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Sample records for vlf flexural disk

  1. ELF and VLF radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, R.; Jones, D. L.; Rodger, C. J.

    2000-11-01

    This review covers developments in ELF and VLF radio-wave propagation research over the last 50 years of the Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. A review of such a large field, over such a long period, cannot be fully comprehensive and the authors have therefore covered important areas which have they themselves have found interesting. The survey begins with a review of work on natural and man made sources of ELF and VLF radiation. This is followed by sections on experimental and theoretical studies of unperturbed (ambient) ELF and VLF radio propagation. Schumann resonance research, which is currently undergoing a renaissance, is then reviewed. A review of research into transient perturbations of ELF and VLF propagation follows, extending from the early work on nuclear explosions up to the current work on sprites. The review concludes with a brief summary of the VLF navigation systems of the USSR and USA, (Alpha and Omega) whose development and life-span covered most of the last 50 years.

  2. Shape memory alloy flexures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellouard, Yves; Clavel, Reymond

    2003-07-25

    Flexures are used in precision engineering where highly accurate, wear-free, smooth and repeatable motion is desired. Flexures are based on deformation of material to achieve a motion between elastically joined parts. They are used in a variety of precision mechanisms such as high-resolution balances or high accuracy optical positioning stages. Shape memory alloys (SMA) are an attractive option in designing flexures. Superelastic flexures can withstand larger deformations for the same weight as a conventional flexure. In addition, the damping properties of SMA, controllable through the phase transformation, offer new design opportunities for adaptive compliant mechanisms. The martensitic phase transformation can also be used to shift the natural frequency of flexures adding useful functionalities such as vibration rejection. This paper presents design principles of SMA flexures based on non-linear beam theory. Results show a good agreement between measured and predicted data. In addition, experimental results on phase transformation effects on damping behavior are also presented. Both, natural-frequency shift and increased damping were observed in bulk-micro machined flexures using the R-phase transformation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of natural-frequency-tunable flexures.

  3. Building and Testing a Portable VLF Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert; Krause, L.

    2014-01-01

    Unwanted emissions or signal noise is a major problem for VLF radio receivers. These can occur from man made sources such as power line hum, which can be prevalent for many harmonics after the fundamental 50 or 60 Hz AC source or from VLF radio transmissions such as LORAN, used for navigation and communications. Natural emissions can also be detrimental to the quality of recordings as some of the more interesting natural emissions such as whistlers or auroral chorus may be drowned out by the more common sferic emissions. VLF receivers must selectively filter out unwanted emissions and amplify the filtered signal to a record-able level without degrading the quality.

  4. Terrestrial VLF transmitter injection into the magnetosphere

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial VLF transmitter injection into the magnetosphere M. B. Cohen1 and U. S. Inan1,2 Received 1 June 2012; revised 15 June 2012; accepted 18 June 2012; published 9 August 2012. [1] Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3–30 kHz) radio waves emitted from ground sources (transmitters and lightning) strongly impact the radiation belts, driving electron precipitation via whistler-electron gyroresonance, and contributing to the formation of the slot region. However, calculations of the...

  5. Short Communication: Flexure delicacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexures are nowadays enjoying a new boom in numerous high-precision and extreme-environment applications. The paper presents some delicate issues concerning stiffness compensation, large reduction ratios, as well as rectilinear and circular movements in compliant mechanisms. Novel concrete technical solutions to these well-known issues are described, giving a glimpse into the vast and still largely unexploited potential of flexure mechanisms manufactured by wire-electrical-discharge machining.

  6. Tilt - ellips and rho - phase modelling of VLF EM and VLF R in Candi Umbul Magelang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affanti, Adella Putri; Niasari, Sintia Windhi

    2017-07-01

    A research for geothermal energy is increased due to the need of green energy. The presence of geothermal manifestations indicate the existence of geothermal system. One of the geothermal manifestations is warm spring. CandiUmbul area which located in Telomoyo, Magelang has warm spring as the geothermal manifestation. Very Low Frequency (VLF) is one of geophysical method that can be used to map the subsurface in Candi Umbul, Telomoyo. VLF is a method using electromagnetic field that powered and transferred by the transmitter. The receiver read the electromagnetic signal which induce the rock and give information about the conductivity as the physical property measurred. In this research, after collecting and processing data, we modeled tilt-ellips data of VLF-EM and rho-phase data of VLF-R to explain the geothermal system of Candi Umbul. Both VLF-EM and VLF-R model were correlated for the interpretation. The model showed an anomalous conductive feature beneath the research area. The result of this research showed that the anomaly is oriented in NW-SE direction. This direction is assumed as a fluid path way of Candi Umbul which became the outflow of Telomoyo geothermal system. To prove the early deduction this research is still on going.

  7. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed...

  8. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  9. Transionospheric Propagation of VLF Transmitter Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M.; Inan, U. S.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    Ground based Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio transmitters may play a significant role in precipitation of inner belt (L<2.5) energetic Van Allen electrons. Initial analyses of the total contribution of VLF transmitters utilized models of transionospheric propagation, but some recent studies have suggested that those models may overestimate (by 20-100 dB) the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. One possible cause of this discrepancy was suggested to be conversion of wave energy into electrostatic modes in the D, E, and F regions, from ionospheric density irregularities, either natural or generated by the transmitter heating itself. The DEMETER satellite built a six year history of continuous and global survey mode data which, when combined, yields detailed pictures of the radiation pattern from many transmitters into space at 680 km, with 25 km resolution, and clear features like the interference pattern on the ground mapped upwards. With both E and B survey mode data, we can also directly approximate the total power injected into the magnetosphere from each transmitter, separately for day and night, as well as the power arriving at the conjugate region. We find no detectable variation of signal intensity with geomagnetic conditions. We find evidence of transmitter heating affecting the transionospheric propagation of other transmitters. We find that the power reaching the conjugate region is a large fraction of the power injected above the transmitter. We then employ a full wave model to simulate VLF transmitter transionospheric propagation, calculating the electromagnetic fields and power flux injected into the magnetosphere. Although the model does not include ionospheric irregularities, the radiation pattern largely matches the observed one, and the total power calculated is within 6 dB of observations for every transmitter, both day and night, and across a range of low to middle latitudes and transmitter powers. We thus conclude that the effect of

  10. VLF emissions from ionospheric/magnetospheric plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R P Patel; R P Singh

    2001-05-01

    VLF emissions such as hiss, chorus, oscillating tones, hiss-triggered chorus and whistler triggered emissions have been observed at low latitude Indian stations. In this paper we present dynamic spectra of these emissions and discuss their various observed features. It is argued that most of the emissions are generated during Doppler shifted cyclotron resonance interaction between the whistler mode wave and counter streaming energetic electrons. Resonance energy of the participating electron and interaction length are evaluated to explain the generation mechanism of some of these emissions observed at Indian stations.

  11. Flexural eczema versus atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sharon E; Goldenberg, Alina; Nedorost, Susan; Thyssen, Jacob P; Fonacier, Luz; Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2015-01-01

    Flexural eczema and atopic dermatitis are frequently synonymized. As respiratory atopy is rarely tested for and found in these patients, systematically equating a flexural distribution of dermatitis with atopic dermatitis may too frequently result in misclassified diagnoses and potentially missed opportunity for intervention toward improving patients' symptoms and quality of life. We present a critical review of the available evidence for the atopic dermatitis diagnosis and discuss the similarities between atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis. Because neither flexural predilection nor atopy is specific for atopic dermatitis, we conclude that the term atopic dermatitis is a misnomer and propose an etymologic reclassification of atopic dermatitis to "atopy-related" dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis can induce an atopic dermatitis-like phenotype, and thus, flexural dermatitis cannot be assumed as atopic without further testing. Patch testing should at least be considered in cases of chronic or recurrent eczema regardless of the working diagnosis.

  12. Elliptical flexure hinges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stuart T.; Badami, Vivek G.; Dale, Jami S.; Xu, Ying

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents closed form equations based on a modification of those originally derived by Paros and Weisbord in 1965, for the mechanical compliance of a simple monolithic flexure hinge of elliptic cross section, the geometry of which is determined by the ratio ɛ of the major and minor axes. It is shown that these equations converge at ɛ=1 to the Paros and Weisbord equations for a hinge of circular section and at ɛ ⇒∞ to the equations predicted from simple beam bending theory for the compliance of a cantilever beam. These equations are then assessed by comparison with results from finite element analysis over a range of geometries typical of many hinge designs. Based on the finite element analysis, stress concentration factors for the elliptical hinge are also presented. As a further verification of these equations, a number of elliptical hinges were manufactured on a CNC milling machine. Experimental data were produced by applying a bending moment using dead weight loading and measuring subsequent angular deflections with a laser interferometer. In general, it was found that predictions for the compliance of elliptical hinges are likely to be within 12% for a range of geometries with the ratio βx(=t/2ax) between 0.06 and 0.2 and for values of ɛ between 1 and 10.

  13. High accuracy flexural hinge development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I.; Ortiz de Zárate, I.; Migliorero, G.

    2005-07-01

    This document provides a synthesis of the technical results obtained in the frame of the HAFHA (High Accuracy Flexural Hinge Assembly) development performed by SENER (in charge of design, development, manufacturing and testing at component and mechanism levels) with EADS Astrium as subcontractor (in charge of doing an inventory of candidate applications among existing and emerging projects, establishing the requirements and perform system level testing) under ESA contract. The purpose of this project has been to develop a competitive technology for a flexural pivot, usuable in highly accurate and dynamic pointing/scanning mechanisms. Compared with other solutions (e.g. magnetic or ball bearing technologies) flexural hinges are the appropriate technology for guiding with accuracy a mobile payload over a limited angular ranges around one rotation axes.

  14. Broadband cloaking for flexural waves

    CERN Document Server

    Zareei, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The governing equation for elastic waves in flexural plates is not form invariant, and hence designing a cloak for such waves faces a major challenge. Here, we present the design of a perfect broadband cloak for flexural waves through the use of a nonlinear transformation, and by matching term-by-term the original and transformed equations. For a readily achievable flexural cloak in a physical setting, we further present an approximate adoption of our perfect cloak under more restrictive physical constraints. Through direct simulation of the governing equations, we show that this cloak, as well, maintains a consistently high cloaking efficiency over a broad range of frequencies. The methodology developed here may be used for steering waves and designing cloaks in other physical systems with non form-invariant governing equations.

  15. Possibility of Earthquake-prediction by analyzing VLF signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of seismic events is one of the most challenging jobs for the scientific community. Conventional ways for prediction of earthquakes are to monitor crustal structure movements, though this method has not yet yield satisfactory results. Furthermore, this method fails to give any short-term prediction. Recently, it is noticed that prior to any seismic event a huge amount of energy is released which may create disturbances in the lower part of D-layer/E-layer of the ionosphere. This ionospheric disturbance may be used as a precursor of earthquakes. Since VLF radio waves propagate inside the wave-guide formed by lower ionosphere and Earth's surface, this signal may be used to identify ionospheric disturbances due to seismic activity. We have analyzed VLF signals to find out the correlations, if any, between the VLF signal anomalies and seismic activities. We have done both the case by case study and also the statistical analysis using a whole year data. In both the methods we found that the night time amplitude of VLF signals fluctuated anomalously three days before the seismic events. Also we found that the terminator time of the VLF signals shifted anomalously towards night time before few days of any major seismic events. We calculate the D-layer preparation time and D-layer disappearance time from the VLF signals. We have observed that this D-layer preparation time and D-layer disappearance time become anomalously high 1-2 days before seismic events. Also we found some strong evidences which indicate that it may possible to predict the location of epicenters of earthquakes in future by analyzing VLF signals for multiple propagation paths.

  16. VLF Science at Indian Centre for Space Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Indian Centre for Space Physics has been monitoring VLF signals from stations around the world at its laboratories at Kolkata and Sitapur (Ionospheric and Earthquake Research Centre) as well as at several places throughout India when in a campaign mode. We have been interested to study high energy events from space, such as solar flares and gamma ray bursts. We have made studies during multiple solar eclipses and most importantly made substantial progress in the problem of lithosphere-ionosphere coupling while understanding various types of anomalies prior to major earthquakes. Other effects such as AGWs and LEPs are being studied. We have experience of two antarctic expedition and obtained VLF data from both Maitri and Bharati stations of India, which revealed, among other things, how the signal attenuation can indicate the extent of ice mass in Antarctica. We have been able to reproduce various VLF perturbation events using Atmospheric Chemical evolution model coupled with LWPC code. For instance we have reproduced solar flare induced VLF amplitude perturbation pattern by completely ab initio calculation. We also targeted the inverse problem, namely, deduction of the injected radiation spectra from space from the VLF signal alone, thereby establishing that the Earth can be used as a gigantic detector. These interesting results would be presented in my review talk.

  17. Optimizing an ELF/VLF Phased Array at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimaru, S.; Moore, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study is to maximize the amplitude of 1-5 kHz ELF/VLF waves generated by ionospheric HF heating and measured at a ground-based ELF/VLF receiver. The optimization makes use of experimental observations performed during ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Observatory in Gakona, Alaska. During these experiments, the amplitude, phase, and propagation delay of the ELF/VLF waves were carefully measured. The HF beam was aimed at 15 degrees zenith angle in 8 different azimuthal directions, equally spaced in a circle, while broadcasting a 3.25 MHz (X-mode) signal that was amplitude modulated (square wave) with a linear frequency-time chirp between 1 and 5 kHz. The experimental observations are used to provide reference amplitudes, phases, and propagation delays for ELF/VLF waves generated at these specific locations. The presented optimization accounts for the trade-off between duty cycle, heated area, and the distributed nature of the source region in order to construct a "most efficient" phased array. The amplitudes and phases generated by modulated heating at each location are combined in post-processing to find an optimal combination of duty cycle, heating location, and heating order.

  18. Seismo-electromagnetic VLF link calibration in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Hans; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Wolbang, Daniel; Besser, Bruno P.; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Stachel, Manfred; Prattes, Gustav; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Aydogar, Özer; Zehetleitner, Sigrid; Grill, Claudia; Jernej, Irmgard

    2015-04-01

    The general background is the investigation of seismic activity with electromagnetic signals, i.e. to disentangle amplitude and phase modifications from a variety of sources. This work focus on characterisation of very low frequency (VLF) radio links between several transmitters and the Graz receiver in the current active solar cycle. Particular emphasis is on solar flares related disturbances in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, an important dayside non-seismic influence on the VLF paths. These variations can serve as a calibration tool of the facility even for nighttime periods when different seismo-electromagnetic (SEM) methods are applied, e.g. terminator time or nighttime amplitude. Supporting data are the GOES X-ray flux measurements. As immediate objective we study individual C/M/X-class solar flare events in the sub-ionospheric VLF waveguide (amplitude fluctuations) and calculate statistical parameters with the C-class population. The used system, which is part of a broader network of receiving stations, is primarily dedicated to investigate earthquake related phenomena and associated lithospheric atmospheric ionospheric coupling mechanisms. We receive simultaneously 12 VLF transmitters (amplitude and phase measurements) from the northern hemisphere with a selected temporal resolution of 20 seconds. We conclude that the numerous C/M/X-class solar flare events, together with the the high signal-to-noise ratio of the facility, are a valuable combination for short-term VLF path characterisation in a robust manner. As outlook, due to the steady VLF measurements, a monitoring service for certain lower atmospheric variations can be envisaged.

  19. Models of ionospheric VLF absorption of powerful ground based transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. B.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Ground based Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio transmitters play a role in precipitation of energetic Van Allen electrons. Initial analyses of the contribution of VLF transmitters to radiation belt losses were based on early models of trans-ionospheric propagation known as the Helliwell absorption curves, but some recent studies have found that the model overestimates (by 20-100 dB) the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. It was subsequently suggested that conversion of wave energy into electrostatic modes may be responsible for the error. We utilize a newly available extensive record of VLF transmitter energy reaching the magnetosphere, taken from the DEMETER satellite, and perform a direct comparison with a sophisticated full wave model of trans-ionospheric propagation. Although the model does not include the effect of ionospheric irregularities, it correctly predicts the average total power injected into the magnetosphere within several dB. The results, particularly at nighttime, appear to be robust against the variability of the ionospheric electron density. We conclude that the global effect of irregularity scattering on whistler mode conversion to quasi-electrostatic may be no larger than 6 dB.

  20. An aerostat-supported ELF/VLF transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, E. C., Jr.; Kies, L. R.; Bannister, P. R.; Ingram, R. F.; Hopkins, W. D.; Roberts, M. A.

    1989-03-01

    A demonstration of an aerostat-supported extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) transmitting antenna was performed. At ELF the vertical electric dipole (VED) antenna radiated at least 100,000 times more power than would a horizontal electric dipole having the same moment. That efficiency was achieved with an altitude of 12,500 feet (3810 m). Calculations show that the radiated power will increase as the fourth power of aerostat altitude. The tether antenna exhibited a corona onset voltage of 180 kV and was resistant to the degrading effects of ELF corona. Prolonged in-corona operation is therefore possible. The antenna was continuously tuned, despite changes in height and capacitance caused by the aerostat flight dynamics. The huge 300-H ELF tuning inductor posed no problem. Enhanced VED moments were achieved at ELF by operation at voltages up to 260 kV, 40% above the corona onset voltage. At VLF the antenna emulated a monopole that had a radiation efficiency greater than 90%. The measured bandwidths were large: 1.5 kHz at 23 kHz and 3.5 kHz at 34 kHz. The antenna height exceeded one-quarter wavelength at VLF, so the antenna could be tuned capacitively and required relatively low base voltages. At both VLF and ELF the measured fields agreed closely with predictions.

  1. The European VLF/LF radio network: current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Ermini, A.

    2014-11-01

    For several years researches about correlation between seismicity and disturbances in radio broadcasting are being carried out: in particular, the Japanese Pacific VLF radio network and the European VLF-LF radio network have been developed during the last years. The European network has been developed starting from two LF receivers located in central Italy in 1996. Up to now, 11 receivers of a new type, able to sample the VLF and LF intensity of ten radio signals, are being into operation in different European countries. The daily updating of data is effective and the data bank is located at the Department of Physics of the University of Bari (Italy) which is the central node of the network. In order to discover anomalies, the software able to carry out automatically a daily data analysis by the Wavelet spectra method has been planned and realized. At the moment, the software operates on four signals (two LF and two VLF) collected by one of the receiver located in Italy. If the anomaly is particularly strong a warning system gives an advise on the work station into operation in the central node of the Network. In any case, before assuming an anomaly as a seismic anomaly, geomagnetic and meteorological data must be checked as well as any possible instrumental malfunction. At present these controls are carried out only discontinuously by the researchers of the Bari Team.

  2. INSPIRE: A VLF Radio Project for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jill A.; Pine, Bill; Taylor, William W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1988 the Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionospheric Radio Experiment, or INSPIRE, has given students the opportunity to build research-quality VLF radio receivers and make observations of both natural and stimulated radio waves in the atmosphere. Any high school science class is eligible to join the INSPIRE volunteer observing network and…

  3. Flexural modulus identification of thin polymer sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhihs, S.; Kovalovs, A.; Tishkunovs, A.; Chate, A.

    2011-06-01

    The method of determination of the flexural Young's modulus is based on a solution to the problem of compression of a thin-walled cylindrical specimen by two parallel planes (TWCS method). This method was employed to calculate the flexural modulus for PET polymer compositions. The flexural modules received by TWCS method were verified by comparing the experimentally measured eigenfrequencies by Polytec vibrometer with numerical results from ANSYS program.

  4. Flexural modulus identification of thin polymer sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluhihs, S; Kovalovs, A; Tishkunovs, A; Chate, A, E-mail: s_gluhih@inbox.lv [Riga Technical University, Institute of Materials and Structures, Azenes 16/22, LV-1048, Riga (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    The method of determination of the flexural Young's modulus is based on a solution to the problem of compression of a thin-walled cylindrical specimen by two parallel planes (TWCS method). This method was employed to calculate the flexural modulus for PET polymer compositions. The flexural modules received by TWCS method were verified by comparing the experimentally measured eigenfrequencies by Polytec vibrometer with numerical results from ANSYS program.

  5. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  6. Analysis of flexural wave cloaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Climente

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a comprehensive study of the cloak for bending waves theoretically proposed by Farhat et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009] and later on experimentally realized by Stenger et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 014301 (2012]. This study uses a semi-analytical approach, the multilayer scattering method, which is based in the Kirchoff-Love wave equation for flexural waves in thin plates. Our approach was unable to reproduce the predicted behavior of the theoretically proposed cloak. This disagreement is here explained in terms of the simplified wave equation employed in the cloak design, which employed unusual boundary conditions for the cloaking shell. However, our approach reproduces fairly well the measured displacement maps for the fabricated cloak, indicating the validity of our approach. Also, the cloak quality has been here analyzed using the so called averaged visibility and the scattering cross section. The results obtained from both analysis let us to conclude that there is room for further improvements of this type of flexural wave cloak by using better design procedures.

  7. Analysis of flexural wave cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climente, Alfonso; Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2016-12-01

    This work presents a comprehensive study of the cloak for bending waves theoretically proposed by Farhat et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009)] and later on experimentally realized by Stenger et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 014301 (2012)]. This study uses a semi-analytical approach, the multilayer scattering method, which is based in the Kirchoff-Love wave equation for flexural waves in thin plates. Our approach was unable to reproduce the predicted behavior of the theoretically proposed cloak. This disagreement is here explained in terms of the simplified wave equation employed in the cloak design, which employed unusual boundary conditions for the cloaking shell. However, our approach reproduces fairly well the measured displacement maps for the fabricated cloak, indicating the validity of our approach. Also, the cloak quality has been here analyzed using the so called averaged visibility and the scattering cross section. The results obtained from both analysis let us to conclude that there is room for further improvements of this type of flexural wave cloak by using better design procedures.

  8. An Artificial Particle Precipitation Technique Using HAARP-Generated VLF Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-02

    AFRL-VS-HA-TR-2007-1021 An Artificial Particle Precipitation Technique Using HAARP -Generated VLF Waves O o o r- Q M. J. Kosch T. Pedersen J...Artificial Particle Precipitation Technique Using HAARP Generated VLF Waves. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62101F...model. The frequency-time modulated VLF wave patterns have been successfully implemented at the HAARP ionospheric modification facility in Alaska

  9. VLF wave injection experiments from Siple Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    R.A., Helliwell

    1987-01-01

    The background of VLF wave-particle experiments from Siple Station, Antarctica, including wave-induced precipitation is briefly reviewed. Single frequency ducted signals that exceed a certain 'threshold' intensity are observed at the conjugate point (Roberval, Quebec) to be amplified 30-50dB, with temporal growth rates of 30-200dB/s. Following saturation, variable frequency emissions are triggered. When a second signal is added to the first, with a frequency spacing Df

  10. A Global Survey of ELF/VLF Radio Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-30

    Smith, 2002]. Finally, our participation in one of the HAARP experimental programs, during which we made much use of the ELF/VLF radio noise data...Porrat, Teague, and Fraser-Smith, 1999]. Our objective was to make the first long-distance detection of ELF signals generated by the HAARP ...ionospheric heater; we did not succeed, but the continuing improve- ments to the HAARP heating facility in Alaska will ultimately lead to the routine

  11. VLF Tan Delta Measurement for Used XLPE Power Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Woo Sang; Ha, Che Wung; Joo, Kwang Ho [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Medium voltage power cables in nuclear power plants are currently managed through the visual inspection or by monitoring environmental factors such as the temperature and radiation levels. However, these methods are insufficient to monitor aging degradation of power cables. The NRC requires an additional monitoring program to detect the aged degradation, especially for safety-related power cables which are inaccessible or installed underground. EPRI suggested that very low frequency (VLF) tan {delta} test be included in MV power cable diagnostic programs. In addition, the VLF tan {delta} test was recently adopted for domestic submarine distribution cable diagnostics. KEPRI suggested that the impacts of leakage current should be controlled in VLF tan {delta} test for the submarine cables. As a pre-process to develop such a program, tan {delta} tests have been performed for 4.16 kV cables which were removed from the domestic nuclear power plant after approximate 30 years of service to analyze the degradation of long time serviced cables and the effect of leakage current from the both ends of cables

  12. VLF observations of ionospheric disturbances in association with TLEs from the EuroSprite-2007 campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NaitAmor, S.; AlAbdoadaim, M. A.; Cohen, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Two Very Low Frequency (VLF) AWESOME remote sensing systems located at Algiers, Algeria (36.45°N, 3.28°E) and Sebha, Libya (27.02°N, 14.26°E) monitor VLF signal perturbations for evidence of ionospheric disturbances. During the EuroSprite-2007 campaign a number of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs...

  13. Flexure-based nanomagnetic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Daniel James

    Nanometer-scale actuators powered through applied-magnetic fields have been designed, fabricated, and tested. These actuators consist of one or more ferromagnetic elements attached to a mechanical flexure. Two types of flexures were studied including a cantilever beam that is fixed on one end, and free on the other. The free end of the cantilever is attached to a, ferromagnetic element allowing a bending torque to be applied by a magnetic field. The second type of actuator design uses a set of torsion beams that are each anchored on one end, and attached to the magnetic element on the other end. The torsion beams are designed such that the application of a magnetic field will result in a twist along the long axis of the beam with little to no bending. The smallest fabricated and tested device is a cantilever-based ferromagnetic actuator that consists of a single 1.5-mum-long, 338-nm-wide, and 50-nm-thick nickel element, and a 2.2-mum-long, 110-nm-wide, and 30-nm-thick gold cantilever beam. A deflection of over 17° was measured for this actuator, while a similar one with a 10.1-mum long cantilever beam experienced measured deflections up to 57°. Torsion-based ferromagnetic actuators have been fabricated and tested with 110-nm-wide, and 50-rim-thick magnetic elements. Such magnetic elements contain only a single saturated magnetic domain. The ultimate scalability of ferromagnetic actuation is limited by the ability of thermal noise to affect the temporal stability of a nanometer-scale magnet. Theory to describe thermal noise and ultimate scalability of the ferromagnetic actuators has been developed. The size of the ferromagnetic actuators studied in this manuscript are smaller than most plant and animal cells. This enables the possibility of such actuators to manipulate a, living cell on an intracellular level. Other potential applications of such small actuators include MHz, to GHz frequency resonators, and tunable optical filters.

  14. Multi Station Frequency Response and Polarization of ELF/VLF Signals Generated via Ionospheric Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworth, Ashanthi; Golkowski, Mark; University of Colorado Denver Team

    2013-10-01

    ELF/VLF wave generation via HF modulated ionospheric heating has been practiced for many years as a unique way to generate waves in the ELF/VLF band (3 Hz - 30 kHz). This paper presents experimental results and associated theoretical modeling from work performed at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. An experiment was designed to investigate the modulation frequency dependence of the generated ELF/VLF signal amplitudes and polarization at multiple sites at distances of 37 km, 50 km and 99 km from the facility. While no difference is observed for X mode versus O mode modulation of the heating wave, it is found that ELF/VLF amplitude and polarization as a function of modulated ELF/VLF frequency is different for each site. An ionospheric heating code is used to determine the primary current sources leading to the observations.

  15. The VLF fingerprint of elves: Step-like and long-recovery early VLF perturbations caused by powerful ±CG lightning EM pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldoupis, Christos; Cohen, Morris; Arnone, Enrico; Cotts, Benjamin; Dietrich, Stefano

    2013-08-01

    Subionospheric VLF recordings are investigated in relation with intense cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data. Lightning impacts the lower ionosphere via heating and ionization changes which produce VLF signal perturbations known as early VLF events. Typically, early events recover in about 100 s, but a small subclass does not recover for many minutes, known as long-recovery early events (LORE). In this study, we identify LORE as a distinct category of early VLF events, whose signature may occur either on its own or alongside the short-lived typical early VLF event. Since LORE onsets coincide with powerful lightning strokes of either polarity (±), we infer that they are due to long-lasting ionization changes in the uppermost D region ionosphere caused by electromagnetic pulses emitted by strong ± CG lightning peak currents of typically > 250 kA, which are also known to generate elves. The LORE perturbations are detected when the discharge is located within ~250 km from the great circle path of a VLF transmitter-receiver link. The probability of occurrence increases with stroke intensity and approaches unity for discharges with peak currents ≥ ~300 kA. LOREs are nighttime phenomena that occur preferentially, at least in the present regional data set, during winter when strong ± CG discharges are more frequent and intense. The evidence suggests LORE as a distinct signature representing the VLF fingerprint of elves, a fact which, although was predicted by theory, it escaped identification in the long-going VLF research of lightning effects in the lower ionosphere.

  16. Galaxy Disks

    CERN Document Server

    van der Kruit, P C

    2011-01-01

    The formation and evolution of galactic disks is particularly important for understanding how galaxies form and evolve, and the cause of the variety in which they appear to us. Ongoing large surveys, made possible by new instrumentation at wavelengths from the ultraviolet (GALEX), via optical (HST and large groundbased telescopes) and infrared (Spitzer) to the radio are providing much new information about disk galaxies over a wide range of redshift. Although progress has been made, the dynamics and structure of stellar disks, including their truncations, are still not well understood. We do now have plausible estimates of disk mass-to-light ratios, and estimates of Toomre's $Q$ parameter show that they are just locally stable. Disks are mostly very flat and sometimes very thin, and have a range in surface brightness from canonical disks with a central surface brightness of about 21.5 $B$-mag arcsec$^{-2}$ down to very low surface brightnesses. It appears that galaxy disks are not maximal, except possibly in ...

  17. Childhood flexural comedones: a new entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Margarita; Abad, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Andrea Santos; Luna, Paula

    2007-07-01

    Comedones are usually found in acne and involve the seborrheic areas of the skin. Disseminated comedones can be found in other skin disorders. Flexural comedones are characterized by double orifices connected by a thin layer of epidermis that reveals the comedo content below it. To the best of our knowledge, flexural comedones have not been previously described as an entity. Our objective was to characterize this disorder. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed from April 2004 to July 2006. We included 40 pediatric and adolescent patients with flexural comedones; 21 were female (52%), and 19 were male (48%) (mean age, 6.2 years). In 29 cases the lesions were single (72%) and in 32 cases (80%) unilateral. The lesions were located in the axilla in 88% of the patients. We performed biopsies of skin samples in 6 cases. To our knowledge, flexural comedones have not been previously described as an entity, and we felt that they deserved attention owing to the relative frequency of cases in our clinical practice. Because of its clinical appearance, flexural localization, and age distribution, we named this disorder childhood flexural comedones. Further investigation and follow-up of a larger number of patients is needed.

  18. VLF signal anomalies dues to TS and Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Amor, Samir

    2017-04-01

    VLF signal propagates by multiples reflection in the Earth-Ionosphere wave guide. It constitutes a powerful tool to study the lower region of the ionosphere, the D region. This technique was applied to study perturbations related to the solar flares effect, TGF, the connection between TLEs and Early events.... In this contribution I will present a new results on the evidence of signal perturbations associated with TS and Hurricanes. A wavelet spectral analysis is applied to the signal amplitude to search for eventual Atmospheric Gravity wave which may be the origin of the signal perturbations.

  19. Isostasy, flexure, and dynamic topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirtzman, Zohar; Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2016-06-01

    A fundamental scientific question is, what controls the Earth's topography? Although the theoretical principles of isostasy, flexure, and dynamic topography are widely discussed, the parameters needed to apply these principles are frequently not available. Isostatic factors controlling lithospheric buoyancy are frequently uncertain and non-isostatic factors, such as lithospheric bending towards subduction zones and dynamic topography, are hard to distinguish. The question discussed here is whether a set of simple rules that relate topography to lithospheric structure in various tectonic environments can be deduced in a way that missing parameters can be approximated; or does each area behave differently, making generalizations problematic. We contribute to this issue analyzing the Asia-Africa-Arabia-Europe domain following a top-down strategy. We compile a new crustal thickness map and remove the contribution of the crust from the observed elevation. Then, the challenge is to interpret the residual topography in terms of mantle lithosphere buoyancy and dynamics. Based on systematic relationships between tectonic environments and factors controlling topography, we argue that crustal buoyancy and mantle lithospheric density can be approximated from available geological data and that regions near mantle upwelling or downwelling are easily identified by their extreme residual topography. Yet, even for other areas, calculating lithospheric thickness from residual topography is problematic, because distinguishing variations in mantle lithosphere thickness from sub-lithospheric dynamics is difficult. Fortunately, the area studied here provides an opportunity to examine this issue. Based on the conjunction between the Afar Plume and the mid-ocean ridge in the nearby Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea, we constrain the maximal amplitude of dynamic topography to ~ 1 km. This estimate is based on a narrow definition of dynamic topography that only includes sub

  20. ELF/VLF wave generation from the beating of two HF ionospheric heating sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. B.; Moore, R. C.; Golkowski, M.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2012-12-01

    It is well established that Extremely Low Frequency (ELF, 0.3-3 kHz) and Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio waves can be generated via modulated High Frequency (HF, 3-10 MHz) heating of the lower ionosphere (60-100 km). The ionospheric absorption of HF power modifies the conductivity of the lower ionosphere, which in the presence of natural currents such as the auroral electrojet, creates an `antenna in the sky.' We utilize a theoretical model of the HF to ELF/VLF conversion and the ELF/VLF propagation, and calculate the amplitudes of the generated ELF/VLF waves when two HF heating waves, separated by the ELF/VLF frequency, are transmitted from two adjacent locations. The resulting ELF/VLF radiation pattern exhibits a strong directional dependence (as much as 15 dB) that depends on the physical spacing of the two HF sources. This beat wave source can produce signals 10-20 dB stronger than those generated using amplitude modulation, particularly for frequencies greater than 5-10 kHz. We evaluate recent suggestions that beating two HF waves generates ELF/VLF waves in the F-region (>150 km), and conclude that those experimental results may have misinterpreted, and can be explained strictly by the much more well established D region mechanism.

  1. Electric and VLF-MT survey of Tegatayama tunnel; Tegatayama tunnel no denki tansa oyobi VLF tansa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishitani, T. [Akita University, Akita (Japan). Mining College

    1997-05-27

    To survey the structure at the depth between 20 and 30 m, field tests were conducted by means of vertical electric and VFL-MT (magnetotelluric) survey. Tegatayama tunnel has a total length of 276 m, width of 7.5 m, and height of 4.7 m, and the depth from the surface is about 28 m near the top of mountain. Near the tunnel, the thickness of surface soil is about 60 cm, which consists of clay soil including soft mudstone gravel. It was found that terrace deposit is distributed up to the depth of 8 m, and that mudstone is distributed below the depth of 8 m. Weighted four-electrode method was adopted for the vertical electrical survey. Measurements were conducted at the immediately above the tunnel, 10 m apart from the center of tunnel in the right and left, and 20 m apart from the center in the east. For the VLF-MT method, component of frequency 22.2 kHz was used. As a result of the tests, it was difficult to illustrate the existence of tunnel from the vertical electrical survey only at one point. Feature of the tunnel could be well illustrated by means of the VLF-MT method. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Flexural performance of woven hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslinda, A. B.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Dan-mallam, Y.; Mazawati, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the experimental investigation of the flexural performance of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. Hybrid composites consist of interwoven kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp fibers was prepared by infusion process using epoxy as polymer matrix. Woven kenaf, jute and hemp composites were also prepared for comparison. Both woven and hybrid composites were subjected to three point flexural test. From the result, bending resistance of hybrid kenaf/jute and kenaf/hemp composites was higher compared to their individual fiber. Hybridization with high strength fiber such as kenaf enhanced the capability of jute and hemp fibers to withstand bending load. Interlocking between yarns in woven fabric make pull out fibers nearly impossible and increase the flexural performance of the hybrid composites.

  3. Flexure and rheology of Pacific oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Johnny; Watts, Tony

    2016-04-01

    The idea of a rigid lithosphere that supports loads through flexural isostasy was first postulated in the late 19th century. Since then, there has been much effort to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of the lithosphere's flexural rigidity, and to understand how these variations are linked to its rheology. We have used flexural modelling to first re-assess the variation in the rigidity of oceanic lithosphere with its age at the time of loading, and then to constrain mantle rheology by testing the predictions of laboratory-derived flow laws. A broken elastic plate model was used to model trench-normal, ensemble-averaged profiles of satellite-derived gravity at the trench-outer rise system of circum-Pacific subduction zones, where an inverse procedure was used to find the best-fit Te and loading conditions. The results show a first-order increase in Te with plate age, which is best fit by the depth to the 400 ± 35°C plate-cooling isotherm. Fits to the observed gravity are significantly improved by an elastic plate that weakens landward of the outer rise, which suggests that bending-induced plate weakening is a ubiquitous feature of circum-Pacific subduction zones. Two methods were used to constrain mantle rheology. In the first, the Te derived by modelling flexural observations was compared to the Te predicted by laboratory-derived yield strength envelopes. In the second, flexural observations were modelled using elastic-plastic plates with laboratory-derived, depth-dependent yield strength. The results show that flow laws for low-temperature plasticity of dry olivine provide a good fit to the observations at circum-Pacific subduction zones, but are much too strong to fit observations of flexure in the Hawaiian Islands region. We suggest that this discrepancy can be explained by differences in the timescale of loading combined with moderate thermal rejuvenation of the Hawaiian lithosphere.

  4. Interpretation of VLF-EM & VLF-R data using tipper and impedance analyses: A case study from Candi Umbul-Telomoyo, Magelang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastyani, Erina; Niasari, Sintia Windhi

    2017-07-01

    The goal of all geophysical survey techniques is to image the properties of the Earth's subsurface. Very Low Frequency (VLF) is one of the geophysical survey technique that has been commonly used for ore exploration and mapping faults or fracture zones. Faults or fracture zones are necessary components in providing the fluid pathway in geothermal systems. The Candi Umbul-Telomoyo is one of the geothermal prospect sites in Indonesia, which is located in Magelang, Central Java. Recent studies hypothesized that this site was an outflow area of Telomoyo volcano geothermal complex. We used the VLF-EM and VLF-R techniques to infer faults or fracture zones that might be a path for geothermal fluids in the Candi Umbul-Telomoyo. From the measurements, we got tilt angle, ellipticity, primary and secondary magnetic fieldfor VLF-EM data; and apparent resistivity, phase angle, electric and magnetic field for VLF-R data. To interpret the data, we used tipper and impedance analyses. The result of both analyses show similarities in the directions and positions of anomalous current concentrations. We conclude these anomalous current concentrations as faults. Our interpretation is agreeing with the Geologic Map of the Semarang and Magelang Quadrangles that shows the expected fault beneath the Mt. Telomoyo.

  5. Rotation flexure with temperature controlled modal frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Theodore E.; Barney, Patrick S.; Ison, Aaron M.; Akau, Ronald L; Weir, Nathan

    2017-09-12

    A flexure bearing includes an inner race, an outer race, and a plurality of substantially planar radially extending blades coupled between the inner and outer race. The blades have a thickness that is thinner than a thickness of the inner and outer races. The inner race, outer race, and blades have substantially the same height. At least one heating element is coupled to the inner race and/or the outer race. The heating element is configured to apply heat to the race that it is coupled to in order to tune the flexure bearing.

  6. Decrease of VLF transmitter signal and Chorus-whistler waves before l'Aquila earthquake occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Boudjada

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the VLF emissions observed by the Instrument Champ Electrique (ICE experiment onboard the DEMETER micro-satellite. We analyze intensity level variation 10 days before and after the occurrence of l'Aquila earthquake (EQ. We found a clear decrease of the VLF received signal related to ionospheric whistler mode (mainly Chorus emission and to signal transmitted by the DFY VLF station in Germany, few days (more than one week before the earthquake. The VLF power spectral density decreases of more than two orders of magnitude until the EQ, and it recovers to normal levels just after the EQ occurrence. The geomagnetic activity is principally weak four days before EQ and increases again one day before l'Aquila seismic event. Our results are discussed in the frame of short- and long-terms earthquakes prediction focusing on the crucial role of the magnetic field of the Earth.

  7. Ionospheric disturbances in D-layer recorded by VLF receiver at Tashkent IHY station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    Tashkent International Heliophysical Year (IHY) station is a member of Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System for Observation, Modeling and Education (AWESOME) network being operated globally to study the ionosphere and the magnetosphere with the help of electromagnetic waves in Very Low Frequency (VLF) band. Regular monitoring of the D- and F-layers of ionosphere over Central Asia territory is being performed on the permanent basis starting year 2008. Solar flare events are permanently observed and the analysis showed that there is simultaneous correlation between the times of change of amplitude of the waves and the Solar flares. Features of the lightning discharge generated by radio atmospherics are studied and its effectiveness in D-region ionosphere diagnostics is explained. We have studied VLF amplitude anomalies related to the earthquakes (EQs) occurred in the recent years with magnitude more than 5 on the path way from the VLF transmitters to the Tashkent station assuming that propagation of VLF ground-based transmitters signals can be perturbed by EQ preparation can be detectable from the ground-based measurements in the VLF bands. For analyzing narrowband data we have used the Nighttime Fluctuation (NF) method paying attention to the data obtained during the local nighttime (20:00 LT-04:00 LT). The mean nighttime amplitude (or trend) and nighttime fluctuation are found to increase significantly before the EQ occurred on the path way from the transmitters to the receiver. The obtained results have revealed an agreement with VLF amplitude anomalies observed in Tashkent VLF station during the strong EQs occurred on the path way from the transmitters to the receiver. Some results are presented to show the probing potentiality of VLF waves to predict short term EQs with high magnitude.

  8. Characterisation of very low frequency (VLF) fluctuations at the Graz receiver knot in the INFREP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, H. U.; Prattes, G.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Wolbang, D.; Boudjada, M. Y.; Rozhnoi, A.; Solovieva, M.; Biagi, P. F.; Maggipinto, T.; Stachel, M.; Jernej, I.; Aydogar, Ö.; Besser, B. P.

    2012-04-01

    In the frame of the European VLF/LF radio receiver network (International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors - INFREP) we investigate radio paths between several transmitters and receivers, among them the Graz VLF facility. For this knot the data coverage spans more than two years of continuous samples from 11 transmitters with a network wide 20 seconds temporal resolution. The main scientific objective is the characterisation of VLF fluctuations in amplitude and phase related with artificial and natural sources, e.g. disturbances due to seismic phenomena. Examples of VLF disturbances due to seismic activity are given by Rozhnoi et al. (2009) and complementary investigations are carried out by Prattes et al. (2011). For VLF usually the (i) nighttime amplitude variations and (ii) terminator time methods are used. They have been regularly applied in data analysis of seismic events mainly in Asian area. Paths crossing the earthquake preparation zone and control links are used for earthquake events. Various VLF waveguide properties are important, e.g. the length of the individual paths, the lower lithospheric-surface boundary and the upper {day, night}-time ionospheric {D, E}-layer physics. Beside the nominal diurnal and seasonal behaviour we are measuring natural variations, e.g. solar flare effects and manmade noise, i.e. local disturbances related with the urban environment of the receiver location. Measurements indicate that above a threshold of magnitude M 5 the methods are successful applicable. We show for a time span of more than two years how VLF fluctuations and their seasonal variations relate with atmospheric parameters, e.g. temperatures, zonal wind, and heat- and momentum-fluxes and discuss the impact on seismic event detection via VLF methods. Complementary ground- and satellite-based investigations, e.g. in nearby ULF or LF frequency ranges, are useful.

  9. More evidence for a one-to-one correlation between Sprites and Early VLF perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldoupis, C.; Amvrosiadi, N.; Cotts, B. R. T.;

    2010-01-01

    Past studies have shown a correlation between sprites and early VLF perturbations, but the reported correlation varies widely from ∼50% to 100%. The present study resolves these large discrepancies by analyzing several case studies of sprite and narrowband VLF observations, in which multiple...... for this option to be resolved we need more studies using highly sensitive optical systems capable of detecting weaker sprites, sprite halos and elves....

  10. Lightning Location With Single-Station Observation of VLF Spherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, I.; Yagitani, S.; Komonmae, H.; Takezono, N.

    2001-12-01

    Most of the lightning location systems recently available require the simultaneous reception of lightning-generated radio pulses (spherics) at multiple stations. In this work, we develop a lightning location system to determine both the direction and range of a lightning stroke with a single-station observation of VLF spherics. The technique used here is a rather classical one, but we try to improve the ranging accuracy by applying sophisticated signal processing techniques, and our final goal is to develop a portable lightning locator. We observe wave forms of two horizontal magnetic fields and one vertical electric field of VLF spherics, each of which usually consists of a couple of sequential pulses. The first pulse comes directly from a lightning return stroke, and is used for the direction finding of the stroke. On the other hand, the second and later pulses are the multiple reflections of the first pulse inside the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Since the time-of-arrival (ToA) of each pulse is determined by its propagation path length in the waveguide, by using the observed difference in ToA of two or more pulses, we can inversely estimate not only the reflection height at the ionosphere but also the range of the lightning stroke. By installing the developed system at Kanazawa University, we have been observing lightning-generated spherics since April, 2000. Compared with the lightning location data provided by a local power company, preliminary analysis shows that this system can locate each lightning stroke within several hundred km with a sufficient accuracy.

  11. The impact of PMSE and NLC particles on VLF propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nunn

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available PMSE or Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes are a well-known phenomenon in the summer northern polar regions, in which anomalous VHF/UHF radar echoes are returned from heights ~85km. Noctilucent clouds and electron density biteouts are two phenomena that sometimes occur together with PMSE. Electron density biteouts are electron density depletion layers of up to 90%, which may be several kms thick. Using the NOSC Modefndr code based on Wait's modal theory for subionospheric propagation, we calculate the shifts in received VLF amplitude and phase that occur as a result of electron density biteouts. The code assumes a homogeneous background ionosphere and a homogeneous biteout layer along the Great Circle Path (GCP corridor, for transmitter receiver path lengths in the range of 500–6000km.

    For profiles during the 10h about midnight and under quiet geomagnetic conditions, where the electron density at 85km would normally be less than 500el/cc, it was found that received signal perturbations were significant, of the order of 1–4dB and 5–40° of phase. Perturbation amplitudes increase roughly as the square root of frequency. At short range perturbations are rather erratic, but more consistent at large ranges, readily interpretable in terms of the shifts in excitation factor, attenuation factor and v/c ratios for Wait's modes. Under these conditions such shifts should be detectable by a well constituted experiment involving multiple paths and multiple frequencies in the north polar region in summer. It is anticipated that VLF propagation could be a valuable diagnostic for biteout/PMSE when electron density at 85km is under 500el/cc, under which circumstances PMSE are not directly detectable by VHF/UHF radars.

    Key words. Electromagnetism (wave propagation – Ionosphere (polar ionosphere – Radioscience (ionospheric propagation

  12. One day prediction of nighttime VLF amplitudes using nonlinear autoregression and neural network modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, H.; Hobara, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field amplitude of very low frequency (VLF) transmitter from Hawaii (NPM) has been continuously recorded at Chofu (CHF), Tokyo, Japan. The VLF amplitude variability indicates lower ionospheric perturbation in the D region (60-90 km altitude range) around the NPM-CHF propagation path. We carried out the prediction of daily nighttime mean VLF amplitude by using Nonlinear Autoregressive with Exogenous Input Neural Network (NARX NN). The NARX NN model, which was built based on the daily input variables of various physical parameters such as stratospheric temperature, total column ozone, cosmic rays, Dst, and Kp indices possess good accuracy during the model building. The fitted model was constructed within the training period from 1 January 2011 to 4 February 2013 by using three algorithms, namely, Bayesian Neural Network (BRANN), Levenberg Marquardt Neural Network (LMANN), and Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG). The LMANN has the largest Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of 0.94 and smallest root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.19 dB. The constructed models by using LMANN were applied to predict the VLF amplitude from 5 February 2013 to 31 December 2013. As a result the one step (1 day) ahead predicted nighttime VLF amplitude has the r of 0.93 and RMSE of 2.25 dB. We conclude that the model built according to the proposed methodology provides good predictions of the electric field amplitude of VLF waves for NPM-CHF (midlatitude) propagation path.

  13. Flexural strength and ductility of reinforced concrete beams

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, AKH; Ho, JCM; Pam, HJ

    2002-01-01

    In the design of reinforced concrete beams, especially those made of high-strength concrete and those in earthquake-resistant structures, both the flexural strength and ductility need to be considered. From the numerical results obtained in a previous study on the post-peak behaviour and flexural ductility of reinforced concrete beams, the interrelation between the flexural strength and the flexural ductility that could be simultaneously achieved was evaluated and plotted in the form of chart...

  14. Flexural waves focusing through shunted piezoelectric patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, K.; Collet, M.; Ichchou, M.; Li, L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we designed and analyzed a piezo-lens to focus flexural waves in thin plates. The piezo-lens is comprised of a host plate and piezoelectric arrays bonded on the surfaces of the plate. The piezoelectric patches are shunted with negative capacitance circuits. The effective refractive indexes inside the piezo-lens are designed to fit a hyperbolic secant distribution by tuning the negative capacitance values. A homogenized model of a piezo-mechanical system is adopted in the designing process of the piezo-lens. The wave focusing effect is studied by the finite element method. Numerical results show that the piezo-lens can focus flexural waves by bending their trajectories, and is effective in a large frequency band. The piezo-lens has the ability to focus flexural waves at different locations by tuning the shunting negative capacitance values. The piezo-lens is shown to be effective for flexural waves generated by different types of sources.

  15. Flexural Properties of Eastern Hardwood Pallet Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. McLeod; Marshall S. White; Paul A. Ifju; Philip A. Araman

    1991-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the flexural properties of pallet parts are critical to the safe, yet efficient, design of wood pallets. To develop more accurate data for hardwood pallet parts, 840 stringers and 2,520 deckboards, representing 14 hardwood species, were sampled from 35 mills distributed throughout the Eastern United States. The parts were sorted by species,...

  16. Psoriasis of the face and flexures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Murphy, G.M.; Austad, J.; Ljungberg, A.; Cambazard, F.; Duvold, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    Facial and flexural psoriasis may impair the quality of life of psoriatic patients considerably. For the adequate management of psoriasis it is important to pay attention to lesions at these sensitive sites, which require an approach different to that for lesions on other sites in several respects.

  17. Psoriasis of the face and flexures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Murphy, G.M.; Austad, J.; Ljungberg, A.; Cambazard, F.; Duvold, L.B.

    2007-01-01

    Facial and flexural psoriasis may impair the quality of life of psoriatic patients considerably. For the adequate management of psoriasis it is important to pay attention to lesions at these sensitive sites, which require an approach different to that for lesions on other sites in several respects.

  18. Flexural buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Twilt, L.; Soetens, F.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns, a finite element model is developed. The results of this model are verified with experiments. Based on a parametric study with the finite element model, it is concluded that the simple calculation model for flexural buckling of fire expos

  19. On the effectiveness of the vlf-em method For ground water prospecting in the Basement terrains, Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shendi, El-Arabi Hendi [العربيى هندي شندي

    1997-01-01

    The VLF-EM method is proved to be an effective, fast and inexpensive tool for ground water prospecting in the basement terrains of Southern Sinai. The resistive shallow alluvial deposits increase the penetration depth of the received VLF waves to as deep as 40 meters which is very reasonable to detect the water bearing alluvium in the studied areas. The measured horizontal and vertical components of the resultant VLF-EM field were used to calculate the apparent resistivities of the conductive...

  20. Design and Performance Optimization of Large Stroke Spatial Flexures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D.H.; Boer, S.E.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Brouwer, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Flexure hinges inherently lose stiffness in supporting directions when deflected. In this paper a method is presented for optimizing the geometry of flexure hinges, which aims at maximizing supporting stiffnesses. In addition, the new ∞ -flexure hinge design is presented. The considered hinges are

  1. Catalogue of x-ray solar flare induced variations in sub-ionospheric very low frequency (VLF) waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Hans; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Besser, Bruno P.; Wolbang, Daniel; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Biagi, Pier F.; Stachel, Manfred; Prattes, Gustav; Aydogar, Özer; Muck, Cosima; Grill, Claudia; Jernej, Irmgard; Stachel, Thomas; Moro, Florian

    2017-04-01

    In this study we present a catalogue of solar flare induced very low frequency (VLF) variations along sub-ionospheric paths between several transmitters and the Graz seismo-electromagnetic UltraMSK receiving station. These measurements of non-seismic disturbances are important in order to carefully characterise the Earth-ionosphere VLF waveguide and disentangle possible earthquake related phenomena from natural and man-made ambient VLF amplitude and phase modifications. The period of investigation is from Jan. 2010 to April 2016, i.e. largely covers the sunspot cycle 24. In total we've 373 VLF amplitude and phase fluctuations related with C/M/X-class solar flare events (the data are from NOAA GOES x-ray flux measurements). We obtain the statistics (dependence on VLF signal vs. x-ray flux variations) for high signal-to-noise ratio VLF links under consideration of the zenith angle. We conclude, that with the mid-latitude Graz VLF knot, a part of the European receiver network, a reliable service for solar flare induced variations of the VLF waveguide can be established. In addition to complementary region-wide network multi-parameter observations this could be a crucial step towards a full characterisation of the behaviour of sub-ionospheric VLF paths including modifications related to seismic activity.

  2. A piezoelectric motor using flexural vibration of a thin piezoelectric membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, N; Iula, A; Pappalardo, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a new implementation of a disk-type piezoelectric motor, whose stator is a commercial available piezomembrane composed of a nickel alloy disk to which a piezoceramic disk is bonded. The two disks are concentric, and the total thickness is very small. Ultrasonic motors are based on the concept of driving a rotor by mechanical vibration excited on a stator, via the piezoelectric effect. The rotor is in contact with the stator, and the driving force is the frictional force between rotor and stator. To transform the mechanical vibration of the stator in the rotor rotation, a traveling wave must be excited on the stator surface. The proposed motor can be regarded as a disk-type, single wavelength motor in which the traveling wave is due to the natural flexural vibration of the piezomembrane at low frequency. The behavior of the stator is analyzed both theoretically, by using the theory of isotropic and homogeneous vibrating plates, and by means of a commercial finite element computer code, finding a good agreement with the experimental results. The main features of the motor are very small thickness, appreciable torque, and high speed, obtained with low input power at low voltage; the intended application is to substitute the moving-coil in analogic instrumentation.

  3. Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, a rotational capacity model for flexural reinforced concrete elements is presented. The model is based on the general assumption, that any other failure mode than bending is prevented by proper design. This includes failure due to shear, anchorage, concentrated loads etc. Likewise......, beams governed by failure described by Kani’s Valley are not covered by the presented model. Hence, the model is delimited to shear reinforced elements failing in flexure. The rotational capacity model is divided into the following calculation procedures. 1. A cross sectional analysis of the critical...... are not necessarily so. An example shows the applicability of the model and a parametric study shows the advantages of the model compared with code provisions. Finally, improvements of the compression zone modelling is performed in order to include a better performance when concrete crushing is the failure criterion...

  4. Flexural Mie Resonances: Localized Surface Platonic Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Farhat, M; Chen, P Y; Salama, K N; Bagci, H

    2016-01-01

    Surface plasmons polaritons were thought to exist only in metals near their plasma frequencies. The concept of spoof plasmons extended the realms of plasmonics to domains such as radio frequencies, magnetism, or even acoustic waves. Here, we introduce the concept of localized surface platonic modes (SPMs). We demonstrate that they can be generated on a two-dimensional clamped (or stress-free) cylindrical surface, in a thin elastic plate, with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with negatively uniform and dispersive flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like platonic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing, or elastic imaging and cloaking.

  5. Flexural creep behaviour of jute polypropylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandekar, Harichandra; Chaudhari, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Present study is about the flexural creep behaviour of jute fabric reinforced polypropylene (Jute-PP) composites. The PP sheet and alkali treated jute fabric is stacked alternately and hot pressed in compression molding machine to get Jute-PP composite laminate. The flexural creep study is carried out on dynamic mechanical analyzer. The creep behaviour of the composite is modeled using four-parameter Burgers model. Short-term accelerated creep testing is conducted which is later used to predict long term creep behaviour. The feasibility of the construction of a master curve using the time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle to predict long term creep behavior of unreinforced PP and Jute-PP composite is investigated.

  6. Flexural Free Vibrations of Multistep Nonuniform Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojin Tan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an exact approach to investigate the flexural free vibrations of multistep nonuniform beams. Firstly, one-step beam with moment of inertia and mass per unit length varying as I(x=α11+βxr+4 and m(x=α21+βxr was studied. By using appropriate transformations, the differential equation for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section is reduced to a four-order differential equation with constant coefficients. According to different types of roots for the characteristic equation of four-order differential equation with constant coefficients, two kinds of modal shape functions are obtained, and the general solutions for flexural free vibration of one-step beam with variable cross section are presented. An exact approach to solve the natural frequencies and modal shapes of multistep beam with variable cross section is presented by using transfer matrix method, the exact general solutions of one-step beam, and iterative method. Numerical examples reveal that the calculated frequencies and modal shapes are in good agreement with the finite element method (FEM, which demonstrates the solutions of present method are exact ones.

  7. Tachykinin receptors in the equine pelvic flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonea, I M; Wilson, D V; Bowker, R M; Robinson, N E

    1997-07-01

    Tachykinins, of which substance P (SP) is the prototype, are neuropeptides which are widely distributed in the nervous systems. In the equine gut, SP is present in enteric nerves and is a powerful constrictor of enteric muscle; in other species, SP is also known to have potent vasodilatory and pro-inflammatory effects. The specific effects of SP are determined by the subtype of receptor present in the target tissue. There are 3 known subtypes of tachykinin receptors, distinguished by their relative affinities for SP and other tachykinins. The distribution of SP binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure was determined using 125I-Bolton Hunter SP (I-BHSP) autoradiography. Most I-BHSP binding sites were determined to be saturable and specific, therefore presumably representing tachykinin receptors. The greatest degree of I-BHSP binding occurred over very small vessels, and over the muscularis mucosae; I-BHSP binding was also intense over the circular muscle of the muscularis externa and mucosa, and present, although less intense, over the longitudinal muscle of the muscularis externa. Competition of I-BHSP with specific receptor agonists for binding sites in the equine pelvic flexure were used to determine the subtypes of tachykinin receptors present. The neurokinin-1 receptor subtype predominated in the equine pelvic flexure, followed by the neurokinin-3 receptor subtype.

  8. 100 Days of ELF/VLF Generation via HF Heating with HAARP (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M.; Golkowski, M.

    2013-12-01

    ELF/VLF radio waves are difficult to generate with conventional antennas. Ionospheric HF heating facilities generate ELF/VLF waves via modulated heating of the lower ionosphere. HF heating of the ionosphere changes the lower ionospheric conductivity, which in the presence of natural currents such as the auroral electrojet, creates an antenna in the sky when heating is modulated at ELF/VLF frequencies. We present a summary of nearly 100 days of ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the 3.6 MW HAARP facility near Gakona, Alaska, and provide a baseline reference of ELF/VLF generation capabilities with HF heating. Between February 2007 and August 2008, HAARP was operated on close to 100 days for ELF/VLF wave generation experiments, at a variety of ELF/VLF frequencies, seasons and times of day. We present comprehensive statistics of generated ELF/VLF magnetic fields observed at a nearby site, in the 500-3500 Hz band. Transmissions with a specific HF beam configuration (3.25 MHz, vertical beam, amplitude modulation) are isolated so the data comparison is self-consistent, across nearly 5 million individual measurements of either a tone or a piece of a frequency-time ramp. There is a minimum in the average generation close to local midnight. It is found that generation during local nighttime is on average weaker, but more highly variable, with a small number of very strong generation periods. Signal amplitudes from day to day may vary by as much as 20-30 dB. Generation strengthens by ~5 dB during the first ~30 minutes of transmission, which may be a signature of slow electron density changes from sustained HF heating. Theoretical calculations are made to relate the amplitude observed to the power injected into the waveguide and reaching 250 km. The median power generated by HAARP and injected into the waveguide is ~0.05-0.1 W in this base-line configuration (vertical beam, 3.25 MHz, amplitude modulation), but may have generated hundreds of Watts for brief durations

  9. Secure Disk Mixed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myongchol Ri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a disk encryption method, called Secure Disk Mixed System (SDMS in this paper, for data protection of disk storages such as USB flash memory, USB hard disk and CD/DVD. It is aimed to solve temporal and spatial limitations of existing disk encryption methods and to control security performance flexibly according to the security requirement of system.

  10. TLEs and early VLF events: Simulating the important impact of transmitter-disturbance-receiver geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaitAmor, S.; Ghalila, H.; Cohen, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Early very low frequency (VLF) events are perturbations to subionospherically propagating VLF radio transmitters which sometimes occur when lightning activity is near the transmitter-receiver path. They are often correlated to Transient Luminous Events (TLEs). Recent analysis have focused on a new type of early events whose recovery time persists for many minutes, called LOng Recovery Events (LOREs). The underlying cause of these events is still unclear. Curiously, LOREs sometimes appear on only one path, while the same event observed on a different transmitter-receiver path does not indicate a LORE. In this paper we observe and simulate two cases of early signal perturbations: The first is a typical early VLF event, and the second is a LORE. Both were recorded by two AWESOME VLF receivers in North Africa on 12 December 2009, during the EuroSprite campaign. We combine observations with theoretical modeling to infer the electron density change that most closely reproduces the observed perturbation. Our results explain the cases where LOREs are detected on only one path as resulting from transmitter-receiver geometry significantly which impacts the modal content and therefore the observed VLF recovery time.

  11. The European VLF/LF Radio Network: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Pier Francesco; Maggipinto, Tommaso; Schiavulli, Luigi; Ligonzo, Teresa; Colella, Roberto; Ermini, Anita; Martinelli, Giovanni; Palangio, Paolo; Moldovan, Iren; Silva, Hugo; Contadakis, Michael; Frantzis, Xenophon; Katzis, Konstantinos; Buyuksarac, Aydin; D'Amico, Sebastiano

    2014-05-01

    Since 2009 a network of VLF (20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) radio receivers has been put into operation in Europe in order to study earthquakes precursors. At the moment the network consists of eleven receivers four of which are located in Italy, two in Greece and one in Portugal, Romania, Malta, Cyprus and Turkey. The data (sampling rate of 1min) are downloaded automatically at the end of each day and they are stored in the server located at the Department of Physics of the University of Bari (Italy), that is the central node of the network. Still, in some case, problems of connection exist. The different trends are open and visible on the web site: http://beta.fisica.uniba.it/infrep/Hom.aspx. The data files can be downloaded by the same web site but they are protected by username and password. Among the different methods of data analysis the Wavelet spectra appear to be the most sensitive ones. The software able to apply this technique on the radio data automatically at the end of each day has been planned and realized. At the moment it operates on four signals collected by one of the Italian receivers; if an anomaly stands up and it is over a fixed threshold a warning advise appears. In the web site, this activity is protected by a specific username and password.

  12. Observations of the impenetrable barrier, the plasmapause, and the VLF bubble during the 17 March 2015 storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Mishin, E. V.; Fennel, J. F.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.

    2016-06-01

    Van Allen Probes observations during the 17 March 2015 major geomagnetic storm strongly suggest that VLF transmitter-induced waves play an important role in sculpting the earthward extent of outer zone MeV electrons. A magnetically confined bubble of very low frequency (VLF) wave emissions of terrestrial, human-produced origin surrounds the Earth. The outer limit of the VLF bubble closely matches the position of an apparent barrier to the inward extent of multi-MeV radiation belt electrons near 2.8 Earth radii. When the VLF transmitter signals extend beyond the eroded plasmapause, electron loss processes set up near the outer extent of the VLF bubble create an earthward limit to the region of local acceleration near L = 2.8 as MeV electrons are scattered into the atmospheric loss cone.

  13. Subionospehric VLF perturbations of red sprites: 3D FDTD modeling and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, M.; Hobara, Y.; Ohta, K.; Minatohara, T.; Otsuyama, T.; Hayakawa, M.

    2012-04-01

    Majority of red sprites occurs in association with large positive cloud to ground discharges. Although the red sprite consists of highly ionized structure, physical properties of the ionization columns such as electron density and spatial extent have not understood well. In this paper 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method carried out to compute the subionospheric VLF signal perturbations due to the sprite ionization columns. Spatial scales of columns are determined by the sprite images obtained from our optical observations during winter lightning activities over the sea of Japan. Numerical results indicate that the multiple sprites generate the complicated scattering pattern of the VLF transmitter waves depending on special orientation and extent of sprite ionization columns. Spatial dependence of the scattered amplitude are compared with those from the experimental results of VLF observation network.

  14. A new type of daytime high-frequency VLF emissions at auroral latitudes ("bird emissions")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, J.; Turunen, T.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Gromova, L. I.; Kozlovskii, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a new, previously unknown type of high-frequency (above 4 kHz) VLF emissions that were detected during winter VLF campaigns in Kannuslehto ( L 5.5), Finland. These previously unknown emissions have been discovered as a result of the application of special digital filtering: it clears the VLF records from pulse signals of intensive atmospherics, which prevent other kinds of VLF emissions in the same frequency range from being seen on spectrograms. As it appears, aside from wellknown bursts of auroral hisses and discrete quasiperiodic emissions, a previously unknown type of daytime right-hand polarized VLF waves is also present at frequencies above 4 kHz. These emissions can persist for several hours as series of separate short discrete wideband (from 4 to 10 kHz and higher) signals, each with a duration between one and several minutes. It has been found that such signals can be observed almost daily in winter. These emissions sound like bird's chirping to a human ear; for that reason, they were called "bird emissions." The dynamic spectra of individual signals often resemble flying birds. The signals are observed during daytime, more often in magnetically quiet conditions preceded by geomagnetic disturbances. As a rule, the occurrence of these bird emissions is accompanied by a slight increase in electron density in the lower ionosphere, which is evidence of the precipitation of energetic (>30 keV) electrons. This raises a number of questions as to where and how the VLF bird emissions are generated and how such emissions, at frequencies greatly exceeding half the electron equatorial gyrofrequency at L 5.5, can reach the Earth's surface.

  15. ELF/VLF wave disturbances detected by the DEMETER satellite over the HAARP transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Parrot, Michel; Mogilevsky, Mikhail; Mochalov, Alexey; Pashin, Anatoly

    We report observations of electromagnetic the ELF/VLF wave disturbances by the DEMETER satellite (670 km altitude) overflying the HAARP heating facility (62.39(°) N, 145.15(°) W, L = 4.9). The HAARP HF transmitter operated at the maximum available power of 3.6 MW, O-mode polarization, and the beam directed towards the magnetic zenith. ELF/VLF waves caused by the HAARP heating are detected by the DEMETER satellite when the HF radio wave frequency was close to the critical frequency (foF2) of the ionospheric F2 layer but below it. ELF/VLF wave disturbances observed above the HAARP transmitter were detected by electrical antennas in an area with characteristic size 10 (2) km. We analyze amplitude and polarization spectra of the ELF disturbances and compare them with the characteristics of natural ELF hiss above HAARP. The VLF wave disturbances in the topside ionosphere above the HAARP transmitter were detected in the frequency ranges 8-17 kHz and 15-18 kHz which are close to the lower hybrid resonance frequency f _LHR in the heating region and its second harmonic (2f _LHR), respectively. In the case where the HAARP HF power was modulated, the detected VLF waves were also modulated with the same frequency whereas in the ELF frequency range the modulation period of the HAARP power was not observed. Possible mechanisms of generation of the ELF/VLF disturbances produced by the HAARP transmitter in the topside ionosphere are discussed.

  16. Combined ULF and VLF observations of seismo-electro-magnetic phenomena in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Eichelberger, Hans; Wolbang, Daniel; Prattes, Gustav; Besser, Bruno; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Stangl, Günter; Magnes, Werner; Berghofer, Gerhard; Aydogar, Özer; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Vellante, Massimo; Villante, Umberto; Biagi, Pier F.

    2014-05-01

    A combined analysis of magnetic ultra-low-frequency (ULF) and electromagnetic very-low-frequency (VLF) fluctuations before, during and after earthquakes in south and south-east Europe is presented. The magnetic fluctuations are studied in the frame of the South European Geomagnetic Array (SEGMA) network. The fluxgate and searchcoil magnetometers, located in Italy, Bulgaria and Hungary perform measurements of fluctuations in the pico-Tesla and nano-Tesla range from milli-Hertz to 100 Hz. The properties of VLF radio links (10 kHz - 50 kHz) are studied in the frame of the European VLF/LF radio receiver network (INFREP). Single parameter studies of ULF and VLF variations in the vicinity of earthquakes in Europe have been performed in the last decade (Villante et al. 2010, Rozhnoi et al. 2009). We present the first results of a dual parameter study based on single parameter ULF and VLF observations. The proposed method provides the opportunity to decrease the number of false alerts. A dual parameter seismo-electro-magnetic reliability number is developed and compared with single parameter quality numbers. References: Rozhnoi, A., Solovieva, M., Molchanov, O., Schwingenschuh, K., Boudjada, M., Biagi, P. F., Maggipinto, T., Castellana, L., Ermini, A., and Hayakawa, M.: Anomalies in VLF radio signals prior the Abruzzo earthquake (M=6.3) on 6 April 2009, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 1727-1732, doi:10.5194/nhess-9-1727-2009, 2009. Villante, U., De Lauretis, M., De Paulis, C., Francia, P., Piancatelli, A., Pietropaolo, E., Vellante, M., Meloni, A., Palangio, P., Schwingenschuh, K., Prattes, G., Magnes, W., and Nenovski, P.: The 6 April 2009 earthquake at L'Aquila: a preliminary analysis of magnetic field measurements, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 203-214, doi:10.5194/nhess-10-203-2010, 2010.

  17. Extended lateral heating of the nighttime ionosphere by ground-based VLF transmitters

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Graf, K. L.; Spasojevic, M.; Marshall, R. A.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Foust, F. R.

    2013-01-01

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH: SPACE PHYSICS, VOL. 118, 7783–7797, doi:10.1002/2013JA019337, 2013 Extended lateral heating of the nighttime ionosphere by ground-based VLF transmitters K. L. Graf,1 M. Spasojevic,1 R. A. Marshall,2 N. G. Lehtinen,1 F. R. Foust,1 and U. S. Inan1,3 Received 16 August 2013; revised 9 October 2013; accepted 11 November 2013; published 3 December 2013. [1] The effects of ground-based very low frequency (VLF) transmitters on the lower ionospher...

  18. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions observed during daytime at a low latitude Indian ground station Jammu

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Singh; J Singh; R P Patel; A K Singh; R P Singh; Rejesh Singh; P A Ganai

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports quasi-periodic pulsing hiss emissions recorded during daytime in the frequency range of 50 Hz –15 kHz at low latitude station Jammu (geomag.lat.=22° 26′N; =1.17). It is noted that pulsing VLF emissions are a rare phenomena at low latitudes.The various spectrograms of pulsing VLF hiss emissions presented in this paper clearly show band limited spectrums regularly pulsing with almost equal period of the order of few seconds in the frequency range of ∼3-8 kHz. Generation and propagation mechanism of these emissions are briefly discussed.

  19. Subionospheric VLF signatures and their association with sprites observed during EuroSprite 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mika, A.; Haldoupis, C.; Marshall, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    to sprites. Bandpass filtering of the broadband VLF signal revealed that only about 5% of the sprites were escorted by early VLF perturbations, possibly due to backscatter. Finally, by using all 131 sprites captured during EuroSprite-2003, the time lags of the sprites to the preceding +/- CG discharges were...... computed and analyzed. The time-lag distribution had a well defined tail suggesting that at least one third of the sprites observed were lagging the +/- CG discharges by more than 30 up to 300 ms. In addition these "long-delayed" sprites were not accompanied by any radio-sferics during the sprite...

  20. Similar Data Retrieval from Enormous Datasets on ELF/VLF Wave Spectrum Observed by Akebono

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Kasahara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As the total amount of data measured by scientific spacecraft is drastically increasing, it is necessary for researchers to develop new computation methods for efficient analysis of these enormous datasets. In the present study, we propose a new algorithm for similar data retrieval. We first discuss key descriptors that represent characteristics of the VLF/ELF waves observed by the Akebono spacecraft. Second, an algorithm for similar data retrieval is introduced. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed algorithm works well for the retrieval of the VLF spectrum with a small amount of CPU load.

  1. On the numerical modelling of VLF chorus dynamical spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nunn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the use of a one-dimensional Vlasov Hybrid Simulation (VHS computer code to simulate the dynamical spectra (i.e. frequency versus time spectrograms of ELF/VLF chorus signals (from ~a fraction to ~10 kHz. Recently excellent measurements of chorus have been made in the source region close to the geomagnetic equator aboard the four spacecraft Cluster mission. Using Cluster data for wave amplitude, which is up to 300 pT, local gyrofrequency, cold plasma density, and L-shell, observed chorus signals are reproduced with remarkable fidelity and, in particular, sweep rates in the range 1–10 kHz result as observed. Further, we find that the sweep rate is a falling function of increasing cold plasma density, again in accord with observations. Finally, we have satisfactorily simulated the rather rare falling frequency elements of chorus which are sometimes observed aboard Cluster in the generation region. For both rising and falling chorus we have presented detailed structural analyses of the generation regions. The main contributor to the frequency sweep rate is primarily the establishment of wave number/frequency gradients across the generation region by the out of phase component of the resonant particle current. The secondary contributor is the shortening of the wavelength of resonant particle current relative to that of the wave field. In view of the close agreement between observation and simulation, we conclude that nonlinear electron cyclotron resonance is indeed the mechanism underlying the generation of chorus signals just outside the plasmasphere.

  2. FLEXURAL TOUGHNESS OF STEEL FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fehmi ÇİVİCİ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiber concrete is a composite material which has mechanical and physical characteristics unlike plain concrete. One of the important mechanical characteristics of fiber concrete is its energy absorbing capability. This characteristics which is also called toughness, is defined as the total area under the load-deflection curve. A number of composite characteristics such as crack resistance, ductility and impact resistance are related to the energy absorbtion capacity. According to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 the calculation of toughness is determined by uniaxial flexural testing. Fiber concrete is often used in plates such as bridge decks, airport pavements, parking areas, subjected to cavitation and erosion. In this paper, toughness has been determined according to ASTM C 1018 and JSCE SF-4 methods by testing beam specimens. Energy absorbing capacities of plain and steel fiber reinforced concrete has been compared by evaluating the results of two methods. Also plain and steel fiber reinforced plate specimens behaviors subjected to biaxial flexure are compared by the loaddeflection curves of each specimen.

  3. Flexure and isostasy of lunar mascons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S. T. M.; Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    A mascon is a region of a planet's or moon's crust that contains an excess positive gravity anomaly, indicating the presence of additional mass in this area. Mascons on the Moon coincide with the locations of circular basins and hence a related origin for both is likely. The formation of a circular basin includes the excavation of the upper parts of the crust and subsequent upwelling of the lower parts as a result of isostatic compensation [1]. Afterwards, filling of the basins by mare basalts leads to concentrations of dense rocks and is hence suggested as the origin of the mascon. The present day presence of mascons indicates that there was no subsequent isostasy leading to downward migration of the moho and that they are hence supported by an elastic layer on the surface of the Moon. The interaction between mascons and this elastic shell is the main topic of our modeling. Since they were discovered by Muller and Sjogren (1968), the origin of mascons and their interaction with the crust became clearer. As we point out below, several questions have however remained unsolved. Our contribution includes the usage of recent gravity and topography models that have not been applied in mascon studies yet. Mascons act like a dense load on the lunar lithosphere and hence flexure it. Flexure profiles of circular basins have been made by previous authors [2], however, only a single-layered crust was considered until now. Our modeling includes the two-layered crustal model preferred by Wieczorek and Phillips (1997) which explains the gravity to topography ratios of the lunar highlands. On the hand of previously existing data it has been suggested that rings of negative gravity anomalies surround the mascons [3]. Whereas this observation was first questionable, prereleases of the high-resolution KAGUYA gravity measurements recently clearly confirmed the presence of these features. Part of our modeling focuses on the location and extent of the negative anomalies in respect to

  4. Derivation of a poroelastic flexural shell model

    CERN Document Server

    Mikelic, Andro

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the limit behavior of the solution to quasi-static Biot's equations in thin poroelastic flexural shells as the thickness of the shell tends to zero and extend the results obtained for the poroelastic plate by Marciniak-Czochra and Mikeli\\'c. We choose Terzaghi's time corresponding to the shell thickness and obtain the strong convergence of the three-dimensional solid displacement, fluid pressure and total poroelastic stress to the solution of the new class of shell equations. The derived bending equation is coupled with the pressure equation and it contains the bending moment due to the variation in pore pressure across the shell thickness. The effective pressure equation is parabolic only in the normal direction. As additional terms it contains the time derivative of the middle-surface flexural strain. Derivation of the model presents an extension of the results on the derivation of classical linear elastic shells by Ciarlet and collaborators to the poroelastic shells case. The n...

  5. Galaxy Disks are Submaximal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bershady, Matthew A.; Martinsson, Thomas P. K.; Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Westfall, Kyle B.; Andersen, David R.; Swaters, Rob A.

    2011-01-01

    We measure the contribution of galaxy disks to the overall gravitational potential of 30 nearly face-on intermediate-to-late-type spirals from the DiskMass Survey. The central vertical velocity dispersion of the disk stars (sigma(disk)(z,R=0)) is related to the maximum rotation speed (V-max) as sigm

  6. Cluster observations of ELF/VLF signals generated by modulated heating of the lower ionosphere with the HAARP HF transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Platino

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available It is now well known that amplitude modulated HF transmissions into the ionosphere can be used to generate ELF/VLF signals using the so-called "electrojet antenna". Although most observations of the generated ELF/VLF signals have been made on the ground, several low and high-altitude satellite observations have also been reported (James et al., 1990. One of the important unknowns in the physics of ELF/VLF wave generation by ionospheric heating is the volume of the magnetosphere illuminated by the ELF/VLF waves. In an attempt to investigate this question further, ground-satellite conjunction experiments have recently been conducted using the four Cluster satellites and the HF heater of the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP facility in Gakona, Alaska. Being located on largely closed field lines at L≈4.9, HAARP is currently also being used for ground-to-ground type of ELF/VLF wave-injection experiments, and will be increasingly used for this purpose as it is now being upgraded for higher power operation. In this paper, we describe the HAARP installation and present recent results of the HAARP-Cluster experiments. We give an overview of the detected ELF/VLF signals at Cluster, and a possible explanation of the spectral signature detected, as well as the determination of the location of the point of injection of the HAARP ELF/VLF signals into the magnetosphere using ray tracing.

  7. Development of ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system in Wuhan and its first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanping; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Gu, Xudong; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Feng

    2016-05-01

    A new digital low-frequency receiver system has been developed at Wuhan University for sensitive reception of low-latitude broadband Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves originating from either natural or artificial sources. These low-frequency radio waves are useful for ionospheric remote sensing, geospace environment monitoring, and submarine communications. This paper presents the principle and architecture of the system framework, including magnetic loop antenna design, low-noise analog front-end and digital receiver with data sampling and transmission. A new structure is adopted in the analog front end to provide high common-mode rejection and to reduce interference. On basis of field programmable gate array (FPGA) device and Universal Serial Bus (USB) architecture, the digital receiver is developed along with time keeping and synchronization module. The validity and feasibility of the self-developed ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system is evaluated by first results of experimental data that show the temporal variation of broadband ELF/VLF wave spectral intensity in Wuhan (30.54 °N, 114.37 °E). In addition to the acquisition of VLF transmitter signals at various frequencies, tweek atmospherics are also clearly captured to occur at multiple modes up to n = 6.

  8. Comparative Analysis of VLF Signal Variation along Trajectory Induced by X-ray Solar Flares

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Kolarski; D. Grubor

    2015-12-01

    Comparative qualitative analysis of amplitude and phase delay variations was carried out along the trajectory of GQD/22.1 kHz and NAA/24.0 kHz VLF signal traces, propagating from Skelton (UK) and Maine (USA) toward Belgrade, induced by four isolated solar X-ray flare events occurred during the period from September 2005 to December 2006. For monitoring, recording and for storage of VLF data at the Institute of Physics in Belgrade, Serbia, the AbsPAL system was used. For modeling purposes of propagating conditions along GQD and NAA signal propagation paths, LWPCv21 program code was used. Occurred solar flare events induced lower ionosphere electron density height profile changes, causing perturbations in VLF wave propagation within Earth-ionosphere waveguides. As analyzed VLF signals characterize by different propagation parameters along trajectories from their transmitters to the Belgrade receiver site, their propagation is affected in different ways for different solar flare events and also for the same solar flare events.

  9. Investigation of TEC and VLF space measurements associated to L'Aquila (Italy earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stangl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report on Total Electron Content (TEC and Very Low Frequency (VLF space measurements derived from Global Positioning System (GPS and DEMETER satellites, respectively. These measurements are associated with the earthquake (EQ of a magnitude of 6.3, which occurred on 6 April 2009, in L'Aquila (Italy. Anomaly features are derived from the analysis of TEC and VLF observations recorded two weeks before and after the seismic event occurrence. A TEC map with an interpolated regional pixel resolution of 1° × 1° × 15 min in latitude, longitude and time was generated, allowing for the checking of a possible presence of disturbances over the L'Aquila region. This analysis is combined with the study of the time profile associated to the VLF flux density variations recorded by the Instrument Champ Electrique (ICE experiment on-board DEMETER satellite. We discuss, on the one hand, the combination efficiency of the electronic density and the VLF electromagnetic measurements and, on the other hand, the difficulty to distinguish between global effects and regional ones related to the earthquake.

  10. Study of latitudinal effects on VLF transmitter signals recorded by DEMETER/ICE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjada, M. Y.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Berthelier, J. J.; Döller, R.; Galopeau, P. H. M.; Parrot, M.; Stangl, G.; Biernat, H.; Voller, W.; Besser, B.

    2010-05-01

    We report on VLF transmitter signals observed by the ‘Instrument Capteur Electrique' (ICE) experiment onboard the DEMETER micro-satellite. The DEMETER polar and circular sun-synchronous orbits lead to cover an invariant latitude range between -65° and +65° where up- and down-going half-orbits correspond to night-time (22:00 LT) and day-time (10:00 LT), respectively. The DEMETER orbit features permit to record signals emitted by some VLF ground-stations and detected by ICE experiment. We consider three transmitter signals emitted by stations in Europe (Germany, DFY, 16.58 kHz), in Asia (Japan, JP, 17.8 kHz) and in Australia (Australia, NWC, 19.8 kHz). We study the variation of these VLF signals taking into consideration the DEMETER satellite latitudes .We emphasis on latitudes where the satellite is close to the Earth's sub-auroral regions. We discuss particularly the presence, or not, of auroral magnetic activity effect on the VLF transmitter signals.

  11. Comparative Analysis of VLF Signal Variation along Trajectory Induced by X-ray Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarski, A.; Grubor, D.

    2015-12-01

    Comparative qualitative analysis of amplitude and phase delay variations was carried out along the trajectory of GQD/22.1 kHz and NAA/24.0 kHz VLF signal traces, propagating from Skelton (UK) and Maine (USA) toward Belgrade, induced by four isolated solar X-ray flare events occurred during the period from September 2005 to December 2006. For monitoring, recording and for storage of VLF data at the Institute of Physics in Belgrade, Serbia, the AbsPAL system was used. For modeling purposes of propagating conditions along GQD and NAA signal propagation paths, LWPCv21 program code was used. Occurred solar flare events induced lower ionosphere electron density height profile changes, causing perturbations in VLF wave propagation within Earth-ionosphere waveguides. As analyzed VLF signals characterize by different propagation parameters along trajectories from their transmitters to the Belgrade receiver site, their propagation is affected in different ways for different solar flare events and also for the same solar flare events.

  12. Performance evaluation of HSC beams with low flexural reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Elrakib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the current research is to establish experimental data for minimum flexural reinforcement, ρmin, of high strength concrete (HSC rectangular beams. Nine full-scale singly reinforced beams with flexural reinforcement ratios varying from 50% to 100% of the minimum limit specified by the ACI 363R-35were tested in flexure. Concrete compressive strengths of 52, 73 and 96.5 MPa were used. The test results including crack patterns, deflections and strains in the tensile flexural steel bars show that a 25% reduction of the ACI 363R-35 limit for the ρmin would result in a satisfactory flexural beam behavior with a reserve flexural parameter (Py,/Pcr ⩾ 1.29 and a displacement ductility index λΔ > 5 for all concrete grades which may lead to good savings in the amount of the flexural reinforcement. Also, it was noted that the displacement ductility index λΔ increased as the concrete compressive strength increased for the same ratio (ρ/ρmin up to 75 MPa and then decreases as fcu increases. For the same concrete compressive strength with low values of flexural reinforcement ratio, ρ, the displacement ductility index λΔ increased as ρ increased. The experimental results of this study were compared with the limits specified by available codes and researches.

  13. Cluster observations of ELF/VLF signals generated by modulated heating of the lower ionosphere with the HAARP HF transmitter

    OpenAIRE

    Platino, M.; Inan, U.S.; Bell, T. F.; Pickett, J; Kennedy, E J; Trotignon, J. G.; Rauch, J. L.; Canu, P.

    2004-01-01

    It is now well known that amplitude modulated HF transmissions into the ionosphere can be used to generate ELF/VLF signals using the so-called "electrojet antenna". Although most observations of the generated ELF/VLF signals have been made on the ground, several low and high-altitude satellite observations have also been reported (James et al., 1990). One of the important unknowns in the physics of ELF/VLF wave generation by ionospheric heating is the volume of the magnetosphere ill...

  14. Cluster observations of ELF/VLF signals generated by modulated heating of the lower ionosphere with the HAARP HF transmitter

    OpenAIRE

    Platino, M.; U. S. Inan; Bell, T.F.; Pickett, J.; Kennedy, E.J.; J. G. Trotignon; Rauch, J.L.; P. Canu

    2004-01-01

    It is now well known that amplitude modulated HF transmissions into the ionosphere can be used to generate ELF/VLF signals using the so-called "electrojet antenna". Although most observations of the generated ELF/VLF signals have been made on the ground, several low and high-altitude satellite observations have also been reported (James et al., 1990). One of the important unknowns in the physics of ELF/VLF wave generation by ionospheric heating is the volume of the magnetosphere ill...

  15. 100 days of ELF/VLF generation via HF heating with HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M. B.; Gołkowski, M.

    2013-10-01

    Extremely low frequency/very low frequency (ELF/VLF) radio waves are difficult to generate with conventional antennas. Ionospheric high frequency (HF) heating facilities generate ELF/VLF waves via modulated heating of the lower ionosphere. HF heating of the ionosphere changes the lower ionospheric conductivity, which in the presence of natural currents such as the auroral electrojet creates an antenna in the sky when heating is modulated at ELF/VLF frequencies. We present a summary of nearly 100 days of ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at the 3.6 MW High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility near Gakona, Alaska, at a variety of ELF/VLF frequencies, seasons, and times of day. We present comprehensive statistics of generated ELF/VLF magnetic fields observed at a nearby site, in the 500-3500 Hz band. Transmissions with a specific HF beam configuration (3.25 MHz, vertical beam, amplitude modulation) are isolated so the data comparison is self-consistent, across nearly 5 million individual measurements of either a tone or a piece of a frequency-time ramp. There is a minimum in the average generation close to local midnight. It is found that generation during local nighttime is on average weaker but more highly variable, with a small number of very strong generation periods. Signal amplitudes from day to day may vary by as much as 20-30 dB. Generation strengthens by ˜5 dB during the first ˜30 min of transmission, which may be a signature of slow electron density changes from sustained HF heating. Theoretical calculations are made to relate the amplitude observed to the power injected into the waveguide and reaching 250 km. The median power generated by HAARP and injected into the waveguide is ˜0.05-0.1 W in this baseline configuration (vertical beam, 3.25 MHz, amplitude modulation) but may have generated hundreds of watts for brief durations. Several efficiency improvements have improved the ELF/VLF wave generation efficiency further.

  16. Study of Ionospheric Perturbations in D-Layer Using Awesome VLF Receiver Data at Tashkent Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2012-07-01

    One VLF receiver and two SuperSID receivers were provided to Uzbekistan IHY cite by Stanford University and are operating in Tashkent, under the International Heliophysical Year (IHY). The results obtained at Tashkent IHY station are applied to earthquake electromagnetic precursors, lightning, and solar flares and to ionospheric disturbances originating from gamma ray flares of Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters connected with evolution of strongly magnetized neutron stars believed as magnetars. Regular monitoring of the D-layer of ionosphere over Central Asia territory has been performed on the permanent basis. Few Solar flare events are observed during February in 2010-2011 years and the analysis showed that there is simultaneous correlation between the times of change of amplitude of the waves and the Solar flares. Features of the lightning discharge generated by radio atmospherics are studied and its effectiveness in D-region ionosphere diagnostics is explained. Assuming that earthquakes (EQs) can be preceded by the electromagnetic signals in the VLF bands detectable from ground-based measurements we have studied VLF amplitude anomalies related to the earthquakes occurred in 2009-2010 years with magnitude more than 5 on the path way from the VLF transmitters to the Tashkent station. For analysing narrowband data we have used the Nighttime Fluctuation (NF) method paying attention to the data obtained during the local nighttime (18:00 LT-06:00 LT). The amplitude data are analysed only for the reason that perturbations are identified more clearly in the amplitude data than in phase data. The mean nighttime amplitude (or trend) and normalized trend are found to increase significantly before the EQ with the same tendency as the NF and normalized NF. The obtained results have revealed a fine agreement with VLF amplitude anomalies observed in Tashkent VLF station during the strong earthquakes occurred on the path way from the transmitters to the receiver. Some of the initial

  17. LOADS INFLUENCE ANALYSIS ON NOVEL HIGH PRECISION FLEXURE PARALLEL POSITIONER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A large workspace flexure parallel positioner system is developed, which can attain sub-micron scale accuracy over cubic centimeter motion range for utilizing novel wide-range flexure hinges instead of the conventional mechanism joints. Flexure hinges eliminate backlash and friction, but on the other hand their deformation caused by initial loads influences the positioning accuracy greatly, so discussions about loads' influence analysis on this flexure parallel positioner is very necessary. The stiffness model of the whole mechanism is presented via stiffness assembly method based on the stiffness model of individual flexure hinge. And the analysis results are validated by the finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and experiment tests, which provide essential data to the practical application of this positioner system.

  18. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... analysis of beam structures is presented and includes both upper and lower-bound solution techniques. The remaining chapters are devoted to plates. The classic elastic plate theories are presented. The plastic yield line theory for plates is presented including both upper and lower-bound techniques...

  19. Continuum Mechanics of Beam and Plate Flexure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    This text has been written and used during the spring of 1995 for a course on flexural mechanics of beams and plates at Aalborg University. The idea has been to concentrate on basic principles of the theories, which are of importance to the modern structural engineer. Today's structural engineer...... must be acquainted with the classic beam and plate theories, when reading manuals and using modern software tools such as the finite element method. Each chapter includes supplementary theory and derivations enabling consultation of the notes also at a later stage of study. A preliminary chapter...... introduces the modern notation used in textbooks and in research today. It further gives an introduction to three-dimensional continuum mechanics of elastic bodies and the related principles of virtual work. The ideas to give the students a basic understanding of the stresses and strains, the equilibrium...

  20. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  1. Intra-plasmaspheric wave power density deduced from long-term DEMETER measurements of terrestrial VLF transmitter wave amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauben, D.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U.

    2012-12-01

    We deduce the 3d intra-plasmaspheric distribution of VLF wave power between conjugate regions of strong VLF wave amplitudes as measured by DEMETER for high-power terrestrial VLF transmitters during its ~6-yr lifetime. We employ a mixed WKB/full-wave technique to solve for the primary and secondary electromagnetic and electrostatic waves which are transmitted and reflected from strong cold-plasma density gradients and posited irregularities, in order to match the respective end-point measured amplitude distributions. Energy arriving in the conjugate region and also escaping to other regions of the magnetosphere is note. The resulting 3d distribution allows improved estimates for the long-term average particle scattering induced by terrestrial VLF transmitters.

  2. Electromagnetic Wave-filled Cavities Observed by the GEODESIC Sounding Rocket: A Direct Encounter with VLF Saucer Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabirzadeh, Rasoul

    The GEODESIC sounding rocket encountered hundreds of localized, VLF-wave-filled density depletions in an auroral return current region at altitudes between 900--1000 km. While these are similar to well-studied lower-hybrid "spikelets", which are electrostatic, many of the GEODESIC events exhibited strong VLF magnetic field enhancements as well. In the present study we show that these magnetic field fluctuations can be interpreted as the result of geomagnetic field-aligned electron currents driven by fluctuating electric fields parallel to the geomagnetic field lines. This observation suggests that the electromagnetic wave-filled cavities are signatures of unstable filaments of return current fluctuating at VLF frequencies. We argue that the cavities' spatial dimensions, their location inside the return current region and their total radiated power are consistent with the properties of VLF saucer source regions inferred from earlier satellite observations taken at higher altitudes.

  3. Van Allen Probes observations of prompt MeV radiation belt electron acceleration in nonlinear interactions with VLF chorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Omura, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Kletzing, C. A.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Prompt recovery of MeV (millions of electron Volts) electron populations in the poststorm core of the outer terrestrial radiation belt involves local acceleration of a seed population of energetic electrons in interactions with VLF chorus waves. Electron interactions during the generation of VLF rising tones are strongly nonlinear, such that a fraction of the relativistic electrons at resonant energies are trapped by waves, leading to significant nonadiabatic energy exchange. Through detailed examination of VLF chorus and electron fluxes observed by Van Allen Probes, we investigate the efficiency of nonlinear processes for acceleration of electrons to MeV energies. We find through subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms that electrons with initial energy of hundreds of keV to 3 MeV can be accelerated by 50 keV-200 keV in resonant interactions with a single VLF rising tone on a time scale of 10-100 ms.

  4. Flexural strength and microhardness of anterior composites after accelerated aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Kanşad; Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Öznurhan, Fatih; Serim, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the flexural strength and microhardness of three different anterior composites after 10 000 thermocycles. Material and Methods The mechanical properties of a nano-fill composite (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (FUR) (Enamel)), a nano-hybrid composite (Clearfil Majesty ES2 (ES2) (Enamel)), and a micro-hybrid composite (G Aenial Anterior (GAA)) were investigated in this study. For the microhardness test, 8-mm diameter and 2-mm thickness composite discs were used (n = 10), and for the flexural strength test, 25x2x2 mm bar-shaped specimens were prepared (n = 13). The specimens were tested at 24 h and after 10 000 thermocycles. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the post-hoc Tukey test (p .05). Pearson correlation analysis revealed that there was a negative relationship between the mean hardness and flexural strength values (correlation coefficient = -0.367, p = .043). After 10 000 thermocycles, microhardness values of each material and flexural strength of ES2 and GAA decreased significantly according to 24 h. Conclusions The nano-fill composite FUR displayed significantly higher microhardness values. However, each resin composite was statistically similar for flexural strength values. Ten thousand thermocycles significantly affected microhardness and flexural strength. Key words:Flexural strength, microhardness, anterior composites. PMID:28298986

  5. Effect of electrospun nanofibers on flexural properties of fiberglass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Fatima T.

    In the present study, sintered electrospun TEOS nanofibers were interleaved in S2 fiberglass woven fabric layers, and composite panels were fabricated using the heated vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (H-VARTM) process. Cured panels were water jet cut to obtain the flexural test coupons. Flexural coupons were then tested using ASTM D7264 standard. The mechanical properties such as flexural strength, ultimate flexural failure strains, flexural modulus, and fiber volume fraction were measured. The S-2 fiberglass composite with the sintered TEOS electrospun nanofibers displayed lower flexural stiffness and strength as compared to the composites that were fabricated using S-2 fiberglass composite without the TEOS electrospun nanofibers. The present study also indicated that the composites fabricated with sintered TEOS electrospun nanofibers have larger failure strains as compared to the ones that were fabricated without the presence of electrospun nanofibers. The study indicates that the nanoengineered composites have better energy absorbing mechanism under flexural loading as compared to conventional fiberglass composites without presence of nanofibers.

  6. Effects of ramp vibrational states on flexural intrinsic vibrations in Besocke-style scanners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui; Jiang Guo-Zhu; Liu Zhao-Qun; Zhang Shu-Yi; Fan Li

    2013-01-01

    For both the vibrating and steady supporting surfaces of a scanning disk in a Besocke-style piezoelectric scanner,a theoretical model is given by considering the nonlinear lateral friction at the micro-contact interface between the positioning legs and the supporting surface.Numerical simulations demonstrate that unexpected flexural vibrations can arise from a vibrating ramp,and their frequencies are lower than the eigenfrequencies of the scanner in the linearly elastic regime.The vibrations essentially depend on 1) the vibrational states of the supporting ramp and the steel ball tips on the three piezoelectric positioning legs,and 2) the tribological characteristics of the contacts between the tips and the ramp.The results give an insight into the intrinsic vibrations of the scanners,and are applicable in designing and optimizing piezoelectric scanning systems.

  7. A large workspace flexure hinge-based parallel manipulator system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wei; Du Zhijiang; Sun Lining

    2005-01-01

    Parallel manipulator systems as promising precision devices are used widely in current researches. A novel large workspace flexure parallel manipulator system utilizing wide-range flexure hinges as passive joints is proposed in this paper, which can attain sub-micron-scale precision over the cubic centimeter motion range. This paper introduces the mechanical system architecture based on the wide-range flexure hinges, analyzes the kinematics via stiffness matrices, presents the control system configuration and control strategy, and finally gives the system performance test results.

  8. Thermoelastic dissipation in MEMS/NEMS flexural mode resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jize; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the energy dissipation mechanisms in single-crystal silicon MEMS/NEMS resonators are particularly important to maximizing an important figure of merit relevant for miniature sensor and signal processing applications: the Quality factor (Q) of resonance. This paper discusses thermoelastic dissipation (TED) as the dominant internal-friction mechanism in flexural mode MEMS/NEMS resonators. Criteria for optimizing the geometrical design of flexural mode MEMS/NEMS resonators are theoretically established with a view towards minimizing the TED for single-crystal silicon MEMS/NEMS flexural mode resonators.

  9. Flexure bearing support, with particular application to stirling machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Carl D.; Lauhala, Victor C.; Neely, Ron; Penswick, Laurence B.; Ritter, Darren C.; Nelson, Richard L.; Wimer, Burnell P.

    1996-01-01

    The use of flexures in the form of flat spiral springs cut from sheet metal materials provides support for coaxial nonrotating linear reciprocating members in power conversion machinery, such as Stirling cycle engines or heat pumps. They permit operation with little or no rubbing contact or other wear mechanisms. The relatively movable members include one member having a hollow interior structure within which the flexures are located. The flexures permit limited axial movement between the interconnected members, but prevent adverse rotational movement and radial displacement from their desired coaxial positions.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of MEMS Flexure FET with Multiple Gates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Spandana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design and modelling of Flexure FET and the FETs are the one of the important fundamental devices in electronic devices.. In this paper we are going analyse one of the MEMS Flexure Gate Field Effect Transistors. Here we will design gate of the FLEXURE FET with different type of materials and with different structure and we made the comparison between all the structures. We apply pull-in voltage to the Gate with respect to the change in the gate voltage the respective displacement of the gate changes which reflect the change in the drain current and sensitivity.

  11. Disk Storage Server

    CERN Multimedia

    This model was a disk storage server used in the Data Centre up until 2012. Each tray contains a hard disk drive (see the 5TB hard disk drive on the main disk display section - this actually fits into one of the trays). There are 16 trays in all per server. There are hundreds of these servers mounted on racks in the Data Centre, as can be seen.

  12. Galactic Disk Warps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijken, K.; García, I.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract: This review addresses recent developments in the field of disk galaxy warps. Both results from a new HI survey of edgeon disk galaxies, and of simulations of the interaction between a disk+halo and an orbiting satelite, will be discussed.

  13. Galactic Disk Warps

    CERN Document Server

    Kuijken, K; Kuijken, Konrad; Garcia, Inigo

    2000-01-01

    This review addresses recent developments in the field of disk galaxy warps. Both results from a new HI survey of edgeon disk galaxies, and of simulations of the interaction between a disk+halo and an orbiting satelite, will be discussed.

  14. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Henning, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of gas, solids and molecular ices in protoplanetary disks. Key findings related to disk physics and chemistry, both observationally and theoretically, are highlighted. We discuss which molecular probes are used to derive gas temperature, density, ionization state, kinematics, deuterium fractionation, and study organic matter in protoplanetary disks.

  15. Optical Disk Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, George L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This special feature focuses on recent developments in optical disk technology. Nine articles discuss current trends, large scale image processing, data structures for optical disks, the use of computer simulators to create optical disks, videodisk use in training, interactive audio video systems, impacts on federal information policy, and…

  16. ELF/VLF/LF Radio Propagation and Systems Aspects (La Propagation des Ondes Radio ELF/VLF/LF et les Aspects Systemes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Umime 11uld sb’ngft R11111M fgM 7-1 INVESTIGATIONS OF EQUATORIAL IONOSPHERE NIGHTTIME MODE CONVERSION AT VLF* Verne Hildebrand IWG Corporation, 1940 Fifth...uniform, Symposium), supposing that has an length equal to Ŗa" and it is MIT, Cambridge oriented on the zz direction (fig.8). USA, Julio 1991 Let us...about 10 to 14 years. My from the floor, would someone like to start off? own experience as a systems engineer is that Verne Hildebrand the systems have

  17. Analysis of flexural wave propagation in poroelastic composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    of flexural vibrations of poroelastic composite hollow cylinder is obtained. ... The equations of motion of a homogeneous, isotropic poroelastic solid (Biot 1956) in the presence of dissipation b are: 2. 2. 11. 12. 2 ...... Vibration and Control, Vol.

  18. predicting flexural strength river gravel using multi ravel using multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    s building a multi-layer perception neural network model which uses expe layer perception neural ..... using flexural testing machine. 3.2.2 Regression Model ... Training the network (learning) could be supervised or unsupervised training.

  19. Notch flexure hinges: An effective theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Yakov M.

    2002-09-01

    This article presents effective tractable equations for rotational compliance (stiffness) of a simple monolithic flexure hinge with circular (radius R and crosspiece thickness t), elliptical [at semiaxis ax, ay, elliptical ratio epsilon (=ax/ay)] and other cross sections. These equations and the method by inverse conformal mapping of circular approximating contour used to derive them are different from the known and widely used theoretical equations originally derived in 1965 by Paros and Weisbord for circular notch hinges. Later it was found that the circular hinge represents the worst case error between known theoretical and finite element models. The conformal mapping equations data presented in this article are likely to be much closer (within less than 10%) to the finite element analysis and experimental data than other theoretical equations. In particular this is the case for circular notch hinges at relative thickness beta(=t/2R) in the range 0.01 to 0.3 and for elliptical hinges at the elliptical ratio epsilon=1 to 10. The derived general equation is common for all types of notch hinges whose profiles can be approximated by two shifted contiguous circles and includes material parameters with Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The latter is totally omitted in known theoretical solutions by other authors. New tractable equations are derived from the general equation on the basis of trigonometric functions' simplified series expansion in certain ranges of hinge crosspiece relative thickness. The corresponding graphs are presented. Experimental data were received by holographic interference and autocollimator measurement.

  20. Flexural vibrations of finite composite poroelastic cylinders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandhya Rani Bandari; Srisailam Aleti; Malla Reddy Perati

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the flexural vibrations of composite poroelastic solid cylinder consisting of two cylinders that are bonded end to end. Poroelastic materials of the two cylinders are different. The frequency equations for pervious and impervious surfaces are obtained in the framework of Biot’s theory of wave propagation in poroelastic solids. The gauge invariance property is used to eliminate one arbitrary constant in the solution of the problem. This would lower the number of boundary conditions actually required. If the wavelength is infinite, frequency equations are degenerated as product of two determinants pertaining to extensional vibrations and shear vibrations. In this case, it is seen that the nature of the surface does not have any influence over shear vibrations unlike in the case of extensional vibrations. For illustration purpose, three composite cylinders are considered and then discussed. Of the three, two are sandstone cylinders and the third one is resulted when a cylindrical bone is implanted with Titanium. In either case, phase velocity is computed against aspect ratios.

  1. Latest progress on interactions between VLF/ELF waves and energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between very/extremely low frequency (VLF/ELF) waves and energetic electrons play a fundamental role in dynamics occurring in the inner magnetosphere. Here, we briefly discuss global properties of VLF/ELF waves, along with the variability of the electron radiation belts associated with wave-particle interactions and radial diffusion. We provide cases of electron loss and acceleration as a result of wave-particle interactions primarily due to such waves, and particularly some preliminary results of 3D evolution of phase space density from our currently developing 3D code. We comment on the existing mechanisms responsible for acceleration and loss, and identify several critical issues that need to be addressed. We review latest progress and suggest open questions for future investigation.

  2. Excitation of VLF quasi-electrostatic oscillations in the ionospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    Full Text Available A numerical solution of the dispersion equation for electromagnetic waves in a hot magnetized collisionless plasma has shown that, in a current-free ionospheric plasma, the distortion of the electron distribution function reproducing the downward flow of a thermal electron component and the compensating upward flow of the suprathermal electrons, which are responsible for the resulting heat flux, can destabilize quasi-electrostatic ion sound waves. The numerical analysis, performed with ion densities and electron temperature taken from the data recorded by the Interkosmos-24 (IK-24, Aktivny satellite, is compared with a VLF spectrum registered at the same time on board. This spectrum shows a wide frequency band emission below the local ion plasma frequency. The direction of the electron heat flux inherent to the assumed model of VLF emission generation is discussed

  3. Ionosphere-magnetosphere studies using ground based VLF radio propagation technique: an Indian example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Subhas

    Since IGY period (1957-58), natural and artificially produced Very Low Frequency (VLF) elec-tromagnetic radiations are being recorded at large number of ground stations all over the world and on-board satellites to study various radio wave-thermal/energetic plasma interactive pro-cesses related to earth's ionosphere-plasmasphere-magnetosphere environment. The terrestrial propagation of these VLF radio waves are primarily enabled through the earth ionosphere wave guide (EIWG) mode to long horizontal distances around the globe and ducted along the ge-omagnetic field lines into the conjugate hemisphere through the plasmasphere-magnetosphere regions. The time frequency spectra of the received signals indicate presence of dispersion (wave/group velocities changing with frequency) and various cut-off frequencies based on the width of the EIWG, electron gyro and plasma frequencies etc., providing several types of received signals like whistlers, chorus, tweeks, hiss and hisslers which can be heard on loud-speakers/earphones with distinguishing audio structures. While the VLF technique has been a very effective tool for studying middle and high latitude phenomena, the importance of the similar and anomalous observations over the Indian low latitude stations provide potentially new challenges for their scientific interpretation and modelling. The ducted and non-ducted magnetospheric propagation, pro-longitudinal (PL) mode, low latitude TRIMPI/TLE (Tran-sient Luminous Emissions) or other effects of wave-particle/wave-wave interactions, effects due to ionospheric irregularities and electric fields, full wave solutions to D-region ionisation per-turbations due to solar and stellar energetic X-and γ ray emissions during normal and flaring conditions are a few problems which have been addressed in these low latitude studies over India. Since the conjugate points of Indian stations lie over the Indian oceanic region, the VLF propagation effects would be relatively free from

  4. Prediction Capabilities of VLF/LF Emission as the Main Precursor of Earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Kachakhidze, Manana

    2013-01-01

    Recent satellite and ground-based observations proved that in earthquake preparation period in the seismogenic area we have VLF/LF and ULF electromagnetic emissions. According to the opinion of the authors of the present paper this phenomenon is more universal and reliable than other earthquake indicators. Hypothetically, in case of availability of adequate methodological grounds, in the nearest future, earth VLF/LF electromagnetic emission might be declared as the main precursor of earthquake. In particular, permanent monitoring of frequency spectrum of earth electromagnetic emission generated in the earthquake preparation period might turn out very useful with the view of prediction of large (M 5) inland earthquakes. The present paper offers a scheme of the methodology according to which the reality of the above given hypothesis can be checked up. To prove the prediction capabilities of earth electromagnetic emission we have used avalanche-like unstable model of fault formation and an analogous model of ele...

  5. Flexural testing of weld site and HVOF coating characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Sahin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    This book provides fundamental understanding and practical application of characteristics of flexural motion in the assessment of the weld size and coating thickness. Some formulations of heat transfer and flexural motion are introduced while displacement and load correlation are used to estimate elastic modules and the size of the heat affected zone as well as the coating thickness. The case studies presented give a practical understanding of weld size and coating thickness characterizations.

  6. Modeling the Flexural Carrying Capacity of Corroded RC Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hui; LIU Xi-la

    2008-01-01

    Considering the change of bond strength between corroded steel and concrete, flexural carrying ca-pacity of corroded reinforced concrete (RC) beam was calculated. On the basis of the condition of equilibriumof forces and compatibility of deformations for the whole beam, a model for the prediction of flexural carryingcapacity of the corroded RC beam was proposed. Comparison of the model's predictions with the experimentalresults published in the literature shows the practicality of the proposed method.

  7. Thermal noise of a gram-scale cantilever flexure

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Thanh T-H; Miller, John; Mow-Lowry, Conor M; Goßler, Stefan; Shaddock, Daniel A; McClelland, David E

    2015-01-01

    Measured thermal noise displacement spectra from low frequency to $3\\,$kHz of Niobium and Aluminium flexures are presented. With a simple thermal noise model dominated by structural and thermoelastic losses, the agreement between the theory and measurement has been robust. The thermal noise spectra were recorded up to an order of magnitude below and above the fundamental resonance, with the fundamental resonances for both Aluminium and Niobium flexures within the range of $50\\,$Hz to $300\\,$Hz

  8. Electron dispersion events in the morningside auroral zone and their relationship with VLF emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David A.; Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena

    1990-05-01

    This paper reports on observations of electron precipitation bursts observed in the morningside auroral zone with the J sensor, an electron detector aboard the Hilat satellite. The characteristics of these precipitation events are documented, and a theoretical explanation that could account for the observed properties is presented. According to this model, the dispersion events result from impulsive interactions of the electrons with intense asymmetric packets of VLF waves via the nonlinear ponderomotive force.

  9. Unusually high frequency natural VLF radio emissions observed during daytime in Northern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manninen, Jyrki; Turunen, Tauno; Kleimenova, Natalia; Rycroft, Michael; Gromova, Liudmila; Sirviö, Iina

    2016-12-01

    Geomagnetic field variations and electromagnetic waves of different frequencies are ever present in the Earth’s environment in which the Earth’s fauna and flora have evolved and live. These waves are a very useful tool for studying and exploring the physics of plasma processes occurring in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Here we present ground-based observations of natural electromagnetic emissions of magnetospheric origin at very low frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz), which are neither heard nor seen in their spectrograms because they are hidden by strong impulsive signals (sferics) originating in lightning discharges. After filtering out the sferics, peculiar emissions are revealed in these digital recordings, made in Northern Finland, at unusually high frequencies in the VLF band. These recently revealed emissions, which are observed for several hours almost every day in winter, contain short (˜1-3 min) burst-like structures at frequencies above 4-6 kHz, even up to 15 kHz; fine structure on the 1 s time scale is also prevalent. It seems that these whistler mode emissions are generated deep inside the magnetosphere, but the detailed nature, generation region and propagation behaviour of these newly discovered high latitude VLF emissions remain unknown; however, further research on them may shed new light on wave-particle interactions occurring in the Earth’s radiation belts.

  10. Study of long path VLF signal propagation characteristics as observed from Indian Antarctic station, Maitri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, Sudipta; Pal, Sujay; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2014-10-01

    To examine the quality and propagation characteristics of the Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves in a very long propagation path, Indian Centre for Space Physics, Kolkata, participated in the 27th Indian scientific expedition to Antarctica during 2007-2008. One Stanford University made AWESOME VLF receiving system was installed at the Indian Antarctic station Maitri and about five weeks of data were recorded successfully from the Indian transmitter VTX and several other transmitting stations worldwide. The quality of the signal from the VTX transmitter was found to be very good, consistent and highly stable in day and night. The signal shows the evidences of the presence of the 24 h solar radiation in the Antarctic region during local summer. Here we report the both narrow band and broadband VLF observations from this site. The diurnal variations of VTX signal (18.2 kHz) are presented systematically for Antarctica path and also compared the same with the variations for a short propagation path (VTX-Kolkata). We compute the spatial distribution of the VTX signal along the VTX-Antarctica path using the most well-known LWPC model for an all-day and all-night propagation conditions. The calculated signal amplitudes corresponding to those conditions relatively corroborate the observations. We also present the attenuation rate of the dominant waveguide modes corresponding to those propagation conditions where the effects of the Antarctic polar ice on the attenuation of different propagating waveguide modes are visible.

  11. Initial Results from SQUID Sensor: Analysis and Modeling for the ELF/VLF Atmospheric Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Hao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the amplitude probability density (APD of the wideband extremely low frequency (ELF and very low frequency (VLF atmospheric noise is studied. The electromagnetic signals from the atmosphere, referred to herein as atmospheric noise, was recorded by a mobile low-temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID receiver under magnetically unshielded conditions. In order to eliminate the adverse effect brought by the geomagnetic activities and powerline, the measured field data was preprocessed to suppress the baseline wandering and harmonics by symmetric wavelet transform and least square methods firstly. Then statistical analysis was performed for the atmospheric noise on different time and frequency scales. Finally, the wideband ELF/VLF atmospheric noise was analyzed and modeled separately. Experimental results show that, Gaussian model is appropriate to depict preprocessed ELF atmospheric noise by a hole puncher operator. While for VLF atmospheric noise, symmetric α-stable (SαS distribution is more accurate to fit the heavy-tail of the envelope probability density function (pdf.

  12. Study of the effect of solar flares on VLF signals during D-layer preparation or disappearance time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Palit, Sourav

    2016-07-01

    "Very Low Frequency" (VLF) is one of the bands of the Radio waves having frequency 3-30 KHz, which propagates through the Earth-ionosphere wave-guide. In relation to propagation of radio waves through ionosphere, low mass and high mobility cause electrons to play a vital role. Electrons are not distributed uniformly in the ionosphere and depending on this factor, ionosphere has different layers namely D, E and F. Different ionospheric layers generally exist during day and night time. During day-time when the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere is Sun, the lower most layer of ionosphere is D-layer. But during the night-time when Sun is absent and cosmic ray is the main source of the ionization of the ionosphere, this D-layer disappears and E-layer becomes the lower most region of the ionosphere. Normally, patterns of VLF signal depend on regular solar flux variations. However, during solar flares extra energetic particles are released from Sun, which makes the changes in the ionization of the ionosphere and these changes can perturb VLF signal amplitude. Usually if a solar flare occurs during any time of day, it only affects the amplitude and phase of the VLF signals. But in the present work, we found the if the flare occurs during D-layer preparation / disappearance time, then it will not only affect to amplitude and phase of the VLF signals but also to terminator times of VLF signals. We have observed that the sun set terminator time of the VLF signals shifted towards night time due to the effect of a M-class solar flare which occurred during the D-layer disappearance time. The shift is so high that it crossed 5σ level. We are now trying to a make model using the ion-chemistry and LWPC code to explain this observed effect.

  13. Resonant scattering of energetic electrons in the outer radiation belt by HAARP-induced ELF/VLF waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shanshan; Zhu, Zhengping; Ni, Binbin; Cao, Xing; Luo, Weihua

    2016-10-01

    Several extremely low-frequency (ELF)/very low-frequency (VLF) wave generation experiments have been performed successfully at High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) heating facility and the artificial ELF/VLF signals can leak into the outer radiation belt and contribute to resonant interactions with energetic electrons. Based on the artificial wave properties revealed by many of in situ observations, we implement test particle simulations to evaluate the effects of energetic electron resonant scattering driven by the HAARP-induced ELF/VLF waves. The results indicate that for both single-frequency/monotonic wave and multi-frequency/broadband waves, the behavior of each electron is stochastic while the averaged diffusion effect exhibits temporal linearity in the wave-particle interaction process. The computed local diffusion coefficients show that, the local pitch-angle scattering due to HARRP-induced single-frequency ELF/VLF whistlers with an amplitude of ∼10 pT can be intense near the loss cone with a rate of ∼10-2 rad2 s-1, suggesting the feasibility of HAARP-induced ELF/VLF waves for removal of outer radiation belt energetic electrons. In contrast, the energy diffusion of energetic electrons is relatively weak, which confirms that pitch-angle scattering by artificial ELF/VLF waves can dominantly lead to the precipitation of energetic electrons. Moreover, diffusion rates of the discrete, broadband waves, with the same amplitude of each discrete frequency as the monotonic waves, can be much larger, which suggests that it is feasible to trigger a reasonable broadband wave instead of the monotonic wave to achieve better performance of controlled precipitation of energetic electrons. Moreover, our test particle scattering simulation show good agreement with the predictions of the quasi-linear theory, confirming that both methods are applied to evaluate the effects of resonant interactions between radiation belt electrons and artificially generated

  14. New Generation of ELF/VLF Wave Injection Experiments for HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Reddy, A.; Watkins, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present a ray tracing study to investigate the feasibility of a new generation of wave injection experiments from HAARP transmitter (L 4.9). Highly successful whistler mode wave injection experiments from SIPLE station, Antarctica, have established the importance of such experiments to study magnetospheric wave-particle interactions, and for cold and hot plasma diagnostics [Helliwell and Katsufrakis, 1974; Carpenter and Miller, 1976; Sonwalkar et al., 1997]. Modulated heating experiments from HAARP have shown that it is possible to launch ELF/VLF waves into the magnetosphere that can be observed on the ground after one-, two-, and multi-hop ducted propagation [Inan et al., 2004]. Recent research has also shown that ionospheric heating experiments using HAARP can lead to the formation of magnetospheric ducts [e.g. Milikh et al., 2010; Fallen et al., 2011]. Collectively, these results indicate that the HAARP (or similar) transmitter can be used first to form ducts on nearby L shells, and then to inject and trap transmitter generated ELF/VLF waves in those ducts. Ray tracing studies using a model magnetosphere shows that ELF/VLF waves in a few kilohertz range can be trapped in ducts with L shells near the HAARP transmitter. For example, 1.5 kHz waves injected from L shell = 4.9 and altitude = 200 km can be trapped in ducts located within 0.3 L of the transmitter L-shell. The duct parameters needed for ray-trapping are typically duct width dL 0.1-0.3 and duct enhancement factor dNe/Ne 10-20% or more. The location of plasmapause with respect to transmitter plays a role in the nature of trapping. The duct locations and parameters required for trapping ELF/VLF waves inside the ducts are consistent with past observations of ducts generated by the HAARP transmitter. Ray tracing calculations provide trapped wave normal angles, time delays, resonant energetic electron energy, estimates of wave intensity inside the duct, on the ground, and on satellites such DEMETER, Van

  15. REMARKS ON JOHN DISKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Yuming; Cheng Jinfa; Wang Gendi

    2009-01-01

    Let D R2 be a Jordan domain, D* = -R2 \\ -D, the exterior of D. In this article, the authors obtained the following results: (1) If D is a John disk, then D is an outer linearly locally connected domain; (2) If D* is a John disk, then D is an inner linearly locally connected domain; (3) A homeomorphism f: R2→R2 is a quasiconformal mapping if and only if f(D) is a John disk for any John disk D(∈)R2; and (4) If D is a bounded quasidisk, then D is a John disk, and there exists an unbounded quasidisk which is not a John disk.

  16. Exploring Disks Around Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Giant planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks surrounding young stars, but material may also accrete into a smaller disk around the planet. Weve never detected one of these circumplanetary disks before but thanks to new simulations, we now have a better idea of what to look for.Image from previous work simulating a Jupiter-mass planet forming inside a circumstellar disk. The planet has its own circumplanetary disk of accreted material. [Frdric Masset]Elusive DisksIn the formation of giant planets, we think the final phase consists of accretion onto the planet from a disk that surrounds it. This circumplanetary disk is important to understand, since it both regulates the late gas accretion and forms the birthplace of future satellites of the planet.Weve yet to detect a circumplanetary disk thus far, because the resolution needed to spot one has been out of reach. Now, however, were entering an era where the disk and its kinematics may be observable with high-powered telescopes (like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array).To prepare for such observations, we need models that predict the basic characteristics of these disks like the mass, temperature, and kinematic properties. Now a researcher at the ETH Zrich Institute for Astronomy in Switzerland, Judit Szulgyi, has worked toward this goal.Simulating CoolingSzulgyi performs a series of 3D global radiative hydrodynamic simulations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-mass (MJ) giant planets and their surrounding circumplanetary disks, embedded within the larger circumstellar disk around the central star.Density (left column), temperature (center), and normalized angular momentum (right) for a 1 MJ planet over temperatures cooling from 10,000 K (top) to 1,000 K (bottom). At high temperatures, a spherical circumplanetary envelope surrounds the planet, but as the planet cools, the envelope transitions around 64,000 K to a flattened disk. [Szulgyi 2017]This work explores the effects of different planet temperatures and

  17. Features of discrete VLF emissions observed at Gulmarg, India during the magnetic storm of 6–7 March, 1986

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Singh; A K Singh; D Siingh; R P Singh

    2007-12-01

    During the analysis of archived VLF data from Indian low latitude ground stations, some discrete VLF emissions recorded at the low latitude ground station Gulmarg (geomagnetic latitude 24°26′N; geomagnetic longitude 147° 09′E, L = 1.28) during moderate magnetic storm activity ( $K^{−}_{P}$} = 32, index varies from 4 to 6 during the observation period) on 6/7 March, 1986 are presented in this paper. The dynamic spectra of these discrete VLF emissions were observed along with tweeks and its harmonics, which is interesting and complex to explain. In most of the events the harmonic frequency of tweeks correlates with the starting frequency of harmonics of discrete emissions. In order to explain the observed features of discrete VLF emissions, we propose cyclotron resonance interaction between whistler mode wave and energetic electrons of inner radiation belt as possible generation mechanism. An attempt is also made to determine parallel energy, anisotropy and wave growth relevant to the generation process of VLF emissions.

  18. A comparative study of measured amplitude and phase perturbations of VLF and LF radio signals induced by solar flares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šulić D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Very Low Frequency (VLF and Low Frequency (LF signal perturbations were examined to study ionospheric disturbances induced by solar X-ray flares in order to understand processes involved in propagation of VLF/LF radio signals over short paths and to estimate specific characteristics of each short path. The receiver at the Belgrade station is constantly monitoring the amplitude and phase of a coherent and subionospherically propagating LF signal operated in Sicily NSC at 45.90 kHz, and a VLF signal operated in Isola di Tavolara ICV at 20.27 kHz, with the great circle distances of 953 km and 976 km, respectively. A significant number of similarities between these short paths is a direct result of both transmitters and the receiver’s geographic location. The main difference is in transmitter frequencies. From July 2008 to February 2014 there were about 200 events that were chosen for further examination. All selected examples showed that the amplitude and phase of VLF and LF signals were perturbed by solar X-ray flares occurrence. This six-year period covers both minimum and maximum of solar activity. Simultaneous measurement of amplitude and phase of the VLF/LF signals during a solar flare occurrence was applied to evaluate the electron density profile versus altitude, to carry out the function of time over the middle Europe. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176002 i br. III4402

  19. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    OpenAIRE

    Varner P

    2011-01-01

    Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papi...

  20. Isolated unilateral disk edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varner P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul VarnerJohn J Pershing VAMC, Poplar Bluff, MO, USAAbstract: Isolated unilateral disk edema is a familiar clinical presentation with myriad associations. Related, non-consensus terminology is a barrier to understanding a common pathogenesis. Mechanisms for the development of disk edema are reviewed, and a new framework for clinical differentiation of medical associations is presented.Keywords: disk edema, axoplasmic flow, clinical multiplier, optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy, papilledema

  1. A valve disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrullin, N.A.; Isayev, B.N.; Kruglov, S.A.; Molokanov, Yu.K.; Shchelkunov, V.A.; Shegay, V.R.; Vizhgorodskiy, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    A valve disk is proposed which includes a horizontal bed, on which there are laminar valves arranged in staggered order. To ensure the stable and effective operation of the disk in a broad range of loads by compensating for the direct flow and the partial sectioning of the disk bed, it is equipped with compensating elements installed in openings in the bed and hinged with it. They are made in the form of straight, triangular prisms with ports in the bases. The prisms are installed with the capability of movement relative to the disk bed. The valves are positioned on the upper lateral facets of the compensating elements.

  2. Metal cap flexural transducers for air-coupled ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, T. J. R.; Dixon, S.; Ramadas, S. N.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonic generation and detection in fluids is inefficient due to the large difference in acoustic impedance between the piezoelectric element and the propagation medium, leading to large internal reflections and energy loss. One way of addressing the problem is to use a flexural transducer, which uses the bending modes in a thin plate or membrane. As the plate bends, it displaces the medium in front of it, hence producing sound waves. A piezoelectric flexural transducer can generate large amplitude displacements in fluid media for relatively low excitation voltages. Commercially available flexural transducers for air applications operate at 40 kHz, but there exists ultrasound applications that require significantly higher frequencies, e.g. flow measurements. Relatively little work has been done to date to understand the underlying physics of the flexural transducer, and hence how to design it to have specific properties suitable for particular applications. This paper investigates the potential of the flexural transducer and its operating principles. Two types of actuation methods are considerd: piezoelectric and electrodynamic. The piezoelectrically actuated transducer is more energy efficient and intrinsically safe, but the electrodynamic transducer has the advantage of being less sensitive to high temperature environments. The theory of vibrating plates is used to predict transducer frequency in addition to front face amplitude, which shows good correlation with experimental results.

  3. Flexural-torsional buckling behavior of aluminum alloy beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaonong GUO; Zhe XIONG; Zuyan SHEN

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the flexural-torsional buckling behavior of aluminum alloy beams (AAB). First, based on the tests of 14 aluminum alloy beams under concentrated loads, the failure pattern, load- deformation curves, bearing capacity and flexural-torsional buckling factor are studied. It is found that all the beam specimens collapsed in the flexuml-torsional buckling with excessive deformation pattern. Moreover, the span, loading location and slenderness ratio influence the flexural-torsional buckling capacity of beams significantly. Secondly, besides the experiments, a finite element method (FEM) analysis on the flexural-torsional buckling behavior of AAB is also conducted. The main parameters in the FEM analysis are initial imperfection, material property, cross-section and loading scheme. According to the analytical results, it is indicated that the FEM is reasonable to capture mechanical behavior of AAB. Finally, on the basis of the experimental and analytical results, theoretical formulae to estimate the flexural- torsional buckling capacity of AAB are proposed, which could improve the application of present codes for AAB.

  4. Influence of Carbon & Glass Fiber Reinforcements on Flexural Strength of Epoxy Matrix Polymer Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Jagannatha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid composite materials are more attracted by the engineers because of their properties like stiffness and high specific strength which leads to the potential application in the area of aerospace, marine and automobile sectors. In the present investigation, the flexural strength and flexural modulus of carbon and glass fibers reinforced epoxy hybrid composites were studied. The vacuum bagging technique was adopted for the fabrication of polymer hybrid composite materials. The hardness, flexural strength and flexural modulus of the hybrid composites were determined as per ASTM standards. The hardness, flexural strength and flexural modulus were improved as the fiber reinforcement contents increased in the epoxy matrix material.

  5. Tensile and Flexural Properties of Ultra High Toughness Cemontious Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hedong; XU Shilang; Christopher K Y Leung

    2009-01-01

    The tensile and flexural properties of polyvinyl alcohol(PVA)fiber reinforced ultra high toughness cementitious composite(UHTCC)were investigated.The composite,tested at the age of 14 d,28 d and 56 d,shows extremely remarkable pseudo strain hardening behavior,saturated mul-tiple cracking and ultra high ultimate strain capacity above 4%under uniaxial loading.Also,the cor-responding crack widths are controlled under 50 μm even at 56 days age.In the third point bending tests on thin plate specimens,the composite shows ultra high flexural ductility and multiple cracking on the tension surface.The high ultimate flexural strength/first tensile strength ratio of about 5 verifies the pseudo strain hardening behavior of UHTCC.SEM observation on fracture surfaces provides in-direct evidence of optimal design for the composite.

  6. Flexural and Impact Resistance of FRC/Bamboo Laminate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The flexural and impact resistance of a newly developed FRC/bamboo laminate have been investigated. The laminate considered in this study was combined with reformed bamboo plate and extruded fiber reinforced cementitious (FRC)sheet. Innovated from the raw bamboo, reformed bamboo showed high tensile strength and high strength to weight ratio. It can not only remarkably strengthen the FRC sheet but also reduce the total weight of the laminate. Flexural and impact load, broken energy, deflection and duration were measured. Test results showed that the flexural strength value for the laminate can be improved to greater than 90 MPa, while the impact resistance is increased more than 10 times for the laminate when compared with the FRC sheet only.

  7. Flexural Fatigue Behavior of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforeed Segment Conerete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of polypropylene fiber on the flexural fatigue performance of high- strength concrete (HSC), which could be used as cover of reinforcement of segment, was investigate by three-point load bending tests. Also, the flexural fatigue equations of high-strength concrete with and without polypropylene fiber were established through test analysis. The experimental results indicate that the addition of polypropylene fiber can improve the static bending strength of segment concrete, and the important is that it can markedly increase the flexural fatigue performance of the HSC subjected to cyclic bending load. Especially when with 1.37 kg/m3 addition of the fiber was corporate with silica fume and slag powder, the fatigue life of the HSC can be increased by 43.4% compared to that of the segment concrete without fiber,silica fume and slag.

  8. Pengaruh Penggunaan Serat Baja Terhadap Flexural Toughness Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widodo Kushartomo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research present flexural toughness behavior of local steel fiber reinforced reactive powder concrete produced with different steel fibers volume fraction and aspect ratio. Prismatic concrete specimens of 100 x 100 x 350 mm were prepared with and without steel fiber. Steel fiber was used of 0% (control, 1,0%, 1,5%, and 2,0% by volume and 75, 100 and 125 as aspect ratio. Specimens were de-molded after 24 hours and cured in water until 3 days, after that the speciments were cure by steam curing for 8 hours at 90°C. Flexural toughness of the prisms has been defined at 28 day old. The result show that the effects of fibre volume and aspec ratio on flexural toughness of reactive powder concrete are very significant.

  9. Flexural-slip during visco-elastic buckle folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Davi R.; Eckert, Andreas; Liu, Xiaolong

    2017-07-01

    Flexural-slip is considered as an important mechanism during folding and a general conceptual and qualitative understanding has been provided by various field studies. However, quantitative evidence of the importance of the flexural-slip mechanism during fold evolution is sparse due to the lack of suitable strain markers. In this study, 2D finite element analysis is used to overcome these disadvantages and to simulate flexural-slip during visco-elastic buckle folding. Variations of single and multilayer layer fold configurations are investigated, showing that flexural-slip is most likely to occur in effective single layer buckle folds, where slip occurs between contacts of competent layers. Based on effective single layer buckle folds, the influence of the number of slip surfaces, the degree of mechanical coupling (based on the friction coefficient), and layer thickness, on the resulting slip distribution are investigated. The results are in agreement with the conceptual flexural-slip model and show that slip is initiated sequentially during the deformation history and is maximum along the central slip surface of the fold limb. The cumulative amount of slip increases as the number of slip surfaces is increased. For a lower degree of mechanical coupling increased slip results in different fold shapes, such as box folds, during buckling. In comparison with laboratory experiments, geometrical relationships and field observations, the numerical modeling results show similar slip magnitudes. It is concluded that flexural-slip should represent a significant contribution during buckle folding, affecting the resulting fold shape for increased amounts of slip.

  10. Flexural strength of acrylic resins polymerized by different cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Barros Barbosa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of studies addressing the effect of microwave polymerization on the properties of acrylic resin, this method has received limited clinical acceptance. This study evaluated the influence of microwave polymerization on the flexural strength of a denture base resin. A conventional heat-polymerized (Clássico, a microwave-polymerized (Onda-Cryl and a autopolymerizing acrylic (Jet resins were used. Five groups were established, according to polymerization cycles: A, B and C (Onda-Cryl, short cycle - 500W/3 min, long - 90W/13 min + 500W/90 sec, and manufacturing microwave cycle - 320W/3 min + 0W/3 min + 720W/3 min; T (Clássico, water bath cycle - 74ºC/9h and Q (Jet, press chamber cycle - 50ºC/15 min at 2 bar. Ten specimens (65 x 10 x 3.3mm were prepared for each cycle. The flexural strength of the five groups was measured using a three-point bending test at a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min. Flexural strength values were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey's test was performed to identify the groups that were significantly different at 5% level. The microwave-polymerized groups showed the highest means (p<0.05 for flexural strength (MPa (A = 106.97 ± 5.31; B = 107.57 ± 3.99; C = 109.63 ± 5.19, and there were no significant differences among them. The heat-polymerized group (T showed the lowest flexural strength means (84.40 ± 1.68, and differ significantly from all groups. The specimens of a microwavable denture base resin could be polymerized by different microwave cycles without risk of decreasing the flexural strength.

  11. Application of gamma ray spectrometric measurements and VLF-EM data for tracing vein type uranium mineralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Gaafar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to use the gamma ray spectrometric measurements and VLF-EM data to identify the subsurface structure and map uranium mineralization along El Sela shear zone, South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Many injections more or less mineralized with uranium and associated with alteration processes were recorded in El Sela shear zone. As results from previous works, the emplacement of these injections is structurally controlled and well defined by large shear zones striking in an ENE–WSW direction and crosscut by NW–SE to NNW–SSE fault sets. VLF method has been applied to map the structure and the presence of radioactive minerals that have been delineated by the detection of high uranium mineralization. The electromagnetic survey was carried out to detect the presence of shallow and deep conductive zones that cross the granites along ENE–WSW fracturing directions and to map its spatial distribution. The survey comprised seventy N–S spectrometry and VLF-EM profiles with 20 m separation. The resulted data were displayed as composite maps for K, eU and eTh as well as VLF-Fraser map. Twelve profiles with 100 m separation were selected for detailed description. The VLF-EM data were interpreted qualitatively as well as quantitatively using the Fraser and the Karous–Hjelt filters. Fraser filtered data and relative current density pseudo-sections indicate the presence of shallow and deep conductive zones that cross the granites along ENE–WSW shearing directions. High uranium concentrations found just above the higher apparent current-density zones that coincide with El-Sela shear zone indicate a positive relation between conductivity and uranium minerals occurrence. This enables to infer that the anomalies detected by VLF-EM data are due to the highly conductive shear zone enriched with uranium mineralization extending for more than 80 m.

  12. Prediction of the Nighttime VLF Subionospheric Signal Amplitude by Using Nonlinear Autoregressive with Exogenous Input Neural Network Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, H.; Hobara, Y.; Balikhin, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) waves have been proposed as an approach to study and monitor the lower ionospheric conditions. The ionospheric perturbations are identified in relation with thunderstorm activity, geomagnetic storm and other factors. The temporal dependence of VLF amplitude has a complicated and large daily variabilities in general due to combinations of both effects from above (space weather effect) and below (atmospheric and crustal processes) of the ionosphere. Quantitative contributions from different external sources are not known well yet. Thus the modelling and prediction of VLF wave amplitude are important issues to study the lower ionospheric responses from various external parameters and to also detect the anomalies of the ionosphere. The purpose of the study is to model and predict nighttime average amplitude of VLF wave propagation from the VLF transmitter in Hawaii (NPM) to receiver in Chofu (CHO) Tokyo, Japan path using NARX neural network. The constructed model was trained for the target parameter of nighttime average amplitude of NPM-CHO path. The NARX model, which was built based on daily input variables of various physical parameters such as stratosphere temperature, cosmic rays and total column ozone, possessed good accuracies. As a result, the constructed models are capable of performing accurate multistep ahead predictions, while maintaining acceptable one step ahead prediction accuracy. The results of the predicted daily VLF amplitude are in good agreement with observed (true) value for one step ahead prediction (r = 0.92, RMSE = 1.99), multi-step ahead 5 days prediction (r = 0.91, RMSE = 1.14) and multi-step ahead 10 days prediction (r = 0.75, RMSE = 1.74). The developed model indicates the feasibility and reliability of predicting lower ionospheric properties by the NARX neural network approach, and provides physical insights on the responses of lower ionosphere due to various external forcing.

  13. Planetesimals in Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Youdin, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    Planetesimals form in gas-rich protoplanetary disks around young stars. However, protoplanetary disks fade in about 10 Myr. The planetesimals (and also many of the planets) left behind are too dim to study directly. Fortunately, collisions between planetesimals produce dusty debris disks. These debris disks trace the processes of terrestrial planet formation for 100 Myr and of exoplanetary system evolution out to 10 Gyr. This chapter begins with a summary of planetesimal formation as a prelude to the epoch of planetesimal destruction. Our review of debris disks covers the key issues, including dust production and dynamics, needed to understand the observations. Our discussion of extrasolar debris keeps an eye on similarities to and differences from Solar System dust.

  14. Characterization of flexure hinges for the French watt balance experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinot Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the French watt balance experiment, the translation and rotation functions must have no backlash, no friction, nor the need for lubricants. In addition errors in position and movement must be below 100 nm. Flexure hinges can meet all of these criteria. Different materials, profile shapes and machining techniques have been studied. The flexure pivots have been characterized using three techniques: 1 an optical microscope and, if necessary, a SEM to observe the surface inhomogeneities; 2 a mass comparator to determine the bending stiffness of unloaded pivots; 3 a loaded beam oscillating freely under vacuum to study the dynamic behavior of loaded pivots.

  15. Flexural-Phonon Scattering Induced by Electrostatic Gating in Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Graphene has an extremely high carrier mobility partly due to its planar mirror symmetry inhibiting scattering by the highly occupied acoustic flexural phonons. Electrostatic gating of a graphene device can break the planar mirror symmetry, yielding a coupling mechanism to the flexural phonons.......We examine the effect of the gate-induced one-phonon scattering on the mobility for several gate geometries and dielectric environments using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the Boltzmann equation. We demonstrate that this scattering mechanism can be a mobility...

  16. Flexural waves induced by electro-impulse deicing forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gien, P. H.

    1990-01-01

    The generation, reflection and propagation of flexural waves created by electroimpulsive deicing forces are demonstrated both experimentally and analytically in a thin circular plate and a thin semicylindrical shell. Analytical prediction of these waves with finite element models shows good correlation with acceleration and displacement measurements at discrete points on the structures studied. However, sensitivity to spurious flexural waves resulting from the spatial discretization of the structures is shown to be significant. Consideration is also given to composite structures as an extension of these studies.

  17. Characterization of flexure hinges for the French watt balance experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinot, Patrick; Genevès, Gérard

    2014-08-01

    In the French watt balance experiment, the translation and rotation functions must have no backlash, no friction, nor the need for lubricants. In addition errors in position and movement must be below 100 nm. Flexure hinges can meet all of these criteria. Different materials, profile shapes and machining techniques have been studied. The flexure pivots have been characterized using three techniques: 1) an optical microscope and, if necessary, a SEM to observe the surface inhomogeneities; 2) a mass comparator to determine the bending stiffness of unloaded pivots; 3) a loaded beam oscillating freely under vacuum to study the dynamic behavior of loaded pivots.

  18. Detecting leachate plumes and groundwater pollution at Ruseifa municipal landfill utilizing VLF-EM method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarazi, E.; Abu Rajab, J.; Al-Naqa, A.; El-Waheidi, M.

    2008-09-01

    A Very Low Frequency-Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) survey was carried out in two sites of domestic waste of old and recent landfills. The landfill structures lie on a major highly fractured limestone aquifer of shallow groundwater less than 30 m, which is considered as the main source of fresh water in Amman-Zarqa region. A total of 18 VLF-EM profiles were conducted with length ranges between 250 and 1500 m. Hydrochemical and biochemical analysis of water samples, taken from wells in the region, has also been conducted. The integrated results of previous DC resistivity method of the same study area and the outcomes of the 2-D tipper inversion of VLF-EM data proved the efficiency of this method in locating shallow and deep leachate plume with resistivity less than 20 Ω m, and enabling the mapping of anomalous bodies and their extensions down to 40 m depth. The sign of groundwater contamination was noticed in many surrounding wells resulting in the high number of fecal coliform bacteria and total coliform bacteria and the increase in inorganic parameters such as chloride (Cl). The pollution of groundwater wells in the landfill area is attributed to the leachate bodies which flow through the upper part of Wadi Es Sir (A7) or Amman-Wadi Es Sir Aquifer (B2/A7). Furthermore, several structural features were detected and the direction of local groundwater movement has been determined. The structural features have been found to have critical effects on the flowing of leachate plume towards north-northeast and west-southwest of the potable aquifer in the area.

  19. SNR changes of VLF radio signals detected onboard the DEMETER satellite and their possible relationship to the Wenchuan earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.; Parrot

    2009-01-01

    Here we used the VLF signal data received by the DEMETER satellite, transmitted from various ground VLF transmitters which are located around China, to study the changes in the signal to noise ratio (SNR) before and after the Wenchuan earthquake, which had a magnitude of 8.0. We also found that the SNRs of different frequency signals decreased significantly over the epicenter region before the earthquake, and reverted to their original levels after the earthquake. This phenomenon may be related to the earthquake.

  20. Numerical simulation of whistler-triggered VLF emissions observed in Antartica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunn, D. [Southhampton Univ., Southhampton (United Kingdom); Smith, A.J. [British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    The authors have extracted from VLF databases from British Antarctica Survey data taken at Halley and Faraday stations, examples of whistler-triggered emissions (WTE). The WTE are relatively narrow band emissions triggered by natural background whistlers undergoing nonlinear wave particle interactions generally in the equatorial regions. They occur with either rising or falling frequency relative to the triggering waves. Using a Vlasov type code the authors are able to simulate the types of emissions which are observed. 24 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Circuit Methods for VLF Antenna Couplers. [for use in Loran or Omega receiver systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burhans, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The limitations of different E-field antenna coupler or preamplifier circuits are presented. All circuits were evaluated using actual Loran or Omega signals. Electric field whip or wire antennas are the simplest types which can be used for reception of VLF signals in the 10 to 100 kHz range. JFET or MOSFET transistors provide impedance transformation and some voltage gain in simple circuits where the power for operating the preamplifier uses the same coaxial cable that feeds the signal back to the receiver. The circuit techniques provide useful alternative methods for Loran-Omega receiver system designers.

  2. LINFOMA RELACIONADO AO VÍRUS DA LEUCEMIA FELINA (VLF) – RELATO DE CASO

    OpenAIRE

    Eleutério, Daniela Aparecida Sampaio; Faculdade Dr. Francisco Maeda - FAFRAM

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como objetivo relatar um caso de linfoma relacionado ao vírus da leucemia felina (VLF) ocorrido na cidade de Uberlândia-MG. Um felino, macho, de três anos de idade, foi encaminhado ao Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, apresentando-se apático, dispneico, com alterações oculares, mucosas hipocoradas e linfonodos reativos. O hemograma do animal indicou anemia normocítica. No exame radiográfico observou deslocamento da traquéia dorsalmente e não f...

  3. Full-wave model of D-region upward VLF coupling to whistlers in the plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Shao, X.; Lay, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric-lightning-to-plasmasphere VLF coupling via whistlers is key to understanding the problem of radiation-belt losses and the slot region. In the lowermost ionosphere, the "D-region" (roughly 60 - 100 km altitude), the coupling occurs between the VLF incident from the "vacuum" below, to the electron whistler capable of transiting upward through the E- and F-regions above. We have modified our successful and data-validated D-region VLF downward-reflection model to predict upward-coupled whistler waveforms recorded on topside satellites. The model has been run in production mode for predicting downward-reflected waveforms recorded at ground stations, but the model's internal calculation also fully describes the "penetrating" solution that merges into the oblique electron whistler. We have begun to test the model against VLF, three-dimensional electric-field recordings from the Vector Electric Field Instrument (VEFI) [Pfaff et al., 2010] on the C/NOFS satellite. VEFI's broadband recording and large on-board memory serendipitously provide an excellent platform for studying lightning whistlers in the plasmasphere. We have already demonstrated [Jacobson et al., 2011] that VEFI is superbly suited for testing transionospheric propagation, in conjunction with the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN; see www.wwlln.net) to provide groundtruth location/time of the lightning strokes. This poster will describe latest results. Jacobson, A. R., R. H. Holzworth, R. F. Pfaff, and M. P. McCarthy (2011), Study of oblique whistlers in the low-latitude ionosphere, jointly with the C/NOFS satellite and the World-Wide Lightning Location Network, Annales Geophysicae, 29, 851-863. Pfaff, R., D. Rowland, H. Freudenreich, K. Bromund, K. Le, M. Acuna, J. Klenzing, C. Liebrecht, S. Martin, W. J. Burke, N. C. Maynard, D. E. Hunton, P. A. Roddy, J. O. Ballenthin, and G. R. Wilson (2010), Observations of DC electric fields in the low-latitude ionosphere and their variations with

  4. Flexure of the Indian plate and intraplate earthquakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Roger Bilham; Rebecca Bendick; Kali Wallace

    2003-09-01

    The flexural bulge in central India resulting from India's collision with Tibet has a wavelength of approximately 670 km. It is manifest topographically and in the free-air gravity anomaly and the geoid. Calculations of the stress distribution within a flexed Indian plate reveal spatial variations throughout the depth of the plate and also a function of distance from the Himalaya. The wave- length (and therefore local gradient) of stress variation is a function of the effective elastic thickness of the plate, estimates of which have been proposed to lie in the range 40-120 km. The imposition of this stress field on the northward moving Indian plate appears fundamental to explaining the current distribution of intraplate earthquakes and their mechanisms. The current study highlights an outer trough south of the flexural bulge in central India where surface stresses are double the contiguous compressional stresses to the north and south. The Bhuj, Latur and Koyna earthquakes and numerous other recent reverse faulting events occurred in this compressional setting. The N/S spatial gradient of stress exceeds 2 bars/km near the flexural bulge. The overall flexural stress distribution provides a physical basis for earthquake hazard mapping and suggests that areas of central India where no historic earthquakes are recorded may yet be the locus of future damaging events.

  5. Effect of silica coating on flexural strength of fiber posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valandro, LF; Ozcan, M; de Melo, RM; Galhano, GAP; Baldissara, P; Scotti, R; Bottino, MA

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts can be air-abraded to obtain good attachment to the resin cement. This study tested the effect of silica coating on the flexural strength of carbon, opaque, and translucent quartz FRC posts. Materials and Methods: Six experimental groups of FRC posts (

  6. Substructural Identification of Flexural Rigidity for Beam-Like Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel substructural identification method based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory with a single variable optimization scheme to estimate the flexural rigidity of a beam-like structure such as a bridge deck, which is one of the major structural integrity indices of a structure. In ordinary bridges, the boundary condition of a superstructure can be significantly altered by aging and environmental variations, and the actual boundary conditions are generally unknown or difficult to be estimated correctly. To efficiently bypass the problems related to boundary conditions, a substructural identification method is proposed to evaluate the flexural rigidity regardless of the actual boundary conditions by isolating an identification region within the internal substructure. The proposed method is very simple and effective as it utilizes the single variable optimization based on the transfer function formulated utilizing Bernoulli Euler beam theory for the inverse analysis to obtain the flexural rigidity. This novel method is also rigorously investigated by applying it for estimating the flexural rigidity of a simply supported beam model with different boundary conditions, a concrete plate-girder bridge model with different length of an internal substructure, a cantilever-type wind turbine tower structure with different type of excitation, and a steel box-girder bridge model with internal structural damages.

  7. Effect of Finger Joint on Flexural Strength of Teak Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharatesh A. Danawade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the flexural properties of rectangular Burma teak wood beam without finger joint and with finger joint. Finger joints enable full utilization of wood. Finger jointing technique is also used to eliminate wood defects which weaken the strength of wood. This paper considers finger joint as defined defect and its effect on the flexural strength is determined. Teakwood is hard and heavy, seasons rapidly and has good durability. The specimens were studied under three point bending test. Both edge wise and flat wise tests were carried out. It is observed that Burma teakwood beam without finger joint is stronger than beams with finger joints. Because of finger jointing the flexural strength reduces. It can be concluded that the strength loss can improved upon by selecting suitable geometry of finger joint and a suitable adhesive. It is recognized that further studies are necessary on jointing techniques of wood and type of adhesive so as to equal the flexural strength properties of clear teak wood beams.

  8. Synthesis and Optimisation of Large Stroke Flexure Hinges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, Martijn; Aarts, Ronald; Brouwer, Dannis; Wenger, Philippe; Flores, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Flexure hinges are advantageous for use in high-precision applications because of their lack of hysteresis, friction and backlash. However, their range of motion is limited due to increasing stresses and a decreasing support stiffness at large strokes. Currently available hinges are typically design

  9. Strengthening of Steel Columns under Load: Torsional-Flexural Buckling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental and numerical research into the strengthening of steel columns under load using welded plates. So far, the experimental research in this field has been limited mostly to flexural buckling of columns and the preload had low effect on the column load resistance. This paper focuses on the local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling of columns. Three sets of three columns each were tested. Two sets corresponding to the base section (D and strengthened section (E were tested without preloading and were used for comparison. Columns from set (F were first preloaded to the load corresponding to the half of the load resistance of the base section (D. Then the columns were strengthened and after they cooled, they were loaded to failure. The columns strengthened under load (F had similar average resistance as the columns welded without preloading (E, meaning the preload affects even members susceptible to local buckling and torsional-flexural buckling only slightly. This is the same behaviour as of the tested columns from previous research into flexural buckling. The study includes results gained from finite element models of the problem created in ANSYS software. The results obtained from the experiments and numerical simulations were compared.

  10. On mechanical properties of planar flexure hinges of compliant mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dirksen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of compliant mechanisms yield optimized topologies that combine several stiff parts with highly elastic flexure hinges. The hinges are often represented in finite element analysis by a single node (one-node hinge leaving doubts on the physical meaning as well as an uncertainty in the manufacturing process.

    To overcome this one-node hinge problem of optimized compliant mechanisms' topologies, one-node hinges need to be replaced by real flexure hinges providing desired deflection range and the ability to bear internal loads without failure. Therefore, several common types of planar flexure hinges with different geometries are characterized and categorized in this work providing a comprehensive guide with explicit analytical expressions to replace one-node hinges effectively.

    Analytical expressions on displacements, stresses, maximum elastic deformations, bending stiffness, center of rotation and first natural frequencies are derived in this work. Numerical simulations and experimental studies are performed validating the analytical results. More importance is given to practice-oriented flexure hinge types in terms of cost-saving manufacturability, i.e. circular notch type hinges and rectangular leaf type hinges.

  11. Characteristics of VLF/LF Sferics from Elve-producing Lightning Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, P.; Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Marshall, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning return strokes radiate an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) which interacts with the D-region ionosphere; the largest EMPs produce new ionization, heating, and optical emissions known as elves. Elves are at least six times more common than sprites and other transient luminous events. Though the probability that a lightning return stroke will produce an elve is correlated with the return stroke peak current, many large peak current strokes do not produce visible elves. Apart from the lightning peak current, elve production may depend on the return stroke speed, lightning altitude, and ionospheric conditions. In this work we investigate the detailed structure of lightning that gives rise to elves by analyzing the characteristics of VLF/LF lightning sferics in conjunction with optical elve observations. Lightning sferics were observed using an array of six VLF/LF receivers (1 MHz sample-rate) in Oklahoma, and elves were observed using two high-speed photometers pointed over the Oklahoma region: one located at Langmuir Laboratory, NM and the other at McDonald Observatory, TX. Hundreds of elves with coincident LF sferics were observed during the summer months of 2013. We present data comparing the characteristics of elve-producing and non-elve producing lightning as measured by LF sferics. In addition, we compare these sferic and elve observations with FDTD simulations to determine key properties of elve-producing lightning.

  12. Solar flare induced D-region ionospheric perturbations evaluated from VLF measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh K.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, Rajesh; Singh, R. P.

    2014-03-01

    The results of very low frequency (VLF) wave amplitude measurements carried out at the low latitude station Varanasi (geom. lat. 14∘55'N, long. 154∘E), India during solar flares are presented for the first time. The VLF waves (19.8 kHz) transmitted from the NWC-transmitter, Australia propagated in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to long distances and were recorded at Varanasi. Data are analyzed and the reflection height H' and the sharpness factor β are evaluated. It is found that the reflection height decreases whereas sharpness factor increases with the increase of solar flare power. The H' is found to be higher and β smaller at low latitudes than the corresponding values at mid and high latitudes. The sunspot numbers were low during the considered period 2011-2012, being the rising phase of solar cycle 24 and as a result cosmic rays may impact the D-region ionosphere. The increased ionization from the flare lowers the effective reflecting height, H', of the D-region roughly in proportion to the logarithm of the X-ray flare intensity from a typical mid-day unperturbed value of about 71-72 km down to about 65 km for an X class flare. The sharpness ( β) of the lower edge of the D-region is also significantly increased by the flare but reaches a clear saturation value of about 0.48 km-1 for flares of magnitude greater than about X1 class.

  13. Some unusual discrete VLF emissions observed at a low-latitude ground station at Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Singh

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis of the VLF emissions data obtained during occasional whistler campaigns at the low-latitude ground station Agra (geomagnetic latitude 17°1' N, L = 1.15 has yielded some unusual discrete VLF emissions of the rising type. These include (1 emissions occurring at time intervals increasing in ge ommetrical progression, (2 emissions occuring simulta neously in different frequency ranges and (3 emissions observed during daytime. In the present study, the observed characteristics of these emissions are described and interpreted. It is shown that the increasing time delay between different components of the emissions match closely with the propagation time delays between different hops of a whistler of dispersion 19 s1/2, the unusual occurrence of the emissions in two different frequency ranges approximately at the same time may possibly be linked with their generation at two different locations, and the occurrence of emissions during daytime may be due to propagation under the influence of equatorial anomaly.

  14. Characteristic of Tweek Atmospherics Observed in Mid-latitude using AWESOME VLF Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbayah Yusop

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the analysis of tweek atmospherics received by AWESOME VLF receiver at station of Gakona (62.71°N, 143.99°W during four months observation from January to April 2011. Tweek which originates from lightning discharge are used to monitor the nighttime D-region ionosphere using the fundamental cut-off frequency to measure the variations of the lower ionosphere’s reflection height, the equivalent electron density at the reflection height and the propagation distance travel by tweeks. In this study, a total of 1316 tweeks are analyzed and from the analysis, it shows that equinox’s season has the highest tweek occurrence compared to winter season in March and April. The maximum harmonic (m of t weeks is found to be up to fourth ( m = 4 and tweeks with mode number one (m = 1 are more dominantly occurred. Our observations indicate that the equivalent electron densities for tweeks varies from 22-27 eL/cm3 in the altitude ranged of 75 to 91 km and demonstrate that these ELF/VLF signals travel considerable distances up to 6700 km from the causative lightning discharges. The ionospheric parameters for three locations (high, middle and low latitude respectively were compared and the results show that they are almost consistent for all the locations.

  15. In connection with identification of VLF emissions before L'Aquila earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Kachakhidze, M; Kachakhidze, N

    2012-01-01

    The present paper deals with an attempt to check up the theoretical model of self-generated seismo-electromagnetic oscillations of LAI system on the basis of retrospective data. Application of the offered simple model enables one to explain qualitatively the mechanism of VLF electromagnetic emission initiated in the process of an earthquake preparation. It is worth to pay attention to the fact that frequency changes from MHz to kHz in electromagnetic emission spectrum comes to a good agreement with avalanche-like unstable model of fault formation. L'Aquila earthquake taken as an example to isolate reliably the Earth VLF emission from the magnetospheric electromagnetic emission of the same frequency range, MHD criterion is offered together with geomagnetic activity indexes. On the basis of the considered three earthquakes, according to the opinion of authors the model of self-generated seismo-electromagnetic oscillations of the LAI system will enable us to approach the problem of resolution of earthquake predi...

  16. Study of Ionospheric Perturbations in D-Layer Using VLF Receiver at Tashkent IHY Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2016-07-01

    Tashkent International Heliophysical Year (IHY) station is a member of Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System for Observation, Modeling and Education (AWESOME) network being operated globally to study the ionosphere and the magnetosphere with the help of electromagnetic waves in Very Low Frequency (VLF) band. Regular monitoring of the D- and F-layers of ionosphere over Central Asia territory is being performed on the permanent basis starting year 2008 when one VLF receiver and two SuperSID receivers were provided to Uzbekistan IHY cite by Stanford University. The results obtained at Tashkent IHY station are applied to earthquake electromagnetic precursors, lightning, and Solar flares and to ionospheric disturbances originating from gamma ray flares of Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters connected with evolution of strongly magnetized neutron stars believed as magnetars. Regular monitoring of the D-layer of ionosphere over Central Asia territory has been performed on the permanent basis. Several Solar events are observed and the analysis has shown that there is simultaneous correlation between the times of change of amplitude of the waves and the Solar flares. Features of the lightning discharge generated by radio atmospherics are studied and its effectiveness in D-region ionosphere diagnostics is examined.

  17. In connection with identification of VLF emissions before L'Aquila earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Kachakhidze

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with an attempt to check the theoretical model of self-generated seismo-electromagnetic oscillations of LAI system on the basis of retrospective data.

    Application of the offered simple model enables one to explain qualitatively the mechanism of VLF electromagnetic emission initiated in the process of an earthquake preparation. Besides, the model enables us to associate telluric character geoelectric and geomagnetic perturbations incited by rock polarization and self-generated electromagnetic oscillations of lithosphere-atmosphere system.

    L'Aquila earthquake taken as an example to isolate reliably the Earth VLF emission from the magnetospheric electromagnetic emission of the same frequency range, MHD criterion is offered together with geomagnetic activity indexes.

    On the basis of the considered three earthquakes, according to the opinion of authors the model of self-generated seismo-electromagnetic oscillations of the LAI system will enable us to approach the problem of resolution of earthquake prediction with certain accuracy.

  18. Orbiting transmitter and antenna for spaceborne communications at ELF/VLF to submerged submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, P. R.; Harrison, J. K.; Rupp, C. C.; King, R. W. P.; Cosmo, M. L.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Dyer, C. J.; Grossi, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    An orbital emplacement for the transmitter and the antenna of a communications link at ELF (30 to 300 Hz) and VLF (3 kHz to 30 kHz) to submerged submarines has been considered since the very inception of the space age. However, only recently has space technology reached a sufficient level of maturity for system designers to undertake serious studies of this link configuration. The optimistic outlook stems from recent space technology developments, such as the design and construction by NASA of long orbiting tethers, and the testing, onboard Shuttle Orbiter ATLANTIS, of the first spaceborne 20 km metal wire. This is known as the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1), a space mission that might be possibly followed by other flights, with tether lengths that could reach 100 km. Once deployed at a height of, say, 300 km, from a Shuttle Orbiter, or from another suitable platform, a long, thin tether aligns itself along the local vertical by virtue of the gradient of the Earth gravity field. If made of metal, the tether can function as a VED (Vertical Electric Dipole) transmitting antenna at ELF and VLF.

  19. Flexural strength and fracture toughness of dental core ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Handan; Aydin, Cemal; Gul, Basak E

    2007-08-01

    Many different strengthened all-ceramic core materials are available. In vitro study of their mechanical properties, such as flexural strength and fracture toughness, is necessary before they are used clinically. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the mechanical properties of 6 commonly used all-ceramic core materials using biaxial flexural strength and indentation fracture toughness tests. Specimens of 6 ceramic core materials (Finesse, Cergo, IPS Empress, In-Ceram Alumina, In-Ceram Zirconia, and Cercon Zirconia) were fabricated (n=25) with a diameter of 15 mm and width of 1.2 +/- 0.2 mm. For each group, the specimens were tested to compare their biaxial flexural strength (piston on 3 balls) (n=15), Weibull modulus, and indentation fracture toughness (n=10) (IF method). The data were analyzed with 1-way ANOVA test (a=.05). The Tamhane multiple comparison test was used for post hoc analysis. Mean (SD) of biaxial flexural strength values (MPa) and Weibull modulus (m) results were: Finesse (F): 88.04 (31.61), m=3.17; Cergo (C): 94.97 (13.62), m=7.94; IPS Empress (E): 101.18 (13.49), m=10.13; In-Ceram Alumina (ICA): 341.80 (61.13), m=6.96; In-Ceram Zirconia (ICZ): 541.80 (61.10), m=10.17; and Cercon Zirconia (CZ): 1140.89 (121.33), m=13.26. The indentation fracture toughness results showed that there were significant differences between the tested ceramics. The highest fracture toughness values (MPa x m(0.5)) were obtained with the zirconia-based ceramic core materials. Significant differences were found in strength and toughness values of the materials evaluated. Cercon Zirconia core material showed high values of biaxial flexural strength and indentation fracture toughness when compared to the other ceramics studied.

  20. Disk Defect Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — How Data Was Acquired: The data presented is from a physical simulator that simulated engine disks. Sample Rates and Parameter Description: All parameters are...

  1. Statistical study of seismo-ionospheric perturbations around Japan by using VLF/LF transmitters with a focal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Tomoki; Hobara, Yasuhide; Tatsuta, Kenshin

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we perform the statistical analysis to study the response of the lower ionosphere prior to major seismic activities focusing on different earthquake types. The lower ionospheric condition is represented by daily averaged nighttime electric amplitude from various VLF/LF transmitter signals received in Japan by UEC team. Six-year record of ionospheric conditions are used for our data analysis. Over 200 earthquakes occurred around the VLF/LF transmitter - receiver paths during the time period of analysis. They are characterized into three different groups based on the Centroid-Moment-Tensor (CMT) solution such as reverse fault type, normal fault type and stress slip type. The ionospheric anomaly is identified by a large change (2 sigma criteria) in the VLF/LF daily nighttime amplitude. As a result, the highest occurrence rate of ionospheric anomaly is obtained for reverse type fault for both sea and ground earthquakes. The occurrence rate for these earthquakes are statistically significant because they are significantly large in comparison to those calculated from random test. The difference of occurrence rate of the ionospheric perturbations may indicate the coupling efficiency of seismic activity into the overlaying ionosphere originated from the pre-seismic condition of earth's crust. We also perform the trend-based earthquake prediction. Alarm threshold in nighttime VLF amplitude with -3.5 sigma is found to be most effective and significant for the earthquake prediction by using lower ionospheric perturbations.

  2. ELF/VLF signatures of sprite-producing lightning discharges observed during the 2005 EuroSprite campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, E.; Price, C.; Yair, Y.

    2009-01-01

    During the summer of 2005, transient luminous events were optically imaged from the French Pyrénées as part of the EuroSprite campaign. Simultaneously, extremely low frequency (ELF: 3–3000 Hz) and broadband very low frequency (VLF: 3–30 kHz) data were recorded continuously at two separate receive...

  3. Verbatim Floppy Disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    Introduced under the name "Verbatim", Latin for "literally", these disks that sized more than 5¼ inches have become almost universal on dedicated word processing systems and personal computers. This format was replaced more slowly by the 3½-inch format, introduced for the first time in 1982. Compared to today, these large format disks stored very little data. In reality, they could only contain a few pages of text.

  4. Statistical correlation of spectral broadening in VLF transmitter signal and low-frequency ionospheric turbulence from observation on DEMETER satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozhnoi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In our earlier papers we have found the effect of VLF transmitter signal depression over epicenters of the large earthquakes from observation on the French DEMETER satellite that can be considered as new method of global diagnostics of seismic influence on the ionosphere. At present paper we investigate a possibility VLF signal-ionospheric turbulence interaction using additional characteristic of VLF signal-spectrum broadening. This characteristic is important for estimation of the interaction type: linear or nonlinear scattering. Our main results are the following:
    – There are two zones of increased spectrum broadening, which are centered near magnetic latitudes Φ=±10° and Φ=±40°. Basing on the previous case study research and ground ionosonde registrations, probably it is evidence of nonlinear (active scattering of VLF signal on the ionospheric turbulence. However occurrence rate of spectrum broadening in the middle-latitude area is higher than in the near-equatorial zone (~15–20% in comparison with ~100% in former area that is probably coincides with the rate of ionospheric turbulence.
    – From two years statistics of observation in the selected 3 low-latitude regions and 1 middle-latitude region inside reception area of VLF signal from NWC transmitter we find a correlation of spectrum broadening neither with ion-cyclotron noise (f=150–500 Hz, which possibly means poor representation of the turbulence by the noise due to its mixture with natural ELF emission (which correlates with whistler, nor with magnetic storm activity.
    – We find rather evident correlation of ion-cyclotron frequency noise, VLF signal depression and weak correlation of spectrum broadening with seismicity in the middle-latitude region over Japan. But in the low-latitude regions we do not find such a correlation. Statistical decrease of VLF signal supports our previous case study results. However rather weak spectrum broadening

  5. ELF/VLF Perturbations Above the Haarp Transmitter Recorded by the Demeter Satellite in the Upper Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, E. E.; Demekhov, A. G.; Mochalov, A. A.; Gvozdevsky, B. B.; Mogilevsky, M. M.; Parrot, M.

    2015-08-01

    In the studies of the data received from DEMETER (orbit altitude above the Earth is about 700 km), we detected for the first time electromagnetic perturbations, which are due to the ionospheric modification by HAARP, a high-power high-frequency transmitter, simultaneously in the extremely low-frequency (ELF, below 1200 Hz) and very low-frequency (VLF, below 20 kHz) ranges. Of the thirteen analyzed flybys of the satellite above the heated area, the ELF/VLF signals were detected in three cases in the daytime (LT = 11-12 h), when the minimum distance between the geomagnetic projections of the satellite and the heated area center on the Earth's surface did not exceed 31 km. During the nighttime flybys, the ELF/VLF perturbations were not detected. The size of the perturbed region was about 100 km. The amplitude, spectrum, and polarization of the ELF perturbations were analyzed, and their comparison with the characteristics of natural ELF noise above the HAARP transmitter was performed. In particular, it was shown that in the daytime the ELF perturbation amplitude above the heated area can exceed by a factor of 3 to 8 the amplitude of natural ELF noise. The absence of the nighttime records of artificial ELF/VLF perturbations above the heated area can be due to both the lower frequency of the heating signal, at which the heating occurs in the lower ionosphere, and the higher level of natural noise. The spectrum of the VLF signals related to the HAARP transmitter operation had two peaks at frequencies of 8 to 10 kHz and 15 to 18 kHz, which are close to the first and second harmonics of the lower-hybrid resonance in the heated area. The effect of the whistler wave propagation near the lower-hybrid resonance region on the perturbation spectrum recorded in the upper ionosphere for these signals has been demonstrated. In particular, some of the spectrum features can be explained by assuming that the VLF signals propagate in quasiresonance, rather than quasilongitudinal, regime

  6. Coordinated study of non-seismic and weak seismic events (magnitude M less than 5) using VLF radio links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbang, Daniel; Biernat, Helfried K.; Friedrich, Martin; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Besser, B. P.; Eichelberger, Hans; Prattes, Gustav; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Boudjada, Mohammed Y.

    In this study we analyze low seismicity earthquakes (EQs) with magnitudes M earthquake precursor phenomena generated in the lithosphere and then propagating in the atmosphere / ionosphere [1]. The major challenge of this seismo-electromagnetic (SEM) method is to differentiate parameter variations and disentangle seismic from non-seismic sources. In the course of the European radio receiver network (International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors, INFREP) radio signals in the VLF/LF frequency range are continuously recorded by dedicated, distributed transmitters. The major VLF receiving station for this study (10-50 kHz, Graz, Austria) operates continuously throughout the year, the selected network-wide temporal resolution is 20 sec, 12 transmitters, located mainly in Europe, are received (amplitude and phase). The facility has a proven high reliability and availability. The VLF links from the transmitters to the receivers are sometimes more, sometimes less influenced by various disturbances. In case the signal is crossing an EQ preparation zone, we are in principle able to detect seismic activity if the signal to noise ratio is high enough [2]. Generally we distinguish between ionospheric or atmospheric disturbances, influences which depend on the EQ properties, and transmitter variations itself. Ionospheric / Atmospheric variations can be generated, e.g. by geomagnetic storms, solar flares or waves in the troposphere. The properties of the sub-ionospheric VLF waveguide are affected by the length of the radio path, the distance to the EQ preparation zone, the parameters of the earthquake (magnitude, depth, type), and daytime / nighttime disturbances. In order to minimize ionospheric influences on the radio path we are considering mainly nighttime periods. Beside the terminator time method, where only the VLF sunrise and sunset period is analyzed, we are using the residual method (2 hours before and after local midnight), where the difference

  7. 2TB hard disk drive

    CERN Multimedia

    This particular object was used up until 2012 in the Data Centre. It slots into one of the Disk Server trays. Hard disks were invented in the 1950s. They started as large disks up to 20 inches in diameter holding just a few megabytes (link is external). They were originally called "fixed disks" or "Winchesters" (a code name used for a popular IBM product). They later became known as "hard disks" to distinguish them from "floppy disks (link is external)." Hard disks have a hard platter that holds the magnetic medium, as opposed to the flexible plastic film found in tapes and floppies.

  8. Unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV): Flight testing and evaluation of two-channel E-field very low frequency (VLF) instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Using VLF frequencies, transmitted by the Navy`s network, for airborne remote sensing of the earth`s electrical, magnetic characteristics was first considered by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) around the mid 1970s. The first VLF system was designed and developed by the USGS for installation and operation on a single engine, fixed wing aircraft used by the Branch of Geophysics for geophysical surveying. The system consisted of five channels. Two E-field channels with sensors consisting of a fixed vertical loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on top of the fuselage and a gyro stabilized horizontal loaded dipole antenna with pre-amp mounted on a tail boom. The three channel magnetic sensor consisted of three orthogonal coils mounted on the same gyro stabilized platform as the horizontal E-field antenna. The main features of the VLF receiver were: narrow band-width frequency selection using crystal filters, phase shifters for zeroing out system phase variances, phase-lock loops for generating real and quadrature gates, and synchronous detectors for generating real and quadrature outputs. In the mid 1990s the Branch of Geophysics designed and developed a two-channel E-field ground portable VLF system. The system was built using state-of-the-art circuit components and new concepts in circuit architecture. Small size, light weight, low power, durability, and reliability were key considerations in the design of the instrument. The primary purpose of the instrument was for collecting VLF data during ground surveys over small grid areas. Later the system was modified for installation on a Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV). A series of three field trips were made to Easton, Maryland for testing and evaluating the system performance.

  9. Characteristics of VLF wave propagation in the Earth's magnetosphere in the presence of an artificial density duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmanik, Dmitry; Demekhov, Andrei

    We study the propagation of VLF waves in the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere in the presence of large-scale artificial plasma inhomogeneities which can be created by HF heating facilities like HAARP and ``Sura''. A region with enhanced cold plasma density can be formed due to the action of HF heating. This region is extended along geomagnetic field (up to altitudes of several thousand km) and has rather small size across magnetic field (about 1 degree). The geometric-optical approximation is used to study wave propagation. The plasma density and ion composition are calculated with the use of SAMI2 model, which was modified to take the effect of HF heating into account. We calculate ray trajectories of waves with different initial frequency and wave-normal angles and originating at altitudes of about 100 km in the region near the heating area. The source of such waves could be the lightning discharges, modulated HF heating of the ionosphere, or VLF transmitters. Variation of the wave amplitude along the ray trajectories due to refraction is considered and spatial distribution of wave intensity in the magnetosphere is analyzed. We show that the presence of such a density disturbances can lead to significant changes of wave propagation trajectories, in particular, to efficient guiding of VLF waves in this region. This can result in a drastic increase of the VLF-wave intensity in the density duct. The dependence of wave propagation properties on parameters of heating facility operation regime is considered. We study the variation of the spatial distribution of VLF wave intensity related to the slow evolution of the artificial inhomogeneity during the heating.

  10. Effects of core-to-dentin thickness ratio on the biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode of bilayered materials of zirconia core (Y-TZP) and veneer indirect composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Naichuan; Liao, Yunmao; Zhang, Hai; Yue, Li; Lu, Xiaowen; Shen, Jiefei; Wang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Indirect composite resins (ICR) are promising alternatives as veneering materials for zirconia frameworks. The effects of core-to-dentin thickness ratio (C/Dtr) on the mechanical property of bilayered veneer ICR/yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (Y-TZP) core disks have not been previously studied. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the effects of C/Dtr on the biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode of bilayered veneer ICR/ Y-TZP core disks. A total of 180 bilayered 0.6-mm-thick composite resin disks in core material and C/Dtr of 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2 were tested with either core material placed up or placed down for piston-on-3-ball biaxial flexural strength. The mean biaxial flexural strength, Weibull modulus, and fracture mode were measured to evaluate the variation trend of the biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode of the bilayered disks with various C/Dtr. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests were used to evaluate the variation tendency of fracture mode with the C/Dtr or material placed down during testing (α=.05). Light microscopy was used to identify the fracture mode. The mean biaxial flexural strength and reliability improved with the increase in C/Dtr when specimens were tested with the core material either up and down, and depended on the materials that were placed down during testing. The rates of delamination, Hertzian cone cracks, subcritical radial cracks, and number of fracture fragments partially depended on the C/Dtr and the materials that were placed down during testing. The biaxial flexural strength, reliability, and fracture mode in bilayered structures of Y-TZP core and veneer ICR depend on both the C/Dtr and the material that was placed down during testing. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Time-Dependent Flexural Deformation Beneath the Emperor Seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, P.; Watts, A. B.; Kim, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain stretches over 6000 km from the Big Island of Hawaii to the subduction cusp off Kamchatka and represents a near-continuous record of hotspot volcanism since the Late Cretaceous. The load of these seamounts and islands has caused the underlying lithosphere to deform, developing a flexural flanking moat that is now largely filled with volcanoclastic sediments. Because the age differences between the seafloor and the seamounts vary by an order of magnitude or more along the chain, the Hawaii-Emperor chain and surrounding area is considered a natural laboratory for lithospheric flexure and has been studied extensively in order to infer the rheology of the oceanic lithosphere. While most investigations have focused on the Hawaiian Islands and proximal seamounts (where data sets are more complete, including seismic reflection and refraction, swath bathymetry and even mapping and dating of drowned reef terraces), far fewer studies have examined the flexural deformation beneath the remote Emperor chain. Preliminary analysis of satellite altimetry data shows the flexural moats to be associated with very large negative gravity anomalies relative to the magnitudes of the positive anomalies over the loads, suggesting considerable viscous or viscoelastic relaxation since the loads were emplaced 50-80 Myr ago. In our study, we will attempt to model the Emperor seamount chain load as a superposition of individual elliptical Gaussian seamounts with separate loading histories. We use Optimal Robust Separation (ORS) techniques to extract the seamount load from the regional background bathymetry and partition the residual load into a set of individual volcanoes. The crustal age grid and available seamount dates are used to construct a temporal loading model and evaluate the flexural response of the lithosphere beneath the Emperor seamounts. We explore a variety of rheological models and loading scenarios that are compatible with the inferred load

  12. Localized surface plate modes via flexural Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, M.

    2017-05-11

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are naturally generated upon excitation of metals with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. However, the concept of spoof plasmons has made it possible to generate plasmoniclike effects in microwave electrodynamics, magnetics, and even acoustics. Similarly, in this paper, the concept of localized surface plate modes (SPMs) is introduced. It is demonstrated that SPMs can be generated on a two-dimensional (clamped or stress-free) cylindrical surface with subwavelength corrugations, which resides on a thin elastic plate, under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Numerical characterization of this corrugated rigid structure shows that it is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with dispersive but uniformly negative flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmoniclike elastic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing and elastic imaging and cloaking.

  13. Enhanced flexural wave sensing by adaptive gradient-index metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Zhu, R.; Barnhart, M. V.; Huang, G. L.

    2016-10-01

    Increasing sensitivity and signal to noise ratios of conventional wave sensors is an interesting topic in structural health monitoring, medical imaging, aerospace and nuclear instrumentation. Here, we report the concept of a gradient piezoelectric self-sensing system by integrating shunting circuitry into conventional sensors. By tuning circuit elements properly, both the quality and quantity of the flexural wave measurement data can be significantly increased for new adaptive sensing applications. Through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, we demonstrate that a metamaterial-based sensing system (MBSS) with gradient bending stiffness can be designed by connecting gradient negative capacitance circuits to an array of piezoelectric patches (sensors). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve more than two orders of magnitude amplification of flexural wave signals to overcome the detection limit. This research encompasses fundamental advancements in the MBSS with improved performance and functionalities, and will yield significant advances for a range of applications.

  14. The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracker: laboratory tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremou, Evangelia; Eckart, Andreas; Horrobin, Matthew; Lindhorst, Bettina; Moser, Lydia; Rost, Steffen; Smajic, Semir; Straubmeier, Christian; Wank, Imke; Zuther, Jens; Bertram, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the NIR homothetic imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). In close cooperation with the Adaptive Optics systems of LINC-NIRVANA the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is a fundamental component to ensure a complete and time-stable wavefront correction at the position of the science detector in order to allow for long integration times at interferometric angular resolutions. In this contribution, we present the design and the realization of the ongoing FFTS laboratory tests, taking into account the system requirements. We have to sample the large Field of View and to follow the reference source during science observations to an accuracy of less than 2 microns. In particular, important tests such as cooling tests of cryogenic components and tip - tilt test (the repeatability and the precision under the different inclinations) are presented. The system parameters such as internal flexure and precision are discussed.

  15. Flexural-Phonon Scattering Induced by Electrostatic Gating in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Tue; Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-01-01

    Graphene has an extremely high carrier mobility partly due to its planar mirror symmetry inhibiting scattering by the highly occupied acoustic flexural phonons. Electrostatic gating of a graphene device can break the planar mirror symmetry, yielding a coupling mechanism to the flexural phonons. We examine the effect of the gate-induced one-phonon scattering on the mobility for several gate geometries and dielectric environments using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and the Boltzmann equation. We demonstrate that this scattering mechanism can be a mobility-limiting factor, and show how the carrier density and temperature scaling of the mobility depends on the electrostatic environment. Our findings may explain the high deformation potential for in-plane acoustic phonons extracted from experiments and, furthermore, suggest a direct relation between device symmetry and resulting mobility.

  16. Flexural Strength and Behavior of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The strength and deformation characteristics of polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PFRC) beams were investigated by four-point bending procedures in this paper.Two kinds of polypropylene fibers with different fiber contents (0.2%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) by volume were used in the beam, which measured 100×100 mm with a span of 300 mm.It was found that the strength of the reinforced concrete beams was significantly decreased,whereas the flexural toughness was improved,compared to those unreinforced concrete beams.Geometry properties and volume contents of polypropylene fiber were considered to be important factors for improving the flexural toughness.Moreover,the composite mechanism between polypropylene fiber and concrete was analyzed and discussed.

  17. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  18. Enhanced flexural wave sensing by adaptive gradient-index metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Zhu, R.; Barnhart, M. V.; Huang, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing sensitivity and signal to noise ratios of conventional wave sensors is an interesting topic in structural health monitoring, medical imaging, aerospace and nuclear instrumentation. Here, we report the concept of a gradient piezoelectric self-sensing system by integrating shunting circuitry into conventional sensors. By tuning circuit elements properly, both the quality and quantity of the flexural wave measurement data can be significantly increased for new adaptive sensing applications. Through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, we demonstrate that a metamaterial-based sensing system (MBSS) with gradient bending stiffness can be designed by connecting gradient negative capacitance circuits to an array of piezoelectric patches (sensors). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve more than two orders of magnitude amplification of flexural wave signals to overcome the detection limit. This research encompasses fundamental advancements in the MBSS with improved performance and functionalities, and will yield significant advances for a range of applications. PMID:27748379

  19. Controlling flexural waves in semi-infinite platonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Haslinger, Stewart G; Movchan, Alexander B; Jones, Ian S; Craster, Richard V

    2016-01-01

    We address the problem of scattering and transmission of a plane flexural wave through a semi-infinite array of point scatterers/resonators, which take a variety of physically interesting forms. The mathematical model accounts for several classes of point defects, including mass-spring resonators attached to the top surface of the flexural plate and their limiting case of concentrated point masses. We also analyse the special case of resonators attached to opposite faces of the plate. The problem is reduced to a functional equation of the Wiener-Hopf type, whose kernel varies with the type of scatterer considered. A novel approach, which stems from the direct connection between the kernel function of the semi-infinite system and the quasi-periodic Green's functions for corresponding infinite systems, is used to identify special frequency regimes. We thereby demonstrate dynamically anisotropic wave effects in semi-infinite platonic crystals, with particular attention paid to designing systems to exhibit dynami...

  20. Novel parameter-based flexure bearing design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoedo, Simon; Thebaud, Edouard; Gschwendtner, Michael; White, David

    2016-06-01

    A parameter study was carried out on the design variables of a flexure bearing to be used in a Stirling engine with a fixed axial displacement and a fixed outer diameter. A design method was developed in order to assist identification of the optimum bearing configuration. This was achieved through a parameter study of the bearing carried out with ANSYS®. The parameters varied were the number and the width of the arms, the thickness of the bearing, the eccentricity, the size of the starting and ending holes, and the turn angle of the spiral. Comparison was made between the different designs in terms of axial and radial stiffness, the natural frequency, and the maximum induced stresses. Moreover, the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was compared to theoretical results for a given design. The results led to a graphical design method which assists the selection of flexure bearing geometrical parameters based on pre-determined geometric and material constraints.

  1. Flexural Vibration Characteristics of Initially Stressed Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Daripa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of localised in-plane load on the flexural vibration characteristics of isotropic and composite plates have been studied using a four-noded shear flexible high precision plate bending finite element. First, the critical buckling loads of such plates subjected to partial or concentrated compressive loads were calculated, then the linear and nonlinear flexural vibration frequencies were obtained. Limited parametric study was carried out to study the influences of location and distribution of tensile or compressive in-plane load on the vibration frequencies of such plates.Defence Science Journal, 2010, 60(1, pp.106-111, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.60.117

  2. Dispersion in unit disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    We present two new approximation algorithms with (improved) constant ratios for selecting $n$ points in $n$ unit disks such that the minimum pairwise distance among the points is maximized. (I) A very simple $O(n \\log{n})$-time algorithm with ratio 0.5110 for disjoint unit disks. In combination with an algorithm of Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, it yields a $O(n^2)$-time algorithm with ratio of 0.4487 for dispersion in $n$ not necessarily disjoint unit disks. (II) A more sophisticated LP-based algorithm with ratio 0.6495 for disjoint unit disks that uses a linear number of variables and constraints, and runs in polynomial time. The algorithm introduces a novel technique which combines linear programming and projections for approximating distances. The previous best approximation ratio for disjoint unit disks was 1/2. Our results give a partial answer to an open question raised by Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, who asked whether 1/2 could be improved.

  3. Multifractal variability of Very Low Frequency (VLF) signal during Earthquakes (M greater than 5) occurred at Greece during the year 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Shivali; Kasde, Satish Kumar; Sonakia, Anjana

    In this work Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) based multifractal analysis method is used to extracts the earthquake precursory signatures from scaling characteristics of subionospheric Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals. We found specific dynamics of their fractal characteristics before the earthquake, appearance of the spike in the signal and increase of the fractal dimension. We analyze VLF signals of famous Turkey Bafa transmitter (N 370 24’, E 27019’) recorded by sudden Ionospheric Disturbance (SID) monitoring station located at South of France during the Earthquake occurred at Greece during the year 2011-2012. The analysis of VLF signal during some days before and after the occurrence of earthquake has been done. Keywords: Multifractal analysis, VLF signal, Sudden Ionospheric disturbances

  4. Flexural Properties of WeftKnitted Fabric Reinforced Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙海如; 冯勋伟

    2001-01-01

    Several different kinds of weft knitted fabrics from glass fiber yarns were used as reinforcement to make fabric/polyester composite laminates. Flexural tests were carried out to examine stress- deflection process and compare the mechanical properties in course and wale directions of these composites. The experimental results indicate that the numbers of load-bearing yarn in course and wale direction and the fabric density are the main factors influencing the ultimate tensile strength and initial elastic modulus of specimens.

  5. Weakened Flexural Strength of Nanocrystalline Nanoporous Gold by Grain Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Eun-Ji; Kim, Ju-Young

    2016-04-13

    High density of grain boundaries in solid materials generally leads to high strength because grain boundaries act as strong obstacles to dislocation activity. We find that the flexural strength of nanoporous gold of grain size 206 nm is 33.6% lower than that of grain size 238 μm. We prepared three gold-silver precursor alloys, well-annealed, prestrained, and high-energy ball-milled, from which nanoporous gold samples were obtained by the same free-corrosion dealloying process. Ligaments of the same size are formed regardless of precursor alloys, and microstructural aspects of precursor alloys such as crystallographic orientation and grain size is preserved in the dealloying process. While the nanoindentation hardness of three nanoporous golds is independent of microstructural variation, flexural strength of nanocrystalline nanoporous gold is significantly lower than that of nanoporous golds with much larger grain size. We investigate weakening mechanisms of grain boundaries in nanocrystalline nanoporous gold, leading to weakening of flexural strength.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Tobias J. R.; Laws, Michael; Kang, Lei; Fan, Yichao; Ramadas, Sivaram N.; Dixon, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT) for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL) above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)≃15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart. PMID:27571075

  7. Asymmetric Flexural-gravity Lumps in Nonuniform Media

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Here we show that asymmetric fully-localized flexural-gravity lumps can propagate on the surface of an inviscid and irrotational fluid covered by a variable-thickness elastic material, provided that the thickness varies only in one direction and has a local minimum. We derive and present equations governing the evolution of the envelope of flexural-gravity wave packets allowing the flexing material to have small variations in the transverse (to propagation) direction. We show that the governing equation belongs to the general family of Davey-Stewartson equations, but with an extra term in the surface evolution equation that accounts for the variable thickness of the elastic cover. We then use an iterative Newton-Raphson scheme, with a numerical continuation procedure via Lagrange interpolation, in a search to find fully-localized solutions of this system of equations. We show that if the elastic sheet thickness has (at least) a local minimum, flexural-gravity lumps can propagate near the minimum thickness, an...

  8. Edge chipping and flexural resistance of monolithic ceramics☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Lee, James J.-W.; Srikanth, Ramanathan; Lawn, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that monolithic ceramics can be developed with combined esthetics and superior fracture resistance to circumvent processing and performance drawbacks of traditional all-ceramic crowns and fixed-dental-prostheses consisting of a hard and strong core with an esthetic porcelain veneer. Specifically, to demonstrate that monolithic prostheses can be produced with a much reduced susceptibility to fracture. Methods Protocols were applied for quantifying resistance to chipping as well as resistance to flexural failure in two classes of dental ceramic, microstructurally-modified zirconias and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. A sharp indenter was used to induce chips near the edges of flat-layer specimens, and the results compared with predictions from a critical load equation. The critical loads required to produce cementation surface failure in monolithic specimens bonded to dentin were computed from established flexural strength relations and the predictions validated with experimental data. Results Monolithic zirconias have superior chipping and flexural fracture resistance relative to their veneered counterparts. While they have superior esthetics, glass–ceramics exhibit lower strength but higher chip fracture resistance relative to porcelain-veneered zirconias. Significance The study suggests a promising future for new and improved monolithic ceramic restorations, with combined durability and acceptable esthetics. PMID:24139756

  9. Silica in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sargent, B A; Tayrien, C; McClure, M K; Li, A; Basu, A R; Manoj, P; Watson, D M; Bohac, C J; Furlan, E; Kim, K H; Green, J D; Sloan, G C

    2008-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectra of a few T Tauri stars (TTS) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope show prominent narrow emission features indicating silica (crystalline silicon dioxide). Silica is not a major constituent of the interstellar medium; therefore, any silica present in the circumstellar protoplanetary disks of TTS must be largely the result of processing of primitive dust material in the disks surrouding these stars. We model the silica emission features in our spectra using the opacities of various polymorphs of silica and their amorphous versions computed from earth-based laboratory measurements. This modeling indicates that the two polymorphs of silica, tridymite and cristobalite, which form at successively higher temperatures and low pressures, are the dominant forms of silica in the TTS of our sample. These high temperature, low pressure polymorphs of silica present in protoplanetary disks are consistent with a grain composed mostly of tridymite named Ada found...

  10. Chemistry in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks (PPDs) surrounding young stars are short-lived (~0.3-10 Myr), compact (~10-1000 AU) rotating reservoirs of gas and dust. PPDs are believed to be birthplaces of planetary systems, where tiny grains are assembled into pebbles, then rocks, planetesimals, and eventually planets, asteroids, and comets. Strong variations of physical conditions (temperature, density, ionization rate, UV/X-rays intensities) make a variety of chemical processes active in disks, producing simple molecules in the gas phase and complex polyatomic (organic) species on the surfaces of dust particles. In this entry, we summarize the major modern observational methods and theoretical paradigms used to investigate disk chemical composition and evolution, and present the most important results. Future research directions that will become possible with the advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and other forthcoming observational facilities are also discussed.

  11. VLF signal perturbation due to the total solar eclipse of March 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nait Amor, Samir; Bouderba, Yasmina

    2016-07-01

    On March 20 2015 a total Solar eclipse occurred and covered several regions in north America, Greenland, west of Europe and north Africa with different occultation rates. During this event, many VLF paths recorded at Algiers receiver were perturbed. In this contribution, we will present a qualitative analysis of two paths (GQD and DHO) which were disturbed differently since the occultation rate at the transmitter locations was different. In addition to the qualitative study, we determined the newly formed reference height and β values at different times during the eclipse transit. From these determined parameters the time profile of the electron density is then deduced. The results showed that the new reference height, β and the electron density are different from one transmitter analysis to other due to the occultation rate difference.

  12. Effect of the total solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, on VLF/LF propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, M. S.; Rozhnoi, A. A.; Fedun, V.; Schwingenschuh, K.

    2016-05-01

    The analyzed amplitude and phase variations in electromagnetic VLF and LF signals at 20-45 kHz, received in Moscow, Graz (Austria), and Sheffield (UK) during the total solar eclipse of March 20, 2015, are considered. The 22 analyzed paths have lengths of 200—6100 km, are differently oriented, and cross 40-100% occultation regions. Fifteen paths crossed the region where the occultation varied from 40 to 90%. Solar eclipse effects were found only on one of these paths in the signal phase (-50°). Four long paths crossed the 90-100% occultation region, and signal amplitude and phase anomalies were detected for all four paths. Negative phase anomalies varied from-75° to-90°, and the amplitude anomalies were both positive and negative and were not larger than 5 dB. It was shown that the effective height of the ionosphere varied from 6.5 to 11 km during the eclipse.

  13. Electron dispersion events in the morningside auroral zone and their relationship with VLF emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.A.; Burke, W.J. (Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (United States)); Villalon, E. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

    1990-05-01

    Energy/time dispersion events have been observed in the precipitating electron data in the energy range from 630 eV to 20 keV recorded by the J sensor on the low-altitude, polar-orbiting HILAT satellite. The dispersions are such that the higher-energy electrons are observed earlier in time than the lower-energy electrons The time interval for single dispersion event is from 1 to 2 s. Within an auroral pass in which such energy/time dispersion events are observed, there are typically several such events, and they can be spaced within the pass in either a periodic or aperiodic manner. The events are typically observed within and toward the equatorward edge of the region of diffuse auroral electron precipitation. During a given pass the events can be observed over a wide range of L shells. The occurrence of these events maximizes in the interval 0600-1,200 hours MLT. The energy/time dispersion is generally consistent with the electrons originating from a common source. The events are seen at L shells from 3.7 to greater than 15. The source distance for the electrons is inferred to be generally beyond the equator for events at L shells less than approximately 8 and before the equator for events at higher L shells. Because of the low energies at which the dispersions are observed, it is unlikely that their occurrence can be explained by resonant interaction with VLF waves. Based on circumstantial evidence from other reported observations common to the morning sector, and alternative theoretical explanation is presented. According to this model the dispersion events result from impulsive interactions of the electrons with intense, asymmetric packets of VLF waves via the nonlinear, ponderomotive force.

  14. Cone structure and focusing of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves at high altitudes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Ya. L.; Green, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and angle dependencies of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0) cos omega(t) are studied through numerical calculations of absolute value of E in the VLF and LF frequency bands where F is less than or equal 0.02 to 0.05 f(sub b) in a model ionosphere over an altitude region of 800-6000 km where the wave frequency and electron gyrofrequency varies between F approximately 4-500 kHz and f(sub b) is approximately equal (1.1 to 0.2) MHz respectively. It is found that the amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth magnetic field line B(sub 0) (it is called the axis field E(sub 0), in the Storey E(sub St), reversed Storey E(sub RevSt), and resonance E(sub Res) cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are the most pronounced close to the lower hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, with the apex angles of the cones Delta-B is approximately (0.1-1) deg. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field increases with altitude starting at Z greater than 800 km. At Z greater than or equal to 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of absolute value of E, in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves generated at high altitudes in the Earth's ionosphere are trapped into very narrow conical beams similar to laser beams.

  15. Cone structure and focusing of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves at high altitudes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Ya. L.; Green, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and angle dependencies of the electric field radiated by an electric dipole E = E(sub 0) cos omega(t) are studied through numerical calculations of absolute value of E in the VLF and LF frequency bands where F is less than or equal 0.02 to 0.05 f(sub b) in a model ionosphere over an altitude region of 800-6000 km where the wave frequency and electron gyrofrequency varies between F approximately 4-500 kHz and f(sub b) is approximately equal (1.1 to 0.2) MHz respectively. It is found that the amplitudes of the electric field have large maxima in four regions: close to the direction of the Earth magnetic field line B(sub 0) (it is called the axis field E(sub 0), in the Storey E(sub St), reversed Storey E(sub RevSt), and resonance E(sub Res) cones. The maximal values of E(sub 0), E(sub Res), and E(sub RevSt) are the most pronounced close to the lower hybrid frequency, F approximately F(sub L). The flux of the electric field is concentrated in very narrow regions, with the apex angles of the cones Delta-B is approximately (0.1-1) deg. The enhancement and focusing of the electric field increases with altitude starting at Z greater than 800 km. At Z greater than or equal to 1000 up to 6000 km, the relative value of absolute value of E, in comparison with its value at Z = 800 km is about (10(exp 2) to 10(exp 4)) times larger. Thus the flux of VLF and LF electromagnetic waves generated at high altitudes in the Earth's ionosphere are trapped into very narrow conical beams similar to laser beams.

  16. Physics based model of D-region variability related to VLF propagation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, S. C.

    2012-07-01

    D-region (~60-85 km) electron density profiles measured using large number of sounding rocket experiments carried out from two Indian low latitude stations show large variations with solar zenith angle, season and solar activity. Similarly the ground based multi frequency radio wave absorption technique has provided continuous data on the morphology of the hourly electron density variations. However suitable models of the D-region electron density profile variations both during quiet and disturbed solar conditions over the Indian region are lacking. The renewed interest in the study of the VLF/LF propagation anomalies taking place through perturbations in the D-region electron densities due to various geophysical phenomena requires the availability of a baseline D-region model over low latitudes. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the physical processes of D-region production and loss of free electrons, dynamical coupling due to variety of vertically propagating atmospheric waves, sudden changes brought about by the solar energetic events like CMEs and different categories of X-ray flares. Low latitude region is not likely to be affected by the PMSE or PCA type of events but the changes due to lightning induced mesospheric red sprites and LEPs need to be considered. Based on this analysis, a preliminary low latitude D-region electron density profile model development is proposed. Sample results would illustrate key requirements from such a model in terms of its effectiveness to simulate the low latitude observations of VLF/LF amplitude and phase variations using waveguide propagation models like LWPC.

  17. From Disks to Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdin, Andrew N.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    This pedagogical chapter covers the theory of planet formation, with an emphasis on the physical processes relevant to current research. After summarizing empirical constraints from astronomical and geophysical data, we describe the structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks. We consider the growth of planetesimals and of larger solid protoplanets, followed by the accretion of planetary atmospheres, including the core accretion instability. We also examine the possibility that gas disks fragment directly into giant planets and/or brown dwarfs. We defer a detailed description of planet migration and dynamical evolution to other work, such as the complementary chapter in this series by Morbidelli.

  18. Lupus Alma Disk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, Megan

    2016-07-01

    We present the first unbiased ALMA survey of both dust and gas in a large sample of protoplanetary disks. We surveyed 100 sources in the nearby (150-200 pc), young (1-2 Myr) Lupus region to constrain M_dust to 2 M_Mars and M_gas to 1 M_Jup. Most disks have masses < MMSN and gas-to-dust ratios < ISM. Such rapid gas depletion may explain the prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  19. C/NOFS-VEFI results on magnetic-latitude control over coupling of lightning-generated VLF into zero-hop whistlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Holzworth, R.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    The C/NOFS satellite had a low-inclination (13 deg) orbit and provided multi-year observations (2008 - 2015) of the innermost plasmasphere within 26 deg of the magnetic equator. We report on VEFI (Vector Electric Field Instrument) recordings of zero-hop whistler-wave electric fields in this low-latitude region. We describe evidence regarding the VLF coupling variabilities, in particular versus magnetic latitude. We rely critically on data provided by the CINDI (C/NOFS Ion and Neutral Drift Investigation) measurements of the ion-composition, and by WWLLN (World-Wide Lightning-Location Network) groundtruthing of lightning-VLF source location, energy, and time. This low-latitude region has been predicted to permit only reduced VLF coupling, due essentially to a Snell's Law total reflection from the underside of the ionosphere. Nonetheless various studies of VLF coupling at discrete frequencies (from naval VLF transmitters) indicate that there is some intermittent, anomalous coupling not predicted by a simple Snell's Law. We address this problem using broadband illumination by lightning-generated VLF.

  20. Modeling of the lower ionospheric response and VLF signal modulation during a total solar eclipse using ionospheric chemistry and LWPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Palit, Sourav; Ray, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-02-01

    The variation in the solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation flux by any measure is the most dominant natural source to produce perturbations or modulations in the ionospheric chemical and plasma properties. A solar eclipse, though a very rare phenomenon, is similarly bound to produce a significant short time effect on the local ionospheric properties. The influence of the ionizing solar flux reduction during a solar eclipse on the lower ionosphere or, more precisely, the D-region, can be studied with the observation of Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio wave signal modulation. The interpretation of such an effect on VLF signals requires a knowledge of the D-region ion chemistry, which is not well studied till date. Dominant parameters which govern the ion chemistry, such as the recombination coefficients, are poorly known. The occurrence of events such as a solar eclipse provides us with an excellent opportunity to investigate the accuracy of our knowledge of the chemical condition in this part of Earth's atmosphere and the properties which control the ionospheric stability under such disturbances. In this paper, using existing knowledge of the lower ionospheric chemical and physical properties we carry out an interpretation of the effects obtained during the total solar eclipse of 22 of July 2009 on the VLF signal. Data obtained from a week long campaign conducted by the Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) over the Indian subcontinent has been used for this purpose. Both positive and negative amplitude changes during the eclipse were observed along various receiver locations. In this paper, data for a propagation path between a Indian Navy VLF transmitter named VTX3 and a pair of receivers in India are used. We start from the observed solar flux during the eclipse and calculate the ionization during the whole time span over most of the influenced region in a range of height. We incorporate a D-region ion-chemistry model to find the equilibrium ion density over

  1. Polarimetric microlensing of circumstellar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    We study the benefits of polarimetry observations of microlensing events to detect and characterize circumstellar disks around the microlensed stars located at the Galactic bulge. These disks which are unresolvable from their host stars make a net polarization effect due to their projected elliptical shapes. Gravitational microlensing can magnify these signals and make them be resolved. The main aim of this work is to determine what extra information about these disks can be extracted from polarimetry observations of microlensing events in addition to those given by photometry ones. Hot disks which are closer to their host stars are more likely to be detected by microlensing, owing to more contributions in the total flux. By considering this kind of disks, we show that although the polarimetric efficiency for detecting disks is similar to the photometric observation, but polarimetry observations can help to constraint the disk geometrical parameters e.g. the disk inner radius and the lens trajectory with resp...

  2. Warm gas in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Gerrit

    2010-12-01

    This thesis presents a study of warm CO, [OI] and H2 gas coming from the disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars. These various gas tracers are each a proxy for a different radial and vertical region of the PP disk surface. Our sample consists of disks whose shape (based on modeling of the the disk dust emission) can be divided into flaring and self-shadowed (flat). We find [1] evidence for the vertical decoupling of gas and dust in one disks (Chapter 2); [2] That disk geometry has a large influence on the spatial distribution and excitation mechanism of the CO emission (chapters 3,4); [3] Near-IR H 2 emission around 2 (out of 14) HAEBE stars, probably originating from large (±50AU) radii of the disk (chapter 5). In chapter 6 we investigate the trends between CO emission and disk geometry as noted in Chapter 3 and 4.

  3. Galactic Thin Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P.; Murdin, P.; Murdin, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Of the components of our MILKY WAY GALAXY, the thin disk is the most prominent part to our eyes. It manifests itself as the band of faint light that we see encircling the whole sky. Except for the bulge in the direction of the center of our Galaxy, the stars that make up the Milky Way as we see it

  4. More approximation on disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Paepe, P.J.I.M.; Wiegerinck, J.J.O.O.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: In this article we study the function algebra generated by z2 and g2 on a small closed disk centred at the origin of the complex plane. We prove, using a biholomorphic change of coordinates and already developed techniques in this area, that for a large class of functions g this algebra co

  5. Herniated disk repair (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is one of the most common causes of lower back pain. The mainstay of treatment for herniated disks is an initial period of rest with pain and anti-inflammatory medications followed by physical therapy. If pain and symptoms persist, surgery to remove ...

  6. Correlation of VLF-EM Data with Radiometric Measurements: Implications for Uranium Exploration around Beldih, South Purulia Shear Zone, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to correlate VLF-EM data with the radiometric measurements to decipher the subsurface structure and to locate uranium mineralization in the shear zone. The study area is around Beldih mine which is an open cast apatite mine located on the South Purulia Shear Zone. VLF method has been applied to map the structure and the presence of radioactive minerals has been delineated by the detection of high α and γ counts with respect to the background radiations. High radiation counts and high surface γ activity are found just above the higher apparent current-density zones in all the profiles studied, at various locations, indicating uranium and/or thorium mineralization as well as good correlation between these techniques.

  7. Effect of flexural crack on plain concrete beam failure mechanism A numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The flexural failure of plain concrete beam occurs along with development of flexural crack on beam. In this paper by using ABAQUS, mechanism failure of plain concrete beam under three steps have been simulated. The cracking moment has been analytically calculated and applied on the both sides of the fixed beam, and flexural crack has been simulated on beam. Displacement, von Mises, load reaction, displacementcrack length, von Mises-crack length and von Mises-displacement of beams have been graphical depicted. Results indicated that, the flexural crack governs beam mechanism failure and its effects on beam resistance failure. It has been found that the flexural crack in initial stage it developed slowly and changes to be fast at the final stage of collapsing beam due to reduction of the flexural resistance of beam. Increasing mechanical properties of concrete, collapse displacement is reduced.

  8. The effect of nanoclay filler loading on the flexural strength of fiber-reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihesadat Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Results: For groups with the same concentration of nanoparticles, PMMA-grafted filler-loaded group showed significantly higher flexural strength, except for 0.2% wt. For groups that contain PMMA-grafted nanoclay fillers, the 2% wt had the highest flexural strength value with significant difference to other subgroups. 1% wt and 2% wt showed significantly higher values compared to control (P 0.05. Flexural modulus of 2%, 5% wt PMMA-grafted and 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 5% wt unmodified nanoclay particles-loaded subgroups decreased significantly compared to control group (P < 0.05. Conclusions: PMMA-grafted nanoclay filler loading may enhance the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of unmodified nanoparticles cannot significantly improve the flexural strength of FRCs. Addition of both unmodified and PMMA-grafted nanoclay particles in some concentrations decreased the flexural modulus.

  9. On the occurrence of ground observations of ELF/VLF magnetospheric amplification induced by the HAARP facility

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Carpenter, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    The ionospheric heating facility of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) has been used extensively in the last 3 years for injection of ELF/VLF waves into the magnetosphere via modulated heating of the overhead auroral electrojet currents. Of particular interest are waves that are observed to be nonlinearly amplified after interaction with hot plasma electrons in the Earth's radiation belts. Past results have shown HAARP to be an effective platform for controlled studies...

  10. The Tilt between Acretion Disk and Stellar Disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shiyin Shen; Zhengyi Shao; Minfeng Gu

    2011-03-01

    The orientations of the accretion disk of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the stellar disk of its host galaxy are both determined by the angular momentum of their forming gas, but on very different physical environments and spatial scales. Here we show the evidence that the orientation of the stellar disk is correlated with the accretion disk by comparing the inclinations of the stellar disks of a large sample of Type 2 AGNs selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, York et al. 2000) to a control galaxy sample. Given that the Type 2 AGN fraction is in the range of 70–90 percent for low luminosity AGNs as a priori, we find that the mean tilt between the accretion disk and stellar disk is ∼ 30 degrees (Shen et al. 2010).

  11. New type of ensemble of quasi-periodic, long-lasting VLF emissions at the auroral zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manninen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new type of the series of quasi-periodic (QP very low frequency (VLF emissions in frequency range of 1–5 kHz, and not associated with geomagnetic pulsations, has been discovered at auroral latitudes (L = 5.3 during the Finnish VLF campaign (held in December 2011. At least five unusually spectacular events, each with a duration of several hours, have been observed during the night under conditions of quiet geomagnetic activity (Kp = 0–1, although QPs usually occur during the daytime. Contrary to the QP emissions typically occurring during the day, the spectral structure of these QP events represented an extended, complicated sequence of repeated discrete rising VLF signals. Their duration was about 2–3 min each, with the repetition periods ranging from ~1 min to ~10 min. Two such nighttime non-typical events are reported in this paper. The fine structure of the separated QP elements may represent a mixture of the different frequency band signals, which seem to have independent origins. It was found that the periodic signals with lower frequency appear to trigger the strong dispersive upper frequency signals. The temporal dynamics of the spectral structure of the QPs studied were significantly controlled by some disturbances in the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. This finding is very important for future theoretical investigations because the generation mechanism of this new type of QP emissions is not yet understood.

  12. Numerical modelling of VLF radio wave propagation through earth-ionosphere waveguide and its application to sudden ionospheric disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we theoretically predict the normal characteristics of Very Low Frequency (3~30 kHz) radio wave propagation through Earth-ionosphere waveguide corresponding to normal behavior of the D-region ionosphere. We took the VLF narrow band data from the receivers of Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) to validate our models. Detection of sudden ionospheric disturbances (SIDs) are common to all the measurements. We apply our theoretical models to infer the D-region characteristics and to reproduce the observed VLF signal behavior corresponding to such SIDs. We develop a code based on ray theory to simulate the diurnal behavior of VLF signals over short propagation paths (2000~3000 km). The diurnal variation from this code are comparable to the variation obtained from a more general Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code which is based on mode theory approach. We simulate the observational results obtained during the Total Solar Eclipse of July 22, 2009 in India. We also report and simulate a h...

  13. Design principle of high-precision flexure mechanisms based on parasitic-motion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shouzhong; Yu, Jingjun

    2014-07-01

    In design of flexure mechanism, diminishing the parasitic-motion is a key point to improve the accuracy. However, most of existing topics concentrate on improving the accuracy of linear-motion flexure mechanisms via compensating the parasitic error, but few research the multi-dimensional flexure mechanisms. A general design principle and method for high-precision flexure mechanisms based on the parasitic-motion compensation is presented, and the proposed method can compensate the parasitic rotation in company with translation, or the parasitic translation in company with rotation, or both. The crucial step for the method is that the parasitic motion of a flexure mechanism is formulated and evaluated in terms of its compliance. The overall compliance matrix of a general flexure mechanism is formulated by using screw theory firstly, then the criteria for the parasitic motions is introduced by analyzing the characteristics of the resultant compliance matrix as well as with aid of the concept of instantaneous rotation center. Subsequently, a compliance-based compensation approach for reducing parasitic-motion is addressed as the most important part. The design principles and procedure are further discussed to help with improving the accuracy of flexure mechanisms, and case studies are provided to illustrate this method. Finally, an analytical verification is provided to demonstrate that the symmetry design philosophy widely used in flexure design can effectively improve accuracy in terms of the proposed method. The proposed compensation method can be well used to diminish the parasitic-motion of multi-dimensional flexure mechanisms.

  14. Experimental determination of optimum dielectric strength of Turmeric fiber reinforced polyester composites using flexural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Murali Mohan Rao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation puts forward new natural fiber turmeric to be used in the preparation of turmeric fiber reinforced polyester (FRP composites. The dielectric strength of the composites shown decrease in trend with increase in volume fraction of fiber with appreciable reduction in their weight. There was clear fall in the density of the composites with increase in fiber volume fraction. The optimum value of dielectric strength was determined with flexural strength, flexural modulus and specific flexural strength, specific flexural modulus against percentage volume fraction of fiber from the graphs.

  15. RING-TENSILE-STRENGTH AND FLEXURE-STRENGTH CORRELATIONS OF SEA ICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEA ICE, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES), TENSILE PROPERTIES, SALINITY, TEMPERATURE, ICE, FLEXURAL STRENGTH , CORRELATION TECHNIQUES, ACCURACY, SAMPLING, THICKNESS, PREDICTIONS, ANTARCTIC REGIONS, LOADS(FORCES)

  16. Static deformation modeling and analysis of flexure hinges made of a shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhijiang; Yang, Miao; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Dan

    2016-11-01

    The flexure hinge is a key element in compliant mechanisms to achieve continuous motion; however the motion range of a flexure hinge is severely restricted by the material’s allowable strain. Due to the superelasticity effect, shape memory alloys (SMAs) can undergo much larger strain than other metals; this means that they are excellent candidates for the fabrication of flexure hinges with a large motion range. In this paper, a simple static deformation modeling approach is proposed for a flexure hinge made of a SMA. The superelastic behavior of the SMA is described by Brinson’s constitutive model. The flexure hinge is considered as a non-prismatic cantilever beam associated with geometrical and material nonlinearities. Govern equations of the flexure hinge are derived and solved numerically by applying the nonlinear bending theory of the Euler-Bernoulli beam. Experimental tests show that the proposed modeling approach can predict the deformation of the flexure hinge precisely; the maximum relative error is less than 6.5%. Based on the static deformation model, the motion capacity, the stiffness characteristic and the rotational error of the flexure hinge are also investigated. The results reveal that the flexure hinge made of a SMA has great potential to construct compliant mechanisms with a large motion range.

  17. On the significance of microtubule flexural behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mehrbod

    Full Text Available Quantitative description of cell mechanics has challenged biological scientists for the past two decades. Various structural models have been attempted to analyze the structure of the cytoskeleton. One important aspect that has been largely ignored in all these modeling approaches is related to the flexural and buckling behavior of microtubular filaments. The objective of this paper is to explore the influence of this flexural and buckling behavior in cytoskeletal mechanics.In vitro the microtubules are observed to buckle in the first mode, reminiscent of a free, simply-supported beam. In vivo images of microtubules, however, indicate that the buckling mostly occurs in higher modes. This buckling mode switch takes place mostly because of the lateral support of microtubules via their connections to actin and intermediate filaments. These lateral loads are exerted throughout the microtubule length and yield a considerable bending behavior that, unless properly accounted for, would produce erroneous results in the modeling and analysis of the cytoskeletal mechanics.One of the promising attempts towards mechanical modeling of the cytoskeleton is the tensegrity model, which simplifies the complex network of cytoskeletal filaments into a combination merely of tension-bearing actin filaments and compression-bearing microtubules. Interestingly, this discrete model can qualitatively explain many experimental observations in cell mechanics. However, evidence suggests that the simplicity of this model may undermine the accuracy of its predictions, given the model's underlying assumption that "every single member bears solely either tensile or compressive behavior," i.e. neglecting the flexural behavior of the microtubule filaments. We invoke an anisotropic continuum model for microtubules and compare the bending energy stored in a single microtubule with its axial strain energy at the verge of buckling. Our results suggest that the bending energy can

  18. Reflection and refraction of flexural waves at geometric boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur A; Levine, Alex J

    2013-07-19

    We present a theory of flexural wave propagation on elastic shells having nontrivial geometry and develop an analogy to geometric optics. The transport of momentum within the shell itself is anisotropic due to the curvature, and as such complex classical effects such as birefringence are generically found. We determine the equations of reflection and refraction of such waves at boundaries between different local geometries, showing that waves are totally internally reflected, especially at boundaries between regions of positive and negative Gaussian curvature. We verify these effects by using finite element simulations and discuss the ramifications of these effects for the statistical mechanics of thin curved materials.

  19. Flexural Behavior of Aluminum Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Vidyasagar; Kumar, J. Suresh; Venkataraviteja, Duddu; Reddy, Guggulla Bharath Kumar

    2017-05-01

    This project is concerned with the fabrication and flexural testing of aluminium honey comb sandwich structure which is a special case of composite materials that is fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a light weight but thick core. The core material is normally low density material but its high thickness provide the sandwich composite with high bonding stiffness. Honeycomb core are classified into two types based on the materials and structures. Hexagonal shape has a unique properties i.e has more bonding strength and less formation time based on the cell size and sheet thickness. Sandwich structure exhibit different properties such as high load bearing capacity at low weight and has excellent thermal insulation. By considering the above properties it has tendency to minimize the structural problem. So honey comb sandwich structure is choosed. The core structure has a different applications such as aircraft, ship interiors, construction industries. As there is no proper research on strength characteristics of sandwich structure. So, we use light weight material to desire the strength. There are different parameters involved in this structure i.e cell size, sheet thickness and core height. In this project we considered 3 level of comparison among the 3 different parameters cell size of 4, 6 and 8 mm, sheet thickness of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm, and core height of 20,25 and 30 mm. In order to reduce the number of experiment we use taguchi design of experiment, and we select the L8 orthogonal array is the best array for this type of situation, which clearly identifies the parameters by independent of material weight to support this we add the minitab software, to identify the main effective plots and regression equation which involves the individual response and corresponding parameters. Aluminium material is used for the fabrication of Honeycomb sandwich structure among the various grades of aluminium we consider the AL6061 which is light weight material

  20. Intrinsic embedded sensors for polymeric mechatronics: flexure and force sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentoft, Leif P; Dollar, Aaron M; Wagner, Christopher R; Howe, Robert D

    2014-02-25

    While polymeric fabrication processes, including recent advances in additive manufacturing, have revolutionized manufacturing, little work has been done on effective sensing elements compatible with and embedded within polymeric structures. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of two important sensing modalities for embedding in polymeric mechatronic and robotic mechanisms: multi-axis flexure joint angle sensing utilizing IR phototransistors, and a small (12 mm), three-axis force sensing via embedded silicon strain gages with similar performance characteristics as an equally sized metal element based sensor.

  1. Intrinsic Embedded Sensors for Polymeric Mechatronics: Flexure and Force Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif P. Jentoft

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available While polymeric fabrication processes, including recent advances in additive manufacturing, have revolutionized manufacturing, little work has been done on effective sensing elements compatible with and embedded within polymeric structures. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of two important sensing modalities for embedding in polymeric mechatronic and robotic mechanisms: multi-axis flexure joint angle sensing utilizing IR phototransistors, and a small (12 mm, three-axis force sensing via embedded silicon strain gages with similar performance characteristics as an equally sized metal element based sensor.

  2. Vibration Mode Observation of Piezoelectric Disk-type Resonator by High Frequency Laser Doppler Vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Takeshi; Esashi, Masayoshi; Harada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shuji

    For future mobile phones based on cognitive radio technology, a compact multi-band RF front-end architecture is strongly required and an integrated multi-band RF filter bank is a key component in it. Contour-mode resonators are receiving increased attention for a multi-band filter solution, because its resonant frequency is mainly determined by its size and shape, which are defined by lithography. However, spurious responses including flexural vibration are also excited due to its thin structure. To improve resonator performance and suppress spurious modes, visual observation with a laser probe system is very effective. In this paper, we have prototyped a mechanically-coupled disk-array filter, which consists of a Si disk and 2 disk-type resonators of higher-order wine-glass mode, and observed its vibration modes using a high-frequency laser-Doppler vibrometer (UHF-120, Polytec, Inc.). As a result, it was confirmed that higher order wine-glass mode vibration included a compound displacement, and that its out-of-plane vibration amplitude was much smaller than other flexural spurious modes. The observed vibration modes were compared with FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation results. In addition, it was also confirmed that the fabrication error, e.g. miss-alignment, induced asymmetric vibration.

  3. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  4. The Evolution of Inner Disk Gas in Transition Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hoadley, Keri; Alexander, Richard D; McJunkin, Matthew; Schneider, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the molecular gas in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks provides insight into how the molecular disk environment changes during the transition from primordial to debris disk systems. We conduct a small survey of molecular hydrogen (H$_2$) fluorescent emission, using 14 well-studied Classical T Tauri stars at two distinct dust disk evolutionary stages, to explore how the structure of the inner molecular disk changes as the optically thick warm dust dissipates. We simulate the observed HI-Lyman $\\alpha$-pumped H$_2$ disk fluorescence by creating a 2D radiative transfer model that describes the radial distributions of H$_{2}$ emission in the disk atmosphere and compare these to observations from the Hubble Space Telescope. We find the radial distributions that best describe the observed H$_2$ FUV emission arising in primordial disk targets (full dust disk) are demonstrably different than those of transition disks (little-to-no warm dust observed). For each best-fit model, we estimate inner a...

  5. VLF Perturbations Associated with Solar Eclipses of November 2012 and may 2013 IN the South Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-ionospheric VLF signals from the NWC (19.8 kHz), NPM (21.4 kHz) and NLK (24.8 kHz) MSK VLF transmitters are monitored at Suva, Fiji, with a time resolution of 0.1s using GPS based timing and SoftPAL VLF system. Here one minute averaged amplitude and phase data have been used for analysis. We present perturbations in VLF propagation and D-region changes associated with 13 November 2012 total solar eclipse (SE) and 9-10 May 2013 annular SE using VLF observations at Suva, Fiji. During 13-14 November 2012 total SE, the totality shadow intercepted NWC-Suva path and NWC signal amplitude and phase decreased by about 0.70 dB and 23°, respectively. NPM signal amplitude during 9-10 May 2013 SE decreased by about 2.0 dB. The amplitude perturbation of ~1.8 dB on NLK signal was measured from the unperturbed level associated with 9-10 May 2013 SE. The decrease in the amplitude at the site can be understood in terms of destructive interference of modes converted at the discontinuity created by the eclipse intercepting the different Transmitter-receiver great circle paths (TRGCPs) and changes in the propagation conditions along TRGCPs. The decrease in the amplitude and phase of NWC signal for 13-14 November 2012 SE has been modeled using Long Wave Propagation Capability code to estimate the changes in D-region reflection height (H') and sharpness factor (β) which shows that H' and β were increased by 0.95 km and 0.01 km-1, respectively. The phase changes on NWC signal associated with 9-10 May 2013 SE have been used to estimate the recombination coefficient value, for 75 km height where electron density reduction due to SE was about 40%. The changes in the D-region parameters and the electron density are due to sudden decrease of the photo-ionization creating nighttime like conditions in the D-region ionosphere.

  6. Lightning and ionospheric remote sensing using VLF/ELF radio atmospherics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummer, Steven Andrew

    Lightning discharges radiate the bulk of their electromagnetic energy in the Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3- 30 kHz) and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) frequency ranges. This energy, contained in impulse-like signals called radio atmospherics or sferics, is guided for long distances by multiple reflections from the ground and lower ionosphere. These two facts suggest that observed sferic waveforms radiated from lightning contain a great deal of information about both the state of the ionosphere along the propagation path and the dynamics of the current in the lightning return stroke. The aim of this dissertation is to develop and implement the necessary techniques to use sferic observations to determine the characteristics of the ionosphere and lightning. In this work, a quantitative model of sferic propagation is developed, and with it the spectral characteristics of VLF (> 1.5 kHz) sferics are shown to depend primarily on the propagation-path-averaged ionospheric D region electron density profile. Using this propagation model, a parameterized ionosphere is iteratively varied to find the theoretical sferic spectrum that agrees best with an observed sferic spectrum composed of the average of many individual sferic spectra. In most nighttime cases, the quality of the agreement allows the height of an exponentially-varying electron density profile to be inferred with a precision of 0.2 km. Since the general sferic waveform depends on the source current-moment waveform as well as the ionospherically- controlled propagation, the former quantity can be measured for individual discharges from observed sferics. Of particular interest are those lightning discharges associated with mesospheric optical emissions known as sprites. By using a robust deconvolution technique, source current-moment waveforms are extracted from individual observed ELF (< 1.5 kHz) sferics. The cases studied in detail show that optical emissions are sometimes produced with a smaller vertical

  7. Flexure bearing compressor in the one watt linear (OWL) envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Wiedmann, Th.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2007-04-01

    For high performance IR detectors the split linear cooler is a preferred solution. High reliability, low induced vibration and low audible noise are major benefits of such coolers. Today, most linear coolers are qualified for MTTF of 8,000h or above. It is a strong customer desire to further reduce the maintenance costs on system level with significantly higher cooler lifetime. Increased cooler MTTF figures are also needed for IR applications with high lifetime requirements like missile warning applications, border surveillance or homeland security applications. AIM developed a Moving Magnet Flexure Bearing compressor to meet a MTTF of minimum 20,000h. The compressor has a full flexure bearing support on both sides of the driving mechanism. In the assembly process of the compressor an automated alignment process is used to achieve the necessary accuracy. Thus, side-forces on the pistons are minimized during operation, which significantly reduces the wear-out. In order to reduce the outgassing potential most of the internal junctions are welded and the use of all non-metallic components is minimized. The outline dimensions comply with the SADA2 requirements in length and diameter. Further, when operated with a 1/2" SADA type coldfinger, the cooler meets all specified performance data for SADA2. The compressor can be combined with different Stirling type coldfingers and also with the AIM Pulse Tube coldfinger, which gives increased lifetime potential up to 50,000h MTTF. Technical details and performance data of the new compressor are shown.

  8. Flexural Strength of Functionally Graded Nanotube Reinforced Sandwich Spherical Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Trupti R.; Mehar, Kulmani; Panda, Subrata K.; Dewangan, S.; Dash, Sushmita

    2017-02-01

    The flexural behaviour of the functionally graded sandwich spherical panel under uniform thermal environment has been investigated in the present work. The face sheets of the sandwich structure are made by the functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced material and the core face is made by the isotropic and homogeneous material. The material properties of both the fiber and matrix are assumed to be temperature dependent. The sandwich panel model is developed in the framework of the first order shear deformation theory and the governing equation of motion is derived using the variational principle. For the discretization purpose a suitable shell element has been employed from the ANSYS library and the responses are computed using a parametric design language (APDL) coding. The performance and accuracy of the developed model has been established through the convergence and validation by comparing the obtained results with previously published results. Finally, the influence of different geometrical parameters and material properties on the flexural behaviour of the sandwich spherical panel in thermal environment has been investigated through various numerical illustrations and discussed in details.

  9. DVD - digital versatile disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaunt, R.

    1997-05-01

    An international standard has emerged for the first true multimedia format. Digital Versatile Disk (by its official name), you may know it as Digital Video Disks. DVD has applications in movies, music, games, information CD-ROMS, and many other areas where massive amounts of digital information is needed. Did I say massive amounts of data? Would you believe over 17 gigabytes on a single piece of plastic the size of an audio-CD? That`s the promise, at least, by the group of nine electronics manufacturers who have agreed to the format specification, and who hope to make this goal a reality by 1998. In this major agreement, which didn`t come easily, the manufacturers will combine Sony and Phillip`s one side double-layer NMCD format with Toshiba and Matsushita`s double sided Super-Density disk. By Spring of this year, they plan to market the first 4.7 gigabyte units. The question is: Will DVD take off? Some believe that read-only disks recorded with movies will be about as popular as video laser disks. They say that until the eraseable/writable DVD arrives, the consumer will most likely not buy it. Also, DVD has a good market for replacement of CD- Roms. Back in the early 80`s, the international committee deciding the format of the audio compact disk decided its length would be 73 minutes. This, they declared, would allow Beethoven`s 9th Symphony to be contained entirely on a single CD. Similarly, today it was agreed that playback length of a single sided, single layer DVD would be 133 minutes, long enough to hold 94% of all feature-length movies. Further, audio can be in Dolby`s AC-3 stereo or 5.1 tracks of surround sound, better than CD-quality audio (16-bits at 48kHz). In addition, there are three to five language tracks, copy protection and parental ``locks`` for R rated movies. DVD will be backwards compatible with current CD-ROM and audio CD formats. Added versatility comes by way of multiple aspect rations: 4:3 pan-scan, 4:3 letterbox, and 16:9 widescreen. MPEG

  10. A study of VLF signals variations associated with the changes of ionization level in the D-region in consequence of solar conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Sulic, D M; Mihajlov, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we confine our attention to the analysis of amplitude and phase data acquired by monitoring VLF/LF radio signals emitted by four European transmitters during a seven-year period (2008-2014). All the data were recorded at a Belgrade site (44.85$^{0}$ N, 20.38$^{0}$ E) by the Stanford University ELF/VLF receiver AWESOME. Propagation of VLF/LF radio signal takes place in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and strongly depends on ionization level of the D-region, which means that it is mainly controlled by solar conditions. Some results of amplitude and phase variations on GQD/22.10 kHz, DHO/23.40 kHz, ICV/20.27 kHz and NSC/45.90 kHz radio signals measurements at short distances ($D < 2$ Mm) over Central Europe and their interpretation are summarized in this paper. Attention is restricted to regular diurnal, seasonal and solar variations including sunrise and sunset effects on propagation characteristics of four VLF/LF radio signals. We study VLF/LF propagation over short path as a superposition of d...

  11. Fatigue behavior of dental resin composites: flexural fatigue in vitro versus 6 years in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Godoy, F.; Frankenberger, R.; Lohbauer, U.; Feilzer, A.J.; Krämer, N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate fatigue behavior of direct resin composite restorations (Tetric Ceram vs. Grandio) in vitro and in vivo over an observation period of 6 years. Methods: For the in vitro part, Young's moduli (YM) were calculated and both initial (FS: flexural strength) and fatigue flexural

  12. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Shibata

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, flexural modulus, and pressure in bagasse fiber was apparently different from that of bamboo due to the differences in the cross-sectional structure. In bagasse, the flexural strength and flexural modulus increased with the increase in pressure, whereas in bamboo those properties decreased. In bagasse, an increase in pressure made the fibers into a more compressed structure, increasing their flexural properties. In rigid bamboo, an increase in pressure caused the resin to extrude between fibers, and this resulted in lower flexural properties. At temperatures above 170 oC, the resin depolymerized thermally and the degree of polymerization decreased. Thus, the flexural modulus and strength decreased gradually with increase in holding temperature in both bagasse and bamboo composites. Furthermore, a maximum fiber volume fraction existed for both bagasse and bamboo plastic composites in the approximate range of 75% to 80%.

  13. A comparison of flexural strengths of polymer (SBR and PVA modified, roller compacted concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Karadelis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This brief article aims to reveal the flexural performance, including the equivalent flexural strength of PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol modified concrete by comparing it primarily with that of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber concrete. This data article is directly related to Karadelis and Lin [6].

  14. A comparison of flexural strengths of polymer (SBR and PVA) modified, roller compacted concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadelis, John N; Lin, Yougui

    2015-09-01

    This brief article aims to reveal the flexural performance, including the equivalent flexural strength of PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) modified concrete by comparing it primarily with that of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) concrete. This data article is directly related to Karadelis and Lin [6].

  15. A comparison of flexural strengths of polymer (SBR and PVA) modified, roller compacted concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Karadelis, John N.; Lin, Yougui

    2015-01-01

    This brief article aims to reveal the flexural performance, including the equivalent flexural strength of PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) modified concrete by comparing it primarily with that of SBR (Styrene Butadiene Rubber) concrete. This data article is directly related to Karadelis and Lin [6].

  16. The influence of resin flexural modulus on the magnitude of ceramic strengthening.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Garry J P

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to determine the magnitude of ceramic resin-strengthening with resin-based materials with varying flexural moduli using a regression technique to assess the theoretical strengthening at a \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness. The hypothesis tested was that experimentally, increasing resin flexural modulus results in increased resin-strengthening observed at a theoretical \\'zero\\' resin-coating thickness.

  17. Fatigue behavior of dental resin composites: flexural fatigue in vitro versus 6 years in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Garcia-Godoy; R. Frankenberger; U. Lohbauer; A.J. Feilzer; N. Krämer

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate fatigue behavior of direct resin composite restorations (Tetric Ceram vs. Grandio) in vitro and in vivo over an observation period of 6 years. Methods: For the in vitro part, Young's moduli (YM) were calculated and both initial (FS: flexural strength) and fatigue flexural str

  18. A Symbolic Formulation for Analytical Compliance Analysis and Synthesis of Flexure Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-Jun; Shi, Hongliang; Yu, Jingjun

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents a symbolic formulation for analytical compliance analysis and synthesis of flexure mechanisms with serial, parallel, or hybrid topologies. Our approach is based on the screw theory that characterizes flexure deformations with motion twists and loadings with force wrenches. In this work, we first derive a symbolic formulation of the compliance and stiffness matrices for commonly used flexure elements, flexure joints, and simple chains. Elements of these matrices are all explicit functions of flexure parameters. To analyze a general flexure mechanism, we subdivide it into multiple structural modules, which we identify as serial, parallel, or hybrid chains. We then analyze each module with the known flexure structures in the library. At last, we use a bottom-up approach to obtain the compliance/stiffness matrix for the overall mechanism. This is done by taking appropriate coordinate transformation of twists and wrenches in space. Four practical examples are provided to demonstrate the approach. A numerical example is employed to compare analytical compliance models against a finite element model. The results show that the errors are sufficiently small (2%, compared with finite element (FE) model), if the range of motion is limited to linear deformations. This work provides a systematical approach for compliance analysis and synthesis of general flexure mechanisms. The symbolic formulation enables subsequent design tasks, such as compliance synthesis or sensitivity analysis.

  19. Audit: Automated Disk Investigation Toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Karabiyik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Software tools designed for disk analysis play a critical role today in forensics investigations. However, these digital forensics tools are often difficult to use, usually task specific, and generally require professionally trained users with IT backgrounds. The relevant tools are also often open source requiring additional technical knowledge and proper configuration. This makes it difficult for investigators without some computer science background to easily conduct the needed disk analysis. In this paper, we present AUDIT, a novel automated disk investigation toolkit that supports investigations conducted by non-expert (in IT and disk technology and expert investigators. Our proof of concept design and implementation of AUDIT intelligently integrates open source tools and guides non-IT professionals while requiring minimal technical knowledge about the disk structures and file systems of the target disk image.

  20. Ringed accretion disks: equilibrium configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Pugliese, D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a model of ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the General Relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can be then determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We pr...

  1. Flexure fatigue testing of 90 deg graphite/epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Ann Nancy W.

    1995-01-01

    A great deal of research has been performed characterizing the in-plane fiber-dominated properties, under both static and fatigue loading, of advanced composite materials. To the author's knowledge, no study has been performed to date investigating fatigue characteristics in the transverse direction. This information is important in the design of bonded composite airframe structure where repeated, cyclic out-of-plane bending may occur. Recent tests characterizing skin/stringer debond failures in reinforced composite panels where the dominant loading in the skin is flexure along the edge of the frame indicate failure initiated either in the skin or else the flange, near the flange tip. When failure initiated in the skin, transverse matrix cracks formed in the surface skin ply closest to the flange and either initiated delaminations or created matrix cracks in the next lower ply, which in turn initiated delaminations. When failure initiated in the flanges, transverse cracks formed in the flange angle ply closest to the skin and initiated delamination. In no configuration did failure propagate through the adhesive bond layer. For the examined skin/flange configurations, the maximum transverse tension stress at failure correlates very well with the transverse tension strength of the composites. Transverse tension strength (static) data of graphite epoxy composites have been shown to vary with the volume of material stressed. As the volume of material stressed increased, the strength decreased. A volumetric scaling law based on Weibull statistics can be used to predict the transverse strength measurements. The volume dependence reflects the presence of inherent flaws in the microstructure of the lamina. A similar approach may be taken to determine a volume scale effect on the transverse tension fatigue behavior of graphite/epoxy composites. The objective of this work is to generate transverse tension strength and fatigue S-N characteristics for composite materials using

  2. IBM 3390 Hard Disk Platter

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    The 3390 disks rotated faster than those in the previous model 3380. Faster disk rotation reduced rotational delay (ie. the time required for the correct area of the disk surface to move to the point where data could be read or written). In the 3390's initial models, the average rotational delay was reduced to 7.1 milliseconds from 8.3 milliseconds for the 3380 family.

  3. Experimental and theoretical assessment of flexural properties of hybrid natural fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Markussen, Christen Malte

    2014-01-01

    The concept of hybridization of natural fibre composites with synthetic fibres is attracting increasing scientific attention. The present study addresses the flexural properties of hybrid flax/glass/epoxy composites to demonstrate the potential benefits of hybridization. The study covers both...... experimental and theoretical assessments. Composite laminates with different hybrid fibre mixing ratios and different layer configurations were manufactured, and their volumetric composition and flexural properties were measured. The relationship between volume fractions in the composites is shown to be well...... predicted as a function of the hybrid fibre mixing ratio. The flexural modulus of the composites is theoretically assessed by using micromechanical models and laminate theory. The model predictions are compared with the experimentally determined flexural properties. Both approaches show that the flexural...

  4. EFFECT OF FILLER LOADING ON PHYSICAL AND FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF RAPESEED STEM/PP COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Majid Zabihzadeh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to develop a new filler for the production of natural filler thermoplastic composites using the waste rapeseed stalks. The long-term water absorption and thickness swelling behaviors and flexural properties of rapeseed filled polypropylene (PP composites were investigated. Three different contents of filler were tested: 30, 45, and 60 wt%. Results of long-term hygroscopic tests indicated that by the increase in filler content from 30% to 60%, water diffusion absorption and thickness swelling rate parameter increased. A swelling model developed by Shi and Gardner can be used to quantify the swelling rate. The increasing of filler content reduced the flexural strength of the rapeseed/PP composites significantly. In contrast to the flexural strength, the flexural modulus improved with increasing the filler content. The flexural properties of these composites were decreased after the water uptake, due to the effect of the water molecules.

  5. Disks and Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L. F.

    2002-05-01

    The presence of disks and outflows characterizes the earliest stages of stellar evolution. I will review recent results that exemplify how the radio observations have become powerful tools in the study of these extremely young objects. Binarity and multiplicity seem to be factors that we are only starting to understand. Outflows are now seen as laboratories for the chemistry of shocked regions. Finally, the efforts to extend the paradigm for low-mass stellar formation to more massive protostars can be tested critically in the radio wavelengths. I acknowledge the support from CONACyT, Mexico.

  6. Color stability and flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) and bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge auto-polymerizing resins exposed to beverages and food dye: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjari, Anil K; Bhatnagar, Vishrut M; Basavaraju, Ravi M

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the color stability and flexural strength of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge auto-polymerizing resins exposed to tea, coffee, cola, and food dye. Two provisional crown and bridge resins, one DPI self-cure tooth molding powder (PMMA) (Group A), and one Protemp 4 Temporization Material (bis-acrylic composite) (Group B) were used. Disk-shaped specimens for color stability testing (n = 30 for each material) and bar-shaped specimens for flexural strength testing (n = 30 for each material) were fabricated using a metal mold. The specimens were immersed in artificial saliva, artificial saliva + tea, artificial saliva + coffee, artificial saliva + cola, and artificial saliva + food dye solutions and stored in an incubator at 37°C. Color measurements were taken before immersion, and then after 3 and 7 days of immersion. Flexural strength was evaluated after 7 days of immersion. Group A showed significantly higher color stability as compared to Group B, and artificial saliva + coffee solution had the most staining capacity for the resins. Test solutions had no effect on the flexural strength of Group A, but Group B specimens immersed in artificial saliva + cola showed significantly lower flexural strength values as compared to the control group. The findings of the study showed that for materials used in the study, PMMA was more color stable than bis-acrylic composite based resin. Also, material based on PMMA was more resistant to damage from dietary beverages as compared to bis-acrylic composite based provisional crown and bridge resin.

  7. The Formation of Galactic Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, H J; White, S D M; Mao, Shude; White, Simon D.M.

    1997-01-01

    We study the population of galactic disks expected in current hierarchical clustering models for structure formation. A rotationally supported disk with exponential surface density profile is assumed to form with a mass and angular momentum which are fixed fractions of those of its surrounding dark halo. We assume that haloes respond adiabatically to disk formation, and that only stable disks can correspond to real systems. With these assumptions the predicted population can match both present-day disks and the damped Lyman alpha absorbers in QSO spectra. Good agreement is found provided: (i) the masses of disks are a few percent of those of their haloes; (ii) the specific angular momenta of disks are similar to those of their haloes; (iii) present-day disks were assembled recently (at z3kpc/h and about 10% at r>10kpc/h. The cross-section for absorption is strongly weighted towards disks with large angular momentum and so large size for their mass. The galaxy population associated with damped absorbers should...

  8. Design OF Flexure Bearing For Linear Compressor By Optimization Procedure Using FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Malpani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bearing are used to allow the relative motion between two surfaces. A shaft has to rotate about its casing or a piston has to slide about the cylinder. Both requires relative motion to happened least rictional losses. The flexural bearing however ,offers a different approach in supporting the bearing surfaces. The elements of bearing surfaces are deformed on application of load to one of the surfaces, allowing the relative motion between the two surfaces on removal of the load ,the surfaces go back to their original position subjected tocondition that caused deformation of the bearing element due to pplied load is within the limit of elasticity. This eliminates the wear ,vibration and frictional losses. However ,the deformation has to be limited. The precision and micro machining applications and some medical applications very low relative motion. Hence, flexural bearing in this kind of application is a better. The present work is specific to the typical flexure bearing used in linear compressor. Since the flexural bearing designed procedure is not available, this paper proposes to the FEM as a tool to find the axial stiffness thatwould be offered by a typical flexure used in the linear compressor application for cryocooler. The cryocooler has a linear compressor use for compressing a gas with a typical displacement of 5 mm. The typical design has the flexural bearing with spiral cuts in the flexures. These spiral cuts allows each of the flexure to move itselfaxially on application of load in the axial direction. There are two states of flexures called stacks on either side of linear motor supporting a piston rod which moves the piston either side i.e. back and forth in gas displacer. As mentioned typical displacement of the piston is 5mm causing each of the flexure to get deformed by same amount. Since there is no any standard method available for alculating axial stiffness of bearing ,we haveconsider an example of disc.

  9. Solution uniquity of an inverse VLF problem: A case-study of the polar, ground-based, VLF radio signal disturbances caused by the ultra-energetic relativistic electron precipitations and of their southern boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenets, G. F.; Astafiev, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Here we present the results of a case study of the rare, abnormal, qualitatively specific behavior of Aldra (northern Norway) and GBR (UK) VLF transmitter signals (10-16 kHz) received at Kola Peninsula. The abnormal amplitude and the phase disturbances of signals were used as a proxy for ultra-energetic relativistic (solar?) electron precipitation (URE, ∼100 MeV) into the middle polar atmosphere. The disturbances have been observed under quiet or moderately disturbed geomagnetic activity. Based on bearing results, it was established that the abnormal variations of the electric conductivity of ionized middle atmosphere (of a sporadic Ds layer under the regular ionosphere D layer) were characterized by the following: (i) the time function of height h(t) of an effective spherical waveguide between the Earth surface and the sporadic Ds layer shows a minimum value equal to ∼30 km and (ii) the reflection coefficient R(t) of radio wave with a grazing angle of incidence from a virtual boundary with height h(t) has a minimum value equal to ∼0.4. The southern boundaries of the ultra-energetic relativistic electron precipitations have been found as well. They turned out to be not southerly than 61 degree of magnetic latitude and similar to the ones obtained in our previous study of the events for other dates under the similar geophysical conditions although we do not know anything definite about the rigidity and density of the electron fluxes. A used calculation method of analysis is based on a necessary condition that a number n of input data should be greater than a number m of output parameter-functions. We have stated by numerical testing that a decrease of n from 6 to 4 generates a lack of uniqueness of an inverse VLF problem solution for m = 2. It is important for future VLF ground-based monitoring of the URE precipitation events.

  10. A Probe of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling using Very Low Frequency (VLF) Radio Signal from North-West Cape (Australia) to Kolkata (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    Very low frequency (VLF) radio waves has been employed for the detection and study of various terrestrial and extra-terrestrial high energy phenomena such as solar flares, solar eclipse, gamma ray burst, lightning induced electron precipitation etc., and the subsequent variations in the lower ionosphere driven by these events. In this study, we exploit the propagation characteristics of VLF signal through the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, to probe changes in ionospheric signatures, induced by solar driven variations in magnetospheric conditions. Our study is based on the VLF signal (amplitude and phase) received at the Ionospheric and Earthquake Research Centre (IERC), Sitapur, under Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP), which is transmitted by the Australian NWC station at about 19.8kHz.

  11. Source illusion devices for flexural Lamb waves using elastic metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yongquan; Liu, Fu; Diba, Owen; Lamb, Alistair; Li, Jensen

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials with the transformation method has greatly promoted the development in achieving invisibility and illusion for various classical waves. However, the requirement of tailor-made bulk materials and extreme constitutive parameters associated to illusion designs hampers its further progress. Inspired by recent demonstrations of metasurfaces in achieving reduced versions of electromagnetic cloaks, we propose and experimentally demonstrate source illusion devices to manipulate flexural waves using metasurfaces. The approach is particularly useful for elastic waves due to the lack of form-invariance in usual transformation methods. We demonstrate metasurfaces for shifting, transforming and splitting a point source with "space-coiling" structures. The effects are found to be broadband and robust against a change of source position, with agreement from numerical simulations and Huygens-Fresnel theory. The proposed approach provides an avenue to generically manipulate guided elastic waves in solids, and is...

  12. Ice-Shelf Tidal Flexure and Subglacial Pressure Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.; Parizek, Byron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Riverman, Kiya L.; Christianson, Knut

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of an ice shelf-ice stream system as a viscoelastic beam partially supported by an elastic foundation. When bed rock near the grounding line acts as a fulcrum, leverage from the ice shelf dropping at low tide can cause significant (approx 1 cm) uplift in the first few kilometers of grounded ice.This uplift and the corresponding depression at high tide lead to basal pressure variations of sufficient magnitude to influence subglacial hydrology.Tidal flexure may thus affect basal lubrication, sediment flow, and till strength, all of which are significant factors in ice-stream dynamics and grounding-line stability. Under certain circumstances, our results suggest the possibility of seawater being drawn into the subglacial water system. The presence of sea water beneath grounded ice would significantly change the radar reflectivity of the grounding zone and complicate the interpretation of grounded versus floating ice based on ice-penetrating radar observations.

  13. [Splenic flexure and irritable colon syndromes: conjugate conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipenko, M F; Bikbulatova, E A; Mut-Gusaim, V I

    2008-01-01

    To investigate phenotypical and clinical characteristics in individuals with high fixation of the splenic angle (HFSA). The study group included 82 patients with HFSA, the comparison group--76 patients with irritable colon syndrome (ICS), control group--19 patients without colon pathology. the results of the following examinations were analysed: the disease history, detailed intestinal investigation, rectal sensitivity, constitution, connective tissue weakness, vegetative dysfunction and regulation. HFSA is encountered mainly in persons with hyperstenic constitution. Some HFSA patients have pain on the left side--splenic flexure syndrome (SFS). The pain corresponds most to clinical criteria of irritable colon syndrome diagnosis and is accompanied with reduced threshold of pain sensitivity to balloon extension. Provoking factors of the symptoms are stress situations in childhood. SFS can be considered as a variant of ICS arising in HFSA. The treatment should be based on the principles of ICS treatment.

  14. The LINC-NIRVANA fringe and flexure tracker control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Steffen; Eckart, Andreas; Horrobin, Matthew; Lindhorst, Bettina; Rauch, Christoph; Smajic, Semir; Straubmeier, Christian; Tremou, Evangelia; Wank, Imke; Zuther, Jens; Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2012-07-01

    We present the latest status of the control system of the LN (LINC-NIRVANA) FFTS (Fringe and Flexure Tracker System) for the LBT. The software concept integrates the sensor data and control of the various subsystems and provides the interaction with the whole LN instrument. Varying conditions and multiple configurations for observations imply a flexible interconnection of the control loops for the hardware manipulators with respect to the time-critical data analysis of the fringe detection. In this contribution details of the implementation of the algorithms on a real-time Linux PC are given. By considering the results from simulations of the system dynamics, lab experiments, atmospheric simulations, and telescope characterization the optimal parameter setup for an observation can be chosen and basic techniques for adaption to changing conditions can be derived.

  15. Free flexural vibration of functionally graded size-dependent nanoplates

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, S; Thangavel, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the linear free flexural vibration behaviour of functionally graded (FG) size-dependent nanoplates are investigated using the finite element method. The field variables are approximated by non-uniform rational B-splines. The size-dependent FG nanoplate is investigated by using Eringen's differential form of nonlocal elasticity theory. The material properties are assumed to vary only in the thickness direction and the effective properties for FG nanoplate are computed using Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme. The accuracy of the present formulation is tested considering the problems for which solutions are available. A detailed numerical study is carried out to examine the effect of material gradient index, the characteristic internal length, the plate thickness, the plate aspect ratio and the boundary conditions on the global response of FG nanoplate.

  16. Flexural Behavior of Posttensioned Flat Plates Depending on Tendon Layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Sook Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the experimental results on the flexural behavior and deflections of posttensioned concrete flat plates depending on tendon layout. One reinforced concrete flat plate and two posttensioned concrete flat plates were manufactured and tested. One-way posttensioning layout and two-way posttensioning layout were considered in this paper. The load-deflection behavior and modes of crack are presented from the test results. Posttension systems effectively controlled crack and deflection. One-way and two-way posttensioning layouts both showed similar maximum load. However, serviceability improved with two-way posttensioning layout compared to one-way posttensioning layout. Also, the yield-line theory was applied to predict the ultimate load for the posttensioned flat plates. The comparison between the test results and estimation by yield-line analysis generally showed good agreement.

  17. THE EFFECT OF FLY ASH ON FLEXURAL CAPACITY CONCRETE BEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Amiri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the flexural response of Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete (RGPC beam. A commercial finite element (FE software ABAQUS has been used to perform a structural behavior of RGPC beam. Using parameters such: stress, strain, Young’s modulus, and Poisson’s ratio obtained from experimental results, a beam model has been simulated in ABAQUS. The results from experimental test and ABAQUS simulation were compared. Due to friction forces at the supports and loading rollers; slip occurring, the actual deflection of RGPC beam from experimental test results were slightly different from the results of ABAQUS. And there is good agreement between the crack patterns of fly-ash based geopolymer concrete generated by FE analysis using ABAQUS, and those in experimental data.

  18. Modeling of the flexural behavior of ceramic-matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Chou, Tsu-Wei

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of matrix cracking and fiber breakage on the flexural behavior of ceramic composite beams. A model has been proposed to represent the damage evolution of the beam, of which the matrix fracture strain is smaller than that of the fibers. Close form solutions of the critical loads for the initiation of matrix cracking and fiber breakage in the tension side of the beam have been found. The effects of thermal residual stresses and fiber/matrix debonding have been taken into account. The initial deviation of the load-deflection curve from linearity is due to matrix cracking, while fiber breakages are responsible for the drop in the load carrying capacity of the beam. The proportional limit as well as the nonlinear behavior of the beam deflection have been identified. The growth of the damaged zone has also been predicted. A three-point bending case is given as a numerical example.

  19. Disk storage at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mascetti, L; Chan, B; Espinal, X; Fiorot, A; Labrador, H Gonz; Iven, J; Lamanna, M; Presti, G Lo; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S; Rousseau, H; van der Ster, D

    2015-01-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  20. Disk storage at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, L.; Cano, E.; Chan, B.; Espinal, X.; Fiorot, A.; González Labrador, H.; Iven, J.; Lamanna, M.; Lo Presti, G.; Mościcki, JT; Peters, AJ; Ponce, S.; Rousseau, H.; van der Ster, D.

    2015-12-01

    CERN IT DSS operates the main storage resources for data taking and physics analysis mainly via three system: AFS, CASTOR and EOS. The total usable space available on disk for users is about 100 PB (with relative ratios 1:20:120). EOS actively uses the two CERN Tier0 centres (Meyrin and Wigner) with 50:50 ratio. IT DSS also provide sizeable on-demand resources for IT services most notably OpenStack and NFS-based clients: this is provided by a Ceph infrastructure (3 PB) and few proprietary servers (NetApp). We will describe our operational experience and recent changes to these systems with special emphasis to the present usages for LHC data taking, the convergence to commodity hardware (nodes with 200-TB each with optional SSD) shared across all services. We also describe our experience in coupling commodity and home-grown solution (e.g. CERNBox integration in EOS, Ceph disk pools for AFS, CASTOR and NFS) and finally the future evolution of these systems for WLCG and beyond.

  1. Investigations of natural and artificial disturbances in the Earth-ionosphere cavity via VLF radio links for the time span 2009-2015 (sunspot cycle 24)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Hans; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Besser, B. P.; Prattes, Gustav; Aydogar; Wolbang, Daniel; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Boudjada, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    We focus on natural disturbances of the sub-ionospheric VLF waveguide in the time span 2009 to 2015 (sunspot cycle 24), i.e. variations in amplitude and phase measurements of the radio paths are considered. In particular we're investigating numerous solar flares (up to X-class), geomagnetic storms and substorms, therefore discuss how to discriminate natural from artificial variations between different transmitters and receivers. Meteorological effects could be important [1] and we estimate the possibility to detect the influence of lithospheric sources in the VLF radio links. As part of the VLF multistation network we're using the single receiver mid-latitude station in Graz, Austria. This facility receives up to 12 transmitter simultaneously (frequency range 10-50 kHz), has 20 sec temporal resolution, and is running continuously since 2009 [2]. We obtain the statistics relating VLF amplitude and phase fluctuations with C/M/X-class solar flares, and characterise night time fluctuations in connection with enhanced particle precipitation in the northern latitude path (Iceland transmitter). The statistics is important to improve the quality of seismo-electromagnetic studies. We conclude that for ionospheric perturbations (D-layer), e.g. solar flares, a reliable real time monitoring service can be established. Atmospheric and lithospheric variations are generally difficult to characterise, it's harder to distinguish between natural and man made signals, therefore - as a future outlook - complementary ground and satellite based measurements can deliver valuable additional information for environmental monitoring. References: [1] A. Rozhnoi et al.: Meteorological effects in the lower ionosphere as based on VLF/LF signal observations, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2671-2679, 2014. [2] K. Schwingenschuh et al.: The Graz seismo-electromagnetic VLF facility, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1121-1127, 2011.

  2. Applications of the VLF-EM method for rapid Sumatran fault identification in Leuser national park, Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwandi, Marwan, Muksin, Fashbir

    2017-07-01

    Aceh is an area which is located at volcanically active region and at the meeting point of the Eurasian and the Indo-Australian plates. Many mountain formations and folds are formed as a result of the meeting of these plates. One of the mountains in Aceh is The Gunung Leuser, the highest mountain in the province with altitude of 3,404 m. The active geodynamic conditions could lead to the formation of potentially active faults which produce earthquakes. Due to safety reason, there are few researches done to identify active faults in the LE (Leuser Ecosystem). Therefore, we propose a preliminary study to identify morphological patterns of the fault system from the topography data of SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission). Having obtained the approximate location of fault, then a Very Low Frequency method is applied to determine the detail characteristic of the fault. This method can determine the subsurface structure to a depth of 50 m without digging or drilling. In this study, we measure three profiles with length of each profile of 12-16 km. Along profile 1, the VLF data fluctuated due to relatively high iron deposition along the line. For profile 2, the results are very consistent with the adjacent to the fault Blangkejeren which is the main part of the Sumatran Fault. Profile 3 Lokop - Kutacane fault also shows the correction of the topography. In general, VLF method is relatively influenced by noise as the consequences of the passive electromagnetic measurement. Thus, it is important to develop an analysis method of VLF data that includes the topographical correction so that better lateral anomaly map can be created.

  3. Resistivity soundings and VLF profiles for siting groundwater wells in a fractured basement aquifer in the Arabian Shield, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, A. I.; Kruse, S. E.

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal shortages of groundwater are common in parts of the Arabian Shield, where complex basement hydrogeology can make siting of water wells difficult. To identify optimal production well locations, six 200-400 m-long Very Low Frequency (VLF) electromagnetic traverses and ten Vertical Electrical Soundings (VESes) were run at the western edge of the Arabian Shield near At-Taif town, Saudi Arabia. Here wadi sediments overlie fractured Precambrian basement, which in turn overlies unfractured basement. The fractured basement forms the water supply aquifer. Both VLF and VES data indicate significant lateral heterogeneity in the electrical conductivity of both wadi and basement deposits over lengths scales as small as ∼100 m. VES results correlate closely with data from two wells in the study area. The change in resistivity at the wadi-to-fractured basement contact is relatively subtle, but the transition from low resistivity fractured basement to high resistivity unfractured basement is well resolved. Inferred wadi thicknesses range from 0 to 14 m; the electrically conductive fractured basement extends from wadi down to 12-32 m depth. VES data indicate the fractured basement aquifer thickens progressively to the south in this area. A production well, sited on the basis of the VES analysis, successfully yielded 70m3/day. The relationship between VLF and VES data is complex, suggesting that the terrain is heterogeneous on the scale of the different effective sampling volumes of the two methods, and/or that fracture azimuth is locally heterogeneous. Overall resistivities in this study are similar to those observed at other locations in Saudi Arabia, suggesting these methods may be widely applicable for siting of groundwater wells in the complex basement of the Arabian Shield.

  4. Characterization and applications of VLF/LF source locations from lightning using the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Phillip M.; Christian, Hugh J.; Stewart, Mike; Burchfield, Jeff; Podgorny, Scott; Corredor, David; Hall, John; Kuznetsov, Evgeny; Franklin, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    Arrays that detect and locate the four-dimensional spacetime positions of radiation sources from lightning have largely utilized sensors sensitive to the very high frequency (VHF) regime with ˜ 15 km baselines or very low frequency/low frequency (VLF/LF) regime with ˜ 100 km baselines. This paper details initial results from the newly developed Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array (HAMMA), consisting of Marx meters (electric field change meters) sensitive to a frequency band ˜ 1 Hz to 400 kHz. The arrival time of HAMMA waveforms due to radiation sources from lightning are used to determine the spacetime position of these sources. The locations are compared with two well-documented and operational arrays, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The standard deviation of the difference between HAMMA and NLDN locations of return strokes is 305 and 266 m in x and y, respectively, while the standard deviation of the difference between HAMMA and NALMA sources is 237, 226, and 688 m in x, y and z, respectively. We further show that NLDN intracloud locations differ in horizontal distance from the corresponding HAMMA locations by a median value of 479 m. In addition, we use HAMMA source locations to map several lightning flashes in the VLF/LF and show HAMMA sources largely map out the same electrical extent as VHF sources and provide unique insights to the properties of the discharges occurring. Finally, we show that VLF/LF sources can determine the leader polarity in several example flashes but not necessarily whether a flash comes to ground. Copyright 2013 American Geophysical Union. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemistry in evolving protoplanetary disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkheid, Bastiaan Johan

    2006-01-01

    Planets form in disks of gas and dust around young stars. Since the gas makes up 99 % of the disk mass, it is critical for our understanding of planet formation to gain direct information from the gas, independently of what can be learned from dust emission. In this thesis, calculations are presente

  6. RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: EQUILIBRIUM CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate a model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several rings rotating around a supermassive Kerr black hole attractor. Each toroid of the ringed disk is governed by the general relativity hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. Properties of the tori can then be determined by an appropriately defined effective potential reflecting the background Kerr geometry and the centrifugal effects. The ringed disks could be created in various regimes during the evolution of matter configurations around supermassive black holes. Therefore, both corotating and counterrotating rings have to be considered as being a constituent of the ringed disk. We provide constraints on the model parameters for the existence and stability of various ringed configurations and discuss occurrence of accretion onto the Kerr black hole and possible launching of jets from the ringed disk. We demonstrate that various ringed disks can be characterized by a maximum number of rings. We present also a perturbation analysis based on evolution of the oscillating components of the ringed disk. The dynamics of the unstable phases of the ringed disk evolution seems to be promising in relation to high-energy phenomena demonstrated in active galactic nuclei.

  7. Friction characteristics of floppy disks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This note presents the principle and structure of a tribological measure for floppy disks.The precision of the force measuring system is 1 mN in loading and 3×10-6 N in friction.The resolution of the film thickness between head and floppy disk is 0.5 nm in the vertical and 1.5 nm in the horizontal direction.In order to investigate the tribological characteristics of floppy disks,six types of floppy disks have been tested and the floating properties of these disks are also studied with film measuring system.The experimental results of the surface morphology and friction coefficient of these floppy disks using the atomic force microscope/friction force mcroscope (AFM/FFM) are in accordance with the conclusion made by our own measuring system.The experimental results show that the air film thickness between head and disk is of the same order as the surface roughness of floppy disks.

  8. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  9. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find th

  10. Building and the analysis of two radio antennas (SSRT) in vlf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbouti, Marjan; Khakian Ghomi, Mehdi; Salmanpour Paeen Afrakati, Mohammad Reza; Riahi, Jahad; Ghanbari, Keyvan; Moradi Khanghahi, Abolfazl; Nahavandi, Behzad

    This design is a joint project between telecommunication and astrophysics subjects carried out for the first time in Iran. In this article, we engage in building of two looped antennas (SSRT) that the first type of it is a SSRT (octagonal looped antenna) with an outer filter system of 80 cm diameter, cable thickness of 0.55 mm, inductance 38.24 MH and capacitor’s capacitance of 919 pf. The software of Spectrum lab and SSRT Robot2 were used for software section and to store the related information. While second antenna type is a SSRT (two interconnected square type loop antennas) with inner filter system in the form of two interconnected squares with beveled corners such that the number of windings for outer square are (larger) 60 rounds, while for inner square (smaller) 95 rounds. The CATIA software was used to design the antenna structure and “Protel Dxp’’ software has been used to design its circuit. A program has been designed with C# language for receiving section and processing of data. Considering the closeness of Turkey transmitter to the city of Tehran (test location), the designed SSRTs are responsible for receiving the frequency of 26.7 kHz while TBB (Bafa, Turkey) is considered the frequency producing source for it. In the continuation of project, we started to store our receiving data from SSRTs following the calibration, average taking as well as noise elimination that was produced due to different factors such as the noises caused by electrical equipment and the everyday activities of telecommunication devices. In this stage, we were observing our receiving coincidences with all SSRTs as well as the Goes satellite. Afterwards, we dealt with the analysis of solar flares, sunrise-sunset effects and electrical disturbances. Then, in a separate project, the received data secured from 8 different VLF receivers were studied and examined, by means of Mr. Loudet receiver located in France, for the years of 2010, 2011 and 2012 and we attained the

  11. VLF/ELF wave activity in the vicinity of the polar cusp: Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations by the Cluster spacecraft of VLF/ELF wave activity show distinct signatures for different regions in the vicinity of high altitude polar cusps, which are identified by using magnetic field and plasma data along spacecraft trajectories. These waves include: (1 Broad band magnetic noise observed in the polar cusp at frequencies from several Hz to ~100 Hz, below the local electron cyclotron frequency, fce. Similar magnetic noise is also observed in the high latitude magnetosheath and the magnetopause boundary layer. (2 Strong broad band electrostatic emissions observed in the cusp, in the magnetosheath, and in the high latitude magnetopause boundary layer, at frequencies extending from several Hz to tens of kHz, with maximum intensities below ~100 Hz. (3 Narrow-band electromagnetic whistler waves at frequencies ~0.2–0.6 fce, frequently observed in the closed boundary layer (CBL adjacent to the polar cusp. These waves are for the first time observed in this region to be accompanied by counter-streaming electron beams of ~100 eV, which suggests that the waves are excited by these electrons through wave-particle interaction. (4 Narrow-band electrostatic waves observed slightly above the local fce in the CBL. (5 Lion roars, observed in the high latitude magnetosheath, often in magnetic troughs of mirror mode oscillations. The above wave signatures can serve as indicators of the regions in the vicinity of the magnetospheric cusp.

  12. CT Scan Mapping of Splenic Flexure in Relation to Spleen and its Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Alan A; Dervishaj, Ornela; Aida, Samer S; Christos, Paul J; Dakhel, Mahmoud

    2016-05-01

    Splenic flexure mobilization is a challenging step during left colon resection. The maneuver places the spleen at risk for injury. To minimize this risk, we conducted this study for CT scan mapping of splenic flexure in relation to the spleen. One hundred and sixty CT scans of abdomen were reviewed. The level of the splenic flexure was determined in relation to hilum and lower pole of spleen. These levels were compared with patient demographics. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test. The splenic flexure was above the hilum of the spleen in 95 patients (67.86%), at the splenic hilum level in 11 patents (7.88%), between the hilum and lower pole of the spleen in 12 (8.57%), at the lower pole of the spleen in 15 (10.7%) patients and 7 (5%) patients has a splenic flexure that lied below the lower pole of the spleen. Patient demographics showed no statistical significance in regard to splenic flexure location. Splenic flexure lies above the hilum of the spleen in majority of patients. This should be considered as part of operative strategies for left colon resection.

  13. Comparative study of flexural strength test methods on CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongxiang; Han, Jianmin; Lin, Hong; An, Linan

    2015-01-01

    Clinically, fractures are the main cause of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) 3 mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) all-ceramic dental restorations failure because of repetitive occlusal loading. The goal of this work is to study the effect of test methods and specimen’s size on the flexural strength of five ceramic products. Both bi-axial flexure test (BI) and uni-axial flexure tests (UNI), including three-point flexure test (3PF) and four-point flexure test (4PF), are used in this study. For all five products, the flexural strength is as follows: BI > 3PF > 4PF. Furthermore, specimens with smaller size (3PF-s) have higher values than the bigger ones (3PF). The difference between BI and UNI resulted from the edge flaws in ceramic specimens. The relationship between different UNI (including 3PF-s, 3PF and 4PF) can be explained according to Weibull statistical fracture theory. BI is recommended to evaluate the flexural strength of CAD/CAM Y-TZP dental ceramics. PMID:26816646

  14. Physical processes in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Armitage, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    This review introduces physical processes in protoplanetary disks relevant to accretion and the initial stages of planet formation. After reprising the elementary theory of disk structure and evolution, I discuss the gas-phase physics of angular momentum transport through turbulence and disk winds, and how this may be related to episodic accretion observed in Young Stellar Objects. Turning to solids, I review the evolution of single particles under aerodynamic forces, and describe the conditions necessary for the development of collective gas-particle instabilities. Observations show that disks are not always radially smooth axisymmetric structures, and I discuss how gas and particle processes can interact to form observable large-scale structure (at ice lines, vortices and in zonal flows). I conclude with disk dispersal.

  15. Detection of precessing circumpulsar disks

    CERN Document Server

    Grimani, C

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidences indicate that formations of disks and planetary systems around pulsars are allowed. Unfortunately, direct detections through electromagnetic observations appear to be quite rare. In the case of PSR 1931+24, the hypothesis of a rigid precessing disk penetrating the pulsar light cylinder is found consistent with radio transient observations from this star. Disk self-occultation and precession may limit electromagnetic observations. Conversely, we show here that gravitational waves generated by disk precessing near the light cylinder of young and middle aged pulsars would be detected by future space interferometers with sensitivities like those expected for DECIGO (DECI-hertz Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) and BBO (Big Bang Observer). The characteristics of circumpulsar detectable precessing disks are estimated as a function of distance from the Solar System. Speculations on upper limits to detection rates are presented.

  16. A Disk Scheduling Algorithm: SPFF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ming

    2005-01-01

    We put forward an optimal disk schedule with n disk requests and prove its optimality mathematically. Generalizing the idea of an optimal disk schedule, we remove the limit of n requests and, at the same time, consider the dynamically arrival model of disk requests to obtain an algorithm, shortest path first-fit first (SPFF). This algorithm is based on the shortest path of disk head motion constructed by all the pendent requests. From view of the head-moving distance, it has the stronger globality than SSTF. From view of the head-moving direction, it has the better flexibility than SCAN. Therefore, SPFF keeps the advantage of SCAN and, at the same time, absorbs the strength of SSTF. The algorithm SPFF not only shows the more superiority than other scheduling polices, but also have higher adjustability to meet the computer system's different demands.

  17. Numerical Investigation of Circumplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tyler R.; Stewart, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The regular satellites of Jupiter and Saturn are believed to have formed in circumplanetary disks that were present during the late stages of giant planet formation. At present, there is a large amount of uncertainly in both the structure of these disks and the nature of angular momentum transport within them. In circumstellar disks, magnetorotational rotational instability (MRI) is generally invoked as a mechanism to transfer angular momentum and drive accretion. It is unclear whether circumplanetary disks are sufficiently ionized for the MRI to be active. In an effort to better understand the physical nature of circumplanetary disks, we present 1+1D numerical models of Jovian and Saturnian circumplanetary disks. Our models include viscous diffusion, infall from the solar nebula and external photoevaporation. The combination of these three processes allow for steady-state, truncated disks roughly consistent with the present state of the regular satellite systems of Jupiter and Saturn (Mitchell & Stewart, 2011). Unlike recent models of tidal truncation (Martin & Lubow, 2010), our initial models showed that photoevaporation is able to truncate circumplanetary disks to a small fraction of the Hill radius. One goal of this work is to verify our previous results and confirm that truncated disks can be formed using models with more realistic viscous processes. In order to simplify the problem, our initial models employed a viscosity that was linearly dependent on radius. Our current disk models use a viscosity that is calculated locally based on the midplane temperature that is determined from detailed vertical structure calculations. These models are used to conduct an initial investigation of the viability of an active MRI as well as baroclinic instability and other instabilities that may exist.

  18. Evolution of magnetized protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the global evolution of a turbulent protoplanetary disk in its viscous stage, incorporating the effects of Maxwell stress due to a large-scale magnetic field permeating disk. We assume that the viscous stress is given by an alpha model. A magnetic field is produced contemporaneously by an alpha omega dynamo mechanism and the resultant Maxwell stress assists the viscous stress in providing the means for disk evolution. The aim of this work is to compare the evolution of magnetized and nonmagnetized disks driven by turbulent viscosity of the same magnitude and thus assess the effects of a self-generated magnetic field on the structure and dynamical evolution of protoplanetary disks. Two illustrative examples corresponding to two different initial conditions are considered: a high-mass case that starts with a disk of 0.245 solar mass and angular momentum of 5.6 x 10(exp 52)g sq cm/s, and a low-mass that case starts with a disk of 0.11 solar mass and angular momentum of 1.8 x 10(exp 52)g sq cm/s. For each of these two cases the radial development of a disk is calculated numerically assuming a fiducial value of the dimensionless viscosity parameter alpha(sub ss) = 0.01, as well as alpha(sub ss) = 2 x 10(exp -3). In all cases the central star has a mass equal to 1 solar mass. The most striking feature of magnetized disk evolution is the presence of the surface density bulge located in the region of the disk where the dynamo mechanism cannot support a magnetic field. The bulge persists for a time of the order of 10(exp 5)-10(exp 6) yr. The presence and persistence of the surface density bulge may have important implications for the process of planet formation and the overall characteristics of resultant planetary systems.

  19. Stochastic disks that roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda

    2016-11-01

    We study a model of rolling particles subject to stochastic fluctuations, which may be relevant in systems of nano- or microscale particles where rolling is an approximation for strong static friction. We consider the simplest possible nontrivial system: a linear polymer of three disks constrained to remain in contact and immersed in an equilibrium heat bath so the internal angle of the polymer changes due to stochastic fluctuations. We compare two cases: one where the disks can slide relative to each other and the other where they are constrained to roll, like gears. Starting from the Langevin equations with arbitrary linear velocity constraints, we use formal homogenization theory to derive the overdamped equations that describe the process in configuration space only. The resulting dynamics have the formal structure of a Brownian motion on a Riemannian or sub-Riemannian manifold, depending on if the velocity constraints are holonomic or nonholonomic. We use this to compute the trimer's equilibrium distribution with and without the rolling constraints. Surprisingly, the two distributions are different. We suggest two possible interpretations of this result: either (i) dry friction (or other dissipative, nonequilibrium forces) changes basic thermodynamic quantities like the free energy of a system, a statement that could be tested experimentally, or (ii) as a lesson in modeling rolling or friction more generally as a velocity constraint when stochastic fluctuations are present. In the latter case, we speculate there could be a "roughness" entropy whose inclusion as an effective force could compensate the constraint and preserve classical Boltzmann statistics. Regardless of the interpretation, our calculation shows the word "rolling" must be used with care when stochastic fluctuations are present.

  20. TRANSITIONAL DISKS AROUND YOUNG LOW MASS STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D'Alessio

    2009-01-01

    have been interpreted as produced by disks with inner holes, which have been classi ed as \\Transitional Disks". These disks are considered the evolutionary link between the full disks typically found around the young T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars, and the debris disks, found around some main sequence stars. In this contribution we summarize the observed/inferred characteristics of these transitional disks and also some of the models proposed to explain their peculiar geometry.

  1. Accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from protoplanetary disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Takayuki [Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Maruta, Akito; Machida, Masahiro N., E-mail: tanigawa@pop.lowtem.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the accretion of solid materials onto circumplanetary disks from heliocentric orbits rotating in protoplanetary disks, which is a key process for the formation of regular satellite systems. In the late stage of the gas-capturing phase of giant planet formation, the accreting gas from protoplanetary disks forms circumplanetary disks. Since the accretion flow toward the circumplanetary disks affects the particle motion through gas drag force, we use hydrodynamic simulation data for the gas drag term to calculate the motion of solid materials. We consider a wide range of size for the solid particles (10{sup –2}-10{sup 6} m), and find that the accretion efficiency of the solid particles peaks around 10 m sized particles because energy dissipation of drag with circum-planetary disk gas in this size regime is most effective. The efficiency for particles larger than 10 m becomes lower because gas drag becomes less effective. For particles smaller than 10 m, the efficiency is lower because the particles are strongly coupled with the background gas flow, which prevents particles from accretion. We also find that the distance from the planet where the particles are captured by the circumplanetary disks is in a narrow range and well described as a function of the particle size.

  2. NANO-BEARING: THE DESIGN OF A NEW TYPE OF AIR BEARING WITH FLEXURE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KO Pui Hang; DU Ruxu

    2007-01-01

    A new type of air bearing with flexure structure is introduced. The new bearing is designed for precision mechanical engineering devices such as mechanical watch movement. The new design uses the flexure structure to provide 3D damping to absorb shocks from all directions. Two designs are presented: one has 12 T-shape slots in the radian direction while the other has 8 spiral slots in the radian direction. Both designs have flexure mountings on the axial directions. Based on the finite element analysis (FEA), the new bearing can reduce the vibration (displacement) by as much as 8.37% and hence, can better protect the shafts.

  3. Controlling thermal and electrical properties of graphene by strain-engineering its flexural phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Hiram; Nicholl, Ryan; Bolotin, Kirill

    2014-03-01

    We explore the effects of flexural phonons on the thermal and electrical properties of graphene. To control the amplitude of flexural phonons, we developed a technique to engineer uniform mechanical strain between 0 and 1% in suspended graphene. We determine the level of strain, thermal conductivity and carrier mobility of graphene through a combination of mechanical resonance and electrical transport measurements. Depending on strain, we find significant changes in the thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and carrier mobility of suspended graphene. These changes are consistent with the expected contribution of flexural phonons.

  4. Geometrical design parameters for journal bearings with flexure pads and compliant liners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder

    2012-01-01

    A hydrodynamic journal bearing utilizing flexure pads with a compliant liner is studied and its performance enhanced through a parametric study. The main geometrical dimensions are varied and the affect on pad performance is analyzed. This will put more knowledge into the design and function...... of flexure pads. uidelines are given to the design of the pads and are also covering the polymer liner. It is found that the use of flexure pads is an attractive alternative to pivoted pads. Pivot contact-related failure modes are eliminated and load capacity is not restricted by the force that can...

  5. EFFECT OF NANOPOWDER ADDITION ON THE FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF ALUMINA CERAMIC - A WEIBULL MODEL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daidong Guo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alumina ceramics were prepared either with micrometer-sized alumina powder (MAP or with the addition of nanometer-sized alumina powder (NAP. The density, crystalline phase, flexural strength and the fracture surface of the two ceramics were measured and compared. Emphasis has been put on the influence of nanopowder addition on the flexural strength of Al₂O₃ ceramic. The analysis based on the Weibull distribution model suggests the distribution of the flexural strength of the NAP ceramic is more concentrated than that of the MAP ceramic. Therefore, the NAP ceramics will be more stable and reliable in real applications.

  6. Detection of disbonds in foam composite assemblies using flexural waves and shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboul, B.; Giraudo, O.; Osmont, D.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a method based on the generation of low frequency flexural waves for the detection of disbonds in foam composite assemblies. An imaging procedure based on the shearography technique is proposed for the fast generation of images suitable for nondestructive testing analysis. The method is assessed with calibrated disbond defects in a composite foam core sandwich. The role of local flexural resonances for obtaining clear defect signatures is studied and highlighted using complementary Laser vibrometry data. The minimum defect size for detection is associated with the conditions for exciting the first flexural mode in the defect region.

  7. The Gas Disk: Evolution and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rab, Christian; Baldovin-Saavedra, Carla; Dionatos, Odysseas; Vorobyov, Eduard; Güdel, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Protoplanetary disks are the birthplaces of planetary systems. The evolution of the star-disk system and the disk chemical composition determines the initial conditions for planet formation. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the main physical and chemical processes in disks is crucial for our understanding of planet formation. We give an overview of the early evolution of disks, discuss the importance of the stellar high-energy radiation for disk evolution and describe the general thermal and chemical structure of disks. Finally we provide an overview of observational tracers of the gas component and disk winds.

  8. The gas disk: Evolution and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Rab, Ch; Dionatos, O; Vorobyov, E; Güdel, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Protoplanetary disks are the birthplaces of planetary systems. The evolution of the star-disk system and the disk chemical composition determines the initial conditions for planet formation. Therefore a comprehensive understanding of the main physical and chemical processes in disks is crucial for our understanding of planet formation. We give an overview of the early evolution of disks, discuss the importance of the stellar high-energy radiation for disk evolution and describe the general thermal and chemical structure of disks. Finally we provide an overview of observational tracers of the gas component and disk winds.

  9. Protecting geothermal operations with rupture disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.W.

    1983-02-01

    Potential rupture disk applications in geothermal operations are reviewed. Several wells manifolded together, to form the geothermal feed, cause erratic pressure. Rupture disks are used for relief. Flash tanks are equipped with rupture disks. Brine separators, heat exchanger shells, and turbine casings are protected by rupture disks. An analysis of geothermal steam will determine the rupture disk metal. Reverse Buckling disks are recommended over tension loaded disks for dealing with geothermal pressure cycling. Erratic temperature suggests that metals which retain tensile strength with temperature be used (Inconel is mentioned). In summary, geothermal projects represent an excellent rupture disk market.

  10. Prediction of Flexural Strength of Concretes Containing Silica Fume and Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) with an Empirical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafieyzadeh, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the flexural test, the theoretical maximum tensile stress at the bottom fiber of a test beam is known as the modulus of rupture or flexural strength. This work deals with the effects of Silica Fume and Styrene-Butadiene Latex (SBR) on flexural strength of concrete. An extensive experimentation was carried out to determine the effects of silica fume and SBR on flexural strength of concrete. Two water-binder ratios and several percentages of silica fume and SBR were considered. Abrams' Law, which was originally formulated for conventional concrete containing cement as the only cementations material, is used for prediction of flexural strength of these concretes. The aim of this work is to construct an empirical model to predict the flexural strength of silica fume-SBR concretes using concrete ingredients and time of curing in water. Also, the obtained results for flexural strength tests have been compared with predicted results.

  11. Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with the 2010 Haiti earthquake, as based on medium-distance subionospheric VLF propagation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hayakawa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric perturbations in possible association with the 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010 (with a magnitude of 7.0 and depth of 10 km are investigated on the basis of subionospheric propagation data from the NAA transmitter on the east coast of the USA to a VLF receiving station in Peru. The local nighttime VLF amplitude data are extensively investigated during the period from the beginning of October 2009 to the end of March 2010, in which the trend (nighttime average amplitude, dispersion and nighttime fluctuation are analysed. It is found that a clear precursory ionosphere perturbation is detected just around New Years day of 2010, about 12 days before the main shock, which is characterised by the simultaneous decrease in the trend and the increases in dispersion and nighttime fluctuation. An additional finding might be the presence of the effect of the Earth's tide one and two months before the main shock, which can only be seen for a huge EQ.

  12. Effect of Ceramic Surface Treatments After Machine Grinding on the Biaxial Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM Dental Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Hossein; Hooshmand, Tabassom; Aghajani, Farzaneh

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments after machining grinding on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of machinable dental ceramics with different crystalline phases. Disk-shape specimens (10mm in diameter and 1.3mm in thickness) of machinable ceramic cores (two silica-based and one zirconia-based ceramics) were prepared. Each type of the ceramic surfaces was then randomly treated (n=15) with different treatments as follows: 1) machined finish as control, 2) machined finish and sandblasting with alumina, and 3) machined finish and hydrofluoric acid etching for the leucite and lithium disilicate-based ceramics, and for the zirconia; 1) machined finish and post-sintered as control, 2) machined finish, post-sintered, and sandblasting, and 3) machined finish, post-sintered, and Nd;YAG laser irradiation. The BFS were measured in a universal testing machine. Data based were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons post-hoc test (α=0.05). The mean BFS of machined finish only surfaces for leucite ceramic was significantly higher than that of sandblasted (P=0.001) and acid etched surfaces (P=0.005). A significantly lower BFS was found after sandblasting for lithium disilicate compared with that of other groups (Pceramics was affected by the type of ceramic material and surface treatment method. Sandblasting with alumina was detrimental to the strength of only silica-based ceramics. Nd:YAG laser irradiation may lead to substantial strength degradation of zirconia.

  13. 8-inch IBM floppy disk

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The 8-inch floppy disk was a magnetic storage disk for the data introduced commercially by IBM in 1971. It was designed by an IBM team as an inexpensive way to load data into the IBM System / 370. Plus it was a read-only bare disk containing 80 KB of data. The first read-write version was introduced in 1972 by Memorex and could contain 175 KB on 50 tracks (with 8 sectors per track). Other improvements have led to various coatings and increased capacities. Finally, it was surpassed by the mini diskette of 5.25 inches introduced in 1976.

  14. Modeling of very low frequency (VLF radio wave signal profile due to solar flares using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation coupled with ionospheric chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Palit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available X-ray photons emitted during solar flares cause ionization in the lower ionosphere (~60 to 100 km in excess of what is expected to occur due to a quiet sun. Very low frequency (VLF radio wave signals reflected from the D-region of the ionosphere are affected by this excess ionization. In this paper, we reproduce the deviation in VLF signal strength during solar flares by numerical modeling. We use GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation code to compute the rate of ionization due to a M-class flare and a X-class flare. The output of the simulation is then used in a simplified ionospheric chemistry model to calculate the time variation of electron density at different altitudes in the D-region of the ionosphere. The resulting electron density variation profile is then self-consistently used in the LWPC code to obtain the time variation of the change in VLF signal. We did the modeling of the VLF signal along the NWC (Australia to IERC/ICSP (India propagation path and compared the results with observations. The agreement is found to be very satisfactory.

  15. A Study On The Final Phase Of The Bardarbunga Volcano Of 2015 Using Vlf Wave Of Nrk Signal Of Iceland Received At Kiel Longwave Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismo-ionospheric changes often affect the VLF waves resulting in possible changes in the terminator times and often lead to night time fluctuations. The Bardarbunga volcano which started on 2014 ended on the last days of February of 2015. In this paper we present the results of the VLF analysis of the first three months of 2015 using a signal of 37.50 KHz where an analysis on the sunset terminator time D-layer dissipation time daytime fluctuation and night time fluctuation of the VLF amplitude was done. We contrasted the values of these parameters for the first two months of 2015 where the volcano was active with third month of 2015 when the volcano had completely subsided. The Sunset terminator time and the daytime fluctuations in the VLF amplitude for the first two months showed no major anomalies. The anomaly in the D-layer disappearance time and night time fluctuation count reached its peak values for the volcanically active months.

  16. A colonic splenic flexure tumour presenting as an empyema thoracis: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, K

    2009-01-01

    The case report describes the rare presentation of a 79-year-old patient with a locally perforated splenic flexure tumour of the colon presenting with an apparent empyema thoracis in the absence of abdominal signs or symptoms.

  17. Analysis of the flexural vibration of ship's tail shaft by transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiao-jun; FAN Shi-dong

    2008-01-01

    A ship's tail shaft has serious flexural vibration due to the cantilevered nature of the propeller's blades. Analysis of the nature frequency of flexural vibration is vital to be able to provide effective shock absorption for a ship's tail shaft. A mathematic model of tail shaft flexural vibrations was built using the transfer matrix method. The nature frequency of flexural vibration for an electrically propelled ship's tail shaft was then analyzed, and an effective method for calculating it was proposed: a genetic algorithm (GA), which calculates the nature frequency of vibration of a system. Sample calculations, with comparisons by the Prohl method under conditions bearing isotropic support, showed this method to be practical. It should have significant impact on engineering design theory.

  18. Wear and flexural strength comparisons of alumina/feldspar resin infiltrated dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, A R; Lachman, N; Walker, M; Botha, T

    2008-11-01

    Incorporating a feldspar chemical bond between alumina filler particles is expected to increase the wear-resistant and flexural strength properties. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of the feldspar chemical bonding between alumina filler particles on wear and flexural strength of experimental alumina/feldspar dental composites. It was hypothesized that wear resistance and flexural strength would be significantly increased with increased feldspar mass. Alumina was chemically sintered and bonded with 30% and 60% feldspar mass, silanized and infiltrated with UDMA resin to prepare the dental restorative composite material. Higher wear-resistant characteristics resulted with increased feldspar mass of up to 60% (p 0.05). Feldspar chemical bonding between the alumina particles may improve on the wear-resistance and flexural strength of alumina/feldspar composites.

  19. Flexural Strength of Acrylic Resin Denture Bases Processed by Two Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Gharechahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare flexural strength of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and methods. Conventional pressure-packed PMMA was used for conventional pressure-packed and injection-molded PMMA was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, 15 specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. Three-point flexural strength test was carried out. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results. Flexural strength of injection-polymerized acrylic resin specimens was higher than that of theconventional method (P=0.006. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.006. Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, flexural strength of acrylic resin specimens was influenced by the mold-ing technique.

  20. ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC PROBLEMS FOR LINEARLY ELASTICSHELLS JUSTIFICATION OF EQUATIONS FOR DYNAMIC FLEXURAL SHELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖黎明

    2001-01-01

    Under certain conditions, starting from the three-dimensional dynamic equations of elastic shells the author gives the justification of dynamic equations of flexural shells by means of themethod of asymptotic analysis.

  1. Flexural strength of acrylic resin denture bases processed by two different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharechahi, Jafar; Asadzadeh, Nafiseh; Shahabian, Foad; Gharechahi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to compare flexural strength of specimens processed by conventional and injection-molding techniques. Materials and methods. Conventional pressure-packed PMMA was used for conventional pressure-packed and injection-molded PMMA was used for injection-molding techniques. After processing, 15 specimens were stored in distilled water at room temperature until measured. Three-point flexural strength test was carried out. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results. Flexural strength of injection-polymerized acrylic resin specimens was higher than that of the conventional method (P=0.006). This difference was statistically significant (P=0.006). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, flexural strength of acrylic resin specimens was influenced by the molding technique.

  2. Stiffness Analysis of Corrugated Flexure Beam Used in Compliant Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nianfeng; LIANG Xiaohe; ZHANG Xianmin

    2015-01-01

    Conventional flexible joints generally have limited range of motion and high stress concentration. To overcome these shortcomings, corrugated flexure beam(CF beam) is designed because of its large flexibility obtained from longer overall length on the same span. The successful design of compliant mechanisms using CF beam requires manipulation of the stiffnesses as the design variables. Empirical equations of the CF beam stiffness components, except of the torsional stiffness, are obtained by curve-fitting method. The application ranges of all the parameters in each empirical equation are also discussed. The ratio of off-axis to axial stiffness is considered as a key characteristic of an effective compliant joint. And parameter study shows that the radius of semi-circular segment and the length of straight segment contribute most to the ratio. At last, CF beam is used to design translational and rotational flexible joints, which also verifies the validity of the empirical equations. CF beam with large flexibility is presented, and empirical equations of its stiffness are proposed to facilitate the design of flexible joint with large range of motion.

  3. Exploratory flexural power flow measurements on a bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwal, H. M. M.

    1990-05-01

    Exploratory experiments in a bar with an absorptive termination were performed. The bar was excited in a transversal direction. The flexural power flow in the bar was measured at various positions, applying the two transducer technique (2TT) and the four transducer technique (4TT). The separation distance between the accelerometers was varied. The power flow at the excitation point was determined from a force and an acceleration measurement (Fv). When comparing the 2TT power flow with the 4TT or Fv power flow, the discretization error (i.e. the error due to a finite accelerometer separation) is an important parameter, particularly for separations larger than one sixth of a wavelength. In order to quantify the effect of this error, a prediction of the measured power flows on the basis of an analytical solution of the bending wave equation for the far field is performed. For most cases a good agreement is found between the predicted and the measured power flow ratios (i.e. 4TT/2TT and 2TT/Fv). However, for accelerometer separations smaller than about one sixth of a wavelength, a larger scatter is observed in the power flow data, measured with the 4TT, due to loss of significant digits. This effect may result in limitations for multiple transducer techniques in two or three dimensional structures.

  4. Polymerization Shrinkage and Flexural Modulus of Flowable Dental Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Cavalcanti Xavier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Linear polymerization shrinkage (LPS, flexural strength (FS and modulus of elasticity (ME of low-viscosity resin composites (Admira Flow™, Grandio Flow™/VOCO; Filtek Z350 Flow™/3M ESPE; Tetric Flow™/Ivoclar-Vivadent was evaluated using a well-established conventional micro-hybrid composite as a standard (Filtek Z250™/3M ESPE. For the measurement of LPS, composites were applied to a cylindrical metallic mould and polymerized (n = 8. The gap formed at the resin/mould interface was observed using SEM (1500×. For FS and ME, specimens were prepared according to the ISO 4049 specifications (n = 10. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test. The conventional resin presented significantly lower LPS associated with high FS and ME, but only the ME values of the conventional resin differed significantly from the low-viscosity composites. The relationship between ME and LPS of low-viscosity resin composites when used as restorative material is a critical factor in contraction stress relief and marginal leakage.

  5. CYCLIC TEMPERATURE LOADING RESIDUAL FLEXURAL STRENGHT OF REFRACTORY SLABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Holčapek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the effect of cyclic elevated temperature loading on refractory slabs made from high performance, fibre reinforced cement composite. Slabs were produced from aluminous cement-based composites, reinforced by different dosages of basalt fibres. The composite investigated in this study had self-compacting characteristics. The slabs used were exposed to different thermal loading – 600 °C, 1000 °C, six times applied 600 °C and 1000 °C. Then, flexural strength was investigated in all groups of slabs, including group reference slabs with no thermal loading. The results show that the appropriate combination of aluminous cement, natural basalt aggregate, fine filler and basalt fibres in dosage 1.00% of volume is able to successfully resist to cyclic temperature loading. Tensile strength in bending of these slabs (after cyclic temperature loading at 600 °C achieved 6.0 MPa. It was demonstrated that it is possible to use this composite for high extensive conditions in real industrial conditions.

  6. Moulding and shielding flexural waves in elastic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakakis, T.; Craster, R. V.; Guenneau, S.

    2014-03-01

    Platonic crystals (PlCs) are the elastic plate analogue of the photonic crystals widely used in optics, and are thin structured elastic plates along which flexural waves cannot propagate within certain stop band frequency intervals. The practical importance of PlCs is twofold: These can be used either in the design of microstructured acoustic metamaterials or as an approximate model for surface elastic waves propagating in meter scale seismic metamaterials. Here, we make use of the band spectrum of PlCs created by an array of either very small or densely packed clamped circles to achieve surface wave reflectors at very large wavelengths, a flat lens, a waveguide effect, a directive antenna near the stop band frequencies. The limit in which the circles reduce to points is particularly appealing as there is an exact dispersion relation available so the origin of these phenomena can be explained and interpreted using Fourier series and high-frequency homogenization (HFH). We then enlarge the radius of clamped circles, which both makes the zero-frequency stop band up to five times wider and flattens the dispersion curves. Here, HFH notably captures the essence of localized modes, one of which appears in the zero-frequency stop band and is used in the design of a highly directive waveguide.

  7. Magneto-thermal Disk Wind from Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Goodman, Jeremy; Yuan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Global evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is governed by disk angular momentum transport and mass-loss processes. Recent numerical studies suggest that angular momentum transport in the inner region of PPDs is largely driven by magnetized disk wind, yet the wind mass-loss rate remains unconstrained. On the other hand, disk mass loss has conventionally been attributed to photoevaporation, where external heating on the disk surface drives a thermal wind. We unify the two scenarios by developing a 1D model of magnetized disk winds with a simple treatment of thermodynamics as a proxy for external heating. The wind properties largely depend on 1) the magnetic field strength at the wind base, characterized by the poloidal Alfv\\'en speed $v_{Ap}$, 2) the sound speed $c_s$ near the wind base, and 3) how rapidly poloidal field lines diverge (achieve $R^{-2}$ scaling). When $v_{Ap}\\gg c_s$, corotation is enforced near the wind base, resulting in centrifugal acceleration. Otherwise, the wind is accel...

  8. Influence of Specimen Preparation and Test Methods on the Flexural Strength Results of Monolithic Zirconia Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Schatz; Monika Strickstrock; Malgorzata Roos; Daniel Edelhoff; Marlis Eichberger; Isabella-Maria Zylla; Bogna Stawarczyk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  9. Influence of specimen preparation and test methods on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia materials

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Christine; Strickstrock, Monika; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Eichberger, Marlis; Zylla, Isabella-Maria; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of specimen preparation and test method on the flexural strength results of monolithic zirconia. Different monolithic zirconia materials (Ceramill Zolid (Amann Girrbach, Koblach, Austria), Zenostar ZrTranslucent (Wieland Dental, Pforzheim, Germany), and DD Bio zx2 (Dental Direkt, Spenge, Germany)) were tested with three different methods: 3-point, 4-point, and biaxial flexural strength. Additionally, different specimen preparation methods wer...

  10. Effects of forming processing conditions on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo plastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The effects of processing conditions such as pressure, temperature, and holding time on the flexural properties of bagasse and bamboo biodegradable composites were investigated. Each sample of bagasse or bamboo was mixed with a corn-starch-based biodegradable resin and fabricated by a hot press forming method. The cross-sectional structure of the bagasse fiber was found to be porous and compressible, while that of bamboo was found to be more solid. The relationship between flexural strength, ...

  11. Blockage, trapping and waveguide modes for flexural waves in a semi-infinite double grating

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ian S; Movchan, Alexander B

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a novel view on the scattering of a flexural wave in a Kirchhoff plate by a semi-infinite discrete system. Blocking and channelling of flexural waves are of special interest. A quasi-periodic two-source Green's function is used in the analysis of the waveguide modes. An additional "effective waveguide" approximation has been constructed. Comparisons are presented for these two methods in addition to an analytical solution for a finite truncated system.

  12. Modeling and analysis of circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yihua; Huang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    We propose a circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer and perform a theoretical analysis of the transformer. An equivalent circuit is derived from the equations of piezoelectricity and the Hamilton's principle. With this equivalent circuit, the voltage gain ratio, input impedance, and the efficiency of the circular flexural-vibration-mode piezoelectric transformer can be determined. The basic behavior of the transformer is shown by numerical results.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH ON GLASS FIBER SANDWICH COMPOSITE BY VARYING Z-PINS PITCHES

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin*, Jeyapratha

    2016-01-01

    This paper ambit to evaluate the flexural strength of glass fiber sandwich panels with varying z-pins pitches. Failure of sandwich panel are delamination and core shear, to minimize the crack propagation, pins are inserted in z-direction, by varying pitches through its thickness. During the insertion of pin, may cause the material some damage. Despite the damage, flexural property does not affected due interpolation of pins. Although the experiment were pull out with a phenomenal results of z...

  14. The Flexural Behavior of Denture Base Reinforced by Different Contents of Ultrahigh-Modulus Polyethylene Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dong-xuan; CHENG Xiang-rong; ZHANG Yu-feng; WANG Jun; CHENG Han-ting

    2003-01-01

    Denture base made from acrylic resin (polymethyl methacrylate,PMMA) was reinforced by different contents of ultrahigh-modulus polyethylene fiber (UHMPEF).The flexural strength of the denture base was tested,the failure modes and microstructures were investigated with a scanning electron microscope(SEM).The results indicate that 3.5wt%UHMPEF increased the ultimate flexural strength of the denture base.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF EFFICIENCY OF DISPERSE REINFORCEMENT OF STRETCHED ZONE OF FLEXURAL CONCRETE ELEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    V. S. Izotov, R. Kh. Mukhametrakhimov, L. S. Sаbitov

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement. The method of disperse reinforcement of flexural concrete elements by fiber introduction in concrete stretched zone is described.Results and conclusions. The method provides more efficient use and economy of disperse rein-forcement, materials consumption reduction at the maintenance of specified flexural strength, high impact elasticity, and fracture strength. The comparative assessment of disperse reinforcement efficiency for two types of metal fibers is given at reinforce...

  16. Chondrule Transport in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, Aaron Z; Jacquet, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Chondrule formation remains one of the most elusive early Solar System events. Here, we take the novel approach of employing numerical simulations to investigate chondrule origin beyond purely cosmochemical methods. We model the transport of generically-produced chondrules and dust in a 1D viscous protoplanetary disk model, in order to constrain the chondrule formation events. For a single formation event we are able to match analytical predictions of the memory chondrule and dust populations retain of each other (complementarity), finding that a large mass accretion rate ($\\gtrsim 10^{-7}$~M$_\\odot$~yr$^{-1}$) allows for delays on the order of the disk's viscous timescale between chondrule formation and chondrite accretion. Further, we find older disks to be severely diminished of chondrules, with accretion rates $\\lesssim 10^{-9}$~M$_\\odot$~yr$^{-1}$ for nominal parameters. We then characterize the distribution of chondrule origins in both space and time, as functions of disk parameters and chondrule format...

  17. Poynting Jets from Accretion Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelace, R V E; Ustyugova, G V; Romanova, M M; Colgate, S A

    2002-01-01

    The powerful narrow jets observed to emanate from many compact accreting objects may arise from the twisting of a magnetic field threading a differentially rotating accretion disk which acts to magnetically extract angular momentum and energy from the disk. Two main regimes have been discussed, {\\it hydromagnetic outflows}, which have a significant mass flux and have energy and angular momentum carried by both the matter and the electromagnetic field and, Poynting outflows, where the mass flux is negligible and energy and angular momentum are carried predominantly by the electromagnetic field. Here we consider a Keplerian disk initially threaded by a dipole-like magnetic field and we present solutions of the force-free Grad-Shafranov equation for the coronal plasma. We find solutions with Poynting jets where there is a continuous outflow of energy and toroidal magnetic flux from the disk into the external space. This behavior contradicts the commonly accepted ``theorem'' of Solar plasma physics that the motio...

  18. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kormendy, John

    2013-01-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via available evolution processes. The inner parts shrink and the outer parts expand, provided that some physical process transports energy or angular momentum outward. The evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks, and galaxy disks are all fundamentally similar. These processes for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. Part 1 discusses formation, growth, and death of bars. Part 2 details the slow ("secular") rearrangement of angular momentum that results from interactions between stars or gas and nonaxisymmetries such as bars. We have a heuristic understanding of how this forms outer rings, inner rings, and stuff dumped into the center. Observations show that barred galaxies have central concentrations of gas and star formation. Timescales imply that they grow central "pseudobulges" that get mistaken for ellip...

  19. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kratter, Kaitlin M

    2016-01-01

    [Abridged] Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability, and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability, supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the non-linear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analyt...

  20. Prediction of Mean and Design Fatigue Lives of Self Compacting Concrete Beams in Flexure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, S.; Singh, S. P.; Singh, P.; Kaushik, S. K.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, result of an investigation conducted to study the flexural fatigue characteristics of self compacting concrete (SCC) beams in flexure are presented. An experimental programme was planned in which approximately 60 SCC beam specimens of size 100 × 100 × 500 mm were tested under flexural fatigue loading. Approximately 45 static flexural tests were also conducted to facilitate fatigue testing. The flexural fatigue and static flexural strength tests were conducted on a 100 kN servo-controlled actuator. The fatigue life data thus obtained have been used to establish the probability distributions of fatigue life of SCC using two-parameter Weibull distribution. The parameters of the Weibull distribution have been obtained by different methods of analysis. Using the distribution parameters, the mean and design fatigue lives of SCC have been estimated and compared with Normally vibrated concrete (NVC), the data for which have been taken from literature. It has been observed that SCC exhibits higher mean and design fatigue lives compared to NVC.

  1. Flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xuhui [College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Xiangtan University, 411105 Xiangtan (China); School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, 410114 Changsha (China); Industry Key Laboratory of Traffic Infrastructure Security Risk Management (CSUST), 410114 Changsha (China); Wang, Lei, E-mail: leiwlei@hotmail.com [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, 410114 Changsha (China); Industry Key Laboratory of Traffic Infrastructure Security Risk Management (CSUST), 410114 Changsha (China); Zhang, Jianren; Ma, Yafei [School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Changsha University of Science & Technology, 410114 Changsha (China); Industry Key Laboratory of Traffic Infrastructure Security Risk Management (CSUST), 410114 Changsha (China); Liu, Yongming [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, 85281 Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Flexural behavior of bonded PT beams with strand corrosion is experimental tested. • Cracking, stiffness, ultimate strength, failure & ductility of beams are clarified. • A coefficient is proposed to measure incompatible strain between strand & concrete. - Abstract: An experimental test is performed to investigate the flexural behavior of bonded post-tensioned concrete beams under strand corrosion. Eight beams are designed and subjected to accelerated method to different corrosion levels. The initial stiffness of beams is observed by cyclic loading-unloading test during the corrosion procedure. Corrosion effects on concrete cracking, post-cracking stiffness, ultimate strength, failure mode and ductility are then clarified by the flexural test. And, a coefficient is introduced to quantify the incompatible strain between corroded strand and concrete. Results show that the prestress force loss of strand has almost the linear relation with corrosion loss. Strand corrosion affects slightly the initial stiffness of beam before flexural cracking, but degrades significantly the post-cracking stiffness of beam as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%. Slight corrosion of strand has little effects on beams flexural behavior. The severe corrosion, however, decreases the number of crack, changes the failure mode form the concrete crushing to strand rupture, degrades the ductility and the ultimate strength of beams, and leads to the incompatible strain between strand and concrete. In the present test, the incompatible strain decreases about 20% of the flexural strength as the corrosion loss exceeds 27.0%.

  2. An experimental study on flexural strength enhancement of concrete by means of small steel fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namdar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cost effective improvement of the mechanical performances of structural materials is an important goal in construction industry. To improve the flexural strength of plain concrete so as to reduce construction costs, the addition of fibers to the concrete mixture can be adopted. The addition of small steel fibers with different lengths and proportion have experimentally been analyzed in terms of concrete flexural strength enhancement. The main objectives of the present study are related to the evaluation of the influence of steel fibers design on the increase of concrete flexural characteristics and on the mode of failure. Two types of beams have been investigated. The force level, deflection and time to failure of beams have been measured. The shear crack, flexural crack and intermediate shear-flexural crack have been studied. The steel fiber content controlled crack morphology. Flexural strength and time to failure of fiber reinforce concrete could be further enhanced if, instead of smooth steel fibers, corrugated fibers were used.

  3. Understanding the drivers for the development of design rules for the synthesis of cylindrical flexures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Telleria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cylindrical flexures (CFs, defined as flexures with only one finite radius of curvature loaded normal to the plane of curvature, present an interesting research direction in compliant mechanisms. CFs are constructed out of a cylindrical stock which leads to geometry, manufacturability, and compatibility advantages. Synthesis rules must be developed to design these new systems effectively. Current knowledge in flexure design pertains to straight-beam flexures or curved flexures loaded along the plane of curvature. CFs present a challenge because their mechanics differ from those of straight beams, and although their modelling has been researched thoroughly it has yet to be distilled into element and system creation rules. This paper uses models and finite element analysis to demonstrate that current design rules for straight-beam flexures are insufficient and inadequate for the design of CF systems. The presented discussion will show that CFs differ both at the element and systems levels, and therefore future research will focus on developing the three components of the building block approach: (i reworking of element mechanics models to reveal the parameters which cause the kinematics of the curved beam to differ from those of the straight beam, (ii development of a visual stiffness representation, and (iii formation of system creation rules.

  4. 3D Seismic Flexure Analysis for Subsurface Fault Detection and Fracture Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Haibin; Gao, Dengliang

    2017-03-01

    Seismic flexure is a new geometric attribute with the potential of delineating subtle faults and fractures from three-dimensional (3D) seismic surveys, especially those overlooked by the popular discontinuity and curvature attributes. Although the concept of flexure and its related algorithms have been published in the literature, the attribute has not been sufficiently applied to subsurface fault detection and fracture characterization. This paper provides a comprehensive study of the flexure attribute, including its definition, computation, as well as geologic implications for evaluating the fundamental fracture properties that are essential to fracture characterization and network modeling in the subsurface, through applications to the fractured reservoir at Teapot Dome, Wyoming (USA). Specifically, flexure measures the third-order variation of the geometry of a seismic reflector and is dependent on the measuring direction in 3D space; among all possible directions, flexure is considered most useful when extracted perpendicular to the orientation of dominant deformation; and flexure offers new insights into qualitative/quantitative fracture characterization, with its magnitude indicating the intensity of faulting and fracturing, its azimuth defining the orientation of most-likely fracture trends, and its sign differentiating the sense of displacement of faults and fractures.

  5. Effect of test method on flexural strength of recent dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jingyue; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationships among three flexural strengths of recent dental ceramics using 3-point and 4-point bending tests and biaxial flexural test. Three brands of porcelain for veneering (d.SIGN, Supper porcelain AAA, Vintage Hallo), two injectable ceramics (Empress 2, OPC 3G), and one castable ceramic (Crys-Cera) were used. Twenty bar-shaped and 10 disc-shaped specimens of each ceramic type were prepared according to manufacturers' instructions, polished, and subjected to 3-point and 4-point bending tests and biaxial flexural test, respectively. Three flexural strengths for each ceramics were compared using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey comparison, and also investigated by Weibull analysis. The biaxial flexural strength and 3-point bending strength of all ceramics, except OPC 3G and Crys-Cera, were significantly greater than the corresponding 4-point bending strength. As for OPC 3G and Crys-Cera, their biaxial flexural strengths were significantly greater than their 3-point bending strengths, which is contrary to the other ceramics. The Weibull moduli ranged from 6.6 to 20.8. The Weibull moduli of examined ceramics, except Crys-cera, were statistically insignificant regardless of test methods.

  6. Flexural Properties of E Glass and TR50S Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chensong; Sudarisman; Davies, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    A study on the flexural properties of E glass and TR50S carbon fiber reinforced hybrid composites is presented in this paper. Specimens were made by the hand lay-up process in an intra-ply configuration with varying degrees of glass fibers added to the surface of a carbon laminate. These specimens were then tested in the three-point bend configuration in accordance with ASTM D790-07 at three span-to-depth ratios: 16, 32, and 64. The failure modes were examined under an optical microscope. The flexural behavior was also simulated by finite element analysis, and the flexural modulus, flexural strength, and strain to failure were calculated. It is shown that although span-to-depth ratio shows an influence on the stress-strain relationship, it has no effect on the failure mode. The majority of specimens failed by either in-plane or out-of-plane local buckling followed by kinking and splitting at the compressive GFRP side and matrix cracking combined with fiber breakage at the CFRP tensile face. It is shown that positive hybrid effects exist for the flexural strengths of most of the hybrid configurations. The hybrid effect is noted to be more obvious when the hybrid ratio is small, which may be attributed to the relative position of the GFRP layer(s) with respect to the neutral plane. In contrast to this, flexural modulus seems to obey the rule of mixtures equation.

  7. Design Considerations of a Slit Diaphragm Flexure Used in a Precision Mirror Gimbal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B. C., Kaufman, M. I.

    2011-09-01

    Two precision mirror gimbals were designed using slit diaphragm flexures to provide two-axis precision mirror alignment in space-limited applications. Both gimbals are currently in use in diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility: one design in the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic and the other in the Neutron Imaging System (NIS) diagnostic. The GRH gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.1 mrad about both axes and a total adjustment capability of ±6°; the NIS gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.8 μrad about both axes and a total adjustment range of ±3°. Both slit diaphragm flexures were electro-discharge machined out of high-strength titanium and utilize stainless steel stiffeners. The stiffener-flexure design results in adjustment axes with excellent orthogonality and centering with respect to the mirror in a single stage; a typical two-axis gimbal flexure requires two stages. Finite element analyses are presented for both flexure designs, and a design optimization of the GRH flexure is discussed.

  8. Design considerations of a slit diaphragm flexure used in a precision mirror gimbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Brian; Kaufman, Morris

    2011-09-01

    Two precision mirror gimbals were designed using slit diaphragm flexures to provide two-axis precision mirror alignment in space-limited applications. Both gimbals are currently in use in diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility: one design in the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic and the other in the Neutron Imaging System (NIS) diagnostic. The GRH gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.1 mrad about both axes and a total adjustment capability of +/-6° the NIS gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.8 μrad about both axes and a total adjustment range of +/-3°. Both slit diaphragm flexures were electro-discharge machined out of high-strength titanium and utilize stainless steel stiffeners. The stiffener-flexure design results in adjustment axes with excellent orthogonality and centering with respect to the mirror in a single stage; a typical two-axis gimbal flexure requires two stages. Finite element analyses are presented for both flexure designs, and a design optimization of the GRH flexure is discussed.

  9. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 300 Main St., Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  10. Collisional Grooming of Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchner, Marc J

    2009-01-01

    Debris disk images show clumps, rings, warps, and other structures, many of which have been interpreted as perturbations from hidden planets. But so far, no models of these structures have properly accounted for collisions between dust grains. We have developed new steady-state 3D models of debris disks that self-consistently incorporate grain-grain collisions. We summarize our algorithm and use it to illustrate how collisions interact with resonant trapping in the presence of a planet.

  11. Heating of protostellar accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, R. R.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.

    2017-07-01

    The magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is believed to be the mechanism responsible for a magneto-hydrodynamic turbulence that could lead to the accretion observed in protoplanetary disks. The need of a minimum amount of ionization in protostellar accretion disks is necessary for the MRI to take place. There are in the literature several studies that include the damping of Alfvén waves as an additional heating source besides the viscous heating mechanism in a geometrically thin and optically thick disk. The damping of the waves transfers energy to the disk increasing the temperature and consequently its ionization fraction, making possible the presence of the MRI in a large part of the disk. We analyzed the contribution of non-ideal effects such as Ohmic and ambipolar diffusion for the disk heating and compare these heating rates with those obtained by damping of Alfvén waves. In order to study these non-ideal effects, we have estimated the radiation emission of each effect through the energy conservation equation, and associated each emission with a black body radiation, which enabled us to assign a temperature contribution of each effect. Using the ATHENA code we were able to simulate the disk at different radial distances, and estimate the electric current density needed to calculate the radiation emission associated with each effect. Once we have those data, we were able to compare the results with other heating sources, like viscosity and Alfvén waves damping, and we concluded that the Ohmic and ambipolar diffusions do not heat the disk in any significant way.

  12. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular

  13. Resolved observations of transition disks

    CERN Document Server

    Casassus, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Resolved observations are bringing new constraints on the origin of radial gaps in protoplanetary disks. The kinematics, sampled in detail in one case-study, are indicative of non-Keplerian flows, corresponding to warped structures and accretion which may both play a role in the development of cavities. Disk asymmetries seen in the radio continuum are being interpreted in the context of dust segregation via aerodynamic trapping. We summarise recent observational progress, and also describe prospects for improvements in the near term.

  14. Two-dimensional vortices and accretion disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Michiel Doede

    2001-01-01

    Observations show that there are disks around certain stars that slowly rain down on the central (compact) object: accretion disks. The rate of depletion of the disk might be slow but is still larger than was expected on theoretical grounds. That is why it has been suggested that the disks are tu

  15. Herschel evidence for disk flattening or gas depletion in transitional disks

    CERN Document Server

    Keane, J T; Espaillat, C; Woitke, P; Andrews, S; Kamp, I; Thi, W -F; Meeus, G; Dent, W R F

    2014-01-01

    Transitional disks are protoplanetary disks characterized by reduced near- and mid-infrared emission with respect to full disks. This characteristic spectral energy distribution indicates the presence of an optically thin inner cavity within the dust disk believed to mark the disappearance of the primordial massive disk. We present new Herschel Space Observatory PACS spectra of [OI] 63 micron for 21 transitional disks. Our survey complements the larger Herschel GASPS program "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems" (Dent et al. 2013) by quadrupling the number of transitional disks observed with PACS at this wavelength. [OI] 63 micron traces material in the outer regions of the disk, beyond the inner cavity of most transitional disks. We find that transitional disks have [OI] 63 micron line luminosities two times fainter than their full disk counterparts. We self consistently determine various stellar properties (e.g. bolometric luminosity, FUV excess, etc.) and disk properties (e.g. disk dust mass, etc.) that could in...

  16. Disks around young stellar objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H C Bhatt

    2011-07-01

    By 1939, when Chandrasekhar’s classic monograph on the theory of Stellar Structure was published, although the need for recent star formation was fully acknowledged, no one had yet recognized an object that could be called a star in the process of being born. Young stellar objects (YSOs), as pre-main-sequence stars, were discovered in the 1940s and 1950s. Infrared excess emission and intrinsic polarization observed in these objects in the 1960s and 1970s indicated that they are surrounded by flattened disks. The YSO disks were seen in direct imaging only in the 1980s. Since then, high-resolution optical imaging with HST, near-infrared adaptive optics on large groundbased telescopes, mm and radiowave interferometry have been used to image disks around a large number of YSOs revealing disk structure with ever-increasing detail and variety. The disks around YSOs are believed to be the sites of planet formation and a few such associations have now been confirmed. The observed properties of the disk structure and their evolution, that have very important consequences for the theory of star and planet formation, are discussed.

  17. Global Models for Embedded, Accreting Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kratter, Kaitlin M; Krumholz, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    Most analytic work to date on protostellar disks has focused on disks in isolation from their environments. However, observations are now beginning to probe the earliest, most embedded phases of star formation, during which disks are rapidly accreting from their parent cores and cannot be modeled in isolation. We present a simple, one-zone model of protostellar accretion disks with high mass infall rates. Our model combines a self-consistent calculation of disk temperatures with an approximate treatment of angular momentum transport via several mechanisms. We use this model to survey the properties of protostellar disks across a wide range of stellar masses and evolutionary times, and make predictions for disks' masses, sizes, spiral structure, and fragmentation that will be directly testable by future large-scale surveys of deeply embedded disks. We define a dimensionless accretion-rotation parameter which, in conjunction with the disk's temperature, controls the disk evolution. We track the dominant mode of...

  18. Fragmentation of Kozai–Lidov Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wen; Lubow, Stephen H.; Martin, Rebecca G.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the gravitational instability (GI) of a locally isothermal inclined disk around one component of a binary system. Such a disk can undergo global Kozai–Lidov (KL) cycles if the initial disk tilt is above the critical KL angle (of about 40◦). During these cycles, an initially circular disk exchanges its inclination for eccentricity, and vice versa. Self-gravity may suppress the cycles under some circumstances. However, with hydrodynamic simulations that include self-gravity, we show that for a sufficiently high initial disk tilts and for certain disk masses, disks can undergo KL oscillations and fragment due to GI, even when the Toomre Q value for an equivalent undisturbed disk is well within the stable regime (Q> 2). We suggest that KL triggered disk fragmentation provides a mechanism for the efficient formation of giant planets in binary systems and may enhance the fragmentation of disks in massive black hole binaries.

  19. Magneto-thermal Disk Winds from Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Ye, Jiani; Goodman, Jeremy; Yuan, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The global evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) are governed by disk angular-momentum transport and mass-loss processes. Recent numerical studies suggest that angular-momentum transport in the inner region of PPDs is largely driven by magnetized disk wind, yet the wind mass-loss rate remains unconstrained. On the other hand, disk mass loss has conventionally been attributed to photoevaporation, where external heating on the disk surface drives a thermal wind. We unify the two scenarios by developing a one-dimensional model of magnetized disk winds with a simple treatment of thermodynamics as a proxy for external heating. The wind properties largely depend on (1) the magnetic field strength at the wind base, characterized by the poloidal Alfvén speed vAp, (2) the sound speed cs near the wind base, and (3) how rapidly poloidal field lines diverge (achieve {R}-2 scaling). When {v}{Ap}\\gg {c}{{s}}, corotation is enforced near the wind base, resulting in centrifugal acceleration. Otherwise, the wind is accelerated mainly by the pressure of the toroidal magnetic field. In both cases, the dominant role played by magnetic forces likely yields wind outflow rates that exceed purely hydrodynamical mechanisms. For typical PPD accretion-rate and wind-launching conditions, we expect vAp to be comparable to cs at the wind base. The resulting wind is heavily loaded, with a total wind mass-loss rate likely reaching a considerable fraction of the wind-driven accretion rate. Implications for modeling global disk evolution and planet formation are also discussed.

  20. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2013-04-01

    We give exact and approximation algorithms for two-center problems when the input is a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in D intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Covering and piercing disks with two centers

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Heekap

    2011-01-01

    We consider new versions of the two-center problem where the input consists of a set D of disks in the plane. We first study the problem of finding two smallest congruent disks such that each disk in intersects one of these two disks. Then we study the problem of covering the set D by two smallest congruent disks. We give exact and approximation algorithms for these versions. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Timescales of Disk Evolution and Planet Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Jayawarhana, R

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that circumstellar disks evolve from dense, actively accreting structures to low-mass, replenished remnants. During this transition, grains may assemble into planetesimals, or the disk may be cleared by newborn planets. Recently identified nearby groups of young stars provide valuable laboratories for probing disk evolution. I discuss the properties of dust disks in the TW Hydrae Association and the MBM 12 cloud, and compare the results to other studies of disk evolution and planet formation timescales.

  3. Flexural and diametral tensile strength of composite resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Della Bona

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the flexural strength (sf and the diametral tensile strength (st of light-cured composite resins, testing the hypothesis that there is a positive relation between these properties. Twenty specimens were fabricated for each material (Filtek Z250- 3M-Espe; AM- Amelogen, Ultradent; VE- Vit-l-escence, Ultradent; EX- Esthet-X, Dentsply/Caulk, following ISO 4049 and ANSI/ADA 27 specifications and the manufacturers’ instructions. For the st test, cylindrical shaped (4 mm x 6 mm specimens (n = 10 were placed with their long axes perpendicular to the applied compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The sf was measured using the 3-point bending test, in which bar shaped specimens (n = 10 were tested at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Both tests were performed in a universal testing machine (EMIC 2000 recording the fracture load (N. Strength values (MPa were calculated and statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey (a = 0.05. The mean and standard deviation values (MPa were Z250-45.06 ± 5.7; AM-35.61 ± 5.4; VE-34.45 ± 7.8; and EX-42.87 ± 6.6 for st; and Z250-126.52 ± 3.3; AM-87.75 ± 3.8; VE-104.66 ± 4.4; and EX-119.48 ± 2.1 for sf. EX and Z250 showed higher st and sf values than the other materials evaluated (p < 0.05, which followed a decreasing trend of mean values. The results confirmed the study hypothesis, showing a positive relation between the material properties examined.

  4. Comparative Analysis of the Flexural Stiffness of Pinniped Vibrissae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly C Ginter Summarell

    Full Text Available Vibrissae are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system and are used to detect vibrotactile stimuli in the environment. Pinnipeds have the largest and most highly innervated vibrissae among mammals, and the hair shafts function as a biomechanical filter spanning the environmental stimuli and the neural mechanoreceptors deep in the follicle-sinus complex. Therefore, the material properties of these structures are critical in transferring vibrotactile information to the peripheral nervous system. Vibrissae were tested as cantilever beams and their flexural stiffness (EI was measured to test the hypotheses that the shape of beaded vibrissae reduces EI and that vibrissae are anisotropic. EI was measured at two locations on each vibrissa, 25% and 50% of the overall length, and at two orientations to the point force. EI differed in orientations that were normal to each other, indicating a functional anisotropy. Since vibrissae taper from base to tip, the second moment of area (I was lower at 50% than 25% of total length. The anterior orientation exhibited greater EI values at both locations compared to the dorsal orientation for all species. Smooth vibrissae were generally stiffer than beaded vibrissae. The profiles of beaded vibrissae are known to decrease the amplitude of vibrations when protruded into a flow field. The lower EI values of beaded vibrissae, along with the reduced vibrations, may function to enhance the sensitivity of mechanoreceptors to detection of small changes in flow from swimming prey by increasing the signal to noise ratio. This study builds upon previous morphological and hydrodynamic analyses of vibrissae and is the first comparative study of the mechanical properties of pinniped vibrissae.

  5. Topographic mapping of biological specimens: flexure and curvature characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, William S.; Baron, Sandra F.

    2004-07-01

    Shape quantification of tissue and biomaterials can be central to many studies and applications in bioengineering and biomechanics. Often, shape is mapped with photogrammetry or projected light techniques that provide XYZ point cloud data, and shape is quantified using derived flexure and curvature calculations based on the point cloud data. Accordingly, the accuracy of the calculated curvature depends on the properties of the point cloud data set. In this study, we present a curvature variability prediction (CVP) software model that predicts the distribution, i.e., the standard deviation, of curvature measurements associated with surface topography point cloud data properties. The CVP model point cloud data input variables include XYZ noise, sampling density, and map extent. The CVP model outputs the curvature variability statistic in order to assess performance in the curvature domain. Representative point cloud data properties are obtained from an automated biological specimen video topographer, the BioSpecVT (ver. 1.02) (Vision Metrics, Inc.,). The BioSpecVT uses a calibrated, structured light pattern to support automated computer vision feature extraction software for precisely converting video images of biological specimens, within seconds, into three dimensional point cloud data. In representative sample point cloud data obtained with the BioSpecVT, sampling density is about 11 pts/mm2 for an XYZ mapping volume encompassing about 16 mm x 13.5 mm x 18.5 mm, average XY per point variability is about +/-2 μm, and Z axis variability is about +/-40 μm (50% level) with a Gaussian distribution. A theoretical study with the CVP model shows that for derived point cloud data properties, curvature mapping accuracy increases, i.e. measurement variability decreases, when curvature increases from about 30 m-1 to 137 m-1. This computed result is consistent with the Z axis noise becoming less significant as the measured depth increases across an approximately fixed XY

  6. The physical principles of the combined ELF/VLF method for single-station global location of lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtak, V.; Price, C.; Williams, E.

    Single -station electromagnetic methods for global lightning location are based on specific features of ELF wave propagation. First, ELF waves propagate with an extremely low attenuation not exceeding 1.5 dB/Mm up to 100 Hz. For this reason, the propagation has a resonant character (the Schumann resonance phenomena) imparting a unique pattern to the spectrum of a lightning waveform depending on the parent lightning's location relative to the given observer. The wave impedance technique realized by Kemp and Jones (1971) and widely adopted afterwards eliminates any need for the frequency dependence of the spectral density of the source's current moment for the location purpose. At the same time, an adequate single-mode propagation model can be applied for recovering this dependence and providing additional information about the source. As the only shortcoming of ELF location procedure, considerable error in estimates of the arrival directions of lightning waveforms was revealed by means of the satellite (OTD) identification of parent lightning events. These azimuthal deviations result in global location accuracies of 1-2 Mm (Boccippio et al, 1998) hardly acceptable in many geophysical problems. Price et al. (2002) found similar azimuthal errors in the ELF technique by means of the ground-truth (NLDN) identification of sprite-producing thunderstorms in Colorado when observing atmospherics in the Negev Desert, Israel. The location accuracy had been essentially improved - to better than 0.2 Mm on this 11 Mm path - by combining ELF distance estimates with VLF direction finding. Theoretical considerations show that this improvement is to be explained by a distinction between the ELF and VLF refraction effects at the day-night boundary of the Earth- ionosphere waveguide. While the difference between the day-time and night-time values of the phase velocity in the ELF range reaches 15%, it does not exceed 1% in the VLF range, with a corresponding diminishment of azimuthal

  7. Determination of Dynamic Flexural Tensile Strength of Thermally Treated Laurentian Granite Using Semi-Circular Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tubing; Wang, Pin; Li, Xibing; Wu, Bangbiao; Tao, Ming; Shu, Ronghua

    2016-10-01

    To understand the effects of increasing temperature and loading rate on the flexural tensile strength of Laurentian granite, dynamic flexural tensile strength experiments were carried out by means of a semi-circular bend specimen with a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar system. The tests were performed at different loading rates, specimens were treated from room temperature up to 850 °C, and a high-speed camera was utilized to monitor the failure process of the specimen. For samples in the same temperature group, a loading rate dependence of the flexural tensile strength was observed; it increased consistently with the increase of loading rate. Temperature effects on rock mechanical properties were investigated from the microscopic viewpoint, and the dynamic flexural tensile strength decreased with the treatment temperature. A formula relating dynamic flexural tensile strength to loading rate and temperature is presented to quantify the results. It was found that the change regulation of the dynamic flexural tensile strength of rock is very similar to that of its crack growth along with the increase of loading rate, which indicates that the essence of rock failure is the initiation and propagation of the internal cracks. Compared with our earlier work on dynamic tensile tests using the Brazilian test, it was observed that the flexural tensile strength is higher than the tensile strength. Non-local failure theory can be adopted to explain this discrepancy at low temperature conditions, but it is no longer effective at high temperatures. Under high loading rates, rock failure is initiated at the centre of the half circular disc, and finally it is separated completely into two equal parts.

  8. Flexural rigidity evolvement laws of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with carbon fiber laminates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Peng-zhi; HUANG Pei-yan; DENG Jun; HAN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that externally bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are particularly suitable for improving the fatigue behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. This paper presents the research on flexural rigidity evolvement laws by testing 14 simple-supported RC beams strengthened with carbon fiber laminates (CFL) under cyclic load, and 2 under monotone load as a reference. The cyclic load tests revealed the peak load applied onto the surface of a supported RC beam strengthened with CFL is linear to the logarithm of its fatigue life, and the flexural rigidity evolvement undergoes three distinct phases: a rapid decrease from the start to about 5% of the fatigue life; an even development from 5% to about 99% of the fatigue life; and a succedent rapid decrease to failure. When the ratio of fatigue cycles to the fatigue life is within 0.05 to 0.99, the flexural rigidity varies linearly with the ratio. The peak load does not affect the flexural rigidity evolvement if it is not high enough to make the main reinforcements yield. The dependences of the flexural rigidity of specimens formed in the same group upon their fatigue cycles normalized by fatigue life are almost coincident. This implies the flexural rigidity may be a material parameter independent of the stress level. These relationships of flexural rigidity to fatigue cycles, and fatigue life may be able to provide some hints for fatigue design and fatigue life evaluation of RC member strengthened with CFL; nevertheless the findings still need verifying by more experiments.

  9. Correlation between flexural and indirect tensile strength of resin composite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassina, Gianluca; Fischer, Jens; Rohr, Nadja

    2016-11-04

    To evaluate a potential correlation between flexural strength and indirect tensile strength in assessing the mechanical strength of resin composite cements. Flexural strength (n = 5) and indirect tensile strength (n = 5) of 7 resin composite cements (RelyX Unicem 2 Automix [RXU], Panavia SA [PSA], Clearfil SA [CSA], Panavia F2.0 [PF2], Multilink Implant [MLI], DuoCem [DCM], Panavia 21 [P21]) were determined. Specimens were either auto-polymerized or dual-cured (except P21) and stored in water at 37 °C for 1 day prior to measurement. Flexural and indirect tensile strength of 4 cements (RXU, PSA, PF2, MLI) was additionally measured directly after curing and after 96 h water storage at 37 °C. Except for PF2, dual-cured specimens achieved higher flexural strength than auto-polymerized specimens. In the indirect tensile strength test differences in auto-polymerized and dual-cured specimens were only detected for RXU and DCM. A general non-linear correlation was found between flexural and indirect tensile strength values. However, strength values of auto-polymerized and dual-cured specimens did not generally correlate. Flexural strength and indirect tensile strength of resin composite cements are correlated. At high strength values the indirect tensile test is less sensitive than the flexural test. The results suggest that the indirect tensile test may only be recommended as a screening test especially for low or medium strength resin composite cements.

  10. Assessing the extent of colon lengthening due to splenic flexure mobilization techniques: a cadaver study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Eduardo Alonso Araujo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Failure of a colorectal anastomosis represents a life-threatening complication of colorectal surgery. Splenic flexure mobilization may contribute to reduce the occurrence of anastomotic complications due to technical flaws. There are no published reports measuring the impact of splenic flexure mobilization on the length of mobilized colon viable to construct a safe colorectal anastomosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of two techniques for splenic flexure mobilization on colon lengthening during open left-sided colon surgery using a cadaver model. DESIGN: Anatomical dissections for left colectomy and colorectal anastomosis at the sacral promontory level were conducted in 20 fresh cadavers by the same team of four surgeons. The effect of partial and full splenic flexure mobilization on the extent of mobilized left colon segment was determined. SETTING: University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Tertiary medical institution and university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A team of four surgeons operated on 20 fresh cadavers. RESULTS: The length of resected left colon enabling a tension-free colorectal anastomosis at the level of sacral promontory achieved without mobilizing the splenic flexure was 46.3 (35-81 cm. After partial mobilization of the splenic flexure, an additionally mobilized colon segment measuring 10.7 (2-30 cm was obtained. After full mobilization of the distal transverse colon, a mean 28.3 (10-65 cm segment was achieved. CONCLUSION: Splenic flexure mobilization techniques are associated to effective left colon lengthening for colorectal anastomosis. This result may contribute to decision-making during rectal surgery and low colorectal and coloanal anastomosis.

  11. Implementation of Wavelet-Based Neural Network for the detection of Very Low Frequency (VLF) Whistlers Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Shivali; Kasde, Satish Kumar

    Abstract: In this paper, a wavelet-based neural network system for the detection and identification of four types of VLF whistler’s transients (i.e. dispersive, diffuse, spiky and multipath) is implemented and tested. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) technique is integrated with the feed forward neural network (FFNN) model to construct the identifier. First, the multi-resolution analysis (MRA) technique of DWT and the Parseval’s theorem are employed to extract the characteristics features of the transients at different resolution levels. Second, the FFNN identifies these extracted features to identify the transients according to the features extracted. The proposed methodology can reduce a great quantity of the features of transients without losing its original property; less memory space and computing time are required. Various transient events are tested; the results show that the identifier can detect whistler transients efficiently. Keywords: Discrete wavelets transform, Multi-resolution analysis, Parseval’s theorem and Feed forward neural network

  12. Evolution of magnetotelluric, total magnetic field, and VLF field parameters in Central Italy. Relations to local seismic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meloni, A.; Di Mauro, D.; Mele, G.; Palangio, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Ernst, T.; Teisseyre, R. [Institute of Geophysics, Warszawa (Poland)

    2001-04-01

    Magnetotelluric data were collected at Collemeluccio (41.72{sup 0}N, 14.37{sup 0}E) in Central Italy from summer 1991 to spring 1998. Analyzed by means of tensor decomposition on the geoelectric potential and robust estimation on the geomagnetic field, this set of data allowed the investigation of the electromagnetic induction, is presented here in its time evolution and compared to local and regional seismic activity. Tecto magnetic field observations from absolute magnetic field level in Central Italy were also made on data simultaneously recorded at four magnetometer stations, using L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory as a reference for differentiation. Recent results gathered from a system of two VLF search coil wide-band antennas, installed in the L'Aquila Observatory, are also discussed in relation to local seismic activity.

  13. Survey of ELF-VLF plasma waves in outer radiation belt observed by Cluster STAFF-SA experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pokhotelov

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of plasma waves have profound effects on acceleration and scattering of radiation belt particles. For the purposes of radiation belt modeling it is necessary to know statistical distributions of plasma wave parameters. This paper analyzes four years of plasma wave observations in the Earth's outer radiation belt obtained by the STAFF-SA experiment on board Cluster spacecraft. Statistical distributions of spectral density of different plasma waves observed in ELF-VLF range (chorus, plasmaspheric hiss, magnetosonic waves are presented as a function of magnetospheric coordinates and geomagnetic activity indices. Comparison with other spacecraft studies supports some earlier conclusions about the distribution of chorus and hiss waves and helps to remove the long-term controversy regarding the distribution of equatorial magnetosonic waves. This study represents a step towards the development of multi-spacecraft database of plasma wave activity in radiation belts.

  14. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  15. Disk Instabilities and Cooling Fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Vishniac, E T

    1998-01-01

    Accretion disk outbursts, and their subsequent decline, offer a unique opportunity to constrain the physics of angular momentum transport in hot accretion disks. Recent work has centered on the claim by Cannizzo et al. that the exponential decay of luminosity following an outburst in black hole accretion disk systems is only consistent with a particular form for the dimensionless viscosity, $\\alpha=35(c_s/r\\Omega)^{3/2}$. This result can be understood in terms of a simple model of the evolution of cooling fronts in accretion disks. In particular, the cooling front speed during decline is $\\sim cooling front, and the exact value of $n$ depends on the hot state opacity, (although generally $n\\approx 1/2$). Setting this speed proportional to $r$ constrains the functional form of $\\alpha$ in the hot phase of the disk, which sets it apart from previous arguments based on the relative durations of outburst and quiescence. However, it remains uncertain how well we know the exponent $n$. In addition, more work is nee...

  16. Simultaneity on the Rotating Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koks, Don

    2017-04-01

    The disk that rotates in an inertial frame in special relativity has long been analysed by assuming a Lorentz contraction of its peripheral elements in that frame, which has produced widely varying views in the literature. We show that this assumption is unnecessary for a disk that corresponds to the simplest form of rotation in special relativity. After constructing such a disk and showing that observers at rest on it do not constitute a true rotating frame, we choose a "master" observer and calculate a set of disk coordinates and spacetime metric pertinent to that observer. We use this formalism to resolve the "circular twin paradox", then calculate the speed of light sent around the periphery as measured by the master observer, to show that this speed is a function of sent-direction and disk angle traversed. This result is consistent with the Sagnac Effect, but constitutes a finer analysis of that effect, which is normally expressed using an average speed for a full trip of the periphery. We also use the formalism to give a resolution of "Selleri's paradox".

  17. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  18. Hydrogeologic Prospection With Vlf (very Low Frequency) In A Low Potential Hard Rock Aquifer Near Beja (south Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J.

    The use of geophysics prospection in hydrogeology is widely used as a way to find groundwater under difficult hydrogeologic potential rocks. The porphyric rocks lay- ered in the northern part of Beja city, are the most unproductive regional aquifer. Usu- ally this aquifer has an upper layer of 5 to 15 meters deep of weathered rock and a second layer build by fractures rock till 30 metres deep. Above this deep the probabil- ity to find groundwater is extremely low. For instance it is a very superficial aquifer that usually accomplish the topographic surface. The water use is essential for human purposes and here are used mainly for human and cattle supply. In order verify the goodness of a geophysic method and at the same time to supply a large farm called Herdade da Apariça, it was performed the geophysical method of Very Low Frequency (VLF-EM) with ABEM (WADI) equipment, in three areas previously defined by inter- pretation of aerial photography, as zones that have relative hydrogeological potential. It was performed a total of 5 profiles with 1970 m. The geophysic prospecting and hydrogeologic research allowed to drill 5 boreholes, being 4 extraction wells and 1 piezometric well. The productivity of the abstraction wells are between 2,000 L/h and 10,000 L/h, which is a very good yield when compared with the other yield values get from wells inside this aquifer. VLF proved in this conditions to be an essential tool to increment the tax success of drilling wells.

  19. VLF Remote -Sensing of the Lower Ionosphere with AWESOME Receivers: Solar Flares, Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation, Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances, Sprites, Gravity Waves and Gamma-ray Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U. S.; Cohen, M.; Scherrer, P.; Scherrer, D.

    2006-11-01

    Stanford University Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio receivers have been used extensively for remote sensing of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Among the phenomena that can be uniquely measured via VLF receivers are radio atmospherics, whistlers, electron precipitation, solar flares, sudden ionospheric disturbances, gravity waves, sprites, and cosmic gamma-ray flares. With the use of simple square air-core magnetic loop antennas of a couple of meters in size, the sensitivity of these instruments allows the measurement of magnetic fields as low as several tens of femtoTesla per root Hz, in the frequency range of ~300 Hz to 50 kHz. This sensitivity well exceeds that required to detect any event above the ambient atmospheric noise floor, determined by the totality of lightning activity on this planet. In recent years, as cost of production, timing accuracy (due to low cost GPS cards), and data handling flexibility of the systems has improved, it has become possible to distribute many of these instruments in the form of arrays, to perform interferometric and holographic imaging of the lower ionosphere. These goals can be achieved using the newest version of the Stanford VLF receiver, known as AWESOME: Atmospheric Weather Educational System for Observation and Modeling of Electromagnetics. In the context of the IHY/UNBSS program for 2007, the AWESOME receivers can be used extensively as part of the United Nations initiative to place scientific instruments in developing countries. Drawing on the Stanford experiences from setting up arrays of VLF receivers, including an interferometer in Alaska, the Holographic Array for Ionospheric and Lightning research (HAIL) consisting of instruments at 13 different high schools in mid-western United States, a broader set of ELF/VLF receivers in Alaska, and various receivers abroad, including in France, Japan, Greece, Turkey, and India, a global network of ELF/VLF receivers offer possibilities for a wide range of scientific topics

  20. Flexural strength and hardness of direct and indirect composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Borba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength (σf and hardness (H of direct and indirect composites, testing the hypotheses that direct resin composites produce higher σf and H values than indirect composites and that these properties are positively related. Ten bar-shaped specimens (25 mm x 2 mm x 2 mm were fabricated for each direct [D250 - Filtek Z250 (3M-Espe and D350 - Filtek Z350 (3M-Espe] and indirect [ISin - Sinfony (3M-Espe and IVM - VitaVM LC (Vita Zahnfabrik] materials, according to the manufacturer's instructions and ISO4049 specifications. The σf was tested in three-point bending using a universal testing machine (EMIC DL 2000 at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min (ISO4049. Knoop hardness (H was measured on the specimens' fragments resultant from the σf test and calculated as H = 14.2P/l², where P is the applied load (0.1 kg; dwell time = 15 s and l is the longest diagonal of the diamond shaped indent (ASTM E384. The data were statistically analyzed using Anova and Tukey tests (α = 0.05. The mean σf and standard deviation values (MPa and statistical grouping were: D250 - 135.4 ± 17.6a; D350 - 123.7 ± 11.1b; ISin - 98.4 ± 6.4c; IVM - 73.1 ± 4.9d. The mean H and standard deviation values (kg/mm² and statistical grouping were: D250 - 98.12 ± 1.8a; D350 - 86.5 ± 1.9b; ISin - 28.3 ± 0.9c; IVM - 30.8 ± 1.0c. The direct composite systems examined produce higher mean σf and H values than the indirect composites, and the mean values of these properties were positively correlated (r = 0.91, confirming the study hypotheses.

  1. The Milky Way's Stellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Rix, Hans-Walter

    2013-01-01

    A suite of vast stellar surveys mapping the Milky Way, culminating in the Gaia mission, is revolutionizing the empirical information about the distribution and properties of stars in the Galactic stellar disk. We review and lay out what analysis and modeling machinery needs to be in place to test mechanisms of disk galaxy evolution and to stringently constrain the Galactic gravitational potential, using such Galactic star-by-star measurements. We stress the crucial role of stellar survey selection functions in any such modeling; and we advocate the utility of viewing the Galactic stellar disk as made up from `mono-abundance populations' (MAPs), both for dynamical modeling and for constraining the Milky Way's evolutionary processes. We review recent work on the spatial and kinematical distribution of MAPs, and lay out how further study of MAPs in the Gaia era should lead to a decisively clearer picture of the Milky Way's dark matter distribution and formation history.

  2. Free flexural radial vibrations of a thin circular cylindrical shell bearing added mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seregin Sergey Valer’evich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author comes up with a refined mathematical model contemplating that added mass facilitates interaction between coupled flexural and radial vibrations in the linear setting. The author has identified a higher splitting of the flexural frequency spectrum due to the presence of the added mass and the wave generation parameters that characterize the relative length and thickness of the shell. Within the framework of the shallow-shell theory, the influence of the small concentrated mass onto natural dynamic properties of the shell is exposed to research. The refined mathematical model was employed to identify that the added mass binds the coupled flexural shape of the circular cylindrical shell and facilitates interaction between low-frequency flexural vibrations and high-frequency radial vibrations. Moreover, radial vibrations act as a supplementary inertial link between coupled flexural shapes. Due to the availability of the exciting load, non-resonant areas, identified through the application of the traditional mathematical model, can be resonant in essence. The findings of this research must be considered in the course of the assessment of the dynamic strength of any shell structures designed. This refined finite-dimensional model, capable of recognizing radial vibrations, has generated the results that comply with numerical analyses and experimental data both quantitatively and qualitatively. Therefore, dynamic problems that have already been resolved may need refinement.

  3. In vitro evaluation of flexural strength of different brands of expansion screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kádna Fernanda Mendes de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the flexural strength of the stems of three maxillary expanders screws of Morelli, Forestadent and Dentaurum brands. METHODS: The sample consisted of nine expander screws (totalizing of 36 stems, three from each brand, all stainless steel and 12 mm of expansion capacity. The stems of the expander screws were cut with cutting pliers close to the weld region with screw body, then fixed in a universal testing machine Instron 4411 for tests of bending resistance of three points. The ultimate strength in kgF exerted by the machine to bend the stem of the 5 mm screw was recorded and the flexural strength was calculated using a mathematical formula. During the flexural strength test it was verified the modulus of elasticity of the stems by means of Bluehill 2 software. The flexural strength data were subjected to ANOVA with one criterion and Tukey's test, with significance level of 5%. RESULTS: Forestadent screw brand showed the greatest bending strength, significantly higher than Dentaurum. Morelli showed the lowest resistance. CONCLUSION: The flexural strength of the screws varied according to the brand. Forestadent screw showed the greatest resistance and Morelli the lowest. All the three screws were found adequate for use in procedures for rapid maxillary expansion.

  4. Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testi, L.; Birnstiel, T.; Ricci, L.; Andrews, S.; Blum, J.; Carpenter, J.; Dominik, C.; Isella, A.; Natta, A.; Williams, J. P.; Wilner, D. J.

    In the core-accretion scenario for the formation of planetary rocky cores, the first step toward planet formation is the growth of dust grains into larger and larger aggregates and eventually planetesimals. Although dust grains are thought to grow up to micrometer-sized particles in the dense regions of molecular clouds, the growth to pebbles and kilometer-sized bodies must occur at the high densities within protoplanetary disks. This critical step is the last stage of solids evolution that can be observed directly in extrasolar systems before the appearance of large planetary-sized bodies. In this chapter we review the constraints on the physics of grain-grain collisions as they have emerged from laboratory experiments and numerical computations. We then review the current theoretical understanding of the global processes governing the evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks, including dust settling, growth, and radial transport. The predicted observational signatures of these processes are summarized. We briefly discuss grain growth in molecular cloud cores and in collapsing envelopes of protostars, as these likely provide the initial conditions for the dust in protoplanetary disks. We then review the observational constraints on grain growth in disks from millimeter surveys, as well as the very recent evidence for radial variations of the dust properties in disks. We also include a brief discussion on the small end of the grain size distribution and dust settling as derived from optical, near-, and mid-infrared observations. Results are discussed in the context of global dust-evolution models; in particular, we focus on the emerging evidence for a very efficient early growth of grains and the radial distribution of maximum grain sizes as the result of growth barriers. We also highlight the limits of the current models of dust evolution in disks, including the need to slow the radial drift of grains to overcome the migration/fragmentation barrier.

  5. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  6. Nonaxisymmetric evolution in protostellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Bodenheimer, Peter

    1994-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional, multigridded hydrodynamical simulation of the collapse of an axisymmetric, rotating, 1 solar mass protostellar cloud, which forms a resolved, hydrotastic disk. The code includes the effects of physical viscosity, radiative transfer and radiative acceleration but not magnetic fields. We examine how the disk is affected by the inclusion of turbulent viscosity by comparing a viscous simulation with an inviscid model evolved from the same initial conditions, and we derive a disk evolutionary timescale on the order of 300,000 years if alpha = 0.01. Effects arising from non-axisymmetric gravitational instabilities in the protostellar disk are followed with a three-dimensional SPH code, starting from the two-dimensional structure. We find that the disk is prone to a series of spiral instabilities with primary azimulthal mode number m = 1 and m = 2. The torques induced by these nonaxisymmetric structures elicit material transport of angular momentum and mass through the disk, readjusting the surface density profile toward more stable configurations. We present a series of analyses which characterize both the development and the likely source of the instabilities. We speculate that an evolving disk which maintains a minimum Toomre Q-value approximately 1.4 will have a total evolutionary span of several times 10(exp 5) years, comparable to, but somewhat shorter than the evolutionary timescale resulting from viscous turbulence alone. We compare the evolution resulting from nonaxisymmetric instabilities with solutions of a one-dimensional viscous diffusion equation applied to the initial surface density and temperature profile. We find that an effective alpha-value of 0.03 is a good fit to the results of the simulation. However, the effective alpha will depend on the minimum Q in the disk at the time the instability is activated. We argue that the major fraction of the transport characterized by the value of alpha is due to the action of

  7. The Herschel Cold Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspar, Andras

    2013-01-01

    The Herschel "DUst around NEarby Stars (DUNES)" survey has found a number of debris disk candidates that are apparently very cold, with temperatures near 22K. It has proven difficult to fit their spectral energy distributions with conventional models for debris disks. Given this issue we carefully examine the alternative explanation, that the detections arise from confusion with IR cirrus and/or background galaxies that are not physically associated with the foreground star. We find that such an explanation is consistent with all of these detections.

  8. Cumulative Effect of Crumb Rubber and Steel Fiber on the Flexural Toughness of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Abu Bakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concrete properties, such as toughness and ductility, are enhanced to resist different impacts or blast loads. Rubberized concrete, which could be considered a green material, is produced from recycled waste tires grinded into different crumb rubber particle sizes and mixed with concrete. In this study, the behavior of rubberized steel fiber-reinforced concrete is investigated. Flexural performance of concrete beams (400×100×100 mm manufactured from plain, steel fiber, crumb rubber and combination crumb rubber and steel fiber are also evaluated. Similarly, concrete slabs (500×500×50 mm are also tested under flexural loading. Flexural performance of the SFRRC mixtures was significantly enhanced. The toughness and maximum deflection of specimens with rubber were considerably improved. Steel fiber/crumb rubber-reinforced concrete can be used for practical application, which requires further studies.

  9. Adaptive Kalman Filter of Transfer Alignment with Un-modeled Wing Flexure of Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The alignment accuracy of the strap-down inertial navigation system (SINS) of airborne weapon is greatly degraded by the dynamic wing flexure of the aircraft. An adaptive Kalman filter uses innovation sequences based on the maximum likelihood estimated criterion to adapt the system noise covariance matrix and the measurement noise covariance matrix on line, which is used to estimate the misalignment if the model of wing flexure of the aircraft is unknown. From a number of simulations, it is shown that the accuracy of the adaptive Kalman filter is better than the conventional Kalman filter, and the erroneous misalignment models of the wing flexure of aircraft will cause bad estimation results of Kalman filter using attitude match method.

  10. Thin elastic shells with variable thickness for lithospheric flexure of one-plate planets

    CERN Document Server

    Beuthe, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Planetary topography can either be modeled as a load supported by the lithosphere, or as a dynamical effect due to lithospheric flexure caused by mantle convection. In both cases the response of the lithosphere to external forces can be calculated with the theory of thin elastic plates or shells. On one-plate planets the spherical geometry of the lithospheric shell plays an important role in the flexure mechanism. So far the equations governing the deformations and stresses of a spherical shell have only been derived under the assumption of a shell of constant thickness. However local studies of gravity and topography data suggest large variations in the thickness of the lithosphere. In this article we obtain the scalar flexure equations governing the deformations of a thin spherical shell with variable thickness or variable Young's modulus. The resulting equations can be solved in succession, except for a system of two simultaneous equations, the solutions of which are the transverse deflection and an associ...

  11. Effect of polymerization cycles on flexural strengths and microhardness of different denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungor, Hasan; Gundogdu, Mustafa; Alkurt, Murat; Yesil Duymus, Zeynep

    2017-01-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different polymerization cycles on the flexural strengths and microhardness of two denture base materials (Meliodent and Paladent). Heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens (65.0 mm long×10.0 mm wide×2.5 mm in height) were prepared using different short and long polymerization cycles. After the specimens had been polymerized, they were stored in distilled water at 37±1°C for 24 h. Flexural strength test was performed at a cross-head speed of 5 mm/min and Vickers microhardness was measured. Data were analyzed with a 1-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey test, and Student t-test (α=0.05). The flexural strengths and microhardness were significantly different between Meliodent and Paladent (pmicrohardness (p<0.05). Polymerization with G cycle may be suggested for Meliodent and H cycle may be suggested for Paladent.

  12. Processing, structure and flexural strength of CNT and carbon fibre reinforced, epoxy-matrix hybrid composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chandra Shekar; M Sai Priya; P K Subramanian; Anil Kumar; B Anjaneya Prasad; N Eswara Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Advanced materials such as continuous fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites offer significant enhancements in variety of properties, as compared to their bulk, monolithic counterparts. These properties include primarily the tensile stress, flexural stress and fracture parameters. However, till date, there are hardly any scientific studies reported on carbon fibre (Cf) and carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced hybrid epoxy matrix composites (unidirectional). The present work is an attempt to bring out the flexural strength properties along with a detailed investigation in the synthesis of reinforced hybrid composite. In this present study, the importance of alignment of fibre is comprehensively evaluated and reported. The results obtained are discussed in terms of material characteristics, microstructure and mode of failure under flexural (3-point bend) loading. The study reveals the material exhibiting exceptionally high strength values and declaring itself as a material with high strength to weight ratio when compared to other competing polymer matrix composites (PMCs); as a novel structural material for aeronautical and aerospace applications.

  13. Flexural-torsional buckling analysis of angle-bar stiffened plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Rahbar Ranji [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The interaction of flexural-torsional buckling modes is critical for stiffened plates with asymmetric stiffeners. However, this interaction is ignored in all design rules because it is complex to characterize. In the literature, the presence of an attached plate is ignored, and stiffened plate is treated as an ordinary asymmetric beam. In the flexural buckling mode, stiffener and the attached plate buckle together; in the torsional buckling mode, the attached plate cannot freely rotate with stiffener. Basic equations of the flexural-torsional buckling modes are deduced based on hybrid beam concept and a new strain distribution assumption for sideway bending of stiffeners. Elastic buckling stresses of different angle-bar stiffened plates are calculated and compared with those generated by the Finite element method (FEM) and those available in the literature. The present method has better agreements with FEM.

  14. Physical and theoretical modeling of rock slopes against block-flexure toppling failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Block-flexure is the most common mode of toppling failure in natural and excavated rock slopes. In such failure, some rock blocks break due to tensile stresses and some overturn under their own weights and then all of them topple together. In this paper, first, a brief review of previous studies on toppling failures is presented. Then, the physical and mechanical properties of experimental modeling materials are summarized. Next, the physical modeling results of rock slopes with the potential of block-flexural toppling failures are explained and a new analytical solution is proposed for the stability analysis of such slopes. The results of this method are compared with the outcomes of the experiments. The comparative studies show that the proposed analytical approach is appropriate for the stability analysis of rock slopes against block-flexure toppling failure. Finally, a real case study is used for the practical verification of the suggested method.

  15. Cyclic loading effect on the flexural properties of commercial mdf and particleboard panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Henrique Soares Del Menezzi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of fatigue through different loading cycles (20,0000; 40,000 and 80,000 cycles on deflection and flexural properties of commercial MDF and particleboard panels. A 2.2 seconds (0.45 Hz cyclic loading was employed and the applied load about 25% of modulus of rupture was used. After the tests, final deflection (with load, residual deflection (without load and flexural properties of the panels were evaluated. According to the results, the flexural properties for both kinds of panels were not affected by the loading cycles tested. However, it was identified that the MDF residual deflection was affected between 20,000 and 80,000 loading cycles.

  16. Flexural fatigue characteristics of steel fiber reinforced recycled aggregate concrete (SFRRAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeralal M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is aimed at investigating the flexural fatigue behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Recycled Aggregate Concrete (SFRRAC. This study gains importance in view of the wide potential for demolished concrete to serve as a source of quality aggregate feed stock in a variety of structural and non-structural applications. This is a continuation of a series of investigations being conducted aimed at optimizing the utilization of recycled aggregate concrete in rigid pavements. A total of 72 standard flexure specimens of 100mm x 100mm x 450mm were cast and tested for flexure under both static and fatigue loading. The parameters of the investigation included the different replacements of recycled aggregate in natural aggregate, presence of steel fiber and different stress levels. The study showed that the recycled aggregates can be used in rigid pavements also and the inclusion of fibers can benefit the fatigue performance of recycled aggregate concrete.

  17. Effect of fiber loading on flexural strength of hybrid sisal/hemp-HDPE composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Lakshya; Sinha, Shishir; Gupta, V. K.

    2015-05-01

    The continuing demand for sustainable materials and increasing environmental concerns have led to intense research in the field of natural fiber reinforced composites. Natural fibers are favored over synthetic fibers as reinforcement due to positive environmental benefits such as raw material utilization at source and easy disposable of the biodegradable fiber. In the present work, we have investigated flexural behavior of hybrid natural fiber reinforced HDPE composites. The matrix comprises of 50-50 ratio of virgin and recycled HDPE and the content of fibers (sisal and hemp) in the composite is varied from 10 to 30%. The natural fibers were mercerized with NaOH solution and chemically treated with maleic anhydride. The flexural specimens were prepared by injection moulding process and the testing was conducted in accordance to ASTM D790 standards. It is revealed that the flexural strength of the hybrid composite increases with the increase in fibers content when compared to specimen containing 100% HDPE.

  18. Effects of Core Softness and Bimodularity of Fibreglass Layers on Flexural Stiffness of Polymer Sandwich Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuba Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the flexural stiffness of the sandwich structures based on fibreglass and polymeric foams. The influence of geometrical and material parameters on the resulting effective flexural stiffness of the sandwich structure is being studied experimentally, analytically and by using FEM models. The effective modulus of elasticity of the sandwich-structured element is being studied and its theoretical and model dependencies on the flexibility of the foam core and bimodularity of the fibreglass layers are being investigated. The achieved results are compared with the experimentally observed values. This study shows that it is necessary to pay special attention to the issue of flexural stiffness of the walls when designing sandwich shell products in order to prevent possible failures in the practical applications of these types of structures.

  19. FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALINE TREATED SUGAR PALM FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bachtiar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of alkaline treatment on the flexural properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites is presented in this paper. The composites were reinforced with 10% weight fraction of the fibres. The fibres were treated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH with 0.25 M and 0.5 M concentration solution for 1 hour, 4 hours and 8 hours soaking time. The purpose of treating fibres with alkali was to enhance the interfacial bonding between matrix and fibre surfaces. The maximum flexural strength occurred at 0.25 M NaOH solution with 1 hour of soaking time, i.e 96.71 MPa, improving by 24.41% from untreated fibre composite. But, the maximum flexural modulus took place at 0.5 M NaOH solution with 4 hours soaking time, i.e. 6948 MPa, improving by 148% from untreated composite.

  20. Further study on the role of atmospheric gravity waves on the seismo-ionospheric perturbations as detected by subionospheric VLF/LF propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Muto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As the target earthquake we have taken a huge earthquake (EQ named Miyagi-oki earthquake on 16 August 2005 (with magnitude of 7.2 and we have analyzed the 4 month period including the date of this EQ. In addition to our previous analysis on the nighttime average amplitude (trend and nighttime fluctuation, we have proposed the use of fluctuation power spectra in the frequency rage of atmospheric gravity waves (period=10 min to 100 min as a third parameter of subionospheric VLF/LF propagation characteristics. Then it is found that this third parameter would be of additional importance in confirming the presence of seismo-ionospheric perturbations. Finally, we have discovered an important role of lunar tidal effect in the VLF/LF data, which appears one and two months before this large EQ.

  1. Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Mohammed Abdullah Al-Makramani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995 were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8±87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4±28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7±12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001. There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05. Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N. CONCLUSIONS: Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

  2. Flexural resistance of heat-pressed and CAD-CAM lithium disilicate with different translucencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian Fonzar, Riccardo; Carrabba, Michele; Sedda, Maurizio; Ferrari, Marco; Goracci, Cecilia; Vichi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    To compare flexural strength of CAD-CAM and heat-pressed lithium disilicate. For Pressed specimens (Group A), acrylate polymer blocks were cut with a saw in bars shape. Sprueing, investing and preheating procedures were carried out following manufacturer's instructions. IPS e.max Press ingots (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were divided into subgroups (n=15) according to translucency: A.1=HT-A3; A.2=MT-A3; A.3=LT-A3; A.4=MO2. Ingots were then pressed following manufacturer's instructions. For CAD-CAM specimens (Group B) blocks of IPS e.max CAD (Ivoclar-Vivadent) were divided into subgroups: B.1=HT-A3; B.2=MT-A3; B.3=LT-A3; B.4=MO2. Specimens (n=15) were obtained by cutting the blocks with a saw. Final crystallization was performed following manufacturer's instructions. Both Press and CAD specimens were polished and finished with silica carbide papers of increasing grit. Final dimensions of the specimens were 4.0±0.2mm, 1.2±0.2mm, and 16.0±0.2mm. Specimens were tested using a three-point bending test. Flexural strength, Weibull modulus, and Weibull characteristic strength were calculated. Flexural strength data were statistically analyzed. The overall means of Press and CAD specimens did not differ significantly. Within the Press group different translucencies were found to have similar flexural strength. Within the CAD group, statistically significant differences emerged among the tested translucencies (pCAD formulations can be based on different criteria than flexural resistance. Within each formulation, for IPS e.max Press translucency does not affect the flexural strength while for IPS e.max CAD it is an influential factor. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of zinc oxide on flexural and physical properties of PMMA composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Wan Nur Fadilla Wan; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Mohamad, Dasmawati

    2016-12-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most widely accepted material in maxillofacial implants due to its superior advantages. The material used for craniofacial implant should have good mechanical and antibacterial properties to withstand forces and eliminate infection. A study was conducted to prepare PMMA incorporated with β-tricalcium phosphate (β -TCP) filler and zinc oxide as an antibacterial agent at different compositions and investigate the flexural properties of the produced PMMA/β- TCP/ZnOcomposites. Pure PMMA as control,15 % β -TCP filled, 15% β -TCPwith 2.5% ZnO filled as well as15% β -TCPwith5% ZnOfilled PMMA were prepared. PMMA were mixed together with β -TCP and zinc oxide manually according to the percentages specified until it has reached the homogeneous state. Flexural specimens were prepared by casting the paste in silicone mould which has been fabricated using 3D printed flexural template. The number of samples was n=7 for each composition. Statistical analysis of One Way ANOVA was employed to compare the flexural properties of each samples. Flexural strength of pure PMMA,15 % β -TCP filled, 15% β -TCP with 2.5% ZnO filled as well as 15% β -TCP with 5% ZnO filled PMMA were 60.79, 46.75, 38.72 and 41.49 MPa respectively. The addition of either β- TCP or β- TCP with ZnO decreased the flexural properties and it showed significant differences as compared to pure PMMA (p0.05).

  4. Effect of cavity preparation on the flexural strengths of acrylic resin repairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Salim Elhadiry

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cavity preparation on the flexural strength of heat-curing denture resin when repaired with an auto-curing resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-six rectangular specimens (64x10x2.5 mm prepared from heat-curing denture base resin (Meliodent were randomly divided into four groups before repair. One group was left intact as control. Each repair specimen was sectioned into two; one group was repaired using the conventional repair method (Group 1. Two groups had an additional transverse cavity (2x3.5x21.5 mm prepared prior to the repair; one repaired with (Group 2 and one without glass-fiber reinforcement (Group 3. A three-point flexural bending test according to the ISO 1567:1999 specification8 for denture base polymers was carried out on all groups after 1, 7 and 30 days of water immersion. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and post-hoc Mann Whitney tests. RESULTS: The highest flexural strength was observed in the control group. Control and conventional repairs group (Group 1 showed reduction in the flexural strength 30 days after water immersion. No significant change in the strength was observed for Groups 2 and 3 where the repair joints were similarly prepared with additional transverse cavity. CONCLUSION: Repaired specimens showed lower flexural strength values than intact heat-curing resin. Cavity preparation had no significant effect on the flexural strength of repair with water immersion.

  5. Comparison of porcelain surface and flexural strength obtained by microwave and conventional oven glazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Soni; Monaco, Edward A; Kim, Hyeongil; Davis, Elaine L; Brewer, Jane D

    2009-01-01

    Although the superior qualities of microwave technology are common knowledge in the industry, effects of microwave glazing of dental ceramics have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface roughness and flexural strength achieved by glazing porcelain specimens in a conventional and microwave oven. Thirty specimens of each type of porcelain (Omega 900 and IPS d.Sign) were fabricated and sintered in a conventional oven. The specimens were further divided into 3 groups (n=10): hand polished (using diamond rotary ceramic polishers), microwave glazed, and conventional oven glazed. Each specimen was evaluated for surface roughness using a profilometer. The flexural strength of each specimen was measured using a universal testing machine. A 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc analysis were used to determine significant intergroup differences in surface roughness (alpha=.05). Flexural strength results were also analyzed using 2-way ANOVA, and the Weibull modulus was determined for each of the 6 groups. The surfaces of the specimens were subjectively evaluated for cracks and porosities using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A significant difference in surface roughness was found among the surface treatments (P=.02). Follow-up tests showed a significant difference in surface roughness between oven-glazed and microwave-glazed treatments (P=.02). There was a significant difference in flexural strength between the 2 porcelains (Pmicrowave-glazed group was the highest (1.9) as compared to the other groups. The surface character of microwave-glazed porcelain was superior to oven-glazed porcelain. Omega 900 had an overall higher flexural strength than IPS d.Sign. Weibull distributions of flexural strengths for Omega 900 oven-glazed and microwave-glazed specimens were similar. SEM analysis demonstrated a greater number of surface voids and imperfections in IPS d. Sign as compared to Omega 900.

  6. Herniated Disk in the Lower Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two components: Healthy intervertebral disk (cross- section view). • Annulus fibrosus. This is the tough, flexible outer ring ... the Lower Back cont. Surgical Treatment Only a small percentage of patients with lumbar disk herniations require ...

  7. Vortex migration in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Paardekooper, S -J; Papaloizou, J C B

    2010-01-01

    We consider the radial migration of vortices in two-dimensional isothermal gaseous disks. We find that a vortex core, orbiting at the local gas velocity, induces velocity perturbations that propagate away from the vortex as density waves. The resulting spiral wave pattern is reminiscent of an embedded planet. There are two main causes for asymmetries in these wakes: geometrical effects tend to favor the outer wave, while a radial vortensity gradient leads to an asymmetric vortex core, which favors the wave at the side that has the lowest density. In the case of asymmetric waves, which we always find except for a disk of constant pressure, there is a net exchange of angular momentum between the vortex and the surrounding disk, which leads to orbital migration of the vortex. Numerical hydrodynamical simulations show that this migration can be very rapid, on a time scale of a few thousand orbits, for vortices with a size comparable to the scale height of the disk. We discuss the possible effects of vortex migrat...

  8. The Search for VLF Precursors to Major Earthquakes: A Case Study with the M9.0 Earthquake of 11-Mar-2011 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M.; Kosovichev, P.; Marshall, R. A.; Droscoll, A.; Scherrer, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    It has been proposed that Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio remote sensing may be used to detect ionospheric changes which may precede major earthquakes by hours or days. We report the results of a search for VLF precursors to the M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of 11-Mar-2011, the fifth most powerful earthquake in recorded history. Broadband and narrowband radio recordings were made at a site in Onagawa, Japan located ~102 km from the epicenter. The receiver operated for about two minutes after the start of the earthquake, after which the receiver lost power. Examination of the VLF data shows no radio emissions preceding or coincident with the onset of the earthquake. However, once the secondary seismic waves reached the receiver, a number of impulses and diffuse noise bands arose which may result from the entire power grid shaking or from radio emissions from compressing or fracturing rocks. Examination of the ELF data (0.2-1 kHz) shows no precursor effect in the hours preceding the seismic activity. We also examine the amplitudes of VLF subionospherically propagating transmitter signals going back months before the earthquake. We apply previously proposed techniques to extract properties of the diurnal amplitude profile that have been thought to correlate with earthquake precursors, but find no anomalous effect despite the remarkable intensity of the earthquake and proximity of the receiver to the epicenter. In general there are anomalous deviations but they cannot be reliably correlated with seismic activity. We also report the results of a global search for a lightning precursor effect on lightning flash rates, using the GLD360 network.

  9. Effect of Ceramic Surface Treatments After Machine Grinding on the Biaxial Flexural Strength of Different CAD/CAM Dental Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Hossein; Aghajani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different ceramic surface treatments after machining grinding on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of machinable dental ceramics with different crystalline phases. Materials and Methods: Disk-shape specimens (10mm in diameter and 1.3mm in thickness) of machinable ceramic cores (two silica-based and one zirconia-based ceramics) were prepared. Each type of the ceramic surfaces was then randomly treated (n=15) with different treatments as follows: 1) machined finish as control, 2) machined finish and sandblasting with alumina, and 3) machined finish and hydrofluoric acid etching for the leucite and lithium disilicate-based ceramics, and for the zirconia; 1) machined finish and post-sintered as control, 2) machined finish, post-sintered, and sandblasting, and 3) machined finish, post-sintered, and Nd;YAG laser irradiation. The BFS were measured in a universal testing machine. Data based were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparisons post-hoc test (α=0.05). Results: The mean BFS of machined finish only surfaces for leucite ceramic was significantly higher than that of sandblasted (P=0.001) and acid etched surfaces (P=0.005). A significantly lower BFS was found after sandblasting for lithium disilicate compared with that of other groups (P<0.05). Sandblasting significantly increased the BFS for the zirconia (P<0.05), but the BFS was significantly decreased after laser irradiation (P<0.05). Conclusions: The BFS of the machinable ceramics was affected by the type of ceramic material and surface treatment method. Sandblasting with alumina was detrimental to the strength of only silica-based ceramics. Nd:YAG laser irradiation may lead to substantial strength degradation of zirconia. PMID:27148372

  10. Flexural waves in fluid-filled tubes subject to axial impact

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally studied the propagation of coupled fluid stress waves and tube flexural waves generated through projectile impact along the axis of a water-filled tube. We tested mild steel tubes, 38–40 mm inner diameter and wall thicknesses of 0.8 mm, 6.4 mm, and 12.7 mm. A steel impactor was accelerated using an air cannon and struck a polycarbonate buffer placed on top of the water surface within the tube. Elastic flexural waves were observed for impact speeds of 5–10 m/s and plastic wav...

  11. Fabrication and flexural strength of multi-layer alumina with aligned acicular pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Soo; Lee, Myoung-Won; Kim, Hai-Doo; Jung, Yeon-Gil

    2004-07-01

    Multi-layer alumina with alternating dense and porous layers with aligned acicular pores was successfully prepared by tape casting the slurry with chopped carbon fibers followed by pressureless sintering. As the content of the chopped carbon fiber increased, the open porosity was increased, in part due to impingement among the carbon fibers inside the sample. The three-point flexural strength of the sample with total porosity of 11% was approximately 80% that of a dense sample. However, a sample with a porous layer with 5% chopped carbon fiber exhibited only 60% flexural strength of the dense sample, in part due to a low degree of alignment among the chopped fibers.

  12. Omnidirectional refractive devices for flexural waves based on graded phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.torrent@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram [Institut d' Electronique, de Microléctronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR CNRS 8520, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2014-12-14

    Different omnidirectional refractive devices for flexural waves in thin plates are proposed and numerically analyzed. Their realization is explained by means phononic crystal plates, where a previously developed homogenization theory is employed for the design of graded index refractive devices. These devices consist of a circular cluster of inclusions with a properly designed gradient in their radius. With this approach, the Luneburg and Maxwell lenses and a family of beam splitters for flexural waves are proposed and analyzed. Results show that these devices work properly in a broadband frequency region, being therefore an efficient approach for the design of refractive devices specially interesting for nano-scale applications.

  13. Effects of Reinforcement Geometry on Strength and Stiffness in Adhesively Bonded Steel-Timber Flexural Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Smedley

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A finite element model is developed to analyse, as a function of volume fraction, the effects of reinforcement geometry and arrangement within a timber beam. The model is directly validated against experimental equivalents and found to never be mismatched by more than 8% in respect to yield strength predictions. Yield strength increases linearly as a function of increasing reinforcement volume fraction, while the flexural modulus follows more closely a power law regression fit. Reinforcement geometry and location of reinforcement are found to impact both the flexural properties of timber-steel composite beams and the changes due to an increase in volume fraction.

  14. Flexural vibration band gaps in thin plates with two-dimensional binary locally resonant structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Dian-Long; Wang Gang; Liu Yao-Zong; Wen Ji-Hong; Qiu Jing

    2006-01-01

    The complete flexural vibration band gaps are studied in the thin plates with two-dimensional binary locally resonant structures, i.e. the composite plate consisting of soft rubber cylindrical inclusions periodically placed in a host material. Numerical simulations show that the low-frequency gaps of flexural wave exist in the thin plates. The width of the first gap decreases monotonically as the matrix density increases. The frequency response of the finite periodic thin plates is simulated by the finite element method, which provides attenuations of over 20dB in the frequency range of the band gaps. The findings will be significant in the application of phononic crystals.

  15. Effect of Nanoclay on the Flexural Creep Behavior of Wood/Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kord, B.; Sheykholeslami, A.; Najafi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nanoclay on the short-term flexural creep behavior of polypropylene/wood flour composites was investigated. The results obtained showed that the flexural strength and modulus increased with contentt of nanoclay up to 3 phc and then decreased. The fractional deflection and relative creep decreased with increasing content of nanoclay. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the nanocomposites formed were intercalated. Morphological findings testified that the samples containing 3 phc of nanoclay had the highest degree of intercalation and dispersion.

  16. A flexure-based wrist for needle-sized surgical robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Dylan P.; York, Peter A.; Swaney, Philip J.; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel flexure-based wrist design intended for use with needle-sized robotic manipulators. It is designed to be mounted at the tip of a traditional surgical needle, deployed through an endoscope working channel, or attached to the tip of a concentric tube robot. In all these applications, the wrist enables dexterity in small spaces. The wrist consists of two stacked flexure joints that are actuated by thin pull wires. In this paper we present the design of the wrist, its kinematics, and an experimental evaluation of the relationship between actuation force and tip displacement conducted using a scale model.

  17. The Structure of Brown Dwarf Circumstellar Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Christina; Wood, Kenneth; Lada, C. J.; Robitaille, Thomas; Bjorkman, J. E.; Whitney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra for circumstellar disks that are heated by radiation from a central brown dwarf. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium, our models yield scaleheights for brown dwarf disks in excess of three times those derived for classical T Tauri (CTTS) disks. If the near-IR excess emission observed from brown dwarfs is indeed due to circumstellar disks, then the large scaleheights we find could have a significant impact on the optical and near-IR detectabili...

  18. Optimization of the Processing of Mo Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Harvey, James [NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to decrease the processing time for irradiated disks of enriched Mo for the production of 99Mo. Results are given for the dissolution of nonirradiated Mo disks, optimization of the process for large-scale dissolution of sintered disks, optimization of the removal of the main side products (Zr and Nb) from dissolved targets, and dissolution of irradiated Mo disks.

  19. Fabrication of Large YBCO Superconducting Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczor, Ronald J.; Noever, David A.; Robertson, Glen A.

    1999-01-01

    We have undertaken fabrication of large bulk items to develop a repeatable process and to provide test articles in laboratory experiments investigating reported coupling of electromagnetic fields with the local gravity field in the presence of rotating superconducting disks. A successful process was developed which resulted in fabrication of 30 cm diameter annular disks. The disks were fabricated of the superconductor YBa2Cu3O(7-x). Various material parameters of the disks were measured.

  20. PSOCT studies of intervertebral disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcher, Stephen J.; Winlove, Peter C.; Gangnus, Sergey V.

    2004-07-01

    Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) is an emerging optical imaging technique that is sensitive to the birefringence properties of tissues. It thus has applications in studying the large-scale ordering of collagen fibers within connective tissues. This ordering not only provides useful insights into the relationship between structure and function for various anatomical structures but also is an indicator of pathology. Intervertebral disk is an elastic tissue of the spine and possesses a 3-D collagen structure well suited to study using PSOCT. Since the outer layer of the disk has a lamellar structure with collagen fibers oriented in a trellis-like arrangement between lamellae, the birefringence fast-axis shows pronounced variations with depth, on a spatial scale of about 100 μm. The lamellar thickness varies with age and possibly with disease. We have used a polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography system to measure the birefringence properties of freshly excised, hydrated bovine caudal intervertebral disk and compared this with equine flexor tendon. Our results clearly demonstrate the ability of PSOCT to detect the outer three lamellae, down to a depth of at least 700 μm, via discontinuities in the depth-resolved retardance. We have applied a simple semi-empirical model based on Jones calculus to quantify the variation in the fast-axis orientation with depth. Our data and modeling is in broad agreement with previous studies using x-ray diffraction and polarization microscopy applied to histological sections of dehydrated disk. Our results imply that PSOCT may prove a useful tool to study collagen organisation within intervertebral disk in vitro and possibly in vivo and its variation with age and disease.

  1. Horizontal Ionospheric Electron Density Gradients Observed by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC TIP: Spatial Distributions and Effects on VLF Wave Propagation at Mid-Latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien H. Chua

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial variability of electron densities in the nightside ionosphere and its effects on very-low frequency (VLF wave propagation using a suite of instruments from the FORMOSAT-3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC spacecraft.We use observations from the Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP instruments to infer the horizontal electron density gradients along each satellite track. We demonstrate that the OI 1356 _ radiance measured by the TIP instruments tracks the horizontal electron density structure well with high spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity. Accurate measurements of the horizontal electron density gradients are important for improving retrieved electron density profiles from GPS occultation and other tomographic remote sensing techniques. The processes underlying the variability in the large-scale, nightside electron density gradients are the main drivers of ionospheric weather. TIP observations reveal significant variability in both the small and large scale structure of the nightside ionosphere. The relative intensities, relative widths, and latitudinal separation of the northern and southern ionization crests of the Appleton anomalies show a high degree of longitudinal variation.We demonstrate how the TIP observations can be used to measure the horizontal gradient of the refractive index of whistler-mode VLF waves propagating in a cold, collisionless plasma. These measurements are critical for understanding how gradients in electron density associated with ionospheric structure such as depletions and the Appleton anomalies affect VLF wave propagation through the equatorial and mid-latitude ionosphere.

  2. The Evolutionary State of Anemic Circumstellar Disks and the Primordial-to-Debris Disk Transition

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of $\\sim$ 3 Myr-old MIPS-detected circumstellar disks in IC 348 that may be in an intermediate stage between primordial, optically-thick disks of gas/dust and debris disks characteristic of the final stages of planet formation. We demonstrate that these \\textit{anemic} disks are not a homogenous class of objects corresponding to a unique evolutionary state. Rather, such disks around early (B/A) spectral type stars are most likely warm, terrestrial zone debris disks; MIPS-detected anemic disks around later (M) stars are likely \\textit{evolved primordial disks} such as transition disks in their mid-IR colors, accretion signatures, and disk luminosities. Anemic disks surrounding G and K stars contain both populations. The difference in evolutionary states between anemic disks surrounding early type vs. late-type stars is consistent with a mass-dependent evolution of circumstellar disks from the primordial disk phase through the debris disk phase. Specifically, disks characteristicall...

  3. NASA Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program is designed for K-12 classroom educators who work in K-12 schools, museums, libraries, or planetariums. Educators have to be certified to borrow the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks by attending a NASA Certification Workshop provided by a NASA Authorized Sample Disk Certifier.

  4. Air-lubrication of magnetic disk sliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreßler, B.; Graichen, K.; Bärwolff, G.; Jehring, L.; Seifert, G.

    1993-03-01

    Steady-state and dynamic flying of a self-acting magnetic disk slider over a hard disk are considered. Some tasks for computations are formulated and the possibilities of developed numerical codes are illustrated. Numerical results of dynamic flying over a disk surface with an obstacle are in agreement with experimental data.

  5. Growing and moving planets in disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper, Sijme-Jan

    2006-01-01

    Planets form in disks that are commonly found around young stars. The intimate relationship that exists between planet and disk can account for a lot of the exotic extrasolar planetary systems known today. In this thesis we explore disk-planet interaction using numerical hydrodynamical simulations.

  6. A review on the flexural mode of graphene: lattice dynamics, thermal conduction, thermal expansion, elasticity and nanomechanical resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Wang, Bing-Shen; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Park, Harold S

    2015-03-04

    Single-layer graphene is so flexible that its flexural mode (also called the ZA mode, bending mode, or out-of-plane transverse acoustic mode) is important for its thermal and mechanical properties. Accordingly, this review focuses on exploring the relationship between the flexural mode and thermal and mechanical properties of graphene. We first survey the lattice dynamic properties of the flexural mode, where the rigid translational and rotational invariances play a crucial role. After that, we outline contributions from the flexural mode in four different physical properties or phenomena of graphene-its thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, Young's modulus and nanomechanical resonance. We explain how graphene's superior thermal conductivity is mainly due to its three acoustic phonon modes at room temperature, including the flexural mode. Its coefficient of thermal expansion is negative in a wide temperature range resulting from the particular vibration morphology of the flexural mode. We then describe how the Young's modulus of graphene can be extracted from its thermal fluctuations, which are dominated by the flexural mode. Finally, we discuss the effects of the flexural mode on graphene nanomechanical resonators, while also discussing how the essential properties of the resonators, including mass sensitivity and quality factor, can be enhanced.

  7. Circumplanetary disks around young giant planets: a comparison between core-accretion and disk instability

    CERN Document Server

    Szulágyi, J; Quinn, T

    2016-01-01

    Circumplanetary disks can be found around forming giant planets, regardless of whether core accretion or gravitational instability built the planet. We carried out state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations of the circumplanetary disks for both formation scenarios, using as similar initial conditions as possible to unveil possible intrinsic differences in the circumplanetary disk mass and temperature between the two formation mechanisms. We found that the circumplanetary disks mass linearly scales with the circumstellar disk mass. Therefore, in an equally massive protoplanetary disk, the circumplanetary disks formed in the disk instability model can be only a factor of eight more massive than their core-accretion counterparts. On the other hand, the bulk circumplanetary disk temperature differs by more than an order of magnitude between the two cases. The subdisks around planets formed by gravitational instability have a characteristic temperature below 100 K, while the core accretion circumplanetary disks a...

  8. [The effect of core veneer thickness ratio on the flexural strength of diatomite-based dental ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Gao, Mei-qin; Zhang, Fei-min; Lu, Xiao-li

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of different core veneer thickness ratios on the flexural strength and failure mode of bilayered diatomite-based dental ceramics. Diatomite-based dental ceramics blocks (16 mm×5.4 mm×1 mm) were sintered with different thickness of veneer porcelains: 0 mm (group A), 0.6 mm (group B), 0.8 mm (group C) and 1.0 mm (group D). Flexural strength was detected and scanning electron microscope was used to observe the interface microstructure. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software package. With the increase of the thickness of the veneer porcelain, flexural strength of group C showed highest flexural strength up to (277.24±5.47) MPa. Different core veneer thickness ratios can significantly influence the flexural strength of bilayered diatomite-based dental ceramics. Supported by Science and Technology Projects of Nantong City (HS2013010).

  9. Continuum Plate Theory and Atomistic Modeling to Find the Flexural Rigidity of a Graphene Sheet Interacting with a Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of continuum modeling, atomistic simulations, and numerical optimization, we estimate the flexural rigidity of a graphene sheet. We consider a rectangular sheet that is initially parallel to a rigid substrate. The sheet interacts with the substrate by van der Waals forces and deflects in response to loading on a pair of opposite edges. To estimate the flexural rigidity, we model the graphene sheet as a continuum and numerically solve an appropriate differential equation for the transverse deflection. This solution depends on the flexural rigidity. We then use an optimization procedure to find the value of the flexural rigidity that minimizes the difference between the numerical solutions and the deflections predicted by atomistic simulations. This procedure predicts a flexural rigidity of 0.26 nN nm=1.62 eV.

  10. Kinematic Dynamo In Turbulent Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Many circumstellar disks associated with objects ranging from protoplanetary nebulae, to accretion disks around compact stars allow for the generation of magnetic fields by an (alpha)omega dynamo. We have applied kinematic dynamo formalism to geometrically thin accretion disks. We calculate, in the framework of an adiabatic approximation, the normal mode solutions for dynamos operating in disks around compact stars. We then describe the criteria for a viable dynamo in protoplanetary nebulae, and discuss the particular features that make accretion disk dynamos different from planetary, stellar, and galactic dynamos.

  11. VLF signal modulations during the total solar eclipse of 22nd July, 2009: model using D region ion chemistry and LWPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suman; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Palit, Sourav; Ray, Suman

    2016-07-01

    One of the major sources of ionospheric perturbations is variations in solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation flux. Solar eclipse is a phenomenon which is capable of producing significant effects on the physical and chemical properties of the ionospheric plasma. During a solar eclipse, the solar radiation flux reduces considerably for a limited period of time over specific locations on the Earth. This induces certain changes within the ionosphere or more precisely, in the D-region which can be studied with the observation of Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio signal modulations. The parameters which mainly govern the ion-chemistry, such as the recombination coefficients are poorly known till date. Solar eclipse provides us with an excellent opportunity to study these parameters as its time of occurrence is known beforehand and thus we can equip ourselves accordingly. In the present study we considered the Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) that occurred on 22nd July, 2009 within the Indian subcontinent. Indian Centre for Space Physics (ICSP) conducted a week long campaign during the eclipse and data were recorded from dozens of places within India and abroad. Both positive and negative changes in VLF signal amplitude were observed. In this paper, data for a propagation path between Indian Navy VLF transmitter named VTX3 and a pair of receivers in India, namely Malda and Kolkata are used. We start with calculating the obscuration function for these two places to find the variations in ionization flux within the period of the eclipse. After this, we incorporated the D region ion chemistry model to find the equilibrium ion density over the region and employ the LWPC code to find the VLF signal amplitude. We varied the values of recombination coefficients to achieve desired accuracy in our results. In doing so, we achieved two goals: First, we have been able to reproduce the trend of variation in VLF signal amplitude (both positive and negative) at both the receiving locations

  12. SELF and VLF electromagnetic emissions that preceded the M6.2 Central Italy earthquake occurred on August 24, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Daniele; Cataldi, Gabriele; Straser, Valentino

    2017-04-01

    On August 24, 2016 at 01:36:32 UTC a destructive earthquake hit Central Italy with a magnitude of M6.2. The authors of this study have recorded some electromagnetic signals that have preceded this strong earthquake. These signals were recorded through two electromagnetic monitoring stations realized by Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi, located near the town of Albano Laziale (Rome, Italy) and near the city of Lariano (Rome, Italy) and can monitor the radio spectrum 24h7 between 0.001 Hz and 96 kHz (SELF-LF band). The electromagnetic monitoring allowed to identify two interesting types of electromagnetic anomalies: the first electromagnetic anomaly was recorded on August 18, 2016 between 02:47 UTC and 06:21 UTC, in the VLF band prevalently between 18kHz and 26kHz; the second electromagnetic anomaly was registered between 08:00 UTC on August 23, 2016 and 05:00 UTC on August 24, 2016, prevalently between 0.01 and 0.7Hz: the most intense signals were recorded at 08:50 UTC on August 23, 2016 and approximately 1 hour before the strong earthquake. The Earth's electromagnetic background monitoring in the SELF-VLF band (0Hztechnological) have allowed us to understand that there are actually two families of pre-seismic radio emissions: 1) radio emissions identified as Earth's geomagnetic field disturbances related to "near Earth" solar wind proton density increase variations, and for this reason it can be seen from any point on the Earth (this is "no local" type emissions); 2) radio signals are not connected directly to the solar and geomagnetic activity: these radio signals are probably generated by piezoelectricity phenomena occurring near the focal area of the earthquake and are detectable near earthquake epicenter (this is a "local" type emissions). It is therefore clear that the monitoring of solar activity and Earth's geomagnetic activity is an activity of fundamental importance to be able to have a general understanding of pre-seismic radio signals nature. In fact

  13. Exos-B/Siple Station VLF wave-particle interaction experiments: 1. General description and wave-particle correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, I.; Hashimoto, K.; Matsumoto, H.; Mukai, T.; Bell, T.F.; Inan, U.S.; Helliwell, R.A.; Katsufrakis, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    In situ measurements of both energetic particles and VLF waves have been carried out in a joint program involving the Japanese satellite EXOS-B and the Siple Station VLF transmitter. A general description of the experiment is given as well as some results concerning wave-particle correlations. Detailed analysis of the observed wave characteristics is given in a companion paper. Correlations of electron flux and pitch angle anisotropy in the energy range from 85 eV to 6.9 keV with waves in a range from 300 Hz to 9 kHz are examined. These electrons sometimes have a pitch angle distributions with a peak flux at 90/sup 0/ pitch angle (so-called pancake distribution). On five passes out of a total of 50 during the summer campaign in 1979, the energy of the electrons that showed a high pitch angle anisotropy shifted upward as the satellite moved into the plasmasphere, crossing the plasmapause in the equatorial region. In two cases out of five, strong Siple signals were observed in the geomagnetic equatorial region just outside the plasmapause, in association with such a pancake pitch angle distribution of electrons. The Siple signals are most likely amplified by the cyclotron instability due to the high pitch angle anisotropy (HPAA), although the flux of resonant electrons was relatively small. For three other cases of HPAA, the satellite location was so far away from the Siple meridian that the signal level, even if amplified, was too weak to be detected by the satellite. Emissions associated with Siple signals were detected on five (two equatorial and three high latitude) passes, which were all confined on 6 days after a large magnetic storm. On the days when the Siple triggered emissions were observed, the pitch angle anisotropy was low, but the electron flux at resonant energies in the equatorial region was four or five times larger than that on other non-triggering days in all energy channels from 85 eV to 6.9 keV.

  14. Rapid repair of severely earthquake-damaged bridge piers with flexural-shear failure mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiguo; Wang, Dongsheng; Du, Xiuli; Si, Bingjun

    2011-12-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of a proposed rapid repair technique for severely earthquake-damaged bridge piers with flexural-shear failure mode. Six circular pier specimens were first tested to severe damage in flexural-shear mode and repaired using early-strength concrete with high-fluidity and carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP). After about four days, the repaired specimens were tested to failure again. The seismic behavior of the repaired specimens was evaluated and compared to the original specimens. Test results indicate that the proposed repair technique is highly effective. Both shear strength and lateral displacement of the repaired piers increased when compared to the original specimens, and the failure mechanism of the piers shifted from flexural-shear failure to ductile flexural failure. Finally, a simple design model based on the Seible formulation for post-earthquake repair design was compared to the experimental results. It is concluded that the design equation for bridge pier strengthening before an earthquake could be applicable to seismic repairs after an earthquake if the shear strength contribution of the spiral bars in the repaired piers is disregarded and 1.5 times more FRP sheets is provided.

  15. Occlusal force, electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles and mandibular flexure of subjects with different facial types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Custodio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vertical facial patterns influence maximal occlusal force (MOF, masticatory muscle electromyographic (EMG activity, and medial mandibular flexure (MMF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups by Ricketts's analysis: brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolychofacial. Maximum occlusal force in the molar region was bilaterally measured with a force transducer. The electromyographic activities of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles were recorded during maximal voluntary clenching. Medial mandibular flexure was calculated by subtracting the intermolar distance of maximum opening or protrusion from the distance in the rest position. The data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test. The significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: Data on maximum occlusal force showed that shorter faces had higher occlusal forces (P<0.0001. Brachyfacial subjects presented higher levels of masseter electromyographic activity and medial mandibular flexure, followed by the mesofacial and dolychofacial groups. Additionally, dolychofacial subjects showed significantly lower electromyographic temporalis activities (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the study, it may be concluded that maximum occlusal force, masticatory muscle activity and medial mandibular flexure were influenced by the vertical facial pattern.

  16. Evaluation of the flexural strength of carbon, quartz, and glass fiber-based posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Rama Raju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was done to evaluate the flexural strength of carbon, quartz, and glass fiber posts by means of three-point bending test. Materials and Methods: Thirty pre-fabricated fiber posts were used and divided into three groups. Group I carbon fiber posts (C-Post, group II quartz fiber post (Aestheti Plus, group III glass fiber post (Para Post White Ten posts (N = 10 were used for each experimental group and were measured with digital caliper before test accomplishment. The fracture load of post specimens was measured, and flexural strength was obtained by the formula using S = 8FL/pd 3 . The values in Kgf/mm 2 were obtained and calculated to Mpa and submitted to ANOVA (a = 0.01 and to the Tukey′s test. Results: The mean values of flexural strength show that group II quartz fiber posts (666 MPa are significantly higher than group I carbon fiber (614 MPa and group III glass fiber (575 MPa. C onclusion: Hence, this study concluded that quartz fiber post showed significantly higher flexural strength values. Further scope of this study lies in the evaluation and evolution of a restorative materials used for post and core preparation, which have modulus of elasticity in harmony with that of dentin and near-natural esthetic appearance.

  17. 6 W Full-Flexure-Bearing Stirling Cryocooler for the Cryosystem Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, A. A. J.; Bruins, P. C.; Mullié, J. C.; Meijers, M.; Helmonds, H.; Trollier, T.

    2004-06-01

    In February 2002, ASTRIUM selected AL/DTA for the delivery of the vial freezers for the ESA / CRYOSYSTEM project. The CRYOSYSTEM is a set of facilities for ultra-rapid cooling, preservation and storage of biological samples and protein crystals at -180°C on-board the ISS. While selecting the cooler for this program, AL/DTA recognised that THALES' moving magnet flexure-bearing coolers offer the reliability required for space programs, for a price that is far below what is usual for space cryocoolers. Based on the cold finger of the existing LSF9320 cryocooler (5.6 W at 80 K for 150 W input), THALES has developed a cold finger with flexure-bearing support of the displacer. Combined with the moving magnet flexure-bearing compressor, this offers a very long lifetime and a very high reliability. The paper describes the development of the flexure-bearing supported displacer, which has an extra driving rod to increase its efficiency compared with conventional free displacer fingers. The efficiency optimisation and mass reduction has led to a cooler with a total mass (including heat-sinking and EMI shield) of 7.8 kg, with a cooling power of 6.6 W at 75 K for 100 W input. The results of the ongoing space qualification program will be discussed.

  18. Optimization of release locations for small self-stress large stiffness flexure mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.M.; Boer, S.E.; Meijaard, J.P.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.

    2013-01-01

    In overconstrained mechanisms inherent alignment errors cause self-stress. The level of stress can be reduced by inserting flexure releases making the mechanism exactly constrained. The location and orientation of releases can be optimized for a combination of minimum self-stress and maximum stiffne

  19. Fluoride release, recharge and flexural properties of polymethylmethacrylate containing fluoridated glass fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, I A; Swain, M V; Naoum, S J; Al-Omari, W M; Martin, E; Ellakwa, A

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoridated glass fillers on fluoride release, recharge and the flexural properties of modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Specimens of PMMA denture base material with various loading of fluoridated glass fillers (0%, 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% by weight) were prepared. Flexural properties were evaluated on rectangular specimens (n = 10) aged in deionized water after 24 hours, 1 and 3 months. Disc specimens (n = 10) were aged for 43 days in deionized water and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and fluoride release was measured at numerous intervals. After ageing, specimens were recharged and fluoride re-release was recorded at 1, 3 and 7 days after recharge. Samples containing 2.5%, 5% and 10% glass fillers showed significantly (p glass fillers specimens. All experimental specimens exhibited fluoride release in both media. The flexural strength of specimens decreased in proportion to the percentage filler inclusion with the modulus of elasticity values remaining within ISO Standard 1567. The modified PMMA with fluoridated glass fillers has the ability to release and re-release fluoride ion. Flexural strength decreased as glass filler uploading increased. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  20. AN ACCURATE MODEL FOR CALCULATING CORRECTION OF PATH FLEXURE OF SATELLITE SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiYanxing; HuXinkang; ShuaiPing; ZhangZhongfu

    2003-01-01

    The propagation path of satellite signals in the atmosphere is a curve thus it,is very difficult to calculate its flexure correction accurately, a strict calculating expressions has so far not been derived. In this study, the flexure correction of the refraction curve is divided into two parts and their strict calculating expressions are derived. By use of the standard atmospheric model, the accurate flexure correction of the refraction curve is calculated for different zenith distance Z. On this basis, a calculation model is structured. This model is very simple in structure, convenient in use and high in accuracy. When Z is smaller than 85°,the accuracy of the correction exceeds 0.06mm. The flexure correction is basically proportional to tan2Z and increases rapidly with the increase of Z When Z>50°,the correction is smaller than 0.5 mm and can be neglected. When Z>50°, the correction must be made. When Z is 85°, 88° and 89° , the corrections are 198mm, 8.911m and 28.497 km, respectively. The calculation results shows that the correction estimate by Hopfield is correct when Z≤80°, but too small when Z=89°. The expression in this paper is applicable to any satellite.

  1. AN ACCURATE MODEL FOR CALCULATING CORRECTION OF PATH FLEXURE OF SATELLITE SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yanxing; Hu Xinkang; Shuai Ping; Zhang Zhongfu

    2003-01-01

    The propagation path of satellite signals in the atmosphere is a curve thus it.is very difficult to calculate its flexure correction accurately, a strict calculating expressions has so far not been derived. In this study, the flexure correction of the refraction curve is divided into two parts and their strict calculating expressions are derived. By use of the standard atmospheric model, the accurate flexure correction of the refraction curve is calculated for different zenith distance Z. On this basis, a calculation model is structured. This model is very simple in structure, convenient in use and high in accuracy. When Z is smaller than 85°, the accuracy of the correction exceeds 0.06 mm. The flexure correction is basically proportional to tan2Z and increases rapidly with the increase of Z When Z>50°,the correction is smaller than 0.5 mm and can be neglected.When Z>50°, the correction must be made. When Z is 85° , 88° and 89° , the corrections are 198mm, 8. 911 m and 28. 497 km, respectively. The calculation results shows that the correction estimate by Hopfield is correct when Z≤80 °, but too small when Z=89°. The expression in this paper is applicable to any satellite.

  2. Compressive and flexural strength of expanded perlite aggregate mortar subjected to high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifeli, Muhamad Faqrul Hisham bin Mohd; Saman@Hj Mohamed, Hamidah binti Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Work on thermal resistant of outer structures of buildings is one of the solution to reduce death, damages and properties loss in fire cases. Structures protected with thermal resistant materials can delay or avoid failure and collapse during fire. Hence, establishment of skin cladding with advance materials to protect the structure of buildings is a necessary action. Expanded perlite is a good insulation material which can be used as aggregate replacement in mortar. This study is to study on mortar mechanical properties of flexural and compressive strength subjected to elevated temperatures using expanded perlite aggregate (EPA). This study involved experimental work which was developing mortar with sand replacement by volume of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of EPA and cured for 56 days. The mortars then exposed to 200°C, 400 °C, 700 °C and 1000 °C. Flexural and compressive strength of the mortar were tested. The tests showed that there were increased of flexural and compressive strength at 200°C, and constantly decreased when subjected to 400°C, 700°C and 1000 °C. There were also variation of strengths at different percentages of EPA replacement. Highest compressive strength and flexural strength recorded were both at 200 °C with 65.52 MPa and 21.34 MPa respectively. The study conclude that by using EPA as aggregate replacement was ineffective below elevated temperatures but increased the performance of the mortar at elevated temperatures.

  3. Influence of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the flexural strength of a feldspathic ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Andressa B; Prochnow, Catina; May, Liliana G; Bottino, Marco C; Felipe Valandro, Luiz

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of etching with increasing hydrofluoric (HF) acid concentrations on the roughness and flexural strength of a feldspathic ceramic. One hundred and fifty ceramic specimens (14×4×1.2 mm(2)) were produced from ceramic blocks (VitaBlocks Mark II). All specimens were polished, chamfered and sonically cleaned in isopropyl alcohol. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=30): SC (control) no ceramic surface etching; HF1, HF3, HF5 and HF10 ceramic surface etching for 60s with 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% HF acid concentrations, respectively. Profilometry was performed in all specimens to evaluate roughness prior to flexural strength testing. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey׳s test (α=0.05). Weibull module (m) and characteristic stress (σc) were also determined. HF acid etching, regardless of the concentration used, led to significantly rougher surfaces than the control (pAcid etching significantly reduced the mean flexural strength when compared with the control (143.3 MPa). Weibull modulus of the groups was similar, except for the HF5 group that was higher compared to HF3. Flexural strength was similarly affected by the different HF acid concentrations tested, but roughness increased higher the acid concentration. Ceramic etching led to a significant reduction in strength when compared to the untreated ceramic, regardless of its concentration.

  4. Studies on the flexural and thermomechanical properties of woven carbon/nanoclay-epoxy laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, F.H. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Hosur, M.V. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)]. E-mail: mhosur@gmail.com; Jeelani, S. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    A systematic study was carried out to investigate the effects of nanoclay particles on flexural and thermal properties of woven carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites. Different weight percentages of Nanomer[reg] I-28E nanoclay, a surface modified montmorillonite mineral, were dispersed in SC-15 epoxy using sonication route. The nanophased epoxy was then used to manufacture 6000 fiber tow-plain weave carbon/epoxy nanocomposites using vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM) process. Effect of post curing on these samples was also investigated. Three-point bend flexure and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) studies were carried out on eight and three layered samples, respectively. Maximum improvements in flexural strength and modulus were found for 2 wt.% nanoclay reinforced composites. Failure surface analysis of flexure samples was carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed enhancement in thermomechanical properties. Glass transition temperature, T {sub g} of room temperature cured and thermally post cured samples showed an improvement of about 9 and 13 deg. C, respectively for 2 wt.% nanoclay loading.

  5. Corrections for shear and rotatory inertia on flexural vibrations of beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederveen, C.J.; Schwarzl, F.R.

    1964-01-01

    Different correction formulae for the influence of shear and rotatory inertia on flexural vibrations of freely supported beams are compared with the exact solution. It appears that in most cases a simple formula is sufficient because of the appearance of a constant which is not accurately known, viz

  6. Flexural and tensile bond strength, related via a stochastic numerical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, R. van der

    1998-01-01

    The flexural strength of masonry parallel to the bed joint depends on the geometry of the cross section, tensile bond strength, fracture energy, stiffness of units and of mortar joints. In experiments, tensile bond strength and fracture energy determined on relatively small specimens, show a large s

  7. Effect of mechanical cycling on the flexural strength of densely sintered ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Itinoche, Koiti Marco; Ozcan, Mudu; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Oyafuso, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mechanical cycling on the biaxial flexural strength of two densely sintered ceramic materials. Methods. Disc shaped zirconia (In-Ceram Zirconia) and high alumina (Procera AllCeram) ceramic specimens (diameter: 15 min and thickness: 1.2

  8. RESIDUAL FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF RECYCLED BRICK AGGREGATE CONCRETE EXPOSED TO HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasi Rekha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of using crushed brick in concrete is picking up due to its value addition to the mechanical properties of concrete. In the present experimental investigation the brick from the demolition waste is used as a coarse aggregate to study the flexural behaviour of recycled brick aggregate (RBA concrete after exposure to high temperatures. The recycled brick aggregate is replaced to granite aggregate up to 25% by its volume to produce RBA concrete. Beam specimens of size 100mm × 100mm × 500mm were used to study the flexural strength (modulus of rupture of both RBA concrete and granite aggregate (GA concrete. Both the concretes were heated to desired temperatures from 100oC to 1000oC in an interval of 100oC for three hours in bogie hearth furnace. The residual flexural strengths of both heated RBA and GA concretes were presented in this research to study the performance of RBAconcrete at high temperatures. The RBA concrete performed better than that of GA concrete in flexure at high temperatures by exhibiting higher residual strength.

  9. Exact Constraint Design of a Two-Degree of Freedom Flexure-Based Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Folkersma, Ger; Boer, Steven; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the exact constraint design of a two degrees of freedom cross-flexure-based stage that combines a large workspace to footprint ratio with high vibration mode frequencies. To maximize unwanted vibration mode frequencies the mechanism is an assembly of optimized parts. To ensure a

  10. Coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motion in a periodic structure with asymmetrically arranged transverse beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the coupling of flexural and longitudinal wave motions in a waveguide with structural side branches attached at regular intervals. The analysis is based on periodic structure theory, and considers wave transmission in a fully tricoupled and semidefinite periodic...

  11. Flexural performance of foam concrete containing pulverized bone as partial replacement of cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efe Ikponmwosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study conducted to investigate the flexural behaviour of foam concrete containing pulverised bone as partial replacement of cement. A total of sixty reinforced beams (150×150×750 mm were used to investigate the flexural behaviour of the specimens. For reinforcement of the beams, hot-rolled, deformed 10-mm-diameter bars with yield and ultimate stresses of 478.10 N/mm2 and 710.81 N/mm2 respectively were used. The cement constituent of the mix was partly replaced with up to 20% of pulverised bone. The flexural parameters investigated are crack formation and its pattern, failure mode, ul timate load, theoretical and experimental ultimate moments, deflection and stiffness. From the results of this investigation, it is concluded that the provision of the design standard in relation to shear and flexural design of beams can be considered as adequate for the design of reinforced foam concrete. It is further concluded that the stiffness is not affected by the inclusion of pulverised bone in the mix at up to 15% cement replacement level , and neither is the deflection pattern of the uncracked sections of the specimens affected by the inclusion of pulverised bone. The bending moments of the specimens,however, decreased with increase in pulverised bone.

  12. Mechanical and thermal cycling effects on the flexural strength of glass ceramics fused to titanium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasquez, Vanessa; Ozcan, Mutlu; Nishioka, Renato; Souza, Rodrigo; Mesquita, Alfredo; Pavanelli, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of mechanical and thermal cycling on the flexural strength (ISO 9693) of three brands of ceramics fused to commercially pure titanium (cpTi). Metallic frameworks of 25 x 3 x 0.5 mm dimensions (N = 84) were cast in cpTi, followed by 150-mu m aluminum oxide airborne pa

  13. Coupling of Flexural and Longitudinal Damped Vibration in a Two-Layered Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pourroy

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In dynamics, the effect of varying the constitutive materials’ thickness of a two-layered beam is investigated. Resonance frequencies and damping variations are determined. It is shown that for specific thicknesses the coupling of longitudinal and flexural vibrations influences the global modal damping ratio significantly.

  14. Performance optimization of large stroke flexure hinges for high stiffness and eigenfrequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, K.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Brouwer, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Two flexure hinge types are optimized for high support stiffness and high first unwanted eigenfrequency for two different working ranges, ±5.7° and ±20°. We show how multiple performance specifications lead to different designs with different performance. The optimization uses efficient parameterize

  15. Research on differences and correlation between tensile, compression and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the differences and conversion relations between the tensile, compressive and flexural moduli of cement stabilized macadam, in this paper, we develop a new test method for measuring three moduli simultaneously. By using the materials testing system, we test three moduli of the cement stabilized macadam under different loading rates, propose a flexural modulus calculation formula which considers the shearing effect, reveal the change rules of the tensile, compression and flexural moduli with the loading rate and establish the conversion relationships between the three moduli. The results indicate that: three moduli become larger with the increase of the loading rate, showing a power function pattern; with the shear effect considered, the flexural modulus is increased by 47% approximately over that in the current test method; the tensile and compression moduli of cement stabilized macadam are significantly different. Therefore, if only the compression modulus is used as the structural design parameter of asphalt pavement, there will be a great deviation in the analysis of the load response. In order to achieve scientific design and calculation, the appropriate design parameters should be chosen based on the actual stress state at each point inside the pavement structure.

  16. Flexural Strength Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Members with Ultra High Performance Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek-Il Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexural strength evaluation models for steel fiber reinforced ultra high strength concrete were suggested and evaluated with test results. Suggested flexural strength models were composed of compression stress blocks and tension stress blocks. Rectangular stress block, triangular stress block, and real distribution shape of stress were used on compression side. Under tension, rectangular stress block distributed to whole area of tension side and partial area of tension side was used. The last model for tension side is realistic stress distribution. All these models were verified with test result which was carried out in this study. Test was conducted by four-point loading with 2,000 kN actuator for slender beam specimen. Additional verifications were carried out with previous researches on flexural strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete or ultra high strength concrete. Total of 21 test specimens were evaluated. As a result of comparison for flexural strength of section, neutral axis depth at ultimate state, models with triangular compression stress block, and strain-softening type tension stress block can be used as exact solution for ultra high performance concrete. For the conservative and convenient design of section, modified rectangular stress block model can be used with strain softening type tension stress block.

  17. Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema due to ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikoth Payyanadan Binitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE is an adverse drug reaction which has been reported to be caused by various drugs. In this report, we describe a case induced by ranitidine, a drug which has not been previously reported to cause SDRIFE.

  18. Flexural Properties of PLA Components Under Various Test Condition Manufactured by 3D Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya Christiyan, K. G.; Chandrasekhar, U.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    2016-10-01

    Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have emerged as a fabrication method to obtain engineering components in the resent past. Desktop 3D printing, also referred as an additive layer manufacturing technology is a powerful method of RP technique that can fabricate 3 dimensional engineering components. In this method, 3D digital data is converted into real product. In the present investigation, Polylactic Acid (PLA) was considered as a starting material. Flexural strength of PLA material was evaluated using 3-point bend test, as per ASTM D790 standard. Specimens with flat (0°) and vertical (90°) orientation were considered. Moreover, layer thicknesses of 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3 mm were considered. To fabricate these specimens, printing speed of 38 and 52 mm/s was maintained. Nozzle diameter of 0.4 mm with 40 % of infill density were used. Based on the experimental results, it was observed that 0° orientation, 38 mm/s printing speed, and 0.2 mm layer thickness resulted maximum flexural strength, as compared to all other specimens. The improved flexural strength was due to the lower layer thickness (0.2 mm) specimens, as compared with other specimens made of 0.25 and 0.30 mm layer thicknesses. It was concluded that flexural strength properties were greatly influenced by lower the layer thickness, printing speed, and orientation.

  19. An In vitro Evaluation of Flexural Bond Strength of Indirect Composites Fused to Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunitha, N; Ariga, Padma; Jain, Ashish R; Philip, Jacob Mathew

    2013-06-01

    With the advent of newer indirect composite resin materials for crown and bridge prosthesis, it has become imperative to evaluate their strength to serve as long term replacements as a substitute to metal ceramic restorations. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the flexural bond strength of three composite resin veneering material to metal, cured by different methods. Specimen were fabricated with pattern resin by duplicating it with machined metal die and divided into three groups. Three composite resin materials were used in this study. Group (A) received Adoro, Group (B) received Targis and Group (C) received Tescera. The bond strength of all specimens was tested with Lloyd's universal testing machine under three point loading. The highest values for fracture resistance were displayed by light, heat and pressure cured composites followed by composites cured using a temperature of 104 °C and composites with curing temperature of 95 °C. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between the three groups, with the Tescera group specimens exhibiting the highest flexural bond strength. Of the other two groups, Adoro group exhibited higher flexural bond strength than Targis group. The results of this study suggest that Tescera group with curing temperature of 130 °C and pressure of 80 Psi, cured with metal halide unit exhibited the highest flexural bond strength when compared to Adoro and Targis groups.

  20. Long-Term Flexural Behaviors of GFRP Reinforced Concrete Beams Exposed to Accelerated Aging Exposure Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonho Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of accelerated aging conditions on the long-term flexural behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete (RC members with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP bars (RC-GFRP specimen and steel bars (RC-steel specimen. A total of thirty six specimens were designed with different amounts of reinforcement with three types of reinforcing bars (i.e., helically wrapped GFRP, sand-coated surface GFRP and steel. Eighteen specimens were subjected to sustained loads and accelerated aging conditions (i.e., 47 °C and 80% relative humidity in a chamber. The flexural behavior of specimens under 300-day exposure was compared to that of the companion specimens without experiencing accelerated aging conditions. Results indicate that the accelerated aging conditions reduced flexural capacity in not only RC-steel, but also RC-GFRP specimens, with different rates of reduction. Different types of GFRP reinforcement exhibited different rates of degradation of the flexural capacity when embedded in concrete under the same exposure conditions. Several existing models were compared with experimental results for predicting the deflection and deformability index for specimens. Bischoff and Gross’s model exhibited an excellent prediction of the time-dependent deflections. Except for the deformability index proposed by Jaeger, there was no general trend related to the aging duration. This study recommends the need for further investigation on the prediction of the deformability index.

  1. Mechanical and thermal cycling effects on the flexural strength of glass ceramics fused to titanium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasquez, Vanessa; Ozcan, Mutlu; Nishioka, Renato; Souza, Rodrigo; Mesquita, Alfredo; Pavanelli, Carlos

    This study evaluated the effects of mechanical and thermal cycling on the flexural strength (ISO 9693) of three brands of ceramics fused to commercially pure titanium (cpTi). Metallic frameworks of 25 x 3 x 0.5 mm dimensions (N = 84) were cast in cpTi, followed by 150-mu m aluminum oxide airborne

  2. Flexural strength and the probability of failure of cold isostatic pressed zirconia core ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarampi, Eleni; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Zorba, Triantafillia; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Koidis, Petros

    2012-08-01

    The flexural strength of zirconia core ceramics must predictably withstand the high stresses developed during oral function. The in-depth interpretation of strength parameters and the probability of failure during clinical performance could assist the clinician in selecting the optimum materials while planning treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength based on survival probability and Weibull statistical analysis of 2 zirconia cores for ceramic restorations. Twenty bar-shaped specimens were milled from 2 core ceramics, IPS e.max ZirCAD and Wieland ZENO Zr, and were loaded until fracture according to ISO 6872 (3-point bending test). An independent samples t test was used to assess significant differences of fracture strength (α=.05). Weibull statistical analysis of the flexural strength data provided 2 parameter estimates: Weibull modulus (m) and characteristic strength (σ(0)). The fractured surfaces of the specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The investigation of the crystallographic state of the materials was performed with x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Higher mean flexural strength (Pstrength of WZ ceramics was associated with a lower m and more voids in their microstructure. These findings suggest a greater scattering of strength values and a flaw distribution that are expected to increase failure probability. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Accretion disks in Algols: progenitors and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Van Rensbergen, W

    2016-01-01

    There are only a few Algols with measured accretion disk parameters. These measurements provide additional constraints for tracing the origin of individual systems, narrowing down the initial parameter space. We investigate the origin and evolution of 6 Algol systems with accretion disks to find the initial parameters and evolutionary constraints for them. With a modified binary evolution code, series of close binary evolution are calculated to obtain the best match for observed individual systems. Initial parameters for 6 Algol systems with accretion disks were determined matching both the present system parameters and the observed disk characteristics. When RLOF starts during core hydrogen burning of the donor, the disk lifetime was found to be short. The disk luminosity is comparable to the luminosity of the gainer during a large fraction of the disk lifetime.

  4. The Evolving Structure of Galactic Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, H; McGee, S; Gibson, B; Kawata, D; Martel, Hugo; Brook, Chris; Gee, Sean Mc; Gibson, Brad

    2005-01-01

    Observations suggest that the structural parameters of disk galaxies have not changed greatly since redshift 1. We examine whether these observations are consistent with a cosmology in which structures form hierarchically. We use SPH/N-body galaxy-scale simulations to simulate the formation and evolution of Milky-Way-like disk galaxies by fragmentation, followed by hierarchical merging. The simulated galaxies have a thick disk, that forms in a period of chaotic merging at high redshift, during which a large amount of alpha-elements are produced, and a thin disk, that forms later and has a higher metallicity. Our simulated disks settle down quickly and do not evolve much since redshift z~1, mostly because no major mergers take place between z=1 and z=0. During this period, the disk radius increases (inside-out growth) while its thickness remains constant. These results are consistent with observations of disk galaxies at low and high redshift.

  5. Why are some galaxy disks extremely thin?

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Arunima

    2012-01-01

    Some low surface brightness galaxies are known to have extremely thin stellar disks with the vertical to planar axes ratio 0.1 or less, often referred to as superthin disks. Although their existence is known for over three decades, the physical origin for the thin distribution is not understood. We model the stellar thickness for a two-component (gravitationally coupled stars and gas) disk embedded in a dark matter halo, for a superthin galaxy UGC 7321 which has a dense, compact halo, and compare with a typical dwarf galaxy HoII which has a non-compact halo. We show that while the presence of gas does constrain the disk thickness, it is the compact dark matter halo which plays the decisive role in determining the superthin disk distribution in low-mass disks. Thus the compact dark matter halo significantly affects the disk structure and this could be important for the early evolution of galaxies.

  6. Magnetic interchange instability of accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisig, M.; Tajima, T.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the magnetic interchange or buoyancy instability of a differentially rotating disk threaded by an ordered vertical magnetic field is investigated. A 2D ideal fluid in the equatorial plane of a central mass in the corotating frame of reference is considered as a model for the disk. If the rotation rate of the disk is Keplerian, the disk is found to be stable. If the vertical magnetic field is sufficiently strong, and the field strength decreases with distance from the central object, and thus the rotation of the disk deviates from Keplerian, if is found that an instability develops. The magnetic flux and disk matter expand outward in certain ranges of azimuth, while disk matter with less magnetic flux moves inward over the remaining range of azimuth, showing a characteristic development of an interchange instability.

  7. Acoustic radiation from out-of-plane modes of an annular disk using thin and thick plate theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeongill; Singh, Rajendra

    2005-04-01

    Out-of-plane (flexural) vibration is a major source of sound radiation from many mechanical or structural components having annular or circular disk shape. The typical thickness of practical components is often beyond the thin plate theory limit and it may have considerable effect on sound radiation. But, traditionally, thin annular disk models have been employed for such structures neglecting the thickness effect. In this article, structural eigensolutions for the out-of-plane modes and sound radiation from the modal vibration of a thick annular disk with free-free boundaries have been calculated using both thick and thin plate theories. A new analytical formulation is proposed for the sound radiation problem. In addition, the same problem has been solved by a semi-analytical procedure in which the disk surface velocity is numerically defined by a finite-element model and sound radiation is then analytically obtained using a modified circular radiator model. Also, the effects of radii and thickness ratios on the structural and acoustic radiation characteristics are investigated using the analytical procedure. Finally, the effect of boundary conditions is briefly examined.

  8. Dust Evolution in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Testi, Leonardo; Ricci, Luca; Andrews, Sean; Blum, Juergen; Carpenter, John; Dominik, Carsten; Isella, Andrea; Natta, Antonella; Williams, Jonathan; Wilner, David

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) In the core accretion scenario for the formation of planetary rocky cores, the first step toward planet formation is the growth of dust grains into larger and larger aggregates and eventually planetesimals. Although dust grains are thought to grow from the submicron sizes typical of interstellar dust to micron size particles in the dense regions of molecular clouds and cores, the growth from micron size particles to pebbles and kilometre size bodies must occur in protoplanetary disks. This step in the formation of planetary systems is the last stage of solids evolution that can be observed directly in young extrasolar systems. In this chapter we review the constraints on the physics of grain-grain collisions as they have emerged from laboratory experiments and numerical computations. We then review the current theoretical understanding of the global processes governing the evolution of solids in protoplanetary disks, including dust settling, growth, and radial transport. The predicted observational...

  9. Secular evolution of disk galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2008-01-01

    Galaxy disks evolve through angular momentum transfers between sub-components, like gas, stars, or dark matter halos, through non axi-symmetric instabilities. The speed of this evolution is boosted in presence of a large fraction of cold and dissipative gas component. When the visible matter dominates over the whole disk, angular momentum is exchanged between gas and stars only. The gas is driven towards the center by bars, stalled transiently in resonance rings, and driven further by embedded bars, which it contributes to destroy. From a small-scale molecular torus, the gas can then inflow from viscous torques, dynamical friction, or m=1 perturbations. In the weakened bar phases, multiple-speed spiral patterns can develop and help the galaxy to accrete external gas flowing from cosmic filaments. The various phases of secular evolution are illustrated by numerical simulations.

  10. VLF Remote Sensing of the Lower Ionosphere: Solar Flares, Electron Precipitation, Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances, Sprites, Gravity Waves and Gamma-ray Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. H.; Cohen, M.; Inan, U. S.; Scherrer, P. H.; Scherrer, D.

    2005-12-01

    Stanford University Very Low Frequency (VLF) and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radio receivers have been used extensively for remote sensing of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Among the phenomena that can be uniquely measured via ELF/VLF receivers are radio atmospherics, whistlers, electron precipitation, solar flares, sudden ionospheric disturbances, gravity waves, sprites, and cosmic gamma-ray flares. With the use of simple square air-core magnetic loop antennas of a couple of meters in size, the sensitivity of these instruments allows the measurement of magnetic fields as low as several tens of femtoTesla per root-Hz, in the frequency range of ~30 Hz to 50 kHz. This sensitivity well exceeds that required to detect any event above the ambient atmospheric noise floor, determined by the totality of lightning activity on the planet. In recent years, as cost of production, timing accuracy (due to low cost GPS clocks), and data handling flexibility of the systems has improved, it has become possible to distribute many of these instruments in the form of arrays, to perform interferometric and holographic imaging of the lower ionosphere. In the context of the IHY in 2007, the ELF/VLF receiver can used extensively as part of the United Nations initiative to place scientific instruments in developing countries. Stanford University's past experiences setting up arrays of ELF/VLF receivers include an interferometer in Alaska, the Holographic Array for Ionospheric and Lightning research (HAIL) consisting of instruments at 13 different high schools in mid-western United States, a broader set of ELF/VLF receivers in Alaska, and various receivers abroad, including in France, Japan, Greece, Turkey, Ireland, and India. A global network of ELF/VLF receivers offer possibilities for a wide range of scientific topics, as well as serving as a means for educational outreach. These goals will be achieved using the newest version of the Stanford VLF receiver, known as AWESOME

  11. Characterizetion of Flexural Strength, Warpage and Shrinkage of Polypropylene-Nanoclay-Nanocomposites Blend with Gigantochloa Scortechinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, S. Z.; Othman, M. H.; Hasan, S.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the characterization of Flexural Strength, Warpage and Shrinkage of reinforcement gigantochloa scortechinii fibre. The content of fiber were fixed at 0 wt.%, 3 wt.% and 6 wt.% in uniform increased. The selected injection moulding processing conditions were packing pressure, melt temperature, screw speed and filling time. The quality factors that need to be improved upon the characterization were flexural strength, warpage and shrinkage. This research started by drying the Gigantochloa Scortechinii fibres at 120°C. After that, 3 wt.% of the fibres were mixed with 81 wt.% of polypropylene, 15 wt.% of polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (compatibilizer) and 1 wt. % of nanoclay. Samples with 6 wt.% of fibers were also prepared for comparison purpose. The mixing process was performed by using Brabender Lab-Compounder KETSE 20/40 and the pallets were produced using used Brabender® pelletizer with diameters of 1 to 4 mm. The optimisation process was accomplished by adopting the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array method. According to the results, for 0 wt.% GS, the flexural strength is 30.0082 MPa, the warpage is 0.0030000 mm and the shrinkage is 0.0003830 mm at packing pressure 40%, melt temperature 165°C, filled time 2 seconds and screw speed 35%. For the result 3 wt.% GS, the flexural strength is 32.2477 MPa, the warpage is 0.006670 mm and the shrinkage is 0.0003830 mm at packing pressure is 35%, melt temperature 165°C, filled times is 1 seconds and screw speed is 30%. While for the 6 wt.% GS, the results of the flexural strength is 36.9084 MPa, the warpage is 0.0066700 mm and the shrinkage is 0.0003830 mm at packing pressure is 35%, melt temperature 165°C, filled time is 2 seconds and screw speed is 30%. The existence of Gigantochloa Scortechinii fibre was also proven to effect significantly towards flexural strength with 6% increasing value ordering from 0 wt.% GS to 6 wt.% GS. while, the warpage value increasing from 0.003000 mm to 0.00667 mm and

  12. Mechanics of Forming Ring Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan R.M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of forming ring disk of constant thickness in conditions of large plastic deformations taking into account the interconnected change of effective strain and deformation hardening is carried out. The analytical dependences characterizing the relative size of plastic area are obtained. The interrelation between the initial and final form of a product is established at maximum possible size of internal pressure.

  13. Parallel Readout of Optical Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    27, 2987-2992 (1988). 11. T. Yatagai, J. G. Camacho-Basilio, and H. Onda , "Recording of Computer-Generated Holograms on an Optical Disk Master...Multivariate Observations," Proceedings of the Fifth Berkeley Symposium on Math. Stat. and Prob I., L. M. LeCam and J. Neyman, eds. (University of...California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles California, 1967), pp. 281-297. [9] R. Duda and P Hart, "Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis," (John

  14. A Supersymmetric Dark Disk Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Fischler, Willy; Tangarife, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We present a model of partially interacting dark matter (PIDM) within the framework of supersymmetry with gauge mediated symmetry breaking. Dark sector atoms are produced through Affleck-Dine baryogenesis in the dark sector while avoiding the production of Q-ball relics. We discuss the astrophysical constraints relevant for this model and the possibility of dark galactic disk formation. In addition, jet emission from rotating black holes is discussed in the context of this class of models.

  15. A Pulsar and a Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Recent, unusual X-ray observations from our galactic neighbor, the Small Magellanic Cloud, have led to an interesting model for SXP 214, a pulsar in a binary star system.Artists illustration of the magnetic field lines of a pulsar, a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star. [NASA]An Intriguing BinaryAn X-ray pulsar is a magnetized, rotating neutron star in a binary system with a stellar companion. Material is fed from the companion onto the neutron star, channeled by the objects magnetic fields onto a hotspot thats millions of degrees. This hotspot rotating past our line of sight is what produces the pulsations that we observe from X-ray pulsars.Located in the Small Magellanic Cloud, SXP 214 is a transient X-ray pulsar in a binary with a Be-type star. This star is spinning so quickly that material is thrown off of it to form a circumstellar disk.Recently, a team of authors led by JaeSub Hong (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) have presented new Chandra X-ray observations of SXP 214, tracking it for 50 ks (~14 hours) in January 2013. These observations reveal some very unexpected behavior for this pulsar.X-ray PuzzleThe energy distribution of the X-ray emission from SXP 214 over time. Dark shades or blue colors indicate high counts, and light shades or yellow colors indicate low counts. Lower-energy X-ray emission appeared only later, after about 20 ks. [Hong et al. 2016]Three interesting pieces of information came from the Chandra observations:SXP 214s rotation period was measured to be 211.5 s an increase in the spin rate since the discovery measurement of a 214-second period. Pulsars usually spin down as they lose angular momentum over time so what caused this one to spin up?Its overall X-ray luminosity steadily increased over the 50 ks of observations.Its spectrum became gradually softer (lower energy) over time; in the first 20 ks, the spectrum only consisted of hard X-ray photons above 3 keV, but after 20 ks, softer X-ray photons below 2 ke

  16. Regression of lumbar disk herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu Evzikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compression of the spinal nerve root, giving rise to pain and sensory and motor disorders in the area of its innervation is the most vivid manifestation of herniated intervertebral disk. Different treatment modalities, including neurosurgery, for evolving these conditions are discussed. There has been recent evidence that spontaneous regression of disk herniation can regress. The paper describes a female patient with large lateralized disc extrusion that has caused compression of the nerve root S1, leading to obvious myotonic and radicular syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging has shown that the clinical manifestations of discogenic radiculopathy, as well myotonic syndrome and morphological changes completely regressed 8 months later. The likely mechanism is inflammation-induced resorption of a large herniated disk fragment, which agrees with the data available in the literature. A decision to perform neurosurgery for which the patient had indications was made during her first consultation. After regression of discogenic radiculopathy, there was only moderate pain caused by musculoskeletal diseases (facet syndrome, piriformis syndrome that were successfully eliminated by minimally invasive techniques. 

  17. Heating and Cooling Protostellar Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, S

    2011-01-01

    We examine heating and cooling in protostellar disks using 3-D radiation-MHD calculations of a patch of the Solar nebula at 1 AU, employing the shearing-box and flux-limited radiation diffusion approximations. The disk atmosphere is ionized by stellar X-rays, well-coupled to magnetic fields, and sustains a turbulent accretion flow driven by magneto-rotational instability, while the interior is resistive and magnetically dead. The turbulent layers heat by absorbing the light from the central star and by dissipating the magnetic fields. They are optically-thin to their own radiation and cool inefficiently. The optically-thick interior in contrast is heated only weakly, by re-emission from the atmosphere. The interior is colder than a classical viscous model, and isothermal. The magnetic fields support an extended atmosphere that absorbs the starlight 1.5 times higher than the hydrostatic viscous model. The disk thickness thus measures not the internal temperature, but the magnetic field strength. Fluctuations i...

  18. Sol-gel derived bioactive coating on zirconia: Effect on flexural strength and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahramian, Khalil; Leminen, Heidi; Meretoja, Ville; Linderbäck, Paula; Kangasniemi, Ilkka; Lassila, Lippo; Abdulmajeed, Aous; Närhi, Timo

    2016-09-07

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of sol-gel derived bioactive coatings on the biaxial flexural strength and fibroblast proliferation of zirconia, aimed to be used as an implant abutment material. Yttrium stabilized zirconia disc-shaped specimens were cut, ground, sintered, and finally cleansed ultrasonically in each of acetone and ethanol for 5 minutes. Three experimental groups (n = 15) were fabricated, zirconia with sol-gel derived titania (TiO2 ) coating, zirconia with sol-gel derived zirconia (ZrO2 ) coating, and non-coated zirconia as a control. The surfaces of the specimens were analyzed through images taken using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a non-contact tapping mode atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to record the surface topography and roughness of the coated specimens. Biaxial flexural strength values were determined using the piston-on-three ball technique. Human gingival fibroblast proliferation on the surface of the specimens was evaluated using AlamarBlue assay™. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Additionally, the biaxial flexural strength data was also statistically analyzed with the Weibull distribution. The biaxial flexural strength of zirconia specimens was unaffected (p > 0.05). Weibull modulus of TiO2 coated and ZrO2 coated groups (5.7 and 5.4, respectively) were lower than the control (8.0). Specimens coated with ZrO2 showed significantly lower fibroblast proliferation compared to other groups (p sol-gel derived coatings have no influence on the flexural strength of zirconia. ZrO2 coated specimens showed significantly lower cell proliferation after 12 days than TiO2 coated or non-coated control. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  19. Water Sorption and Flexural Strength of Thermoplastic and Conventional Heat-Polymerized Acrylic Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Hemmati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess and compare the water sorption and flexural strength of thermoplastic and conventional acrylic resins.Materials and Methods: Water sorption and flexural strength were compared between a thermoplastic modified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA denture base resin (group A and a heat-polymerized PMMA acrylic resin (group B as the control group (n=10. A three-point bending test was carried out for flexural strength testing. For water sorption test, 10 disc-shaped samples were prepared. After desiccating, the samples were weighed and immersed in distilled water for seven days. Then, they were weighed again, and desiccated for the second and third times. Differences between the mean values in the two groups were analyzed using Student's t-test.Results: The mean value of water sorption was 14.74±1.36 μg/mm3 in group A, and 19.11±0.90 μg/mm3 in group B; this difference was statistically significant (P< 0.001. The mean value of flexural strength was 88.21±8.63 MPa in group A and 77.77±9.49 MPa in group B. A significant difference was observed between the two groups (P= 0.019.Conclusion: Flexural strength of group A was significantly higher than that of group B, and its water sorption was significantly lower. Thus, thermoplastic resins can be a suitable alternative to conventional PMMA acrylic resins as denture base materials.

  20. Evaluation of the Flexural Strength of Interim Restorative Materials in Fixed Prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrpour, Hanieh; Farjood, Ehsan; Giti, Rashin; Barfi Ghasrdashti, Alireza; Heidari, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical properties of interim restorations are considered as important factors specially when selecting materials for long-term application or for patients with para-functional habits. Flexural strength is one of the most important components of these restorations. The purpose of this study was to compare the flexural strength of five interim restorative materials. Fifty identical samples sized 25×2×2-mm were made from five interim materials (TempSpan; Protemp 4, Unifast III, Trim, and Revotek LC) according to ADA specification #27. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva for 2 weeks and then thermocycled for 2500 cycles (5-55˚C). A standard three-point bending test was conducted on the specimens with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.75mm/min. Data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA and Tamhane's post-hoc tests to measure the flexural strength of temporary materials. One of the bis-acryl resins (TempSpan) showed the highest, and the light polymerized resin (Revotek LC) showed the lowest flexural strength. The mean values of flexural strength (MPa) for the examined materials were as follow: TempSpan=120.00, Protemp 4=113.00, Unifast III=64.20, Trim= 63.73 and Revotek LC=47.16. There were significant differences between all materials except Trim and Unifast III which did not show any statistical significant difference. Bis-acryl resins were statistically superior to traditional methacrylate and light-cured resins. Therefore, application of bis-acryl resins should be deliberated in patients with heavy occlusion and in cases that need long-term use of interim restorations.

  1. Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Makramani, Bandar Mohammed Abdullah; Razak, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Abu-Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2010-12-01

    Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995) were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia)], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany), which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8 ± 87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4 ± 28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7 ± 12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA ) at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (Pcore ceramics (Pstrength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N. Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.

  2. Disk Detective Follow-Up Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc

    As new data on exoplanets and young stellar associations arrive, we will want to know: which of these planetary systems and young stars have circumstellar disks? The vast allsky database of 747 million infrared sources from NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission can supply answers. WISE is a discovery tool intended to find targets for JWST, sensitive enough to detect circumstellar disks as far away as 3000 light years. The vast WISE archive already serves us as a roadmap to guide exoplanet searches, provide information on disk properties as new planets are discovered, and teach us about the many hotly debated connections between disks and exoplanets. However, because of the challenges of utilizing the WISE data, this resource remains underutilized as a tool for disk and planet hunters. Attempts to use WISE to find disks around Kepler planet hosts were nearly scuttled by confusion noise. Moreover, since most of the stars with WISE infrared excesses were too red for Hipparcos photometry, most of the disks sensed by WISE remain obscure, orbiting stars unlisted in the usual star databases. To remedy the confusion noise problem, we have begun a massive project to scour the WISE data archive for new circumstellar disks. The Disk Detective project (Kuchner et al. 2016) engages layperson volunteers to examine images from WISE, NASA's Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and optical surveys to search for new circumstellar disk candidates via the citizen science website DiskDetective.org. Fueled by the efforts of > 28,000 citizen scientists, Disk Detective is the largest survey for debris disks with WISE. It has already uncovered 4000 disk candidates worthy of follow-up. However, most host stars of the new Disk Detective disk candidates have no known spectral type or distance, especially those with red colors: K and M stars and Young Stellar Objects. Others require further observations to check for false positives. The Disk Detective project is supported by

  3. Connecting the shadows: probing inner disk geometries using shadows in transitional disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, M.; Stolker, T.; Dominik, C.; Benisty, M.

    2017-08-01

    Aims: Shadows in transitional disks are generally interpreted as signs of a misaligned inner disk. This disk is usually beyond the reach of current day high contrast imaging facilities. However, the location and morphology of the shadow features allow us to reconstruct the inner disk geometry. Methods: We derive analytic equations of the locations of the shadow features as a function of the orientation of the inner and outer disk and the height of the outer disk wall. In contrast to previous claims in the literature, we show that the position angle of the line connecting the shadows cannot be directly related to the position angle of the inner disk. Results: We show how the analytic framework derived here can be applied to transitional disks with shadow features. We use estimates of the outer disk height to put constraints on the inner disk orientation. In contrast with the results from Long et al. (2017, ApJ, 838, 62), we derive that for the disk surrounding HD 100453 the analytic estimates and interferometric observations result in a consistent picture of the orientation of the inner disk. Conclusions: The elegant consistency in our analytic framework between observation and theory strongly support both the interpretation of the shadow features as coming from a misaligned inner disk as well as the diagnostic value of near infrared interferometry for inner disk geometry.

  4. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).

  5. Ring shaped dust accumulation in transition disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, P; Birnstiel, T

    2012-01-01

    Context.Transition disks are believed to be the final stages of protoplanetary disks, during which a forming planetary system or photoevaporation processes open a gap in the inner disk, drastically changing the disk structure. From theoretical arguments it is expected that dust growth, fragmentation and radial drift are strongly influenced by gas disk structure, and pressure bumps in disks have been suggested as key features that may allow grains to converge and grow efficiently. Aims. We want to study how the presence of a large planet in a disk influences the growth and radial distribution of dust grains, and how observable properties are linked to the mass of the planet. Methods. We combine two-dimensional hydrodynamical disk simulations of disk-planet interactions with state-of-the-art coagulation/fragmentation models to simulate the evolution of dust in a disk which has a gap created by a massive planet. We compute images at different wavelengths and illustrate our results using the example of the transi...

  6. Thin disk lasers: history and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    During the early 1990s, collaboration between the German Aerospace Center and the University of Stuttgart started to work on the Thin Disk concept. The core idea behind the thin disk design is the use of a thin, disk-shaped active medium that is cooled through one of the flat faces of the disk. This ensures a large surface-to-volume ratio and therefore provides very efficient thermal management. Today, the thin disk concept is used in various commercial lasers - ranging from compact, efficient low power systems to multi-kW lasers, including cw lasers and also pulsed (femtosecond to nanosecond) oscillators and amplifiers. The whole development of the Thin Disk laser was and will be accompanied by numerical modeling and optimization of the thermal and thermo-mechanic behavior of the disk and also the heat sink structure, mostly based on finite element models. For further increasing the energy and efficiency of pulsed Thin Disk lasers, the effects of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) are a core issue. Actual efforts are oriented towards short pulse and ultra-short pulse amplifiers with (multi-)kW average power or Joule-class Thin Disk amplifiers, but also on new designs for cw thin disk MOPA designs.

  7. The early evolution of protostellar disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Steven W.; Korycansky, D. G.; Brothers, Maxwell J.; Touma, Jihad

    1994-01-01

    We consider the origin and intital growth of the disks that form around protostars during the collapse of rotating molecular cloud cores. These disks are assumed to be inviscid and pressure free, and to have masses small compared to those of their central stars. We find that there exist three distinct components-an outer disk, in which shocked gas moves with comparable azimuthal and radical velocities; and inner disk, where material follows nearly circular orbits, but spirals slowly toward the star because of the drag exerted by adjacent onfalling matter, and a turbulent ring adjoining the first two regions. Early in the evolution, i.e., soon after infalling matter begins to miss the star, only the outer disk is present, and the total mass acceration rate onto the protostar is undiminished. Once the outer disk boundary grows to more than 2.9 times the stellar radius, first the ring, and then the inner disk appear. Thereafter, the radii of all three components expand as t(exp 3). The mass of the ring increase with time and is always 13% of the total mass that has fallen from the cloud. Concurrently with the buildup of the inner disk and ring, the accretion rate onto the star falls off. However, the protostellar mass continue to rise, asymptotically as t(exp 1/4). We calculated the radiated flux from the inner and outer disk components due to the release of gravitational potential energy. The flux from the inner disk is dominant and rises steeply toward the stellar surface. We also determine the surface temperature of the inner disk as a function of radius. The total disk luminosity decreases slowly with time, while the contributions from the ring and inner disk both fall as t(exp -2).

  8. Generalized Similarity for Accretion/Decretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-10-01

    Decretion (or external) disks are gas disks freely expanding to large radii due to their internal stresses. They are expected to naturally arise in tidal disruption events, around Be stars, in mass-losing post-main-sequence binaries, as a result of supernova fallback, etc. Their evolution is theoretically understood in two regimes: when the central object does not exert torque on the disk (a standard assumption for conventional accretion disks) or when no mass inflow (or outflow) occurs at the disk center. However, many astrophysical objects—circumbinary disks, Be stars, neutron stars accreting in a propeller regime, etc.—feature non-zero torque simultaneously with the non-zero accretion (or ejection of mass) at the disk center. We provide a general description for the evolution of such disks (both linear and nonlinear) in the self-similar regime, to which the disk should asymptotically converge with time. We identify a similarity parameter λ, which is uniquely related to the degree, to which the central mass accretion is suppressed by the non-zero central torque. The known decretion disk solutions correspond to the two discrete values of λ, while our new solutions cover a continuum of its physically allowed values, corresponding to either accretion or mass ejection by the central object. A direct relationship between λ and central \\dot{M} and torque is also established. We describe the time evolution of the various disk characteristics for different λ, and show that the observable properties (spectrum and luminosity evolution) of the decretion disks, in general, are different from the standard accretion disks with no central torque.

  9. Experimental Study on Flexural Behavior of Post-Tensioning Bonded Partially Prestressed Ultra-High Strength Concrete Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinqing Jia; Gang Meng

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of four partially prestressed ultra⁃high strength concrete beams in flexure. The test results are used to evaluate the effects of prestressing tendon depth and area on flexure behavior of specimen beams. The test results indicate that:the cracking load, yielding load, peak load and stiffness post⁃cracking of specimen beams are enhanced by reducing prestressing tendon depth or increasing prestressing tendon area, and the flexural ductility is improved by increasing prestressing tendon depth or reducing prestressing tendon area. The effect of complex reinforcement index considering the strength of the equivalence principle and the reinforcement position on loading levels under serviceability limit state, flexural strength and displacement ductility factor are studied. The influence coefficient of prestressing tendon kp is introduced in the complex reinforcement index. As the complex reinforcement index increases, the loading levels under serviceability limit state and flexural strength increases linearly, and the displacement ductility factor decreases linearly. The test results also verify the conventional beam flexural theory based on the plane cross⁃section assumption for predicting ultimate flexural strength of partially prestressed ultra⁃high strength concrete beams is valid. After the introduction of the coefficient kp , the calculation method of cracks in code for design of concrete structure in china are appropriated for the specimen beams.

  10. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormendy, John

    2013-10-01

    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  11. Effect of Preheating and Precooling on the Flexural Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Nanohybrid and Silorane-based Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Sharafeddin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Composite resin may be used in different temperatures; it is crucial to determine the effect of temperature on mechanical properties of nanohybrid and silorane-based composite. Purpose: This in vitro study compared the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of nanohybrid and silorane-based resin composite, at 4˚C, room temperature (25˚C, and 45˚C. Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 60 specimens were prepared in a metal split mold (2×2×25mm. Two different resin composites, Filtek Z250 XT (3M/ ESPE and Filtek P90 (3M/ESPE, were evaluated. The material were inserted into split molds at room temperature, 4˚C or 45˚C and cured with LED (1200 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds in four points (n=10. Then, a three-point bending test was performed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min for measuring the flexural strength and flexural modulus of samples. The data were analyzed by the two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p< 0.05. Results: The mean highest flexural strength was observed at 45˚C, showing statistically significant difference with flexural strength at 4˚C (p= 0.0001 and 25˚C (p= 0.003 regardless of the type of resin composite. The flexural modulus at 45˚C was highest, showing the statistically significant difference with flexural modulus at 4˚C (p= 0.0001 and 25˚C (p= 0.002. The flexural modulus was statistically different between nanohybrid and silorane-based resin composite (p= 0.01 in 25˚C and 45˚C, but there were no statistically significant differences between flexural strength of Filtek Z250 XT and Filtek P90 regardless of the temperatures (p= 0.062. Conclusion: Preheating the resin composite at 45˚C improves flexural strength and modulus of nanohybrid and silorane-based resin composite. However, flexural strength and modulus of the tested materials were not affected by precooling. The flexural modulus of nanohybrid resin composite was significantly higher than

  12. Effect of thermocycling on the flexural strength of porcelain laminate veneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Deepa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of thermocycling on the flexural strength and development of surface flaws on the glazed surface of porcelain laminate veneer restorations with and without resin luting cement. Materials and Methods: 80 Vitadur alpha dentin porcelain discs (10 mm diameter, 0.9 mm thickness were glazed on one side and divided into two groups: A (porcelain laminate veneer only without resin luting cement and B (porcelain laminate veneer luted with resin cement, each containing 40 discs. The discs in groups A and B were then thermocycled at different temperatures and were subjected to SEM analysis to evaluate the effect of thermocycling on crack propagation. Mean flexural strength was determined by using the ball-on-ring test. Student′s t -test was used to find out the difference between strength values of the thermocycled porcelain discs and discs luted with resin cement. Results: SEM analysis revealed crack propagation in the subgroups subjected to extremes of temperature, i.e., 4 ± 1°C, 37 ± 1°C and 4 ± 1°C, 65 ± 1°C in the porcelain laminate veneers luted with resin cement. Flexural strength analysis revealed superior flexural strength for porcelain laminate veneers: 88.58 ± 6.94 Mpa when compared to porcelain laminate veneers luted with resin cement: 8.42 ± 2.60 MPa. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Student′s t -test. Conclusion: Laminate veneer specimens exhibited greater flexural strength than those which were luted with resin cements. Laminate veneer specimens luted with resin cement and subjected to extremes of temperature, 4 ± 1°C and 37 ± 1°C and 4 ± 1°C and 65 ± 1°C, showed a marked decrease in flexural strength. After thermocycling at extremes of temperature, laminate veneer specimens luted with resin cement showed crack propagation. Fit of laminate veneers cannot / should not be compensated by the thickness of luting agent.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Flexural Strength of Provisional Crown and Bridge Materials-An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ankita; Garg, Sandeep

    2016-08-01

    Provisional restorations serve a key role as a functional and esthetic try-in for the design of the final prosthesis. During selection of materials for this restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, ease of handling, cost and patient satisfaction and approval. To evaluate and compare the flexural strength of provisional crown and bridge materials available commercially. This in-vitro study was done to compare the flexural strength of six temporary crown and bridge materials available commercially at 24 hours, 8 days and after repair. Three poly methyl methacrylate based materials (DPI, SC10 and Trulon) and three bis-acrylic based composite resins (Protemp, Cooltemp and Luxatemp) were selected. A total of 72 specimens of dimensions 64mm×10mm×2.5mm were prepared from these materials (12 from each material) and divided into two groups (n=36). Specimens were stored in artificial saliva and were fractured after 24 hours and 8 days using Universal Testing Machine. The fractured samples from the 8 days study were then subjected to repair. A uniform space of 2mm and a 450 bevel was maintained for all the repaired samples for better distribution of forces. Flexural strength of these repaired samples was recorded using the same machine. RESULTs were recorded and statistically analysed by one-way Anova and Post hoc tests. RESULTs revealed that there was decrease in flexural strength for all the materials tested from 24 hours to 8 days, though flexural strength between poly methyl methacrylate and bis-acrylic resins was similar at 24 hours and 8 days time interval. A substantial decrease was noticed in the strength of bis-acrylic composite resins after repair. From the current study it can be suggested that though there is decrease in flexural strength for all the materials from 24 hours to 8 days, both can be used to fabricate the provisional restorations. However, in the event of a fracture of a bis-acrylic provisional restoration, it may be more

  14. Flexural Strength of Glass and Polyethylene Fiber Combined with Three Different Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharafeddin F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available tatement of Problem: The flexure of the fiber- reinforced composites (FRC which can be generally used instead of fixed metal- framework prostheses have been more advocated due to the enormous demands for the conservative and esthetic restoration. The flexure of the fiber should be well-fitted to its covering composite. No study has been reported the comparison of the combination of glass and polyethylene fiber with particulate filled composite and fiber reinforced composite yet.Purpose: This study compared the flexural strength of two types of fibers combined with three types of composites.Materials and Method: Sixty-six specimens were prepared in a split mold (25×2×2 mm. The specimens were divided into six groups according to the type of resin and the fiber (N = 11: group 1: Z250 composite + Polyethylene fiber; group 2: Build It composite + Polyethylene fiber; group 3: Nulite F composite+ Polyethylene fiber; group 4: glass fiber + Z250 composite; group 5: glass fiber + Build-It composite and group 6: glass fiber + Nulite F. The mean flexural strengths (MPa values were determined in a 3-point bending test at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min by a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020, Germany. The results were statistically analyzed, using one and two- way ANOVA and LSD post-hoc tests (p< 0.05.Results: The highest flexural strength was registered for glass fiber in combination with Z250 composite (500 MPa and the lowest for polyethylene fiber in combination with Build-It composite (188 MPa. One-way ANOVA test revealed that there was no statistically significant difference between polyethylene fiber combinations (p= 0.62 but there was a significant difference between glass fiber combinations (p= 0.0001. Two-way ANOVA revealed that the fiber type had a significant effect on flexural strength (p= 0.0001.Conclusion: The choice of fiber and composite type was shown to have a significant positive influence on the flexural properties of the

  15. Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G

    2006-01-01

    The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.

  16. Counterrotating Stars in Simulated Galaxy Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Algorry, David G; Abadi, Mario G; Sales, Laura V; Steinmetz, Matthias; Piontek, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    Counterrotating stars in disk galaxies are a puzzling dynamical feature whose origin has been ascribed to either satellite accretion events or to disk instabilities triggered by deviations from axisymmetry. We use a cosmological simulation of the formation of a disk galaxy to show that counterrotating stellar disk components may arise naturally in hierarchically-clustering scenarios even in the absence of merging. The simulated disk galaxy consists of two coplanar, overlapping stellar components with opposite spins: an inner counterrotating bar-like structure made up mostly of old stars surrounded by an extended, rotationally-supported disk of younger stars. The opposite-spin components originate from material accreted from two distinct filamentary structures which at turn around, when their net spin is acquired, intersect delineating a "V"-like structure. Each filament torques the other in opposite directions; the filament that first drains into the galaxy forms the inner counterrotating bar, while material ...

  17. Molecular Gas in Young Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moór, Attila; Kóspál, Ágnes; Ábrahám, Péter; Juhász, Attila; Apai, Dániel; Csengeri, Timea; Grady, Carol; Henning, Thomas; Kiss, Csaba; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2013-07-01

    Gas-rich primordial disks and tenuous gas-poor debris disks are usually considered as two distinct evolutionary phases of the circumstellar matter. So far only a very few debris disks with measurable gas component have been known. We carried out a survey with the APEX radio telescope to detect molecular gas at millimeter wavelengths in 28 infrared-luminous young debris disks, and discovered two new systems with substantial amount of CO. Motivated to understand the origin, physics, and evolutionary status of the gas in these systems we observed one of them, HD 21997, with ALMA and Herschel. Our results suggest that HD 21997 may be a hybrid system where secondary debris dust and residual primordial gas coexist. This poses a serious question to the current paradigm, since the age of the system (30 Myr) significantly exceeds model predictions for disk clearing and the ages of the oldest transitional disks.

  18. Erasing Data and Recycling of Optical Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Fujita

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical disks, DVDs and CDs, are convenient recording media on which to safely store data for a long period of time. However, the complete data erasure from recorded media is also important for the security of the data. After erasure of data from optical disks, recycling the material is needed in order to recover the valuable components of the optical disks. Here, data erasure methods for optical disks are discussed in the view of material recycling. The main finding of the study is that the explosion of optical disks in water is a very suitable method for complete erasure of data on the disks as well as recycling of their materials.

  19. Non-isothermal effects on Be disks

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Rodrigo G; Bjorkman, Jon E

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, the viscous decretion disk model has emerged as the new paradigm for Be star disks. In this contribution, we propose a simple analytical model to estimate the continuum infrared excess arising from these circumstellar disks, in the light of the currently accepted scenario. We demonstrate that the disk can be satisfactorily described by a two component system: an inner optically thick region, which we call the pseudo-photosphere, and a diffuse outer part. In particular, a direct connexion between the disk brightness profile and the thermal structure is derived, and then confronted to realistic numerical simulations. This result quantifies how the non-isothermality of the disk ultimately affects both infrared measured fluxes and visibilities.

  20. Dusty Disks around White Dwarfs I: Origin of Debris Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Ruobing; Lin, D N C; Liu, X -W

    2010-01-01

    A significant fraction of the mature FGK stars have cool dusty disks at least an orders of magnitudes brighter than the solar system's outer zodiacal light. Since such dusts must be continually replenished, they are generally assumed to be the collisional fragments of residual planetesimals analogous to the Kuiper Belt objects. At least 10% of solar type stars also bear gas giant planets. The fraction of stars with known gas giants or detectable debris disks (or both) appears to increase with the stellar mass. Here, we examine the dynamical evolution of systems of long-period gas giant planets and residual planetesimals as their host stars evolve off the main sequence, lose mass, and form planetary nebula around remnant white dwarf cores. The orbits of distant gas giant planets and super-km-size planetesimals expand adiabatically. During the most intense AGB mass loss phase, sub-meter-size particles migrate toward their host stars due to the strong hydrodynamical drag by the intense stellar wind. Along their ...