language domain occurs. We tested whether musical training enhances discrimination and identification performance of L2 speech sounds (timing features, nasal consonants and vowels

  7. Deconstructing Gender Stereotyping through Literature in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulita, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that literature fosters (inter)cultural learning, few qualitative studies have sought to understand in what ways interculturality is developed. This article investigates the development of Spanish L2 students' intercultural awareness through the reading of a short story entitled "Norma y Ester" by Argentine…

  8. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…

  9. Teaching L2 Pragmatics: Opportunities for Continuing Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellenga, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Teaching L2 pragmatics is often not covered in teacher education programs, and is an excellent area for continuing professional development. As part of a larger project on instructed interlanguage pragmatics, volunteer instructor participants were asked to teach a series of lessons on pragmatics to university-aged (19-23) ESL learners in ESL and…

  10. L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrembel, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

  11. Influence of Syllable Structure on L2 Auditory Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a…

  12. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  13. Developing Intentionality and L2 Classroom Task-Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelma, Juup

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends work on "intentionality", from philosophy, psychology and education to an exploration of learners' meaning-making in L2 classroom task-engagement. The paper draws on both phenomenological and folk-psychological perspectives on intentionality, and employs John R. Searle's intrinsic (mental) and derived (observable)…

  14. Institutional Forces and L2 Writing Feedback in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, Jeremie

    2009-01-01

    There has recently been growing interest in the relationship between second language (L2) writing development and the institutional contexts in which this process is embedded. The present study examines this relationship by reporting on an eight-month qualitative investigation of international university students and their perspectives on the…

  15. Facebook Activities and the Investment of L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Latisha Asmaak; Yaacob, Aizan; Singh, Paramjit Kaur Karpal

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the investment of L2 learners in the English language on Facebook that they portrayed through their Facebook activities. It studied four informants consisted of diploma students in a Malaysian university. The study consisted of 14 weeks of online observation and semi-structured interviews. Data were collected from online…

  16. Collaborative Revision in L2 Writing: Learners' Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari Hanjani, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    L2 learning literature has reflected on the problems surrounding the application of teacher written feedback and peer feedback in EFL contexts. To address the disadvantages of these feedback forms, this exploratory case study examined EFL learners' reactions to a collaborative revision activity. Interview data were collected from eight native…

  17. Lexical Aspects of Very Advanced L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Lindqvist, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the possibilities for adult learners to attain nativelikeness in the domain of lexis. Aspects investigated are general lexical knowledge (C-test), receptive deep knowledge, productive collocation knowledge, and productive lexico-pragmatic knowledge in a group of long-residency Swedish French second language (L2)…

  18. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  19. L’ACQUISIZIONE DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI IN ITALIANO L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Jafrancesco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo presenta i risultati di una ricerca sull’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi (SD in italiano L2, condotta su un corpus di parlato di studenti universitari in mobilità accademica, presenti nell’università di Firenze e inseriti in percorsi formativi di italiano L2 presso il Centro Linguistico di Ateneo. Il principale obiettivo dello studio è indagare l’italiano di stranieri relativamente a questo tratto specifico al fine di individuare eventuali sequenze acquisizionali, contribuendo a delineare lo sviluppo della competenza sociopragmatica degli apprendenti nei livelli di competenza proposti nel Quadro comune europeo di riferimento per le lingue (QCER Si analizza, in particolare, l’uso dei SD nel parlato dialogico degli informanti nei Livelli basico, indipendente e competente del QCER – con riferimento al modello tassonomico dei SD proposto da Bazzanella nella Grande grammatica italiana di consultazione (1995, integrato, in relazione allo specifico contesto, con nuove funzioni – evidenziando i principali macrofenomeni emersi, con l’intento inoltre di riflettere su come i dati dell’acquisizione dell’italiano L2 possono rappresentare un punto di riferimento per la definizione di percorsi formativi coerenti con i processi naturali di sviluppo della competenza.Acquisition of discourse markers in Italian L2The paper presents the results of a study on the acquisition of discourse markers (SD in Italian L2 students, conducted on a corpus of spoken language by university students at the University of Florence who attended Italian L2 language course at the University Language Center. The main objective of the study was to investigate the Italian of foreigners in relation to this specific trait in order to identify possible acquisitional sequences, helping shape the development of learners' socio-pragmatic competence levels proposed in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. In particular, we

  20. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  1. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  2. Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, June P., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business…

  3. Editors' Spring Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  4. LA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 A DETENUTI STRANIERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bonfanti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 all’interno degli istituti penitenziari è diventata un’esigenza fondamentale, data la crescente presenza di detenuti stranieri nelle strutture detentive del nostro Paese.Il presente lavoro analizza le peculiarità dell’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 a detenuti stranieri: ruolo e caratteristiche del docente, bisogni e motivazioni dell’apprendente, problematiche legate al contesto specifico di apprendimento. In particolare si intende mettere in evidenza il ruolo primario della scrittura come mezzo fondamentale per svolgere attività quotidiane (padroneggiare regolamenti, richieste, “domandine” e come strumento per la rieducazione.Per meglio comprendere le specificità dell’insegnamento in questo contesto, viene presentato un sillabo per apprendenti detenuti redatto da Antonella Benucci ed in appendice due interviste rivolte a docenti della Casa Circondariale di Monza.TEACHING ITALIAN L2 TO FOREIGN INMATESTeaching Italian L2 in prisons has become a basic need, given the growing number of foreign detainees in Italian prisons.This paper analyzes the peculiarity of teaching Italian L2 to foreign inmates: the teacher’s role and characteristics, the student’s needs and motivations, problems linked to the specific setting. We highlight the primary role of writing as a fundamental means for carrying out daily activities (mastering rules, requests, “small questions” and as a re-education tool.To better understand the specificity of teaching in this context, a syllabus for detainees compiled by Antonella Benucci is presented and there are two interviews with teachers working in a prison in Monza.

  5. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  6. Learning Second Language Suprasegmentals: Effect of L2 Experience on Prosody and Fluency Characteristics of L2 Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Baker, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    This study examines effects of short, medium, and extended second language (L2) experience (3 months, 3 years, and 10 years of United States residence, respectively) on the production of five suprasegmentals (stress timing, peak alignment, speech rate, pause frequency, and pause duration) in six English declarative sentences by 30 adult Korean…

  7. Relationship of L1 Skills and L2 Aptitude to L2 Anxiety on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has been challenged on the grounds that it may also assess language learning skills. In this study, 128 students who had been administered measures of first language (L1) skills in elementary school were followed from 1st to 10th grade. Fifty-three students had completed second language (L2)…

  8. Tracing trajectories: motion event construal by advanced L2 French-English and L2 French-German speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carroll, M.; Weimar, K.; Flecken, M.E.P.; Lambert, M.; Stutterheim, C. von

    2012-01-01

    Although the typological contrast between Romance and Germanic languages as verb-framed versus satellite-framed (Talmy 1985) forms the background for many empirical studies on L2 acquisition, the inconclusive picture to date calls for more differentiated, fine-grained analyses. The present study goe

  9. How stressful is L2 stress? A cross-linguistic study of L2 perception and production of metrical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kijak, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the second language (L2) acquisition of word stress in production and perception, from both a phonological-theoretical and psycholinguistic angle. It investigates how cross-linguistic differences in the (types of) metrical systems of native speakers of a variety of first

  10. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  11. Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

  12. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  13. ALLOPHONIC SPLITS IN L2 PHONOLOGY: THE QUESTION OF LEARNABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K . Iverson

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper is intended as a contribution to the understanding of several wellknown problems relating to the leaming of phonemic contrasts in second language (L2 phonology. The paper describes a series of ongoing studies examining what Lado (1957 hypothesized to represent maximum diffículty in second language pronunciation, narnely, a phonemic split. This is the process involved when an L2 learner must split native language (NL allophones into separate target language (TL phonemes. Two core principles of phonological theory are described and evaluated for their relevante in explaining the series of well-defined, implicationally-related stages involved in a phonemic split. Finally, the paper reports the results of an empirical study designed to test the explanatory adequacy of these principles, and concludes with a discussion of the implications of these studies for second language phonology in general.

  14. Optimally weighted L(2) distance for functional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaihou; Reiss, Philip T; Tarpey, Thaddeus

    2014-09-01

    Many techniques of functional data analysis require choosing a measure of distance between functions, with the most common choice being L2 distance. In this article we show that using a weighted L2 distance, with a judiciously chosen weight function, can improve the performance of various statistical methods for functional data, including k-medoids clustering, nonparametric classification, and permutation testing. Assuming a quadratically penalized (e.g., spline) basis representation for the functional data, we consider three nontrivial weight functions: design density weights, inverse-variance weights, and a new weight function that minimizes the coefficient of variation of the resulting squared distance by means of an efficient iterative procedure. The benefits of weighting, in particular with the proposed weight function, are demonstrated both in simulation studies and in applications to the Berkeley growth data and a functional magnetic resonance imaging data set.

  15. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.

  16. Object Tracking via 2DPCA and l2-Regularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a fast and robust object tracking algorithm by using 2DPCA and l2-regularization in a Bayesian inference framework. Firstly, we model the challenging appearance of the tracked object using 2DPCA bases, which exploit the strength of subspace representation. Secondly, we adopt the l2-regularization to solve the proposed presentation model and remove the trivial templates from the sparse tracking method which can provide a more fast tracking performance. Finally, we present a novel likelihood function that considers the reconstruction error, which is concluded from the orthogonal left-projection matrix and the orthogonal right-projection matrix. Experimental results on several challenging image sequences demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve more favorable performance against state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  17. IL WORKSHOP DI FONETICA IN ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Calabrò

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lavorare sugli aspetti fonetico-fonologici di una lingua straniera sembra essere ritenuta un’impresa abbastanza ardua da parte dei docenti e un lavoro faticosissimo da parte degli apprendenti. Attraverso un’esperienza iniziata con studenti lusofoni del brasile si vuole presentare il workshop di fonetica nell’italiano L2 come proposta di didattica integrativa al fine di sensibilizzare gli studenti ai tratti segmentali e soprasegmentali della L2 a contrasto con quelli della loro L1. Nel presente contributo verranno presentate alcune attività riguardanti la percezione e l’articolazione dei suoni vocalici, la tecnica della proprioception e la presentazione della tabella fonemica per le vocali, le trascrizioni fonetiche e la durata vocalica in sillaba accentata. Tutte le attività prevedono un coinvolgimento personale e totale del singolo apprendente e di tutta la classe in quanto il workshop si avvale di multimodalità, multimedialità e apprendimento collaborativo al fine di scoprire i suoni della L2 e riflettere sulla loro percezione e articolazione.Italian L2/FL phonetic workshopsSecond language phonetics and phonological aspects are considered difficult to teach and learn by teachers and learners respectively. Based on a teaching experience with Brazilian students, this paper aims at presenting phonetic workshops in Italian as a second language to raise consciousness in students about the FL segmental and suprasegmental aspects in contrast to those of their L1. Some activities related to Italian vowels will be presented: perception and articulation, the proprioception technique and the phonemic chart, phonetic transcriptions and vowel length in stressed syllables. The activities involve the students in a more personal, total and physical way in collaboration with their classmates. The workshop designed as multimodal, multimedia and cooperative, aiming at discovering the sounds of the FL and reflecting on the perception and articulation

  18. Feedback in L2 writing: the students' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    Given the disparate views in L2 writing literature on what constitutes effective teacher feedback, this qualitative study approached this issue from the student???s perspective. In order to examine what constitutes effective teacher feedback from the student???s standpoint, fifty-four student responses to three drastically different feedback styles were analyzed. The results of this preliminary study are partially in line with Hyland (1998), since it was found that whethe...

  19. L2 Quality as a Competitive Edge - Project Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove; Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In our paper we would like to present an interdisciplinary project "L2 as a Competitive Edge". We'll be doing this by first giving you a project overview in section 0. The overview will then in the section 1 and 2 be followed by a presentation of two of the most interesting themes, serving as poi...... of departure for further discussion. The two themes are "The evaluation of language quality" and "Method - an Integrated Approach"....

  20. Effects of sentence context in L2 natural speech comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, I.

    2007-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies consistently find N400 effects of semantic incongruity in non-native written language comprehension. Typically these N400 effects are later than N400 effects in native comprehension, suggesting that semantic processing in one’s second language (L2) may be delayed compared to one’s first language (L1). In this study we were firstly interested in replicating the semantic incongruity effect using natural auditory speech, which poses strong demands on the speed of pro...

  1. CLASSIFICATION OF L2 WRITING PROCESS AND WRITING STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Abas, Imelda Hermilinda; Aziz, Noor Hashima Abd

    2017-01-01

    English for second language writing has developed greatly, from product oriented approach to process oriented approach. This implies that the focus of L2 writing has shifted from the final product of writing to the process of writing. Because of its own rules and conventions, writing skill is considered difficult to learn in a short period of time. Although it is a difficult skill, writing is essential for second language learners’ academic success. Second language researchers are still tryin...

  2. T2L2 - Time Transfer by Laser Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, J.; Samain, E.; Bério, Ph.

    2005-12-01

    T2L2 is an experiment based on laser ranging technique coupled with time-frequency metrology. The goal consists in synchronizing ground and space clocks using short light pulses travelling between the ground and a satellite. The instrument will be integrated to the Jason-2 altimetric satellite launched in 2008. The experiment should enhance the performances of time transfert by one or two magnitudes compared to existing microwave techniques like GPS and Two-Way.

  3. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi-Saigo, Miki; Hardison, Debra M.

    2009-01-01

    The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two…

  4. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla López-López

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats.

  5. COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Cobb

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

  6. The new type 2 diabetes gene TCF7L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Jose C

    2007-07-01

    Common variants in the gene that encodes the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) have been strongly associated with type 2 diabetes. This highly reproducible association may uncover novel mechanisms of glycemic pathophysiology. The initial publication of an association of common variants in TCF7L2 with type 2 diabetes in people of European descent has been followed by an avalanche of replication reports. These papers not only confirm the original finding, but also extend it to other populations, fine map the source of the association signal, describe its effect on metabolic parameters in humans, open the door to a more precise molecular characterization, and provide an insight into its possible impact on diabetes therapy. The discovery of TCF7L2 as a diabetes gene illustrates that novel true diabetes genes can be found, their association with type 2 diabetes replicated and their effect incorporated into risk prediction models. It is hoped that the detection of other such genes in genome-wide association scans will help elucidate the genetic architecture of this disease.

  7. CONSIDERAZIONI SULLA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 IN SVIZZERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Maria Pandolfi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo propone alcune considerazioni sulla didattica dell'italiano come L2 in Svizzera, partendo da una breve disamina della posizione che l'italiano ha in Svizzera all'interno del suo territorio e nei Cantoni non italofoni. Si è dunque trattato della didattica dell'italiano L2 in Svizzera abbozzando i tratti principali che caratterizzano la didattica fuori e all'interno del territorio italofono. Si è anche proposta una lista di alcuni lessemi marcati in diatopia che caratterizzano l'italiano in Svizzera, sottolineando come questi e altri tratti più squisitamente sociolinguistici possano indurre a considerare anche l'italiano come una lingua pluricentrica, con le implicazioni che questo concetto ha per la didattica dell'italiano L2 in Svizzera, anche dal punto di vista della riflessione metalinguistica.   The paper proposes some considerations concerning teaching Italian as a second language in Switzerland. Through a brief description of the position of Italian inside the Swiss quadrilingualism the teaching approaches are discussed taking into account the peculiar situation inside and outside the Italian territory. Besides the paper presents a list of some common lexemes diatopically marked inducing, along with sociolinguistic parameters, at considering Italian as a pluricentric language with the implication the concept may have concerning the teaching of Italian as a second language in Switzerland.

  8. L2 OSTC-CPM: Theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The combination of space-time coding (STC) and continuous phase modulation (CPM) is an attractive field of research because both STC and CPM bring many advantages for wireless communications. Zhang and Fitz [1] were the first to apply this idea by constructing a trellis based scheme. But for these codes the decoding effort grows exponentially with the number of transmitting antennas. This was circumvented by orthogonal codes introduced by Wang and Xia [2]. Unfortunately, based on Alamouti code [3], this design is restricted to two antennas. However, by relaxing the orthogonality condition, we prove here that it is possible to design L2-orthogonal space-time codes which achieve full rate and full diversity with low decoding effort. In part one, we generalize the two-antenna code proposed by Wang and Xia [2] from pointwise to L2-orthogonality and in part two we present the first L2-orthogonal code for CPM with three antennas. In this report, we detail these results and focus on the properties of these codes. Of...

  9. Accounting for L2 learners’ errors in word stress placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina Karjo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress placement in English words is governed by highly complicated rules. Thus, assigning stress correctly in English words has been a challenging task for L2 learners, especially Indonesian learners since their L1 does not recognize such stress system. This study explores the production of English word stress by 30 university students. The method used for this study is immediate repetition task. Participants are instructed to identify the stress placement of 80 English words which are auditorily presented as stimuli and immediately repeat the words with correct stress placement. The objectives of this study are to find out whether English word stress placement is problematic for L2 learners and to investigate the phonological factors which account for these problems. Research reveals that L2 learners have different ability in producing the stress, but three-syllable words are more problematic than two-syllable words. Moreover, misplacement of stress is caused by, among others, the influence of vowel lenght and vowel height.

  10. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that the Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula (PN). As one of nearest and brightest AGB stars, and due to its status as a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with AstroBEAR. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution (SED) and synthetic observational images are post-processed from our simulations using the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could emanate from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.

  11. Magnetic Spring Device

    OpenAIRE

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  12. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  13. Effect of L2 phonetic learning on L1 vowels

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Haisheng

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the effect of L2 phonetic learning on L1 vowel production. Mandarin-English bilinguals differing in amount of L1 use produced Mandarin and English vowels. An acoustic analysis showed that both the Mandarin-English bilinguals of high L1 use and those of low L1 use deviated from the norm of Mandarin vowel /i/. The Mandarin-English bilinguals of low L1 use who successfully acquired English vowel /aj/ deviated from the norm of Mandarin vowel /aj/, indicating a carry-over ef...

  14. Strong limit theorems in noncommutative L2-spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jajte, Ryszard

    1991-01-01

    The noncommutative versions of fundamental classical results on the almost sure convergence in L2-spaces are discussed: individual ergodic theorems, strong laws of large numbers, theorems on convergence of orthogonal series, of martingales of powers of contractions etc. The proofs introduce new techniques in von Neumann algebras. The reader is assumed to master the fundamentals of functional analysis and probability. The book is written mainly for mathematicians and physicists familiar with probability theory and interested in applications of operator algebras to quantum statistical mechanics.

  15. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  16. Possible effect of explicit knowledge on L2 learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚冰玉

    2014-01-01

    Ellis (2004) had given a specific working definition of explicit knowledge in the definition and measure-ment of L2 explicit knowledge. He said this kind of knowledge is“the conscious awareness of what a lan-guage or language in general consists of and / or of the roles that it plays in human life.” To be more specific, explicit knowledge is part of declarative memory, and it is stored in the limbic system of the brain. Besides, it is always presented in consciousness and can be verbalized. For example, a L2 learner can point out that in this sentence“The boy plays basketball”.“-S”should be put after the predicate“play”, because the subject of the sentence is the third person singular pronoun. Also, the process of learning explicit knowledge is controlled or monitored. In general, experts test explicit knowledge mainly by grammar. But there are also some other aspects of explicit knowledge that need to be considered, such as the pronunciation, vocabulary, pragmatic features and so on. This essay considers what effect of the as-pects I have mentioned above might have on second language learning.

  17. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Motohashi-Saigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV and auditory-only (A-only Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences. Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu. Results revealed a significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/; c no significant effect of condition; and d no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

  18. Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, John [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States); Pugh, Jerry [Eaton Corporation, Arden, NC (United States)

    2015-03-31

    In 2011, the DOE issued Funding Opportunity DE-FOA-0000554 as a means of addressing two major task areas identified by the Grid Integration Tech Team (GITT) that would help transition Electric vehicles from a market driven by early adopters and environmental supporters to a market with mainstream volumes. Per DE-FOA-0000554, these tasks were: To reduce the cost of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), thereby increasing the likelihood of the build out of EV charging infrastructure. The goal of increasing the number of EVSE available was to ease concerns over range anxiety, and promote the adoption of electric vehicles: To allow EV loads to be managed via the smart grid, thereby maintaining power quality, reliability and affordability, while protecting installed distribution equipment. In December of that year, the DOE awarded one of the two contracts targeted toward commercial EVSE to Eaton, and in early 2012, we began in earnest the process of developing a Smart Grid Enable L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market (hereafter known as the DOE Charger). The design of the Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE was based primarily on the FOA requirements along with input from the Electric Transportation Infrastructure product line (hereafter ETI) marketing team who aided in development of the customer requirements.

  19. L2 Orthogonal Space Time Code for Continuous Phase Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

    2008-01-01

    To combine the high power efficiency of Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) with either high spectral efficiency or enhanced performance in low Signal to Noise conditions, some authors have proposed to introduce CPM in a MIMO frame, by using Space Time Codes (STC). In this paper, we address the code design problem of Space Time Block Codes combined with CPM and introduce a new design criterion based on L2 orthogonality. This L2 orthogonality condition, with the help of simplifying assumption, leads, in the 2x2 case, to a new family of codes. These codes generalize the Wang and Xia code, which was based on pointwise orthogonality. Simulations indicate that the new codes achieve full diversity and a slightly better coding gain. Moreover, one of the codes can be interpreted as two antennas fed by two conventional CPMs using the same data but with different alphabet sets. Inspection of these alphabet sets lead also to a simple explanation of the (small) spectrum broadening of Space Time Coded CPM.

  20. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈影

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process. This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2 learning.

  1. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈影

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process.This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2learning.

  2. Profiles of More and Less Successful L2 Learners: A Cluster Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study examined L1 achievement, intelligence, L2 aptitude, and L2 proficiency profiles of 208 students completing two years of high school L2 courses. A cluster analysis was performed to determine whether distinct cognitive and achievement profiles of more and less successful L2 learners would emerge. The results of…

  3. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  4. Several Moments of the Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛竹晨

    2003-01-01

    Spring has finally fallen on Cambridge. After a long, wet and dark winter, sky finally brightens up. The first messenger of spring is the daffodil (水仙花). English daffodils are slightly different from the Chinese ones that we are all familiar with. First of all, they bloom in spring, not in winter as the Chinese daffodils do. Second, they do not grow in water, but on the ground, though they

  5. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  6. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  7. Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom......Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization...... that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential...

  8. New Physics in {Delta}L = 2 neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delepine, David; Gonzalez Macias, Vannia [Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias de la Universidad de Guanajuato, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Khalil, Shaaban [Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No, 11837, PO Box 43 (Egypt); Lopez Castro, Gabriel [Departamento de Fisica, Cinvestav, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-04-01

    We propose a general framework to constrain {Delta}L = 2 processes by measuring observables associated with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in {pi}{sup {+-}} decays. First, we use this formalism as a new strategy for detecting the CP-violating phases and the effective mass of muon Majorana neutrinos. Within the generic framework of quantum field theory, we compute the non-factorizable probability for producing a pair of same-charged muons in {pi}{sup {+-}} decays as a distinctive signature of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}*{sub {mu}}. Using the neutrino-antineutrino oscillation probability reported by MINOS collaboration, a new stringent bound on the effective muon-neutrino mass is derived. Secondly, we interpret the production of the pair of same-charged muons as a result of lepton number violating (LNV) interactions at the neutrino source, which allow us to constrain New Physics.

  9. Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, M. I., E-mail: mikhaylov-mi@nrcki.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Shchepetov, S. V., E-mail: shch@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  10. Overt and covert contrast in L2 phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports results on the acquisition of the English /p/ - /b/ contrast by native speakers of Arabic. This contrast does not exist in the participants’ native language (NL). The central finding of this study is that some of the research participants exhibited a covert contrast between these segments in their interlanguage productions. That is, two of the five Arabic-speaking participants who were transcribed as having no contrast between [p] and [b] did, in fact, produced a statistically reliable distinction in voice onset time lags between the two target segments. The existence of such an intermediate stage of covert contrast in the learning of L2 phonology is eminently plausible, in view of the progressive nature of phonological acquisition. Our results help bring the learning of second-language contrasts into conformity with findings of the same phenomenon in the areas of L1 acquisition and phonologically disordered speech. PMID:28090439

  11. Overt and covert contrast in L2 phonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Fred R; Iverson, Gregory K; Song, Jae Yung

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports results on the acquisition of the English /p/ - /b/ contrast by native speakers of Arabic. This contrast does not exist in the participants' native language (NL). The central finding of this study is that some of the research participants exhibited a covert contrast between these segments in their interlanguage productions. That is, two of the five Arabic-speaking participants who were transcribed as having no contrast between [p] and [b] did, in fact, produced a statistically reliable distinction in voice onset time lags between the two target segments. The existence of such an intermediate stage of covert contrast in the learning of L2 phonology is eminently plausible, in view of the progressive nature of phonological acquisition. Our results help bring the learning of second-language contrasts into conformity with findings of the same phenomenon in the areas of L1 acquisition and phonologically disordered speech.

  12. Large springs of east Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pao-chang P.; Criner, J.H.; Poole, J.L.

    1963-01-01

    Springs constitute an important source of water in east Tennessee, and many individual springs are capable of supplying the large quantities needed for municipal and industrial supplies. Most of the springs in east Tennessee issue from solution openings and fractured and faulted zones in limestone and dolomite of the Knox Group, Chickamauga Limestone, and Conasauga Group. The ability of these rocks to yield a sustained flow of water to springs is dependent on a system of interconnected openings through which water can infiltrate from the land surface and move to points of natural discharge. Ninety springs were selected for detailed study, and 84 of these are analyzed in terms of magnitude and variability of discharge. Of the 84 springs analyzed, 4 flow at an average rate of 10 to 100 cfs (cubic feet per second), 62 at an average rate of 1 to 10 cfs, and 18 at an average rate of 1 cfs or less. Of the 90 springs, 75 are variable in their discharge; that is, the ratio of their fluctuations to their average discharges exceeds 100 percent. Mathematical analysis of the flow recession curve of Mill Spring near Jefferson City shows that the hydrologic system contributing to the flow of the spring has an effective capacity of about 70 million cubic feet of water. The rate of depletion of this volume of water, in the absence of significant precipitation, averages 0.0056 cfs per day between the time when the hydrologic system is full and the time when the spring ceases to flow. From such a curve it is possible to determine at any time the residual volume of water remaining in the system and the expected rate of decrease in discharge from that time to cessation of flow. Correlation of discharge measurements of 22 springs with those of Mill Spring shows that rough approximations of discharge can be projected for springs for which few measurements are available. Seventeen of the springs analyzed in this manner show good correlation with Mill Spring: that is, their coefficients

  13. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  14. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  15. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Ardissino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about

  16. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Blogging Identity: How L2 Learners Express Themselves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomi FUJII

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses language learning and identity, particularly pertaining to intermediate-advanced-level Japanese-language learners, focusing on their target language and identity expression through their interactions with peers and Japanese college students. When learners of Japanese express their identities while interacting with others in their target language, they feel a gap between the self-image they want to present, and the image they are capable of presenting in Japanese (Siegal, 1994, 1995, 1996. Along with adjusting their L1 and L2 usage depending on their interlocutor (Kurata 2007, learners also use different sentence-ending styles depending on the role they want to assume (Cook 2008. By conducting a case study, the present inquiry attempts to address how learners of Japanese express their identities through blog conversations, focusing on their language choice and expressions. Results suggest that participants use the formal endings for self-presentation and projection of their student and classmate identity. However, when expressing emotion some students preferred informal endings, or sentence-final particles.

  18. Dyadic Bivariate Wavelet Multipliers in L2(R2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Yan LI; Xian Liang SHI

    2011-01-01

    The single 2 dilation wavelet multipliers in one-dimensional case and single A-dilation (where A is any expansive matrix with integer entries and |detA|=2)wavelet multipliers in twodimensional case were completely characterized by Wutam Consortium(1998)and Li Z.,et al.(2010).But there exist no results on multivariate wavelet multipliers corresponding to integer expansive dilation.matrix with the absolute value of determinant not 2 in L2(R2).In this paper,we choose 2I2=(0202)as the dilation matrix and consider the 2I2-dilation multivariate wavelet Ψ={ψ1,ψ2,ψ3}(which is called a dyadic bivariate wavelet)multipliers.Here we call a measurable function family f={f1,f2,f3}a dyadic bivariate wavelet multiplier if Ψ1={F-1(f1ψ1),F-1(f2ψ2),F-1(f3ψ3)} is a dyadic bivariate wavelet for any dyadic bivariate wavelet Ψ={ψ1,ψ2,ψ3},where(f)and,F-1 denote the Fourier transform and the inverse transform of function f respectively.We study dyadic bivariate wavelet multipliers,and give some conditions for dyadic bivariate wavelet multipliers.We also give concrete forms of linear phases of dyadic MRA bivariate wavelets.

  19. Wavelet Decomposition Method for $L_2/$/TV-Image Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Fornasier, M.

    2012-07-17

    In this paper, we show additional properties of the limit of a sequence produced by the subspace correction algorithm proposed by Fornasier and Schönlieb [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 47 (2009), pp. 3397-3428 for L 2/TV-minimization problems. An important but missing property of such a limiting sequence in that paper is the convergence to a minimizer of the original minimization problem, which was obtained in [M. Fornasier, A. Langer, and C.-B. Schönlieb, Numer. Math., 116 (2010), pp. 645-685 with an additional condition of overlapping subdomains. We can now determine when the limit is indeed a minimizer of the original problem. Inspired by the work of Vonesch and Unser [IEEE Trans. Image Process., 18 (2009), pp. 509-523], we adapt and specify this algorithm to the case of an orthogonal wavelet space decomposition for deblurring problems and provide an equivalence condition to the convergence of such a limiting sequence to a minimizer. We also provide a counterexample of a limiting sequence by the algorithm that does not converge to a minimizer, which shows the necessity of our analysis of the minimizing algorithm. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  20. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  1. The perceptual magnet effect (PME) in L2 consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kota

    2005-09-01

    The perceptual magnet effect (PME) has been investigated in conjunction with L1 vowels and consonants. However, there has been a paucity of examinations of the effect in L2 speech perception. The present study used the methodology of Iverson and Kuhl [P. Iverson and P. K. Kuhl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 1130-1140 (1996)] to examine whether Japanese speakers who have had exposure to English-speaking environments for more than 1 year exhibit the PME for /r/ and /l/. Eighteen synthetic stimuli were generated. Ten Japanese speakers and 12 American English speakers participated in an identification and rating task. Each participant engaged in ten experimental sessions (ten sessions of each of the 18 stimuli). They chose either /ra/ or /la/ and gave a rating with a 1-7 scale. They also underwent a similarity scaling task to determine the similarity of 306 pairs of the 18 stimuli with a 1-7 scale. The results indicated that, while the English speakers demonstrated the PME, some native speakers of Japanese did exhibit the PME and prefer some exemplars of English /r/ and /l/ over others. The results also revealed that other Japanese speakers exhibited reorganized perceptual space without the PME.

  2. L2 Learners’ Proficiency Development through Noticing Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saber Alavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the relationship between noticing of corrective feedback and L2 development considering the learners’ perspective on error correction. Specifically, it aimed to uncover the noticeability and effectiveness of recasts, prompts, a combination of the two, to determine a relationship between noticing of CF and learning of the past tense. The participants were four groups of college ESL learners (n = 40. Each group was assigned to a treatment condition, but the researcher taught the control group. CF was provided to learners in response to their mistakes in forming the past tense. While noticing of CF was assessed through immediate recall and questionnaire responses, learning outcomes were measured through picture description administered via pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test design. Learner beliefs about CF were probed by means of a 40-item questionnaire. The results indicated that the noticeability of CF is dependent on the grammatical target it addresses and that the feedback techniques that push learners to self-correct alone or in combination with target exemplars are more effective in. In relation to the learning outcomes, the overall past tense accuracy increased more than that for questions, but there were no significant differences between the groups. Finally, in relation to the beliefs about CF, the participants’ responses centered on the importance of oral CF, recasts as CF technique, prompts as CF technique, and affective consequences of CF, two of which mediated the noticeability of the supplied CF, but none impacted the learning outcomes.

  3. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  4. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  5. New Developments in the SCIAMACHY L2 Ground Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretschany, Sergei; Lichtenberg, Günter; Meringer, Markus; Theys, Nicolas; Lerot, Christophe; Liebing, Patricia; Noel, Stefan; Dehn, Angelika; Fehr, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY) aboard ESA's environmental satellite ENVISAT observed the Earth's atmosphere in limb, nadir, and solar/lunar occultation geometries covering the UV-Visible to NIR spectral range. It is a joint project of Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium and was launched in February 2002. SCIAMACHY doubled its originally planned in-orbit lifetime of five years before the communication to ENVISAT was severed in April 2012, and the mission entered its post-operational phase. In order to preserve the best quality of the outstanding data recorded by SCIAMACHY, data processors are still being updated. This presentation will highlight three new developments that are currently being incorporated into the forthcoming Version 7 of ESA's operational Level 2 processor: 1. Tropospheric BrO, a new retrieval based on the scientific algorithm of (Theys et al., 2011). This algorithm had been originally developed for the GOME-2 sensor and later adapted for SCIAMACHY. The main principle of the new algorithm is to utilize BrO total columns (already an operational product) and split them into stratospheric VCDstrat and tropospheric VCDtrop fractions. BrO VCDstrat is determined from a climatological approach, driven by SCIAMACHY O3 and NO2 observations. VCDtrop is then determined simply as a difference: VCDtrop = VCDtotal - VCDstrat. 2. Improved cloud flagging using limb measurements (Liebing, 2015). Limb cloud flags are already part of the SCIAMACHY L2 product. They are currently calculated employing the scientific algorithm developed by (Eichmann et al., 2015). Clouds are categorized into four types: water, ice, polar stratospheric and noctilucent clouds. High atmospheric aerosol loadings, however, often lead to spurious cloud flags, when aerosols had been misidentified as clouds. The new algorithm will better discriminate between aerosol and clouds. It will also have a higher sensitivity w.r.t. thin clouds. 3. A new

  6. SPRING FESTIVAL ON THE LOESS PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亦西; 杨延康

    2005-01-01

    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  7. L2 Classroom Interaction: A Sociocultural Theoretical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    武田, 礼子

    2015-01-01

    本稿は,社会文化理論から見た外国語学習における教室内相互行為を考察する。まず,学習者の認知的発達が社会的かつ文化的に形成されると論じるヴィゴツキーの社会文化理論の4つの概念である媒介,最近接発達領域,足場掛け,ランゲージングについて論じる。次に社会文化理論からみた外国語学習における相互行為の先行研究を紹介する。ここでは上級者主導の相互行為,異なる母語の学習者間の相互行為,また一人の学習者における自己内省による相互行為を含む。それらの研究を通して学習者間の相互行為の潜在的可能性を考察し,学習の機会を最大限に生かすための提案をする。This article reviews studies on classroom interaction in the L2 classroom from a sociocultural theoretical perspective. These studies posit that a person’s cognitive development is socially and culturally created. The paper first ...

  8. The development of conjunction use in advanced L2 speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Jaroszek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of a longitudinal study of how the use of conjunctions, as an aspect of spoken discourse competence of 13 selected advanced students of English, developed throughout their 3-year English as a foreign language (EFL tertiary education. The analysis was carried out in relation to a number of variables, including 2 reference levels, one representing English native discourse and the other observed in teacher talk in actual EFL classes, language type exposure, as registered by the participants of the study on a weekly basis, and teaching procedures. The study investigated possible factors determining the development of 3 aspects of conjunction use: (a formal conjunctions, (b specific conjunctions, that is, those conjunctions that are both characteristic of natural English discourse and are underrepresented in L2 discourse, and (c conjunction diversity. The results point to a restricting effect of teacher talk on the development of specific conjunction use and conjunction diversity. These 2 aspects of conjunction use enjoyed only a slight rise, approaching the teacher reference level. On the other hand, formal conjunctions use did increase radically throughout the study, exceeding the native reference level. In this case teacher talk played a reinforcing role at most. As indicated in a correlational analysis, although there was a clear tendency of the participants’ development of conjunction use towards the native reference level, exposure to authentic English may not have been facilitative of the development of this discourse aspect. An interesting observation was made with reference to the effect of formal instruction on the development of conjunction use: Although the subjects did receive intensive training in conjunction use in the 1st semester of their EFL course, it was not until the 2nd year that their levels of formal conjunction use in spoken output increased. This suggests that formal instruction may have

  9. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  10. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Do L2 Writing Courses Affect the Improvement of L1 Writing Skills via Skills Transfer from L2 to L1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonca, Altmisdort

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship of second language (L2) writing skills proficiency with the first language (L1) writing skills, in light of the language transfer. The study aims to analyze the positive effects of L2 writing proficiency on L1 writing proficiency. Forty native Turkish-speaking university students participated in the study.…

  12. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.

  13. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  14. Investigating the Role of Multiple Intelligences in Determining Vocabulary Learning Strategies for L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistani, Mahsa; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    This study, first, examined whether there was any relationship between Iranian L2 learners' vocabulary learning strategies (VLSs), on the one hand, and their multiple intelligences (MI) types, on the other hand. In so doing, it explored the extent to which MI would predict L2 learners' VLSs. To these ends, 40 L2 learners from Isfahan University of…

  15. CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

    2009-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

  16. Repetition and Focus on Form in Processing L2 Spanish Words: Implications for Pronunciation Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Gatbonton, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Situated in the context of learning second language (L2) pronunciation, this article discusses from information-processing and pedagogical perspectives the role of repetitive practice with L2 input and of explicit focus on its form-related (phonological) properties. First, we report the results of an auditory word-priming experiment with 60 L2

  17. L^2-Betti numbers of rigid C*-tensor categories and discrete quantum groups (preprint)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyed, David; Raum, Sven; Vaes, Stefaan;

    2017-01-01

    We compute the $L^2$-Betti numbers of the free $C^*$-tensor categories, which are the representation categories of the universal unitary quantum groups $A_u(F)$. We show that the $L^2$-Betti numbers of the dual of a compact quantum group $G$ are equal to the $L^2$-Betti numbers of the representat...

  18. Learning L2 German vocabulary through reading: the effect of three enhancement techniques compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, E.; Hulstijn, J.H.; Sercu, L.; Lutjeharms, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three techniques designed to increase the chances that second language (L2) readers look up and learn unfamiliar words during and after reading an L2 text. Participants in the study, 137 college students in Belgium (L1 = Dutch, L2 = German), were randomly assigned to one of

  19. Effects of Glosses on Learning of L2 Grammar and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jookyoung

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines how glossing of second language (L2) texts affects L2 learners' reading comprehension as well as their learning of L2 grammar and vocabulary. It employed a pretest, immediate posttest, and delayed posttest design with two treatment sessions. The target features were English unaccusativity and 10 pseudo-word items.…

  20. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  1. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  2. Investigating an Innovative Computer Application to Improve L2 Word Recognition from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joshua; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognise words from the aural modality is a critical aspect of successful second language (L2) listening comprehension. However, little research has been reported on computer-mediated development of L2 word recognition from speech in L2 learning contexts. This report describes the development of an innovative computer application…

  3. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  4. Factors Affecting Grammatical and Lexical Complexity of Long-Term L2 Speakers' Oral Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, Cornelia; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Schmid, Monika S.

    2016-01-01

    There remains considerable disagreement about which factors drive second language (L2) ultimate attainment. Age of onset (AO) appears to be a robust factor, lending support to theories of maturational constraints on L2 acquisition. The present study is an investigation of factors that influence grammatical and lexical complexity at the stage of L2

  5. Morphological and Syntactic Transfer in Child L2 Acquisition of the English Dative Alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whong-Barr, Melinda; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2002-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of the English to- and for-dative alternation by native-speaking English, Japanese, and Korean children. Investigates whether second language learners (L2) like native language learners overextend the double-object variant and whether L2 learners, like L2 adults, transfer properties of the native language grammar.…

  6. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  7. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  8. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  9. Individual Variation in L2 Study-Abroad Outcomes: A Case Study from Indonesian Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of two Australian learners of Indonesian during a short stay abroad. It examines their contrasting success in acquiring L2 address terms, in tandem with their contrasting experiences of the L2 culture setting. It thereby helps explain the persistent finding of great individual variation in L2 gains--and in particular pragmatic…

  10. Fish Springs weather CY 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2011 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  11. Fish Springs weather CY 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  12. Steller's Eider spring migration surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual spring aerial surveys were conducted most years from 1992 to 2008, to monitor the population status and habitat use of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri)...

  13. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  14. Unbalanced Bilinguals’ Asymmetric Associations Between L2 Words for Taxonomic Categories of Basic and Superordinate Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The revised hierarchical model seems different from the distributed conceptual feature model in predicting how unbalanced bilinguals would be aware of semantic relations between words for taxonomic categories of basic level (exemplar words and words for those of superordinate level (category names in L2. We did a series of four experiments to compare unbalanced bilinguals’ awareness of conceptual relations between exemplar words and between exemplar words and category names in their first (L1 and second language (L2. A priming task of semantic categorization was adopted, and the participants were 72 college students, who began to learn L2 in classroom settings at a late age and achieved an L2 proficiency between intermediate and advanced levels. The reaction times indicated that the participants could automatically process not only the exemplar-word but also the category-name primes in L2. Activations of semantic representations for the category names in L2 seemed to spread to those for the exemplar words in L1 and L2, but activations of semantic presentations for the exemplar words in L2 spread only to those for the example words in L1 for the participants. It was concluded that unbalanced bilinguals appear to have developed asymmetric associations between category names and exemplar words in L2. The implication is that L2 learners should learn L2 words mainly by means of using the language and not taking rote memory of isolated words.

  15. Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroni, Antonio; Rengo, Chiara; Guida, Valentina; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Calderon, Fernando Luna; Simionati, Barbara; Valle, Giorgio; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2a–L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups. PMID:11595973

  16. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  17. PD-L2: A prognostic marker in chromophobe renal cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlmeier, Franziska; Weichert, Wilko; Autenrieth, Michael; Wiedemann, Max; Schrader, Andres Jan; Hartmann, Arndt; Ivanyi, Philipp; Steffens, Sandra

    2017-05-01

    In the context of cancer immunotherapy, PD-1 as well as PD-L1 has been widely studied in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). PD-1 and PD-L1 play a significant role as prognostic markers in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. In contrast, little is known about PD-L2 expression patterns in RCC, especially in rarer subtypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, distribution and prognostic impact of PD-L2 expression in chromophobe (ch)RCC. Eighty-one patients who underwent renal surgery due to chRCC were retrospectively evaluated. Tumor specimens were analyzed for PD-L2 expression by immunohistochemistry. Expression data were associated with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival (OS). Twenty-three (28.4%) patients showed a PD-L2 > median (PD-L2 high) staining intensity. No significant association between clinicopathological parameters and PD-L2 expression was identified. A significant difference between 5- and 10-year OS in dependence of PD-L2 expression was found (PD-L2 low 96.4 and 87.7% vs. PD-L2 high 87.1 and 56%; log rank, p = 0.029). However, in multivariate analysis PD-L2 expression failed to be proofed as an independent prognostic factor. In conclusion, to our knowledge this is the first study evaluating the prognostic impact of PD-L2 in a considerably large cohort of chRCC. Our results showed a significant diminished OS in dependence of PD-L2 expression. This implicates that PD-L2 might play a role as prognostic marker in chRCC demanding further evaluation.

  18. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Souza de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  19. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Schwarz, J. M.; Das, Moumita

    2014-12-01

    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, px and py, for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of px and py. We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  20. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  1. Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2

    OpenAIRE

    Kyria Rebeca Finardi

    2008-01-01

    This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000) whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms ...

  2. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  3. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood – A behavioral and ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko eGrimaldi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM, acoustic similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2 and the native language (L1 governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination.

  4. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  5. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  6. SPring-8 twin helical undulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, T; Tanaka, T; Tanabe, T; Maréchal, X M; Kumagai, K; Kitamura, H

    1998-05-01

    There are several ways of producing circularly polarized light, such as using asymmetric devices, crossed undulators etc. The SPring-8 helical undulator introduces a simple way of producing both horizontal and vertical fields in one undulator. All the magnet arrays are arranged above and below the plane of the electron orbit, so there is no limitation of access from the sides of the undulator. For the SPring-8 BL25SU, two helical undulators will be installed in tandem, and the helicity of the polarization can be switched at up to 10 Hz using five kicker magnets.

  7. Embedded aspect in L2 acquisition: Evidence from L1 Russian learners of Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviatlana Karpava

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates first language (L1 influence on the second language (L2 acquisition of aspect, comparing participants with homogeneous L1 background (Russian in Mainland Greece (L2 Standard Modern Greek and Cyprus (L2 Cypriot Greek, where verb complementation takes a finite form instead of an infinitival as is possible in Russian. Focus of the experimental study lies on embedded environments, which require only perfective aspect in Greek but allow either perfective or imperfective in Russian. The findings support the Full Transfer/Full Access Hypothesis, according to which aspect is part of Universal Grammar and L2 learners can reach native-like attainment due to access to it, while at the initial stage of L2 acquisition transfer from L1 into L2 takes place.

  8. An Introduction of Zoltán D?rnyei's L2 Motivational Theories%An Introduction of Zoltán Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓磊; 周密

    2016-01-01

    Professor Zoltán D?rnyei is an influential researcher of L2 learning motivation. Since 1990s, he put forward several important L2 learning motivational theories and made special contribution to this field. This paper introduces his four L2 learn-ing motivational theories:1)Three-level framework of L2 motivation;2) Process model of L2 motivation;3)The L2 Motivation-al Self System;4) Directed Motivational Currents (DMC).

  9. The Application of Bottom-up and Top-down Processing in L2 Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温颖茜

    2008-01-01

    Listening comprehension is one of the four basic skills for language learning and is also one of the most difficult tasks L2 learners ever experienced.L2 listening comprehemion is a cognitvive process,in which listeners use both bottom-up andtop-downprocessing to comprehend the auraltext.Thepaper focmes on the applicationof the two approaches in L2 lis-tening comprehemiom

  10. Diction and Expression in Error Analysis Can Enhance Academic Writing of L2 University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Without proper linguistic competence in English language, academic writing is one of the most challenging tasks, especially, in various genre specific disciplines by L2 novice writers. This paper examines the role of diction and expression through error analysis in English language of L2 novice writers’ academic writing in interdisciplinary texts of IT & Computer sciences and Business & Management sciences. Though the importance of vocabulary in L2 academic discourse is widely recognized, the...

  11. Effects of Different Reading Purposes on L2 Learners’IVA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei

    2015-01-01

    According to the former studies, there are many factors having effects on second language (L2) learners’incidental vo⁃cabulary acquisition (IVA). This paper is aimed to reveal how reading a text with different purposes might affect IVA of L 2 learn⁃ers. The results of this study show that there is a closed relationship between the efficiency of IVA and reading purposes. Besides, it also has something to do with L2 learners’reading abilities.

  12. A Subspace Embedding Method in L2 Norm via Fast Cauchy Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a subspace embedding method via Fast Cauchy Transform (FCT in L2 norm. It is motivated by and complements the work of the subspace embedding method in Lp norm, for all p∈[1,∞] except p = 2, by K. L. Clarkson (ACM-SIAM, 2013. Unlike the traditionally used orthogonal basis in Johnson-Lindenstrauss (JL embedding, we employ the well-conditioned basis in L2 norm to obtain concentration property of FCT in L2 norm.

  13. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misun

    2010-01-01

    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  14. Working memory capacity and speech production in L2: evidences from a picture description task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyria Finardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental study which aimed at investigating theralationsship between working memory capacity and measuresof L2 speech performance in a picture description task. The mainassumption underlying the present study was that L2 speaking isa complex cognitive task which is carried out within theconstraints of a limited-capacity system, namely, working memory.In this system, there are trade-off effects between the storage andprocessing functions of working memory just as in L2 speakingthere are trade-off effects among fluency, accuracy and complexitywhen L2 learners perform under processing pressure.

  15. A Study of the Differences Between Children's L1 and Adults'L2 in SLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙岩; 马炳军

    2015-01-01

    The differences between children's L1 acquisition and adults'L2 acquisition based on a qualitative analysis are dis-cussed and compared.Through systematic review of the relevant literature in light of the theories of L1 and L2 acquisition between children and adults,and analysis of the factors both influencing children's L1 and adults'L2 acquisition.The findings show that two different acquisitions are distinguished in such aspects as in acquisition age,device,mode,environment and motivation,which conclude that children's L1 acquisition is effortless while adults'L2 acquisition is painful.

  16. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  17. Sources of antibiotics: Hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Girish B; Balachandran, Lakshmi

    2017-06-15

    The discovery of antibiotics heralded an era of improved health care. However, the over-prescription and misuse of antibiotics resulted in the development of resistant strains of various pathogens. Since then, there has been an incessant search for discovering novel compounds from bacteria at various locations with extreme conditions. The soil is one of the most explored locations for bioprospecting. In recent times, hypersaline environments and symbiotic associations have been investigated for novel antimicrobial compounds. Among the extreme environments, hot springs are comparatively less explored. Many researchers have reported the presence of microbial life and secretion of antimicrobial compounds by microorganisms in hot springs. A pioneering research in the corresponding author's laboratory resulted in the identification of the antibiotic Fusaricidin B isolated from a hot spring derived eubacteria, Paenibacillus polymyxa, which has been assigned a new application for its anti-tubercular properties. The corresponding author has also reported anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activity of 73 bacterial isolates from hot springs in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  19. NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of…

  20. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  1. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  2. The RNA-binding protein, ZFP36L2, influences ovulation and oocyte maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Ball

    Full Text Available ZFP36L2 protein destabilizes AU-rich element-containing transcripts and has been implicated in female fertility. In the C57BL/6NTac mouse, a mutation in Zfp36l2 that results in the decreased expression of a form of ZFP36L2 in which the 29 N-terminal amino acid residues have been deleted, ΔN-ZFP36L2, leads to fertilized eggs that arrest at the two-cell stage. Interestingly, homozygous ΔN-Zfp36l2 females in the C57BL/6NTac strain release 40% fewer eggs than the WT littermates (Ramos et al., 2004, suggesting an additional defect in ovulation and/or oocyte maturation. Curiously, the same ΔN-Zfp36l2 mutation into the SV129 strain resulted in anovulation, prompting us to investigate a potential problem in ovulation and oocyte maturation. Remarkably, only 20% of ΔN-Zfp36l2 oocytes in the 129S6/SvEvTac strain matured ex vivo, suggesting a defect on the oocyte meiotic maturation process. Treatment of ΔN-Zfp36l2 oocytes with a PKA inhibitor partially rescued the meiotic arrested oocytes. Furthermore, cAMP levels were increased in ΔN-Zfp36l2 oocytes, linking the cAMP/PKA pathway and ΔN-Zfp36l2 with meiotic arrest. Since ovulation and oocyte maturation are both triggered by LHR signaling, the downstream pathway was investigated. Adenylyl cyclase activity was increased in ΔN-Zfp36l2 ovaries only upon LH stimulation. Moreover, we discovered that ZFP36L2 interacts with the 3'UTR of LHR mRNA and that decreased expression levels of Zfp36l2 correlates with higher levels of LHR mRNA in synchronized ovaries. Furthermore, overexpression of ZFP36L2 decreases the endogenous expression of LHR mRNA in a cell line. Therefore, we propose that lack of the physiological down regulation of LHR mRNA levels by ZFP36L2 in the ovaries is associated with anovulation and oocyte meiotic arrest.

  3. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  4. Transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 is a regulator of macroautophagy genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Marta; Jiménez-Moreno, Natalia; García-Yagüe, Ángel J.; Escoll, Maribel; de Ceballos, María L.; Van Leuven, Fred; Rábano, Alberto; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Rojo, Ana I.; Cuadrado, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autophagy is a highly coordinated process that is controlled at several levels including transcriptional regulation. Here, we identify the transcription factor NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) as a regulator of autophagy gene expression and its relevance in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease (AD) that reproduces impaired APP (amyloid β precursor protein) and human (Hs)MAPT/TAU processing, clearance and aggregation. We screened the chromatin immunoprecipitation database ENCODE for 2 proteins, MAFK and BACH1, that bind the NFE2L2-regulated enhancer antioxidant response element (ARE). Using a script generated from the JASPAR's consensus ARE sequence, we identified 27 putative AREs in 16 autophagy-related genes. Twelve of these sequences were validated as NFE2L2 regulated AREs in 9 autophagy genes by additional ChIP assays and quantitative RT-PCR on human and mouse cells after NFE2L2 activation with sulforaphane. Mouse embryo fibroblasts of nfe2l2-knockout mice exhibited reduced expression of autophagy genes, which was rescued by an NFE2L2 expressing lentivirus, and impaired autophagy flux when exposed to hydrogen peroxide. NFE2L2-deficient mice co-expressing HsAPPV717I and HsMAPTP301L, exhibited more intracellular aggregates of these proteins and reduced neuronal levels of SQSTM1/p62, CALCOCO2/NDP52, ULK1, ATG5 and GABARAPL1. Also, colocalization of HsAPPV717I and HsMAPTP301L with the NFE2L2-regulated autophagy marker SQSTM1/p62 was reduced in the absence of NFE2L2. In AD patients, neurons expressing high levels of APP or MAPT also expressed SQSTM1/p62 and nuclear NFE2L2, suggesting their attempt to degrade intraneuronal aggregates through autophagy. This study shows that NFE2L2 modulates autophagy gene expression and suggests a new strategy to combat proteinopathies. PMID:27427974

  5. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Willem eVan Leussen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2 speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1 along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners’ awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general.

  6. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general.

  7. Lepton flavour violating decays of $\\mu$ and $\\tau$ lepton in a gauge group $SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times SU_l(2)$

    CERN Document Server

    Fayyazuddin,

    2016-01-01

    A model for electroweak unification based on gauge group $ SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times SU_l(2) $ for leptons is formulated. The group $SU_l(2)$ is in the lepton space.The left handed leptons and anti-leptons are assigned to the fundamental representation $(2,2,\\bar{2})$ of the group.The left- right symmetric gauge group $ SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times U_{Y_1}(1) $ is contained in the above group for leptons. Out of three vector bossons $ Y_\\mu^\\pm $,$Y_{3\\mu}$ of $SU_l(2)$,the charged vector bosons $Y_\\mu^\\pm$ mediate the lepton number violating $ \\mu$ and $\\tau$ decays. The neutral vector bosson $ Y_{3\\mu}$ with coupling constant $ g_{Y}$ plays the same role as the vector bosson $B_{1\\mu}$ with coupling constant $g_1$ associated with Abelian part $ U_{Y_1}(1)$ with $Y_1=\\mp1$ for leptons and anti leptons. The left handed quarks and anti quarks are assigned to representations (2,1) and (1,2) with $Y_1=\\pm \\frac{1}{3}$ of the left-right symmetric gauge group. The lepton number violating $\\mu~and~\\tau$ decays sim...

  8. 哺乳动物FoxL2基因的分子进化分析%Molecular Evolution Analysis for Mammal FoxL2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽; 刘静; 张向伟; 黄林艳; 李蓉; 李成磊; 王勤

    2015-01-01

    本研究以FoxL2基因为研究对象,选取GenBank公布的26个物种的FoxL2基因氨基酸序列,代表脊椎动物中5纲15目21科24属,重点分析哺乳动物中该基因的结构与功能相关性以及其系统发育情况.结果表明:26条FoxL2基因序列存在非常保守的forkhead结构域,哺乳类比非哺乳动物多出丙氨酸、甘氨酸及脯氨酸重复区,其中多聚丙氨酸束的缩短可能与Ⅰ型BPES相关,而多聚丙氨酸束的延伸使核内蛋白错位和细胞质聚集导致Ⅱ型BPES.FoxL2含有较多磷酸化位点,推测其在体内的活性可能是通过磷酸化调控的.FoxL2基因氨基酸序列构建的系统发育树中亲缘关系较近的物种能够较好的聚在一起.

  9. L1-L2 Convergence in Clausal Packaging in Japanese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L1-L2 convergence among bilinguals at an intermediate (CEFR-B2) level of L2 proficiency, focusing on the clausal packaging of Manner and Path of motion. Previous research has shown cross-linguistic differences between English and Japanese in this domain (Allen et al., 2003; Kita & Ozyurek, 2003, though note Brown &…

  10. The Role of Phonology and Phonetics in L2 Kanji Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether emphasizing the phonetic components of "kanji," Chinese characters used in Japanese, facilitates second language (L2) learners' novel character learning. Previous L2 studies on Chinese characters indicate that phonology plays a major part in word identification. However, this view remains controversial,…

  11. Estimativos L^2 para una clase de operadores pseudodiferenciales definidos en el toro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duván Cardona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establecen estimativos L 2 para operadores pseudodiferenciales definidos en el toro. Los operadores considerados surgen del estudio de operadores entre grupos abelianos localmente compactos. Abstract. In this work we establish L 2 estimates from pseudo-differential operators defined on the torus. Such operators arise from the study of operators on locally compact abelian groups.

  12. Looking for the Big Picture: Macrostrategies for L2 Teacher Observation and Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Spencer; Mercado, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive body of literature in TESOL studies the different paradigms that drive second language (L2) teachers' conceptualizations of their professional identities and practice, there is still a need for more research into how L2 supervisors construct the realities of supervision and how their interpretations of those realities inform…

  13. Native Speakers’ Perceptions of Fluency and Accent in L2 Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinget, A.C.H.; Bosker, H.R.; Quené, H.; de Jong, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    Oral fluency and foreign accent distinguish L2 from L1 speech production. In language testing practices, both fluency and accent are usually assessed by raters. This study investigates what exactly native raters of fluency and accent take into account when judging L2. Our aim is to explore the relat

  14. L2-proficiency-dependent laterality shift in structural connectivity of brain language pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, H.; Leeuwen, T.M. van; Dediu, D.; Roberts, L.; Norris, D.G.; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests

  15. L1 Use in L2 Vocabulary Learning: Facilitator or Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of L1 use on L2 vocabulary teaching. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of L1 can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and the bilingual method (both English explanation and Chinese…

  16. The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jee Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In the field of second language acquisition (SLA), "comprehensible input" (Krashen, 1985) has been considered a critical factor to help learners acquire foreign and second languages (L2). From this perspective, the notion of extensive or free voluntary reading (Day & Bamford, 1998; Krashen, 1993) has emerged that L2 learners should be given more…

  17. The Effects of Corrective Feedback on Instructed L2 Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew H.; Lyster, Roy

    2016-01-01

    To what extent do second language (L2) learners benefit from instruction that includes corrective feedback (CF) on L2 speech perception? This article addresses this question by reporting the results of a classroom-based experimental study conducted with 32 young adult Korean learners of English. An instruction-only group and an instruction + CF…

  18. ESP Students' Views on Online Language Resources for L2 Text Production Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, Inna; Presas, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    The use of online language resources for L2 text production purposes is a recent phenomenon and has not yet been studied in depth. Increasing availability of new online resources seems to be changing the very nature of L2 text production. The traditional dictionary, hitherto a default resource to help with language doubts, is being left behind…

  19. Older Learners in SLA Research: A First Look at Working Memory, Feedback, and L2 Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Alison; Sachs, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research into second-language (L2) development focuses on the role of cognitive factors and other individual differences. Studies of children and prime-of-life adult L2 learners suggest that differences exist in the learning processes of these groups. However, to date, little empirical work has been conducted with older adult…

  20. A Study of Relationships between L1 Pragmatic Transfer and L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiemin

    2012-01-01

    Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners' proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese…

  1. Differences in process and process-product relations in L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.; van den Bergh, H.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Sanders, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether writers vary how they write under influence of the changing task situation when writing in a second language (L2) and, if so, whether differences in the way they write are related to variations in text quality. Twenty first year students wrote four texts each in their L2

  2. Twelve Activities for Teaching the Pragmatics of Complaining to L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Pragmatic competence, or the ability to use language appropriately in a variety of contexts, is a critical skill for communication in a second language (L2). Thus, teaching that focuses on developing students' abilities to communicate effectively in an L2 must also include a focus on developing students' pragmatic competence. This article…

  3. L1 use during L2 writing: an empirical study of a complex phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.; van den Bergh, H.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Sanders, T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers’ use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and

  4. Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Basturkmen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    In postgraduate study, students including L2 students are often required to write a thesis and, as a growing literature reveals, L2 students often experience difficulties in the writing of this genre. While most of this research has involved surveys (questionnaires and interviews) and case studies of supervisor perceptions, only a few studies have…

  5. Web-Based Collaborative Writing in L2 Contexts: Methodological Insights from Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Soobin; Warschauer, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The increasingly widespread use of social software (e.g., Wikis, Google Docs) in second language (L2) settings has brought a renewed attention to collaborative writing. Although the current methodological approaches to examining collaborative writing are valuable to understand L2 students' interactional patterns or perceived experiences, they can…

  6. Societal Responses to Adult Difficulties in L2 Acquisition: Toward an Evolutionary Perspective on Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…

  7. The Influence of Schema and Cultural Difference on L1 and L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Reading in L1 shares numerous basic elements with reading in L2, and the processes also differ greatly. Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both L1 and L2. This paper examines how reading in L1 is different from and similar to reading…

  8. L1 use during L2 writing: an empirical study of a complex phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Weijen; H. van den Bergh; G. Rijlaarsdam; T. Sanders

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers’ use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and

  9. The Role of Noticing and Attention in the Acquisition of L2 Grammatical Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁慧

    2012-01-01

    The discussion in the literature on the question of how L2 grammatical knowledge is acquired has been influenced by the issue of noticing and attention. This article gives an overview of the important role of noticing and attention in L2 acquisition.

  10. L1 English/L2 Spanish: Orthography-Phonology Activation without Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Christine

    2017-01-01

    We consider how orthography activates sounds that are in a noncontrastive relationship in the second language (L2) and for which only one variant exists in the first language (L1). Participants were L1 English / L2 Spanish and native Spanish listeners. Intervocalically, Spanish graphemes "b d g" correspond phonetically to stops and…

  11. The Role of Phonology and Phonetics in L2 Kanji Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether emphasizing the phonetic components of "kanji," Chinese characters used in Japanese, facilitates second language (L2) learners' novel character learning. Previous L2 studies on Chinese characters indicate that phonology plays a major part in word identification. However, this view remains controversial,…

  12. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research into language acquisition and oral language use was examined in order to identify key factors that contribute to the successful acquisition of second language (L2) listening ability. The factors were grouped into three major domains: affective, cognitive, and interpersonal. It is claimed that in each domain, proficient L2 listeners have…

  13. Processing Strategies by Beginning L2 Learners of English and Spanish: A Crosslinguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Anel

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in second language acquisition (SLA) research is the relationship between morphosyntactic and lexical-semantic knowledge among L2 learners. It has been proposed that, L2 language acquisition starts with transfer of L1 semantic and morphosyntactic processing strategies; however, it has been observed that, at lower proficiency…

  14. Long-Term Crosslinguistic Transfer of Skills from L1 to L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…

  15. L2 Academic Discourse Socialization through Oral Presentations: An Undergraduate Student's Learning Trajectory in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides an in-depth, longitudinal account of an undergraduate student's L2 discourse socialization in an academic exchange program in Canada. By invoking Rogoff's (1995) notion of participatory appropriation, this qualitative case study examined an L2 student's task-related strategies and performance as they evolved over time in…

  16. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  17. L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2

  18. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  19. Dispersion and Frequency: Is There Any Difference as Regards Their Relation to L2 Vocabulary Gains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Mármol, Gema

    2015-01-01

    Despite the current importance given to L2 vocabulary acquisition in the last two decades, considerable deficiencies are found in L2 students' vocabulary size. One of the aspects that may influence vocabulary learning is word frequency. However, scholars warn that frequency may lead to wrong conclusions if the way words are distributed is ignored.…

  20. Beyond barriers : Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in long-term L2 speakers' speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmann, Cornelia Milli Marie Antonia

    2015-01-01

    It remains to be a puzzling question why some people are more successful in learning a second language (L2) than others and under which conditions. In my dissertation I studied the effects of several factors, including the starting age of learning a L2, the amount of continued exposure to the first

  1. Working Memory Effects in the L2 Processing of Ambiguous Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates whether and how L2 sentence processing is affected by memory constraints that force serial parsing. Monitoring eye movements, we test effects of working memory on L2 relative-clause attachment preferences in a sample of 75 late-adult German learners of English and 25 native English controls. Mixed linear regression…

  2. Concatenative and Nonconcatenative Plural Formation in L1, L2, and Heritage Speakers of Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas

    2014-01-01

    This study compares Arabic L1, L2, and heritage speakers' (HS) knowledge of plural formation, which involves concatenative and nonconcatenative modes of derivation. Ninety participants (divided equally among L1, L2, and heritage speakers) completed two oral tasks: a picture naming task (to measure proficiency) and a plural formation task. The…

  3. Effects of Age of L2 Acquisition on L1 Event Conceptualization Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish-L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint…

  4. Emergent L2 German Writing Ability in a Curricular Context: A Longitudinal Study of Grammatical Metaphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports on a study of emergent adult instructed L2 German writing ability in a college-level program that developed an explicit curriculum-based approach to supporting L2 writing. It uses systemic-functional linguistics (SFL) as its theoretical framework and traces writing development through a central construct in the theory, the…

  5. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning.

  6. Diction and Expression in Error Analysis Can Enhance Academic Writing of L2 University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Without proper linguistic competence in English language, academic writing is one of the most challenging tasks, especially, in various genre specific disciplines by L2 novice writers. This paper examines the role of diction and expression through error analysis in English language of L2 novice writers' academic writing in interdisciplinary texts…

  7. Differences in process and process-product relations in L2 writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weijen, D.; van den Bergh, H.; Rijlaarsdam, G.; Sanders, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether writers vary how they write under influence of the changing task situation when writing in a second language (L2) and, if so, whether differences in the way they write are related to variations in text quality. Twenty first year students wrote four texts each in their L2

  8. The Effect of Technology-Supported Co-Sharing on L2 Vocabulary Strategy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Strategies play an important role in learning a second or foreign language (L2). The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a co-sharing-based strategy learning system for L2 vocabulary learning known as "Mywordtools." Mywordtools is designed specifically for lexical learning, enabling learners to use the currently…

  9. The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

  10. Beyond barriers : Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in long-term L2 speakers' speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmann, Cornelia Milli Marie Antonia

    2015-01-01

    It remains to be a puzzling question why some people are more successful in learning a second language (L2) than others and under which conditions. In my dissertation I studied the effects of several factors, including the starting age of learning a L2, the amount of continued exposure to the first

  11. Isolated and Integrated Form-Focused Instruction: Effects on Different Types of L2 Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina; Jessop, Lorena; Tomita, Yasuyo; Suzuki, Wataru; Valeo, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of two types of form-focused instruction (FFI) on second language (L2) learning and their potential contributions to the development of different types of L2 knowledge. Both types of instruction were pre-emptive in nature, that is planned and teacher generated. In Integrated FFI attention to form was embedded…

  12. Word Boundaries in L2 Speech: Evidence from Polish Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic and perceptual studies investgate B2-level Polish learners' acquisition of second language (L2) English word-boundaries involving word-initial vowels. In production, participants were less likely to produce glottalization of phrase-medial initial vowels in L2 English than in first language (L1) Polish. Perception studies employing word…

  13. Unconventional Expressions: Productive Syntax in the L2 Acquisition of Formulaic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Stringer, David

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a generative analysis of the acquisition of formulaic language as an alternative to current usage-based proposals. One influential view of the role of formulaic expressions in second language (L2) development is that they are a bootstrapping mechanism into the L2 grammar; an initial repertoire of constructions allows for…

  14. The Role of Hypercorrection in the Acquisition of L2 Phonemic Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

    2013-01-01

    This article reports empirical findings from an ongoing investigation into the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonemic contrasts. Specifically, we consider the status and role of the phenomenon of hypercorrection in the various stages through which L2 learners develop and internalize a target language (TL) contrast. We adopt the prevailing…

  15. Exploring Learner Factors in Second Language (L2) Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Aiping; Guo, Ying; Biales, Carrie; Olszewski, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the predictive role of several learner factors in second language (L2) incidental vocabulary acquisition through reading: L2 proficiency, motivation, anxiety, and mastery of strategies. Participants were 129 English learners in a comprehensive university in China. Participants read two English texts and were given an…

  16. Long-term convergence of speech rhythm in L1 and L2 English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quené, H; Orr, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    When talkers from various language backgrounds use L2 English as a lingua franca, their accents of English are expected to converge, and talkers’ rhythmical patterns are predicted to converge too. Prosodic convergence was studied among talkers who lived in a community where L2 English is used predom

  17. Becoming 'American-Italian": An Immigrant's Narrative of Acquiring English as an L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicucci, Ann N.

    2012-01-01

    This article tells the story of a child immigrant's L2 acquisition process. The narrative demonstrates the effects of social and academic factors on motivation to acquire an L2 and the result of immigration at a young age on cultural identity formation. The article begins by discussing the need for research into sociocultural factors in the second…

  18. The Role of L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2014-01-01

    A native language can be learned effortlessly, while a second language is always difficult for people to learn. L1 literacy may impede or promote L2 literacy learning. This paper discusses the role L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning.

  19. L2/FL Teacher Education: Bridging the complexities of Teaching and the Learning of Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n1p11 Research on approaches to and the complexities of second and foreign language (L2/FL teaching has dominated the field of L2/FL teacher education for much of its history. (...

  20. Crystal Structures of Intermediates in the Dehalogenation of Haloalkanoates by L-2-Haloacid Dehalogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, Ivo S.; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Kalk, Kor H.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1999-01-01

    The L-2-haloacid dehalogenase from the 1,2-dichloroethane-degrading bacterium Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 catalyzes the hydrolytic dehalogenation of small L-2-haloalkanoates to their corresponding D-2-hydroxyalkanoates, with inversion of the configuration at the C2 atom. The structure of the

  1. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Instructed L2 Learning: The English Modals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrea; Mueller, Charles M.; Ho, Vu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental effects-of-instruction study examining the efficacy of applying a Cognitive Linguistic (CL) approach to L2 learning of the semantics of English modals. In spite of their frequency in typical input, modal verbs present L2 learners with difficulties, party due to their inherent…

  2. Unconventional Expressions: Productive Syntax in the L2 Acquisition of Formulaic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Stringer, David

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a generative analysis of the acquisition of formulaic language as an alternative to current usage-based proposals. One influential view of the role of formulaic expressions in second language (L2) development is that they are a bootstrapping mechanism into the L2 grammar; an initial repertoire of constructions allows for…

  3. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, H.; Leeuwen, T.M. van; Dediu, D.; Roberts, L.; Norris, D.G.; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests

  4. L2-proficiency-dependent laterality shift in structural connectivity of brain language pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiang, H.; Leeuwen, T.M. van; Dediu, D.; Roberts, L.; Norris, D.G.; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests

  5. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  6. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  7. College Students' Possible L2 Self Development in an EFL Context during the Transition Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of second language learning motivation, the studies on process-oriented nature of possible L2 selves are scarce. In order to address this research gap, this study explored how a group of five Chinese non-English-major undergraduates developed their possible L2 selves during the transition year from high school to university. The…

  8. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  9. Translation assistance by translation of L1 fragments in an L2 context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gompel, M. van; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present new research in translation assistance. We describe a system capable of translating native language (L1) fragments to foreign language (L2) fragments in an L2 context. Practical applications of this research can be framed in the context of second language learning. The type

  10. Corrective Feedback in L2 Latvian Classrooms: Teacher Perceptions versus the Observed Actualities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilans, Gatis

    2016-01-01

    This two-part study aims to investigate teacher perceptions about providing oral corrective feedback (CF) to minority students of Latvian as a second language and compare the perceptions to the actual provision of CF in L2 Latvian classrooms. The survey sample represents sixty-six L2 Latvian teachers while the classroom observations involved 13…

  11. The Interaction of Instruction and Learner-Internal Factors in the Acquisition of L2 Morphosyntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Paul D.

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of instruction, second language (L2) input, first language (L1) transfer, and universal grammar in development of L2 morphosyntactic knowledge. Specifically investigates the acquisition of the Spanish morpheme "se" by English-speaking adult learners. (Author/VWL)

  12. Construction of a Rated Speech Corpus of L2 Learners' Spontaneous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Su-Youn; Pierce, Lisa; Huensch, Amanda; Juul, Eric; Perkins, Samantha; Sproat, Richard; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second language (L2) learners of English. Spontaneous speech was collected from 28 L2 speakers representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels. Speech was elicited using formats similar to that of the TOEFL iBT and the Speaking…

  13. Investigating the Pedagogical Potential of Recasts for L2 Vowel Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Lyster, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Whereas second language (L2) education research has extensively examined how different types of interactional feedback can be facilitative of L2 development in meaning-oriented classrooms, most of these primary studies have focused on recasts (i.e., teachers' reformulations of students' errors). Some researchers have claimed that recasts serve an…

  14. Older Learners in SLA Research: A First Look at Working Memory, Feedback, and L2 Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Alison; Sachs, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of research into second-language (L2) development focuses on the role of cognitive factors and other individual differences. Studies of children and prime-of-life adult L2 learners suggest that differences exist in the learning processes of these groups. However, to date, little empirical work has been conducted with older adult…

  15. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2

  16. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  17. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research into language acquisition and oral language use was examined in order to identify key factors that contribute to the successful acquisition of second language (L2) listening ability. The factors were grouped into three major domains: affective, cognitive, and interpersonal. It is claimed that in each domain, proficient L2 listeners have…

  18. Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitchener, John; Basturkmen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    In postgraduate study, students including L2 students are often required to write a thesis and, as a growing literature reveals, L2 students often experience difficulties in the writing of this genre. While most of this research has involved surveys (questionnaires and interviews) and case studies of supervisor perceptions, only a few studies have…

  19. Writing in an Electronic Age: A Case Study of L2 Composing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Studies on second language (L2) learners writing in English have found that composing is a recursive process requiring planning, formulating and revising. Of particular note among the many studies that have explored the composing processes of L2 writers are two characteristics: 1) They examine the composing processes of writers in real-time while…

  20. Descriptive and Criterion-Referenced Self-Assessment with L2 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Vanderplank, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Brantmeier [Brantmeier, C., 2006. "Advanced L2 learners and reading placement: self-assessment, computer-based testing, and subsequent performance." 'System 34" (1), 15-35] found that self-assessment (SA) of second language (L2) reading ability is not an accurate predictor for computer-based testing or subsequent classroom performance. With 359…

  1. Convergence and Divergence of Process and Portfolio Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction: Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In the L2 writing literature, there has been a rich history of scholarship in theory, research and practice since the 1960s. Two of the most prominent L2 writing approaches are process and portfolio pedagogy. The former approach promotes the use of diverse writing strategies (e.g. pre-writing) to enhance student writers' expression and fluency.…

  2. Convergence and Divergence of Process and Portfolio Approaches to L2 Writing Instruction: Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ricky

    2015-01-01

    In the L2 writing literature, there has been a rich history of scholarship in theory, research and practice since the 1960s. Two of the most prominent L2 writing approaches are process and portfolio pedagogy. The former approach promotes the use of diverse writing strategies (e.g. pre-writing) to enhance student writers' expression and fluency.…

  3. Acquisition of L2 Vowel Duration in Japanese by Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that focused perceptual training facilitates L2 learners' segmental perception and spoken word identification. Hardison (2003) and Motohashi-Saigo and Hardison (2009) found benefits of visual cues in the training for acquisition of L2 contrasts. The present study examined factors affecting perception and production…

  4. Perceptual Paths to Accurate Production of L2 Vowels: The Role of Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wendy; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether individual differences in learners' age of arrival (AOA) and length of residence (LOR) in a country where a second language (L2) is spoken determine the relationship between L2 perception and production. In the first experiment, 40 Korean learners of English and 10 native English speakers participated in vowel…

  5. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

  6. Effects of Varying Text Difficulty Levels on Second Language (L2) Reading Attitudes and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Min-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of varying text difficulty on L2 reading attitudes and reading comprehension. To provide the optimal challenge for L2 reading, comprehensible input hypothesis postulates that choosing text slightly harder than the learner's current level will enhance reading comprehension. Fifty-four freshmen from one university…

  7. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  8. L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2

  9. The production and processing of determiner-noun agreement in child L2 Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, E.; Vasić, N.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has shown that children who learn Dutch as their second language (L2) have difficulties with Dutch grammatical gender. This study shows that six to nine year old L2 Dutch children whose first language (L1) is Turkish noticed incorrect gender agreement between determiner and noun only

  10. Language Interference and Language Learning Techniques Transfer in L2 and L3 Immersion Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Toubkin, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between the first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) language in immersion programs for Russian-speaking students in Israel. Two parallel and similar immersion programs, which were carried out for the same population, but with different target languages (L2 Hebrew and L3 English), are described. Presents tentative…

  11. Factors Affecting Grammatical and Lexical Complexity of Long-Term L2 Speakers’ Oral Proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmann, Cornelia; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Schmid, Monika

    2016-01-01

    There remains considerable disagreement about which factors drive second language (L2) ultimate attainment. Age of onset (AO) appears to be a robust factor, lending support to theories of maturational constraints on L2 acquisition. The present study is an investigation of factors that influence gram

  12. Early Child L2 Acquisition: Age or Input Effects? Neither, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores whether there is evidence for age and/or input effects in child L2 acquisition across three different linguistic domains, namely morphosyntax, vocabulary, and syntax-semantics. More specifically, it compares data from English-speaking children whose age of onset to L2 Dutch was between one and three years with data from…

  13. Effects of Web-Based Collaborative Writing on Individual L2 Writing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikowski, Dawn; Vithanage, Ramyadarshanie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of repeated in-class web-based collaborative writing tasks on second language writers' (L2) individual writing scores. A pre-test post-test research model was used in addition to participant surveys, class observations, and teacher interviews. Participants included 59 L2 writers in a writing class at a large U.S.…

  14. NFE2L2 polymorphisms, mortality, and metabolism in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figarska, Sylwia M.; Vonk, Judith M.; Boezen, Hendrika

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2 or NRF2) gene regulates transcription of enzymes involved in cellular detoxification and lipids homeostasis. NFE2L2 is associated with pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore we studied the

  15. The vulnerability of gender on determiners in L1, 2L1 and L2 acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, E.; Hulk, A.

    2009-01-01

    The acquisition of gender has been reported to be problematic for some groups of learners acquiring Germanic or Romance languages. It has been shown that L1 learners do better in gender acquisition than others, like bilingual children, child L2 learners and adult L2 learners. The reason for these di

  16. From Number Agreement to the Subjunctive: Evidence for Processability Theory in L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to typological plausibility of Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998, 2005) by providing empirical data that show that the stages predicted by PT are followed in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish syntax and morphology. In the present article, the PT stages for L2 Spanish morphology and syntax are first…

  17. Islands and Objects in L2 Spanish: Do You Know the Learners Who Drop___?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jason; Iverson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This study tests native Brazilian Portuguese (BP) speakers of second language (L2) Spanish in the domain of phonologically null object pronouns. This is a worthwhile first language (L1)-L2 pairing given that these languages are historically and typologically related and both seemingly allow for object drop. Nevertheless, the underlying syntax of…

  18. L1-L2 Convergence in Clausal Packaging in Japanese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L1-L2 convergence among bilinguals at an intermediate (CEFR-B2) level of L2 proficiency, focusing on the clausal packaging of Manner and Path of motion. Previous research has shown cross-linguistic differences between English and Japanese in this domain (Allen et al., 2003; Kita & Ozyurek, 2003, though note Brown &…

  19. The vulnerability of gender on determiners in L1, 2L1 and L2 acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, E.; Hulk, A.

    2009-01-01

    The acquisition of gender has been reported to be problematic for some groups of learners acquiring Germanic or Romance languages. It has been shown that L1 learners do better in gender acquisition than others, like bilingual children, child L2 learners and adult L2 learners. The reason for these

  20. Cross-Linguistic Variation and the Acquisition of Pronominal Reference in L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegerski, Jill; VanPatten, Bill; Keating, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    The current investigation tested two predictions regarding second language (L2) processing at the syntax-discourse interface: (1) that L2 performance on measures of interface phenomena can differ from that of native speakers; and (2) that cross-linguistic influence can be a source of such divergence. Specifically, we examined the offline…

  1. Becoming 'American-Italian": An Immigrant's Narrative of Acquiring English as an L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicucci, Ann N.

    2012-01-01

    This article tells the story of a child immigrant's L2 acquisition process. The narrative demonstrates the effects of social and academic factors on motivation to acquire an L2 and the result of immigration at a young age on cultural identity formation. The article begins by discussing the need for research into sociocultural factors in the second…

  2. The Impact of CLIL on L2 Vocabulary Development and Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether students involved in CLIL are able to learn content through the medium of L2 and simultaneously exhibit significant gains in L2 vocabulary knowledge. Two experiments were set up in two public primary schools. Two groups of 6th grade students participated in each experiment. The first group was taught three 80-minute…

  3. L2 Reading Perceptions of Learners of Japanese: The Influence of the Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata-Sandom, Mitsue

    2015-01-01

    The nature of learning to read in a second and foreign language (L2) can be more challenging when compared to learning other subjects. Therefore, the influence of instruction given in L2 classrooms cannot be underestimated. A balanced instruction needs to be taken in order to develop learners' reading proficiency and their motivation to read. This…

  4. The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeehwan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines (1) the effects of hypertext gloss use on L2 vocabulary acquisition in computerized reading contexts; (2) which specific combination of either text-only (single) or text + visual (multiple) hypertext glosses is more effective on L2 vocabulary acquisition; and (3) potential moderators to systematically account for between study…

  5. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  6. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  7. L2 Decay for Weak Solutions of the Boussinesq Equations%Boussinesq方程组弱解的L2衰减

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖; 李军; 杜健; 詹环

    2012-01-01

    利用付立叶分解方法(Fourier splitting method)研究Boussinesq方程组Cauchy问题弱解的L2衰减.%We first get the uniform L2 decay of the smooth solutions. Then we can actually obtain the L2 decay for weak solutions by passing limit of the approximate sequences of solutions. The main tool used is the Fourier splitting method. We first consider the large-time behavior of the temperature of the Boussinesq equations,based on which we can obtain,under some assumption of the decay rate of given f,the large time behavior of the velocity vector field.

  8. Identification of a new DPY19L2 mutation and a better definition of DPY19L2 deletion breakpoints leading to globozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghédir, Houda; Ibala-Romdhane, Samira; Okutman, Ozlem; Viot, Géraldine; Saad, Ali; Viville, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze DPY19L2 sequence variants to investigate the mechanism leading to the entire DPY19L2 deletion in a large cohort of infertile globozoospermic patients. An improved analysis of the DPY19L2 deletion breakpoints (BPs) allowed us to identify two BPs located in a small 1 kb region and to more precisely localize the BPs reported previously. Three genes [spermatogenesis associated 16 (SPATA16), protein interacting with PRKCA (PICK1) and DPY19L2] were previously correlated with globozoospermia, but a homozygous deletion of the entire DPY19L2 was identified as the most frequent alteration causing this phenotype. In addition, several point mutations in this gene were reported. In previous work, we have identified nine BPs for the DPY19L2 deletion clustered in two hotspot regions, while others reported a total of five BPs. We screened for the DPY19L2 deletion and for mutations in the DPY19L2, SPATA16 and PICK1 genes in a cohort of 21 Tunisian globozoospermic patients. In order to characterize the DPY19L2 deletion BPs, we sequenced a 2 kb fragment on low copy repeat (LCR) 1 and LCR2 in Tunisian fertile controls to distinguish between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and LCR-specific markers. Molecular analyses performed on 18 genetically independent individuals showed that 11 (61.1%) were homozygous for the DPY19L2 deletion, 2 (11.1%) were homozygous for the non-synonymous mutation (p.R298C) in exon 8, 1 patient (5.6%) was homozygous for a new splice-site mutation at the junction exon-intron 16 [c.1579_1580+4delAGGTAAinsTCAT] and no DPY19L2, SPATA16 or PICK1 mutations were identified for 4 patients (22.2%). By defining 15 specific LCR markers, we characterized 2 BPs for the DPY19L2 deletion in 11 patients showing the homozygous deletion. Using 20 non-LCR-specific SNPs, we identified 8 distinct haplotypes. A limitation of this study is the small number of patients owing to the rarity of this form of male infertility. Our data showed

  9. A mouse model of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a disorder of metabolite repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Rzem

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, due to a defect in L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, by creating and studying a mouse model of this disease. L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase-deficient mice (l2hgdh-/- accumulated L-2-hydroxyglutarate in tissues, most particularly in brain and testis, where the concentration reached ≈ 3.5 μmol/g. Male mice showed a 30% higher excretion of L-2-hydroxyglutarate compared to female mice, supporting that this dicarboxylic acid is partially made in males by lactate dehydrogenase C, a poorly specific form of this enzyme exclusively expressed in testes. Involvement of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase in the formation of L-2-hydroxyglutarate was supported by the commensurate decrease in the formation of this dicarboxylic acid when down-regulating this enzyme in mouse l2hgdh-/- embryonic fibroblasts. The concentration of lysine and arginine was markedly increased in the brain of l2hgdh-/- adult mice. Saccharopine was depleted and glutamine was decreased by ≈ 40%. Lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase, which converts lysine to saccharopine, was inhibited by L-2-hydroxyglutarate with a Ki of ≈ 0.8 mM. As low but significant activities of the bifunctional enzyme lysine-α-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase were found in brain, these findings suggest that the classical lysine degradation pathway also operates in brain and is inhibited by the high concentrations of L-2-hydroxyglutarate found in l2hgdh-/- mice. Pathological analysis of the brain showed significant spongiosis. The vacuolar lesions mostly affected oligodendrocytes and myelin sheats, as in other dicarboxylic acidurias, suggesting that the pathophysiology of this model of leukodystrophy may involve irreversible pumping of a dicarboxylate in oligodendrocytes. Neurobehavioral testing indicated that the mice mostly suffered from a deficit in learning

  10. Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: behavioural predictors and neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-12-01

    Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. L1+L2正则化逻辑斯蒂模型分类算法%Logistic Model Classification Algorithm via L1+L2 Regularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建伟; 付捷; 罗雄麟

    2012-01-01

    提出一种L1+L2范数正则化逻辑斯蒂模型分类算法.该算法引入L2范数正则化,解决L1正则化逻辑斯蒂算法迭代过程奇异问题,通过引入样本向量的扩展和新的权值向量完成L1范数非平滑问题,最终使用共轭梯度方法求解经过转化的最优化问题.在各种实际数据集上的实验结果表明,该算法优于L2范数、L1范数和Lp范数正则化逻辑斯蒂模型,具有较好的特征选择和分类性能.%This paper proposes an L1+L2 norm regularized logistic model classification algorithm, and the singularity of iterative process in LI norm regularized logistic classification algorithm is solved by using L2 norm regularization. The non-smooth problem is transformed into smooth one via argumentation of vector of samples and introduction of new weight vector, and classification object function is solved using the conjugate gradient method. Performance of classification and feature selection on real datasets shows that the algorithm is better than L2 norm, LI nrom and Lp norm regularized logistic model.

  12. Nucleic localization of human papillomavirus minor capsid protein L2%人乳头瘤病毒次要衣壳蛋白L2核定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫东; 井申荣

    2012-01-01

    在人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)次要衣壳蛋白L2的N端和C端,有大量带正电荷的氨基酸残基组成核定位信号(nuclear localization signal,NLS).细胞的核结构域10 (nuclear domain 10,ND10)是细胞周期和病毒生活周期的重要调节者.L2定位到ND10的过程不仅会受到早幼粒细胞白血病蛋白(promyleocytic leukaemia protein,PML)、死亡结构域相关蛋白(death domain-associated protein,Daxx)、Sp100核抗原(Sp100 nuclear antigen)等细胞蛋白的影响,也会与L1在ND10发生相互作用.在HPV感染和组装过程中,L2的核定位信号有着重要作用.%The nuclear localization signal, NLS, which is composed of many amino acids with positive charge residue, is located in both ends of N terminus and C terminus of the human papillomavirus minor capsid protein L2. The nuclear domain 10, ND-10, which is in the cell nucleus, is an important modulator of both cell cycle and virus cyclogeny. The process of the locating of L2 to ND-10, is not only impacted by the cell proteins, such as the promyelocytic leukemia protein, death domain-associated protein Daxx, nuclear antigen Sp100, but also interacts with L1 in ND-10. The NLS of L2 plays a significant role during the HPV virus assembly course.

  13. The L(2,1)-labeling Problem on Several Classes of Graphs%关于几类图的L(2,1)标号问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵振东; 刘家壮

    2004-01-01

    An L(2,1) labeling of a graph G is a function f from the vertex set V(G) to the set of all nonnegative integers such that | f(x) - f(y)|≥ 2 ifd(x,y) = 1 and |f(x) - f(y) |≥ 1 if d(x,y) = 2. The L(2,1)- labeling number λ(G) of G is the smallest number k such that G has an L(2,1)-labeling with max{ f(v): v ∈ V(G)) = k. Griggs and Yeh conjecture thatλ(G) ≤△2 for any simple graph with maximum degree△. In this paper, we derive the upper bounds of λ(G) of Kneser graph,Mycielski graph,Descartes graph, Halin graph, and prove that the conjecture is true for the above several classes of graphs.%图G的L(2,1)标号是一个从顶点集V(G)到非负整数集的函数f(x),使得若d(x,y)=1,则 |f(x)-f(y)|≥2;若d(x,y)=2,则 |f(x)-f(y)|≥1.图G的L(2,1)-标号数λ(G)是使得G有max{f(v):v∈V(G)}=k的L(2,1)标号中的最小数k.Griggs和Yeh猜想对最大度为△的一般图G,有λ(G)≤△2.本文给出了Kneser图,Mycieklski图,Descartes图,Halin图的λ值的上界,并证明了上述猜想对以上几类图成立.

  14. Fish Springs NWR Water Use Report : 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for 2010. A general background is presented on historical spring water...

  15. L2-Trigger Time Study Based on Motion Prediction%基于运动预测的L2-Trigger触发时机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚胜; 唐宏

    2011-01-01

    针对Ad hoc网络存在的切换问题,有文献提出L2-Trigger方法提前触发三层切换从而降低切换时延,但触发时机不明确.本文介绍了切换的基本流程,提出了基于运动预测的方法.通过引入移动模型并对L2-Trigger的触发时机进行仿真和分析,说明了该方法的简单和可行性.

  16. VLPs displaying a single L2 epitope induce broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies against human papillomavirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Tumban

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Virus-like Particles (VLPs display can be used to increase the immunogenicity of heterologous antigens. Here, we report the use of a bacteriophage MS2-based VLP display platform to develop a monovalent vaccine targeting a broadly neutralizing epitope in the minor capsid protein human papillomavirus (HPV that provides broad protection from diverse HPV types in a mouse pseudovirus infection model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peptides spanning a previously described cross-neutralizing epitope from HPV type 16 were genetically inserted at the N-terminus of MS2 bacteriophage coat protein. Three of the four recombinant L2-coat proteins assembled into VLPs. L2-VLPs elicited high-titer anti-L2 antibodies in mice, similar to recombinant VLPs that we had previously made in which the L2 peptide was displayed on a surface-exposed loop on VLPs of a related bacteriophage, PP7. Somewhat surprisingly, L2-MS2 VLPs elicited antibodies that were much more broadly cross-reactive with L2 peptides from diverse HPV isolates than L2-PP7 VLPs. Similarly, mice immunized with L2-MS2 VLPs were protected from genital and cutaneous infection by highly diverse HPV pseudovirus types. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that peptides can be displayed in a highly immunogenic fashion at the N-terminus of MS2 coat protein VLPs. A VLP-based vaccine targeting HPV L2 elicits broadly cross-reactive and cross-protective antibodies to heterologous HPV types. L2-VLPs could serve as the basis of a broadly protective second generation HPV vaccine.

  17. TCF7L2 Regulates Late Events in Insulin Secretion From Pancreatic Islet β-Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Loder, Merewyn K.; McDonald, Angela; Tarasov, Andrei I.; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Kronenberger, Katrin; Barg, Sebastian; Rutter, Guy A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Polymorphisms in the human TCF7L2 gene are associated with reduced insulin secretion and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms by which TCF7L2 affect insulin secretion are still unclear. We define the effects of TCF7L2 expression level on mature β-cell function and suggest a potential mechanism for its actions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS TCF7L2 expression in rodent islets and β-cell lines was altered using RNAi or adenoviral transduction. β-Cell gene profiles were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and the effects on intracellular signaling and exocytosis by live cell imaging, electron microscopy, and patch clamp electrophysiology. RESULTS Reducing TCF7L2 expression levels by RNAi decreased glucose- but not KCl-induced insulin secretion. The glucose-induced increments in both ATP/ADP ratio and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were increased compared with controls. Overexpression of TCF7L2 exerted minor inhibitory effects on glucose-regulated changes in [Ca2+]i and insulin release. Gene expression profiling in TCF7L2-silenced cells revealed increased levels of mRNA encoding syntaxin 1A but decreased Munc18–1 and ZnT8 mRNA. Whereas the number of morphologically docked vesicles was unchanged by TCF7L2 suppression, secretory granule movement increased and capacitance changes decreased, indicative of defective vesicle fusion. CONCLUSION—TCF7L2 is involved in maintaining expression of β-cell genes regulating secretory granule fusion. Defective insulin exocytosis may thus underlie increased diabetes incidence in carriers of the at-risk TCF7L2 alleles. PMID:19168596

  18. TCF7L2 regulates late events in insulin secretion from pancreatic islet beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Xavier, Gabriela; Loder, Merewyn K; McDonald, Angela; Tarasov, Andrei I; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Kronenberger, Katrin; Barg, Sebastian; Rutter, Guy A

    2009-04-01

    Polymorphisms in the human TCF7L2 gene are associated with reduced insulin secretion and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms by which TCF7L2 affect insulin secretion are still unclear. We define the effects of TCF7L2 expression level on mature beta-cell function and suggest a potential mechanism for its actions. TCF7L2 expression in rodent islets and beta-cell lines was altered using RNAi or adenoviral transduction. Beta-cell gene profiles were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and the effects on intracellular signaling and exocytosis by live cell imaging, electron microscopy, and patch clamp electrophysiology. Reducing TCF7L2 expression levels by RNAi decreased glucose- but not KCl-induced insulin secretion. The glucose-induced increments in both ATP/ADP ratio and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were increased compared with controls. Overexpression of TCF7L2 exerted minor inhibitory effects on glucose-regulated changes in [Ca2+]i and insulin release. Gene expression profiling in TCF7L2-silenced cells revealed increased levels of mRNA encoding syntaxin 1A but decreased Munc18-1 and ZnT8 mRNA. Whereas the number of morphologically docked vesicles was unchanged by TCF7L2 suppression, secretory granule movement increased and capacitance changes decreased, indicative of defective vesicle fusion. TCF7L2 is involved in maintaining expression of beta-cell genes regulating secretory granule fusion. Defective insulin exocytosis may thus underlie increased diabetes incidence in carriers of the at-risk TCF7L2 alleles.

  19. Topography of the Human Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 during Vesicular Trafficking of Infectious Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiuseppe, Stephen; Keiffer, Timothy R.; Bienkowska-Haba, Malgorzata; Luszczek, Wioleta; Guion, Lucile G. M.; Müller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid is composed of the major capsid protein L1 and the minor capsid protein L2. During entry, the HPV capsid undergoes numerous conformational changes that result in endosomal uptake and subsequent trafficking of the L2 protein in complex with the viral DNA to the trans-Golgi network. To facilitate this transport, the L2 protein harbors a number of putative motifs that, if capable of direct interaction, would interact with cytosolic host cell factors. These data imply that a portion of L2 becomes cytosolic during infection. Using a low concentration of digitonin to selectively permeabilize the plasma membrane of infected cells, we mapped the topography of the L2 protein during infection. We observed that epitopes within amino acid residues 64 to 81 and 163 to 170 and a C-terminal tag of HPV16 L2 are exposed on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes, whereas an epitope within residues 20 to 38, which are upstream of a putative transmembrane region, is luminal. Corroborating these findings, we also found that L2 protein is sensitive to trypsin digestion during infection. These data demonstrate that the majority of the L2 protein becomes accessible on the cytosolic side of intracellular membranes in order to interact with cytosolic factors to facilitate vesicular trafficking. IMPORTANCE In order to complete infectious entry, nonenveloped viruses have to pass cellular membranes. This is often achieved through the viral capsid protein associating with or integrating into intracellular membrane. Here, we determine the topography of HPV L2 protein in the endocytic vesicular compartment, suggesting that L2 becomes a transmembrane protein with a short luminal portion and with the majority facing the cytosolic side for interaction with host cell transport factors. PMID:26246568

  20. Top 5 Spring Festival Customs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小明

    2016-01-01

    The Spring Festival is the largest and most important festival in China.It is the first day of the lunar calendar~1 and usually occurs somewhere between January30 and February 20,heralding~2 the beginning of spring,thus it is known as the Spring Festival.1.Spring Couplets On the Chinese New Year,families in China decorate their front doors with poetic couplets

  1. An Evaluation of Chinese Spring Festival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳蕊

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,many Chinese people felt that Spring Festival is bored;feeling of celebrating Spring Festival is not as strong as before.Some experts stated that the physical part of Spring Festival shrouded the cultural celebrations.This article analysis the phenomenon through comparing how Chinese people had Spring Festivals in the past and now,and comparing different economic status Chinese people have in these two periods.

  2. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    KAUST Repository

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian

    2014-11-15

    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  3. KUNMING: The City of Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  4. The Arab Spring in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Elsa Annaklara; Hansen, Ditte Ingemann

    2013-01-01

    This project contains analysis and discussion of several social movements in Jordan. The uprising in Jordan and demands for more democratization are inspired by the Arab Spring observed in the Middle East. The most highlighted Jordanian social movements being the religious Muslim Brotherhood, the radical Salafi Movement and the newly proclaimed Popular Mobilization. Questions concerning the identification of them, their goals and ways of mobilizing and the hindrances for these movements to mo...

  5. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  6. Controlling proteins through molecular springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the mechanical control of proteins-the notion of controlling chemical reactions and processes by mechanics-is conceptually interesting. We give a brief review of the main accomplishments so far, leading to our present approach of using DNA molecular springs to exert controlled stresses on proteins. Our focus is on the physical principles that underlie both artificial mechanochemical devices and natural mechanisms of allostery.

  7. Strategic Studies Quarterly- Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bordering Afghanistan. A number of analysts agree that if conflict breaks out with India, Pakistan would immediately rede - ploy...the military should not risk its capacity to fight just to become an instrument of social progress but at the same rook pride in ending the...the " social experiments" conducted during his tenure are not yet known. The former Secretary STRATEGIC STUDIES QuARTERLY + SPRING 2016 [ 149] Book

  8. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  9. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  10. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  11. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, Remko; Banabic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  12. Radon in Himalayan springs: a geohydrological control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, V.M.; Bartarya, S.K. [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Physics

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents the results of radon measurements in springs of the Himalayan region by using radon emanometry technique. The radon was measured in different springs, draining from different geohydrological setups, and from stream water in order to find the geohydrological control over radon concentration in groundwater emanating in the form of spring. The radon values were found to vary from 0.4 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l, being observed lowest for a turbulent stream and highest for the spring. The radon values were recorded highest in the springs draining through gneiss, granite, mylonite, etc. Radon concentrations have been related with four spring types viz. fracture-joint related spring, fault-lineament related spring, fluvial related spring and colluvial related spring, showing geohydrological characteristics of the rocks through which they are emanating. The high radon concentration in fracture-joint and fault-lineament springs is related to increased ratio of rock surface area to water volume and uranium mineralisation in the shear zones present in the close vicinity of fault and thrust. The low concentration of radon in fluvial and colluvial springs is possibly because of high transmissivity and turbulent flow within such deposits leading to natural de-emanation of gases. (orig.)

  13. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijskamp, S.; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  14. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original...

  15. Skillful Use of Imagery in Two Odes to Spring--Comment on The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯海荣

    2002-01-01

    The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring are two lyrics that sing the praise of spring. The common feature of the two lyrics is that the two poets depict a series of pictures of the sweet spring by rich and varied imagery for readers.When these pictures are presented to readers ,readers feel as if they are participating in them,and the enchanting beauty of spring makes readers feel intoxicated with happiness. The two poets express their different feelings toward nature.

  16. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  17. Disaggregation modelling of spring discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirilova Bojilova Elena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Disaggregation models are basically divided into three main groups: temporal, spatial and temporal-spatial. The focus of this paper is the application of temporal disaggregation models to disaggregate the seasonal flow in some large time intervals to sub-seasonal flows in some shorter time intervals. Two basic models are applied: the original model of Mejia and Rousselle and the corrected extended Lin model one-stage disaggregation. The flow totals from some karstic springs are used. Data for five springs in different areas of Bulgaria for the aims of the study are executed. The synthetic data generation for the chosen spring stations for a new realisation of thirty years is obtained. The multi-variate lag-one auto regressive model (AR(1 model is applied for generation of the annual flow sequences. The Lin model single- site is performed for thirty years generation period. The Lin model is an improvement compared to the original extended model. The new Lin approach succeeds in the preservation of the additivity as well as the moments. Applying the Lin model one-stage disaggregation results in consistent model parameter estimates. As a second step in the research multi-site disaggregation schemes are also applied.

  18. Nonnativeness in Near-Native Child L2 Starters of Japanese: Age and the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    Many age-related second language (L2) studies have confirmed that young children have a better chance to become nativelike in L2 acquisition than adults. The current study investigated whether age effects exist in the L2 acquisition of Japanese and whether nativelike proficiency is guaranteed for early child L2 starters after constant target…

  19. An Attempt towards Learner Autonomy in L2 (English) an L3 (Arabic) Reading through Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction (CMRSI) in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2009-01-01

    This experimental study was intended to raise learner autonomy among Iranian native speakers of Persian in their L2 (English) and L3 (Arabic) reading comprehension through cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies instruction (CMRSI). The subjects of the study were divided into intermediate and advanced English language proficiency levels and…

  20. Processing Subject-Object Ambiguities in the L2: A Self-Paced Reading Study With German L2 Learners of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, E.M.; Roberts, L.; Hout, R.W.N.M. van; Schreuder, R.; Haverkort, M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of two self-paced reading experiments are reported, which investigated the online processing of subject-object ambiguities in Dutch relative clause constructions like Dat is de vrouw die de meisjes heeft/hebben gezien by German advanced second language (L2) learners of Dutch. Native spea

  1. How new L2 words (don't) become memories : Lexicalization in advanced L1 Dutch learners of L2 English as part of a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Merel

    2016-01-01

    It is an undisputed fact that learning – and remembering – new words is key in successful second language acquisition. And yet researching how vocabulary acquisition takes place is one of the most difficult endeavors in second language acquisition. We can test how many L2 words a learner knows, but

  2. Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing.

  3. Working Memory Effects on L1 and L2 Processing of Ambiguous Relative Clauses by Korean L2 Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyon; Christianson, Kiel

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report the results of two self-paced reading experiments that investigated working memory capacity effects on the processing of globally ambiguous relative clauses by advanced Korean second language (L2) learners of English. Consistent with previous monolingual literature on the processing of temporary ambiguity, we found that…

  4. MPV17L2 is required for ribosome assembly in mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Durigon, Romina; Pearce, Sarah F.; Rorbach, Joanna; Hirst, Elizabeth M.A.; Vidoni, Sara; Reyes, Aurelio; Brea-Calvo, Gloria; Minczuk, Michal; Woellhaf, Michael W.; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Huynen, Martijn A.; Holt, Ian J.; Spinazzola, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    MPV17 is a mitochondrial protein of unknown function, and mutations in MPV17 are associated with mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) maintenance disorders. Here we investigated its most similar relative, MPV17L2, which is also annotated as a mitochondrial protein. Mitochondrial fractionation analyses demonstrate MPV17L2 is an integral inner membrane protein, like MPV17. However, unlike MPV17, MPV17L2 is dependent on mitochondrial DNA, as it is absent from ρ0 cells, and co-sediments on sucrose gradients with the large subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and the monosome. Gene silencing of MPV17L2 results in marked decreases in the monosome and both subunits of the mitochondrial ribosome, leading to impaired protein synthesis in the mitochondria. Depletion of MPV17L2 also induces mitochondrial DNA aggregation. The DNA and ribosome phenotypes are linked, as in the absence of MPV17L2 proteins of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome are trapped in the enlarged nucleoids, in contrast to a component of the large subunit. These findings suggest MPV17L2 contributes to the biogenesis of the mitochondrial ribosome, uniting the two subunits to create the translationally competent monosome, and provide evidence that assembly of the small subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome occurs at the nucleoid. PMID:24948607

  5. Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chernigovskaya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

  6. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  7. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. L^2 Castelnuovo-de Franchis, the cup product lemma, and filtered ends of Kaehler manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Terrence; Ramachandran, Mohan

    2007-01-01

    Simple approaches to the proofs of the L^2 Castelnuovo-de Franchis theorem and the cup product lemma which give new versions are developed. For example, suppose u and v are two linearly independent closed holomorphic 1-forms on a bounded geometry connected complete Kaehler manifold X with v in L^2. According to a version of the L^2 Castelnuovo-de Franchis theorem obtained in this paper, if u and v are pointwise linearly dependent, then there exists a surjective proper holomorphic mapping of X...

  9. About radial Toeplitz operators on Segal-Bargmann and $l^2$ spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ramírez, Romina A; Sanmartino, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    We discuss Toeplitz operators on the Segal-Bargmann space as functional realizations of anti-Wick operators on the Fock space. In the special case of radial symbols we exploit the isometric mapping between the Segal-Bargmann space and $l^2$ complex sequences in order to establish conditions such that an equivalence between Toeplitz operators and diagonal operators on $l^2$ holds. We also analyze the inverse problem of mapping diagonal operators on $l^2$ into Toeplitz form. The composition problem of Toeplitz operators with radial symbols is reviewed as an application. Our notation and basic examples make contact with Quantum Mechanics literature.

  10. Mutations in MAB21L2 result in ocular Coloboma, microcornea and cataracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Deml

    Full Text Available Ocular coloboma results from abnormal embryonic development and is often associated with additional ocular and systemic features. Coloboma is a highly heterogeneous disorder with many cases remaining unexplained. Whole exome sequencing from two cousins affected with dominant coloboma with microcornea, cataracts, and skeletal dysplasia identified a novel heterozygous allele in MAB21L2, c.151 C>G, p.(Arg51Gly; the mutation was present in all five family members with the disease and appeared de novo in the first affected generation of the three-generational pedigree. MAB21L2 encodes a protein similar to C. elegans mab-21 cell fate-determining factor; the molecular function of MAB21L2 is largely unknown. To further evaluate the role of MAB21L2, zebrafish mutants carrying a p.(Gln48Serfs*5 frameshift truncation (mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 and a p.(Arg51_Phe52del in-frame deletion (mab21l2R51_F52del were developed with TALEN technology. Homozygous zebrafish embryos from both lines developed variable lens and coloboma phenotypes: mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 embryos demonstrated severe lens and retinal defects with complete lethality while mab21l2R51_F52del mutants displayed a milder lens phenotype and severe coloboma with a small number of fish surviving to adulthood. Protein studies showed decreased stability for the human p.(Arg51Gly and zebrafish p.(Arg51_Phe52del mutant proteins and predicted a complete loss-of-function for the zebrafish p.(Gln48Serfs*5 frameshift truncation. Additionally, in contrast to wild-type human MAB21L2 transcript, mutant p.(Arg51Gly mRNA failed to efficiently rescue the ocular phenotype when injected into mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 embryos, suggesting this allele is functionally deficient. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization experiments identified retinal invagination defects, an increase in cell death, abnormal proliferation patterns, and altered expression of several ocular markers in the mab21l2 mutants. These findings support the

  11. Multiwavelet Packets and Frame Packets of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswaranjan Behera

    2001-11-01

    The orthonormal basis generated by a wavelet of $L^2(\\mathbb{R})$ has poor frequency localization. To overcome this disadvantage Coifman, Meyer, and Wickerhauser constructed wavelet packets. We extend this concept to the higher dimensions where we consider arbitrary dilation matrices. The resulting basis of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ is called the multiwavelet packet basis. The concept of wavelet frame packet is also generalized to this setting. Further, we show how to construct various orthonormal bases of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ from the multiwavelet packets.

  12. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  13. Variation of Zr-L2,3 XANES in tetravalent zirconium oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Hidekazu; Krause, Michael; Höche, Thomas; Patzig, Christian; Hu, Yongfeng; Gawronski, Antje; Tanaka, Isao; Rüssel, Christian

    2013-04-24

    Zr-L2,3 XANESs of tetravalent zirconium oxides with different coordination numbers and local symmetries are systematically investigated by ab initio multiplet calculations using fully relativistic molecular spinors for model clusters. Experimental Zr-L2,3 XANESs are obtained for SrZrO3, m-ZrO2 (monoclinic) and t-ZrO2 (tetragonal). The theoretical spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data. The multiplet effects are found to play essential roles in determining the peak shape. The shapes of L3- and L2-edges are systematically different. The intensity ratios of the doublet peaks at both L3- and L2-edges are found to be sensitive to the coordination number of Zr. The ratio can therefore be used to estimate the coordination number of Zr in such oxides.

  14. EX1504L2 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  15. EX1205L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1205L2: Northeast Canyons and...

  16. EX1504L2 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  17. EX1504L2 Dive18 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  18. Spanish heritage language learners vs. L2 learners: What CAF reveals about written proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Camus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, great interest has emerged in identifying the learning needs of heritage language (HL learners. In comparing HL and second language (L2 learners, research suggests that L2 learners outperform HL learners when examining writing abilities (Montrul, 2010; Potowski, 2013. However, complexity, accuracy, and fluency (CAF have been overlooked when examining HL learners’ writing proficiency, and it could provide a better picture of their writing skills in a spontaneous untimed assignment. To address this issue, 28 L2 learners and 18 HL learners completed an untimed written production task on a non-academic subject and their written proficiency was assessed through CAF measures (Norris & Ortega, 2009. Results showed HL learners significantly outperformed L2 learners on two complexity measures: accuracy and fluency. A possible explanation for these findings could be the type of task used (more spontaneous, less-controlled, which taps into a more implicit type of knowledge, favoring HL learners (Bowles, 2011.

  19. Friend or foe? First language (L1 in second/foreign language (L2/FL instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channa Liaquat A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical review paper investigates the role of first language (L1 in the mainstream scholarship of second/foreign (L2/FL language education in the context of language learning, teaching, and bilingual education. The term ‘mainstream’ refers here to the scholarship that is not informed by sociocultural theory in general and Vygotskian sociocultural theory in particular. The paper later explains a Vygotskian perspective on the use of L1 in L2/FL language education and discusses how the perspective may help content teachers in (a employing L1 in teaching L2/FL content and (b helping L2/FL students to become self-regulative users of the target language.

  20. EX1504L2 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  1. EX1504L2 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  2. EX1504L2 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  3. EX1504L2 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  4. EX1504L2 Dive15 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  5. EX1304L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S. Canyons...

  6. EX1504L2 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  7. EX1504L2 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  8. EX1504L2 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  9. EX1504L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  10. EX1504L2 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  11. EX1504L2 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  12. EX1504L2 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  13. EX1504L2 Dive17 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  14. EX1504L2 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  15. EX1504L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address Pacific...

  16. EX1504L2 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address...

  17. EX0909L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX0909L2: Mapping Field Trials - Necker...

  18. EX1103L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1103L2: Exploration and Mapping,...

  19. The Role of Written Corrective Feedback in Developing Writing in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Petra Nagode

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Feedback plays an important role in developing L2 writing in young learners. The article provides a brief overview of the history of giving feedback and of some contemporary views within this field. Special attention is paid to cognitive perspectives, such as the influence of written corrective feedback on shortterm memory, the influence of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback on error correction, the influence of written corrective feedback on a particular category of error, the influence of direct and indirect written corrective feedback and combinations of various types of written corrective feedback, and the influence of educational background and L2 learning background on the effectiveness of written corrective feedback in terms of sociocultural perspectives. The main aim of the article is to present readers (especially teachers with the variety of aspects of giving written corrective feedback in developing L2 writing and thus in enabling young learners to develop their L2 writing skills more effectively.

  20. EX1004L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L2: Exploration Indonesia - Bitung...