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Sample records for vlasov-stable iff epsilon

  1. Passive IFF: Autonomous Nonintrusive Rapid Identification of Friendly Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Philip; Steenburg, Robert Van; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2004-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic instrument would identify targets rapidly, without need to radiate an interrogating signal, apply identifying marks to the targets, or equip the targets with transponders. The instrument was conceived as an identification, friend or foe (IFF) system in a battlefield setting, where it would be part of a targeting system for weapons, by providing rapid identification for aimed weapons to help in deciding whether and when to trigger them. The instrument could also be adapted to law-enforcement and industrial applications in which it is necessary to rapidly identify objects in view. The instrument would comprise mainly an optical correlator and a neural processor (see figure). The inherent parallel-processing speed and capability of the optical correlator would be exploited to obtain rapid identification of a set of probable targets within a scene of interest and to define regions within the scene for the neural processor to analyze. The neural processor would then concentrate on each region selected by the optical correlator in an effort to identify the target. Depending on whether or not a target was recognized by comparison of its image data with data in an internal database on which the neural processor was trained, the processor would generate an identifying signal (typically, friend or foe ). The time taken for this identification process would be less than the time needed by a human or robotic gunner to acquire a view of, and aim at, a target. An optical correlator that has been under development for several years and that has been demonstrated to be capable of tracking a cruise missile might be considered a prototype of the optical correlator in the proposed IFF instrument. This optical correlator features a 512-by-512-pixel input image frame and operates at an input frame rate of 60 Hz. It includes a spatial light modulator (SLM) for video-to-optical image conversion, a pair of precise lenses to effect Fourier transforms, a filter SLM

  2. What is the (epsilon'/epsilon)_exp Telling Us ?

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Buras, Andrzej J.

    2001-01-01

    Nature might be kinder than previously thought as far as epsilon'/epsilon is concerned. We show that the recently obtained experimental value for epsilon'/epsilon does not require sizeable 1/N and isospin-breaking corrections. We propose to display the theoretical results for epsilon'/epsilon in a (P^{1/2}, P^{3/2}) plane in which the experimental result is represented by a (epsilon'/epsilon)_exp-path. This should allow to exhibit transparently the role of 1/N and isospin-breaking corrections in different calculations of epsilon'/epsilon. From now on theorists are allowed to walk only along this (epsilon'/epsilon)_exp-path.

  3. Are men carrying the apolipoprotein epsilon 4- or epsilon 2 allele less fertile than epsilon 3 epsilon 3 genotypes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Gerdes, C; Hansen, P S;

    1996-01-01

    The epsilon 3 allele in the human gene coding for apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the most common worldwide, but epsilon 4 is probably the ancestral allele. Since apoE is involved in many important biological processes, selection forces could have favoured epsilon 3. We hypothesized that apoE genotypes...... may affect reproductive efficiency, and we therefore compared the distributions of 40-year-old married men with known genotypes by the numbers of their biological children. The distributions were statistically significantly different (P = 0.0026). On average, men with the epsilon 3 epsilon 3 genotype...... (n = 212) had 1.93 children, men with the epsilon 3 epsilon 4 or epsilon 4 epsilon 4 genotype (n = 105) had 1.50, and men with the epsilon 3 epsilon 2 or epsilon 2 epsilon 2 genotypes (n = 53) had 1.66 children. Of the men in the three groups, 6%, 26% and 19%, respectively, reported being childless...

  4. The role of final state interactions in epsilon'/epsilon

    OpenAIRE

    Pallante, Elisabetta; Pich, Antonio; Scimemi, Ignazio

    2000-01-01

    The Standard Model prediction for epsilon'/epsilon is updated, taking into account the chiral loop corrections induced by final state interactions. The resulting value, epsilon'/epsilon = (17\\pm 6)\\times 10^{-4}, is in good agreement with present measurements.

  5. Twisting formula of epsilon factors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SAZZAD ALI BISWAS

    2017-09-01

    For characters of a non-Archimedean local field we have explicit formula for epsilon factors. But in general, we do not have any generalized twisting formula of epsilon factors. In this paper, we give a generalized twisting formula of epsilon factorsvia local Jacobi sums.

  6. Battlefield IFF system and its main technology analysis%战场敌我识别系统及其主要技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万洪; 葛海龙; 柯铭铭; 郎杰

    2013-01-01

    战场上分清敌我是战胜敌人的先决条件,尤其是在现代多兵种联合作战中,敌我识别系统的作用和地位显得更为突出.本文在论述敌我识别系统工作原理的基础上,对美军敌我识别系统Mark-Ⅶ的工作模式进行了分析,并对敌我识别系统的关键技术进行了分析研究,重点分析了敌我识别旁瓣干扰抑制、非同步干扰抑制主要相关技术.%Distinguish between friend or foe on the battlefield is a prerequisite to defeat the enemy, especially in the modern multi-combined operations, the role and status of the IFF system becomes more prominent This paper discusses the IFF system works on the basis of the U.S. Identification Friend or Foe Mark XII mode of operation analysis, the key technologies of the IFF system were analyzed, the focus of the IFF side lobe interference suppression non-synchronous interference suppression mainly related technologies.

  7. Eclipse of epsilon Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.

    2009-07-01

    The bright, long-period, eclipsing binary star epsilon Aurigae is predicted to begin its next eclipse late July or early August of 2009. Epsilon Aurigae is now past solar conjunction and has reappeared as a morning object. All observers -- both visual and instrumental -- are encouraged to contribute observations of the eclipse during the next two years, beginning immediately for morning observers. Observations are urgently requested right now because it is less likely to be observed in the morning, and the eclipse will begin within the next month. The AAVSO is participating in a global campaign to record this eclipse as part of the International Year of Astronomy 2009 celebrations, organized by the Citizen Sky project (http://www.citizensky.org). For experienced visual observers, please observe this star on a weekly basis, using charts available via VSP from the AAVSO website. For novice visual observers, we recommend participating in this observing program by following the Citizen Sky 10-Star tutorial program, which provides a simple training experience in variable star observing. Photoelectric observers belonging to the AAVSO PEP-V program may submit data as usual via the WebObs feature of the AAVSO website Blue&Gold section. Photoelectric observers may also contribute reduced observations in all filters (including infrared J- and H-bands) directly to the AAVSO via WebObs. Observers using wide-field CCD and DSLR systems are also encouraged to participate; avoid saturating the star. For those with narrower-field systems (D Jeffrey Hopkins are co-leading the precision photometry efforts.

  8. Chargino contributions in light of recent $\\epsilon'/\\epsilon$

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, Motoi; Ueda, Daiki; Yamamoto, Kei

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the standard model prediction of $\\epsilon'/\\epsilon$ was improved, and a discrepancy from the experimental results was reported at the $2.9\\sigma$ level. We study the chargino contributions to $Z$ penguin especially with the vacuum stability constraint. The vacuum decay rate is investigated, and it is shown that the discrepancy can be explained if superparticles are lighter than 4-6 TeV. Correlations with $\\mathcal{B}(K_L\\to\\pi^0\

  9. Improved anatomy of epsilon'/epsilon in the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Jäger, Sebastian; Jamin, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We present a new analysis of the ratio epsilon'/epsilon within the Standard Model (SM) using a formalism that is manifestly independent of the values of leading (V-A)x(V-A) QCD penguin, and EW penguin hadronic matrix elements of the operators Q_4, Q_9, and Q_10, and applies to the SM as well as extensions with the same operator structure. It is valid under the assumption that the SM exactly describes the data on CP-conserving K -> pi pi amplitudes. As a result of this and the high precision now available for CKM and quark mass parameters, to high accuracy epsilon'/epsilon depends only on two non-perturbative parameters, B_6^(1/2) and B_8^(3/2), and perturbatively calculable Wilson coefficients. Within the SM, we are separately able to determine the hadronic matrix element _0 from CP-conserving data, significantly more precisely than presently possible with lattice QCD. Employing B_6^(1/2) = 0.57+-0.15 and B_8^(3/2) = 0.76+-0.05, extracted from recent results by the RBC-UKQCD collaboration, we obtain epsilon'/...

  10. What is the (epsilon-prime / epsilon)(exp) telling us?

    OpenAIRE

    Buras, Andrzej J.; Gérard, Jean-Marc

    2001-01-01

    Nature might be kinder than previously thought as far as epsilon'/epsilon is concerned. We show that the recently obtained experimental value for epsilon'/epsilon does not require sizeable 1/N and isospin-breaking corrections. We propose to display the theoretical results for epsilon'/epsilon in a (P^{1/2}, P^{3/2}) plane in which the experimental result is represented by a (epsilon'/epsilon)_exp-path. This should allow to exhibit transparently the role of 1/N and isospin-br...

  11. Facts About Delta Pi Epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The article discusses the purpose and structure of Delta Pi Epsilon and the general qualifications for membership. Service projects and publications, research awards, timely facts, the year of each chapter's origination, national presidents, and executive secretaries for the last 40 years are listed. (BP)

  12. Integrated flow field (IFF) structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pien, Shyhing M. (Inventor); Warshay, Marvin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present disclosure relates in part to a flow field structure comprising a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic part communicably attached to each other via a connecting interface. The present disclosure further relates to electrochemical cells comprising the aforementioned flow fields.

  13. Pareto-adaptive epsilon-dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Alfredo G; Santana-Quintero, Luis V; Coello Coello, Carlos A; Molina, Julián

    2007-01-01

    Efficiency has become one of the main concerns in evolutionary multiobjective optimization during recent years. One of the possible alternatives to achieve a faster convergence is to use a relaxed form of Pareto dominance that allows us to regulate the granularity of the approximation of the Pareto front that we wish to achieve. One such relaxed forms of Pareto dominance that has become popular in the last few years is epsilon-dominance, which has been mainly used as an archiving strategy in some multiobjective evolutionary algorithms. Despite its advantages, epsilon-dominance has some limitations. In this paper, we propose a mechanism that can be seen as a variant of epsilon-dominance, which we call Pareto-adaptive epsilon-dominance (paepsilon-dominance). Our proposed approach tries to overcome the main limitation of epsilon-dominance: the loss of several nondominated solutions from the hypergrid adopted in the archive because of the way in which solutions are selected within each box.

  14. A novel human immunoglobulin Fc gamma Fc epsilon bifunctional fusion protein inhibits Fc epsilon RI-mediated degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daocheng; Kepley, Christopher L; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Ke; Saxon, Andrew

    2002-05-01

    Human mast cells and basophils that express the high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor, Fc epsilon receptor 1 (Fc epsilon RI), have key roles in allergic diseases. Fc epsilon RI cross-linking stimulates the release of allergic mediators. Mast cells and basophils co-express Fc gamma RIIb, a low affinity receptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif and whose co-aggregation with Fc epsilon RI can block Fc epsilon RI-mediated reactivity. Here we designed, expressed and tested the human basophil and mast-cell inhibitory function of a novel chimeric fusion protein, whose structure is gamma Hinge-CH gamma 2-CH gamma 3-15aa linker-CH epsilon 2-CH epsilon 3-CH epsilon 4. This Fc gamma Fc epsilon fusion protein was expressed as the predicted 140-kappa D dimer that reacted with anti-human epsilon- and gamma-chain specific antibodies. Fc gamma Fc epsilon bound to both human Fc epsilon RI and Fc gamma RII. It also showed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of antigen-driven IgE-mediated histamine release from fresh human basophils sensitized with IgE directed against NIP (4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenylacetyl). This was associated with altered Syk signaling. The fusion protein also showed increased inhibition of human anti-NP (4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl) and anti-dansyl IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in transgenic mice expressing human Fc epsilon RI alpha. Our results show that this chimeric protein is able to form complexes with both Fc epsilon RI and Fc gamma RII, and inhibit mast-cell and basophil function. This approach, using a Fc gamma Fc epsilon fusion protein to co-aggregate Fc epsilon RI with a receptor containing an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif, has therapeutic potential in IgE- and Fc epsilon RI-mediated diseases.

  15. {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} in the 1/N{sub c} expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambye, T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Soldan, P.H. [Dortmund Univ., Dortmund (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    1999-07-01

    It is here presented a new analysis of the ratio {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} which measures the direct CP violation in K {yields} {pi}{pi} decays. It is used the 1/N{sub c} expansion within the framework of the effective chiral lagrangian for pseudoscalar mesons. From general counting arguments it is showed that the matrix element of the operator Q{sub 6} is not protected from possible large 1/N{sub c} corrections beyond its large-N{sub c} or VSA value. Calculating the 1/N{sub c} corrections, it is explicity found that the they are large and positive. Our result indicates that a {delta}I = 1/2 enhancement is amplitude. This enhances {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} and can bring the standard model prediction close to the measured value for central values of the parameters.

  16. Analysis of {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} in the 1/N{sub c} expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hambye, T. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Koehler, G.O.; Paschos, E.A.; Soldan, P.H. [Dortmund Univ., Dortmund (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    1999-07-01

    In this paper it is presented a new analysis of the ratio {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} which measures the direct CP violation in K {yields}{pi}{pi} decays. It is used the 1/N{sub c} expansion within the framework of the effective chiral Lagrangian for pseudoscalar mesons. The 1/N{sub c} corrections to the hadronic matrix elements of all operators are calculated at leading order in the chiral expansion. Performing a simple scanning of the input parameters is obtained 1.5 {center_dot} 10{sup -4}{<=} {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} {<=} 31.6 {center_dot} 10{sup -4}. It is also investigated, in the chiral limit, the 1/N{sub c} corrections to the operator Q{sub 6} at next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion. It is found large positive corrections which further enhance {epsilon}{sup '}/{epsilon} and can bring the standard model prediction close to the measured value for central values of the parameters. The result indicates that at the level of the 1/N{sub c} corrections a {delta}I = 1/2 enhancement is operative for Q{sub 6} similar to the one of Q{sub 1} and Q{sub 2} which dominate the CP conserving amplitude.

  17. Apparatus and method to measure dielectric properties (epsilon(') and epsilon(")) of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göllei, Attila; Vass, András; Pallai, Elisabeth; Gerzson, Miklós; Ludányi, Lajos; Mink, János

    2009-04-01

    Conventional techniques for measurement of dielectric properties of ionic liquids or electrolyte solutions fail because the samples are largely short circuited by the high electrical conductance. The object of the author's research activity was to elaborate an apparatus (microwave dielectrometer) and method suitable to measure the dielectric constant (epsilon(')) and loss factor (epsilon(")) of well conducting ionic liquids and other solvents. This process is based on a revised waveguide method completed with an automatic calibration possibility. Contrary to conventional measuring methods this technique uses about 20 W/g power density. The measurements were carried out at 2.45 GHz frequency in the temperature range from 10 up to 100 degrees C. The obtained (epsilon(')) and (epsilon(")) values of different solvents were compared with several published (calculated and measured) data. Statistical analysis was used to determine the error of measurements and distilled water was chosen as a standard for study of data dispersion. To accomplish statistical analysis, namely, the dielectric characteristics have to be determined at the same temperature. The values of variances were less or equal 1 in case of epsilon(') and decrease with increasing temperature. In case of epsilon(") the variance data were much smaller.

  18. Hilbert's epsilon as an Operator of Indefinite Committed Choice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Claus-Peter

    2009-01-01

    Paul Bernays and David Hilbert carefully avoided overspecification of Hilbert's epsilon-operator and axiomatized only what was relevant for their proof-theoretic investigations. Semantically, this left the epsilon-operator underspecified. In the meanwhile, there have been several suggestions for semantics of the epsilon as a choice operator. After reviewing the literature on semantics of Hilbert's epsilon operator, we propose a new semantics with the following features: We avoid overspecification (such as right-uniqueness), but admit indefinite choice, committed choice, and classical logics. Moreover, our semantics for the epsilon supports proof search optimally and is natural in the sense that it does not only mirror some cases of referential interpretation of indefinite articles in natural language, but may also contribute to philosophy of language. Finally, we ask the question whether our epsilon within our free-variable framework can serve as a paradigm useful in the specification and computation of seman...

  19. Molecular modeling of epsilon RNA from hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai Ren Pan; Hai Jun Zhu; Zhong Rong Song; Xu Dong Zhang; Huai Cao

    2009-01-01

    An initial model of the HBV epsilon RNA was built by the Biopolymer module of Insight Ⅱ. While its three-dimensional structure was obtained through structure optimization based on molecular dynamics simulation, the two active sites were found. A comparison with the experimental result indicated that the active sites may be the binding sites of the epsilon RNA in the RT-epsilon interaction. The result will be helpful to further discussion about the mechanism of RT-epsilon interaction and the study of HBV genome replication.

  20. New atmospheric model of Epsilon Eridani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieytes, Mariela; Fontenla, Juan; Buccino, Andrea; Mauas, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    We present a new semi-empirical model of the atmosphere of the widely studied K-dwarf Epsilon Eridani (HD 22049). The model is build to reproduce the visible spectral observations from 3800 to 6800 Angstrom and the h and k Mg II lines profiles. The computations were carried out using the Solar-Stellar Radiation Physical Modeling (SSRPM) tools, which calculate non-LTE population for the most important species in the stellar atmosphere. We show a comparison between the synthetic and observed spectrum, obtaining a good agreement in all the studied spectral range.

  1. The Final Measurement of Epsilon'/Epsilon from KTeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worcester, E.T.

    2009-10-01

    The authors present precise measurements of CP and CPT symmetry based on the full dataset of K {yields} {pi}{pi} decays collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. This dataset contains about 15 million K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and 70 million K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays. They measure the direct CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}'/{epsilon}) = (19.2 {+-} 2.1) x 10{sup -4}. they find the K{sub L}-K{sub S} mass difference {Delta}m = (5265 {+-} 10) x 10{sup 6} {bar h}s{sup -1} and the K{sub S} lifetime {tau}{sub S} = (89.62 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -12} s. They test CPT symmetry by finding the phase of the indirect CP violation parameter {epsilon}, {phi}{sub {epsilon}} = (44.09 {+-} 1.00){sup o}, and the difference of the relative phases between the CP violating and CP conserving decay amplitudes for K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} ({phi}{sub +-}) and for K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} ({phi}{sub 00}), {Delta}{phi} = (0.29 {+-} 0.31){sup o}. these results are consistent with other experimental results and with CPT symmetry.

  2. Re (epsilon'/epsilon_K) vs. B_d -> phi K_S CP asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, P; Park, J; Park, Jae-hyeon

    2005-01-01

    In a SUSY GUT seesaw scenario, the largeness of the atmospheric neutrino mixing can reflect itself into an enhanced flavor changing mixing of beauty and strange right-handed scalar quarks. If the CP violating phase in such down type squark RR insertion is the main source of CP asymmetry in B_d -> phi K_S and the gluino contributions to K0-K0 bar and B0-B0 bar mixing are negligible, there is a correlation between Re (epsilon'/epsilon_K) and B_d -> phi K_S CP asymmetry, in addition to that with the strange quark CEDM. The current data on Re (epsilon'/epsilon_K) = (16.7 +- 2.6) 10^-4 imply that S_{phi K} should be greater than \\sim 0.5 (0.25) for mu tan beta = 1 (5) TeV, assuming the RR dominance in b -> s transition and the minimal supergravity type boundary conditions for soft parameters.

  3. Epsilon Metal Summary Report FY 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Windisch, Charles F.; Riley, Brian J.

    2011-09-30

    The Epsilon-metal ({var_epsilon}-metal) phase was selected in FY 2009 as a potential waste form to for immobilizing the noble metals found in the undissolved solids + aqueous stream, and the soluble Tc from ion-exchange process, each resulting from proposed aqueous reprocessing. {var_epsilon}-metal phase is observed in used nuclear fuel and the natural reactors of Oklobono in Gabon, where the long-term corrosion behavior was demonstrated. This makes {var_epsilon}-metal a very attractive waste form. Last fiscal year, {var_epsilon}-metal was successfully fabricated by combining the five-metals, Mo, Ru, Rh, Pd and Re (surrogate for Tc), into pellets followed by consolidation with an arc melter. The arc melter produced fully dense samples with the epsilon structure. However, some chemistry differences were observed in the microstructure that resulted in regions rich in Re and Mo, and others rich in Pd, while Ru and Rh remained fairly constant throughout. This year, thermal stability (air), and corrosion testing of the samples fabricated by arc melting were the main focus for experimental work. Thermal stability was measured with a differential scanning calorimeter - thermogravimetric analyzer, by both ramp heating as well as step heating. There is clear evidence during the ramp heating experiment of an exothermic event + a weight loss peak both beginning at {approx}700 C. Step heating showed an oxidation event at {approx}690 C with minimal weight gain that occurs just before the weight loss event at 700 C. The conclusion being that the e-metal begins to oxidize and then become volatile. These findings are useful for considering the effects of voloxidation process. Three different pellets were subjected to electrochemical testing to study the corrosion behavior of the epsilon-metal phase in various conditions, namely acidic, basic, saline, and inert. Test was done according to an interim procedure developed for the alloy metal waste form. First an open circuit potential

  4. Systematic effects in the R({epsilon}`/{epsilon}) measurement for NA31; Effets systematiques sur la mesure de R({epsilon}`/{epsilon}) dans NA31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdereau, O.

    1994-12-01

    The aim of this thesis is to report the works done by the author during the NA31 experiment from 1989 to 1993. The framework of this work is the measurement of R({epsilon}`/{epsilon}) parameter using 1989 data. The experiment consist in large sample records of kaons into two pions disintegration modes. Differences in detector response for one of the two modes and/or in one of the two beams used has been systematically verified and studied and eventually corrected. After a presentation of the apparatus used in the NA31 experiment, the procedure of reconstruction and analysis of charged and neutral events is described. Monte-Carlo simulations are applied to simulate the different diffused kaon sources after evaluation and removal of the different background noises. Corrections for the effects of accidental particles is taken into account in the background noise estimation. A disturbance in the shower counter measurements has led to the conception of a new control device which can provide additional informations for the calculation of new characteristic quantities for reconstituted particles. These informations have been used for the estimation of accidental triggered events and for the determination of the fraction of lost events due to accidental photon. A satisfactory agreement is observed between the results and results of the superposition method. (J.S.). 77 refs., 129 figs., 40 tabs, 1 ann.

  5. High interobserver variability in the assessment of epsilon waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Platonov, Pyotr G; Calkins, Hugh; Hauer, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Revision of the Task Force diagnostic criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) has increased their sensitivity for the diagnosis of early and familial forms of the disease. The epsilon wave is a major diagnostic criterion in the context of ARVC....../D, which, however, remains not quantifiable and therefore may leave room for substantial subjective interpretation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess interobserver agreement in epsilon wave definition and epsilon wave importance for ARVC/D diagnosis. METHODS: Electrocardiographic (ECG......) tracings depicting leads V1, V2, and V3 collected from individuals evaluated for ARVC/D (n = 30) were given to panel members who were asked to respond to the question whether ECG patterns meet epsilon wave definition outlined by the Task Force diagnostic criteria. The prevalence and importance of epsilon...

  6. T*{sub {epsilon}} integral analysis of fracture specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Y.; Ma, L.; Kobayashi, A.S. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    T*{sub {epsilon}} integral values associated with stable crack growth in thin 2024-T3 aluminum compact (CT) specimens and A606 HSLA steel single edge notched (SEN) specimens were determined directly from the crack tip displacement field obtained by moire interferometry. Stable crack growth in the SEN specimen was also simulated by an elastic-plastic finite element (FE) model which was driven by the experimentally determined boundary conditions. T*{sub {epsilon}} obtained experimentally and by FE were in reasonable agreements with each other. Unlike the vanishing J integrals with crack extension, T*{sub {epsilon}} reached steady state values with stable crack growth. Thus, for a given integration contour, {Gamma}{sub {epsilon}}, near the crack tip, T*{sub {epsilon}} can be used as a stable crack growth as well as a ductile fracture criteria.

  7. Clinical Significance of Epsilon Waves in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protonotarios, Alexandros; Anastasakis, Aris; Tsatsopoulou, Adalena; Antoniades, Loizos; Prappa, Efstathia; Syrris, Petros; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; McKENNA, William J; Protonotarios, Nikos

    2015-07-16

    Epsilon waves are hallmark features of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM) but information about their clinical significance is variable. We evaluated epsilon wave prevalence, characteristics, and their clinical significance in an ACM population. Eighty-six unselected patients fulfilling the 2010 Task Force criteria were enrolled. Seventy-six of them were carriers of desmosomal mutations. All subjects were serially evaluated with standard 12-lead ECG and 2-dimensional echocardiography. Epsilon waves were evaluated in all precordial and inferior leads. Novel parameters assessed included their duration and precordial/inferior lead extension. Twenty-five subjects (29%) had epsilon waves that were present in lead V3 and beyond in 9, and in the inferior leads in 7. Epsilon waves were associated with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) (P = 0.001) but not RV posterior wall (P = 0.21), RV apex (P = 0.30), or left ventricular (P = 0.94) wall motion abnormalities. Patients with epsilon waves had increased RVOT diameter (P waves in lead V3 and beyond was associated with increased epsilon wave duration (P = 0.002) and RVOT diameter (P = 0.04). The duration of epsilon waves was positively correlated with RVOT diameter (r = 0.70, P = 0.0001). Epsilon waves were also associated with episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia (P = 0.004) but not with heart failure (P = 0.41) or sudden cardiac death (P = 0.31). Detection of epsilon waves on 12-lead ECG reflects significant RVOT involvement, which was associated with episodes of sustained ventricular tachycardia but not sudden cardiac death. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. High temperature epsilon-near-zero and epsilon-near-pole metamaterial emitters for thermophotovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Molesky, Sean; Jacob, Zubin

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for engineering thermally excited far field electromagnetic radiation using epsilon-near-zero metamaterials and introduce a new class of artificial media: epsilon-near-pole metamaterials. We also introduce the concept of high temperature plasmonics as conventional metamaterial building blocks have relatively poor thermal stability. Using our approach, the angular nature, spectral position, and width of the thermal emission and optical absorption can be finely tuned for a variety of applications. In particular, we show that these metamaterial emitters near 1500 K can be used as part of thermophotovoltaic devices to surpass the full concentration Shockley-Queisser limit of 41%. Our work paves the way for high temperature thermal engineering applications of metamaterials.

  9. Wilson fermions in the epsilon regime

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Oliver; Schaefer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We extend the epsilon-expansion of continuum chiral perturbation theory to nonzero lattice spacing in the framework of Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory. We distinguish various regimes by defining the relative power counting of the quark mass m and the lattice spacing a. We observe that for m ~ a Lambda^2_QCD, the explicit breaking of chiral symmetry in Wilson fermions is still driven by the quark mass and lattice corrections are highly suppressed. The lattice spacing effects become more pronounced for smaller quark masses and may lead to non-trivial corrections of the continuum results at next-to-leading order. We compute these corrections for standard current and density correlation functions. A fit to lattice data shows that these corrections are small, as expected.

  10. Significance of soluble Fc epsilon receptor II (sFc epsilon RII/CD23) in serum and possible application of sFc epsilon RII for the prevention of allergic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemura, M; Kikutani, H; Sugiyama, K; Uchibayashi, N; Aitani, M; Kuritani, T; Barsumian, E L; Yamatodani, A; Kishimoto, T

    1991-01-01

    The significance of sFc epsilon RII in IgE-mediated allergic disease was examined. sFc epsilon RII in serum was found to decrease following clinical improvement, suggesting sFc epsilon RII in serum may be an indicator of allergic diseases. Significant proportions of sFc epsilon RII in serum were present as complexes with IgE in normals as well as in atopic patients, and these complexes were more prominent in the former than in the latter group. From these observations, attempts were made to inhibit IgE-mediated allergic reactions in vitro employing recombinant sFc epsilon RII. sFc epsilon RII inhibited IgE-binding as well as IgE-mediated release of chemical mediators from Fc epsilon RI and Fc epsilon RII expressing cells. These results show the functional significance of sFc epsilon RII in the negative regulation of IgE-mediated allergic reactions.

  11. Equivalence of History and Generator Epsilon-Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Travers, Nicholas F

    2011-01-01

    Epsilon-machines are minimal, unifilar representations of stationary stochastic processes. They were originally defined in the history machine sense---as machines whose states are the equivalence classes of infinite histories with the same probability distribution over futures. In analyzing synchronization, though, an alternative generator definition was given: unifilar edge-label hidden Markov models with probabilistically distinct states. The key difference is that history epsilon-machines are defined by a process, whereas generator epsilon-machines define a process. We show here that these two definitions are equivalent.

  12. Epsilon Factors for Meromorphic Connections and Gauss Sums

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, Christopher L

    2010-01-01

    Let $E$ is be vector bundle with meromorphic connection on $\\proj^1/k$ for some field $k \\subset \\cplx$, and let $\\mathbf{E}$ be the sheaf of horizontal sections on the analytic points of $X$. The irregular Riemann-Hilbert correspondence states that there is a canonical isomorphism between the De Rham cohomology of $L$ and the `moderate growth' cohomology of $\\mathbf{L}$. Recent work of Beilinson, Bloch, and Esnault has shown that the determinant of this map factors into a product of local `$\\epsilon$-factors' which closely resemble the classical $\\epsilon$-factors of Galois representations. In this paper, we show that $\\epsilon$-factors for rank one connections may be calculated explicitly by a Gauss sum. This formula suggests a deeper relationship between the De Rham $\\epsilon$-factor and its Galois counterpart.

  13. VARIABILITY IN OPTICAL SPECTRA OF {epsilon} ORIONIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Gregory B. [Department of Physics, Adrian College, Adrian, MI 49221 (United States); Morrison, Nancy D., E-mail: gthompson@adrian.edu, E-mail: nmorris@utnet.utoledo.edu [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    We present the results of a time series analysis of 130 echelle spectra of {epsilon} Ori (B0 Ia), acquired over seven observing seasons between 1998 and 2006 at Ritter Observatory. The equivalent widths of H{alpha} (net) and He I {lambda}5876 were measured and radial velocities were obtained from the central absorption of He I {lambda}5876. Temporal variance spectra (TVS) revealed significant wind variability in both H{alpha} and He I {lambda}5876. The He I TVS have a double-peaked profile consistent with radial velocity oscillations. A periodicity search was carried out on the equivalent width and radial velocity data, as well as on wavelength-binned spectra. This analysis has revealed several periods in the variability with timescales of two to seven days. Many of these periods exhibit sinusoidal modulation in the associated phase diagrams. Several of these periods were present in both H{alpha} and He I, indicating a possible connection between the wind and the photosphere. Due to the harmonic nature of these periods, stellar pulsations may be the origin of some of the observed variability. Periods on the order of the rotational period were also detected in the He I line in the 1998-1999 season and in both lines during the 2004-2005 season. These periods may indicate rotational modulation due to structure in the wind.

  14. On the shepherding of Uranian epsilon ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周济林; 孙义燧; Bambi; Hu

    2000-01-01

    To explain the long-term existence of Uranian narrow rings, we study the dynamical evolution of Uranian epsilon ring under the influence of its two shepherding satellites: Cordelia and Ophelia. The model of planar-elliptic restricted three-body problem is employed, in which the three bodies are Uran, a satellite and a test partide. Dissipations due to irrterparticle collisions are also taken into consideration. A mapping system has been obtained based on the differential equation system . Numerical results show that only those partides originally lying in the libration region of the reso-nance can be shepherded. The size of the libration region depends mainly on the orbital eccentricity and mass of the shepherd satellite. For the outer shepherd Ophelia with larger orbital eccentricity, if its mass is a third of the nominal mass 2.5 > 1019 g, most of the orbits are regular and the outer edge of the ring can be shepherded, but more fuzzy than the inner edge. Thus we infer that Ophelia has a smaller mass.

  15. Epsilon substituted lysinol derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen L G; Holloway, M Katharine; Su, Hua-Poo; Carroll, Steven S; Burlein, Christine; Touch, Sinoeun; DiStefano, Daniel J; Sanchez, Rosa I; Williams, Theresa M; Vacca, Joseph P; Coburn, Craig A

    2010-07-15

    A series of HIV-1 protease inhibitors containing an epsilon substituted lysinol backbone was synthesized. Two novel synthetic routes using N-boc-L-glutamic acid alpha-benzyl ester and 2,6-diaminopimelic acid were developed. Incorporation of this epsilon substituent enabled access to the S2 pocket of the enzyme, affording high potency inhibitors. Modeling studies and synthetic efforts suggest the potency increase is due to both conformational bias and van der Waals interactions with the S2 pocket.

  16. Experimental Test for epsilon-Expansions with n=4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, H. R.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1980-01-01

    epsilon (Porson)-expansion calculations predict the magnetic phase transitions of the Ce monochalcogenides to be first order. We present experimental evidence that the transitions in CeSe and CeTe are continuous.......epsilon (Porson)-expansion calculations predict the magnetic phase transitions of the Ce monochalcogenides to be first order. We present experimental evidence that the transitions in CeSe and CeTe are continuous....

  17. Saying Hello World with Epsilon - A Solution to the 2011 Instructive Case

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Louis M; Williams, James R; Kolovos, Dimitrios S; Paige, Richard F; Polack, Fiona A C; 10.4204/EPTCS.74.27

    2011-01-01

    Epsilon is an extensible platform of integrated and task-specific languages for model management. With solutions to the 2011 TTC Hello World case, this paper demonstrates some of the key features of the Epsilon Object Language (an extension and reworking of OCL), which is at the core of Epsilon. In addition, the paper introduces several of the task-specific languages provided by Epsilon including the Epsilon Generation Language (for model-to-text transformation), the Epsilon Validation Language (for model validation) and Epsilon Flock (for model migration).

  18. Saying Hello World with Epsilon – A Solution to the 2011 Instructive Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis M. Rose

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Epsilon is an extensible platform of integrated and task-specific languages for model management. With solutions to the 2011 TTC Hello World case, this paper demonstrates some of the key features of the Epsilon Object Language (an extension and reworking of OCL, which is at the core of Epsilon. In addition, the paper introduces several of the task-specific languages provided by Epsilon including the Epsilon Generation Language (for model-to-text transformation, the Epsilon Validation Language (for model validation and Epsilon Flock (for model migration.

  19. A Precision Measurement of $\\epsilon^{\\prime}$/$\\epsilon$ in CP Violating K$^{0}$ $\\rightarrow$ 2$\\pi$ Decays

    CERN Multimedia

    Kalmus, G E; Munday, D J; Wotton, S; Monnier, E; Winston, R; Gudzovskiy, E; Gurev, D; Hristov, P Z; Kuz'Min, N; Madigozhin, D; Pis'Mennyy, R; Potrebenikov, Y; Slepnev, I; Rubin, P D; Szleper, M; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Gianoli, A; Savrie, M; Wahl, H; Calvetti, M; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Veltri, M; Bocquet, G; Bremer, J; Cattai, A; Ceccucci, A; Formenti, F; Gatignon, L; Osmic, F; Panzer-Steindel, B; Piccini, M; Ruggiero, G; Unal, G P; Bloch-Devaux, B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Derre, J; Gouge, G; Legou, P; Marel, G; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Kleinknecht, K; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales Morales, C; Renk, B; Wanke, R; Cornebise, P; Martin-Chassard, G; Anzivino, G; Cenci, P; Nappi, A; Papi, A; Pepe, M S; Petrucci, M C; Valdata, M; Cerri, C; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Ferrini, F; Mannelli, I; Raffaelli, G; Sozzi, M; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Cundy, D; Goy Lopez, S; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Nassalski, J P; Dibon, H; Jeitler, M; Markytan, M; Neuhofer, G; Pernicka, M; Taurok, A

    2002-01-01

    The prime goal of the experiment is to measure the CP violating parameter Re($\\epsilon^{\\prime}/\\epsilon$) with an accuracy of 2 10$ ^- ^{4} $. The experiment uses two nearly collinear $ K _{S} $ and $ K _{L} $ beams produced concurrently and distinguished by tagging the protons producing the $ K _{S} $ component. In this way the double ratio R of decay rates of the $K_{L}$ and $K_{S}$ into two pions, \

  20. INFRARED STUDIES OF EPSILON AURIGAE IN ECLIPSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stencel, Robert E.; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Wall, Randall E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208 (United States); Hopkins, Jeffrey L. [Hopkins Phoenix Observatory, Phoenix, AZ 85033 (United States); Howell, Steve B. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hoard, D. W. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rayner, John; Bus, Schelte; Tokunaga, Alan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Sitko, Michael L.; Bradford, Suellen [Department of Physics, Cincinnati University, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Russell, Ray W.; Lynch, David K. [Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Hammel, Heidi; Whitney, Barbara [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Orton, Glenn; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Hora, Joseph L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hinz, Philip; Hoffmann, William, E-mail: rstencel@du.edu [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2011-11-15

    We report here on a series of medium resolution spectro-photometric observations of the enigmatic long period eclipsing binary epsilon Aurigae, during its eclipse interval of 2009-2011, using near-infrared spectra obtained with SpeX on the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), mid-infrared spectra obtained with BASS on AOES and IRTF, MIRSI on IRTF, and MIRAC4 on the MMT, along with mid-infrared photometry using MIRSI on IRTF and MIRAC4 on the MMT, plus 1995-2000 timeframe published photometry and data obtained with Denver's TNTCAM2 at WIRO. The goals of these observations included: (1) comparing eclipse depths with prior eclipse data, (2) confirming the re-appearance of CO absorption bands at and after mid-eclipse, associated with sublimation in the disk, (3) seeking evidence for any mid-infrared solid state spectral features from particles in the disk, and (4) providing evidence that the externally irradiated disk has azimuthal temperature differences. IR eclipse depths appear similar to those observed during the most recent (1983) eclipse, although evidence for post-mid-eclipse disk temperature increase is present, due to F star heated portions of the disk coming into view. Molecular CO absorption returned 57 days after nominal mid-eclipse, but was not detected at mid-eclipse plus 34 days, narrowing the association with differentially heated sub-regions in the disk. Transient He I 10830A absorption was detected at mid-eclipse, persisting for at least 90 days thereafter, providing a diagnostic for the hot central region. The lack of solid-state features in Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph, BASS, and MIRAC spectra to date suggests the dominance of large particles (micron-sized) in the disk. Based on these observations, mid-infrared studies out of eclipse can directly monitor and map the disk thermal changes, and better constrain disk opacity and thermal conductivity.

  1. An open-label, in-use study assessing the warming sensation accompanying IFF Flavour 316282 and the acceptability and local tolerability of a syrup containing paracetamol and pseudoephedrine for the short-term treatment of symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Furcha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective was to assess the warming sensation caused by IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup used for short-term treatment by patients suffering from nasal congestion and mild to moderate body pain, headache, fever or sore throat associated with an upper respiratory tract infection. Methods: A single cohort, single treatment arm, open-label study. Subjects received one 30 mL dose of syrup containing IFF Flavour 316282, paracetamol and pseudoephedrine and recorded onset and disappearance of any warming sensation in the mouth/throat. Subjects’ assessments of strength and appeal of the sensation, taste, texture and acceptability of the product was investigated using questionnaires. Results: A total of 56 subjects were included; 53 (94.6% experienced a warming sensation. The median duration of the warming sensation was 114 s (95% confidence interval: 87–120 s. All subjects rated the syrup as excellent, good or fair for treating their symptoms; 100% and 94.6% of subjects respectively described texture and taste as excellent, good or fair. There were no safety concerns, and the syrup was well tolerated. Most subjects liked the warming sensation. Conclusions: IFF Flavour 316282 in a syrup for treatment of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms is associated with a warming sensation. The syrup is well tolerated, safe and palatable.

  2. Efficient Vortex Generation in Subwavelength Epsilon-Near-Zero Slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Marini, Andrea; Rizza, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order 2 in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the transverse magnetic and transverse electric asymmetric response of the rotationally invariant system. In addition, in the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in subwavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime. This physically stems from the fact that a vacuum paraxial field can excite a nonparaxial field inside an epsilon-near-zero slab since it hosts slowly varying fields over physically large portions of the bulk. Our theoretical predictions indicate that epsilon-near-zero media hold great potential as nanophotonic elements for manipulating the angular momentum of the radiation, since they are available without resorting to complicated micro- or nanofabrication processes and can operate even at very small (ultraviolet) wavelengths.

  3. Efficient Vortex Generation in Subwavelength Epsilon-Near-Zero Slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Marini, Andrea; Rizza, Carlo

    2017-03-10

    We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order 2 in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the transverse magnetic and transverse electric asymmetric response of the rotationally invariant system. In addition, in the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in subwavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime. This physically stems from the fact that a vacuum paraxial field can excite a nonparaxial field inside an epsilon-near-zero slab since it hosts slowly varying fields over physically large portions of the bulk. Our theoretical predictions indicate that epsilon-near-zero media hold great potential as nanophotonic elements for manipulating the angular momentum of the radiation, since they are available without resorting to complicated micro- or nanofabrication processes and can operate even at very small (ultraviolet) wavelengths.

  4. Framework for improved lattice calculations of epsilion'/epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, Jack

    In this thesis we show that it is possible to construct epsilon '/epsilon to NLO using both full and partially quenched chiral perturbation theory (PQChPT) from amplitudes that are computable using numerical lattice gauge theory. We find that the electro-weak penguin (Delta I = 3/2 and 1/2) contributions to epsilon'/epsilon in PQChPT can be determined to NLO using only degenerate (mK = mpi) K → pi computations without momentum insertion. All one-loop formulas needed to extract the necessary NLO constants from the lattice are presented in this work. Issues pertaining to power divergent contributions, originating from mixing with lower dimensional operators in a lattice regularization, are addressed. In embedding the QCD penguin left-right operator onto PQChPT an ambiguity arises when the number of light sea quarks is not the physical value of three, as first emphasized by Golterman and Pallante. In the quenched theory they have pointed out that there are additional effective operators that appear in the quenched chiral perturbation theory needed to make contact with K → pipi amplitudes at physical kinematics. They have also proposed a method for determining the leading order low-energy constant, aNSq , associated with the new operators. We show that their method has difficulties due to power divergent contributions and propose a new method to obtain this constant from the lattice which does not suffer from this problem. Using this alternative method, we obtain aNSq , and show that our value implies a large ambiguity in the quenched contribution of Q6 to epsilon'/epsilon.

  5. Long distance part of $\\epsilon_K$ from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Ziyuan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the lattice QCD calculation of the long distance contribution to $\\epsilon_K$. Due to the singular, short-distance structure of $\\epsilon_K$, we must perform a short-distance subtraction and introduce a corresponding low-energy constant determined from perturbation theory, which we calculate at Next Leading Order (NLO). We perform the calculation on a $24^3 \\times 64$ lattice with a pion mass of 329 MeV. This work is a complete calculation, which includes all connected and disconnected diagrams.

  6. Epsilon Systems on Geometric Crystals of type $A_n$

    CERN Document Server

    Nakashima, Toshiki

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an epsilon system on a geometric crystal of type $A_n$, which is a certain set of rational functions with some conditions. We shall show that there is a product structure and that it is invariant under the action of tropical R maps.

  7. Exploring the epsilon regime with twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, K; Shindler, A; Urbach, C; Wenger, U

    2007-01-01

    In this proceeding contribution we report on a first study in order to explore the so called epsilon regime with Wilson twisted mass (Wtm) fermions. To show the potential of this approach we give a preliminary determination of the chiral condensate.

  8. Asteroseismology and interferometry of the red giant star epsilon Oph

    CERN Document Server

    Mazumdar, A; Demarque, P; Kervella, P; Barban, C; Baudin, F; Foresto, V Coude du; Farrington, C; Goldfinger, P J; Goupil, M -J; Josselin, E; Kuschnig, R; McAlister, H A; Matthews, J; Ridgway, S T; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Brummelaar, T A ten; Turner, N

    2009-01-01

    The GIII red giant star epsilon Oph has been found to exhibit several modes of oscillation by the MOST mission. We interpret the observed frequencies of oscillation in terms of theoretical radial p-mode frequencies of stellar models. Evolutionary models of this star, in both shell H-burning and core He-burning phases of evolution, are constructed using as constraints a combination of measurements from classical ground-based observations (for luminosity, temperature, and chemical composition) and seismic observations from MOST. Radial frequencies of models in either evolutionary phase can reproduce the observed frequency spectrum of epsilon Oph almost equally well. The best-fit models indicate a mass in the range of 1.85 +/- 0.05 Msun with radius of 10.55 +/- 0.15 Rsun. We also obtain an independent estimate of the radius of epsilon Oph using high accuracy interferometric observations in the infrared K' band, using the CHARA/FLUOR instrument. The measured limb darkened disk angular diameter of epsilon Oph is 2...

  9. Twisted accretion discs. Pt. 3. Application to Epsilon Aurigae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.

    1987-04-15

    Twisting and alignment in a steady-state circumbinary accretion disc is studied. It is then used to account for observed features in the scenario of Epsilon Aurigae as a triple. The alignment depends on viscosity in the disc, but it is always substantial and leads to a tilted slab-like profile when viewed edge-on.

  10. Epsilon Systems on Geometric Crystals of type A_n

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Nakashima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an epsilon system on a geometric crystal of type A_n, which is a certain set of rational functions with some nice properties. We shall show that it is equipped with a product structure and that it is invariant under the action of tropical R maps.

  11. Providing a Virtual Initiation for Epsilon Pi Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Craig S.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the requirements of the Epsilon Pi Tau (EPT) initiation is the apprentice has to physically be at the initiation (EPT, 2004). Since the majority of nontraditional students and working professionals are physically removed from an initiation site, they have missed the opportunity to join EPT. On 8 April, 2005, the Beta Mu Chapter of The…

  12. Fate of the Epsilon Phase in the Oklo Natural Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2005-03-31

    In spent nuclear fuel (SNF), the micron- to submicron-sized epsilon phase (Mo-Ru-Pd-Tc-Rh) is an important host of {sup 99}Tc which has a long half life (2.13 x 10{sup 5} years) and can be an important contributor to dose in safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. In addition, Tc is predominantly present as TcO{sub 4}{sup -} under oxidizing conditions at wide range of pH, weakly adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, and unlikely to be incorporated into alteration uranyl minerals. In the Oklo natural reactor (2.0 Ga), essentially all of the {sup 99}Tc has decayed to {sup 99}Ru. Thus, this study focuses on Ru and the other metals of the epsilon phase in order to investigate the occurrence and the fate of the epsilon phase during the corrosion of this natural SNF. Samples from reactor zone (RZ)-10 (836, 819, 687); from RZ-13 (864, 910); were investigated using TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Within the UO{sub 2} matrix, a Bi-Pd particle (40-60 nm), fioodite, PdBi{sub 2}, was observed with trace amounts of As, Fe, and Te surrounded by an amorphous Pb-rich area. (Pd,Rh){sub 2}As, palladodymite or rhodarsenide, was observed (400-500 nm in size). Ruthenarsinite, (Ru,Ni)As, was identified in most samples: with a representative composition of As, 59.9: Co, 2.5: Ni, 5.2; Ru, 18.6; Rh, 8.4; Pd, 3.1; Sb, 2.4 in atomic percent. The particles diameters are a few hundred nanometers and, in most cases, surrounded by a Pb-rich phase (400-500 nm). Typically, the ruthenarsenite does not occur as single particle but an aggregate of {approx}200 nm-sized particles. Some Ru-particles revealed a complex phase separation within the grain such as a Ru-particle (600-700 nm) with Pb at the core of the particle and enrichment of Ni, Co, and As at the rim. Some ruthenarsenite crystals were embedded in chlorite immediately adjacent to uraninite. A few particles were still coated by Pb. These results suggest a history for the epsilon phases: (1) The original epsilon phase was

  13. Gold Nanoparticles Protected with Thiol-Derivatized Amphiphilic Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Hvilsted, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphilic poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (HS-PCL-b-PAA) with a thiol functionality in the PCL terminal has been prepared in a novel synthetic cascade. Initially, living anionic ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) employing the difunctional...

  14. Photonic doping of epsilon-near-zero media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal, Iñigo; Mahmoud, Ahmed M.; Li, Yue; Edwards, Brian; Engheta, Nader

    2017-03-01

    Doping a semiconductor with foreign atoms enables the control of its electrical and optical properties. We transplant the concept of doping to macroscopic photonics, demonstrating that two-dimensional dielectric particles immersed in a two-dimensional epsilon-near-zero medium act as dopants that modify the medium’s effective permeability while keeping its effective permittivity near zero, independently of their positions within the host. The response of a large body can be tuned with a single impurity, including cases such as engineering perfect magnetic conductor and epsilon-and-mu-near-zero media with nonmagnetic constituents. This effect is experimentally demonstrated at microwave frequencies via the observation of geometry-independent tunneling. This methodology might provide a new pathway for engineering electromagnetic metamaterials and reconfigurable optical systems.

  15. Quarks with Twisted Boundary Conditions in the Epsilon Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mehen; Brian C. Tiburzi

    2005-05-01

    We study the effects of twisted boundary conditions on the quark fields in the epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory. We consider the SU(2){sub L} x SU(2){sub R} chiral theory with non-degenerate quarks and the SU(3){sub L} x SU(3){sub R} chiral theory with massless up and down quarks and massive strange quarks. The partition function and condensate are derived for each theory. Because flavor-neutral Goldstone bosons are unaffected by twisted boundary conditions chiral symmetry is still restored in finite volumes. The dependence of the condensate on the twisting parameters can be used to extract the pion decay constant from simulations in the epsilon regime. The relative contribution to the partition function from sectors of different topological charge is numerically insensitive to twisted boundary conditions.

  16. Activation and inhibition of the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase by monoclonal antibodies which recognize the epsilon subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, S D; Tozer, R G

    1987-02-15

    The properties of two monoclonal antibodies which recognize the epsilon subunit of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase were studied in detail. The epsilon subunit is a tightly bound but dissociable inhibitor of the ATPase activity of soluble F1-ATPase. Antibody epsilon-1 binds free epsilon with a dissociation constant of 2.4 nM but cannot bind epsilon when it is associated with F1-ATPase. Likewise epsilon cannot associate with F1-ATPase in the presence of high concentrations of epsilon-1. Thus epsilon-1 activates F1-ATPase which contains the epsilon subunit, and prevents added epsilon from inhibiting the enzyme. Epsilon-1 cannot bind to membrane-bound F1-ATPase. The epsilon-4 antibody binds free epsilon with a dissociation constant of 26 nM. Epsilon-4 can bind to the F1-ATPase complex, but, like epsilon-1, it reverses the inhibition of F1-ATPase by the epsilon subunit. The epsilon subunit remains crosslinkable to both the beta and gamma subunits in the presence of epsilon-4, indicating that it is not grossly displaced from its normal position by the antibody. Presumably the activation arises from more subtle conformational effects. Antibodies epsilon-4 and delta-2, which recognizes the delta subunit, both bind to F1F0 in E. coli membrane vesicles, indicating that these subunits are substantially exposed in the membrane-bound complex. Epsilon-4 inhibits the ATPase activity of the membrane-bound enzyme by about 50%, and Fab prepared from epsilon-4 inhibits by about 40%. This inhibition is not associated with any substantial change in the major apparent Km for ATP. These results suggest that inhibition of membrane-bound F1-ATPase arises from steric effects of the antibody.

  17. Numerical techniques for lattice QCD in the $\\epsilon$--regime

    OpenAIRE

    Giusti, L; Hoelbling, C.; Lüscher, M.; Wittig, H.

    2002-01-01

    In lattice QCD it is possible, in principle, to determine the parameters in the effective chiral lagrangian (including weak interaction couplings) by performing numerical simulations in the $\\epsilon$--regime, i.e. at quark masses where the physical extent of the lattice is much smaller than the Compton wave length of the pion. The use of a formulation of the lattice theory that preserves chiral symmetry is attractive in this context, but the numerical implementation of any such approach requ...

  18. MIMO scheme performance and detection in epsilon noise

    OpenAIRE

    Stepanov, Sander

    2006-01-01

    New approach for analysis and decoding MIMO signaling is developed for usual model of nongaussion noise consists of background and impulsive noise named epsilon - noise. It is shown that non-gaussion noise performance significantly worse than gaussion ones. Stimulation results strengthen out theory. Robust in statistical sense detection rule is suggested for such kind of noise features much best robust detector performance than detector designed for Gaussian noise in impulsive environment and...

  19. EPSILON-CONTINUATION APPROACH FOR TRUSS TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xu; CHENG Gengdong

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, a so-called epsilon-continuation approach is proposed for the solution of singular optimum in truss topology optimization problems. This approach is an improved version of the epsilon-relaxed approach developed by the authors previously. In the proposed approach,we start the optimization process from a relaxation parameter with a relatively large value and obtain a solution by applying the epsilon-relaxed approach. Then we decrease the value of the relaxation parameter by a small amount and choose the optimal solution found from the previous optimization process as the initial design for the next optimization. This continuation process is continued until a small termination value of the relaxation parameter is reached. Convergence analysis of the proposed approach is also presented. Numerical examples show that this approach can alleviate the dependence of the final solution on the initial choice of the design variable and enhance the probability of finding the singular optimum from rather arbitrary initial designs.

  20. MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR {epsilon} ERIDANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Mathur, S. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Buccino, A. P.; Mauas, P. J. D.; Petrucci, R. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET), C.C. 67 Sucursal 28, C1428EHA-Buenos Aires (Argentina); Brown, B. P. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Magnetic Self-Organization, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Soderblom, D. R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Henry, T. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States); Hall, J. C. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Basu, S. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The active K2 dwarf {epsilon} Eri has been extensively characterized both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3-year magnetic activity cycle in {epsilon} Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3-year and 13-year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3-year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95 {+-} 0.03 years and 12.7 {+-} 0.3 years, which, by analogy with the solar case, suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called 'active' and 'inactive' sequences as proposed by Boehm-Vitense. Finally, based on the observed properties of {epsilon} Eri, we argue that the rotational history of the Sun is what makes it an outlier in the context of magnetic cycles observed in other stars (as also suggested by its Li depletion), and that a Jovian-mass companion cannot be the universal explanation for the solar peculiarities.

  1. An Attempt to Derive the epsilon Equation from a Two-Point Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V. M.; Cheng, Y.; Howard, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to derive the equation for the turbulence dissipation rate epsilon for a shear-driven flow. In 1961, Davydov used a one-point closure model to derive the epsilon equation from first principles but the final result contained undetermined terms and thus lacked predictive power. Both in 1987 and in 2001, attempts were made to derive the epsilon equation from first principles using a two-point closure, but their methods relied on a phenomenological assumption. The standard practice has thus been to employ a heuristic form of the equation that contains three empirical ingredients: two constants, c(sub 1 epsilon), and c(sub 2 epsilon), and a diffusion term D(sub epsilon) In this work, a two-point closure is employed, yielding the following results: 1) the empirical constants get replaced by c(sub 1), c(sub 2), which are now functions of Kappa and epsilon; 2) c(sub 1) and c(sub 2) are not independent because a general relation between the two that are valid for any Kappa and epsilon are derived; 3) c(sub 1), c(sub 2) become constant with values close to the empirical values c(sub 1 epsilon), c(sub epsilon 2), (i.e., homogenous flows); and 4) the empirical form of the diffusion term D(sub epsilon) is no longer needed because it gets substituted by the Kappa-epsilon dependence of c(sub 1), c(sub 2), which plays the role of the diffusion, together with the diffusion of the turbulent kinetic energy D(sub Kappa), which now enters the new equation (i.e., inhomogeneous flows). Thus, the three empirical ingredients c(sub 1 epsilon), c(sub epsilon 2), D (sub epsilon)are replaced by a single function c(sub 1)(Kappa, epsilon ) or c(sub 2)(Kappa, epsilon ), plus a D(sub Kappa)term. Three tests of the new equation for epsilon are presented: one concerning channel flow and two concerning the shear-driven planetary boundary layer (PBL).

  2. Fate of the epsilon phase in the Oklo natural reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsunomiya, S.; Ewing, R.C. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1063 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In spent nuclear fuel (SNF), the micron- to submicron-sized epsilon phase (Mo-Ru-Pd-Tc-Rh) is an important host of {sup 99}Tc which has a long half life (2.13 x 10{sup 5} years) and can be an important contributor to dose in safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories. In addition, Tc is predominantly present as TcO{sub 4} - under oxidizing conditions at wide range of pH, weakly adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, and unlikely to be incorporated into alteration uranyl minerals. In the Oklo natural reactor (2.0 Ga), essentially all of the {sup 99}Tc has decayed to {sup 99}Ru. Thus, this study focuses on Ru and the other metals of the epsilon phase in order to investigate the occurrence and the fate of the epsilon phase during the corrosion of this natural SNF. Samples from reactor zone (RZ)-10 (836, 819, 687); from RZ-13 (864, 910); were investigated using TEM (transmission electron microscopy). Within the UO{sub 2} matrix, a Bi-Pd particle (40-60 nm), froodite, PdBi{sub 2}, was observed with trace amounts of As, Fe, and Te surrounded by an amorphous Pb-rich area. (Pd,Rh){sub 2}As, palladodymite or rhodarsenide, was observed (400-500 nm in size). Ruthenarsinite, (Ru,Ni)As, was identified in most samples: with a representative composition of As, 59.9: Co, 2.5: Ni, 5.2; Ru, 18.6; Rh, 8.4; Pd, 3.1; Sb, 2.4 in atomic percent. The particles diameters are a few hundred nanometers and, in most cases, surrounded by a Pb-rich phase (400-500 nm). Typically, the ruthenarsenite does not occur as single particle but an aggregate of {approx}200 nm-sized particles. Some Ru-particles revealed a complex phase separation within the grain such as a Ru-particle (600-700 nm) with Pb at the core of the particle and enrichment of Ni, Co, and As at the rim. Some ruthenarsenite crystals were embedded in chlorite immediately adjacent to uraninite. A few particles were still coated by Pb. These results suggest a history for the epsilon phases: (i) The

  3. Identification of epsilon martensite in a Fe-based shape memory alloy by means of EBSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, K; Van Caenegem, N; Raabe, D

    2009-01-01

    Ferrous shape memory alloys (SMAs) are often thought to become a new, important group of SMAs. The shape memory effect in these alloys is based on the reversible, stress-induced martensitic transformation of austenite to epsilon martensite. The identification and quantification of epsilon martensite is crucial when evaluating the shape memory behaviour of this material. Previous work displayed that promising results were obtained when studying the evolution of the amount of epsilon martensite after different processing steps with Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). The present work will discuss in detail, on the one hand, the challenges and opportunities arising during the identification of epsilon martensite by means of EBSD and, on the other hand, the possible interpretations that might be given to these findings. It will be illustrated that although the specific nature of the austenite to epsilon martensite transformation can still cause some points of discussion, EBSD has a high potential for identifying epsilon martensite.

  4. Apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4 allele and familial risk in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Silverman, J M; Altstiel, L D; Haroutunian, V; Perl, D P; Purohit, D; Birstein, S; Lantz, M; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1996-01-01

    Recent studies have found an association between presence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon 4 allele and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study compared the cumulative risk of primary progressive dementia (PPD) in relatives of AD probands carrying at least one copy of the epsilon 4 allele with the relatives of AD probands not carrying epsilon 4 and with relatives of non-demented controls. Our aim was to determine whether the familial aggregation of PPD in relatives of AD probands is primarily due to those carrying epsilon 4. Seventy-seven neuropathologically diagnosed AD patients were obtained as probands through our Alzheimer's Disease Research Center Brain Bank. AD probands were genotyped for APOE. As a comparison group, 198 non-demented probands were also included. Through family informants, demographic and diagnostic data were collected on 382 first-degree relatives (age > or = 45 years) of AD probands and 848 relatives of the controls. We found that the cumulative risk of PPD in both relatives of AD probands with and without the epsilon 4 allele was significantly higher than that in the relatives of non-demented controls. However, the increased risk in the relatives of AD probands with the epsilon 4 allele was marginally, but not significantly, lower than the risk in the relatives of probands without epsilon 4. A greater likelihood of death by heart diseases over developing PPD in relatives of AD probands with epsilon 4 (3.1-fold increase) was found compared to relatives of probands without epsilon 4 (1.7-fold increase), especially prior to age 70, although the difference was not statistically significant. The increased familial risk for PPD in the relatives of AD probands with the APOE-epsilon 4 allele relative to controls suggests that familial factors in addition to APOE-epsilon 4 are risk factors for AD. Differential censorship from increased mortality of heart diseases may have prevented a higher incidence of PPD among the relatives of probands with

  5. Phospholipase C-epsilon regulates epidermal morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael P Vázquez-Manrique

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Migration of cells within epithelial sheets is an important feature of embryogenesis and other biological processes. Previous work has demonstrated a role for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3-mediated calcium signalling in the rearrangement of epidermal cells (also known as hypodermal cells during embryonic morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. However the mechanism by which IP(3 production is stimulated is unknown. IP(3 is produced by the action of phospholipase C (PLC. We therefore surveyed the PLC family of C. elegans using RNAi and mutant strains, and found that depletion of PLC-1/PLC-epsilon produced substantial embryonic lethality. We used the epithelial cell marker ajm-1::gfp to follow the behaviour of epidermal cells and found that 96% of the arrested embryos have morphogenetic defects. These defects include defective ventral enclosure and aberrant dorsal intercalation. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy we show that the migration of the ventral epidermal cells, especially of the leading cells, is slower and often fails in plc-1(tm753 embryos. As a consequence plc-1 loss of function results in ruptured embryos with a Gex phenotype (gut on exterior and lumpy larvae. Thus PLC-1 is involved in the regulation of morphogenesis. Genetic studies using gain- and loss-of-function alleles of itr-1, the gene encoding the IP(3 receptor in C. elegans, demonstrate that PLC-1 acts through ITR-1. Using RNAi and double mutants to deplete the other PLCs in a plc-1 background, we show that PLC-3/PLC-gamma and EGL-8/PLC-beta can compensate for reduced PLC-1 activity. Our work places PLC-epsilon into a pathway controlling epidermal cell migration, thus establishing a novel role for PLC-epsilon.

  6. Phospholipase C-epsilon regulates epidermal morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael P Vázquez-Manrique

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Migration of cells within epithelial sheets is an important feature of embryogenesis and other biological processes. Previous work has demonstrated a role for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3-mediated calcium signalling in the rearrangement of epidermal cells (also known as hypodermal cells during embryonic morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. However the mechanism by which IP(3 production is stimulated is unknown. IP(3 is produced by the action of phospholipase C (PLC. We therefore surveyed the PLC family of C. elegans using RNAi and mutant strains, and found that depletion of PLC-1/PLC-epsilon produced substantial embryonic lethality. We used the epithelial cell marker ajm-1::gfp to follow the behaviour of epidermal cells and found that 96% of the arrested embryos have morphogenetic defects. These defects include defective ventral enclosure and aberrant dorsal intercalation. Using time-lapse confocal microscopy we show that the migration of the ventral epidermal cells, especially of the leading cells, is slower and often fails in plc-1(tm753 embryos. As a consequence plc-1 loss of function results in ruptured embryos with a Gex phenotype (gut on exterior and lumpy larvae. Thus PLC-1 is involved in the regulation of morphogenesis. Genetic studies using gain- and loss-of-function alleles of itr-1, the gene encoding the IP(3 receptor in C. elegans, demonstrate that PLC-1 acts through ITR-1. Using RNAi and double mutants to deplete the other PLCs in a plc-1 background, we show that PLC-3/PLC-gamma and EGL-8/PLC-beta can compensate for reduced PLC-1 activity. Our work places PLC-epsilon into a pathway controlling epidermal cell migration, thus establishing a novel role for PLC-epsilon.

  7. Mutation screening in the human epsilon-globin gene using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachatzopoulou, Adamantia; Menounos, Panagiotis G; Kolonelou, Christina; Patrinos, George P

    2006-02-01

    The human epsilon-globin gene is necessary for primitive human erythropoiesis in the yolk sac. Herein we report a non-radioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) approach to screen the human epsilon-globin gene and its regulatory regions for possible mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in normal adult subjects, in order to determine those genomic regions, which are not necessary for its proper regulation and function. We identified no sequence variations apart from the expected 5'epsilon /HincII polymorphism in the fragments analyzed, suggesting that genomic alterations in the epsilon-globin gene are most likely incompatible with normal erythropoiesis and proper embryonic development.

  8. Epsilon Canis Majoris and the ionization of the local cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Welsh, B. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Lyman continuum radiation from the brightest extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source, the B2 II star epsilon Canis Majoris (Adara), is so intense that it dominates the local stellar EUV radiation field at wavelengths longer than 450 A and therefore sets a lower limit to the ionization of hydrogen in the Local Cloud. Using the EUV (70-730 A) spectrum of epsilon CMa taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite (EUVE) and simple models that extrapolate this spectrum to the Lyman edge at 912 A, we have determined the local interstellar hydrogen photionizatin parameter Gamma solely from epsilon CMa to be 1.1 x 10(exp -15)/s. This fiugre is a factor of 7 greater than previous estimates of Gamma calculated for all nearby stars combined (Bruhweiler & Cheng 1988). Using measured values of the density and temperature of neutral interstellar hydrogen gas in the Local Cloud, we derive a particle density of ionized hydrogen n(H(+)) and electrons n(sub e) of 0.015-0.019/cu cm assuming ionization equilibrium and a helium ionization fraction of less than 20%. These values correspond to a hydrogen ionizatin fraction, chi(sub H) from 19% to 15%, respectively. The range of these derived quantities is due to the uncertainties in the local values of the neutral hydrogen and helium interstellar densities derived from both (1) solar backscatter measurements of Ly alpha lines of hydrogen and helium (1216 and 584 A), and (2) the average neutral densities along the line of sight to nearby stars. The local proton density produced by epsilon CMa is enough to allow the ionization mechanism of Ripken & Fahr (1983) to work at the heliopause and explain the discrepancy between the neutral hydrogen density derived from solar backscatter measurements and line-of-sight averages to nearby stars. A large value of electron density in the Local Cloud of n(sub e) is approximately 0.3-0.7/cu cm (T = 7000 K) has recently been reported by Lallement et al. (1994) using observations of Mg II and Mg I

  9. Light focusing using epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiren Zhu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a strategy of focusing light using epsilon-near-zero metamaterials with embedded dielectric cylinder. The focusing mechanism is analytically investigated, and its accuracy is substantiated by rigorous full-wave simulations. It is found that the focusing intensity is highly depend on the embedded medium and its size, and the magnetic field amplitude of the focused beam itself can reach as high as 98.2 times the incident field. Owing to its versatility, the proposed light focusing system is sure to find applications in fields such as bio-sensing and in nonlinear optics.

  10. Parametrization of $\\epsilon$-rational curves: error analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rueda, Sonia L

    2010-01-01

    In [Computer Aided Geometric Design 27 (2010), 212-231] the authors present an algorithm to parametrize approximately $\\epsilon$-rational curves, and they show in 2 examples that the Hausdorff distance, w.r.t. to the Euclidean distance, between the input and output curves is small. In this paper, we analyze this distance for a whole family of curves randomly generated and we automatize the strategy used in [Computer Aided Geometric Design 27 (2010), 212-231]. We find a reasonable upper bound of the Hausdorff distance between each input and output curve of the family.

  11. Magnetic Activity Cycles in the Exoplanet Host Star epsilon Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, T S; Brown, B P; Mathur, S; Soderblom, D R; Henry, T J; Mauas, P J D; Petrucci, R; Hall, J C; Basu, S

    2012-01-01

    The active K2 dwarf epsilon Eri has been extensively characterized, both as a young solar analog and more recently as an exoplanet host star. As one of the nearest and brightest stars in the sky, it provides an unparalleled opportunity to constrain stellar dynamo theory beyond the Sun. We confirm and document the 3 year magnetic activity cycle in epsilon Eri originally reported by Hatzes and coworkers, and we examine the archival data from previous observations spanning 45 years. The data show coexisting 3 year and 13 year periods leading into a broad activity minimum that resembles a Maunder minimum-like state, followed by the resurgence of a coherent 3 year cycle. The nearly continuous activity record suggests the simultaneous operation of two stellar dynamos with cycle periods of 2.95+/-0.03 years and 12.7+/-0.3 years, which by analogy with the solar case suggests a revised identification of the dynamo mechanisms that are responsible for the so-called "active" and "inactive" sequences as proposed by Bohm-V...

  12. The epsilon regime with twisted mass Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bar, Oliver; Shindler, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the leading lattice spacing effects in mesonic two-point correlators computed with twisted mass Wilson fermions in the epsilon-regime. By generalizing the procedure already introduced for the untwisted Wilson chiral effective theory, we extend the continuum chiral epsilon expansion to twisted mass WChPT. We define different regimes, depending on the relative power counting for the quark masses and the lattice spacing. We explicitly compute, for arbitrary twist angle, the leading O(a^2) corrections appearing at NLO in the so-called GSM^* regime. As in untwisted WChPT, we find that in this situation the impact of explicit chiral symmetry breaking due to lattice artefacts is strongly suppressed. Of particular interest is the case of maximal twist, which corresponds to the setup usually adopted in lattice simulations with twisted mass Wilson fermions. The formulae we obtain can be matched to lattice data to extract physical low energy couplings, and to estimate systematic uncertainties coming from ...

  13. Precipitation of Epsilon Copper in Ferrite Antibacterial Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixia ZHANG; Gang LIN; Zhou XU

    2008-01-01

    The precipitation of epsilon copper at 1023 K ageing in ferrite antibacterial stainless steel was investigated by a combination of electron microscopy and micro-Vickers hardness measurement. The results show that epsilon copper precipitation occurs within 90 s. Complex rnultilayer structure confirmed as twins and stacking faults on {111}ε-Cu planes was observed in the precipitates. The precipitates grow by the lengthwise enlargement of a set of parallel layers, having [111]ε-Cu and [112]ε-Cu preferred growth orientations. The volume fraction of precipitates f formed within 120 min can be predicted by a modified Avrami equation (In 1/1-f= kt+b).Simultaneously, substituent atom clusters with a size of 5-10 nm was found to occur in the solution and cause matrix strain. The precipitate morphology and distribution on the surface of ferrite antibacterial stainlesss teel are associated with surface crystallographic orientation of the matrix. The precipitates are predominantly located within the ferrite grains of orientation. The precipitates located on {111}α-Fe surface planes have sphere or ellipse shape.

  14. Robust association of the APOE epsilon4 allele with premature myocardial infarction especially in patients without hypercholesterolaemia: the Aachen study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, F; Mevissen, V; Krantz, C; Kimmel, M; Erdmann, J; Hoffmann, R; Zerres, K; Ortlepp, J R

    2007-02-01

    Genetic influence on the manifestation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown previously. From many candidate genes the APOE (apolipoprotein E) with the major alleles epsilon2/epsilon3/epsilon4 is in the focus of interest. In 1817 patients admitted for their first left heart catheterization at a premature age (males < 55 and females < 65) the association of APOE alleles with MI was analysed. Genotyping was done by 5' exonuclease assay (TaqMan). RESULTS APOE was significantly associated with hypercholesterolaemia (epsilon4 72% vs. epsilon3 66% vs. epsilon2 51%; P < 0.0001), and premature MI (epsilon4 57% vs. epsilon3 50% vs. epsilon2 41%; P < 0.0001; hazard ratio 1.41, 95%CI 1.14-1.75). In patients without hypercholesterolaemia, the APOE allele epsilon4 was highly predictive for the presence of premature MI (epsilon4 55% vs. epsilon3 45% vs. epsilon2 28%; P < 0.0001; hazard ratio 1.75, 95%CI 1.19-2.57). The APOEepsilon4 allele shows a robust association with premature MI independent of hypercholesterolaemia.

  15. One-loop pentagon integral in $d$ dimensions from differential equations in $\\epsilon$-form

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, Mikhail G

    2015-01-01

    We apply differential equations technique to the calculation of the one-loop massless diagram with five onshell legs. Using reduction to $\\epsilon$-form, we manage to obtain a simple one-fold integral representation exact in space-time dimensionality. Expansion of the obtained result in $\\epsilon$ and analytical continuation to physical regions are discussed.

  16. Biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides versus autologous nerve grafts : Electromyographic and video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Nicolai, JPA; Gramsbergen, A; van der Werf, J.F.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional effects of bridging a gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat with either a biodegradable copolymer of (DL)-lactide and epsilon -caprolactone [p(DLLA-epsilon -CL)] nerve guide or an autologous nerve graft. Electromyograms (EMGs) of the gastrocnemius (

  17. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of Long-Periodic Eclipsing Binary Epsilon Aurigae

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, Alex; Andreev, Maxim

    2008-01-01

    The results of spectroscopic observations of long-periodic eclipsing binary Epsilon Aur are reported. The observations were carried out during 2 nights in 2007 at 2-meter telescope located at the peak Terskol, Northern Caucasus (Russia). Here we present series of Epsilon Aur spectra together with EW measurements of the most prominent absorption lines.

  18. Epsilon-stability and the speed of learning in network games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azomahou, T.T.; Opolot, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces epsilon-stability as a generalization of the concept of stochastic stability in learning and evolutionary game dynamics. An outcome of a model of stochastic evolutionary dynamics is said to be epsilon-stable in the long-run if for a given model of mistakes it maximizes its inva

  19. epsilon-N-trimethyllysine availability regulates the rate of carnitine biosynthesis in the growing rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebouche, C.J.; Lehman, L.J.; Olson, L.

    1986-05-01

    Rates of carnitine biosynthesis in mammals depend on the availability of substrates and the activity of enzymes subserving the pathway. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the availability of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine is rate-limiting for synthesis of carnitine in the growing rat and to evaluate diet as a source of this precursor for carnitine biosynthesis. Rats apparently absorbed greater than 90% of a tracer dose of (methyl-/sup 3/H)epsilon-N-trimethyllysine, and approximately 30% of that was incorporated into tissues as (/sup 3/H)carnitine. Rats given oral supplements of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine (0.5-20 mg/d), but no dietary carnitine, excreted more carnitine than control animals receiving no dietary epsilon-N-trimethyllysine or carnitine. Rates of carnitine excretion increased in a dose-dependent manner. Tissue and serum levels of carnitine also increased with dietary epsilon-N-trimethyllysine supplementation. There was no evidence that the capacity for carnitine biosynthesis was saturated even at the highest level of oral epsilon-N-trimethyllysine supplementation. Common dietary proteins (casein, soy protein and wheat gluten) were found to be poor sources of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine for carnitine biosynthesis. The results of this study indicate that the availability of epsilon-N-trimethyllysine limits the rate of carnitine biosynthesis in the growing rat.

  20. The History of Delta Pi Epsilon, 1936-1986--A Golden Past: Foundation for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Floyd L.

    1986-01-01

    The history of Delta Pi Epsilon (1936-1986) is presented, citing such highlights as research awards, new chapters, publications, annual conferences, organization of new committees, and conventions. Facts about Delta Pi Epsilon and a list of references are included also. (CT)

  1. Singularity-free Next-to-leading Order $\\Delta S= 1$ Renormalization Group Evolution and $\\epsilon_{K}^{\\prime}/\\epsilon_{K}$ in the Standard Model and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Kitahara, Teppei; Tremper, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The standard analytic solution of the renormalization group (RG) evolution for the $\\Delta S = 1$ Wilson coefficients involves several singularities. In practical applications one either regularizes these singularities or circumvents the problem by using numerical integrations. In this paper we derive a singularity-free solution of the next-to-leading order (NLO) RG equations, which greatly facilitates the calculation of $\\epsilon_K^{\\prime}$, the measure of direct $CP$ violation in $K\\to\\pi\\pi$ decays. Using our new RG evolution and the latest lattice results for the hadronic matrix elements, we calculate the ratio $\\epsilon_{K}^{\\prime}/\\epsilon_{K}$ (with $\\epsilon_{K}$ quantifying indirect $CP$ violation) in the Standard Model (SM) at NLO to $\\epsilon_{K}^{\\prime}/\\epsilon_{K} = ( 0.96 \\pm 4.96 ) \\times 10^{-4}$, which is 2.9$\\,\\sigma$ below the experimental value. We also present the evolution matrix in the high-energy regime for calculations of new physics contributions and derive easy-to-use approximat...

  2. The initial oxidation of epsilon-Fesub2Nsub1-x: growth kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graat, Peter C.J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of epsilon-Fe2N1-x, subjected either to a sputter cleaning pretreatment or a sputter cleaning and an additional annealing pretreatment, at P-O2 = 1 x 10(-4) Pa and at temperatures ranging from 300 to 500 K, was investigated with ellipsometry. The initial oxidation rate...... of sputter cleaned + annealed epsilon-Fe2N1-x was observed to be lower than of sputter cleaned epsilon-Fe2N1-x, but upon prolonged oxidation sputter cleaned + annealed epsilon-Fe2N1-x attained a higher oxidation rate than sputter cleaned epsilon-Fe2N1-x. The oxidation kinetics was interpreted using the model...

  3. The apolipoprotein E epsilon4-allele and antihypertensive treatment are associated with increased risk of cerebral MRI white matter hyperintensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, P; Garde, Ellen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 (APOE-epsilon4) is a potential risk factor for cerebral vascular disease. The aim of the present study was to examine the relative importance of APOE-epsilon4 and other relevant risk factors for the extent of cerebral white matter hyperintensity (WMH...... the relative importance of the potential risk factors. RESULTS: APOE genotype and antihypertensive treatment were significantly associated with severity of total WMH load (P epsilon4 and WMH. Pharmaceutical treatment for arterial...

  4. Numerical techniques for lattice QCD in the {epsilon}-regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)]|[CNRS, Luminy, Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Hoelbling, C. [CNRS, Luminy, Marseille (France). Centre de Physique Theorique; Luescher, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Wittig, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    In lattice QCD it is possible, in principle, to determine the parameters in the effective chiral lagrangian (including weak interaction couplings) by performing numerical simulations in the {epsilon}-regime, i.e. at quark masses where the physical extent of the lattice is much smaller than the Compton wave length of the pion. The use of a formulation of the lattice theory that preserves chiral symmetry is attractive in this context, but the numerical implementation of any such approach requires special care in this kinematical situation due to the presence of some very low eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. We discuss a set of techniques (low-mode preconditioning and adapted-precision algorithms in particular) that make such computations numerically safe and more efficient by a large factor. (orig.)

  5. Numerical techniques for lattice QCD in the $\\epsilon$-regime

    CERN Document Server

    Giusti, Leonardo; Lüscher, Martin; Wittig, H

    2003-01-01

    In lattice QCD it is possible, in principle, to determine the parameters in the effective chiral lagrangian (including weak interaction couplings) by performing numerical simulations in the $\\epsilon$--regime, i.e. at quark masses where the physical extent of the lattice is much smaller than the Compton wave length of the pion. The use of a formulation of the lattice theory that preserves chiral symmetry is attractive in this context, but the numerical implementation of any such approach requires special care in this kinematical situation due to the presence of some very low eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. We discuss a set of techniques (low-mode preconditioning and adapted-precision algorithms in particular) that make such computations numerically safe and more efficient by a large factor.

  6. Enhanced nonlinear refractive index in epsilon-near-zero materials

    CERN Document Server

    Caspani, L; Clerici, M; Ferrera, M; Roger, T; Di Falco, A; Kim, J; Kinsey, N; Shalaev, V M; Boltasseva, A; Faccio, D

    2016-01-01

    New propagation regimes for light arise from the ability to tune the dielectric permittivity to extremely low values. Here we demonstrate a universal approach based on the low linear permittivity values attained in the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regime for enhancing the nonlinear refractive index, which enables remarkable light-induced changes of the material properties. Experiments performed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films show a six-fold increase of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index ($n_2$) at the ENZ wavelength, located in the 1300 nm region. This in turn leads to light-induced refractive index changes of the order of unity, thus representing a new paradigm for nonlinear optics.

  7. Scalar-Composite Model in 6 - 2\\epsilon Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Akama, K; Akama, Keiichi; Hattori, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    We study the model of a composite-scalar made of a pair of scalar fields in 6-2 epsilon dimensions, using equivalence to the renormalizable three-elementary-scalar model under the "compositeness condition." In this model, the composite-scalar field is induced by the quantum effects through the vacuum polarization of elementary-scalar fields with 2N species. We first investigate scale dependences of the coupling constant and masses, in the renormalizable three-elementary-scalar model, and derive the results for the composite model by imposing the compositeness condition. The model exhibits the formerly found general property that the coupling constant of the composite field is independent of the scale.

  8. Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Víctor; Pacheco-Peña, Víctor; Rodríguez-Ulibarri, Pablo; Navarro-Cía, Miguel; Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario; Engheta, Nader

    2013-04-08

    An epsilon-near-zero graded-index converging lens with planar faces is proposed and analyzed. Each perfectly-electric conducting (PEC) waveguide comprising the lens operates slightly above its cut-off frequency and has the same length but different cross-sectional dimensions. This allows controlling individually the propagation constant and the normalized characteristic impedance of each waveguide for the desired phase front at the lens output while Fresnel reflection losses are minimized. A complete theoretical analysis based on the waveguide theory and Fermat's principle is provided. This is complemented with numerical simulation results of two-dimensional and three-dimensional lenses, made of PEC and aluminum, respectively, and working in the terahertz regime, which show good agreement with the analytical work.

  9. Electric Levitation Using Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Fortuño, Francisco J Rodríguez; Engheta, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Levitation of objects with action at a distance has always been intriguing to humans. Several ways to achieve this, such as aerodynamic, acoustic, or electromagnetic methods, including radiation pressure, stable potential wells, and quantum Casimir-Lifshitz forces, exist. A fascinating approach for levitation is that of magnets over superconductors based on the Meissner effect -the expulsion of the magnetic field by a superconductor. With the advent of metamaterials -designed structures with electromagnetic properties that may not be found in nature- we ask whether a material may be conceived exhibiting similar field expulsion, but involving the electric field. We show how a special subcategory of metamaterials, called epsilon-near-zero materials, exhibits such electric classic analog to the Meissner effect, exerting a repulsion on nearby sources. Repulsive forces using anisotropic and chiral metamaterials have been investigated, but our proposal uses a different mechanism based on field expulsion, and is ver...

  10. A Monte Carlo Study on the Performance of a Corrected Formula for Epsilon Approximate Suggested by Lecoutre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru San; Dunlap, William P.

    1994-01-01

    The present simulation study confirms that the corrected epsilon approximate test of B. Lecoutre yields a less biased estimation of population epsilon and reduces Type I error rates when compared to the epsilon approximate test of H. Huynh and L. S. Feldt. (SLD)

  11. Noise reduction combining time-frequency epsilon-filter and M-transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomomi; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu; Hashimoto, Shuji

    2008-08-01

    This paper introduces noise reduction combining time-frequency epsilon-filter (TF epsilon-filter) and time-frequency M-transform (TF M-transform). Musical noise is an offensive noise generated due to noise reduction in the time-frequency domain such as spectral subtraction and TF epsilon-filter. It has a deleterious effect on speech recognition. To solve the problem, M-transform is introduced. M-transform is a linear transform based on M-sequence. The method combining the time-domain epsilon-filter (TD epsilon-filter) and time-domain M-transform (TD M-transform) can reduce not only white noise but also impulse noise. Musical noise is isolated in the time-frequency domain, which is similar to impulse noise in the time domain. On these prospects, this paper aims to reduce musical noise by improving M-transform for the time-frequency domain. Noise reduction by using TD M-transform and the TD epsilon-filter is first explained to clarify its features. Then, an improved method applying M-transform to the time-frequency domain, namely TF M-transform, is described. Noise reduction combining the TF epsilon-filter and TF M-transform is also proposed. The proposed method can reduce not only high-level nonstationary noise but also musical noise. Experimental results are also given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  12. Clostridium perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle: the diagnostic significance of intestinal epsilon toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A L; Dagleish, M P; Caldow, G L

    2015-10-17

    The aims of this study were to describe 42 cases of Clostridium perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle seen between 2003 and 2014 and to determine the diagnostic value of detecting epsilon toxin in bovine intestinal content. All cases in the series had histological brain changes considered pathognomonic for C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in sheep and goats and the epsilon toxin of C. perfringens was concurrently detected in the intestinal contents of 15 (36 per cent) cases. The data from the case series indicate that intestinal epsilon toxin has a sensitivity of 56 per cent compared with histology of the brain for diagnosis of bovine C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia. The diagnostic specificity of detecting epsilon toxin in bovine intestinal content was investigated by screening intestinal contents of 60 bovine carcases submitted for postmortem examination. Epsilon toxin was detected in 11 (18 per cent) carcases but no pathognomonic histological brain change was found in any. The specificity of intestinal epsilon toxin was estimated to be 80.4 per cent. These studies demonstrate that for a definitive diagnosis of C. perfringens type-D enterotoxaemia in cattle histological examination of the brain is essential as the presence of epsilon toxin in the intestinal contents alone is neither sensitive nor specific enough.

  13. Multistep epsilon-algorithm, Shanks' transformation, and Lotka-Volterra system by Hirota's method

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, Claude; Hu, Xing-Biao; Redivo-Zaglia, Michela; Sun, Jian-Qing

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give a multistep extension of the epsilon-algorithm of Wynn, and we show that it implements a multistep extension of the Shanks' sequence transformation which is defined by ratios of determinants. Reciprocally, the quantities defined in this transformation can be recursively computed by the multistep epsilon-algorithm. The multistep epsilon-algorithm and the multistep Shanks' transformation are related to an extended discrete Lotka-Volterra system. These results are obtained by using the Hirota's bilinear method, a procedure quite useful in the solution of nonlinear partial differential and difference equations.

  14. AChR deficiency due to epsilon-subunit mutations : two common mutations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Catharina G.; Molenaar, Peter C.; Vles, Johannes S. H.; Bonifati, Domenic M.; Verschuuren, Jan J. G. M.; van Doorn, Pieter A.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Beeson, David; De Baets, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders affecting neuromuscular transmission. We have identified mutations within the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon-subunit gene underlying congenital myasthenic syndromes in nine patients

  15. Automatic parameter optimization in epsilon-filter for acoustical signal processing utilizing correlation coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomomi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2010-02-01

    epsilon-filter can reduce most kinds of noise from a single-channel noisy signal while preserving signals that vary drastically such as speech signals. It can reduce not only stationary noise but also nonstationary noise. However, it has some parameters whose values are set empirically. So far, there have been few studies to evaluate the appropriateness of the parameter settings for epsilon-filter. This paper employs the correlation coefficient of the filter output and the difference between the filter input and output as the evaluation function of the parameter setting. This paper also describes the algorithm to set the optimal parameter value of epsilon-filter automatically. To evaluate the adequateness of the obtained parameter, the mean absolute error is calculated. The experimental results show that the adequate parameter in epsilon-filter can be obtained automatically by using the proposed method.

  16. Preparation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-based tissue engineering scaffolds by stereolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elomaa, Laura; Teixeira, Sandra; Hakala, Risto; Korhonen, Harri; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Seppala, Jukka V.

    2011-01-01

    A photocrosslinkable poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)-based resin was developed and applied using stereolithography. No additional solvents were required during the structure preparation process. Three-armed PCL oligomers of varying molecular weights were synthesized, functionalized with methacrylic

  17. AChR deficiency due to epsilon-subunit mutations : two common mutations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Catharina G.; Molenaar, Peter C.; Vles, Johannes S. H.; Bonifati, Domenic M.; Verschuuren, Jan J. G. M.; van Doorn, Pieter A.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Beeson, David; De Baets, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders affecting neuromuscular transmission. We have identified mutations within the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon-subunit gene underlying congenital myasthenic syndromes in nine patients (s

  18. AChR deficiency due to epsilon-subunit mutations : two common mutations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Catharina G.; Molenaar, Peter C.; Vles, Johannes S. H.; Bonifati, Domenic M.; Verschuuren, Jan J. G. M.; van Doorn, Pieter A.; Kuks, Jan B. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Beeson, David; De Baets, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders affecting neuromuscular transmission. We have identified mutations within the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon-subunit gene underlying congenital myasthenic syndromes in nine patients (s

  19. $b \\rightarrow s \\gamma$ and $\\epsilon_b$ Constraints on Two Higgs Doublet Model

    CERN Document Server

    Park, G T

    1994-01-01

    We perform a combined analysis of two stringent constraints on the 2 Higgs doublet model, one coming from the recently announced CLEO II bound on $B(b \\rightarrow s \\gamma)$ and the other from the recent LEP data on $\\epsilon_b$. We have included one-loop vertex corrections to $Z \\rightarrow b \\overline b$ through $\\epsilon_b$ in the model. We find that the new $\\epsilon_b$ constraint excludes most of the less appealing window $\\tan\\beta\\lsim 1$ at $90\\%$C.~L. for $m_t=150\\GeV$. We also find that although $b \\rightarrow s \\gamma$ constraint is stronger for $\\tan\\beta>1$, $\\epsilon_b$ constraint is stronger for $\\tan\\beta\\lsim 1$, and therefore these two are the strongest and complimentary constraints present in the charged Higgs sector of the model.

  20. 40 Years of Calculus in 4 + epsilon Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Modern physics describes elementary particles by a formalism known as Quantum Field Theory. However, straight calculations with this formalism lead to numerous divergences, hence one needs a suitable regularization scheme. 40 years ago a surprising scheme was established for this purpose: Dimensional Regularization. One computes in "4 + epsilon space-time dimensions", and takes the limit to our 4 dimensional space-time at the end. This method caused a revolution in particle physics, which led to the Standard Model. Many people refer to its results, and even apply it, without being aware that its history actually started in Latin America, more precisely in La Plata, Argentina. ----- La f\\'isica moderna describe a las part\\'iculas elementales por medio del formalismo conocido como Teor\\'ia Cu\\'antica de Campos. Sin embargo, los c\\'alculos directos realizados con este formalismo llevan a una gran cantidad de divergencias, por lo que es necesario un m\\'etodo para regularizarlos. Hace 40 a\\~nos se estableci\\'o un ...

  1. Magnetic field concentration assisted by epsilon-near-zero media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal, Iñigo; Li, Yue; Engheta, Nader

    2017-03-28

    Strengthening the magnetic response of matter at optical frequencies is of fundamental interest, as it provides additional information in spectroscopy, as well as alternative mechanisms to manipulate light at the nanoscale. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) media can enhance the magnetic field concentration capabilities of dielectric resonators. We demonstrate that the magnetic field enhancement factor is unbounded in theory, and it diverges as the size of the ENZ host increases. In practice, the maximal enhancement factor is limited by dissipation losses in the host, and it is found via numerical simulations that ENZ hosts with moderate losses can enhance the performance of a circular dielectric rod resonator by around one order of magnitude. The physical mechanism behind this process is the strongly inhomogeneous magnetic field distributions induced by ENZ media in neighbouring dielectrics. We show that this is an intrinsic property of ENZ media, and that the occurrence of resonant enhancement is independent of the shape of the host. These results might find applications in spectroscopy, in sensing, in light emission and, in general, in investigating light-matter interactions beyond electric dipole transitions.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Epsilon toxin: a fascinating pore-forming toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoff, Michel R

    2011-12-01

    Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by strains of Clostridium perfringens classified as type B or type D. ETX belongs to the heptameric β-pore-forming toxins including aerolysin and Clostridium septicum alpha toxin, which are characterized by the formation of a pore through the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells consisting in a β-barrel of 14 amphipatic β strands. By contrast to aerolysin and C. septicum alpha toxin, ETX is a much more potent toxin and is responsible for enterotoxemia in animals, mainly sheep. ETX induces perivascular edema in various tissues and accumulates in particular in the kidneys and brain, where it causes edema and necrotic lesions. ETX is able to pass through the blood-brain barrier and stimulate the release of glutamate, which accounts for the symptoms of nervous excitation observed in animal enterotoxemia. At the cellular level, ETX causes rapid swelling followed by cell death involving necrosis. The precise mode of action of ETX remains to be determined. ETX is a powerful toxin, however, it also represents a unique tool with which to vehicle drugs into the central nervous system or target glutamatergic neurons.

  3. The $\\epsilon$-expansion of the codimension two twist defect from conformal field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We apply the framework of Rychkov-Tan arXiv:1505.00963 to the codimension two twist defect at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in $4-\\epsilon$ dimensions. We obtain the scaling dimensions of the operators on the defect up to the lowest nontrivial order in the $\\epsilon$-expansion without using Feynman diagram computation. Our results agree with the known results.

  4. Finite $\\epsilon_2$-corrections to the $\\mathcal{N}=2$ SYM prepotential

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile

    2015-01-01

    We derive the first $\\epsilon_2$-correction to the instanton partition functions of $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Super Yang-Mills (SYM) in four dimensions in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit $\\epsilon_2\\rightarrow 0$. In the latter we recall the emergence of the famous Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz-like equation which has been found by Mayer expansion techniques. Here we combine efficiently these to field theory arguments. In a nutshell, we find natural and resolutive the introduction of a new operator $\

  5. $\\epsilon$-Expansion in Critical $\\phi^3$-Theory on Real Projective Space from Conformal Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Chika

    2016-01-01

    We use a compatibility between the conformal symmetry and the equations of motion to solve the one-point function in the critical $\\phi^3$-theory (a.k.a the critical Lee-Yang model) on the $d = 6 - \\epsilon$ dimensional real projective space to the first non-trivial order in the $\\epsilon$-expansion. It reproduces the conventional perturbation theory and agrees with the numerical conformal bootstrap result.

  6. Upper Bounds on epsilon'/epsilon Parameters B_6^{(1/2)} and B_8^{(3/2)} from Large N QCD and other News

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that in the large N approach developed by the authors in collaboration with Bardeen, the parameters B_6^{(1/2)} and B_8^{(3/2)} parametrizing the K\\to\\pi\\pi matrix elements _0 and _2 of the dominant QCD and electroweak operators receive both negative O(1/N) corrections such that B_6^{(1/2)} _0 implies for the corresponding parameter B_8^{(1/2)}=1.01\\pm 0.03 to be compared with large N value B_8^{(1/2)}=1.1\\pm 0.1. We discuss briefly the implications of these findings for the ratio epsilon'/epsilon. In fact, with the precise value for B_8^{(3/2)} from RBC-UKQCD collaboration, our upper bound on B_6^{(1/2)} implies epsilon'/epsilon in the SM roughly by a factor of two below its experimental value (16.6\\pm 2.3)\\times 10^{-4}. We also briefly comment on the parameter \\hat B_K and the \\Delta I=1/2$ rule.

  7. A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE MORPHOLOGY OF SEMICRYSTALLINE POLYMER BLENDS OF POLY(EPSILON-CAPROLACTONE)/POLY(VINYL METHYL-ETHER) AND POLY(EPSILON-CAPROLACTONE)/(STYRENE-ACRYLONITRILE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDHUIS, AACM; THIEWES, HJ; VANHUTTEN, PF; TENBRINKE, G

    1994-01-01

    The morphology of polymer blends of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) is compared with that of PCL and a random copolymer of styrene and acrylonitrile (SAN). The main objective is to determine the influence of the glass transition temperature of the amorphous compo

  8. Utility of immonium ions for assignment of epsilon-N-acetyllysine-containing peptides by tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trelle, Morten B; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2008-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a powerful tool for characterization of post-translationally modified proteins, including epsilon-N-acetyllysine-containing species. Previous reports indicate that epsilon-N-acetyllysine immonium ions are useful marker ions for peptides containing epsilon......-N-acetyllysine, but the specificity and sensitivity of these ions for assignment of lysine acetylation by MS/MS have not been studied in detail. We investigated MS/MS data sets of 172 epsilon-N-acetyllysine tryptic peptides and 268 nonacetylated tryptic peptides to establish the utility and reliability of epsilon......-N-acetyllysine immonium ions for identification and validation of acetylated peptides. Our analysis shows that the immonium ion at m/z 143 lacks specificity for lysine-acetylated peptides, whereas the derivative at m/z 126 is highly specific (98.1%). We also studied the positional effect of the epsilon...

  9. Effect of austenite grain size in Fe-Mn alloys on {epsilon} martensitic transformation and their mechanical properties; Fe-Mn gokin no {epsilon} marutensaito hentai oyobi kikaiteki seishitsu ni oyobosu kessho ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatsu, H. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-02-20

    The Fe-Mn two-components alloy samples varied with Mn content of 12 to 31 mass% were prepared by charging {gamma}-crystalline grain size using its recrystallization, and were surveyed on effects of the {gamma}-crystalline grain size on athermal {epsilon}-martensitic ({epsilon})-transformation and machining- induced {epsilon}-transformation. As a result of examining the relationship between the {gamma}-crystalline grain size or the {epsilon}-transformation and their mechanical properties, conclusion shown as follows is obtained. The athermal {epsilon} was formed at the alloy containing more than 10 mass% of Mn, maximum {epsilon} was shown at the composition containing about 17 mass% of Mn and the {epsilon} was almost not formed at the steel containing more than 27 mass% of Mn. When crushing the {gamma}-crystalline grain to fine powder, the {epsilon} martensitic transformation beginning temperature tended to reduce somewhat and production amount of the {epsilon} decreased extremely. On the steel containing Mn ranged 15 to 31 mass%, the fine powdering affected scarcely its durability but improved its elongation and its tensile strength. 26 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Controlling coherence in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglayan, Humeyra; Hajian, Hodjat; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2017-05-01

    Recently, metamaterials with near-zero refractive index have attracted much attention. Light inside these materials experiences no spatial phase change and extremely large phase velocity, makes these peculiar systems applicable for realizing directional emission, tunneling waveguides, large-area single-mode devices and electromagnetic cloaks. In addition, epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials can also enhance light transmission through a subwavelength aperture. Impedance-matched all-dielectric zero-index metamaterials which exhibit Dirac cone dispersions at center of the Brillouin zone, have been experimentally demonstrated at microwave regime and optical frequencies for transverse-magnetic (TM) polarization of light. More recently, it has been also proved that these systems can be realized in a miniaturized in-plane geometry useful for integrated photonic applications, i.e. these metamaterials can be integrated with other optical elements, including waveguides, resonators and interferometers. In this work, using a zero-index metamaterial at the inner and outer sides of a subwavelength aperture, we numerically and experimental study light transmission through and its extraction from the aperture. The metamaterial consists of a combination of two double-layer arrays of scatterers with dissimilar subwavelength dimensions. The metamaterial exhibits zero-index optical response in microwave region. Our numerical investigation shows that the presence of the metamaterial at the inner side of the aperture leads to a considerable increase in the transmission of light through the subwavelength aperture. This enhancement is related to the amplification of the amplitude of the electromagnetic field inside the metamaterial which drastically increases the coupling between free space and the slit. By obtaining the electric field profile of the light passing through the considered NZI/aperture/NZI system at this frequency we found out that in addition to the enhanced transmission

  11. Phase Stability of Epsilon and Gamma Hniw (CL-20) at High-Pressure and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, Jared C.; Stoltz, Chad A.; Peiris, Suhithi M.

    2007-12-01

    Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) is one of the few ingredients developed since World War II to be considered for transition to military use. Five polymorphs have been identified for CL-20 by FTIR measurements (α, β, γ, ɛ, ζ). As CL-20 is transitioned into munitions it will become necessary to predict its response under conditions of detonation, for performance evaluation. Such predictive modeling requires a phase diagram and basic thermodynamic properties of the various phases at high pressure and temperature. Therefore, the epsilon and gamma phases of CL-20 at static high-pressure and temperature were investigated using synchrotron angle-dispersive x-ray diffraction experiments. The samples were compressed and heated using diamond anvil cells (DAC). Pressures and temperatures achieved were around 5 GPa and 240 °C, respectively. The epsilon phase was stable to 6.3 GPa at ambient temperature. When heated at ambient pressure the epsilon phase was sustained to a temperature of 120 °C then underwent a transition to the gamma phase above 125 °C and then thermal decomposition occurred above 150 °C. Upon compression, the gamma phase underwent a phase transition at both ambient temperature and 140 °C. Pressure—volume data for the epsilon and gamma phase at ambient temperature and the epsilon phase at 75 °C were fit to the Birch-Murnaghan formalism to obtain isothermal equations of state.

  12. Stability of $SU(N_c)$ QCD3 from the $\\epsilon$-Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Goldman, Hart

    2016-01-01

    QCD with gauge group $SU(N_c)$ flows to an interacting conformal fixed point in three spacetime dimensions when the number of four-component Dirac fermions $N_f \\gg N_c$. We study the stability of this fixed point via the $\\epsilon$-expansion about four dimensions. We find that when the number of fermions is lowered to $N_f^{\\rm crit} \\approx {11 \\over 2} N_c + (6 + {4 \\over N_c}) \\epsilon$, a certain four-fermion operator becomes relevant and the theory flows to a new infrared fixed point (massless or massive). F-theorem or entanglement monotonicity considerations complement our $\\epsilon$-expansion calculation.

  13. Two-flavor lattice QCD simulation in the epsilon-regime with exact chiral symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, H; Chiu, T W; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T; Matsufuru, H; Noaki, J; Ogawa, K; Okamoto, M; Onogi, T; Yamada, N

    2007-01-01

    We perform lattice simulations of two-flavor QCD using Neuberger's overlap fermion, with which the exact chiral symmetry is realized at finite lattice spacings. The epsilon-regime is reached by decreasing the light quark mass down to 3 MeV on a 16^3 32 lattice with a lattice spacing \\sim 0.11 fm. We find a good agreement of the low-lying Dirac eigenvalue spectrum with the analytical predictions of the chiral random matrix theory, which reduces to the chiral perturbation theory in the epsilon-regime. The chiral condensate is extracted as \\Sigma(2 GeV) = (251(7)(11) MeV)^3, where the errors are statistical and an estimate of the higher order effects in the epsilon-expansion.

  14. Node-avoiding Levy flight - A numerical test of the epsilon expansion. [random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, J. W.; Nakanishi, H.

    1985-01-01

    A study is conducted of an extension of Levy flight to include self-repulsion in the path of the walk. The extension is called node-avoiding Levy flight and its equivalence to the n approaches 0 limit of a statistical mechanical model for a magnetic system with long-range interactions between the spins is shown. By use of this equivalence it is possible to make a detailed comparison beween the results of the epsilon expansion for the magnetic model, a Monte Carlo simulation of the Levy flight model, and the results of a Flory-type argument. This is the first comparison of the epsilon expansion for epsilon much less than 1 with a numerical simulation for any model. Some speculations are made on applications of the model of node-avoiding Levy flight.

  15. Kinetics of epsilon antitoxin antibodies in different strategies for active immunization of lambs against enterotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni F. Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia, a common disease that affects domestic small ruminants, is mainly caused by the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens type D. The present study tested four distinct immunization protocols to evaluate humoral response in lambs, a progeny of non-vaccinated sheep during gestation. Twenty-four lambs were randomly allocated into four groups according to age (7, 15, 30 and 45 days, receiving the first dose of epsilon toxoid commercial vaccine against clostridiosis with booster after 30 days post vaccination. Indirect ELISA was performed after the first vaccine dose and booster to evaluate the immune response of the lambs. Results showed that for the four protocols tested all lambs presented serum title considered protective (≥0.2UI/ml epsilon antitoxin antibodies and also showed that the anticipation of primovaccination of lambs against enterotoxaemia conferred serum title considered protective allowing the optimization of mass vaccination of lambs.

  16. Efficient vortex generation in sub-wavelength epsilon-near-zero slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order two in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the difference between transverse magnetic and transverse electric dynamics. In the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in sub-wavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime. This physically stems from the fact that a vacuum paraxial field can excite a nonparaxial field inside an epsilon-near-zero slab since it hosts slowly varying fields over physically large portion of the bulk. Our theoretical predictions indicate that epsilon-near-zero media hold great potential as nanophotonic elements for manipulating the angular momentum of the radiation, since they are available without resorting to complicated micro/nano fabrication processes and can operate even at very small (ultraviolet) wavelengths.

  17. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-1 Gene%Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-1基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜会坡; 台玉磊; 王伟杰; 杨国宇

    2012-01-01

    [目的]克隆分析Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-I基因,以期为其生物学功能研究奠定基础.[方法]利用Homo sapiens interferon eμsilon l(IFNEI)序列(NM_176891.3)对猪HTG库进行搜索,通过对获得的2个片断(CU074336、AC 127471)的序列分析,在5’- UTR和3’-UTR设计I对克隆引物,对7日龄仔猪的胃组织进行RT - PCR,将PCR产物克隆、测序,并进行相关分析.[结果]同源性分析结果表明,猪SIFNEI与人、小鼠interferon epsilon-1基因cDNA编码区(CDS)的同源性分别为83.6%和69 2%;蛋白序列同源性分别为76.2%和55.2%.推测其氨基酸序列信号肽为第1~21位氨基酸,IFabd结构域为第59~176位氨基酸,结构特征与人、小鼠的interferon epsilon-1相一致.[结论]该研究克隆了Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-1基因,为进一步研究SIFNE1基因的生物学功能奠定了基础。%[ Objective] To clone and analyze the Sus scrofa interfemn epsiton-I gene, so as to lay foundation for the study of its biological func-tions. [ Method] The swine HTG database was searched with the Homo sapiens interferon epsilon-I (1FNEI) sequence (NM_176891.3) , two fragments (CU074336 and AC127471) were obtained and analyzed by sequencing. One pair of primers was cloned at 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR to analyze the gastric tissue of seven-day-old piglets by RT-PCR, the PCR products were cloned, sequenced and correlation analyzed. [ Result] The homology analysts showed that the homology of swine SIFNEI with human and mice interferon epsilon-I gene cDNA CDS was 83.6% and 69.2% respectively, the homology between their protein sequences was 76. 2% and 55.2% respectively. The signal peptide of ami no acid se-quence was predicted to be the 1 - 12 position of amino acid, the protein domains of IFabd were the 59 - 176 position of amino acid, which was consistent with the interferon epsilon-I of human and mice. [Conclusion] The study cloned the Sus scrofa interferon epsilon-I gene, and laid foundation for

  18. Two-loop Prediction for Scaling Exponents in $(2 + \\epsilon)$-dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Aida, T; Aida, Toshiaki; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    1996-01-01

    We perform the two loop level renormalization of quantum gravity in $2+\\epsilon$ dimensions. We work in the background gauge whose manifest covariance enables us to use the short distance expansion of the Green's functions. We explicitly show that the theory is renormalizable to the two loop level in our formalism. We further make a physical prediction for the scaling relation between the gravitational coupling constant and the cosmological constant which is expected to hold at the short distance fixed point of the renormalization group. It is found that the two loop level calculation is necessary to determine the scaling exponent to the leading order in $\\epsilon$.

  19. Directional and monochromatic thermal emitter from epsilon-near-zero conditions in semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Salvatore; Marquier, Francois; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Ellis, A. Robert; Klem, John F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Luk, Ting S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel thermal sources that control the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern is of fundamental importance. In this paper, we investigate the thermal emission properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs). Our structure does not require the use of any periodic corrugation to provide monochromatic and directional emission properties. We show that these properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in SHMs. The thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the SHM. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  20. No muscle involvement in myoclonus-dystonia caused by epsilon-sarcoglycan gene mutations1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjermind, L.E.; Vissing, J.; Asmus, F.;

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the epsilon-sarcoglycan gene (SGCE) can cause autosomal dominant inherited myoclonus-dystonia (M-D). Defects in other sarcoglycans; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta can cause autosomal recessive inherited limb girdle muscular dystrophies. epsilon- and alpha-sarcoglycans are very...... homologous and may substitute for one-another in different tissues. We therefore investigated whether mutations in SGCE also cause abnormalities of skeletal and myocardial muscle. Six patients with clinically and genetically verified M-D and no signs of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy were included. Skeletal...

  1. Resonant Transmission of Electromagnetic Fields through Subwavelength Zero-$\\epsilon$ Slits

    CERN Document Server

    Halterman, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through a metal plate with a zero-$\\epsilon$ metamaterial slit, where the permittivity tends towards zero over a given bandwidth. Our analytic results demonstrate that the transmission coefficient can be substantial for a broad range of slit geometries, including subwavelength widths that are many wavelengths long. This novel resonant effect has features quite unlike the Fabry-P\\'{e}rot-like resonances that have been observed in conductors with deep channels. We further reveal that these high impedance ultranarrow zero-$\\epsilon$ channels can have significantly {\\it greater} transmission compared to slits with no wave impedance difference across them.

  2. Directional and monochromatic thermal emitter from epsilon-near-zero conditions in semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Salvatore; Marquier, Francois; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Ellis, A. Robert; Klem, John F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Luk, Ting S.

    2016-10-01

    The development of novel thermal sources that control the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern is of fundamental importance. In this paper, we investigate the thermal emission properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs). Our structure does not require the use of any periodic corrugation to provide monochromatic and directional emission properties. We show that these properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in SHMs. The thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the SHM. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  3. A new formulation for the epsilon method applied to the minimum-time-to-climb problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. W., Jr.; Smith, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Balakrishnan's epsilon technique is used to compute minimum-time profiles for the F-104 airplane. This technique differs from the classical gradient method in that a quadratic penalty on the error in satisfying the equation of motion is included in the cost function to be minimized as a means of eliminating the requirement of satisfying the equations of motion. Although the number of unknown independent functions is increased to include the state variables, the evaluation of the gradient of the cost function is simplified, resulting in considerable computational savings, thereby making it appear feasible to use the epsilon method for real-time application.

  4. Rapid synthesis of biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone) random copolymers under microwave irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradable poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-p-dioxanone)(PCDO) random copolymers have been synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone(CL) and p-dioxanone(PDO) under microwave irradiation.The effects of irradiation time and different CL/PDO molar feed ratios on the microwave-assisted ring-opening polymerization(MROP) of PCDO have been discussed.The resultant products were characterized by ~1H NMR,GPC and DSC.It was found that the polymerization was completed within 20 min at 140℃.In...

  5. Phase diagram of electronic systems with quadratic Fermi nodes in $2epsilon$ expansion, $4-\\epsilon$ expansion, and functional renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Several materials in the regime of strong spin-orbit interaction such as HgTe, the pyrochlore iridate Pr$_2$Ir$_2$O$_7$, and the half-Heusler compound LaPtBi, as well as various systems related to these three prototype materials, are believed to host a quadratic band touching point at the Fermi level. Recently, it has been proposed that such a three-dimensional gapless state is unstable to a Mott-insulating ground state at low temperatures when the number of band touching points $N$ at the Fermi level is smaller than a certain critical number $N_c$. We further substantiate and quantify this scenario by various approaches. Using $\\epsilon$ expansion near two spatial dimensions, we show that $N_c = 64/(25 \\epsilon^2) + O(1/\\epsilon)$ and demonstrate that the instability for $N < N_c$ is towards a nematic ground state that can be understood as if the system were under (dynamically generated) uniaxial strain. We also propose a truncation of the functional renormalization group equations in the dynamical bosoni...

  6. Experimental Investigation of the Kinetics of the Shock-Induced Alpha to Epsilon Phase Transformation in Armco Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-15

    163 kbar while Mao, et al. 3 3 report no signs of alpha iron above 145 kbar. Giles, et al. 32 found that the epsilon phase persisted down to 45 kbar...Bowden, et al.31 concluded that markings from recovered shocked alpha iron samples resulted from shear transformation to the epsilon phase, body

  7. DMPD: Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14643884 Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorder...g) (.html) (.csml) Show Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation andimmune-mediated disorder...l inflammation andimmune-mediated disorders. Authors Aksoy E, Goldman M, Willems F. Publication Int J Bioche

  8. Cross rules and non-Abelian lattice equations for the discrete and confluent non-scalar {epsilon}-algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brezinski, C, E-mail: Claude.Brezinski@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire Paul Painleve, UMR CNRS 8524, UFR de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655-Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2010-05-21

    In this paper, we give the cross rules of the discrete and confluent vector, topological and matrix {epsilon}-algorithms. Then, from the rules of these confluent algorithms, we derive non-Abelian lattice equations, in particular some extensions of the Lotka-Volterra system, in the style of the equation related to the confluent form of the scalar {epsilon}-algorithm.

  9. The constitution and crystallography of thin thermal oxide layers on epsilon-Fesub2Nsub1-x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graat, Peter C.J.; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Oxide layers formed on epsilon-Fe2N1-x were investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and in particular with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Prior to oxidation, the epsilon-Fe2N1-x substrates were either exposed to air at room temperature, or subject...

  10. Epsilon-sarcoglycan compensates for lack of alpha-sarcoglycan in a mouse model of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Michihiro; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Engvall, Eva; Takeda, Shin'ichi

    2005-03-15

    Dystrophin and the dystrophin-associated protein (DAP) complex protect the sarcolemma against contraction-induced injury and serve as a mechanical link between the extracellular matrix and the actin cytoskeleton. Some of the functional properties of the DAP complex are mediated by its sarcoglycan (SG) subcomplex, which is composed of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-SGs. Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type-2D (LGMD 2D) results from reduction in SG subcomplex levels caused by specific mutations in the muscle-specific alpha-SG gene. epsilon-SG is a widely expressed homolog of the muscle-specific alpha-SG, and expression of epsilon-SG may compensate for the pathologic changes in alpha-SG function. Thus, the goal of the present study was to investigate whether overexpression of epsilon-SG can compensate for dysfunction of alpha-SG. Several transgenic mouse lines that overexpress epsilon-SG in skeletal muscle were established. Overexpression of epsilon-SG in normal mice resulted in substitution of epsilon-SG for alpha-SG in the SG complex of skeletal muscle without any obvious abnormalities. To determine whether an increase in epsilon-SG expression may prevent muscular dystrophy in the context of alpha-SG-deficiency, these epsilon-SG transgenic mice were crossed with alpha-SG deficient mice. alpha-SG-deficient mice overexpressing epsilon-SG exhibited no skeletal muscle cell membrane damage or abnormal contraction. These data suggest that the overexpression of epsilon-SG may represent a therapeutic strategy for treatment of LGMD 2D.

  11. Meniscal tissue regeneration in porous 50/50 copoly(L-lactide/epsilon-caprolactone) implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGroot, JH; Zijlstra, FM; Kuipers, HW; Pennings, AJ; Veth, RPH; Jansen, HWB

    1997-01-01

    Porous materials of a high-molecular-weight 50/50 copolymer of L-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone with different compression moduli were used for meniscal repair. In contrast to the previously used 4,4'-diphenylmethane and 1,6-trans-cyclohexane diisocyanates containing polyurethanes, degradation pro

  12. Mapping of the continuous epitopes displayed on the Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Guilherme Guerra; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo Andrez; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos Delfin; Silva, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2017-02-03

    The epsilon toxin, produced by Clostridium perfringens, is responsible for enterotoxemia in ruminants and is a potential bioterrorism agent. In the present study, 15 regions of the toxin were recognized by antibodies present in the serum, with different immunodominance scales, and may be antigen determinants that can be used to formulate subunit vaccines.

  13. The pharmacology of spontaneously open alpha 1 beta 3 epsilon GABA A receptor-ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksay, Gábor; Thompson, Sally A; Wafford, Keith A

    2003-06-01

    Human alpha(1)beta(3) epsilon GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined using the conventional two-electrode voltage-clamp technique and compared to alpha(1)beta(3)gamma(2) receptors. The effects of several GABA(A) agonists were studied, and the allosteric modulation of the channel by a number of GABAergic modulators investigated. The presence of the epsilon subunit increased the potency and efficacy of direct activation by partial GABA(A) agonists (piperidine-4-sulphonic acid and thio-4-PIOL), pentobarbital and neuro-steroids. Direct activation by 3-hydroxylated neurosteroids was restricted to 3alpha epimers, while chirality at C5 was indifferent. The 3beta-sulfate esters of pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone inhibited the spontaneous currents with efficacies higher, while bicuculline methiodide and SR 95531 did so lower than picrotoxin and TBPS. Furosemide, fipronil, triphenylcyanoborate and Zn(2+) blocked the spontaneous currents of alpha(1)beta(3) epsilon receptors with different efficacies. Flunitrazepam and 4'-chlorodiazepam inhibited the spontaneous currents with micromolar potencies. In conclusion, spontaneously active alpha(1)beta(3) epsilon GABA(A) receptors can be potentiated and blocked by GABAergic agents within a broad range of efficacy.

  14. Epsilon-toxin plasmids of Clostridium perfringens type D are conjugative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Meredith L; Poon, Rachael; Adams, Vicki; Sayeed, Sameera; Saputo, Juliann; Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A; Rood, Julian I

    2007-11-01

    Isolates of Clostridium perfringens type D produce the potent epsilon-toxin (a CDC/U.S. Department of Agriculture overlap class B select agent) and are responsible for several economically significant enterotoxemias of domestic livestock. It is well established that the epsilon-toxin structural gene, etx, occurs on large plasmids. We show here that at least two of these plasmids are conjugative. The etx gene on these plasmids was insertionally inactivated using a chloramphenicol resistance cassette to phenotypically tag the plasmid. High-frequency conjugative transfer of the tagged plasmids into the C. perfringens type A strain JIR325 was demonstrated, and the resultant transconjugants were shown to act as donors in subsequent mating experiments. We also demonstrated the transfer of "unmarked" native epsilon-toxin plasmids into strain JIR325 by exploiting the high transfer frequency. The transconjugants isolated in these experiments expressed functional epsilon-toxin since their supernatants had cytopathic effects on MDCK cells and were toxic in mice. Using the widely accepted multiplex PCR approach for toxin genotyping, these type A-derived transconjugants were genotypically type D. These findings have significant implications for the C. perfringens typing system since it is based on the toxin profile of each strain. Our study demonstrated the fluid nature of the toxinotypes and their dependence upon the presence or absence of toxin plasmids, some of which have for the first time been shown to be conjugative.

  15. Using contour plots in elecgroproduction to examine regions in {epsilon}, Q{sup 2}, W space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funsten, H. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    In determining incident CEBAF beam energies for CLAS electroproduction experiments that separate the longitudinal and transverse cross section components, contour plots of {epsilon} defined over a 2 dimensional Q{sup 2}, W space can be useful. This note describes an approximate method of constructing such plots.

  16. Re-examining the membership and origin of the {\\epsilon} Cha association

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Simon J; Bessell, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the {\\epsilon} Chamaeleontis association ({\\epsilon} Cha), one of several stellar groups in the southern sky kinematically linked to the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association (Sco-Cen). We reassess the putative membership of {\\epsilon} Cha using the best-available proper motions (Hipparcos, Tycho-2 and SPM4) with radial velocity and lithium data from the literature and new ANU 2.3-m/WiFeS spectroscopy. After applying a convergence analysis our final membership comprises 35-41 stars from B9 to mid-M spectral types, with a mean distance of 110+/-7 pc and a mean space motion of (U,V,W)=(-10.9,-20.4,-9.9) km/s. Theoretical evolutionary models suggest {\\epsilon} Cha is 3-5 Myr old, distinguishing it as the youngest association in the solar neighbourhood. Considering all the available evidence we reject several stars proposed as members in the literature and suggest they may belong to the background Cha I and II clouds or other nearby young groups. Our analysis underscores th...

  17. Peripheral nerve regeneration through P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Schakernraad, JM

    1998-01-01

    P(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides can be used perfectly for short nerve gaps in rats, and are even better than short autologous nerve grafts. The tube dimensions, such as the internal diameter and wall thickness, are very important for the final outcome of peripheral nerve regeneration, as well as the

  18. Molecular cloning and expression of several new Anopheles cracens epsilon class glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongtrakul, Jeerang; Wongsantichon, Jantana; Vararattanavech, Ardcharaporn; Leelapat, Posri; Prapanthadara, La-aied; Ketterman, Albert J

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione transferases, GSTs, are detoxification proteins that are found in most organisms. The acGSTE3-3 had the ability to conjugate 4-hydroxynonenal, a cytotoxic lipid peroxidation product. Although other Epsilon GSTs showed roles in insecticide metabolism, the acGSTE3-3 appeared to have a major role in detoxifying lipid peroxidation products conferring protection against oxidative damage.

  19. Perfect electromagnetic absorption using graphene and epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Michaël; Majerus, Bruno; Henrard, Luc; Lambin, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The ability of graphene/polymer heterostructures to absorb GHz electromagnetic radiation was recently evidenced both theoretically and experimentally [Batrakov et al., Sci. Rep. 4, 7191 (2014), 10.1038/srep07191 and Lobet et al., Nanotechnology 26, 285702 (2015), 10.1088/0957-4484/26/28/285702]. Maximum absorption was shown to depend solely on refractive indices of incident and emergence media once impedance matching conditions are fulfilled. In this paper, analytical models and numerical simulations are performed for both semi-infinite and finite slab substrate. We evidenced that only three graphene layers separated by a dielectric spacer and an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial as emergence medium allow a perfect absorption for normal incidence. The use of lossless epsilon-near-zero metamaterial prevents radiations to go through the device, because of infinite impedance, and forces them to be totally absorbed in the dissipative medium (graphene). The device is proved to be robust regarding angular incidence up to 45 deg for a semi-infinite epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. The proposed strategy is universal and can be applied to any kind of two-dimensional dissipative materials lying on epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. The proposed absorber does not rely on surface patterning or texturing and hence is more appealing for device applications.

  20. Secondary digital nerve repair in the foot with resorbable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve conduits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Nicolai, JPA; Robinson, PH

    2006-01-01

    Nerve guides are increasingly being used in peripheral nerve repair. In the last decade, Much preclinical research has been undertaken into a resorbable nerve guide composed of p(DLLA-epsilon-CL). This report describes the results of secondary digital nerve reconstruction in the foot in a patient wi

  1. An Optimality Theoretic Account of Hungarian ESL Learners' Acquisition of /[epsilon]/ and /[ash]/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunta, Ferenc; Major, Roy C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an Optimality Theoretic account of how Hungarian learners of English acquire /[epsilon]/ and /[ash]/. It is hypothesized that as the learners' pronunciation becomes more nativelike, L1 transfer substitutions will diminish; non-transfer substitutions will be especially prevalent in the intermediate stages, and that all learners…

  2. Strong-Coupling $\\phi^4$-Theory in $4- \\epsilon$ Dimensions and Critical Exponents

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinert, Hagen

    1998-01-01

    With the help of variational perturbation theory we continue the renormalization constants $\\phi^4$-theories in $4- \\epsilon$ dimensions to strong bare couplings $g_0$ and find their power behavior in $g_0$, thereby determining all critical exponents without renormalization group techniques.

  3. Regulation of ADAM12 cell-surface expression by protein kinase C epsilon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundberg, Christina; Thodeti, Charles Kumar; Kveiborg, Marie;

    2004-01-01

    as a constitutively active protein. However, little is known about the regulation of ADAM12 cell-surface translocation. Here, we used human RD rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which express ADAM12 at the cell surface, in a temporal pattern. We report that protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon induces ADAM12 translocation to the cell...

  4. Perfect imaging, epsilon-near zero phenomena and waveguiding in the scope of nonlocal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Christin; Mortensen, N. Asger; Christensen, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Plasmons in metals can oscillate on a sub-wavelength length scale and this large-k response constitutes an inherent prerequisite for fascinating effects such as perfect imaging and intriguing wave phenomena associated with the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regime. While there is no upper cut-off within...

  5. The Students' Take on the Epsilon-Delta Definition of a Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Eileen

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a sequence of lessons from two Calculus I classes for teaching the epsilon-delta definition of a limit. In these lessons, the author elicited students' misconceptions and perceptions of this definition through a reading/writing lesson and then used these student ideas to design a lesson aimed at addressing these misconceptions…

  6. The Use of Visual Approach in Teaching and Learning the Epsilon-Delta Definition of Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešic, Duška; Pešic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new collaborative technique in teaching and learning the epsilon-delta definition of a continuous function at the point from its domain, which connects mathematical logic, combinatorics and calculus. This collaborative approach provides an opportunity for mathematical high school students to engage in mathematical…

  7. Redundant role of protein kinase C delta and epsilon during mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carracedo

    Full Text Available Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon are mediators of important cellular events, such as cell proliferation, migration or apoptosis. The formation of blood vessels, i.e., vasculo- and angiogenesis, is a process where these isoforms have also been shown to participate. However, mice deficient in either Protein Kinase C delta or epsilon are viable and therefore their individual contribution to the formation of the vasculature appeared so far dispensable. In this study, we show that double null mutation of Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon causes embryonic lethality at approximately E9.5. At this stage, whole mount staining of the endothelial marker CD31 in double null embryos revealed defective blood vessel formation. Moreover, culture of double deficient mouse allantois showed impaired endothelial cell organization, and analyses of double deficient embryo sections showed dilated vessels, decreased endothelial-specific adherent junctions, and decreased contact of endothelial cells with mural cells. Protein kinase C delta and epsilon also appeared essential for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, since α-smooth muscle actin, a classical marker for vascular smooth muscle cells, was almost undetectable in double deficient embryonic aorta at E9.5. Subsequent qPCR analyses showed decreased VE-cadherin, Vegfr2, Cd31, Cdh2, Ets1, and Fli-1, among other angiogenesis related transcripts in double deficient embryos. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time an in vivo redundant role between members of the novel Protein Kinase C subfamily that allows for mutual compensation during mouse embryonic development, with vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as an obvious common function of these two Protein Kinase Cs. Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon might therefore be useful targets for inhibiting vasculo- and/or angiogenesis.

  8. Redundant role of protein kinase C delta and epsilon during mouse embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, Sergio; Sacher, Frank; Brandes, Gudrun; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon are mediators of important cellular events, such as cell proliferation, migration or apoptosis. The formation of blood vessels, i.e., vasculo- and angiogenesis, is a process where these isoforms have also been shown to participate. However, mice deficient in either Protein Kinase C delta or epsilon are viable and therefore their individual contribution to the formation of the vasculature appeared so far dispensable. In this study, we show that double null mutation of Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon causes embryonic lethality at approximately E9.5. At this stage, whole mount staining of the endothelial marker CD31 in double null embryos revealed defective blood vessel formation. Moreover, culture of double deficient mouse allantois showed impaired endothelial cell organization, and analyses of double deficient embryo sections showed dilated vessels, decreased endothelial-specific adherent junctions, and decreased contact of endothelial cells with mural cells. Protein kinase C delta and epsilon also appeared essential for vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation, since α-smooth muscle actin, a classical marker for vascular smooth muscle cells, was almost undetectable in double deficient embryonic aorta at E9.5. Subsequent qPCR analyses showed decreased VE-cadherin, Vegfr2, Cd31, Cdh2, Ets1, and Fli-1, among other angiogenesis related transcripts in double deficient embryos. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time an in vivo redundant role between members of the novel Protein Kinase C subfamily that allows for mutual compensation during mouse embryonic development, with vasculogenesis/angiogenesis as an obvious common function of these two Protein Kinase Cs. Protein Kinase C delta and epsilon might therefore be useful targets for inhibiting vasculo- and/or angiogenesis.

  9. Softening and hardening by. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensitic transformation during deformation in high Mn steels. Ko Mn tetsu gokin ni okeru. gamma. yields. epsilon. martensite hentai ni yoru nanka to koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomota, Y.; Ryufuku, S.; Piao, M. (Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-01-15

    In high Mn steel, martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon occurs under the ordinary pressure. Its application comprises utilization of its configuration memory properties and high work hardening characteristics. The present report studied, by using Fe-Mn type alloy, added with Si or Co, the influence of martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon on the deformation behavior. Tensile test, 2mm/min in speed, being made on molten/cast alloy ingot, thermally treated as specified, epsilon was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The above test/analysis pointed out many notes in result and knowledge, as follows among others: The addition with Si or Co, lowering the Neel temperature, quantitatively increases the epsilon martensite, produced by the processing. The produced quantity of epsilon martensite in case of addition with Si is small, as compared with that in case of two-element Fe-Mn type alloy without addition and in case of addition with Co. All the tested alloys give the softening phenomenon by the martensitic transformation of gamma to epsilon. The pre-existing epsilon plate is a strong barrier for the further plastic flow, which accordingly accelerates the work hardening. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Protein kinase C epsilon induces systolic cardiac failure marked by exhausted inotropic reserve and intact Frank-Starling mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David E; Rundell, Veronica L M; Goldspink, Paul H; Urboniene, Dalia; Geenen, David L; de Tombe, Pieter P; Buttrick, Peter M

    2005-11-01

    Myofilament dysfunction is a common point of convergence for many forms of heart failure. Recently, we showed that cardiac overexpression of PKC epsilon initially depresses myofilament activity and then leads to a progression of changes characteristic of human heart failure. Here, we examined the effects of PKC epsilon on contractile reserve, Starling mechanism, and myofilament activation in this model of end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy. Pressure-volume loop analysis and echocardiography showed that the PKC epsilon mice have markedly compromised systolic function and increased end-diastolic volumes. Dobutamine challenge resulted in a small increase in contractility in PKC epsilon mice but failed to enhance cardiac output. The PKC epsilon mice showed a normal length-dependent tension development in skinned cardiac muscle preparations, although Frank-Starling mechanism appeared to be compromised in the intact animal. Simultaneous measurement of tension and ATPase demonstrated that the maximum tension and ATPase were markedly lower in the PKC epsilon mice at any length or Ca2+ concentration. However, the tension cost was also lower indicating less energy expenditure. We conclude 1) that prolonged overexpression of PKC epsilon ultimately leads to a dilated cardiomyopathy marked by exhausted contractile reserve, 2) that PKC epsilon does not compromise the Frank-Starling mechanism at the myofilament level, and 3) that the Starling curve excursion is limited by the inotropic state of the heart. These results reflect the significance of the primary myofilament contractilopathy induced by phosphorylation and imply a role for PKC epsilon-mediated phosphorylation in myofilament physiology and the pathophysiology of decompensated cardiac failure.

  11. Induction of CD3 delta epsilon omega by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A; Neisig, A; Wallin, H

    1993-01-01

    The effect of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the synthesis, assembly and processing of the components of the T cell receptor (TcR) was studied with special focus on the CD3 omega chain. Treatment of the human leukemic T cell line Jurkat with PMA increased the synthesis of the Ti alpha, CD......3 gamma and CG3 zeta chains two- to threefold and the synthesis of Ti beta and CD3 delta epsilon omega complexes five- to sevenfold as assessed by metabolic labeling, immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by scanning densitometry. The amount...... of TcR complexes expressed on the cell surface was decreased after 16 h of PMA treatment. Based on these results we propose a role of CD3 omega in retention of TcR complexes. From PMA-treated CEM cells more than 50-fold the amount of CD3 delta epsilon omega complexes was immunoprecipitated as compared...

  12. Low-damping epsilon-near-zero slabs: nonlinear and nonlocal optical properties

    CERN Document Server

    de Ceglia, Domenico; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; Capolino, Filippo; Scalora, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate second harmonic generation, low-threshold multistability, all-optical switching, and inherently nonlocal effects due to the free-electron gas pressure in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial slab made of cylindrical, plasmonic nanoshells illuminated by TM-polarized light. Damping compensation in the ENZ frequency region, achieved by using gain medium inside the shells' dielectric cores, enhances the nonlinear properties. Reflection is inhibited and the electric field component normal to the slab interface is enhanced near the effective pseudo-Brewster angle, where the effective \\epsilon-near-zero condition triggers a non-resonant, impedance-matching phenomenon. We show that the slab displays a strong effective, spatial nonlocality associated with leaky modes that are mediated by the compensation of damping. The presence of these leaky modes then induces further spectral and angular conditions where the local fields are enhanced, thus opening new windows of opportunity for the enhancement of ...

  13. Core - Corona Model describes the Centrality Dependence of v_2/epsilon

    CERN Document Server

    Aichelin, J

    2010-01-01

    Event by event EPOS calculations in which the expansion of the system is described by {\\it ideal} hydrodynamics reproduce well the measured centrality dependence of $v_2/\\epsilon_{part}$, although it has been claimed that only viscous hydrodynamics can reproduce these data. This is due to the core - corona effect which manifests itself in the initial condition of the hydrodynamical expansion. The centrality dependence of $v_2/\\epsilon_{part}$ can be understood in the recently advanced core-corona model, a simple parameter free EPOS inspired model to describe the centrality dependence of different observables from SPS to RHIC energies. This model has already been successfully applied to understand the centrality dependence of multiplicities and of the average transverse momentum of identified particles.

  14. Calcul d'une valeur d'un facteur epsilon par une formule int\\'egrale

    CERN Document Server

    Waldspurger, Jean-Loup

    2009-01-01

    Let d and m be two natural numbers of distinct parities. Let $\\pi$ be an admissible irreducible tempered representation of GL(d,F), where F is a p-adic field. We assume that $\\pi$ is self-dual. Then we can extend $\\pi$ as a representation $\\tilde{\\pi}$ of a non-connected group $GL(d,F)\\rtimes \\{1,\\theta\\}$. Let $\\rho$ be a representation of GL(m,F). We assume that it has similar properties as $\\pi$. Jacquet, Piatetski-Shapiro and Shalika have defined the factor $\\epsilon(s,\\pi\\times\\rho,\\psi)$. We prove that we can compute $\\epsilon(1/2,\\pi\\times\\rho,\\psi)$ by an integral formula where occur the characters of $\\tilde{\\pi}$ and $\\tilde{\\rho}$. It's similar to the formula which, for special orthogonal groups, computes the multiplicities appearing in the local Gross-Prasad conjecture.

  15. Solving SDD linear systems in time $\\tilde{O}(m\\log{n}\\log(1/\\epsilon))$

    CERN Document Server

    Koutis, Ioannis; Peng, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm that on input of an $n\\times n$ symmetric diagonally dominant matrix $A$ with $m$ non-zero entries constructs in time ${\\tilde O}(m\\log n)$ in the RAM model a solver which on input of a vector $b$ computes a vector ${x}$ satisfying $||{x}-A^{+}b||_A<\\epsilon ||A^{+}b||_A $ in time ${\\tilde O}(m\\log n \\log (1/\\epsilon))$ The $\\tilde{O}$ notation hides a $(\\log\\log n)^2$ factor. The new algorithm exploits previously unknown structural properties of the output of the incremental sparsification algorithm given in \\cite{KoutisMP10}. It is also based on an accelerated construction of low-stretch spanning trees in the RAM model via substituting Fibonacci heaps with RAM-based priority queues.

  16. Hyperbranched poly(epsilon-caprolactone) as a nonmigrating alternative plasticizer for phthalates in flexible PVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongsoo; Kwak, Seung-Yeop

    2007-05-15

    Hyperbranched (dendritic) poly(epsilon-caprolactone)s (HPCLs) were synthesized to have architectural variations, which are the different lengths of linear segments and different numbers of branches, and were used as plasticizers for flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The plasticization efficiency estimated by the lowering of glass transition temperature and the enhancement in ultimate elongation indicated that the HPCLs with the shorter linear segments and the larger number of branches imparted as high flexibility as di(ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and much higher flexibility than their linear analogue, linear poly(epsilon-caprolactone), which is one of currently used polymer plasticizers. Volatility, extractability, and exudation tests for PVC/HPCL samples showed that there was no plasticizer migration even at very harsh condition, while ca. 7-78% of additives in PVC/DEHP was migrated out of samples, indicating that the HPCL can be used as an alternative plasticizer to remove the potential health risk from migrating phthalates during end use.

  17. Design and synthesis of protein kinase C epsilon selective diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann, Jihyae; Yoon, Suyoung; Baek, Jisoo; Kim, Da Hye; Lewin, Nancy E; Hill, Colin S; Blumberg, Peter M; Lee, Jeewoo

    2015-01-27

    DAG-lactones afford a synthetically accessible, high affinity platform for probing structure activity relationships at the C1 regulatory domain of protein kinase C (PKC). Given the central role of PKC isoforms in cellular signaling, along with their differential biological activities, a critical objective is the design of isoform selective ligands. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of DAG-lactones varying in their side chains, with a particular focus on linoleic acid derivatives. We evaluated their selectivity for PKC epsilon versus PKC alpha both under standard lipid conditions (100% phosphatidylserine, PS) as well as in the presence of a nuclear membrane mimetic lipid mixture (NML). We find that selectivity for PKC epsilon versus PKC alpha tended to be enhanced in the presence of the nuclear membrane mimetic lipid mixture and, for our lead compound, report a selectivity of 32-fold.

  18. Time for pulse traversal through slabs of dispersive and negative ($\\epsilon$, $\\mu$) materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2007-01-01

    The traversal times for an electromagnetic pulse traversing a slab of dispersive and dissipative material with negative dielectric permittivity ($\\epsilon$) and magnetic permeability ($\\mu$) have been calculated by using the average flow of electromagnetic energy in the medium. The effects of bandwidth of the pulse and dissipation in the medium have been investigated. While both large bandwidth and large dissipation have similar effects in smoothening out the resonant features that appear due to Fabry-P\\'{e}rot resonances, large dissipation can result in very small or even negative traversal times near the resonant frequencies. We have also investigated the traversal times and Wigner delay times for obliquely incident pulses and evanescent pulses. The coupling to slab plasmon polariton modes in frequency ranges with negative $\\epsilon$ or $\\mu$ is shown to result in large traversal times at the resonant conditions. We also find that the group velocity mainly contributes to the delay times for pulse propagatin...

  19. When epsilon-expansion of hypergeometric functions is expressible in terms of multiple polylogarithms: the two-variables examples

    CERN Document Server

    Bytev, Vladimir V; Kniehl, Bernd A

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, we discuss the algorithm for the construction of analytical coefficients of higher order epsilon expansion of some Horn type hypergeometric functions of two variables around rational values of parameters.

  20. EPSILON-CP: using deep learning to combine information from multiple sources for protein contact prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Kolja; Schneider, Michael; Brock, Oliver

    2017-06-17

    Accurately predicted contacts allow to compute the 3D structure of a protein. Since the solution space of native residue-residue contact pairs is very large, it is necessary to leverage information to identify relevant regions of the solution space, i.e. correct contacts. Every additional source of information can contribute to narrowing down candidate regions. Therefore, recent methods combined evolutionary and sequence-based information as well as evolutionary and physicochemical information. We develop a new contact predictor (EPSILON-CP) that goes beyond current methods by combining evolutionary, physicochemical, and sequence-based information. The problems resulting from the increased dimensionality and complexity of the learning problem are combated with a careful feature analysis, which results in a drastically reduced feature set. The different information sources are combined using deep neural networks. On 21 hard CASP11 FM targets, EPSILON-CP achieves a mean precision of 35.7% for top- L/10 predicted long-range contacts, which is 11% better than the CASP11 winning version of MetaPSICOV. The improvement on 1.5L is 17%. Furthermore, in this study we find that the amino acid composition, a commonly used feature, is rendered ineffective in the context of meta approaches. The size of the refined feature set decreased by 75%, enabling a significant increase in training data for machine learning, contributing significantly to the observed improvements. Exploiting as much and diverse information as possible is key to accurate contact prediction. Simply merging the information introduces new challenges. Our study suggests that critical feature analysis can improve the performance of contact prediction methods that combine multiple information sources. EPSILON-CP is available as a webservice: http://compbio.robotics.tu-berlin.de/epsilon/.

  1. Transmission gaps in one-dimensional Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure containing epsilon-negative materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadi Rahimi; Abdolrahman Namdar; Samad Roshan Entezar; Habib Tajalli

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the transmission properties of one-dimensional Fibonacci quasiperiodic structure consisting of dispersive and lossless epsilon-negative (ENG) materials. It is found that for both TE and TM polarizations with normal and oblique incidences, there exist transmission gaps which are invariant with a change of scale and sensitive to incident angles. Analytical methods based on transfer matrices and effective medium theory have been used to explain the properties of transmission gaps.

  2. Interaction of Bessel Light Beams with Epsilon-near-zero Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kurilkina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article explores possibilities and conditions of generation of a new type of diffraction-free needle-like field Bessel plasmon polaritons (BPPs with super narrow cone angle in an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial, surrounded by semi-infinite dielectric media. Correct analytical expressions are obtained and analyzed in detail for the electric and magnetic fields of BPPs formed inside and outside the metamateral slab.

  3. The epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory with Wilson-type fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division

    2009-11-15

    In this proceeding contribution we report on the ongoing effort to simulate Wilson-type fermions in the so called epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory (cPT).We present results for the chiral condensate and the pseudoscalar decay constant obtained with Wilson twisted mass fermions employing two lattice spacings, two different physical volumes and several quark masses. With this set of simulations we make a first attempt to estimate the systematic uncertainties. (orig.)

  4. Low-damping epsilon-near-zero slabs: nonlinear and nonlocal optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    de Ceglia, Domenico; Campione, Salvatore; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; Capolino, Filippo; Scalora, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate second harmonic generation, low-threshold multistability, all-optical switching, and inherently nonlocal effects due to the free-electron gas pressure in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial slab made of cylindrical, plasmonic nanoshells illuminated by TM-polarized light. Damping compensation in the ENZ frequency region, achieved by using gain medium inside the shells' dielectric cores, enhances the nonlinear properties. Reflection is inhibited and the electric field compone...

  5. Nesprins: tissue-specific expression of epsilon and other short isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thuy Duong

    Full Text Available Nesprin-1-giant and nesprin-2-giant regulate nuclear positioning by the interaction of their C-terminal KASH domains with nuclear membrane SUN proteins and their N-terminal calponin-homology domains with cytoskeletal actin. A number of short isoforms lacking the actin-binding domains are produced by internal promotion. We have evaluated the significance of these shorter isoforms using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting with site-specific monoclonal antibodies. Within a complete map of nesprin isoforms, we describe two novel nesprin-2 epsilon isoforms for the first time. Epsilon isoforms are similar in size and structure to nesprin-1-alpha. Expression of nesprin isoforms was highly tissue-dependent. Nesprin-2-epsilon-1 was found in early embryonic cells, while nesprin-2-epsilon-2 was present in heart and other adult tissues, but not skeletal muscle. Some cell lines lack shorter isoforms and express only one of the two nesprin genes, suggesting that either of the giant nesprins is sufficient for basic cell functions. For the first time, localisation of endogenous nesprin away from the nuclear membrane was shown in cells where removal of the KASH domain by alternative splicing occurs. By distinguishing between degradation products and true isoforms on western blots, it was found that previously-described beta and gamma isoforms are expressed either at only low levels or with a limited tissue distribution. Two of the shortest alpha isoforms, nesprin-1-alpha-2 and nesprin-2-alpha-1, were found almost exclusively in cardiac and skeletal muscle and a highly conserved and alternatively-spliced exon, available in both nesprin genes, was always included in these tissues. These "muscle-specific" isoforms are thought to form a complex with emerin and lamin A/C at the inner nuclear membrane and mutations in all three proteins cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and/or inherited dilated cardiomyopathy, disorders in which only skeletal muscle and

  6. Antibody response to the epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens following vaccination of Lama glama crias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentancor, Adriana B; Halperin, Pablo; Flores, Myriam; Iribarren, Fabián

    2009-09-15

    Enterotoxaemia produced by Clostridium perfringens A, C and D is an important cause of mortality in young llamas. There is no data on antibody responses following vaccination with epsilon toxin. Twenty-six L. glama crias were divided into four groups which were vaccinated with a commercial vaccine (Mancha Gangrena Enterotoxemia, Instituto Rosembusch Sociedad Anónima, Argentina) on days 0, 21 and 42 or left as unvaccinated controls. An indirect ELISA was compared with the mouse neutralization test (MNT) for measuring titers to C. perfringens type D epsilon toxin and used to determine titers in sera taken before vaccination and 16, 28, 49, 59, and 93 days later. The ELISA gave comparable results to the MNT and showed animals vaccinated once failed to develop raised titers. A week following a second vaccination, mean antibody titers rose significantly (P < 0.05) and 7/12 animals developed high titers which were present in only one animal at the end of the study (day 93). A third vaccination resulted in a decrease in mean antibody titers a week later. Llamas develop antibodies to Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin after two vaccinations at a 21-day interval. Further studies are indicated to determine if these inoculations protect against enterotoxemia and the most appropriate vaccination schedule.

  7. Recombinant Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins of Clostridium perfringens: Production Strategies and Applications as Veterinary Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcos Roberto A.; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal S. G.; da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo P.; Mendonça, Marcelo; Salvarani, Felipe M.; Moreira, Ângela N.; Conceição, Fabricio R.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming, commensal, ubiquitous bacterium that is present in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans and animals. This bacterium produces up to 18 toxins. The species is classified into five toxinotypes (A–E) according to the toxins that the bacterium produces: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. Each of these toxinotypes is associated with myriad different, frequently fatal, illnesses that affect a range of farm animals and humans. Alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are the main causes of disease. Vaccinations that generate neutralizing antibodies are the most common prophylactic measures that are currently in use. These vaccines consist of toxoids that are obtained from C. perfringens cultures. Recombinant vaccines offer several advantages over conventional toxoids, especially in terms of the production process. As such, they are steadily gaining ground as a promising vaccination solution. This review discusses the main strategies that are currently used to produce recombinant vaccines containing alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins of C. perfringens, as well as the potential application of these molecules as vaccines for mammalian livestock animals. PMID:27879630

  8. Molecular weight distributions of industrially-produced poly-(epsilon-caprolactams) by gel permeation chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Elena; Cebolla, Vicente L; Membrado, Luis; Piera, Elena; Caballero, Miguel A

    2007-09-01

    Gel permeation chromatography with differential refractometry is used to obtain molecular weight distributions (MWD) of poly-(epsilon-caprolactams). Elution is carried out using an m-cresolchlorobenzene mixture (50:50, v/v) at 50 degrees C. MW values are obtained by a Hamielec-based calibration method, using broad-MWD poly-(epsilon-caprolactam) standards with the same chemical nature and similar MWD to the samples. Relative errors for the number-average MW (Mn) using this calibration method range from 0.4% (in the low polyamide MW range) to 20% (in the high polyamide MW range). These values are much lower than those obtained from narrow-MWD polystyrene calibration, which range from 39% to 78%. Similar values have been obtained for the other usual average MW parameters. The ability to obtain repeatability parameters for a given confidence interval and the utilization of statistical criteria for chromatogram rejection allow this method to be used in quality control for MWD of poly-(epsilon-caprolactams). Thus, production variables are related to polyamide-6 behavior in its ulterior treatment. Typical relative standard deviation percentages (for n=6) of a polyamide sample range from 1.9% (for Mn) to 3.3% (for M(z+1)).

  9. A Spitzer/IRAC Search for Substellar Companions of the Debris Disk Star epsilon Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Marengo, M; Fazio, G G; Stapelfeldt, K R; Werner, M W; Backman, D E

    2006-01-01

    We have used the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) onboard the Spitzer Space telescope to search for low mass companions of the nearby debris disk star epsilon Eridani. The star was observed in two epochs 39 days apart, with different focal plane rotation to allow the subtraction of the instrumental Point Spread Function, achieving a maximum sensitivity of 0.01 MJy/sr at 3.6 and 4.5 um, and 0.05 MJy/sr at 5.8 and 8.0 um. This sensitivity is not sufficient to directly detect scattered or thermal radiation from the epsilon Eridani debris disk. It is however sufficient to allow the detection of Jovian planets with mass as low as 1 MJ in the IRAC 4.5 um band. In this band, we detected over 460 sources within the 5.70 arcmin field of view of our images. To test if any of these sources could be a low mass companion to epsilon Eridani, we have compared their colors and magnitudes with models and photometry of low mass objects. Of the sources detected in at least two IRAC bands, none fall into the range of mid-IR color an...

  10. Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papacchioli Velia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato is a major staple food, and modification of its provitamin content is a possible means for alleviating nutritional deficiencies. beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein, antheraxanthin, violaxanthin, and of xanthophyll esters. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. Results We silenced the first dedicated step in the beta-epsilon- branch of carotenoid biosynthesis, lycopene epsilon cyclase (LCY-e, by introducing, via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an antisense fragment of this gene under the control of the patatin promoter. Real Time measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of Lcy-e. Antisense tubers showed significant increases in beta-beta-carotenoid levels, with beta-carotene showing the maximum increase (up to 14-fold. Total carotenoids increased up to 2.5-fold. These changes were not accompanied by a decrease in lutein, suggesting that LCY-e is not rate-limiting for lutein accumulation. Tuber-specific changes in expression of several genes in the pathway were observed. Conclusion The data suggest that epsilon-cyclization of lycopene is a key regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. Upon tuber-specific silencing of the corresponding gene, beta-beta-carotenoid and total carotenoid levels are increased, and expression of several other genes in the pathway is modified.

  11. Neutron-proton scattering observables at 325 MeV, the epsilon/sub 1/ parameter, and the tensor force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chulick, G.S.; Elster, C.; Machleidt, R.; Picklesimer, A.; Thaler, R.M.

    1988-04-01

    The sensitivity of neutron-proton elastic scattering observables to variations in the low angular momentum T = 0 phase shifts is studied at E/sub lab/ = 325 MeV. It is found that the J = 1 coupling parameter epsilon/sub 1/ is not well determined by existing data. This uncertainty in epsilon/sub 1/ permits models with quite different tensor forces to describe the extant data. Implications and possible experimental resolution of such ambiguities are discussed.

  12. Nerve growth factor activates calcium-insensitive protein kinase C-epsilon in PC-12 rat pheochromocytoma cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmichi, M; Zhu, G.; Saltiel, A R

    1993-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) family members were examined in PC-12 rat pheochromocytoma cells to evaluate their role in the action of nerve growth factor (NGF). Immunoblot analysis of whole cell lysates using antibodies against various PKC isoforms revealed that PC-12 cells contained PKC-alpha, -delta, -epsilon and zeta. Assay of the protein kinase activity in these different anti-PKC immunoprecipitates demonstrated that NGF stimulated the kinase activity of PKC-epsilon, but not PKC-alpha, -delta a...

  13. Molecular cloning and expression of epsilon toxin from Clostridium perfringens type D and tests of animal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A M; Reis, J K P; Assis, R A; Horta, C C; Siqueira, F F; Facchin, S; Alvarenga, E R; Castro, C S; Salvarani, F M; Silva, R O S; Pires, P S; Contigli, C; Lobato, F C F; Kalapothakis, E

    2010-02-18

    Epsilon toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D causes enterotoxemia in sheep, goats and calves. Enterotoxemia can cause acute or superacute disease, with sudden death of the affected animal. It provokes huge economic losses when large numbers of livestock are affected. Therapeutic intervention is challenging, because the disease progresses very rapidly. However, it can be prevented by immunization with specific immunogenic vaccines. We cloned the etx gene, encoding epsilon toxin, into vector pET-11a; recombinant epsilon toxin (rec-epsilon) was expressed in inclusion bodies and was used for animal immunization. Serum protection was evaluated and cross-serum neutralization tests were used to characterize the recombinant toxin. To analyze the potency of the toxin (as an antigen), rabbits were immunized with 50, 100 or 200 microg recombinant toxin, using aluminum hydroxide gel as an adjuvant. Titers of 10, 30 and 40 IU/mL were obtained, respectively. These titers were higher than the minimum level required by the European Pharmacopoeia (5 IU/mL) and by the USA Code of Federal Regulation (2 IU/mL). This rec-epsilon is a good candidate for vaccine production against enterotoxemia caused by epsilon toxin of C. perfringens type D.

  14. Initial Evaluation of Processing Methods for an Epsilon Metal Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Strachan, Denis M.; Zumhoff, Mac R.

    2012-06-11

    During irradiation of nuclear fuel in a reactor, the five metals, Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Tc, migrate to the fuel grain boundaries and form small metal particles of an alloy known as epsilon metal ({var_epsilon}-metal). When the fuel is dissolved in a reprocessing plant, these metal particles remain behind with a residue - the undissolved solids (UDS). Some of these same metals that comprise this alloy that have not formed the alloy are dissolved into the aqueous stream. These metals limit the waste loading for a borosilicate glass that is being developed for the reprocessing wastes. Epsilon metal is being developed as a waste form for the noble metals from a number of waste streams in the aqueous reprocessing of used nuclear fuel (UNF) - (1) the {var_epsilon}-metal from the UDS, (2) soluble Tc (ion-exchanged), and (3) soluble noble metals (TRUEX raffinate). Separate immobilization of these metals has benefits other than allowing an increase in the glass waste loading. These materials are quite resistant to dissolution (corrosion) as evidenced by the fact that they survive the chemically aggressive conditions in the fuel dissolver. Remnants of {var_epsilon}-metal particles have survived in the geologically natural reactors found in Gabon, Africa, indicating that they have sufficient durability to survive for {approx} 2.5 billion years in a reducing geologic environment. Additionally, the {var_epsilon}-metal can be made without additives and incorporate sufficient foreign material (oxides) that are also present in the UDS. Although {var_epsilon}-metal is found in fuel and Gabon as small particles ({approx}10 {micro}m in diameter) and has survived intact, an ideal waste form is one in which the surface area is minimized. Therefore, the main effort in developing {var_epsilon}-metal as a waste form is to develop a process to consolidate the particles into a monolith. Individually, these metals have high melting points (2617 C for Mo to 1552 C for Pd) and the alloy is

  15. Resveratrol-loaded poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) microparticles: preparation and characterization; Microparticulas de poli({epsilon}-caprolactona) contendo resveratrol: preparacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Resveratrol-loaded poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) microparticles were obtained by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Three drug-loaded formulations were prepared with the aim of investigating the influence of composition on the encapsulation efficiency. Morphological and spectroscopic methods were performed for these materials. The microparticles revealed residual moisture close to 1.5% and encapsulation efficiency above 80%. Spherical shape and smooth surface were observed by SEM. No pores were either verified. Resveratrol-loaded microparticles showed an average particle size of around 50 {mu}m. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that the microencapsulation reduced the drug crystallinity. The FTIR results suggest that no chemical bond was formed between polymer and drug. (author)

  16. Determination of the 1-ethyl-3-[(3-dimethylamino)propyl]-carbodiimide- induced cross-link between the beta and epsilon subunits of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallmann, H G; Flynn, T G; Dunn, S D

    1992-09-15

    The zero-length cross-link between the inhibitory epsilon subunit and one of three catalytic beta subunits of Escherichia coli F1-ATPase (alpha 3 beta 3 gamma delta epsilon), induced by a water-soluble carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-[(3-dimethylamino) propyl]-carbodiimide (EDC), has been determined at the amino acid level. Lability of cross-linked beta-epsilon to base suggested an ester cross-link rather than the expected amide. A 10-kDa cross-linked CNBr fragment derived from beta-epsilon was identified by electrophoresis on high percentage polyacrylamide gels. Sequence analysis of this peptide revealed the constituent peptides to be Asp-380 to Met-431 of beta and Glu-96 to Met-138 of epsilon. Glu-381 of beta was absent from cycle 2 indicating that it was one of the cross-linked residues, but no potential cross-linked residue in epsilon was identified in this analysis. A form of epsilon containing a methionine residue in place of Val-112 (epsilon V112M) was produced by site-directed mutagenesis. epsilon V112M was incorporated into F1-ATPase which was then cross-linked with EDC. An 8-kDa cross-linked CNBr fragment of beta-epsilon V112M was shown to contain the peptide of epsilon between residues Glu-96 and Met-112 and the peptide of beta between residues Asp-380 and Met-431. Again residue Glu-381 of beta was notably reduced and no missing residue from the epsilon peptide could be identified, but the peptide sequence limited the possible choices to Ser-106, Ser-107, or Ser-108. Furthermore, an epsilon mutant in which Ser-108 was replaced by cysteine could no longer be cross-linked to a beta subunit in F1-ATPase by EDC. Both mutant forms of epsilon supported growth of an uncC-deficient E. coli strain and inhibited F1-ATPase. These results indicate that the EDC-induced cross-link between the beta and epsilon subunits of F1-ATPase is an ester linkage between beta-Glu-381 and, likely, epsilon-Ser-108. As these residues must be located immediately adjacent to one another in F1

  17. Fyn kinase controls Fc{epsilon}RI receptor-operated calcium entry necessary for full degranulation in mast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Miranda, Elizabeth; Ibarra-Sanchez, Alfredo [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), Sede Sur, Calzada de los Tenorios 235, Col. Granjas Coapa, CP 14330 Mexico City (Mexico); Gonzalez-Espinosa, Claudia, E-mail: cgonzal@cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Farmacobiologia, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (Cinvestav), Sede Sur, Calzada de los Tenorios 235, Col. Granjas Coapa, CP 14330 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2010-01-22

    IgE-antigen-dependent crosslinking of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc{epsilon}RI) on mast cells leads to degranulation, leukotriene synthesis and cytokine production. Calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) mobilization is a sine qua non requisite for degranulation, allowing the rapid secretion of stored pro-inflammatory mediators responsible for allergy symptoms. Fyn is a Src-family kinase that positively controls Fc{epsilon}RI-induced mast cell degranulation. However, our understanding of the mechanism connecting Fyn activation to secretion of pre-synthesized mediators is very limited. We analyzed Fc{epsilon}RI-dependent Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) differentiated from WT and Fyn -/- knock out mice. Fyn -/- BMMCs showed a marked defect in extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx after Fc{epsilon}RI crosslinking but not after thapsigargin addition. High concentrations of Gadolinium (Gd{sup 3+}) partially blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced Ca{sup 2+} influx in WT cells but, in contrast, completely inhibited Ca{sup 2+} mobilization in Fyn -/- cells. Low concentrations of an inhibitor of the canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) Ca{sup 2+} channels (2-aminoethoxyphenyl-borane, 2-APB) blocked Fc{epsilon}RI-induced maximal Ca{sup 2+} rise in WT but not in Fyn -/- cells. Ca{sup 2+} entry through Fyn-controlled, 2-APB sensitive channels was found to be important for full degranulation and IL-2 mRNA accumulation in WT cells. Immunoprecipitation assays showed that Fyn kinase interacts with TRPC 3/6/7 channels after IgE-antigen stimulation, but its association is not related to protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Results indicate Fyn kinase mediates the receptor-dependent activation of TRPC channels that contribute to degranulation in Fc{epsilon}RI-stimulated mast cells.

  18. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA selectively activates PKC-epsilon, possibly binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Hi, Rika; Mukasa, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nagata, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA), a newly synthesized linoleic acid derivative with cyclopropane rings instead of cis-double bonds, on protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In the in situ PKC assay with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, DCP-LA significantly activated PKC in PC-12 cells in a concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 microM) manner, with the maximal effect at 100 nM, and the DCP-LA effect was blocked by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, or a selective inhibitor peptide of the novel PKC isozyme PKC-epsilon. Furthermore, DCP-LA activated PKC in HEK-293 cells that was inhibited by the small, interfering RNA against PKC-epsilon. In the cell-free PKC assay, of the nine isozymes examined here, DCP-LA most strongly activated PKC-epsilon, with >7-fold potency over other PKC isozymes, in the absence of dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol; instead, the DCP-LA action was inhibited by dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine. DCP-LA also activated PKC-gamma, a conventional PKC, but to a much lesser extent compared with that for PKC-epsilon, by a mechanism distinct from PKC-epsilon activation. Thus, DCP-LA serves as a selective activator of PKC-epsilon, possibly by binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site on PKC-epsilon. These results may provide fresh insight into lipid signaling in PKC activation.

  19. Effect of NbC particles on {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} Martensitic transformation in Fe-22mass%Mn alloys; Fe-22 mass % Mn gokin no {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} marutensaito hentai ni oyobosu NbC ryushi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Y.; Nakatsu, E.; Takaki, S. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-07-20

    The yield and transformation of epsilon ({epsilon}) martensite which is expected to be utilized as reinforcing texture of high Mn non-magnetic steel, are alternated greatly by the fining of crystal particles since said epsilon martensite is effected obviously by austenite ({gamma}) grain during the deformation in cooling process. In this study, in respect of Fe-22mass%Mn-Nb-C alloys wherein Nb and C are added to make the maximum volume rate of NbC being 1 vol%, samples wherein the size of {gamma} grains is fined to 10{mu}m or less by recrystalization are prepared, and the effect of the size of {gamma} grains and the effect of NbC particles dispersed in {gamma} grains on {epsilon} transformation are investigated. The following points are clarified by the results of said investigation. {gamma}{yields}{epsilon} transformation is suppressed remarkably by the existence of NbC particles dispersed homogeneously and finely in {gamma} grains. A large elastic stress field causing conformity deviation is formed around NbC particles by NbC particles themselves. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele confers additional risk in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Albert; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Rodenburg, Jessica; Defesche, Joep C; de Jongh, Saskia; Bakker, Henk D; Kastelein, John J P

    2003-06-01

    Children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) exhibit substantial variance of LDL cholesterol. In previous studies, family members of children with FH were included, which may have influenced results. To avoid such bias, we studied phenotype in 450 unrelated children with FH and in 154 affected sib-pairs. In known families with classical FH, diagnosis was based on plasma LDL cholesterol above the age- and gender-specific 95th percentile. Girls had 0.47 +/- 0.15 mmol/L higher LDL cholesterol, compared with boys (p = 0.002). Also in girls, HDL cholesterol increased by 0.07 +/- 0.03 mmol/L per 5 y (pfor trend = 0.005); this age effect was not observed in boys. The distribution of apolipoprotein (apo) E genotypes was not significantly different between probands, their paired affected siblings, or a Dutch control population. Carriers with or without one epsilon4 allele had similar LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. Within the affected sib-pairs, the epsilon4 allele explained 72.4% of the variance of HDL cholesterol levels (-0.15 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -0.24 to -0.05, p = 0.003). The effect of apoE4 on HDL cholesterol differed with an analysis based on probands or on affected sib-pairs. The affected sib-pair model used adjustment for shared environment, type of LDL receptor gene mutation, and a proportion of additional genetic factors and may, therefore, be more accurate in estimating effects of risk factors on complex traits. We conclude that the epsilon4 allele was associated with lower HDL cholesterol levels in an affected sib-pair analysis, which strongly suggests that apoE4 influences HDL cholesterol levels in FH children. Moreover, the strong association suggests that apoE4 carries an additional disadvantage for FH children.

  1. Stellar model chromospheres. IV - The formation of the H-epsilon feature in the sun /G2 V/ and Arcturus /K2 III/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, T. R.; Linsky, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    The formation of the Balmer-series member H-epsilon in the near-red wing of the Ca II H line is discussed for two cases: the sun (H-epsilon absorption profile) and Arcturus (H-epsilon emission profile). It is shown that although the H-epsilon source functions in both stars are dominated by the Balmer-continuum radiation field through photoionizations, the line-formation problems in the two stars are quantitatively different, owing to a substantial difference in the relative importance of the stellar chromosphere temperature inversion as compared with the stellar photosphere.

  2. Analytical Study of Sub-Wavelength Imaging by Uniaxial Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterial Slabs

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Alu', Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2012-01-01

    We show that the two-dimensional Green's function of a uniaxial (with possibly tilted optical axis) epsilon-near-zero metamaterial slab, of interest for sub-wavelength imaging, can be calculated analytically in terms of special cylindrical functions. For the near-field parameter ranges of interest, we also derive a small-argument approximation in terms of simple analytical functions. Our results, validated and calibrated against a full-wave reference solution, expand the analytical tools available for computationally-efficient, physically-incisive modeling and design of metamaterial-based sub-wavelength imaging systems.

  3. Developing RADARSAT’s METOC Capabilities in Support of Project Polar Epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    and Canada’s recently legislated ecosystem approach to the management of coastal environments (i.e. the 1997 Oceans Act). Although Polar Epsilon is an...USA,,~in Oowwa o*Anpht Op. owanc -rlo smw-d owax, MPO J=X WA, Fo" lfrloe dA~ne surliae 6wmdninry auaw iiwrnea S TIP. Eiwod Aqu . POES ESA hmrwiwy 111 I...Defence R&D Canada-Atlantic, 42pp. 4 Pouliquen, E., Kirwan, A.D. Jr. and Pearson, R.T. (editors). ( 1997 ). Proceedings of Conference on Rapid

  4. Spent fuel reaction - the behavior of the {epsilon}-phase over 3.1 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, P.A.; Hoh, J.C.; Wolf, S.F. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The release fractions of the five elements in the {epsilon}-phase ({sup 99}Tc, {sup 97}Mo, Ru, Rh, and Pd) as well as that of {sup 238}U are reported for the reaction of two oxide fuels (ATM-103 and ATM-106) in unsaturated tests under oxidizing conditions. The {sup 99}Tc release fractions provide a lower limit for the magnitude of the spent fuel reaction. The {sup 99}Tc release fractions indicate that a surface reaction might be the rate controlling mechanism for fuel reaction under unsaturated conditions and the oxidant is possibly H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, a product of alpha radiolysis of water.

  5. Unitarity violation at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point in 4-epsilon dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs; van Rees, Balt C

    2016-01-01

    We consider the continuation of free and interacting scalar field theory to non-integer spacetime dimension d. We find that the correlation functions in these theories are necessarily incompatible with unitarity (or with reflection positivity in Euclidean signature). In particular, the theories contain negative norm states unless d is a positive integer. These negative norm states can be obtained via the OPE from simple positive norm operators, and are therefore an integral part of the theory. At the Wilson-Fisher fixed point the non-unitarity leads to the existence of complex anomalous dimensions. We demonstrate that they appear already at leading order in the epsilon expansion.

  6. Poly (epsilon-caprolactone)/propolis extract: microencapsulation and antibacterial activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, N; Marcato, P D; Buffo, C M S; De Azevedo, M M M; Esposito, E

    2007-04-01

    Spherical and homogenous microparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), containing propolis were prepared by the emulsification-solvent evaporation technique. Using this method of preparation, a solid formulation of propolis, free of ethanol and suitable for manipulation and storage, was obtained from an ethanolic extract of propolis. The incorporation efficiency of propolis in the microparticles was almost 30% and around 60% of the substance was released in 48 h. In vitro propolis microparticles exhibited similar halo zones in the Petri plate test against Streptococcus mutans (GS5) with a 10-fold lower concentration than the free propolis extract showing that the encapsulated propolis in microparticles is more efficient as antibiotic.

  7. Human epidermal Langerhans cells express the high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (Fc epsilon RI)

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    It has been suggested that epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) bearing immunoglobulin E (IgE) may be involved in the genesis of atopic disease. The identity of the IgE receptor(s) on LC remained unclear, although it represents a crucial point in understanding cellular events linked to the binding of allergens to LC via IgE. In this report, we demonstrate that epidermal LC express the high affinity receptor for the Fc fragment of IgE (Fc epsilon RI) which has, so far, only been described on mast c...

  8. Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, Ting S., E-mail: tsluk@sandia.gov; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT), Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Ceglia, Domenico de; Vincenti, Maria A. [National Research Council–AMRDEC, Charles M. Bowden Research Laboratory, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States); Keeler, Gordon A.; Sinclair, Michael B. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Prasankumar, Rohit P. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT-LANL), Los Alamos Laboratories, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Scalora, Michael [Charles M. Bowden Research Laboratory, AMRDEC, U.S. Army RDECOM, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient third harmonic generation from an indium tin oxide nanofilm (λ/42 thick) on a glass substrate for a pump wavelength of 1.4 μm. A conversion efficiency of 3.3 × 10{sup −6} is achieved by exploiting the field enhancement properties of the epsilon-near-zero mode with an enhancement factor of 200. This nanoscale frequency conversion method is applicable to other plasmonic materials and reststrahlen materials in proximity of the longitudinal optical phonon frequencies.

  9. Enhanced third harmonic generation from the epsilon-near-zero modes of ultrathin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luk, Ting S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); De Ceglia, Domenico [National Research Council (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States); Liu, Sheng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keeler, Gordon Arthur [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prasankumar, Rohit [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vincenti, Maria A [National Research Council (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States); Scalora, Michael [National Research Council (AMRDEC), Redstone Arsenal, AL (United States); Sinclair, Michael B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); campione, salvatore [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-13

    We demonstrate, through our experimentation, efficient third harmonic generation from an indium tin oxide nanofilm (λ/42 thick) on a glass substrate for a pump wavelength of 1.4 μm. A conversion efficiency of 3.3 × 10-6 is achieved by exploiting the field enhancement properties of the epsilon-near-zero mode with an enhancement factor of 200. Furthermore, this nanoscale frequency conversion method is applicable to other plasmonic materials and reststrahlen materials in proximity of the longitudinal optical phonon frequencies.

  10. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-05-23

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials.

  11. Magneto-optical characteristics of layered Epsilon-Near-Zero metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Ghaleh, Reza; Suldozi, Reza

    2016-09-01

    The transmittance magneto-optical (MO) characteristics of Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) metamaterials are studied, using 4 by 4 transfer matrix method. The considered structures are a free standing ENZ-MO slab, and a microcavity type multi-layer structure containing an ENZ-MO layer. The transmittance coefficients of the right- and left-handed circular polarizations for the slab are analytically obtained and numerically investigated. Furthermore, these characteristics are numerically studied for the multi-layer structure. In addition, the Faraday rotations of both structures are investigated. The results reveal the circular polarization filtering effects.

  12. Structural Basis for the Potent and Selective Inhibition of Casein Kinase 1 Epsilon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Alexander M. [Amgen Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Zhao, Huilin [Amgen Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Huang, Xin [Amgen Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-10-29

    Casein kinase 1 epsilon (CK1ε) and its closest homologue CK1δ are key regulators of diverse cellular processes. We report two crystal structures of PF4800567, a potent and selective inhibitor of CK1ε, bound to the kinase domains of human CK1ε and CK1δ as well as one apo CK1ε crystal structure. These structures provide a molecular basis for the strong and specific inhibitor interactions with CK1ε and suggest clues for further development of CK1δ inhibitors.

  13. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-05-01

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials.

  14. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Ziauddin,; You-Lin Chuang; Sajid Qamar; Ray-Kuang Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials i...

  15. Lattice QCD in the {epsilon}-regime and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, L.; Luescher, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Weisz, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Wittig, H. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    In the {epsilon}-regime of QCD the main features of the spectrum of the low-lying eigenvalues of the (euclidean) Dirac operator are expected to be described by a certain universality class of random matrix models. In particular, the latter predict the joint statistical distribution of the individual eigenvalues in any topological sector of the theory. We compare some of these predictions with high-precision numerical data obtained from quenched lattice QCD for a range of lattice spacings and volumes. While no complete matching is observed, the results agree with theoretical expectations at volumes larger than about 5 fm{sup 4}. (orig.)

  16. Lattice QCD in the {epsilon}-regime and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusti, Leonardo; Luescher, Martin [CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland)]. E-mail addresses: leonardo.giusti@cern.ch; luscher@mail.cern.ch; Weisz, Peter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: pew@dmumpiwh.mppmu.mpg.de; Wittig, Hartmut [DESY, Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: hartmut.wittig@desy.de

    2003-11-01

    In the {epsilon}-regime of QCD the main features of the spectrum of the low-lying eigenvalues of the (euclidean) Dirac operator are expected to be described by a certain universality class of random matrix models. In particular, the latter predict the joint statistical distribution of the individual eigenvalues in any topological sector of the theory. We compare some of these predictions with high-precision numerical data obtained from quenched lattice QCD for a range of lattice spacings and volumes. While no complete matching is observed, the results agree with theoretical expectations at volumes larger than about 5 fm{sup 4}. (author)

  17. Severe myoclonus-dystonia syndrome associated with a novel epsilon-sarcoglycan gene truncating mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Lucie; Raux, Grégory; Dumanchin, Cécile; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Deslandre, Emmanuelle; Girard, Carole; Campion, Dominique; Parain, Dominique; Frebourg, Thierry; Hannequin, Didier

    2003-05-15

    Myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (MDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by myoclonic and dystonic muscle contractions, associated with psychiatric manifestations. MDS is usually considered as a benign disease. In most of the families, MDS is linked to chromosome 7q21 and mutations within epsilon-sarcoglycan (SGCE) gene have been recently described. We report a MDS family with a severe and heterogeneous phenotype, including myoclonus with important functional impact and several psychiatric features, characterized by obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. This phenotype was shown to be associated with a novel truncating mutation located within exon 4 of SGCE.

  18. Arbitrary Steady-State Solutions with the K-epsilon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Pettersson Reif, B. A.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2006-01-01

    Widely-used forms of the K-epsilon turbulence model are shown to yield arbitrary steady-state converged solutions that are highly dependent on numerical considerations such as initial conditions and solution procedure. These solutions contain pseudo-laminar regions of varying size. By applying a nullcline analysis to the equation set, it is possible to clearly demonstrate the reasons for the anomalous behavior. In summary, the degenerate solution acts as a stable fixed point under certain conditions, causing the numerical method to converge there. The analysis also suggests a methodology for preventing the anomalous behavior in steady-state computations.

  19. All-optical modulation in wavelength-sized epsilon-near-zero media

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of two pulses (pump and probe) scattered by a nonlinear epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) slab whose thickness is comparable with the ENZ wavelength. We show that when the probe has a narrow spectrum localized around the ENZ wavelength its transmission is dramatically affected by the intensity of the pump. Conversely, if the probe is not in the ENZ regime, its propagation is not noticeably affected by the pump. Such all-optical modulation is due to the oversensitive character of the ENZ regime and it is so efficient to even occur in a wavelength thick slab.

  20. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S

    2006-05-05

    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.

  1. RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRENGTH EXPERIMENTS OF THE PRESSURE-INDUCED alpha->epsilon->alpha' PHASE TRANSITION IN IRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belof, J L; Cavallo, R M; Olson, R T; King, R S; Gray, G T; Holtkamp, D B; Chen, S R; Rudd, R E; Barton, N R; Arsenlis, A; Remington, B A; Park, H; Prisbrey, S T; Vitello, P A; Bazan, G; Mikaelian, K O; Comley, A J; Maddox, B R; May, M J

    2011-08-10

    We present here the first dynamic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) strength measurement of a material undergoing solid-solid phase transition. Iron is quasi-isentropically driven across the pressure-induced bcc ({alpha}-Fe) {yields} hcp ({var_epsilon}-Fe) phase transition and the dynamic strength of the {alpha}, {var_epsilon} and reverted {alpha}{prime} phases have been determined via proton radiography of the resulting Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the iron target and high-explosive products. Simultaneous velocimetry measurements of the iron free surface yield the phase transition dynamics and, in conjunction with detailed hydrodynamic simulations, allow for determination of the strength of the distinct phases of iron. Forward analysis of the experiment via hydrodynamic simulations reveals significant strength enhancement of the dynamically-generated {var_epsilon}-Fe and reverted {alpha}{prime}-Fe, comparable in magnitude to the strength of austenitic stainless steels.

  2. Ultra high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity design: The effect of a low-epsilon slab material

    CERN Document Server

    Bayn, Igal

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the influence of the dielectric constant of the slab on the quality factor (Q) in slab photonic crystal cavities with a minimized vertical losses model. The higher value of Q in high-epsilon cavity is attributed to the lower mode frequency. The Q ratio in a high-epsilon (silicon) vs. low-epsilon (diamond) slab is examined as a function of mode volume (Vm). The mode volume compensation technique is discussed. Finally, diamond cavity design is addressed. The analytical results are compared to 3D FDTD calculations. In a double heterostructure design, a Q=2.6*10^5 is obtained. The highest Q=1.3*10^6 with Vm=1.77*(lambda/n)^3 in a local width modulation design is derived.

  3. Regulation of T cell receptor activation by dynamic membrane binding of the CD3epsilon cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chenqi; Gagnon, Etienne; Call, Matthew E; Schnell, Jason R; Schwieters, Charles D; Carman, Christopher V; Chou, James J; Wucherpfennig, Kai W

    2008-11-14

    Many immune system receptors signal through cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motifs (ITAMs), but how receptor ligation results in ITAM phosphorylation remains unknown. Live-cell imaging studies showed a close interaction of the CD3epsilon cytoplasmic domain of the T cell receptor (TCR) with the plasma membrane through fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a C-terminal fluorescent protein and a membrane fluorophore. Electrostatic interactions between basic CD3epsilon residues and acidic phospholipids enriched in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane were required for binding. The nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the lipid-bound state of this cytoplasmic domain revealed deep insertion of the two key tyrosines into the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer. Receptor ligation thus needs to result in unbinding of the CD3epsilon ITAM from the membrane to render these tyrosines accessible to Src kinases. Sequestration of key tyrosines into the lipid bilayer represents a previously unrecognized mechanism for control of receptor activation.

  4. Evidence for apolipoprotein E {epsilon}4 association in early-onset Alzheimer`s patients with late-onset relatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Tur, J.; Delacourte, A.; Chartier-Harlin, M.C. [INSERM, Rouen (France)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Recently several reports have extended the apolipoprotein E (APOE) {epsilon}4 association found in late-onset Alzheimer`s disease (LOAD) patients to early-onset (EO) AD patients. We have studied this question in a large population of 119 EOAD patients (onset {<=}60 years) in which family history was carefully assessed and in 109 controls. We show that the APOE {epsilon}A allele frequency is increased only in the subset of patients who belong to families where LOAD secondary cases are present. Our sampling scheme permits us to demonstrate that, for an individual, bearing at least one {epsilon}4 allele increases both the risk of AD before age 60 and the probability of belonging to a family with late-onset affected subjects. Our results suggest that a subset of EOAD cases shares a common determinism with LOAD cases. 19 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Optically induced metal-to-dielectric transition in Epsilon-Near-Zero metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Kaipurath, R M; Caspani, L; Roger, T; Clerici, M; Rizza, C; Ciattoni, A; Di Falco, A; Faccio, D

    2016-01-01

    Epsilon-Near-Zero materials exhibit a transition in the real part of the dielectric permittivity from positive to negative value as a function of wavelength. Here we study metal-dielectric layered metamaterials in the homogenised regime (each layer has strongly subwavelength thickness) with zero real part of the permittivity in the near-infrared region. By optically pumping the metamaterial we experimentally show that close to the Epsilon-Equal-to-Zero (EEZ) wavelength the permittivity exhibits a marked transition from metallic (negative permittivity) to dielectric (positive permittivity) as a function of the optical power. Remarkably, this transition is linear as a function of pump power and occurs on time scales of the order of the 100 fs pump pulse that need not be tuned to a specific wavelength. The linearity of the permittivity increase allows us to express the response of the metamaterial in terms of a standard third order optical nonlinearity: this shows a clear inversion of the roles of the real and i...

  6. Pulsations driven by the $\\epsilon$-mechanism in post-merger remnants: first results

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Marcelo M Miller; Zhang, Xianfei; Althaus, Leandro G; Jeffery, C Simon

    2012-01-01

    Helium-rich subdwarfs are a rare subclass of hot subdwarf stars which constitute a small and inhomogeneous group showing varying degrees of helium enrichment. Only one star, LS IV $^\\circ$14 116 has been found to show multiperiodic luminosity variations. The variability of LS IV $^\\circ$14 116 has been explained as the consequence of nonradial g-mode oscillations, whose excitation is difficult to understand within the frame of the standard $\\kappa$-mechanism driving pulsations in sdBV stars. In a recent study, we have proposed that the pulsations of LS IV $^\\circ$14 116 might be driven through the $\\epsilon$-mechanism acting in unstable He-burning zones in the interior of the star, that appear before the quiescent He-burning phase. One of the few accepted scenarios for the formation of He-rich subdwarfs is the merger of two He-core white dwarfs. As part of this project, we present a study of the $\\epsilon$-mechanism in post-merger remnants, and discuss the results in the light of the pulsations exhibited by L...

  7. MAMBO image of the debris disk around epsilon Eridani : robustness of the azimuthal structure

    CERN Document Server

    Lestrade, Jean-Francois

    2015-01-01

    The debris disk closest to Earth is the one around the star epsilon Eridani at a distance of 3.2 pc. It is the prime target for detailed studies of a belt of planetesimals left from the early phase of planet formation other than the Kuiper Belt. The non-uniform ring-like structure around epsilon Eridani, originally discovered at lambda=850 microns with the bolometer camera SCUBA, could be the signpost of unseen long-period planets interior to the disk that gravitationally interact with it through mean-motion resonances. However, the reliability of the structure at 850 microns, which has been debated, has not been verified with independent observations until now. We present a high signal-to-noise ratio image of this structure at lambda=1.2 mm made with the bolometer camera MAMBO and compare this with the SCUBA image. We have found that three of the four emission clumps (NE, NW, SW) and the two deep hollows to the east and west are at the same positions in the MAMBO and SCUBA images within astrometric uncertain...

  8. Epsilon-Near-Zero Substrate Engineering for Ultrathin-Film Perfect Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensberg, Jura; Zhou, You; Richter, Steffen; Wan, Chenghao; Zhang, Shuyan; Schöppe, Philipp; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Ramanathan, Shriram; Capasso, Federico; Kats, Mikhail A.; Ronning, Carsten

    2017-07-01

    Efficient suppression of reflection is a key requirement for perfect absorption of light. Recently, it has been shown that reflection can be effectively suppressed utilizing a single ultrathin film deposited on metals or polar materials featuring phonon resonances. The wavelength at which reflection can be fully suppressed is primarily determined by the nature of these substrates and is pinned to particular values near plasma or phonon resonances—the former typically in the ultraviolet or visible and the latter in the infrared. Here, we explicitly identify the required optical properties of films and substrates for the design of absorbing antireflection coatings based on ultrathin films. We find that completely suppressed reflection using films with thicknesses much smaller than the wavelength of light occurs within a spectral region where the real part of the refractive index of the substrate is n ≲1 , which is characteristic of materials with permittivity close to zero. We experimentally verify this condition by using an ultrathin vanadium dioxide film with dynamically tunable optical properties on several epsilon-near-zero materials, including aluminum-doped zinc oxide. By tailoring the plasma frequency of the aluminum-doped zinc oxide, we are able to tune the epsilon-near-zero point, thus achieving suppressed reflection and near-perfect absorption at wavelengths that continuously span the near-infrared and long-wave midinfrared ranges.

  9. Epsilon-Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens Type D Are Conjugative▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Meredith L.; Poon, Rachael; Adams, Vicki; Sayeed, Sameera; Saputo, Juliann; Uzal, Francisco A.; McClane, Bruce A.; Rood, Julian I.

    2007-01-01

    Isolates of Clostridium perfringens type D produce the potent epsilon-toxin (a CDC/U.S. Department of Agriculture overlap class B select agent) and are responsible for several economically significant enterotoxemias of domestic livestock. It is well established that the epsilon-toxin structural gene, etx, occurs on large plasmids. We show here that at least two of these plasmids are conjugative. The etx gene on these plasmids was insertionally inactivated using a chloramphenicol resistance cassette to phenotypically tag the plasmid. High-frequency conjugative transfer of the tagged plasmids into the C. perfringens type A strain JIR325 was demonstrated, and the resultant transconjugants were shown to act as donors in subsequent mating experiments. We also demonstrated the transfer of “unmarked” native ɛ-toxin plasmids into strain JIR325 by exploiting the high transfer frequency. The transconjugants isolated in these experiments expressed functional ɛ-toxin since their supernatants had cytopathic effects on MDCK cells and were toxic in mice. Using the widely accepted multiplex PCR approach for toxin genotyping, these type A-derived transconjugants were genotypically type D. These findings have significant implications for the C. perfringens typing system since it is based on the toxin profile of each strain. Our study demonstrated the fluid nature of the toxinotypes and their dependence upon the presence or absence of toxin plasmids, some of which have for the first time been shown to be conjugative. PMID:17720791

  10. Synthesis and characterization of soluble polypyrrole-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) polymer blends with improved electrical conductivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basavaraja, C.; Kim, Won Jung; Kim, Dae Gun [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Inje University, Obang 607, Gimhae, Kyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Do Sung, E-mail: chemhds@inje.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Basic Science, Inje University, Obang 607, Gimhae, Kyungnam 621-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} Facile synthesis of a new polypyrrole (PPy) blend with biodegradable poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) to form PPy - PCL. {yields} PPy - PCL blend is soluble in organic solvent in spite that the pure PPy is nearly insoluble in general organic solvents. {yields} Improvement in DC conductivity was observed in the PPy - PCL blend although the PCL is an insulator. {yields} Temperature-dependent DC conductivity for the blend has been explained by suitable mode. - Abstract: Polypyrrole-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PPy-PCL) blends were prepared through an in situ deposition technique wherein different amounts of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) were added during the polymerization of pyrrole. Ammonium persulfate was used as an oxidant in the polymerization of polypyrrole (PPy). Compared with pure PPy, the blends showed higher solubility in many organic solvents. The composition and structural characteristics of PPy-PCL were determined by Fourier transform infrared, ultraviolet-visible, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic methods. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopic methods were performed to observe the morphology of the PPy-PCL blends. The temperature-dependent conductivity of the PPy-PCL blends was measured at 300-500 K. The conductivity increased with increasing PCL concentration in the blends, which can be explained by the increased mobility of charge carriers at high PCL concentrations. Based on the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, hopping may be the conduction mechanism involved in the PPy-PCL blending process.

  11. Epsilon_K in the Standard Model and the kaon phase conventions

    CERN Document Server

    Sala, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The parameter epsilon_K, that quantifies CP violation in kaon mixing, is the observable setting the strongest constraints on new physics with a generic flavour and CP structure. While its experimental uncertainty is at the half percent level, the theoretical one is at the level of 15%. One of the largest sources of the latter uncertainty is the poor perturbative behaviour of the short-distance contribution of the box diagram with two charm quarks. In this proceeding, based on arXiv:1602.08494, I summarise how that contribution can be removed, from the imaginary part of the mixing amplitude, by a rephasing of the kaon fields. A first outcome is a mild reduction of the total theoretical uncertainty of epsilon_K: while this might look counterintuitive at first sight, if different "pieces" (i.e. short- and long-distance) of an observable are computed with different techniques, then it is possible to choose a phase convention where the total uncertainty of that observable is optimised. Moreover, it is worthy to di...

  12. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone in airlift sonochemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Yang, Mei; Lu, Xiaoping; Han, Pingfang; Wang, Yanru

    2006-12-22

    Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone was studied in a new type reactor--the airlift loop sonochemical reactor. The reactor plays a synergistic effect of sonochemsity and higher oxygen transfer rate. The influences of ultrasound intensity, reaction temperature, the molar ratio of benzaldehyde to cyclohexanone and oxygen gas flow rate on the conversion and selectivity of cyclohexanone were investigated and discussed. Under ultrasound, the amount of benzaldehyde can be reduced from 75% to 67%. Ultrasound not only intensified the rates of reactions but also increased the yield of product. The optimized operation conditions are listed as follows: the reaction temperature is 30 degrees C, the molar ratio of cyclohexanone to benzaldehyde is 1:2, the oxygen gas flow rate is 1.15 cm s(-1), and ultrasonic irradiations 2h at 40 kHz, 2.25 W cm(-2). Under the optimum operation conditions, the average molar yield of epsilon-caprolactone comes up to 87.7%.

  13. Limits on the Optical Brightness of the Epsilon Eridani Dust Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, K; Krist, J; Calzetti, D; Gilliland, R L; Grady, C; Lindler, D; Woodgate, B; Heap, S; Clampin, M; Gull, T R; Lisse, C; Sahu, Kailash; Livio, Mario; Krist, John; Calzetti, Daniela; Gilliland, Ron; Grady, Carol; Lindler, Don; Woodgate, Bruce; Heap, Sara; Clampin, Mark; Gull, Theodore R.; Lisse, Casey

    2004-01-01

    The STIS/CCD camera on the {\\em Hubble Space Telescope (HST)} was used to take deep optical images near the K2V main-sequence star $\\epsilon$ Eridani in an attempt to find an optical counterpart of the dust ring previously imaged by sub-mm observations. Upper limits for the optical brightness of the dust ring are determined and discussed in the context of the scattered starlight expected from plausible dust models. We find that, even if the dust is smoothly distributed in symmetrical rings, the optical surface brightness of the dust, as measured with the {\\em HST}/STIS CCD clear aperture at 55 AU from the star, cannot be brighter than about 25 STMAG/"$^2$. This upper limit excludes some solid grain models for the dust ring that can fit the IR and sub-mm data. Magnitudes and positions for $\\approx $59 discrete objects between 12.5" to 58" from $\\epsilon$ Eri are reported. Most if not all of these objects are likely to be background stars and galaxies.

  14. Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. XXV. q_crit, epsilon(q), and Mass-Radius

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, J; Harvey, D; Fried, R; Rea, R; Monard, B; Cook, L; Skillman, D R; Vanmunster, T; Bolt, G; Armstrong, E; McCormick, J; Krajci, T; Jensen, L; Gunn, J; Butterworth, N D; Foote, J; Bos, M; Masi, G; Warhurst, P; Patterson, Joseph; Kemp, Jonathan; Harvey, David; Fried, Robert; Rea, Robert; Monard, Berto; Cook, Lewis; Skillman, David; Vanmunster, Tonny; Bolt, Greg; Armstrong, Eve; Cormick, Jennie Mc; Krajci, Thomas; Jensen, Lasse; Gunn, Jerry; Butterworth, Neil; Foote, Jerry; Bos, Marc; Masi, Gianluca; Warhurst, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We report on successes and failures in searching for positive superhumps in cataclysmic variables, and show the superhumping fraction as a function of orbital period. Basically, all short-period systems do, all long-period systems don't, and a 50% success rate is found at P_orb=3.1+-0.2 hr. We can use this to measure the critical mass ratio for the creation of superhumps. With a mass-radius relation appropriate for cataclysmic variables, and an assumed mean white-dwarf mass of 0.75 M_sol, we find a mass ratio q_crit=0.35+-0.02. We also report superhump studies of several stars of independently known mass ratio: OU Virginis, XZ Eridani, UU Aquarii, and KV UMa (= XTE J1118+480). The latter two are of special interest, because they represent the most extreme mass ratios for which accurate superhump measurements have been made. We use these to improve the epsilon(q) calibration, by which we can infer the elusive q from the easy-to-measure epsilon (the fractional period excess of P_superhump over P_orb). This rela...

  15. Deep LMT/AzTEC millimeter observations of Epsilon Eridani and its surroundings

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez-Dagostino, M; de Miera, F Cruz-Saenz; Marshall, J P; Wilson, G W; Sanchez-Argüelles, D; Hughes, D H; Kennedy, G; Vega, O; De la Luz, V; Dent, W R F; Eiroa, C; Gomez-Ruiz, A I; Greaves, J S; Lizano, S; Lopez-Valdivia, R; Mamajek, E; Montaña, A; Olmedo, M; Rodriguez-Montoya, I; Schloerb, F P; Yun, M S; Zavala, J A; Zeballos, M

    2016-01-01

    Epsilon Eridani is a nearby, young Sun-like star that hosts a ring of cool debris analogous to the solar system's Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. Early observations at (sub-)mm wavelengths gave tentative evidence of the presence of inhomogeneities in the ring, which have been ascribed to the effect of a putative low eccentricity planet, orbiting close to the ring. The existence of these structures have been recently challenged by high resolution interferometric millimeter observations. Here we present the deepest single-dish image of Epsilon Eridani at millimeter wavelengths, obtained with the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano (LMT). The main goal of these LMT observations is to confirm (or refute) the presence of non-axisymmetric structure in the disk. The dusty ring is detected for the first time along its full projected elliptical shape. The radial extent of the ring is not spatially resolved and shows no evidence, to within the uncertainties, of dust density enhancements. Additional features of the 1.1 mm...

  16. Improving the Transmittance of an Epsilon-Near-Zero based Wavefront Shaper

    CERN Document Server

    Briere, G; Demichel, O

    2016-01-01

    Although Epsilon-Near-Zero metamaterials (ENZ) offer many unconventional ways to play with light, the optical impedance mismatch with surroundings can limit the efficiency of future devices. We report here on the improvement of the transmittance of an Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) wavefront shaper. We first address in this paper the way to enhance the transmittance of a plane wave through a layer of ENZ material thanks to a numerical optimization approach based on the Transfer Matrix Method. We then transpose the one dimensional approach to a two dimensional case where the emission of a dipole is shaped into a plane wave by an ENZ device with a design that optimizes the transmittance. As a result, we demonstrate a transmittance efficiency of 15 \\% that is 4 orders of magnitude higher than previous devices proposed in the literature for wavefront shaping applications. This work aims at paving the way for future efficient ENZ devices by offering new strategies to optimize the transmittance through ENZ materials.

  17. Critical $Sp(N)$ Models in $6-\\epsilon$ Dimensions and Higher Spin dS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Fei, Lin; Klebanov, Igor R; Tarnopolsky, Grigory

    2015-01-01

    Theories of anti-commuting scalar fields are non-unitary, but they are of interest both in statistical mechanics and in studies of the higher spin de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory correspondence. We consider an $Sp(N)$ invariant theory of $N$ anti-commuting scalars and one commuting scalar, which has cubic interactions and is renormalizable in 6 dimensions. For any even $N$ we find an IR stable fixed point in $6-\\epsilon$ dimensions at imaginary values of coupling constants. Using calculations up to three loop order, we develop $\\epsilon$ expansions for several operator dimensions and for the sphere free energy $F$. The conjectured $F$-theorem is obeyed in spite of the non-unitarity of the theory. The $1/N$ expansion in the $Sp(N)$ theory is related to that in the corresponding $O(N)$ symmetric theory by the change of sign of $N$. Our results point to the existence of interacting non-unitary 5-dimensional CFTs with $Sp(N)$ symmetry, where operator dimensions are real. We conjecture that these CFTs are dual to...

  18. Young stars in Epsilon Cha and their disks: disk evolution in sparse associations

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, M; Bouwman, J; Henning, Th; Lawson, W A; Sicilia-Aguilar, A

    2012-01-01

    The nearby young stellar association Epsilon Cha association has an estimated age of 3-5 Myr, making it an ideal laboratory to study the disk dissipation process and provide empirical constraints on the timescale of planet formation. We combine the available literature data with our Spitzer IRS spectroscopy and VLT/VISIR imaging data. The very low mass stars USNO-B120144.7 and 2MASS J12005517 show globally depleted spectral energy distributions pointing at strong dust settling. 2MASS J12014343 may have a disk with a very specific inclination where the central star is effectively screened by the cold outer parts of a flared disk but the 10 micron radiation of the warm inner disk can still reach us. We find the disks in sparse stellar associations are dissipated more slowly than those in denser (cluster) environments. We detect C_{2}H_{2} rovibrational band around 13.7 micron on the IRS spectrum of USNO-B120144.7. We find strong signatures of grain growth and crystallization in all Epsilon Cha members with 10 m...

  19. Phosphorylation of h1 Calponin by PKC epsilon may contribute to facilitate the contraction of uterine myometrium in mice during pregnancy and labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lesai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timely onset of powerful uterine contractions during parturition occurs through thick and thin filament interactions, similar to other smooth muscle tissues. Calponin is one of the thin filament proteins. Phosphorylation of calponin induced by PKC-epsilon can promote the contraction of vascular smooth muscle. While the mechanism by which calponin regulates the contraction of pregnant myometrium has rarely been explored. Here, we explore whether PKC-epsilon/h1 calponin pathway contribute to regulation of myometrial contractility and development of parturition. Methods We detected the expression of h1 calponin, phosphorylated h1 calponin, PKC-epsilon and phosphorylated PKC-epsilon in the different stages of mice during pregnancy and in labor by the method of western blot and recorded the contraction activity of myometrium strips at the 19th day during pregnancy with different treatments by the organ bath experiments. Results The level of the four proteins including h1 calponin, phosphorylated h1 calponin, PKC-epsilon and phosphorylated PKC-epsilon was significantly increased in pregnant mice myometrium as compared with that in nonpregnant mice. The ratios of phosphorylated h1 calponin/h1 calponin and phosphorylated PKC-epsilon/PKC-epsilon were reached the peak after the onset of labor in myometrium in the mice. After the treatment of more than 10(9- mol/L Psi-RACK (PKC-epsilon activator, the contractility of myometrium strips from mice was reinforced and the level of phosphorylated h1 calponin increased at the same time which could be interrupted by the specific inhibitor of PKC-epsilon. Meanwhile, the change of the ratio of phosphorylated h1 calponin/h1 calponin was consistent with that of contraction force of mice myometrium strips. Conclusions These data suggest that in mice myometrium, phosphorylation of h1 calponin induced by the PKC-epsilon might facilitate the contraction of uterine in labor and regulate pregnant

  20. Biodistribution and catabolism of {sup 18}F-labeled N-{epsilon}-fructoselysine as a model of Amadori products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultsch, Christina [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Research Center Rossendorf, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: ch.hultsch@fz-rossendorf.de; Hellwig, Michael [Institute of Food Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Beate [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Research Center Rossendorf, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Bergmann, Ralf [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Research Center Rossendorf, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Rode, Katrin [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Research Center Rossendorf, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Pietzsch, Jens [Institute of Radiopharmacy, Research Center Rossendorf, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Krause, Rene [Institute of Food Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Henle, Thomas [Institute of Food Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2006-10-15

    Amadori products are formed in the early stage of the so-called Maillard reaction between reducing sugars and amino acids or proteins. Such nonenzymatic glycosylation may occur during the heating or storage of foods, but also under physiological conditions. N-{epsilon}-fructoselysine is formed via this reaction between the {epsilon}-amino group of peptide-bound lysine and glucose. Despite the fact that, in certain heated foods, up to 50% of lysyl moieties may be modified to such lysine derivatives, up to now, very little is known about the metabolic fate of alimentary administered Amadori compounds. In the present study, N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate was used to modify N-{epsilon}-fructoselysine at the {alpha}-amino group of the lysyl moiety. The in vitro stability of the resulting 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoylated derivative was tested in different tissue homogenates. Furthermore, the 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoylated N-{epsilon}-fructoselysine was used in positron emission tomography studies, as well as in studies concerning biodistribution and catabolism. The results show that the 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoylated N-{epsilon}-fructoselysine is phosphorylated in vitro, as well as in vivo. This phosphorylation is caused by fructosamine 3-kinases and occurs in vivo, particularly in the kidneys. Despite the action of these enzymes, it was shown that a large part of the intravenously applied radiolabeled N-{epsilon}-fructoselysine was excreted nearly unchanged in the urine. Therefore, it was concluded that the predominant part of peptide-bound lysine that was fructosylated during food processing is not available for nutrition.

  1. Protein kinase Calpha and epsilon small-molecule targeted therapeutics: a new roadmap to two Holy Grails in drug discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brian, Catherine A; Chu, Feng; Bornmann, William G; Maxwell, David S

    2006-02-01

    Protein kinase (PK)Calpha and epsilon are rational targets for cancer therapy. However, targeted experimental therapeutics that inhibit PKCalpha or epsilon are unavailable. The authors established recently that covalent modification of an active-site cysteine in human PKCepsilon, Cys452, by small molecules, for example 2-mercaptoethanolamine, is necessary and sufficient to render PKCepsilon kinase-dead. Cys452 is conserved in only eleven human protein kinase genes, including PKCalpha. Therefore, the design of small molecules that bind PKC active sites with an electrophile substituent positioned proximal to the Cys452 side chain may lead to targeted therapeutics that selectively inhibit PKCepsilon, PKCalpha or other PKC isozymes.

  2. An Empirical Study of Students' Understanding of a Logical Structure in the Definition of Limit via the epsilon-Strip Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyeong Hah

    2010-01-01

    This study explored students' understanding of a logical structure in defining the limit of a sequence, focusing on the relationship between epsilon and N. The subjects of this study were college students who had already encountered the concept of limit but did not have any experience with rigorous proofs using the epsilon-N definition. This study…

  3. An Empirical Study of Students' Understanding of a Logical Structure in the Definition of Limit via the epsilon-Strip Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyeong Hah

    2010-01-01

    This study explored students' understanding of a logical structure in defining the limit of a sequence, focusing on the relationship between epsilon and N. The subjects of this study were college students who had already encountered the concept of limit but did not have any experience with rigorous proofs using the epsilon-N definition. This study…

  4. Effects of applied stress and plastic strain on. gamma. r reversible. epsilon. martensitic transformation in high Mn alloy polyctystals. Ko Mn tetsu gokin takessho ni okeru. gamma. r reversible. epsilon. martensite hentai ni oyobosu gairyoku to hizumi no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomota, Y.; Piao, M.; Hasunuma, T.; Kimura, Y. (Ibaraki Univ., Ibaraki (Japan))

    1990-06-20

    The influences of applied stress and plastic strain on a transformation austenite ({gamma}) to hcp martensite ({epsilon}) were studied on Fe-16wt%Mn, Fe-24wt%Mn, and Fe-24%Mn-6%Si alloy, and a transformation mechanism and a shape memory phenomenon were more deeply examined. As the quenching structure of three kinds of the alloys consists of two phases of {gamma} and {epsilon}, the specimens were cooled after heated above the A {sub f} temperature to keep {gamma} single phase, and then the tensile tests were carried out. Positive temperature dependence was found under the 0.2% proof stress due to stress-induced {gamma}{yields} {epsilon} transformation in each of Fe-Mn alloy and Fe-24%Mn-6%Si alloy. When {gamma} phase of Fe-24%Mn alloy stabilized due to cyclic transformation was stretched at room temperature, the yield stress was remarkably lowered by the stress-induced {gamma}{r arrow}{epsilon} transformation. When the specimens were stretched at 523K under stress which was larger than the yield strength and then cooled, the elongation along the applied stress direction due to martensitic tranformation was recognized. A shape recovery was remarkable in Si content alloys. 22 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Microwave absorption performance of the absorber based on epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N/epoxy and carbonyl iron/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan, E-mail: ZSY07058079@163.com; Cao, Quan-Xi; Xue, Yi-Rong; Zhou, Yue-Xin

    2015-01-15

    The hexagonal structure epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N powders were fabricated by the molten salt method. It is found that epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N exhibited much better electromagnetic attenuation performance, but its impedance match characteristic was worse than that of carbonyl iron based on the database of electromagnetic parameters. Reflection loss of the monolayer absorber for epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N/epoxy composite obtained by theoretical calculation was in good consistent with that by experiment measurement. The maximum reflection loss of epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N/epoxy composite was −7.6 dB at 7.28 GHz with a thickness of 2 mm, and the −6 dB absorbing bandwidth was 3.7 GHz. Furthermore, microwave absorbing properties of the double-layer absorber with epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N/epoxy as the absorbing layer and carbonyl iron/epoxy as the matching layer were investigated. The double-layer absorber had much better microwave absorbing performance. The maximum reflection loss was −49.8 dB at 12.62 GHz, and the bandwidth bellow −6 dB was as much as 14 GHz with a total thickness of 1.4 mm. - Highlights: • The hexagonal epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N powders were fabricated by the molten salt method. • Epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N had good dissipation property in comparison with that of CI. • CI had better impedance matching characteristic than that of epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N. • The calculated reflectivity of epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N was consistent with the measured value. • The reflectivity of double layer absorber based on epsilon-Fe{sub 3}N and CI was studied.

  6. El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} theory and an alternative to gauged spacetime scale relativity theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, I. [Faculty of Physics, Department of Theoretical Physics, ' Al.I.Cuza' University, Blvd, Carol I, No. 11, Iasi, 700506 (Romania)]. E-mail: gottlieb@uaic.ro; Agop, M. [Department of Physics, Technical ' Gh. Asachi' University Blvd, Mangeron, Iasi, 700029 (Romania)

    2007-11-15

    An alternative to the Nottales's scale relativity theory using the concept of transfinite discreet space is established. Subsequently, quantum vacuum fluctuations, arise naturally from the model and the connection with El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} spacetime is given by means of the movements with uniform acceleration in a Minkowskian vacuum.

  7. Ellipsometric analysis of the oxidation of alpha-iron and epsilon-Fesub2Nsub1-x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graat, Peter C.J.; Somers, Marcel A. J.; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    The initial oxidation of polycrystalline alpha-Fe and polycrystalline epsilon-Fe2N1-x was investigated with ellipsometry. Prior to oxidation the sample surfaces were subjected to a sputter cleaning pretreatment or a sputter cleaning plus annealing pretreatment. For the wavelength applied in the e...

  8. Evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a new biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; denDunnen, WFA; Robinson, PH; Pennings, AJ; Schakenraad, JM

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional nerve recovery following reconstruction of a 1 cm gap in the sciatic nerve of a rat, using a new biodegradable p (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide. To evaluate both motor and sensory nerve recovery, walking track analysis and electrostimulation tests were

  9. Long-term evaluation of degradation and foreign-body reaction of subcutaneously implanted poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denDunnen, WFA; Robinson, PH; vanWessel, R; Pennings, AJ; vanLeeuwen, MBM; Schakenraad, JM

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation and foreign-body reaction of poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) (PLA(85)CL(50)) bars. This specific biomaterial is used for the construction of nerve guides, which can be used in the reconstruction of short nerve gaps. Subcutaneously implanted

  10. Functional assessment of sciatic nerve reconstruction : Biodegradable poly (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides versus autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Dijkstra, [No Value; Den Dunnen, WFA; Ijkema-Paassen, J; Schakenraad, JM; Gramsbergen, A; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT), or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve recovery using walking track analysis (measurement of the scia

  11. Triblock copolymers based on epsilon-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate for the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guney, Aysun; Malda, Jos; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    Background: Biodegradable PCL-b-PTMC-b-PCL triblock copolymers based on trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and epsilon-caprolactone (CL) were prepared and used in the 3D printing of tissue engineering scaffolds. Triblock copolymers of various molecular weights containing equal amounts of TMC and CL were

  12. Renormalized coupling constants for 3D scalar \\lambda\\phi^4 field theory and pseudo-\\epsilon-expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Nikitina, M A

    2016-01-01

    Renormalized coupling constants g_{2k} that enter the critical equation of state and determine nonlinear susceptibilities of the system possess universal values g*_{2k} at the Curie point. They are calculated, along with the ratios R_{2k} = g_{2k}/g_4^{k-1}, for the three-dimensional scalar \\lambda\\phi^4 field theory within the pseudo-\\epsilon-expansion approach. Pseudo-\\epsilon-expansions for g*_6, g*_8, R*_6, and R*_8 are derived in the five-loop approximation, numerical estimates are presented for R*_6 and R*_8. The higher-order coefficients of the pseudo-\\epsilon-expansions for the sextic coupling are so small that simple Pade approximants turn out to be sufficient to yield very good numerical results. Their use gives R*_6 = 1.650 while the most recent lattice estimate is R*_6 = 1.649(2). For the octic coupling pseudo-\\epsilon-expansions are less favorable from the numerical point of view. Nevertheless, Pade-Borel resummation leads in this case to R*_8 = 0.890, the number differing only slightly from the ...

  13. Mechanical, thermal and decomposition behavior of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocomposites with clay-supported carbon nanotube hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzopoulou, Zoe; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S.; Potsi, Georgia; Gournis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George Z.; Rudolf, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocomposites with hybrid clay-supported carbon nanotubes (Clay-CNT) in concentrations 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 wt% were prepared by melt mixing. Mechanical, structural and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. All nanocomposites exhibited similar stress-st

  14. Critical exponents from five-loop strong-coupling {phi}{sup 4}-theory in 4-{epsilon} dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, Hagen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Arnimallee 14, 14195 Berlin, (Germany)]. E-mail: kleinert@physik.fu-berlin.de; Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)]. E-mail: frohlind@cmt.harvard.edu

    2001-02-09

    With the help of strong-coupling theory, we calculate the critical exponents of O(N)-symmetric {phi}{sup 4}-theories in 4-{epsilon} dimensions up to five loops with an accuracy comparable to that achieved by Borel-type resummation methods. (author)

  15. Mechanical, thermal and decomposition behavior of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocomposites with clay-supported carbon nanotube hybrids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terzopoulou, Zoe; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S.; Potsi, Georgia; Gournis, Dimitrios; Papageorgiou, George Z.; Rudolf, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocomposites with hybrid clay-supported carbon nanotubes (Clay-CNT) in concentrations 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 wt% were prepared by melt mixing. Mechanical, structural and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were studied. All nanocomposites exhibited similar

  16. Evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a new biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; denDunnen, WFA; Robinson, PH; Pennings, AJ; Schakenraad, JM

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional nerve recovery following reconstruction of a 1 cm gap in the sciatic nerve of a rat, using a new biodegradable p (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide. To evaluate both motor and sensory nerve recovery, walking track analysis and electrostimulation tests were

  17. Functional assessment of sciatic nerve reconstruction : Biodegradable poly (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides versus autologous nerve grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Dijkstra, [No Value; Den Dunnen, WFA; Ijkema-Paassen, J; Schakenraad, JM; Gramsbergen, A; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT), or an autologous nerve graft. We evaluated nerve recovery using walking track analysis (measurement of the scia

  18. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT COPOLYMERS OF L-LACTIDE AND EPSILON-CAPROLACTONE AS BIODEGRADABLE ELASTOMERIC IMPLANT MATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRIJPMA, DW; ZONDERVAN, GJ; PENNINGS, AJ

    1991-01-01

    High molecular weight copolymers of L-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone have been synthesized by ring opening copolymerization with stannous octoate as catalyst. The good mechanical properties of the 50/50 copolymers make it a suitable material for biomedical applications such as nerve guides etc., w

  19. A Correction for the Epsilon Approximate Test in Repeated Measures Designs with Two or More Independent Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Bruno

    1991-01-01

    The routine epsilon approximate test in repeated measures designs when the condition of circularity is unfulfilled uses an erroneous formula in the case of two or more groups. Because this may lead to underestimation of the deviation from circularity when the subject number is small, a correction is proposed. (Author/SLD)

  20. High interobserver variability in the assessment of epsilon waves : Implications for diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platonov, Pyotr G; Calkins, Hugh; Hauer, Richard N; Corrado, Domenico; Svendsen, Jesper H; Wichter, Thomas; Biernacka, Elżbieta Katarzyna; Saguner, Ardan M; Te Riele, Anneline S J M; Zareba, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Revision of the Task Force diagnostic criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) has increased their sensitivity for the diagnosis of early and familial forms of the disease. The epsilon wave is a major diagnostic criterion in the context of ARVC/D, w

  1. In vivo behavior of trimethylene carbonate and epsilon-caprolactone-based (co)polymer networks : Degradation and tissue response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bat, Erhan; Plantinga, Josee A.; Harmsen, Martin C.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2010-01-01

    The in vivo erosion behavior of crosslinked (co)polymers based on trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and epsilon-caprolactone (CL) was investigated. High molecular weight poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) homopolymer- and copolymer films were crosslinked by gamma irradiation. To adjust the in vivo

  2. A combined spectroscopic and photometric stellar activity study of Epsilon Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Giguere, Matthew J; Zhang, Cyril X Y; Matthews, Jaymie M; Cameron, Chris; Henry, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    We present simultaneous ground-based radial velocity (RV) measurements and space-based photometric measurements of the young and active K dwarf Epsilon Eridani. These measurements provide a data set for exploring methods of identifying and ultimately distinguishing stellar photospheric velocities from Keplerian motion. We compare three methods we have used in exploring this data set: Dalmatian, an MCMC spot modeling code that fits photometric and RV measurements simultaneously; the FF$'$ method, which uses photometric measurements to predict the stellar activity signal in simultaneous RV measurements; and H$\\alpha$ analysis. We show that our H$\\alpha$ measurements are strongly correlated with photometry from the Microvariability and Oscillations of STars (MOST) instrument, which led to a promising new method based solely on the spectroscopic observations. This new method, which we refer to as the HH$'$ method, uses H$\\alpha$ measurements as input into the FF$'$ model. While the Dalmatian spot modeling analysi...

  3. Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to {epsilon}-caprolactam using a fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlhoff, G.; Hoelderich, W.F. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The application of a fluidized bed reactor on the heterogeneously catalyzed Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to {epsilon}-caprolactam is presented. For this purpose the classic industrial synthesis route is compared to the new route catalyzed by [B]-MFI zeolite which proved to be the most suitable. To prepare the use of the catalyst the thermodynamics were calculated showing that the residence time of the reactants are of great importance. A regeneration model was developed resulting in a mathematical equation for the regeneration time calculated to seven hours under oxidative conditions. A 40 day regeneration experiment demonstrated the excellent regeneration behaviour of the chosen catalyst showing no decrease in activity after 40 recycle treatments. Finally, the experiments in a constructed non circulating fluidized bed showed good yields and selectivities (99%/91%) completely comparable to the actual synthesis route but avoiding 4 t ammonia sulphate/t product. (orig.)

  4. Nonradiating and radiating modes excited by quantum emitters in open epsilon-near-zero cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Liberal, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the emission and interaction properties of quantum emitters (QEs) embedded within an optical cavity is a key technique in engineering light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, as well as in the development of quantum information processing. State-of-the-art optical cavities are based on high Q photonics crystals and dielectric resonators. However, wealthier responses might be attainable with cavities carved in more exotic materials. Here, we theoretically investigate the emission and interaction properties of QEs embedded in open epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) cavities. Using analytical methods and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that open ENZ cavities present the unique property of supporting nonradiating modes independently of the geometry of the external boundary of the cavity (shape, size, topology...). Moreover, the possibility of switching between radiating and nonradiating modes enables a dynamic control of both the emission by, and the interaction between, QEs. These phenomena provide...

  5. Fixed-dimensional parallel linear programming via relative {Epsilon}-approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, M.T.

    1996-12-31

    We show that linear programming in IR{sup d} can be solved deterministically in O((log log n){sup d}) time using linear work in the PRAM model of computation, for any fixed constant d. Our method is developed for the CRCW variant of the PRAM parallel computation model, and can be easily implemented to run in O(log n(log log n){sup d-1}) time using linear work on an EREW PRAM. A key component in these algorithms is a new, efficient parallel method for constructing E-nets and E-approximations (which have wide applicability in computational geometry). In addition, we introduce a new deterministic set approximation for range spaces with finite VC-exponent, which we call the {delta}-relative {epsilon}-approximation, and we show how such approximations can be efficiently constructed in parallel.

  6. Ferrell-Berreman modes in plasmonic epsilon-near-zero media

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Ward D; Atkinson, Jon; Pramanik, Sandipan; DeCorby, Raymond G; Jacob, Zubin

    2015-01-01

    We observe unique absorption resonances in silver/silica multilayer-based epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials that are related to radiative bulk plasmon-polariton states of thin-films originally studied by Ferrell (1958) and Berreman (1963). In the local effective medium, metamaterial descrip- tion, the unique effect of the excitation of these microscopic modes is counterintuitive and captured within the complex propagation constant, not the effective dielectric permittivities. Theoretical anal- ysis of the band structure for our metamaterials shows the existence of multiple Ferrell-Berreman branches with slow light characteristics. The demonstration that the propagation constant reveals subtle microscopic resonances can lead to the design of devices where Ferrell-Berreman modes can be exploited for practical applications ranging from plasmonic sensing to imaging and absorption enhancement.

  7. Versatile Production of Poly(Epsilon-Caprolactone) Fibers by Electrospinning Using Benign Solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Liliana; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2016-04-15

    The electrospinning technique is widely used for the fabrication of micro- and nanofibrous structures. Recent studies have focused on the use of less toxic and harmful solvents (benign solvents) for electrospinning, even if those solvents usually require an accurate and longer process of optimization. The aim of the present work is to demonstrate the versatility of the use of benign solvents, like acetic acid and formic acid, for the fabrication of microfibrous and nanofibrous electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) mats. The solvent systems were also shown to be suitable for the fabrication of electrospun structures with macroporosity, as well as for the fabrication of composite electrospun mats, fabricated by the addition of bioactive glass (45S5 composition) particles in the polymeric solution.

  8. 1,2-diketones promoted degradation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danko, Martin; Borska, Katarina; Ragab, Sherif Shaban; Janigova, Ivica; Mosnacek, Jaroslav [Polymer Institute, Center of Excellence GLYCOMED, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Photochemistry Department, Chemical Industries Research Division, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.P.O. Box: 12622 (Egypt); Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia); Polymer Institute, Center of Excellence GLYCOMED, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 41 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-11

    Photochemical reactions of Benzil and Camphorquinone were used for modification of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) polymer films. Photochemistry of dopants was followed by infrared spectroscopy, changes on polymer chains of matrix were followed by gel permeation chromatography. Benzoyl peroxide was efficiently photochemically generated from benzyl in solid polymer matrix in the presence of air. Following decomposition of benzoyl peroxide led to degradation of matrix. Photochemical transformation of benzil in vacuum led to hydrogen abstraction from the polymer chains in higher extent, which resulted to chains recombination and formation of gel. Photochemical transformation of camphorquinone to corresponding camphoric peroxide was not observed. Only decrease of molecular weight of polymer matrix doped with camphorquinone was observed during the irradiation.

  9. One-Dimensional Chirality: Strong Optical Activity in Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, Carlo; Di Falco, Andrea; Scalora, Michael; Ciattoni, Alessandro

    2015-07-31

    We suggest that electromagnetic chirality, generally displayed by 3D or 2D complex chiral structures, can occur in 1D patterned composites whose components are achiral. This feature is highly unexpected in a 1D system which is geometrically achiral since its mirror image can always be superposed onto it by a 180 deg rotation. We analytically evaluate from first principles the bianisotropic response of multilayered metamaterials and we show that the chiral tensor is not vanishing if the system is geometrically one-dimensional chiral; i.e., its mirror image cannot be superposed onto it by using translations without resorting to rotations. As a signature of 1D chirality, we show that 1D chiral metamaterials support optical activity and we prove that this phenomenon undergoes a dramatic nonresonant enhancement in the epsilon-near-zero regime where the magnetoelectric coupling can become dominant in the constitutive relations.

  10. Successful treatment of Kasabach-Merritt syndrome with prednisone and epsilon-aminocaproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresse, M F; David, M; Hume, H; Blanchard, H; Russo, P; Van Doesberg, N; Rivard, G E

    1991-01-01

    The Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is characterized by thrombocytopenia and localized coagulopathy associated with a hemangioma. Most techniques applied to eradicate the tumor or accelerate its involution (surgery, radiation therapy, embolization) are invasive and require transfusion of large amounts of blood products. In some cases, medical treatment is the only alternative. Efficacy of steroids and antifibronolytic agents has already been described, but even this approach is associated with the administration of blood products. We report two cases of infants with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome associated with cardiac and hepatic hemangiomas. At admission, both had signs of cardiac failure. They were successfully treated with prednisone and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA). Blood products were not required once the diagnosis was made. These observations have important implications for the management of patients with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome because they show that even in severe cases blood transfusions can be avoided by the use of prednisone and EACA.

  11. Mayer expansion of the Nekrasov pre potential: the subleading $\\epsilon_2$-order

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile

    2015-01-01

    The Mayer cluster expansion technique is applied to the Nekrasov instanton partition function of $\\mathcal{N}=2$ $SU(N_c)$ super Yang-Mills. The subleading small $\\epsilon_2$-correction to the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limiting value of the prepotential is determined by a detailed analysis of all the one-loop diagrams. Indeed, several types of contributions can be distinguished according to their origin: long range interaction or potential expansion, clusters self-energy, internal structure, one-loop cyclic diagrams, etc.. The field theory result derived more efficiently in [1], under some minor technical assumptions, receives here definite confirmation thanks to several remarkable cancellations: in this way, we may infer the validity of these assumptions for further computations in the field theoretical approach.

  12. Directive Emission Obtained by Mu and Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use Mu and Epsilon-Near-Zero (MENZ metamaterials to realize the substrates that can modify the emission of an embedded line source. Simulation results show that the cylindrical waves emitted from the line source can be perfectly converted to plane wave through the MENZ metamaterial slab with planar exit face. Hence the line source together with the metamaterial slab constructs a high directive slab antenna. The directive radiation pattern of the MENZ metamaterial-assisted slab antenna is independent on the thickness of the slab, the position of the line source, and the shape of the entrance face of the slab, but the slab with grooved entrance side will result in stronger far-field intensity. We also show that the MENZ metamaterials can be applied to the design of antenna array. Moreover, compared with the high directive slab antenna obtained by coordinate transformation approach, the MENZ metamaterial-assisted antenna is more preferable.

  13. Crystal Level Continuum Modeling of Phase Transformations: The (alpha) <--> (epsilon) Transformation in Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, N R; Benson, D J; Becker, R; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M

    2004-10-18

    We present a crystal level model for thermo-mechanical deformation with phase transformation capabilities. The model is formulated to allow for large pressures (on the order of the elastic moduli) and makes use of a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. Elastic and thermal lattice distortions are combined into a single lattice stretch to allow the model to be used in conjunction with general equation of state relationships. Phase transformations change the mass fractions of the material constituents. The driving force for phase transformations includes terms arising from mechanical work, from the temperature dependent chemical free energy change on transformation, and from interaction energy among the constituents. Deformation results from both these phase transformations and elasto-viscoplastic deformation of the constituents themselves. Simulation results are given for the {alpha} to {epsilon} phase transformation in iron. Results include simulations of shock induced transformation in single crystals and of compression of polycrystals. Results are compared to available experimental data.

  14. Hypersingular integral equations, Kaehler manifolds and Thurston mirroring effect in {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} Cantorian spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovane, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione e Matematica Applicata, Universita di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, 84084 Fisicano (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)]. E-mail: iovane@diima.unisa.it

    2007-03-15

    In this work starting from some earlier results on hypersingular integral equations and analyzing a more realistic model of gravitational waveguides on a Cantorian spacetime we obtain a description of our Universe according to Kaehler manifold in the context of El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} Cantorian space-time. In particular, we consider filamentary and planar large scale structures as possible refraction channels for electromagnetic radiation coming from cosmological structures. From this vision the Universe appears like a large self-similar adaptive mirrors set. This is made evident through numerical simulations. Consequently, an infinite Universe is just an optical illusion that is produced by mirroring effects connected to the large scale structure of a finite and not so large Universe.

  15. Analysis of anisotropic epsilon-near-zero hetero-junction lens for concentration and beam splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarian, Mohammad; Eleftheriades, George V

    2015-03-15

    In this Letter, we analyze a recently reported hetero-junction lens of two anisotropic epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) media for its concentration and beam splitting properties. The equivalent lensmakers' equation of the concentrating mechanism is first derived using geometrical optics and dispersion relations; and aberrations are discussed. It is shown that the light concentrator's focal distance is directly proportional to the thickness of the lens, opposite to conventional dielectric lenses. It is then shown that the same hetero-junction structure can be used as a near-field beam-splitter when illuminated from the back, in addition to its concentration property. Equal and unequal beam splitting, as well as beam shifting can be achieved using a very thin device.

  16. Taming the Invisible Monster with COS: Eclipse Spectroscopy of Epsilon Aurigae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Steve

    2010-09-01

    We request three single orbit COS observations of the enigmatic binary epsilon Aurigae. This 27-year binary will be in total eclipse during all of 2010 and into spring 2011. COS observations are needed in order to {1} confirm, via higher S/N UV spectroscopy, the FUSE observation that a B5V star lurks inside the eclipse-causing dust disk, {2} obtain temperature and density diagnostics of the line of sight columns during eclipse for inclusion in the ongoing, panchromatic studies of this rare event, and {3} allow, in coordination with Spitzer Space Telescope observations, a detailed view of the "invisible" large eclipsing dust disk surrounding the B star. Only COS has the full UV wavelength coverage to sample two of the three components in this binary {the F and B stars} with the SNR to accomplish our scientific goals.

  17. Determination of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) solubility parameters: application to solvent substitution in a microencapsulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, C; Fréville, V; Ruffin, E; Marote, P; Gauvrit, J Y; Briançon, S; Lantéri, P

    2010-01-04

    The evolution of regulation on chemical substances (i.e. REACH regulation) calls for the progressive substitution of toxic chemicals in formulations when suitable alternatives have been identified. In this context, the method of Hansen solubility parameters was applied to identify an alternative solvent less toxic than methylene chloride used in a microencapsulation process. During the process based on a multiple emulsion (W/O/W) with solvent evaporation/extraction method, the solvent has to dissolve a polymer, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), which forms a polymeric matrix encapsulating or entrapping a therapeutic protein as the solvent is extracted. Therefore the three partial solubility parameters of PCL have been determined by a group contribution method, swelling experiments and turbidimetric titration. The results obtained allowed us to find a solvent, anisole, able to solubilize PCL and to form a multiple emulsion with aqueous solutions. A feasibility test was conducted under standard operating conditions and allowed the production of PCL microspheres.

  18. Apocenter glow in eccentric debris disks: implications for Fomalhaut and $\\epsilon$ Eridani

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Margaret; Kuchner, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Debris disks often take the form of eccentric rings with azimuthal asymmetries in surface brightness. Such disks are often described as showing "pericenter glow", an enhancement of the disk brightness in regions nearest the central star. At long wavelengths, however, the disk apocenters should appear brighter than their pericenters: in the long wavelength limit, we find the apocenter/pericenter flux ratio scales as 1+e for disk eccentricity e. We produce new models of this "apocenter glow" to explore its causes and wavelength dependence and study its potential as a probe of dust grain properties. Based on our models, we argue that several far-infrared and (sub)millimeter images of the Fomalhaut and epsilon Eridani debris rings obtained with Herschel, JCMT, SHARC II, ALMA, and ACTA should be reinterpreted as suggestions or examples of apocenter glow. This reinterpretation yields new constraints on the disks' dust grain properties and size distributions.

  19. The epsilon expansion at next-to-next-to-leading order with small imaginary chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, Christoph; Wettig, Tilo

    2010-01-01

    We discuss chiral perturbation theory for two and three quark flavors in the epsilon expansion at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) including a small imaginary chemical potential. We calculate finite-volume corrections to the low-energy constants $\\Sigma$ and $F$ and determine the non-universal modifications of the theory, i.e., modifications that cannot be mapped to random matrix theory (RMT). In the special case of two quark flavors in an asymmetric box we discuss how to minimize the finite-volume corrections and non-universal modifications by an optimal choice of the lattice geometry. Furthermore we provide a detailed calculation of a special version of the massless sunset diagram at finite volume.

  20. Electrospun nanofibers composed of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) and polyethylenimine for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Ho [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Choung, Pill-Hoon [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tooth Bioengineering National Research Lab, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Yong [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Ki Taek; Son, Hyun Mok [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Choung, Yun-Hoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, 443-721 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chong-Su, E-mail: chocs@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jong Hoon, E-mail: jchung@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-01

    Poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun nanofibers have been reported as a scaffold for tissue engineering application. However, high hydrophobicity of PCL limits use of functional scaffold. In this study, PCL/polyethylenimine (PEI) blend electrospun nanofibers were prepared to overcome the limitation of PCL ones because the PEI as a cationic polymer can increase cell adhesion and can improve the electrospinnability of PCL. The structure, mechanical properties and biological activity of the PCL/PEI electrospun nanofibers were studied. The diameters of the PCL/PEI nanofibers ranged from 150.4 {+-} 33 to 220.4 {+-} 32 nm. The PCL/PEI nanofibers showed suitable mechanical properties with adequate porosity and increased hydrophilic behavior. The cell adhesion and cell proliferation of PCL nanofibers were increased by blending with PEI due to the hydrophilic properties of PEI.

  1. Goos-Hänchen effect in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Chan, C T; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-03-03

    Light reflection and refraction at an interface between two homogeneous media is analytically described by Snell's law. For a beam with a finite waist, it turns out that the reflected wave experiences a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics. Such Goos-Hänchen (G-H) effect has been extensively investigated among all kinds of optical media, such as dielectrics, metals, photonic crystals and metamaterials. As a fundamental physics phenomenon, the G-H effect has been extended to acoustics and quantum mechanics. Here we report the unusual G-H effect in zero index metamaterials. We show that when linearly polarized light is obliquely incident from air to epsilon-near-zero metamaterials, no G-H effect could be observed for p polarized light. While for s polarization, the G-H shift is a constant value for any incident angle.

  2. Goos-Hänchen effect in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Chan, C. T.; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-03-01

    Light reflection and refraction at an interface between two homogeneous media is analytically described by Snell's law. For a beam with a finite waist, it turns out that the reflected wave experiences a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics. Such Goos-Hänchen (G-H) effect has been extensively investigated among all kinds of optical media, such as dielectrics, metals, photonic crystals and metamaterials. As a fundamental physics phenomenon, the G-H effect has been extended to acoustics and quantum mechanics. Here we report the unusual G-H effect in zero index metamaterials. We show that when linearly polarized light is obliquely incident from air to epsilon-near-zero metamaterials, no G-H effect could be observed for p polarized light. While for s polarization, the G-H shift is a constant value for any incident angle.

  3. Terahertz epsilon-near-zero cut-through metal-slit array antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takehito; Kimura, Tatsuya; Togashi, Takahisa; Kitahara, Hideaki; Ishihara, Koki; Sato, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    Metamaterials can give rise to unprecedented refractive indices and drive the rapid development of metadevices with on-demand electromagnetic properties. Recent advances in terahertz science demand high-performance optical elements beyond conventional designs of naturally occurring materials in the terahertz wave band. However, how an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) structure can exploit terahertz metadevices is still not fully demonstrated based on a physical analysis. Here, inspired by the ENZ concept, we demonstrate a design guideline of a terahertz ENZ cut-through metal-slit array antenna. Measurements by a terahertz imager visualize the beam profile of a terahertz wave, and the measured permittivity of 0.26 agrees well with that of 0.27 obtained by simulation and theory. The terahertz ENZ antenna provides a wide range of potential applications such as high-directivity antennas, beam dividers, beam-steering elements, phase-control devices, and novel filters.

  4. Strategies to control the particle size distribution of poly-epsilon-caprolactone nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lince, Federica; Marchisio, Daniele L; Barresi, Antonello A

    2008-06-15

    In this work turbulent precipitation through solvent displacement for the production of poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) nanoparticles is investigated; two different PCL molecular weights have been employed, using acetone and water as solvent and anti-solvent, respectively. The main important thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, such as solubility and interfacial tension of PCL in water-acetone mixtures, are determined and the effect of the process operating conditions on the final particle size distribution is also investigated. Particles produced under different conditions into a Confined Impinging Jets Reactor (CIJR) were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering, Zeta potential measurements and Scanning Electronic Microscopy. Results clearly show the strong effect of mixing on the particle size distribution and how mixing must be controlled in order to obtain a product with particular characteristics. Eventually the measured thermodynamic and kinetic parameters are used to interpret the obtained experimental data.

  5. 人干扰素epsilon(IFN-ε)研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉莉; 郑凡; 张振龙

    2009-01-01

    人干扰素epsilon(IFN-ε)属于Ⅰ型干扰素,具有抗病毒、抗肿瘤、免疫调节等生物学作用,目前国内外对其研究不多,是一种有待开发的新型干扰素.本文就IFN-ε的基因结构、表达方式、表达位置、受体、受体配体的作用途径、生物学作用以及临床应用的前景等方面,进行了比较系统的归纳和总结.

  6. Experimental demonstration of near-infrared epsilon-near-zero multilayer metamaterial slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Hu, Changyu; Deng, Huixu; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David A; Gao, Jie

    2013-10-07

    Near-infrared epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial slabs based on silver-germanium (Ag-Ge) multilayers are experimentally demonstrated. Transmission, reflection and absorption spectra are characterized and used to determine the complex refractive indices and the effective permittivities of the ENZ metamaterial slabs, which match the results obtained from both the numerical simulations and the optical nonlocalities analysis. A rapid post-annealing process is used to reduce the collision frequency of silver and therefore decrease the optical absorption loss of multilayer metamaterial slabs. Furthermore, multilayer grating structures are studied to enhance the optical transmission and also tune the location of ENZ wavelength. The demonstrated near-infrared ENZ multilayer metamaterial slabs are important for realizing many exotic applications, such as phase front shaping and engineering of photonic density of states.

  7. Clostridium Perfringens Epsilon Toxin Binds to Membrane Lipids and Its Cytotoxic Action Depends on Sulfatide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Gil

    Full Text Available Epsilon toxin (Etx is one of the major lethal toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, being the causal agent of fatal enterotoxemia in animals, mainly sheep and goats. Etx is synthesized as a non-active prototoxin form (proEtx that becomes active upon proteolytic activation. Etx exhibits a cytotoxic effect through the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane of selected cell targets where Etx specifically binds due to the presence of specific receptors. However, the identity and nature of host receptors of Etx remain a matter of controversy. In the present study, the interactions between Etx and membrane lipids from the synaptosome-enriched fraction from rat brain (P2 fraction and MDCK cell plasma membrane preparations were analyzed. Our findings show that both Etx and proEtx bind to lipids extracted from lipid rafts from the two different models as assessed by protein-lipid overlay assay. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Binding of proEtx to sulfatide, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol (3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol (5-phosphate was detected. Removal of the sulphate groups via sulfatase treatment led to a dramatic decrease in Etx-induced cytotoxicity, but not in proEtx-GFP binding to MDCK cells or a significant shift in oligomer formation, pointing to a role of sulfatide in pore formation in rafts but not in toxin binding to the target cell membrane. These results show for the first time the interaction between Etx and membrane lipids from host tissue and point to a major role for sulfatides in C. perfringens epsilon toxin pathophysiology.

  8. Structural analysis of an epsilon-class glutathione transferase from housefly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Chihiro; Yajima, Shunsuke; Miyamoto, Toru; Sue, Masayuki

    2013-01-25

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play an important role in the detoxification of insecticides, and as such, they are a key contributor to enhanced resistance to insecticides. In the housefly (Musca domestica), two epsilon-class GSTs (MdGST6A and MdGST6B) that share high sequence homology have been identified, which are believed to be involved in resistance against insecticides. The structural determinants controlling the substrate specificity and enzyme activity of MdGST6s are unknown. The aim of this study was to crystallize and perform structural analysis of the GST isozyme, MdGST6B. The crystal structure of MdGST6B complexed with reduced glutathione (GSH) was determined at a resolution of 1.8 Å. MdGST6B was found to have a typical GST folding comprised of N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Arg113 and Phe121 on helix 4 were shown to protrude into the substrate binding pocket, and as a result, the entrance of the substrate binding pocket was narrower compared to delta- and epsilon-class GSTs from Africa malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, agGSTd1-6 and agGSTe2, respectively. This substrate pocket narrowing is partly due to the presence of a π-helix in the middle of helix 4. Among the six residues that donate hydrogen bonds to GSH, only Arg113 was located in the C-terminal domain. Ala substitution of Arg113 did not have a significant effect on enzyme activity, suggesting that the Arg113 hydrogen bond does not play a crucial role in catalysis. On the other hand, mutation at Phe108, located just below Arg113 in the binding pocket, reduced the affinity and catalytic activity to both GSH and the electrophilic co-substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.

  9. Broadband Epsilon-near-Zero Reflectors Enhance the Quantum Efficiency of Thin Solar Cells at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths

    KAUST Repository

    Labelle, A. J.

    2017-02-03

    The engineering of broadband absorbers to harvest white light in thin-film semiconductors is a major challenge in developing renewable materials for energy harvesting. Many solution-processed materials with high manufacturability and low cost, such as semiconductor quantum dots, require the use of film structures with thicknesses on the order of 1 μm to absorb incoming photons completely. The electron transport lengths in these media, however, are 1 order of magnitude smaller than this length, hampering further progress with this platform. Herein, we show that, by engineering suitably disordered nanoplasmonic structures, we have created a new class of dispersionless epsilon-near-zero composite materials that efficiently harness white light. Our nanostructures localize light in the dielectric region outside the epsilon-near-zero material with characteristic lengths of 10-100 nm, resulting in an efficient system for harvesting broadband light when a thin absorptive film is deposited on top of the structure. By using a combination of theory and experiments, we demonstrate that ultrathin layers down to 50 nm of colloidal quantum dots deposited atop the epsilon-near-zero material show an increase in broadband absorption ranging from 200% to 500% compared to a planar structure of the same colloidal quantum-dot-absorber average thickness. When the epsilon-near-zero nanostructures were used in an energy-harvesting module, we observed a spectrally averaged 170% broadband increase in the external quantum efficiency of the device, measured at wavelengths between 400 and 1200 nm. Atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence excitation measurements demonstrate that the properties of these epsilon-near-zero structures apply to general metals and could be used to enhance the near-field absorption of semiconductor structures more widely. We have developed an inexpensive electrochemical deposition process that enables scaled-up production of this nanomaterial for large

  10. Enhanced production of epsilon-caprolactone by overexpression of NADPH-regenerating glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in recombinant Escherichia coli harboring cyclohexanone monooxygenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Heong; Park, Jin-Byung; Park, Kyungmoon; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2007-08-01

    Whole-cell conversion of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone was attempted by recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) expressing cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO) of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIMB 9871. High concentrations of cyclohexanone and epsilon-caprolactone reduced CHMO-mediated bioconversion of cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactone in the resting recombinant E. coli cells. Metabolically active cells were employed by adopting a fed-batch culture to improve the production of epsilon-caprolactone from cyclohexanone. A glucose-limited fed-batch Baeyer-Villiger oxidation where a cyclohexanone level was maintained less than 6 g/l resulted in a maximum epsilon-caprolactone concentration of 11.0 g/l. The maximum epsilon-caprolactone concentration was improved further to 15.3 g/l by coexpression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, an NADPH-generating enzyme encoded by the zwf gene which corresponded to a 39% enhancement in epsilon-caprolactone concentration compared with the control experiment performed under the same conditions.

  11. Diffusion in the uranium - plutonium system and self-diffusion of plutonium in epsilon phase; Diffusion dans le systeme uranium-plutonium et autodiffusion du plutonium epsilon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuy, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A survey of uranium-plutonium phase diagram leads to confirm anglo-saxon results about the plutonium solubility in {alpha} uranium (15 per cent at 565 C) and the uranium one in {zeta} phase (74 per cent at 565 C). Interdiffusion coefficients, for concentration lower than 15 per cent had been determined in a temperature range from 410 C to 640 C. They vary between 0.2 and 6 10{sup 12} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, and the activation energy between 13 and 20 kcal/mole. Grain boundary, diffusion of plutonium in a uranium had been pointed out by micrography, X-ray microanalysis and {alpha} autoradiography. Self-diffusion of plutonium in {epsilon} phase (bcc) obeys Arrhenius law: D = 2. 10{sup -2} exp -(18500)/RT. But this activation energy does not follow empirical laws generally accepted for other metals. It has analogies with 'anomalous' bcc metals ({beta}Zr, {beta}Ti, {beta}Hf, U{sub {gamma}}). (author) [French] Une etude du diagramme d'equilibre uranium-plutonium conduit a confirmer les resultats anglo-saxons relatifs a la solubilite du plutonium dans l'uranium {alpha} (15 pour cent a 565 C) et de l'uranium dans la phase {zeta} (74 pour cent a 565 C). Les coefficients de diffusion chimique, pour des concentrations inferieures a 15 pour cent ont ete determines a des temperatures comprises entre 410 et 640 C. Ils se situent entre 0.2 et 6. 10{sup 12} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. L'energie d'activation varie entre 13 et 20 kcal/mole. La diffusion intergranulaire du plutonium dans l'uranium a a ete mise en evidence par micrographie, microanalyse X et autoradiographie {alpha}. L' autodiffusion du plutonium {beta} cubique centree obeit a la loi d'Arrhenius D = 2. 10{sup -2} exp - (18500)/RT. Son energie d'activation n'obeit pas aux lois empiriques generalement admises pour les autres metaux. Elle possede des analogies avec les cubiques centres ''anormaux'' (Zr{beta}, Ti{beta}, Hf{beta}, U{gamma}). (auteur)

  12. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-10-20

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme. © 2015 Authors.

  13. Disodium cromoglycate inhibits S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination and IgE synthesis in human B cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    IgE synthesis requires interleukin 4 (IL-4) and a T-B cell interaction that involves the B cell antigen CD40 and its ligand expressed on activated T cells. IL-4 induces epsilon germline transcription whereas ligation of CD40 results in deletional S mu-->S epsilon switch recombination, expression of mature epsilon transcripts, and IgE synthesis and secretion. We demonstrate that disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), a drug commonly used for the prophylactic treatment of allergic disease, inhibits T cell-driven IgE synthesis by human B cells at concentrations readily achievable in the course of inhaled therapy for asthma. Inhibition of IgE synthesis by DSCG was not the result of drug toxicity because DSCG did not affect the viability of T and B cells or their proliferation to mitogens. DSCG did not interfere with CD40 ligand expression by T cells but clearly targeted the B cells because it inhibited IgE synthesis induced by anti-CD40 and IL-4 in populations of highly purified B cells. DSCG had no effect on the induction of epsilon germline transcripts by IL-4 but strongly inhibited CD40 mediated S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination in IL-4- treated B cells as assayed by nested primer PCR. The effect of DSCG was not specific for CD40-mediated induction of IgE isotype switching because DSCG inhibited IgE synthesis as well as S mu-->S epsilon deletional switch recombination induced by hydrocortisone and IL-4 in B cells. Moreover, the effect of DSCG was not specific for IgE isotype switching because DSCG inhibited the synthesis of IgG4 by B cells sorted for lack of surface expression of IgG4 and stimulated with anti- CD40 and IL-4. DSCG caused only minimal inhibition (< 15%) of spontaneous IgE synthesis by lymphocytes from patients with the hyper- IgE syndrome and did not affect pokeweed mitogen-induced IgG and IgA synthesis by lymphocytes suggesting that it has little effect on B cells that have already undergone isotype switching. These results indicate that DSCG

  14. Quality assurance of C. perfringens epsilon toxoid vaccines--ELISA versus mouse neutralisation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskopf-Streicher, Ute; Volkers, Peter; Noeske, Kerstin; Werner, Esther

    2004-01-01

    Clostridium (C.) perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium. Disease caused by C. perfringens infection is called enterotoxaemia. C. perfringens strains are classified on the basis of the lethal exotoxins formed by the bacteria. Epsilon toxin is one of the major lethal toxins and is formed by C. perfringens types B and D. C. perfringens is an ubiquitous bacterium. Infection occurs via food, water, animal litter or soil. Affected animals include mainly sheep, pigs and cattle. C. perfringens infection manifests as pulpy kidney disease and diarrhoea in suckling lambs. Enterotoxaemia development is peracute in most cases. Animals die suddenly while grazing on the pasture, without any prior signs of disease. Therefore, treatment is possible only in very rare cases. Suitable immunoprophylactic measures are the treatment of choice to combat the disease: Vaccines and immunosera have therefore been used extensively for a long time. The requirements for quality, efficacy and safety testing of the inactivated vaccines are laid down in the Ph. Eur. in the monograph: Clostridium perfringens vaccines for veterinary use. After a marketing authorisation is attained, the product batches must be tested in laboratory animal models for their potency against all vaccine components (Pharmeuropa, 1997). For potency testing (batch control) of C. perfringens types B and D, the induction of specific antibodies against epsilon toxin in rabbits must be verified. For this purpose, 10 rabbits are immunised twice with the product to be tested. Their blood is taken 14 days after the last immunisation and the serum is pooled. The pooled serum is then tested for its protective effect. This is done by means of the toxin neutralisation test in mice (optionally also in guinea pigs) in comparison with an international reference serum. The evaluation criterion is the death rate of the mice in the test and reference groups after administration of lethal doses of epsilon toxin. The

  15. Parallel direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows in rotor-stator cavities. Comparison with k-{epsilon} modeling; Simulation numerique directe parallele d`ecoulements turbulents en cavites rotor-stator comparaisons avec les modilisations k-{epsilon}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, R.; Le Quere, P.; Daube, O. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France)

    1997-12-31

    Turbulent flows between a fixed disc and a rotating disc are encountered in various applications like turbo-machineries or torque converters of automatic gear boxes. These flows are characterised by particular physical phenomena mainly due to the effects of rotation (Coriolis and inertia forces) and thus, classical k-{epsilon}-type modeling gives approximative results. The aim of this work is to study these flows using direct numerical simulation in order to provide precise information about the statistical turbulent quantities and to improve the k-{epsilon} modeling in the industrial MATHILDA code of the ONERA and used by SNECMA company (aerospace industry). The results presented are restricted to the comparison between results obtained with direct simulation and results obtained with the MATHILDA code in the same configuration. (J.S.) 8 refs.

  16. Sources of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and epsilon-carotenes: a twentieth century review Fontes de alfa-, beta-, gama-, delta-, e epsilon-carotenos: uma revisão do século XX

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Barbosa-Filho; Adriana A. Alencar; Nunes,Xirley P.; Anna C. de Andrade Tomaz; José G. Sena-Filho; Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Silva, Marcelo S.; Maria F. Vanderlei de Souza; Emidio V. Leitão da-Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Since humans cannot synthesize carotenoids, they depend upon the diet exclusively for the source of these micronutrients. It has claimed that they may alleviate chronic diseases such as cancers. The present communication constitutes a global review of the scientific literature on plants and others organisms that biosynthesize carotenoids, which include the series alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and epsilon-carotenes. The results of the literature survey lists more than five hundred sources.Uma ...

  17. Copernicus observations of interstellar matter toward the Orion OB1 association. I - Epsilon and Pi-5 Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Copernicus UV data on interstellar lines toward Epsilon Ori and Pi-5 Ori are analyzed to study abundances and physical conditions in both low- and intermediate-velocity components. Clouds at -8 and +5 km/s (LSR) toward Epsilon Ori show typical depletions of Fe, Ti, Mg, and Si in dense (H number density about 100 per cu cm) gas. Low-column-density intermediate-velocity clouds toward both stars, with low densities (hydrogen number density less than 1 per cu cm) and near-cosmic Si abundances, are consistent with a widespread pattern of high-velocity gas over a 15-deg area surrounding the Orion region. Such activity may be attributed to the repeated action of supernovae in a patchy low-density region of interstellar gas.

  18. Morphology of nerve fiber regeneration along a biodegradable poly (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide filled with fresh skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varejão, Artur S P; Cabrita, António M; Meek, Marcel F; Fornaro, Michele; Geuna, Stefano; Giacobini-Robecchi, Maria G

    2003-01-01

    Previous morphological and morphometrical studies showed that fresh-skeletal-muscle-enriched vein segments are good conduits for leading peripheral nerve regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the morphological features of peripheral nerve fibers regenerated along a 10-mm-long biodegradable poly (DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide enriched with fresh skeletal muscle, comparing them to nerve fiber regeneration along 10-mm-long phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-enriched poly (DLLA-epsilon-CL) tubes. Repaired nerves were analyzed at weeks 6 and 24 postoperatively. Structural and ultrastructural observation showed that good nerve fiber regeneration occurred in both PBS-enriched and fresh-skeletal-muscle-enriched nerve guides, and histomorphometrical analysis of regenerated myelinated fibers revealed no statistically significant differences between the two experimental groups at week 24 after surgery. The employment of fresh-muscle-enriched conduits for the repair of nerve defects is critically discussed in the light of these results.

  19. Gelatinized and nongelatinized corn starch/ poly(epsilon-caprolactone blends: characterization by rheological, mechanical and morphological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derval S. Rosa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone/corn starch blends containing 25, 50 and 75 wt.% starch were prepared by mechanical processing and characterized by the melt flow index (MFI, tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For comparison, starch was used in gelatinized and nongelatinized forms and was also characterized by viscography. The addition of starch to poly(epsilon-caprolactone reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength and the elongation at break, whereas the modulus increased. The reductions in the MFI and tensile properties were most evident when gelatinized starch was used. Viscography and SEM showed that starch was well gelatinized by the gelatinization process. Blends containing nongelatinized starch showed a good dispersion of starch but poor interfacial interactions.

  20. Unlocking the full potential of wave-matter nonlinear coupling in the epsilon-near-zero regime

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Marini, Andrea; Di Falco, Andrea; Faccio, Daniele; Scalora, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, unconventional metamaterial properties have triggered a revolution of electromagnetic research which has unveiled novel scenarios of wave-matter interaction. A very small dielectric permittivity is a leading example of such unusual features, since it produces an exotic static-like regime where the electromagnetic field is spatially slowly-varying over a physically large region. The so-called epsilon-near-zero metamaterials thus offer an ideal platform where to manipulate the inner details of the "stretched" field. Here we theoretically prove that a standard nonlinearity is able to operate such a manipulation to the point that even a thin slab produces a dramatic nonlinear pulse transformation, if the dielectric permittivity is very small within the field bandwidth. The predicted non-resonant releasing of full nonlinear coupling produced by the epsilon-near-zero condition does not resort to any field enhancement mechanisms and opens novel routes to exploiting matter nonlinearity for steering t...

  1. Cloning and developmental expression of pea ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit epsilon N-methyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS) .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) is disclosed. This enzyme catalyzes methylation of the .epsilon.-amine of lysine-14 in the large subunit of Rubisco. In addition, a full-length cDNA clone for Rubisco LSMT is disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which (1) have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA, and (2) have the Rubisco LSMT gene product or the action of the gene product deleted from the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of using the gene to selectively deliver desired agents to a plant are also disclosed.

  2. Homogeneous formation of epsilon carbides within the austenite during the isothermal transformation of a ductile iron at 410 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, I.; Aranzabal, J.; Castro, F.; Urcola, J. J.

    1995-05-01

    The transformation of a ductile iron at 410 °C for different times, after austenitization for 30 minutes at 900 °C, is analyzed in detail. Upper bainite and a high volume fraction of austenite are formed for intermediate annealing times. A certain amount of martensite is observed after quenching not only for short transformation times but also for intermediate times. The formation of the martensite on cooling after intermediate transformation times is due to the decrease in carbon concentration of the retained austenite because of the homogeneous precipitation of epsilon carbides within. This homogeneous precipitation of epsilon carbide inside austenite is unambiguously observed. The epsilon carbide, pre-precipitated in austenite, which transforms to martensite on cooling, continues growing in the martensite after transformation. For long times of austempering at 410 °C, some complex large carbides or silicocarbides are formed, probably from the epsilon carbide, which result in the total decomposition of austenite.

  3. EPSILON-ALGORITHM AND ETA-ALGORITHM OF GENERALIZED INVERSE FUNCTION-VALUED PADE APPROXIMANTS USING FOR SOLUTION OF INTEGRAL EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春景; 顾传青

    2003-01-01

    Two efficient recursive algorithms epsilon- algorithm and eta-algorithm are approximants were used to accelerate the convergence of the power series with functionvalued coefficients and to estimate characteristic value of the integral equations. Famous two algorithms.

  4. The effect of different k-{epsilon} closures on the results of a micro-scale model for the flow in the obstacle layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, S.D.; Luepkes, C. [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Schluenzen, K.H. [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    A non-hydrostatic micro-scale model (MITRAS) is used to simulate the flow field over a beam. The model is run with a constant grid size of 1/5 times the beam height representing a relatively coarse resolution. Different types of k-{epsilon} closures are used, the standard-k-{epsilon}-closure and modified ones. A comparison of model results (mean values, turbulent kinetic energy and momentum fluxes) with wind tunnel data confirms the finding of earlier studies performed with models of higher resolution, that the standard-k-{epsilon}-closure overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy at stagnation points. The comparison with wind tunnel data reveals that the momentum fluxes are overestimated at stagnation points as well. A modification of the standard-k-{epsilon}-closure is introduced that reduces both, the modelled momentum fluxes and the turbulent kinetic energy at stagnation points. (orig.)

  5. phi3 theory with F_4 flavor symmetry in 6-2\\epsilon dimensions: 3-loop renormalization and conformal bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Y; Rong, J.(George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, U.S.A.); N. Su

    2016-01-01

    We consider $\\phi^3$ theory in $6-2\\epsilon$ with $F_4$ global symmetry. The beta function is calculated up to 3 loops, and a stable unitary IR fixed point is observed. The anomalous dimensions of operators quadratic or cubic in $\\phi$ are also computed. We then employ conformal bootstrap technique to study the fixed point predicted from the perturbative approach. For each putative scaling dimension of $\\phi$ ($\\Delta_{\\phi})$, we obtain the corresponding upper bound on the scaling dimension ...

  6. Design of Matched Zero-Index Metamaterials Using Non-Magnetic Inclusions in Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Media

    OpenAIRE

    Silveirinha, Mario; Engheta, Nader

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we study the electrodynamics of metamaterials that consist of resonant non-magnetic inclusions embedded in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) host medium. It is shown that the inclusions can be designed in such a way that both the effective permittivity and permeability of the composite structure are simultaneously zero. Two different metamaterial configurations are studied and analyzed in detail. For a particular class of problems, it is analytically proven that such matched zero-index...

  7. Increased BDNF protein expression after ischemic or PKC epsilon preconditioning promotes electrophysiologic changes that lead to neuroprotection

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Jake T.; Thompson, John W.; Raval, Ami P; Cohan, Charles H; Koronowski, Kevin B.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) via protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ) activation induces neuroprotection against lethal ischemia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a pro-survival signaling molecule that modulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Interestingly, BDNF mRNA expression increases after IPC. In this study, we investigated whether IPC or pharmacological preconditioning (PKCɛ activation) promoted BDNF-induced neuroprotection, if neuroprotection by IPC or PKCɛ activation al...

  8. Temperature dependence of {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}/{epsilon} decay branching ratio of embedded {sup 74}As

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Janos; Gyuerky, Gyoergy; Elekes, Zoltan; Kiss, Gabor G.; Fulop, Zsolt; Somorjai, Endre; Vad, Kalman; Hakl, Jozsef; Meszaros, Sandor [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Yalcin, Caner [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Kocaeli University, Dept. of Physics, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    The branching ratio between the {beta}{sup -} and {beta}{sup +}/{epsilon} decays of {sup 74}As has been measured recently in different environments at room temperature. We extended the measurement to the temperature range of 250 mK-300 K using Ge and Ta host materials. The performed experiment represents the first decay branching ratio measurement down to the millikelvin range. No significant dependence on the temperature or on the host materials has been found.

  9. Pentobarbital enhances GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac parasympathetic neurons, which is prevented by expression of GABA(A) epsilon subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irnaten, Mustapha; Walwyn, Wendy M; Wang, Jijiang; Venkatesan, Priya; Evans, Cory; Chang, Kyoung S K; Andresen, Michael C; Hales, Tim G; Mendelowitz, David

    2002-09-01

    Pentobarbital decreases the gain of the baroreceptor reflex on the order of 50%, and this blunting is caused nearly entirely by decreasing cardioinhibitory parasympathetic activity. The most likely site of action of pentobarbital is the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor. The authors tested whether pentobarbital augments the inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac parasympathetic neurons, and whether expression of the GABA(A) epsilon subunit prevents this facilitation. The authors used a novel approach to study the effect of pentobarbital on identified cardiac parasympathetic preganglionic neurons in rat brainstem slices. The cardiac parasympathetic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus were retrogradely prelabeled with a fluorescent tracer and were visually identified for patch clamp recording. The effects of pentobarbital on spontaneous GABAergic synaptic events were tested. An adenovirus was used to express the epsilon subunit of the GABA(A) receptor in cardiac parasympathetic neurons to examine whether this transfection alters pentobarbital-mediated changes in GABAergic neurotransmission. Pentobarbital increased the duration but not the frequency or amplitude of spontaneous GABAergic currents in cardiac parasympathetic neurons. Transfection of cardiac parasympathetic neurons with the epsilon subunit of the GABA(A) receptor prevented the pentobarbital-evoked facilitation of GABAergic currents. Pentobarbital, at clinically relevant concentrations, prolongs the duration of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents that impinge on cardiac parasympathetic neurons. This action would augment the inhibition of cardiac parasympathetic neurons, reduce parasympathetic cardioinhibitory activity, and increase heart rate. Expression of the GABA(A) receptor epsilon subunit in cardiac parasympathetic neurons renders the GABA receptors insensitive to pentobarbital.

  10. El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} space-time and new results in scale relativity theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, I. [' Al.I.Cuza' University, Faculty of Physics, Department of Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol No. 1, Iasi 700506 (Romania)]. E-mail: gottlieb@uaic.ro; Agop, M. [' Gh. Asachi' Technical University, Department of Physics, Blvd. Mangeron, No. 64, Iasi 700050 (Romania); Ciobanu, Gabriela [' Al.I.Cuza' University, Faculty of Physics, Department of Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol No. 1, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Stroe, Aurelia [' Al.I.Cuza' University, Faculty of Physics, Department of Theoretical Physics, Blvd. Carol No. 1, Iasi 700506 (Romania)

    2006-10-15

    New results in fractal space-time theory are established: the fractal operator for the fractal dimension D = 2 implies a generalized Schroedinger equation in the Nottale's scale relativity theory, while the fractal operator for the fractal dimension D = 3 implies the Korteweg-de Vries equation in the one-dimensional case. The connection with El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} theory result by means of the Cooper-type pairs or through wave-particle duality.

  11. Recurrent procedure for the determination of the Free Energy $\\epsilon^{2}$-expansion in the Topological String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovin, B

    1999-01-01

    We present here the iteration procedure for the determination of free energy approach we use the conservation laws for KdV - type equations depending explicitly on times $t_{1}, t_{2}, ...$ to find the $\\epsilon^{2}$-expansion of $u(x,t_{1},t_{2},...)$ after the infinite number of shifts of $u(x,0,0,...) free energy expansion are just obtained then as a result of quite simple integration procedure applied to $u_{n}(x)$.

  12. Highly sensitive sandwich immunoassay and immunochromatographic test for the detection of Clostridial epsilon toxin in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féraudet-Tarisse, Cécile; Mazuet, Christelle; Pauillac, Serge; Krüger, Maren; Lacroux, Caroline; Popoff, Michel R; Dorner, Brigitte G; Andréoletti, Olivier; Plaisance, Marc; Volland, Hervé; Simon, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Epsilon toxin is one of the four major toxins of Clostridium perfringens. It is the third most potent clostridial toxin after botulinum and tetanus toxins and is thus considered as a potential biological weapon classified as category B by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In the case of a bioterrorist attack, there will be a need for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection method to monitor food and water contamination by this toxin, and for a simple human diagnostic test. We have produced and characterized five monoclonal antibodies against common epitopes of epsilon toxin and prototoxin. Three of them neutralize the cytotoxic effects of epsilon toxin in vitro. With these antibodies, we have developed highly sensitive tests, overnight and 4-h sandwich enzyme immunoassays and an immunochromatographic test performed in 20 min, reaching detection limits of at least 5 pg/mL (0.15 pM), 30 pg/mL (0.9 pM) and 100 pg/mL (3.5 pM) in buffer, respectively. These tests were also evaluated for detection of epsilon toxin in different matrices: milk and tap water for biological threat detection, serum, stool and intestinal content for human or veterinary diagnostic purposes. Detection limits in these complex matrices were at least 5-fold better than those described in the literature (around 1 to 5 ng/mL), reaching 10 to 300 pg/mL using the enzyme immunoassay and 100 to 2000 pg/mL using the immunochromatographic test.

  13. Structure of the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) Dust Disk and Implications for Extrasolar Planet(s) epsilon Eridani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J. -C.; Zook, H. A.; Greaves, J. S.; Holland, W. S.; Boehnhardt, H.; Hahn, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the orbital evolution of dust particles from Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) objects show that the three giant planets, Neptune, Jupiter, and Saturn impose distinct and dramatic signatures on the overall distribution of EKB dust particles. The features are very similar to those observed in the dust disk around the nearby star Eridani. Numerical simulations of dust particles in the epsilon Eridani system show that planetary perturbations may be responsible for the observed features

  14. Evolutionary Constraints on the Planet-Hosting Subgiant Epsilon Reticulum from its White Dwarf Companion

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Holberg, J B; Casewell, S L; Barstow, M A

    2011-01-01

    The planet-hosting and Sirius-type binary system epsilon Reticulum (HD 27442) is examined from the perspective of its more evolved white dwarf secondary. The stellar parameters are determined from a combination of Balmer line spectroscopy, gravitational redshift, and solid angle. These three methods conspire to yield the most accurate physical description of the companion to date: Teff=15,310 \\pm 350 K and M=0.60 \\pm 0.02 Msol. Post-main sequence mass loss indicates the current binary separation has increased by a factor of 1.6 from its primordial state when the current primary was forming its planet(s), implying a0 > 150 AU and constraining stable planets to within 15-20 AU for a binary eccentricity of e=0.5. Almost 80 years have passed since the first detection of the stellar companion, and marginal orbital motion may be apparent in the binary, suggesting a near edge-on configuration with i > 70 deg, albeit with substantial uncertainty. If correct, the mass of the planet HD 27442b is bound between 1.66 and ...

  15. Melt flow behaviour of poly-epsilon-caprolactone in fused deposition modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanath, H S; Chua, C K; Leong, K F; Shah, K D

    2008-07-01

    Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is an extrusion based Rapid prototyping (RP) technique which can be used to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds. The present work focuses on the study of the melt flow behaviour (MFB) of Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) as a representative biomaterial, on the FDM. The MFB significantly affects the quality of the scaffold which depends not only on the pressure gradient, its velocity, and the temperature gradients but also physical properties like the melt temperature and rheology. The MFB is studied using two methods: mathematical modelling and finite element analysis (FEA) using Ansys(R). The MFB is studied using accurate channel geometry by varying filament velocity at the entry and by varying nozzle diameters and angles at the exit. The comparative results of both mathematical modelling and FEA suggest that the pressure drop and the velocities of the melt flow depend on the flow channel parameters. One inference of particular interest is the temperature gradient of the PCL melt, which shows that it liquefies within 35% of the channel length. These results are invaluable to better understand the MFB of biomaterials that affects the quality of the scaffold built via FDM and can also be used to predict the MFB of other biomaterials.

  16. Nanoscale Field Effect Optical Modulators Based on Depletion of Epsilon-Near-Zero Films

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Zhaolin; Shi, Kaifeng

    2015-01-01

    The field effect in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors plays a key role in field-effect transistors (FETs), which are the fundamental building blocks of modern digital integrated circuits. Recent works show that the field effect can also be used to make optical/plasmonic modulators. In this paper, we report field effect electro-absorption modulators (FEOMs) each made of an ultrathin epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) film, as the active material, sandwiched in a silicon or plasmonic waveguide. Without a bias, the ENZ film maximizes the attenuation of the waveguides and the modulators work at the OFF state; contrariwise, depletion of the carriers in the ENZ film greatly reduces the attenuation and the modulators work at the ON state. The double capacitor gating scheme is used to enhance the modulation by the field effect. According to our simulation, extinction ratio up to 3.44 dB can be achieved in a 500-nm long Si waveguide with insertion loss only 0.71 dB (85.0%); extinction ratio up to 7.86 dB can be achieved...

  17. Electric Field Enhancement in {\\epsilon}-near-zero Slabs under TM-Polarized Oblique Incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Campione, Salvatore; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; Scalora, Michael; Capolino, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate local field enhancement phenomena in subwavelength, {\\epsilon}-near-zero (ENZ) slabs that do not exploit Fabry-P\\'erot resonances. In particular, we study the linear response of engineered metamaterial slabs of finite thickness based on plasmonic nanoshells that show an ENZ band in the visible range, and naturally occurring materials (e.g., SiO2) that also display ENZ properties, under oblique, TM-polarized plane wave incidence. We then introduce active gain material in engineered metamaterial slabs that adds peculiar spectral and angular features to transmission, reflection, and absorption properties, and leads to a further local field enhancement. These findings are supported by two theoretical studies: First, a simple interface between two semi-infinite media, namely free space and a generic ENZ medium; then, an ENZ slab of finite thickness, with the aim of understanding the system's behavior when varying the ENZ properties as well as the incident angle. For either case we report three disti...

  18. Epsilon Aurigae's dark side: A thermal phase curve investigation of the near-eclipse phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard L.; Stencel, Robert E.; Howell, Steve B.; Hoard, D. W.; Kim, Daryl L.; Russell, Ray W.; Sitko, Michael L.

    2017-06-01

    The epsilon Aurigae disk-eclipsing binary system moves through a primary eclipse that lasts just over two years and occurs every 27.1-years. It comprises of a warm F0Ia-star (around 7750 K) and an opaque, circumstellar disk hiding an internal B-star (with a temperature greater than 15,000 K). We present new infrared observations from Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC, at 3.6 and 4.5 microns) and The Aerospace Corporation’s Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS, a 116-element prism system spectrograph spanning 3 - 14 microns) in order to extract the thermal signature of the disk. Previous findings indicate a variable temperature of the disk, depending on its location within the system’s orbit: a 550 +\\- 50 K temperature was identified during eclipse phases, while a 1150 +\\- 50 K temperature was found near secondary—or anti-eclipse—phases by Hoard et al. (2010) and Hoard et al. (2012). We use the latest observations in combination with previously published IRAC and BASS data to compile a more complete thermal phase curve (TPC) of the disk across nearly one-third of the system’s orbit. The TPC indicates heating and cooling effects of the disk, pointing to specific ranges of material properties and disk structure. The observations, process, results, and implications will be presented.

  19. Infection and Alzheimer's disease: the APOE epsilon4 connection and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urosevic, Nadezda; Martins, Ralph N

    2008-05-01

    Microorganisms, bacteria and viruses may infect and cause a range of acute and chronic diseases in humans dependent on the genetic background, age, sex, immune and health status of the host, as well as on the nature, virulence and dose of infectious agent. Late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative illness of broad aetiology with a strong genetic component and a significant contribution of age, sex and life style factors. Both infectious diseases and AD are characterised by an increased production of an array of immune mediators, cytokines, chemokines and complement proteins by the host cells as well as by changes in the host lipid metabolism. In this review, we re-examine a dangerous liaison between several viral and bacterial infections and the most significant genetic factor for AD, APOE epsilon4, and the possible impact of this alliance on AD development. This connection was discussed in the broader context of lipid metabolism and in the light of different capacity of various infectious agents, their toxic lipophilic products and host lipoprotein particles for binding to cell receptor(s).

  20. Enhanced Solar-to-Hydrogen Generation with Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero Nanostructured Photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Yi

    2017-05-08

    The direct conversion of solar energy into fuels or feedstock is an attractive approach to address increasing demand of renewable energy sources. Photocatalytic systems relying on the direct photoexcitation of metals have been explored to this end, a strategy that exploits the decay of plasmonic resonances into hot carriers. An efficient hot carrier generation and collection requires, ideally, their generation to be enclosed within few tens of nanometers at the metal interface, but it is challenging to achieve this across the broadband solar spectrum. Here the authors demonstrate a new photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution based on metal epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. The authors have designed these to achieve broadband strong light confinement at the metal interface across the entire solar spectrum. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy, the authors prove that hot carriers are generated in a broadband fashion within 10 nm in this system. The resulting photocatalyst achieves a hydrogen production rate of 9.5 µmol h-1  cm-2 that exceeds, by a factor of 3.2, that of the best previously reported plasmonic-based photocatalysts for the dissociation of H2 with 50 h stable operation.

  1. Waveguiding and mirroring effects in stochastic self-similar and Cantorian {epsilon}{sup (infinity)} universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovane, G. E-mail: iovane@diima.unisa.it

    2005-02-01

    A waveguiding effect is considered with respect to the large scale structure of the Universe, where the structures formation appears as if it were a classically self-similar random process at all astrophysical scales. The result is that it seems we live in an El Naschie's {epsilon}{sup (infinity)} Cantorian space-time, where gravitational lensing and waveguiding effects can explain the appearing Universe. In particular, we consider filamentary and planar large scale structures as possible refraction channels for electromagnetic radiation coming from cosmological structures. From this vision the Universe appears like a large self-similar adaptive mirrors set. Consequently, an infinite Universe is just an optical illusion that is produced by mirroring effects connected with the large scale structure of a finite and not so large Universe. Thanks to the presented analytical model supported by a numerical simulation, it is possible to explain the quasar luminosity distribution and the presence of 'twin' or 'brother' objects. More generally, the infinity and the abundance of astrophysical objects could be just a mirroring effect due to the peculiar self-similarity of the Universe.

  2. Guaranteed epsilon-optimal treatment plans with minimum number of beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmand, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam's-eye-view) known as "apertures". Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan since the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used simultaneously, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined m...

  3. Protein Kinase C Epsilon Promotes Cerebral Ischemic Tolerance Via Modulation of Mitochondrial Sirt5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Blanco, Kahlilia C.; Dave, Kunjan R.; Saul, Isabel; Koronowski, Kevin B.; Stradecki, Holly M.; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) is a mitochondrial-localized NAD+-dependent lysine desuccinylase and a major regulator of the mitochondrial succinylome. We wanted to determine whether SIRT5 is activated by protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε)-mediated increases in mitochondrial Nampt and whether SIRT5 regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics and neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. In isolated mitochondria from rat cortical cultures, PKCε activation increased SIRT5 levels and desuccinylation activity in a Nampt-dependent manner. PKCε activation did not lead to significant modifications in SIRT3 activity, the major mitochondrial lysine deacetylase. Assessments of mitochondrial bioenergetics in the cortex of wild type (WT) and SIRT5−/− mice revealed that SIRT5 regulates oxygen consumption in the presence of complex I, complex II, and complex IV substrates. To explore the potential role of SIRT5 in PKCε-mediated protection, we compared WT and SIRT5−/− mice by employing both in vitro and in vivo ischemia paradigms. PKCε-mediated decreases in cell death following oxygen-glucose deprivation were abolished in cortical cultures harvested from SIRT5−/− mice. Furthermore, PKCε failed to prevent cortical degeneration following MCAO in SIRT5−/− mice. Collectively this demonstrates that SIRT5 is an important mitochondrial enzyme for protection against metabolic and ischemic stress following PKCε activation in the brain. PMID:27435822

  4. Violacein/poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/chitosan nanoparticles against bovine mastistis: Antibacterial and ecotoxicity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, E.; Marcato, P. D.; Nakazato, G.; Kobayashi, R. K. T.; Vacchi, F. I.; Umbuzeiro, G. A.; Durán, N.

    2013-04-01

    The nanocarrier was synthesized by nanoprecipitation, using poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) as polymer, Tween 80 as surfactant and the biopolymer chitosan (CS) as a charge modification agent. Charge, size and morphology were analyzed by zeta potential, photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Bactericidal assays were carried out using a resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, and the acute ecotoxicity tests were performed with Daphnia similis. The nanoparticle without CS (PCLnp) exhibited an average size of 200 nm and zeta potential of -4.28 mV, while the nanoparticle with 0.04% (w/v) of CS (CS_PCLnp) had 250 nm and +21.3 mV. Both were stables for at least 30 days. 200 μg mL-1 violacein was encapsulated in CS_PCLnp, which was dissolved in the polymer matrix, a shown by DSC analysis. The minimal inhibitory concentration against S. aureus of CS_PCLnp-vio was 25 μmol L-1, while for free violacein it was > 25 μmol L-1. Nanoparticles exhibited an EC50 between 0.3 - 1.1 μmol L-1 with Daphnia, while free violacein was around 3.3 - 5.0 μmol L-1. Thus, it was possible to control the charge of the nanoparticles, without extreme changes in size and that it is possible also to encapsulate a powerful antibactericidal compound such as violacein in nanoparticle.

  5. Nonradiating and radiating modes excited by quantum emitters in open epsilon-near-zero cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal, Iñigo; Engheta, Nader

    2016-10-01

    Controlling the emission and interaction properties of quantum emitters (QEs) embedded within an optical cavity is a key technique in engineering light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, as well as in the development of quantum information processing. State-of-the-art optical cavities are based on high quality factor photonic crystals and dielectric resonators. However, wealthier responses might be attainable with cavities carved in more exotic materials. We theoretically investigate the emission and interaction properties of QEs embedded in open epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) cavities. Using analytical methods and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that open ENZ cavities present the unique property of supporting nonradiating modes independently of the geometry of the external boundary of the cavity (shape, size, topology, etc.). Moreover, the possibility of switching between radiating and nonradiating modes enables a dynamic control of the emission by, and the interaction between, QEs. These phenomena provide unprecedented degrees of freedom in controlling and trapping fields within optical cavities, as well as in the design of cavity opto- and acoustomechanical systems.

  6. Formation of epsilon martensite by high-pressure torsion in a TRIP steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Roberto B., E-mail: figueiredo-rb@ufmg.br [Department of Materials Engineering and Civil Construction, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Sicupira, Felipe L.; Malheiros, Livia Raquel C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Kawasaki, Megumi [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Santos, Dagoberto B. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Langdon, Terence G. [Materials Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Departments of Aerospace & Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States)

    2015-02-11

    An Fe–17% Mn–0.06% C–2% Si–3% Al–1% Ni steel exhibiting a phase transformation induced by room temperature deformation was processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) using a pressure of 6.0 GPa and with the samples subjected to different amounts of torsional straining up to a maximum of 10 turns. A microstructural analysis revealed a phase transformation in the early stages of deformation and a gradual evolution towards a fully-deformed structure. Microhardness measurements showed two stages of hardening with eventual softening at large strains. From X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, there is evidence for a reverse martensitic transformation and the stabilization of an h.c.p. epsilon (ε) structure. The formation of an h.c.p. structure takes place in this steel at lower pressures than for pure iron but the results agree with earlier reports of the presence of an ε phase in stainless steel processed by HPT and with the expected reduction in the transition pressure due to the Mn addition.

  7. Whey protein concentrate doped electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fibers for antibiotic release improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Said Mahmoud; Ahmed, Hanaa; Tian, Chang; Tu, Qin; Guo, Yadan; Wang, Jinyi

    2016-07-01

    Design and fabrication of scaffolds using appropriate biomaterials are a key step for the creation of functionally engineered tissues and their clinical applications. Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable and biocompatible material with negligible cytotoxicity, is widely used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds by electrospinning for the applications of pharmaceutical products and wound dressings. However, the use of PCL as such in tissue engineering is limited due to its poor bioregulatory activity, high hydrophobicity, lack of functional groups and neutral charge. With the attempt to found nanofiber scaffolds with antibacterial activity for skin tissue engineering, in this study, whey protein concentrate (WPC) was used to modify the PCL nanofibers by doping it in the PCL electrospun solution. By adding proteins into PCL nanofibers, the degradability of the fibers may be increased, and this further allows an antibiotic incorporated in the fibers to be efficiently released. The morphology, wettability and degradation of the as-prepared PCL/WPC nanofibers were carefully characterized. The results showed that the PCL/WPC nanofibers possessed good morphology and wettability, as well as high degradation ability to compare with the pristine PCL fibers. Afterwords, tetracycline hydrochloride as a model antibiotic drug was doped in the PCL/WPC nanofibers. In vitro drug release assays demonstrated that PCL/WPC nanofibers had higher antibiotic release capability than the PCL nanofibers. Also, antibacterial activity evaluation against various bacteria showed that the drug-doped PCL/WPC fibers possessed more efficient antibacterial activity than the PCL nanofibers.

  8. Broadband epsilon-near-zero metamaterials based on metal-polymer composite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchuk, Pavlo; Jiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials are designed to exhibit a near-zero response for the real part of the dielectric permittivity at a given frequency or in a specific frequency range. Typically, this frequency range is relatively small. In this paper, we present an approach to broaden this range by controlling the size of the nanoparticles embedded in a thin film. Noble metal nanoparticles exhibit an external size effect that redshifts the Surface Plasmon Resonance frequency with an increase of the size of the particles. The absorption spectrum of a material can be directly related to its dielectric permittivity via the Kramers-Kronig relations. We use the Kramers-Kronig relations to retrieve the complex effective dielectric permittivity of a composite film, which is designed to exhibit ENZ behavior over a broad frequency range. We synthesize a composite thin film embedded with metal nanoparticles of a broad size distribution. Such a material exhibits a broad SPR, and, in turn, broadband ENZ behavior.

  9. Diphtheria toxoid loaded poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles as mucosal vaccine delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jasvinder; Pandit, Sreenivas; Bramwell, Vincent W; Alpar, H Oya

    2006-02-01

    Poly-(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), a poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-PCL blend and co-polymer nanoparticles encapsulating diphtheria toxoid (DT) were investigated for their potential as a mucosal vaccine delivery system. The nanoparticles, prepared using a water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsion solvent evaporation method, demonstrated release profiles which were dependent on the properties of the polymers. An in vitro experiment using Caco-2 cells showed significantly higher uptake of PCL nanoparticles in comparison to polymeric PLGA, the PLGA-PCL blend and co-polymer nanoparticles. The highest uptake mediated by the most hydrophobic nanoparticles using Caco-2 cells was mirrored in the in vivo studies following nasal administration. PCL nanoparticles induced DT serum specific IgG antibody responses significantly higher than PLGA. A significant positive correlation between hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles and the immune response was observed following intramuscular administration. The positive correlation between hydrophobicity of the nanoparticles and serum DT specific IgG antibody response was also observed after intranasal administration of the nanoparticles. The cytokine assays showed that the serum IgG antibody response induced is different according to the route of administration, indicated by the differential levels of IL-6 and IFN-gamma. The nanoparticles eliciting the highest IgG antibody response did not necessarily elicit the highest levels of the cytokines IL-6 and IFN-gamma.

  10. Doping-tunable thermal emission from plasmon polaritons in semiconductor epsilon-near-zero thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Young Chul, E-mail: youngchul.jun@inha.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Luk, Ting S., E-mail: tsluk@sandia.gov; Brener, Igal [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Robert Ellis, A.; Klem, John F. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-09-29

    We utilize the unique dispersion properties of leaky plasmon polaritons in epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) thin films to demonstrate thermal radiation control. Owing to its highly flat dispersion above the light line, a thermally excited leaky wave at the ENZ frequency out-couples into free space without any scattering structures, resulting in a narrowband, wide-angle, p-polarized thermal emission spectrum. We demonstrate this idea by measuring angle- and polarization-resolved thermal emission spectra from a single layer of unpatterned, doped semiconductors with deep-subwavelength film thickness (d/λ{sub 0} ∼ 6×10{sup −3}, where d is the film thickness and  λ{sub 0} is the free space wavelength). We show that this semiconductor ENZ film effectively works as a leaky wave thermal radiation antenna, which generates far-field radiation from a thermally excited mode. The use of semiconductors makes the radiation frequency highly tunable by controlling doping densities and also facilitates device integration with other components. Therefore, this leaky plasmon polariton emission from semiconductor ENZ films provides an avenue for on-chip control of thermal radiation.

  11. X-ray, UV and optical analysis of supergiants: $\\epsilon$ Ori

    CERN Document Server

    Puebla, Raul E; Zsargó, Janos; Cohen, David H; Leutenegger, Maurice A

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength (X-ray to optical) analysis, based on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium photospheric+wind models, of the B0 Ia-supergiant: $\\epsilon$~Ori. The aim is to test the consistency of physical parameters, such as the mass-loss rate and CNO abundances, derived from different spectral bands. The derived mass-loss rate is $\\dot{M}/\\sqrt{f_\\infty}\\sim$1.6$\\times$10$^{-6}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ where $f_\\infty$ is the volume filling factor. However, the S IV $\\lambda\\lambda$1062,1073 profiles are too strong in the models; to fit the observed profiles it is necessary to use $f_\\infty<$0.01. This value is a factor of 5 to 10 lower than inferred from other diagnostics, and implies $\\dot{M} \\lesssim1 \\times 10^{-7}$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. The discrepancy could be related to porosity-vorosity effects or a problem with the ionization of sulfur in the wind. To fit the UV profiles of N V and O VI it was necessary to include emission from an interclump medium with a density contrast ($\\rho_{cl}/\\rho...

  12. Controlling thermal emission with refractory epsilon-near-zero metamaterials via topological transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, P. N.; Molesky, S.; Petrov, A. Yu; Störmer, M.; Krekeler, T.; Lang, S.; Ritter, M.; Jacob, Z.; Eich, M.

    2016-01-01

    Control of thermal radiation at high temperatures is vital for waste heat recovery and for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion. Previously, structural resonances utilizing gratings, thin film resonances, metasurfaces and photonic crystals were used to spectrally control thermal emission, often requiring lithographic structuring of the surface and causing significant angle dependence. In contrast, here, we demonstrate a refractory W-HfO2 metamaterial, which controls thermal emission through an engineered dielectric response function. The epsilon-near-zero frequency of a metamaterial and the connected optical topological transition (OTT) are adjusted to selectively enhance and suppress the thermal emission in the near-infrared spectrum, crucial for improved TPV efficiency. The near-omnidirectional and spectrally selective emitter is obtained as the emission changes due to material properties and not due to resonances or interference effects, marking a paradigm shift in thermal engineering approaches. We experimentally demonstrate the OTT in a thermally stable metamaterial at high temperatures of 1,000 °C. PMID:27263653

  13. Genetic polymorphism of the phospholipase C epsilon 1 gene and risk of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinyang; Zhang Xiaowei; Wang Zhichao; Chang Jinjia; Wu Zheng; Zhang Zhe; Wang Shanshan

    2014-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC) involves environmental and genetic factors.Recently,two genome-wide association studies found that phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) polymorphisms might be related to GC risk,and several studies further validated this finding.However,these studies yielded inconsistent results.Methods A comprehensive database search was performed to identify eligible studies.Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the strength of the association between PLCE1 rs2274223,rs753724,and rs11187842 and risk of GC.Subgroup analyses,publication bias,and sensitivity analyses were also conducted.Results Eleven studies (12 cohorts) were included in the meta-analysis.Based on 13 676 cases and 23 569 controls,a significant association between PLCE1 rs2274223 and GC risk was detected under various genotypic models.In the subgroup analyses,the association was significant for cardia GC,but weak for non-cardia GC.The association under the heterozygote model was detected for PLCE1 rs753724 and rs11187842 based on three studies involving 2768 cases and 3890 controls.Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the presence of the G allele at rs2274223 of the PLCE1 gene may contribute to susceptibility to GC,especially cardia GC.PLCE1 rs753724 and rs11187842 are associated with GC risk under the heterozygote model.Further well-designed large studies are warranted to validate these findings.

  14. Controlling thermal emission with refractory epsilon-near-zero metamaterials via topological transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyachenko, P. N.; Molesky, S.; Petrov, A. Yu; Störmer, M.; Krekeler, T.; Lang, S.; Ritter, M.; Jacob, Z.; Eich, M.

    2016-06-01

    Control of thermal radiation at high temperatures is vital for waste heat recovery and for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion. Previously, structural resonances utilizing gratings, thin film resonances, metasurfaces and photonic crystals were used to spectrally control thermal emission, often requiring lithographic structuring of the surface and causing significant angle dependence. In contrast, here, we demonstrate a refractory W-HfO2 metamaterial, which controls thermal emission through an engineered dielectric response function. The epsilon-near-zero frequency of a metamaterial and the connected optical topological transition (OTT) are adjusted to selectively enhance and suppress the thermal emission in the near-infrared spectrum, crucial for improved TPV efficiency. The near-omnidirectional and spectrally selective emitter is obtained as the emission changes due to material properties and not due to resonances or interference effects, marking a paradigm shift in thermal engineering approaches. We experimentally demonstrate the OTT in a thermally stable metamaterial at high temperatures of 1,000 °C.

  15. A poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) device for sustained release of an anti-glaucoma drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natu, Madalina V; De Sousa, HermInio C; Gil, M H [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-290, Coimbra (Portugal); Gaspar, Manuel N; Fontes Ribeiro, Carlos A [Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas, 3000-354, Coimbra (Portugal); Correia, IlIdio J; Silva, Daniela, E-mail: hgil@eq.uc.pt [Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2011-04-15

    Implantable dorzolamide-loaded discs were prepared by blending poly({epsilon}-caprolactone), PCL, with poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide), Lu. By blending, crystallinity, water uptake and mass loss were modified relative to the pure polymers. Burst was diminished by coating the discs with a PCL shell. All samples presented burst release except PCL-coated samples that showed controlled release during 18 days. For PCL-coated samples, barrier control of diffusion coupled with partition control from the core slowed down the release, while for 50/50 Lu/PCL-coated samples, the enhancement in the porosity of the core diminished partition control of drug release. Nonlinear regression analysis suggested that a degradation model fully describes the release curve considering a triphasic release mechanism: the instantaneous diffusion (burst), diffusion and polymer degradation stages. The MTT test indicated that the materials are not cytotoxic for corneal endothelial cells. A good in vitro-in vivo correlation was obtained, with similar amounts of drug released in vitro and in vivo. The discs decreased intraocular pressure (IOP) in normotensive rabbit eyes by 13.0% during 10 days for PCL-coated and by 13.0% during 4 days for 50/50 Lu/PCL-coated samples. The percentages of IOP decrease are similar to those obtained by dorzolamide eyedrop instillation (11.0%).

  16. Design of a "green" one-step catalytic production of epsilon-caprolactam (precursor of nylon-6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John Meurig; Raja, Robert

    2005-09-27

    The ever-increasing industrial demand for nylon-6 (polycaprolactam) necessitates the development of environmentally benign methods of producing its precursor, epsilon-caprolactam, from cyclohexanone. It is currently manufactured in two popular double-step processes, each of which uses highly aggressive reagents, and each generates substantial quantities of largely unwanted ammonium sulfate as by-product. Here we describe a viable laboratory-scale, single-step, solvent-free process of producing epsilon-caprolactam using a family of designed bifunctional, heterogeneous, nanoporous catalysts containing isolated acidic and redox sites, which smoothly convert cyclohexanone to epsilon-caprolactam with selectivities in the range 65-78% in air and ammonia at 80 degrees C. The catalysts are microporous (pore diameter 7.3 A) aluminophosphates in which small fractions of the Al(III)O4(5-) and P(V)O4(3-) tetrahedra constituting the 4-connected open framework are replaced by Co(III)PO4(5-) and Si(IV)O4(4-) tetrahedra, which become the loci of the redox and acidic centers, respectively. The catalysts may be further optimized, and already may be so designed as to generate selectivities of approximately 80% for the intermediate oxime, formed from NH2OH, which is produced in situ within the pore system. The advantages of such designed heterogeneous catalysts, and their application to a range of other chemical conversions, are also adumbrated.

  17. D'une ouverture de la voyelle /epsilon/ en finale absolue en francais quebecois : analyse acoustique et perceptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverin-Coutlee, Josiane

    Cette contribution est consacree a l'ouverture du /epsilon/ en finale absolue, un phenomene phonetique repute etre en declin en francais quebecois et caracteristique de locuteurs âges, peu scolarises, issus de milieux populaires et s'exprimant en situation de communication informelle. Une analyse acoustique de 480 voyelles /epsilon/ issues de la parole formelle de 40 jeunes etudiants universitaires originaires des centres urbains de Saguenay et de Quebec revele toutefois que le phenomene est encore bien vivant en francais quebecois et qu'il est plus frequent chez les locuteurs de Saguenay, une tendance validee auditivement par accord inter-juges. Les resultats d'un test de discrimination et d'identification mene aupres de 26 etudiants universitaires originaires de ces deux memes villes indiquent que les auditeurs naifs de Saguenay semblent moins sensibles a la variation et moins enclins a juger de l'origine geographique d'un locuteur a partir de sa prononciation de la voyelle /epsilon/ en fin de mot.

  18. Regulation of epsilon germline transcription and switch region mutations by IgH locus 3' enhancers in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencikiene, Jurga; Tamosiunas, Vytas; Severinson, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Germline (GL) transcription is regulated by specific promoters and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) 3' locus enhancers and is necessary for Ig class-switch recombination (CSR). We have generated different transgenic lines containing the GL epsilon promoter, switch (S) epsilon region, and constant (C) epsilon region with or without the DNase I-sensitive regions (HS) 3A-HS1,2 or HS3B-HS4 3' IgH enhancer pairs. The enhancerless construct was expressed in B cells activated by interleukin (IL)-4 and CD40, thus resembling regulation of the endogenous gene. Both enhancer-containing transgenes efficiently increased expression in B cells and were strongly up-regulated by stimuli. In addition, Sepsilon regions of the transgene containing HS3B-HS4 were mutated in activated, sorted B cells. Such mutations are known to precede CSR and are dependent on activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Our findings show that all elements necessary for recruitment of the recombination machinery are present in the transgene containing HS3 and HS4. These enhancers probably provide something more specific than mere increased accessibility of switch regions. We propose that transcription factors binding the enhancers help to target the recombination machinery to the switch regions.

  19. Enzymic synthesis of L-lysine from DL-alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam by new microbial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plhácková, K; Vojtísek, V; Plachý, J

    1982-01-01

    The production of L-lysine from DL-alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactam (DL-ACL) by new strains producing L-alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactamase and aminocaprolactam racemase is described. Optimal conditions for hydrolysis of L-ACL by Cryptococcus sp. and for racemization of ACL by cells of a strain isolated in nature and identified as Pseudomonas sp. were determined. Synthesis of L-alpha-amino-epsilon-caprolactamase is induced by DL-ACL or L-lysine with the same effectivity. A positive effect of phosphates (potassium salts) on reduction of the induction lag was detected, the synthesis of this enzyme was found to be repressed by glucose and some possibilities of the reversion of this repressive effect were demonstrated. Under conditions optimal for the production of both enzymes a quantitative theoretical conversion of 10% aqueous DL-ACL to L-lysine by a mixture of native cells in a mass ratio of 1 : 2 (producer of ACL-hydrolase to producer of ACL-racemase) occurred in 8 h at 40 degrees C and pH 8.0.

  20. KL to pi0 nu nubar decay correlating with epsilonK in high-scale SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the contribution of the high-scale SUSY to the K_L to pi^0 nu{bar nu} and K^+ to pi^+ nu{bar nu} processes correlating with the CP violating parameter epsilon_K. Taking account of the recent LHC results for the Higgs discovery and the SUSY searches, we consider the high-scale SUSY at the 10-50 TeV scale in the framework of the non-minimal squark (slepton) flavor mixing. The Z penguin mediated the chargino dominates the SUSY contribution for these decays. At the 10 TeV scale of the SUSY, the chargino contribution can enhance the branching ratio of K_L to pi^0 nu{bar nu} in eight times compared with the SM predictions whereas the predicted branching ratio BR(K^+ to pi^+ nu {bar nu}) increases up to three times of the SM one. The gluino box diagram dominates the SUSY contribution of epsilon_K up to 30%. If the down-squark mixing is neglected compared with the up-squark mixing, the Z penguin mediated the chargino dominates both SUSY contributions of K_L to pi^0 nu {bar nu} and epsilon_K. Then, it ...

  1. Negative—epsilon conditions in the dispersive LiNbO3–Ag nanoparticles composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, R. M.; Kanyinda-Malu, C.; Muñoz-Santiuste, J. E.

    2017-02-01

    The silver (Ag)–embedded lithium niobate (LiNbO3) composites are theoretically analyzed under the effective medium Maxwell–Garnett approximation to account on the optimal conditions through which such composites present negative epsilon conditions. The dielectric function of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) is described by Drude theory with an additional Lorentz oscillator term to take into account the interband electronic transitions which typically occur in noble metals. The LiNbO3 dielectric function is evaluated through the Sellmeier equations. Once the effective dielectric function ({ε\\text{eff}} ) is evaluated, we investigate the negative epsilon condition (ε \\text{eff}\\primevalues, the negative epsilon (NE) condition is satisfied for critical sizes of Ag NPs. This condition defines an interval of energies, called NE range. That NE range enlarges for increasing radius and becames narrower for decreasing volume fractions. Furthermore, the calculated Fröhlich frequency is nearly close to the lower-energy limit of NE range. In addition, the calculated extinction spectra of the composite are analyzed in terms of the radius of Ag NPs.

  2. Elevated activity of an Epsilon class glutathione transferase confers DDT resistance in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumjuan, Nongkran; McCarroll, Lynn; Prapanthadara, La-aied; Hemingway, Janet; Ranson, Hilary

    2005-08-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) play a central role in the detoxification of xenobiotics such as insecticides and elevated GST expression is an important mechanism of insecticide resistance. In the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, increased expression of an Epsilon class GST, GSTE2, confers resistance to DDT. We have identified eight GST genes in the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti. Four of these belong to the insect specific GST classes Delta and Epsilon and three are from the more ubiquitously distributed Theta and Sigma classes. The expression levels of the two Epsilon genes, a Theta GST and a previously identified Ae. aegypti GST [Grant and Hammock, 1992. Molecular and General Genetics 234, 169-176] were established for an insecticide susceptible and a resistant strain. We show that the putative ortholog of GSTe2 in Ae. aegypti (AaGSTe2) is over expressed in mosquitoes that are resistant to the insecticides DDT and permethrin. Characterisation of recombinant AaGSTE2-2 confirmed the role of this enzyme in DDT metabolism. In addition, unlike its Anopheles ortholog, AaGSTE2-2 also exhibited glutathione peroxidase activity.

  3. The role of the Aedes aegypti Epsilon glutathione transferases in conferring resistance to DDT and pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumjuan, Nongkran; Rajatileka, Shavanthi; Changsom, Donch; Wicheer, Jureeporn; Leelapat, Posri; Prapanthadara, La-aied; Somboon, Pradya; Lycett, Gareth; Ranson, Hilary

    2011-03-01

    The Epsilon glutathione transferase (GST) class in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti consists of eight sequentially arranged genes spanning 53,645 bp on super contig 1.291, which maps to chromosome 2. One Epsilon GST, GSTE2, has previously been implicated in conferring resistance to DDT. The amino acid sequence of GSTE2 in an insecticide susceptible and a DDT resistant strain differs at five residues two of which occur in the putative DDT binding site. Characterization of the respective recombinant enzymes revealed that both variants have comparable DDT dehydrochlorinase activity although the isoform from the resistant strain has higher affinity for the insecticide. GSTe2 and two additional Epsilon GST genes, GSTe5 and GSTe7, are expressed at elevated levels in the resistant population and the recombinant homodimer GSTE5-5 also exhibits low levels of DDT dehydrochlorinase activity. Partial silencing of either GSTe7 or GSTe2 by RNA interference resulted in an increased susceptibility to the pyrethroid, deltamethrin suggesting that these GST enzymes may also play a role in resistance to pyrethroid insecticides.

  4. N alpha- and N epsilon-D-galacturonoyl-L-lysine amides: properties and possible occurrence in plant cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, P; Hewage, C M; Sadler, I H; Fry, S C

    1998-12-01

    Three representatives of a novel class of amide (isopeptide) glycoconjugates have been synthesised: N alpha-D-galacturonoyl-L-lysine and N epsilon-D-galacturonoyl-L-lysine and N epsilon-D-polygalacturonoyl-L-lysine. Galacturonoyl-lysine amide bonds were labile in 2 M trifluoroacetic acid at 120 degrees and in alkali, but relatively stable in cold acid. The amide bonds were resistant to digestion by Driselase, Pronase and trypsin. The polysaccharide backbone of N epsilon-D-polygalacturonoyl-L-lysine was hydrolysed by Driselase to yield two major ninhydrin-positive compounds which were shown by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy to be tri- and tetra-alpha-(1-->4)-D-galacturonoyl-L-lysines. To investigate the possible natural occurrence of N-galacturonoyl isopeptide bonds, we fed cell-suspension cultures of spinach and tomato with D-[6-14C]glucuronic acid, which radio-labels pectic polysaccharides. The radioactive cell walls were digested with, sequentially, Driselase, mild acid, and proteinases. On electrophoresis at pH 2.0, several of the radioactive digestion-products were cathodic. Some of the cathodic products yielded [14C]galacturonic acid upon complete acid hydrolysis. The existence of these products is compatible with the presence of novel N-galacturonoyl isopeptide bonds, which could serve as cross-links in plant cell walls.

  5. Zeolitic polyoxometalates metal organic frameworks (Z-POMOF) with imidazole ligands and epsilon-Keggin ions as building blocks; computational evaluation of hypothetical polymorphs and a synthesis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Albelo, L Marleny; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Lewis, Dewi W; Gómez, Ariel; Mialane, Pierre; Marrot, Jérome; Dolbecq, Anne; Sampieri, Alvaro; Mellot-Draznieks, Caroline

    2010-08-14

    We investigate here a new family of zeolitic Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) based on imidazole (im) as the ligand and epsilon-type Keggin PolyOxoMetalates (POMs) as building units. The POM used in this study is the epsilon-{PMo(12)O(40)} Keggin isomer capped by four Zn(ii) ions (noted epsilon-Zn) in tetrahedral coordination. We describe here our methods to first construct and then evaluate the stability of hypothetical 3-D POMOFs possessing a tetrahedral network, typified by dense silica polymorphs and zeotypes and referred here to as Z-POMOFs. We use the analogy between the connectivity of silicon ion in dense minerals or zeolites and the epsilon-Zn, using imidazolate ligands to mimic the role of oxygen atoms in zeolites. Handling the epsilon-Keggin and imidazole as the constitutive building-blocks, a selection of 40 polymorphs were constructed and their relative stabilities computed. Among these Z-POMOFs, the cristobalite-like and zni-structure were identified as the most stable candidates. In parallel, we have attempted to synthesize Z-POMOF structures with epsilon-Zn POMs, synthesized in situ under hydrothermal conditions, and imidazole ligands. We present our first experimental result, the extended material [NBu(4)][PMo(V)(8)Mo(VI)(4)O(37)(OH)(3)Zn(4)(im)(Him)], named epsilon(im)(2). The structure of the hybrid framework is built by the connection of dimerized epsilon-Zn POMs to imidazole ligands in two directions. The obtaining of the first POMOF based on imidazole ligand is an encouraging step towards the synthesis of a new family of POMOFs.

  6. Optimization of Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius N47 cultivation and epsilon-rhodomycinone production using experimental designs and response surface methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviharju, K; Leisola, M; Eerikäinen, T

    2004-11-01

    Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius is an aerobic bacterium that produces doxorubicin as a secondary metabolite. A mixture design was applied for the screening of suitable complex medium components in the cultivation of S. peucetius var. caesius N47, which is an epsilon-rhodomycinone-accumulating mutant strain. epsilon-Rhodomycinone is a non-glycosylated precursor of doxorubicin. Best growth results were obtained with soy peptone and beef extract. A central composite face-centered (CCF) experimental design was constructed for the investigation of pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO) effects on the cultivation growth phase. Another CCF was applied to the production phase to investigate the effects of aeration, pH, temperature and stirring rate on epsilon-rhodomycinone production. An increase in cultivation temperature increased both cell growth and glucose consumption rate. Best epsilon-rhodomycinone productivities were obtained in temperatures around 30 degrees C. DO control increased all growth phase responses, but aeration in the production phase coupled with pH decrease resulted in rapid epsilon-rhodomycinone decay in the medium. In non-aerated production phases a pH change resulted in better productivity than in experiments without pH change. A pH increase with a temperature decrease seemed most beneficial for productivity. This implies that dynamic control strategies in batch production of epsilon-rhodomycinone could increase the overall process productivity.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of shape memory poly (epsilon-caprolactone) polyurethane-ureas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongfeng

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) have attracted significant interest in recent times because of their potential applications in a number of areas, such as medical devices and textiles. However, there are some major drawbacks of SMPs, such as their relatively low moduli resulting in small recovery stresses, and their long response times compared with shape memory alloys (SMAs). A suitable recovery stress which comes from the elastic recovery stress generated in the deformation process is critical in some medical devices. To address some of these shortcomings, the work in this dissertation mainly focuses on the design and synthesis of linear shape memory polymers with higher recovery stress. A series of segmented poly (epsilon-caprolactone) polyurethane-ureas (PCLUUs) were prepared from poly (epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) diol, different dissociates and chain extenders. NMR and FT-IR were used to identify the structure of the synthesized shape memory polyurethane-ureas. Parameters such as soft segment content (molecular weight and content), chain extender and the rigidity of the main chain were investigated to understand the structure-property relationships of the shape memory polymer systems through DSC, DMA, physical property test, etc. Cyclic thermal mechanic tests were applied to measure the shape memory properties which showed that the recovery stress can be improved above 200% simply by modifying the chain extender. Meanwhile, the synthesis process was optimized to be similar to that of Spandex /LYCRA®. Continuous fibers form shape memory polyurethane-ureas were made from a wet spinning process, which indicated excellent spinnability of the polymer solution. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to study the morphology of the hard segment at different temperatures and stretch rates and found that the monodisperse rigid cylinder model fit the SANS data quite well. From the cylinder model, the radius of the cylinder increased with increasing hard segment

  8. A novel epsilon gamma delta beta thalassemia presenting with pregnancy complications and severe neonatal anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Hanna; Landau, Daniela; Pissard, Serge; Krasnov, Tanya; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Gilad, Oded; Broides, Arnon; Dgany, Orly; Tamary, Hannah

    2013-02-01

    The epsilon gamma delta beta (εγδβ)-thalassemias are rare sporadic disorders caused by deletion of the β-globin gene cluster. The main clinical feature is marked prenatal and neonatal anemia that resolves spontaneously within a few months. Reports originating mainly from Europe have so far identified 30 such deletions The aim of the present work was to describe a novel 1.78-Mb deletion, the longest ever reported, and to detail the clinical features in 12 members of an extended Bedouin family. The deletion was identified by globin gene multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) of the β-globin cluster and further characterized by comparative genomic hybridization. Past and present clinical and laboratory data of ten symptomatic and two asymptomatic patients were collected. A 1.78-Mb εγδβ-deletion, the largest ever described, was identified in all patients. Although other genes were included in the deletion, no other symptoms were observed. Of the ten symptomatic fetuses and neonates, three died of the disease. The remainder required packed cell transfusions during the first months of life. Pregnancy complications included intrauterine growth restriction and oligohydramnios, as well as additional neonatal complications including prematurity and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate. We suggest that εγδβ-thalassemia be added to the list of hemoglobinopathies that can cause neonatal anemia and that MLPA of the β-globin cluster be used to confirm its diagnosis. Careful surveillance during pregnancy is important to reduce neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially given the dramatic improvement that occurs later. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Perioperative renal outcome in cardiac surgical patients with preoperative renal dysfunction: aprotinin versus epsilon aminocaproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew D; Chaudrey, Alyas; Bert, Arthur; Schwartz, Carl; Singh, Arun

    2008-02-01

    The administration of aprotinin to patients with pre-existing renal dysfunction who are undergoing cardiac surgery is controversial. Therefore, the authors present their experience with the use of aprotinin for patients with preoperative renal dysfunction who underwent elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Retrospective analysis. University hospital. Consecutive cardiac surgical patients with preoperative serum creatinine (SCr) > or =1.8 mg/dL undergoing nonemergent cardiac surgery requiring CPB. None. One hundred twenty-three patients either received epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA, n = 82) or aprotinin (n = 41) as decided by the attending anesthesiologist and surgeon. Data were collected from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database and from automated intraoperative anesthesia records. Renal function was assessed from measured serum creatinine (SCr) and calculated creatinine clearances (CrCls). Acute perioperative renal dysfunction was defined as a worsening of perioperative renal function by > or =25% and/or the need for hemodialysis (HD). Data were recorded as mean and standard deviation or percentage of population depending on whether the data were continuous or not. Data were compared by using an analysis of variance, chi-square analysis, Student paired and unpaired t tests, Fisher exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Mann-Whitney U test. A p value or =3 months after surgery was significantly lower in the aprotinin group compared with the EACA group (1.8 v 2.2 mg/dL, p < 0.05). Acute perioperative renal dysfunction was associated with worse patient outcome and longer CPB and AoXCl times. Demographic and surgical variables indicated that the sicker patients undergoing more complex surgeries were more likely to be treated with aprotinin. Although aprotinin patients had a higher renal risk score, the administration of aprotinin did not negatively impact renal outcome.

  10. Nanoscale field effect optical modulators based on depletion of epsilon-near-zero films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhaolin; Shi, Kaifeng; Yin, Peichuan

    2016-12-01

    The field effect in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors plays a key role in field-effect transistors (FETs), which are the fundamental building blocks of modern digital integrated circuits. Recent works show that the field effect can also be used to make optical/plasmonic modulators. In this paper, we report the numerical investigation of field effect electro-absorption modulators each made of an ultrathin epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) film, as the active material, sandwiched in a silicon or plasmonic waveguide. Without a bias, the ENZ films maximize the attenuation of the waveguides and the modulators work at the OFF state; on the other hand, depletion of the carriers in the ENZ films greatly reduces the attenuation and the modulators work at the ON state. The double capacitor gating scheme with two 10-nm HfO2 films as the insulator is used to enhance the modulation by the field effect. The depletion requires about 10 V across the HfO2 layers. According to our simulation, extinction ratio up to 3.44 dB can be achieved in a 500-nm long Si waveguide with insertion loss only 0.71 dB (85.0% pass); extinction ratio up to 7.86 dB can be achieved in a 200-nm long plasmonic waveguide with insertion loss 1.11 dB (77.5% pass). The proposed modulators may find important applications in future on-chip or chip-to-chip optical interconnection.

  11. Differential expression of phospholipase C epsilon 1 is associated with chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation plays a causal role in gastric tumor initiation. The identification of predictive biomarkers from gastric inflammation to tumorigenesis will help us to distinguish gastric cancer from atrophic gastritis and establish the diagnosis of early-stage gastric cancer. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCε1 is reported to play a vital role in inflammation and tumorigenesis. This study was aimed to investigate the clinical significance of PLCε1 in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Firstly, the mRNA and protein expression of PLCε1 were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR and Western blotting in normal gastric mucous epithelial cell line GES-1 and gastric cancer cell lines AGS, SGC7901, and MGC803. The results showed both mRNA and protein levels of PLCε1 were up-regulated in gastric cancer cells compared with normal gastric mucous epithelial cells. Secondly, this result was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection in a tissue microarray including 74 paired gastric cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Thirdly, an independence immunohistochemical analysis of 799 chronic atrophic gastritis tissue specimens demonstrated that PLCε1 expression in atrophic gastritis tissues were down-regulated since PLCε1 expression was negative in 524 (65.6% atrophic gastritis. In addition, matched clinical tissues from atrophic severe gastritis and gastric cancer patients were used to further confirm the previous results by analyzing mRNA and protein levels expression of PLCε1 in clinical samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Our results suggested that PLCε1 protein may be a potential biomarker to distinguish gastric cancer from inflammation lesion, and could have great potential in applications such as diagnosis and pre-warning of early-stage gastric cancer.

  12. Casein kinase 1-epsilon deletion increases mu opioid receptor-dependent behaviors and binge eating1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, L R; Kirkpatrick, S L; Yazdani, N; Luttik, K P; Lacki, O A; Keith Babbs, R; Jenkins, D F; Evan Johnson, W; Bryant, C D

    2017-09-01

    Genetic and pharmacological studies indicate that casein kinase 1 epsilon (Csnk1e) contributes to psychostimulant, opioid, and ethanol motivated behaviors. We previously used pharmacological inhibition to demonstrate that Csnk1e negatively regulates the locomotor stimulant properties of opioids and psychostimulants. Here, we tested the hypothesis that Csnk1e negatively regulates opioid and psychostimulant reward using genetic inhibition and the conditioned place preference assay in Csnk1e knockout mice. Similar to pharmacological inhibition, Csnk1e knockout mice showed enhanced opioid-induced locomotor activity with the mu opioid receptor agonist fentanyl (0.2 mg/kg i.p.) as well as enhanced sensitivity to low-dose fentanyl reward (0.05 mg/kg). Interestingly, female knockout mice also showed a markedly greater escalation in consumption of sweetened palatable food - a behavioral pattern consistent with binge eating that also depends on mu opioid receptor activation. No difference was observed in fentanyl analgesia in the 52.5°C hot plate assay (0-0.4 mg/kg), naloxone conditioned place aversion (4 mg/kg), or methamphetamine conditioned place preference (0-4 mg/kg). To identify molecular adaptations associated with increased drug and food behaviors in knockout mice, we completed transcriptome analysis via mRNA sequencing of the striatum. Enrichment analysis identified terms associated with myelination and axon guidance and pathway analysis identified a differentially expressed gene set predicted to be regulated by the Wnt signaling transcription factor, Tcf7l2. To summarize, Csnk1e deletion increased mu opioid receptor-dependent behaviors, supporting previous studies indicating an endogenous negative regulatory role of Csnk1e in opioid behavior. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  13. The antimicrobial mechanism of action of epsilon-poly-l-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Vad, Brian S; Stenvang, Marcel; Otzen, Daniel E; Meyer, Rikke L

    2014-12-01

    Epsilon-poly-l-lysine (ε-PL) is a natural antimicrobial cationic peptide which is generally regarded as safe (GRAS) as a food preservative. Although its antimicrobial activity is well documented, its mechanism of action is only vaguely described. The aim of this study was to clarify ε-PL's mechanism of action using Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua as model organisms. We examined ε-PL's effect on cell morphology and membrane integrity and used an array of E. coli deletion mutants to study how specific outer membrane components affected the action of ε-PL. We furthermore studied its interaction with lipid bilayers using membrane models. In vitro cell studies indicated that divalent cations and the heptose I and II phosphate groups in the lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli are critical for ε-PL's binding efficiency. ε-PL removed the lipopolysaccharide layer and affected cell morphology of E. coli, while L. innocua underwent minor morphological changes. Propidium iodide staining showed that ε-PL permeabilized the cytoplasmic membrane in both species, indicating the membrane as the site of attack. We compared the interaction with neutral or negatively charged membrane systems and showed that the interaction with ε-PL relied on negative charges on the membrane. Suspended membrane vesicles were disrupted by ε-PL, and a detergent-like disruption of E. coli membrane was confirmed by atomic force microscopy imaging of supported lipid bilayers. We hypothesize that ε-PL destabilizes membranes in a carpet-like mechanism by interacting with negatively charged phospholipid head groups, which displace divalent cations and enforce a negative curvature folding on membranes that leads to formation of vesicles/micelles.

  14. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Caixeta Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species, as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.. One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1, maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1, a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting

  15. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  16. Bile acid deoxycholate induces differential subcellular localisation of the PKC isoenzymes beta 1, epsilon and delta in colonic epithelial cells in a sodium butyrate insensitive manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Eileen; Long, Aideen; Kelleher, Dermot; Volkov, Yuri

    2005-05-10

    Elevated levels of bile acids have been implicated in the abnormal morphogenesis of the colonic epithelium thus contributing to colorectal cancer (CRC). Alternatively sodium butyrate (NaB) produced by anaerobic fermentation of dietary fibre is regarded as being protective against colon cancer. Bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA) are thought to mediate some of their actions by differentially activating protein kinase C (PKC). We examined the effects of DCA on the subcellular localisation of PKC-beta(1), -epsilon and -delta and whether these responses could be modulated by NaB. HCT116 cells endogenously express PKC-epsilon and -delta but not PKC-beta. DCA treatment results in endogenous PKC-epsilon translocation but not PKC-delta after 1 hr. To study the subcellular localisation of PKC isoforms in response to DCA in real time, PKC-beta(1), PKC-epsilon and PKC-delta functionally intact green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion constructs were used. Stimulation with 300 microM DCA induces rapid translocation of PKC-beta(1)-GFP and PKC-epsilon-GFP but not PKC-delta-GFP from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in 15 min. Interestingly, pretreatment with 4mM NaB does not modify the response of the PKC isoenzymes to DCA as PKC-beta(1)-GFP and PKC-epsilon-GFP translocates to the plasma membrane in 15 min whereas PKC-delta-GFP localisation remains unaltered. Immunofluorescence shows that PKC-beta(1)-GFP and PKC-epsilon-GFP cells treated with DCA colocalise with the cytoskeletal elements actin and tubulin adjacent to the plasma membrane. Our findings demonstrate that the differential activation of the PKC isoenzymes by DCA may be of critical importance for the functional responses of colonic epithelial cells. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the International Journal of Cancer website at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0020-7136/suppmat/index.html.

  17. Isolated spinach ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxgenase large subunit .epsilon. n-methyltransferase and method of inactivating ribulose-1,5-bishosphatase .epsilon. n-methyltransferase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS) .sup..epsilon. N-methyltansferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) from a plant which has a des(methyl) lysyl residue in the LS is disclosed. In addition, the full-length cDNA clones for Rubisco LSMT are disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of inactivating the enzymatic activity of Rubisco LSMT are also disclosed.

  18. Isolated spinach ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase and method of inactivating ribulose-1,5-bisphosphatase carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtz, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    The gene sequence for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) large subunit (LS) .sup..epsilon. N-methyltransferase (protein methylase III or Rubisco LSMT) from a plant which has a des(methyl) lysyl residue in the LS is disclosed. In addition, the full-length cDNA clones for Rubisco LSMT are disclosed. Transgenic plants and methods of producing same which have the Rubisco LSMT gene inserted into the DNA are also provided. Further, methods of inactivating the enzymatic activity of Rubisco LSMT are also disclosed.

  19. Immunogenicity of a Trivalent Recombinant Vaccine Against Clostridium perfringens Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins in Farm Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo Pouey; Mendonça, Marcelo; Moreira, Ângela Nunes; Gonçalves, Luciana Aramuni; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo

    2016-03-23

    Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium that produces several toxins. Of these, the alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are responsible for causing the most severe C. perfringens-related diseases in farm animals. The best way to control these diseases is through vaccination. However, commercially available vaccines are based on inactivated toxins and have many production drawbacks, which can be overcome through the use of recombinant antigens. In this study, we produced recombinant alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins in Escherichia coli to formulate a trivalent vaccine. Its effectiveness was evaluated through a potency test in rabbits, in which the vaccine generated 9.6, 24.4, and 25.0 IU/mL of neutralizing antibodies against the respective toxins. Following this, cattle, sheep, and goats received the same formulation, generating, respectively, 5.19 ± 0.48, 4.34 ± 0.43, and 4.70 ± 0.58 IU/mL against alpha toxin, 13.71 ± 1.17 IU/mL (for all three species) against beta toxin, and 12.74 ± 1.70, 7.66 ± 1.69, and 8.91 ± 2.14 IU/mL against epsilon toxin. These levels were above the minimum recommended by international protocols. As such, our vaccine was effective in generating protective antibodies and, thus, may represent an interesting alternative for the prevention of C. perfringens-related intoxications in farm animals.

  20. APOE epsilon 4 influences the pathological phenotype of Alzheimer's disease by favouring cerebrovascular over parenchymal accumulation of A beta protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, K; Wilcock, G K; Love, S

    2003-06-01

    The relative amounts of amyloid beta-protein (A beta) in cerebral blood vessels and parenchyma vary considerably amongst patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this variability, the underlying genetic and environmental determinants are still unclear, as are the functional consequences. Polymorphisms in APOE, the gene for apolipoprotein E (ApoE), influence the risk of developing AD and of deposition of A beta within the brain. We examined the relationship between the APOE genotype and the relative extent of accumulation of A beta as plaques within the cerebral parenchyma and in cortical blood vessels in the form of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), in autopsy brain tissue from 125 AD cases and from 53 elderly, neurologically normal controls of which 19 had CAA without other neuropathological features of AD. In the AD cases, we also assessed whether the severity of CAA was related to the age of onset and duration of dementia, risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease, and histologically demonstrable cerebral infarcts or foci of haemorrhage. The APOE genotype was determined by a standard polymerase chain reaction-based method. Paraffin sections of frontal, temporal and parietal lobes were immunolabelled for A beta and the parenchymal A beta load (total A beta minus vessel-associated A beta) was quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. CAA severity was scored for cortical and leptomeningeal vessels. The relevant clinical data were obtained from the database of the South West Brain Bank. In AD, we found the severity of CAA to be strongly associated with the number of epsilon 4 alleles (P possession of the APOE epsilon 4 allele favours vascular over parenchymal accumulation of A beta in AD. This may influence the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in epsilon 4-associated AD.

  1. Guaranteed epsilon-optimal treatment plans with the minimum number of beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmand, Hamed; Winey, Brian; Craft, David

    2013-09-07

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam's-eye-view) known as 'apertures'. Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan as the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined maximum deviation from the ideal plan is guaranteed). Since the treatment plan optimization is inherently a multi-criteria-optimization problem, the planner can navigate the ideal dose distribution Pareto surface and select a plan of desired target coverage versus OARs sparing, and then use the proposed technique to reduce the number of beams while guaranteeing epsilon-optimality. We use mixed integer programming (MIP) for optimization. To reduce the computation time for the resultant MIP, we use two heuristics: a beam elimination scheme and a family of heuristic cuts, known as 'neighbor cuts', based on the concept of 'adjacent beams'. We show the effectiveness of the proposed technique on two clinical cases, a liver and a lung case. Based on our technique we propose an algorithm for fast generation of epsilon-optimal plans.

  2. Scaffolds of polycaprolactone with hydroxyapatite fibers;Scaffolds de poli(epsilon-caprolactona) com fibras de hidroxiapatita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Guinea B.C.; Zavaglia, Cecilia A.C., E-mail: guicardoso@fem.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais; Ramos, Sergio L.F. [Universidade Federal Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Arruda, Antonio Celso F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. do Petroleo

    2009-07-01

    Scaffolds of poly (epsilon-caprolactone) has been studied in many researches in tissue engineering. The used of hydroxyapatite fibers, allowed increase its resistance mechanical, beside the character bioactive and osteoconductive. Improving, its role in tissue engineering. The aim in this study was developed polycaprolactone matrix with dispersed hydroxyapatite fibers. The characterizations were by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X- Ray Diffractometer (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Energy dispersive X-Ray Detector (EDX). Was able reviewed its composition, morphology and possible contaminations. The results were scaffolds with porosity and distribution of the fibers in all its area. (author)

  3. The apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele determines prognosis and the effect on prognosis of simvastatin in survivors of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Gerdes, C; Kervinen, K;

    2000-01-01

    and whether the benefits of treatment with simvastatin differed between genotypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze 5.5 years of follow-up data from 966 Danish and Finnish myocardial infarction survivors enrolled in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study. A total...... genotype did not predict the risk of a major coronary event. Baseline serum levels of lipoprotein(a) also predicted mortality risk and could be combined with epsilon4-carrier status to define 3 groups of patients with different prognoses and benefits from treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial infarction...

  4. Alcoholysis of epsilon-decalactone with polyethylene glycol-modified lipase in 1,1,1-trichloroethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, M; Kodera, Y; Uemura, T; Hiroto, M; Matsushima, A; Kuno, H; Matsushita, H; Inada, Y

    1994-02-28

    Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was modified with 2,4-bis[O-methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)]-6-chloro-s-triazine, activated PEG2, to form PEG-lipase. The PEG-lipase is soluble and active in organic solvents. It catalyzes alcoholysis of racemic epsilon-decalactone with ethanol in 1,1,1-trichloroethane to form (R)-hydroxydecanoic acid ethyl ester. No alcoholysis of (S)-decalactone takes place. These results were discussed in relation to carbon number of n-alcohol, optimum temperature and comparison with modified and non-modified lipases.

  5. Fiscal Year 2010 Summary Report on the Epsilon-Metal Phase as a Waste Form for 99 Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Buck, Edgar C.; Riley, Brian J.; Zumhoff, Mac R.

    2010-09-30

    Epsilon metal (ε-metal) is generated in nuclear fuel during irradiation. This metal consists of Pd, Ru, Rh, Mo, and some Te. These accumulate at the UO2 grain boundaries as small (ca 5 µm) particles. These metals have limited solubility in the acid used to dissolve fuel during reprocessing and in typical borosilicate glass. These must be treated separately to improve overall waste loading in glass. This low solubility and their survival in 2 Gy-old natural reactors led us to investigate them as a waste form for the immobilization of 99Tc and 107Pd, two very long-lived isotopes.

  6. Active tuning of epsilon-near-zero point of hyperbolic metamaterial at visible and near-infrared regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhao, Hua; Su, Hang; Hu, Guangwei; Zhang, Jingwen

    2016-09-01

    An active method of continuously tuning the effective permittivity of a hyperbolic metamaterial at visible and near-infrared spectra is introduced in this letter. A transparent conducting oxide, whose optical properties can be altered accurately by applying an external voltage, is inserted into a traditional metal-dielectric multilayer structure to increase the degree of freedom for tuning the epsilon-near-zero point by shifting the topological transition point. The tuning effect is explained in detail by combining the relationship between permittivity and voltage with wavevector analysis. This may promote other active applications of hyperbolic metamaterials and ultrafast tunable optoelectronic devices.

  7. Catalytic surface modification of roll-milled poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) biaxially stretched to ultra-thin dimension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, H.L. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Taniguchi, A. [Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Yu, H. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Okano, T. [Bionic Materials Technology Group, Biomaterials Center, National Institute for Materials Science (Japan); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Tokyo Women' s Medical University (Japan); Teoh, S.H. [Graduate Programme in Bioengineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore) and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)]. E-mail: mpetsh@nus.edu.sg

    2007-03-15

    A novel roll-milling polymer processing technique along with biaxial stretching was used to fabricate 10 {mu}m thick poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) films. A less invasive collagen surface modification was used, involving a reaction between corona-preactivated membranes and ferrous-containing acrylic acid solution at the low temperature of 42 {sup o}C. Successful modified films were characterized by Toluidine Blue O assay and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells also showed both higher proliferation rate and differentiated cobblestone morphology on these collagen-immobilized substrates.

  8. The development and characterization of a primarily mineral calcium phosphate - poly(epsilon-caprolactone) biocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Ian Robert

    Orthopaedic reconstruction often involves the surgical introduction of structural implants that provide for rigid fixation, skeletal stabilization, and bone integration. The high stresses incurred by these implanted devices have historically limited material choices to metallic and select polymeric formulations. While mechanical requirements are achieved, these non-degradable materials do not participate actively in the remodeling of the skeleton and present the possibility of long-term failure or rejection. This is particularly relevant in cervical fusion, an orthopaedic procedure to treat damaged, degenerative or diseased intervertebral discs. A significant improvement on the available synthetic bone replacement/regeneration options for implants to treat these conditions in the cervical spine may be achieved with the development of primarily mineral biocomposites comprised of a bioactive ceramic matrix reinforced with a biodegradable polymer. Such a biocomposite may be engineered to possess the clinically required mechanical properties of a particular application, while maintaining the ability to be remodeled completely by the body. A biocomposite of Si-doped calcium phosphate (Si-CaP) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was developed for application as such a synthetic bone material for potential use as a fusion device in the cervical spine. In this thesis, a method by which high mineral content Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites with interpenetrating matrices of mineral and polymer phases may be prepared will be demonstrated, in addition to the effects of the various preparation parameters on the biocomposite density, porosity and mechanical properties. This new technique by which dense, primarily ceramic Si-CaP/PCL biocomposites were prepared, allowed for the incorporation of mineral contents ranging between 45-97vol%. Polymer infiltration, accomplished solely by passive capillary uptake over several days, was found to be capable of fully infiltrating the microporosity

  9. Ultraviolet and Optical Line Profile Variations in the Spectrum of {epsilon} Persei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, D. R.; Kambe, E.; Josephs, T. S.; Bagnuolo, W. G. Jr.; Choi, Y. J.; Gudehus, D.; Guyton, K. M.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Hildebrand, J. L.; Kaye, A. B. (and others)

    1999-11-01

    The rapid variable star, {epsilon} Per (B0.5 IV-III), displays the largest amplitude profile fluctuations known among the growing number of massive, spectrum-variable stars. Here we present an analysis of a continuous 5 day run of IUE UV spectroscopy, and we show for the first time that the systematic, blue-to-red moving patterns observed in high-quality optical spectra are also present in the UV photospheric lines. We present cross-correlation functions of the individual spectra with that of a narrow-lined standard that produce a high signal-to-noise ratio representation of the blue-to-red moving bump patterns found in individual lines. We then use time series analysis methods to determine the periodic components of the profile variations (after reregistering the spectra to correct for binary motion). There are at least six periods present (ranging from 8.46 to 2.27 hr), and most of these signals are also found in optical line variations observed in 1986 (although the relative amplitudes have changed significantly). Furthermore, analysis of a shorter time series of IUE spectra from 1984 shows that similar periods were present then. We also present H{alpha} and He i {lambda}6678 profiles obtained with the Georgia State University Multi-Telescope Telescope, which were made simultaneously with IUE, and we show that the profile variations are essentially identical in the UV and optical ranges. We rule out rotational modulation and circumstellar gas obscuration as possible causes, and we suggest instead that the variations are the result of photospheric nonradial pulsations of relatively low degree (l=3-5). There were significant changes ({approx}10%) in the equivalent widths of the UV stellar wind lines during the IUE run, and we suggest that wind strengthening events are related to episodes of large-amplitude, constructive interference between the NRP modes. Thus, intermode beating may play an important role in promoting wind loss from massive stars. (c) (c) 1999

  10. Activity of daptomycin- and vancomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone microparticles against mature staphylococcal biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Ferreira I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inês Santos Ferreira,1 Ana F Bettencourt,1 Lídia MD Gonçalves,1 Stefanie Kasper,2 Bertrand Bétrisey,3 Judith Kikhney,2 Annette Moter,2 Andrej Trampuz,4 António J Almeida1 1Research Institute for Medicines (iMed.ULisboa, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; 2Biofilmcenter, German Heart Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Infectious Diseases Service, Department of Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland; 4Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Charité – University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop novel daptomycin-loaded poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL microparticles with enhanced antibiofilm activity against mature biofilms of clinically relevant bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and polysaccharide intercellular adhesin-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Daptomycin was encapsulated into PCL microparticles by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. For comparison purposes, formulations containing vancomycin were also prepared. Particle morphology, size distribution, encapsulation efficiency, surface charge, thermal behavior, and in vitro release were assessed. All formulations exhibited a spherical morphology, micro­meter size, and negative surface charge. From a very early time stage, the released concentrations of daptomycin and vancomycin were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration and continued so up to 72 hours. Daptomycin presented a sustained release profile with increasing concentrations of the drug being released up to 72 hours, whereas the release of vancomycin stabilized at 24 hours. The antibacterial activity of the microparticles was assessed by isothermal microcalorimetry against planktonic and sessile MRSA and S. epidermidis. Regarding planktonic bacteria, daptomycin-loaded PCL microparticles presented the highest antibacterial activity against both strains. Isothermal

  11. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the epsilon subunit of the F1-F0 ATP synthase from Escherichia coli reveals two classes of mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, H; Vik, S B

    1995-10-06

    Alanine-scanning mutagenesis was applied to the epsilon subunit of the F1-F0 ATP synthase from E. coli. Nineteen amino acid residues were changed to alanine, either singly or in pairs, between residues 10 and 93. All mutants, when expressed in the epsilon deletion strain XH1, were able to grow on succinate minimal medium. Membranes were prepared from all mutants and assayed for ATP-driven proton translocation, ATP hydrolysis +/- lauryldiethylamine oxide, and sensitivity of ATPase activity to N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD). Most of the mutants fell into 2 distinct classes. The first group had inhibited ATPase activity, with near normal levels of membrane-bound F1, but decreased sensitivity to DCCD. The second group had stimulated ATPase activity, with a reduced level of membrane-bound F1, but normal sensitivity to DCCD. Membranes from all mutants were further characterized by immunoblotting using 2 monoclonal antibodies. A model for the secondary structure of epsilon and its role in the function of the ATP synthase has been developed. Some residues are important for the binding of epsilon to F1 and therefore for inhibition. Other residues, from Glu-59 through Glu-70, are important for the release of inhibition by epsilon that is part of the normal enzyme cycle.

  12. Structures of the thermophilic F1-ATPase epsilon subunit suggesting ATP-regulated arm motion of its C-terminal domain in F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hiromasa; Kajiwara, Nobumoto; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Kato-Yamada, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Masasuke; Akutsu, Hideo

    2007-07-03

    The epsilon subunit of bacterial and chloroplast F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases modulates their ATP hydrolysis activity. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ATP-bound epsilon subunit from a thermophilic Bacillus PS3 at 1.9-A resolution. The C-terminal two alpha-helices were folded into a hairpin, sitting on the beta sandwich structure, as reported for Escherichia coli. A previously undescribed ATP binding motif, I(L)DXXRA, recognizes ATP together with three arginine and one glutamate residues. The E. coli epsilon subunit binds ATP in a similar manner, as judged on NMR. We also determined solution structures of the C-terminal domain of the PS3 epsilon subunit and relaxation parameters of the whole molecule by NMR. The two helices fold into a hairpin in the presence of ATP but extend in the absence of ATP. The latter structure has more helical regions and is much more flexible than the former. These results suggest that the epsilon C-terminal domain can undergo an arm-like motion in response to an ATP concentration change and thereby contribute to regulation of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase.

  13. Sources of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and epsilon-carotenes: a twentieth century review Fontes de alfa-, beta-, gama-, delta-, e epsilon-carotenos: uma revisão do século XX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Barbosa-Filho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since humans cannot synthesize carotenoids, they depend upon the diet exclusively for the source of these micronutrients. It has claimed that they may alleviate chronic diseases such as cancers. The present communication constitutes a global review of the scientific literature on plants and others organisms that biosynthesize carotenoids, which include the series alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta- and epsilon-carotenes. The results of the literature survey lists more than five hundred sources.Uma vez que os humanos não podem sintetizar carotenóides, dependem exclusivamente da dieta como fonte desses micronutrientes. Tem sido afirmado que eles podem aliviar doenças crônicas, tais como cânceres. O presente artigo constitui uma revisão global da literatura científica sobre plantas e outros organismos que biossintetizam carotenóides, que incluem as séries alfa-, beta-, gama-, delta-, e epsilon-carotenos. Os resultados das listas de pesquisa da literatura mostram mais de quinhentas fontes.

  14. Accelerations of {epsilon}+{alpha}{yields}{beta} transformation and sintering of iron silicide by addition of Pd; Pd tenka ni yoru keikatetsu no {epsilon}+{alpha}{yields}{beta} hentai to shoketsu no sokushin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, M.; Yamamoto, N.; Takeda, T. [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan); Hayashi, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1996-12-15

    FeSi2 ({beta} phase) semiconducting iron silicide, which is expected to be widely used as a thermoelectric material in high temperature environment, is formed below 1259K by the peritectoid reaction of FeSi ({epsilon}) and Fe2Si5 ({alpha}) two metallic phases. Because the transformation of {epsilon} + {alpha} {yields} {beta} caused by this peritectoid reaction occurs considerably slowly, the iron silicide material which is produced by sintering of the powder at temperatures above 1259K has to be isothermally heat-treated for at least 180ks at about 1120K after the sintering so that the transformation occurs completely. We have found that the transformation was drastically accelerated by the addition of a small amount of Pd in the same way as Cu; the isothermal heat-treatment time necessary for the completion of the transformation was reduced to about 1/60. The sintering time needed for the almost full densification of the powder by pressure DCL sintering (DCL; direct current loading) was also reduced. A hypothesis for the mechanisms was proposed. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Oral Multiple Sclerosis Drugs Inhibit the In vitro Growth of Epsilon Toxin Producing Gut Bacterium, Clostridium perfringens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumah, Kareem R.; Vartanian, Timothy K.; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2017-01-01

    There are currently three oral medications approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two of these medications, Fingolimod, and Teriflunomide, are considered to be anti-inflammatory agents, while dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is thought to trigger a robust antioxidant response, protecting vulnerable cells during an MS attack. We previously proposed that epsilon toxin from the gut bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, may initiate newly forming MS lesions due to its tropism for blood-brain barrier (BBB) vasculature and central nervous system myelin. Because gut microbiota will be exposed to these oral therapies prior to systemic absorption, we sought to determine if these compounds affect C. perfringens growth in vitro. Here we show that Fingolimod, Teriflunomide, and DMF indeed inhibit C. perfringens growth. Furthermore, several compounds similar to DMF in chemical structure, namely α, β unsaturated carbonyls, also known as Michael acceptors, inhibit C. perfringens. Sphingosine, a Fingolimod homolog with known antibacterial properties, proved to be a potent C. perfringens inhibitor with a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration similar to that of Fingolimod. These findings suggest that currently approved oral MS therapies and structurally related compounds possess antibacterial properties that may alter the gut microbiota. Moreover, inhibition of C. perfringens growth and resulting blockade of epsilon toxin production may contribute to the clinical efficacy of these disease-modifying drugs. PMID:28180112

  16. Oral Multiple Sclerosis Drugs Inhibit the In vitro Growth of Epsilon Toxin Producing Gut Bacterium, Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumah, Kareem R; Vartanian, Timothy K; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2017-01-01

    There are currently three oral medications approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Two of these medications, Fingolimod, and Teriflunomide, are considered to be anti-inflammatory agents, while dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is thought to trigger a robust antioxidant response, protecting vulnerable cells during an MS attack. We previously proposed that epsilon toxin from the gut bacterium, Clostridium perfringens, may initiate newly forming MS lesions due to its tropism for blood-brain barrier (BBB) vasculature and central nervous system myelin. Because gut microbiota will be exposed to these oral therapies prior to systemic absorption, we sought to determine if these compounds affect C. perfringens growth in vitro. Here we show that Fingolimod, Teriflunomide, and DMF indeed inhibit C. perfringens growth. Furthermore, several compounds similar to DMF in chemical structure, namely α, β unsaturated carbonyls, also known as Michael acceptors, inhibit C. perfringens. Sphingosine, a Fingolimod homolog with known antibacterial properties, proved to be a potent C. perfringens inhibitor with a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration similar to that of Fingolimod. These findings suggest that currently approved oral MS therapies and structurally related compounds possess antibacterial properties that may alter the gut microbiota. Moreover, inhibition of C. perfringens growth and resulting blockade of epsilon toxin production may contribute to the clinical efficacy of these disease-modifying drugs.

  17. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele distribution in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with or without global intellectual deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, T; Kato, M; Matsui, T; Yoshimasu, H; Yoshino, A; Matsushita, S; Higuchi, S; Kashima, H

    1997-01-01

    Recent genetic studies show that the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) epsilon 4 allele is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether this allele is associated with other dementing diseases is the next important question. The information could provide a clue to the pathogenetic role of ApoE. In the present study, patients with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) of alcoholic etiology were divided into two groups according to the severity of intellectual deficits, i.e., those of "classical" Korsakoff patients with preserved intellectual function other than amnesia and those with global intellectual deficits. Genotyping showed that the frequency of ApoE epsilon 4 allele was significantly higher in the patients with global deficits, suggesting the involvement of this allele in the intellectual decline of WKS. In contrast, distributions of other two markers, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and presenilin-1, did not differ between the two groups. These results added further support to the notion that the consequence of acute insult to the brain is influenced by the ApoE genotype, and suggested ApoE's role in the development of a certain group of "alcoholic dementia."

  18. Controlled protein release from electrospun biodegradable fiber mesh composed of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taek Gyoung; Lee, Doo Sung; Park, Tae Gwan

    2007-06-29

    A blend mixture of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was electrospun to produce fibrous meshes that could release a protein drug in a controlled manner. Various biodegradable polymers, such as poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA), poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were dissolved, along with PEO and lysozyme, in a mixture of chloroform and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The mixture was electrospun to produce lysozyme loaded fibrous meshes. Among the polymers, the PCL/PEO blend meshes showed good morphological stability upon incubation in the buffer solution, resulting in controlled release of lysozyme over an extended period with reduced initial bursts. With varying the PCL/PEO blending ratio, the release rate of lysozyme from the corresponding meshes could be readily modulated. The lysozyme release was facilitated by increasing the amount of PEO, indicating that entrapped lysozyme was mainly released out by controlled dissolution of PEO from the blend meshes. Lysozyme released from the electrospun fibers retained sufficient catalytic activity.

  19. Preparation of bupivacaine-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microspheres by spray drying: drug release studies and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, M D; Bernardo, M V; Sastre, R L; Olmo, R; Muñiz, E; Teijón, J M

    2003-03-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microspheres containing bupivacaine were prepared by the spray-drying process. The average size of drug loaded microspheres was less than 3 microm in diameter, and the percentage of entrapment efficiency was 91 +/- 3%. In vitro drug release kinetic in phosphate buffer at 37 degrees C showed a hyperbolic profile, with a burst-effect during the first hour. Subcutaneous injection of bupivacaine-loaded microspheres in the back of rats caused an increase in drug concentration in plasma. Maximum bupivacaine concentration in plasma was 237 +/- 58 ng/ml at 105 h, and drug was detected in plasma for 16 days. The half-life time of the drug was increased by more than 125 times with regard to that of the drug administered in a solution by intraperitoneal injection. After 30 days of injection, a mass formed by microspheres surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule was observed. Small blood vessels and multinucleate foreign body giant cells with macrophagic function around microspheres were detected. After 60 days of injection a subcutaneous mass was also observed, which was formed of more degraded dispersed microspheres in conjunctive tissue, which had a normal structure. Thus, bupivacaine-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) microspheres could be considered as a device to be used in the treatment of severe pain that is not responsive to opioids for example in cancer-related syndromes or in intractable herpetic neuralgia.

  20. The use of the k - {epsilon} turbulence model within the Rossby Centre regional ocean climate model: parameterization development and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Meier, H.E. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoeping (Sweden). Rossby Centre

    2000-09-01

    As mixing plays a dominant role for the physics of an estuary like the Baltic Sea (seasonal heat storage, mixing in channels, deep water mixing), different mixing parameterizations for use in 3D Baltic Sea models are discussed and compared. For this purpose two different OGCMs of the Baltic Sea are utilized. Within the Swedish regional climate modeling program, SWECLIM, a 3D coupled ice-ocean model for the Baltic Sea has been coupled with an improved version of the two-equation k - {epsilon} turbulence model with corrected dissipation term, flux boundary conditions to include the effect of a turbulence enhanced layer due to breaking surface gravity waves and a parameterization for breaking internal waves. Results of multi-year simulations are compared with observations. The seasonal thermocline is simulated satisfactory and erosion of the halocline is avoided. Unsolved problems are discussed. To replace the controversial equation for dissipation the performance of a hierarchy of k-models has been tested and compared with the k - {epsilon} model. In addition, it is shown that the results of the mixing parameterization depend very much on the choice of the ocean model. Finally, the impact of two mixing parameterizations on Baltic Sea climate is investigated. In this case the sensitivity of mean SST, vertical temperature and salinity profiles, ice season and seasonal cycle of heat fluxes is quite large.

  1. Structure of modified [epsilon]-polylysine micelles and their application in improving cellular antioxidant activity of curcuminoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hailong; Li, Ji; Shi, Ke; Huang, Qingrong (Rutgers)

    2015-10-15

    The micelle structure of octenyl succinic anhydride modified {var_epsilon}-polylysine (M-EPL), an anti-microbial surfactant prepared from natural peptide {var_epsilon}-polylysine in aqueous solution has been studied using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Our results revealed that M-EPLs formed spherical micelles with individual size of 24-26 {angstrom} in aqueous solution which could further aggregate to form a larger dimension with averaged radius of 268-308 {angstrom}. Furthermore, M-EPL micelle was able to encapsulate curcuminoids, a group of poorly-soluble bioactive compounds from turmeric with poor oral bioavailability, and improve their water solubility. Three loading methods, including solvent evaporation, dialysis, and high-speed homogenization were compared. The results indicated that the dialysis method generated the highest loading capacity and curcuminoids water solubility. The micelle encapsulation was confirmed as there were no free curcuminoid crystals detected in the differential scanning calorimetry analysis. It was also demonstrated that M-EPL encapsulation stabilized curcuminoids against hydrolysis at pH 7.4 and the encapsulated curcuminoids showed elevated cellular antioxidant activity compared with free curcuminoids. This work suggested that M-EPL could be used as new biopolymer micelles for delivering poorly soluble drugs/phytochemicals and improving their bioactivities.

  2. Adaptação da função dielétrica {épsilon"/[épsilon'(a f épsilon' - épsilon"]} para determinação do teor de água em sementes de feijão por radiofreqüências Adjustment of the microwave dielectric function {epsilon"/[epsilon'(a f epsilon' - epsilon"]} to estimate the moisture content of commom bean seeds at radiofrequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Berbert

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de modelos dielétricos universais para se estimar o teor de água de grãos e sementes é, atualmente, uma das principais tendências da engenharia de desenvolvimento de protótipos de medidores on-line. Esses modelos permitem a utilização de um único algoritmo, construído a partir de um mesmo tipo de função de calibração, para se calcular o teor de água de grãos em movimento sem a influência do fluxo de massa. No presente trabalho avaliou-se o desempenho de um modelo dielétrico originalmente desenvolvido para freqüências de microondas para estimar o teor de água em sementes de feijão on-line e que foi derivado de uma função do tipo zeta = F{épsilon"/[épsilon'(a fépsilon'-épsilon"]}, em que épsilon' e épsilon" representam a permissividade elétrica relativa e o fator de perda dielétrica dos grãos, respectivamente, e a f é uma constante que depende apenas da freqüência de oscilação. A medição dos parâmetros dielétricos foi feita utilizando-se amostras de feijão com teor de água no intervalo 11,5% b.u. The development of universal dielectric models to estimate the moisture content of grains and seeds is one of the main trends in the field of engineering for the production of on-line moisture meter prototypes. These models allow the use of a single algorithm, derived from a unique calibration equation, to calculate moisture content of moving grain independently of bulk density or mass flow rate. In this paper, the performance of a dielectric model originally developed for microwave frequencies has been assessed for estimating moisture content of common bean seeds at radiofrequencies. The model was derived from the following function, zeta = F{epsilon"/[epsilon'(a fepsilon'-epsilon"]}, in which epsilon' e epsilon" are the relative permittivity and dielectric loss factor, respectively, and af is an extrinsic parameter dependent on the frequency of oscillation. Measurement of dielectric

  3. Direct interaction of Syk and Lyn protein tyrosine kinases in rat basophilic leukemia cells activated via type I Fc epsilon receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoui, M; Dráberová, L; Tolar, P; Dráber, P

    1997-01-01

    Activation of rat mast cells through the receptor with high affinity for IgE (Fc epsilonRI) requires a complex set of interactions involving transmembrane subunits of the Fc epsilonRI and two classes of nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase (PTK). the Src family PTK p53/p56(lyn) (Lyn) and the Syk/ZAP-family PTK p72(syk) (Syk). Early activation events involve increased activity of Lyn and Syk kinases and their translocation into membrane domains containing aggregated Fc epsilonRI, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for these changes have remained largely unclear. To determine the role of Fc epsilonRI subunits in this process, we have analyzed Syk- and Lyn-associated proteins in activated rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells and their variants deficient in the expression of Fc epsilonRI beta or gamma subunits. Sepharose 4B gel chromatography of postnuclear supernatants from Nonidet-P40-solubilized antigen (Ag)- or pervanadate-activated RBL cells revealed extensive changes in the size of complexes formed by Lyn and Syk kinases and other cellular components. A fusion protein containing Src homology 2 (SH2) and SH3 domains of Lyn bound Syk from lysates of nonactivated RBL cells; an increased binding was observed when lysates from Ag- or pervanadate-activated cells were used. A similar amount of Syk was bound when lysates from pervanadate-activated variant cells deficient in the expression of Fc epsilonRI beta or gamma subunits were used, suggesting that Fc epsilonRI does not function as the only intermediate in the formation of the Syk-Lyn complexes. Further experiments have indicated that Syk-Lyn interactions occur in Ag-activated RBL cells under in vivo conditions and that these interactions could involve direct binding of the Lyn SH2 domain with phosphorylated tyrosine of Syk. The physical association of Lyn and Syk during mast-like cell activation supports the recently proposed functional cooperation of these two tyrosine kinases in Fc epsilonRI signaling.

  4. Facile synthesis of linear-dendritic cholesteryl-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-(L-lysine)(G2) by thiol-ene and azide-alkyne "click" reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Binder, W.H.; Tanner, S.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of a linear-dendritic block copolymer consisting of terminal cholesteryl moiety, poly(epsilon-caprolactone), and a second generation L-lysine dendron has been accomplished by the combination of copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne and UV-triggered thiol-ene "click" reactions. Ring......-opening polymerization of E-caprolactone initiated by 5-hexyn-1-ol and Mitsunobu coupling with 4-pentenoic acid provide hetero-telechelic poly(epsilon-caprolactone) bearing terminal alkyne and alkene groups. It is then employed in the sequential "click" reactions with the azide-functionalized dendritic wedge...

  5. Long-term evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a thin-walled biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide, using walking track analysis and electrostimulation tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Den Dunnen, WFA; Schakenraad, JM; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the long-term functional nerve recovery after reconstruction of a IO-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat, with a thin-walled nerve guide, composed of a biodegradable copolymer of DL-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone [p(DLLA-epsilon-CL)]. To evaluate both motor

  6. The biosynthesis of protein-bound hypusine (N epsilon -(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine). Lysine as the amino acid precursor and the intermediate role of deoxyhypusine (N epsilon -(4-aminobutyl)lysine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M H; Cooper, H L; Folk, J E

    1982-06-25

    The major labeled constituent produced in cellular protein during the incubation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with [3H]putrescine or [terminal methylenes-3H]spermidine was identified as hypusine (N epsilon -(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine). This unusual amino acid was found to occur predominantly in one relatively acidic low molecular weight protein. When CHO cells were labeled with [4,5-3H)lysine, a small portion of the radioactivity of the cellular protein fraction, after release by proteolytic digestion or acid hydrolysis, chromatographed at the position of hypusine. Oxidative degradation of this isolated labeled material yielded labeled lysine, thus, providing evidence that lysine is the amino acid precursor of hypusine. Upon incubation of CHO cells with the metal chelator, alpha,alpha-dipyridyl, and either [4,5]3H]lysine or [terminal methylenes-3H]spermidine, label was incorporated into a protein-bound material, the chromatographic properties of which, after release by digestion, were found to be different from those of hypusine. This constituent of cell protein was identified as the unhydroxylated form of hypusine, deoxyhypusine (N epsilon -(4-aminobutyl)lysine). Evidence that the normal biosynthesis of hypusine proceeds through hydroxylation of deoxyhypusine was obtained by demonstration of conversion of protein-bound deoxyhypusine to protein-bound hypusine both in intact cells and in cell-free lysate. In the presence of the metal chelator, alpha,alpha-dipyridyl, deoxyhypusine accumulated in a single protein whose two dimensional electrophoretic properties were indistinguishable from those of the usual hypusine-containing protein. This finding supports the proposed mechanism in which peptide-bound lysine is converted to peptide-bound hypusine through hydroxylation of the transitory intermediate, deoxyhypusine.

  7. El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} space-time and scale relativity theory in the topological dimension D = 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agop, M. [Department of Physics, Technical ' Gh. Asachi' University, Blvd. Mangeron, No. 64, Iasi 700029 (Romania)]. E-mail: magop@phys.tuiasi.ro; Murgulet, C. [Department of Physics, Technical ' Gh. Asachi' University, Blvd. Mangeron, No. 64, Iasi 700029 (Romania)

    2007-05-15

    In the topological dimension D = 4 of the scale relativity theory, the self-structuring of a coherent quantum fluid implies the Golden mean renormalization group. Then, the transfinite set of El Naschie's {epsilon} {sup ({infinity})} space-time becomes the background of a new physics (the transfinite physics)

  8. In vivo and in vitro degradation of poly[(50)/(50) ((85)/(L)(15)/(D))LA/epsilon-CL], and the implications for the use in nerve reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dunnen, WFA; Meek, MF; Grijpma, DW; Robinson, PF; Schakenraad, JM

    2000-01-01

    Nerve guides can be used for the reconstruction of peripheral nerve defects. After serving their function, nerve guides should degrade. p[(50)/(50) ((85)/(L)(15)/(D))LA/epsilon-CL] degrades completely within 1 year without the formation of a slow degrading crystalline fraction. Although the tensile

  9. The association between APOE epsilon4 and Alzheimer-type dementia among memory clinic patients is confined to those with a higher education. The DESCRIPA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeiren, A.P.; Bosma, H.; Visser, P.J.; Zeegers, M.P.; Graff, C.; Ewers, M.; Frisoni, G.B.; Frolich, L.; Hampel, H.; Jones, R.W.; Kehoe, P.G.; Lenoir, H.; Minthon, L.; Nobili, F.M.; Rikkert, M. Olde; Rigaud, A.S.; Scheltens, P.; Soininen, H.; Spiru, L.; Tsolaki, M.; Wahlund, L.O.; Vellas, B.; Wilcock, G.; Elias-Sonnenschein, L.S.; Verhey, F.R.J.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the interaction between the APOE epsilon4 allele and education level in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among memory clinic patients from the multicenter DESCRIPA study. Subjects (n = 544) were followed for 1 to 5 years. We used Cox's stratified survival modeling, adjusted for a

  10. Predictive value of APOE-epsilon 4 allele for progression from MCI to AD-type dementia : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias-Sonnenschein, Lyzel S.; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Ramakers, Inez H. G. B.; Verhey, Frans R. J.; Visser, Pieter Jelle

    2011-01-01

    Background The identification of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at high risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for prognosis and early intervention. The APOE-epsilon 4 allele is the strongest known genetic risk factor for AD. The authors performed a meta-analysis to establish

  11. Light-microscopic and electron-microscopic evaluation of short-term nerve regeneration using a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolacton) nerve guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    denDunnen, WFA; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, EH; Holwerda, A; Pennings, AJ; Robinson, PH; Schakenraad, JM

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term peripheral nerve regeneration across a IO-mm gap, using a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolacton) nerve guide, with an internal diameter of 1.5 mm and a wall thickness of 0.30 mm. To do so, we evaluated regenerating nerves using light micro

  12. Electronmicroscopical evaluation of short-term nerve regeneration through a thin-walled biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, EH; Kors, G; den Dunnen, WFA

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using a thin-walled biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon -caprolactone) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT). The evaluation was performed us

  13. Synthesis, characterizations and biocompatibility of novel biodegradable star block copolymers based on poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] and poly(epsilon-caprolactone)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Kaitian;

    2010-01-01

    Star block copolymers based on poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL), termed SPHBCL, were successfully synthesized with structural variation on arm numbers and lengths via coupling reactions and ring opening polymerizations. Arm numbers 3, 4 and 6 of SPHBCL were...

  14. Evaluation of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a poly (DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide, filled with modified denatured muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Den Dunnen, WFA; Schakenraad, JM; Robinson, PH

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the speed of functional nerve recovery after reconstruction with a biodegradable p(DLLA-epsilon -CL) nerve guide, as filled with either modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). To evaluate both motor and sensory nerve recovery,

  15. Increased CSF-BACE 1 Activity Is Associated with ApoE-[Epsilon]4 Genotype in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Michael; Zhong, Zhenyu; Burger, Katharina; Wallin, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Teipel, Stefan J.; Shen, Yong; Hampel, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The Apolipoprotein (ApoE) [epsilon]4 allele is a major genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease, and may affect the production of amyloid beta (A[beta][subscript 1-42]). Recently, we have shown that [beta]-secretase (BACE 1) activity can be reliably detected within the brain and human CSF. Here, we have examined an association between the ApoE…

  16. Comparative analysis of biological activities of Der p I-derived peptides on Fc epsilon receptor-bearing cells from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-sensitive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannin, P; Pestel, J; Bossus, M; Lassalle, P; Tartar, A; Tonnel, A B

    1993-01-01

    The ability of four uncoupled synthetic peptides (p52-71, p117-133, p176-187, p188-199) derived from Der p I, a major allergen from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) to stimulate Fc epsilon R+ cells from Dpt-sensitive patients was comparatively analysed. Each free peptide may specifically stimulate basophils (Fc epsilon RI+ cells) and platelets (Fc epsilon RII+ cells) from patients with significant levels of anti-Der p I IgE antibodies; p52-71 and p117-133 appear the best cell stimulation inducers. Both concentration-dependent biological activities of Der p I-peptide on Fc epsilon R+ cells are enhanced by coupling peptide to a carrier (as human serum albumin). Interestingly each Der p I-sensitive patient tested presents an individual pattern of response to peptide. Thus, from our results it appears that different Der p I sequences could be involved in the immune response to Der p I. PMID:7682161

  17. Nonreceptor protein tyrosine and lipid phosphatases in type I fc(epsilon) receptor-mediated activation of mast cells and basophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Dráber, Petr

    2002-08-01

    Protein tyrosine and lipid phosphorylations are early and critical events in type 1 Fc(epsilon) receptor (Fc(epsilon)RI)-mediated activation of mast cells and basophils. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Fc(epsilon)RI subunits as well as other signal transduction molecules reflects the balance between the action of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Similarly, the phosphate content of inositol phospholipids, involved in the recruitment of signalling molecules to the plasma membrane and the generation of secondary messengers, is the net result of the opposing effects of phosphoinositide kinases and lipid phosphatases. This review summarizes the current understanding of the structural and functional aspects of nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (SHP-1, SHP-2, HePTP, PTP20, PRL1, PRL2, PTP-MEG1 and PTP-MEG2) and lipid phosphatases (SHIP and SHIP2) in the activation of mast cells and basophils after Fc(epsilon)RI aggregation. New approaches towards a deeper understanding of the role of phosphatases in mast cell physiology are also discussed.

  18. New insights in the structure and biology of the high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) on human epidermal Langerhans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, T; Kraft, S; Jürgens, M; Strobel, I; Haberstok, J; Tomov, H; Regele, D; de la Salle, H; Wollenberg, A; Hanau, D

    1996-10-01

    The recent structural and functional analysis of the high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) expressed on human epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) revealed new aspects of the biology of this structure. In contrast to basophils and mast cells where this receptor seems to be expressed constitutively at a constant level, the expression of Fc epsilon RI on LC varies on the donor and the inflammatory environment of the cells and lacks the classical beta-chain. This also implies functional differences most probably related to the expression level. Although the signalling pathway seems to be similar to that of basophils or mast cells, LC from individuals with atopic dermatitis are fully activated by receptor ligation while LC from normal individuals fail to exhibit calcium mobilization under the same conditions. Finally, LC from normal and atopic individuals use Fc epsilon RI to maximize antigen uptake via specific IgE and subsequent presentation to T cells. Thus, Fc epsilon RI expressed on LC differs in terms of structure and function from that expressed on effector cells of anaphylaxis.

  19. N-epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine depositions in intramyocardial blood vessels in human and rat acute myocardial infarction - A predictor or reflection of infarction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Baidoshvili; P.A.J. Krijnen; K. Kupreishvili; C. Ciurana; W. Bleeker; R. Nijmeijer; C.A. Visser; F.C. Visser; C.J.L.M. Meijer; W. Stooker; L. Eijsman; V.W.M. van Hinsbergh; C.E. Hack; H.W.M. Niessen; C.G. Schalkwijk

    2006-01-01

    Objective - Advanced glycation end products ( AGEs), such as N-epsilon-( carboxymethyl) lysine ( CML), are implicated in vascular disease. We previously reported increased CML accumulation in small intramyocardial blood vessels in diabetes patients. Diabetes patients have an increased risk for acute

  20. Cloning and characterization of promoter and 5 '-UTR of the NMDA receptor subunit epsilon(2) : evidence for alternative splicing of 5 '-non-coding exon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M; Pieri, [No Value; Uhlmann, F; Pfizenmaier, K; Eisel, U

    1998-01-01

    Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we have cloned the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit epsilon(2) from murine forebrain-derived mRNA. We identified two distinct types of cDNA species differing in the presence or absence of one exon sequence. Se

  1. Electronmicroscopical evaluation of short-term nerve regeneration through a thin-walled biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Stokroos, [No Value; Blaauw, EH; Kors, G; den Dunnen, WFA

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate short-term peripheral nerve regeneration across a 15-mm gap in the sciatic nerve of the rat, using a thin-walled biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon -caprolactone) nerve guide filled with modified denatured muscle tissue (MDMT). The evaluation was performed us

  2. Discovery and consequences of apolipoprotein-epsilon(3Groningen) : a G-insertion in codon 95/96 that is predicted to cause a premature stop codon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; van Doormaal, JJ; Kema, IP; Brugman, AM; Kingma, AW; Muskiet, FAJ

    2005-01-01

    Background We found an unexplained, persistent discrepancy between the outcomes of two apolipoprotein-E (apo-E) genotyping methods for a patient with features of familial dysbetalipoproteinaemia (FD). Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism resulted in the apo-epsilon(2)/e

  3. The ClpXP protease is responsible for the degradation of the Epsilon antidote to the Zeta toxin of the streptococcal pSM19035 plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Iwona; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula

    2014-03-14

    Most bacterial genomes contain different types of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems. The ω-ε-ζ proteinaceous type II TA cassette from the streptococcal pSM19035 plasmid is a member of the ε/ζ family, which is commonly found in multiresistance plasmids and chromosomes of various human pathogens. Regulation of type II TA systems relies on the proteolysis of antitoxin proteins. Under normal conditions, the Epsilon antidote neutralizes the Zeta toxin through the formation of a tight complex. In this study, we show, using both in vivo and in vitro analyses, that the ClpXP protease is responsible for Epsilon antitoxin degradation. Using in vivo studies, we examined the stability of the plasmids with active or inactive ω-ε-ζ TA cassettes in B. subtilis mutants that were defective for different proteases. Using in vitro assays, the degradation of purified His6-Epsilon by the His6-LonBs, ClpPBs, and ClpXBs proteases from B. subtilis was analyzed. Additionally, we showed that purified Zeta toxin protects the Epsilon protein from rapid ClpXP-catalyzed degradation.

  4. Mutations in congenital myasthenic syndromes reveal an epsilon subunit C-terminal cysteine, C470, crucial for maturation and surface expression of adult AChR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ealing, J; Webster, R; Brownlow, S; Abdelgany, A; Oosterhuis, H; Muntoni, F; Vaux, DJ; Vincent, A; Beeson, D

    2002-01-01

    Many congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are associated with mutations in the genes encoding the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), an oligomeric protein with the structure alpha(2)betadeltaepsilon. AChR deficiency is frequently due to homozygous or heteroallelic mutations in the AChR epsilon subunit,

  5. Factors Leading to Membership in Professional Associations and Levels of Professional Commitment as Determined by Active and Inactive Members of Delta Pi Epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCroskey, Stacey; O'Neil, Sharon Lund

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken with grant funds provided by the Delta Pi Epsilon (DPE) Research Foundation, Inc., to assess the factors of professional commitment related to membership. Additionally, the respondents' perceptions about DPE affiliating with the National Business Education Association (NBEA) were investigated. Method: Of the…

  6. Increased CSF-BACE 1 Activity Is Associated with ApoE-[Epsilon]4 Genotype in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Michael; Zhong, Zhenyu; Burger, Katharina; Wallin, Anders; Blennow, Kaj; Teipel, Stefan J.; Shen, Yong; Hampel, Harald

    2008-01-01

    The Apolipoprotein (ApoE) [epsilon]4 allele is a major genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease, and may affect the production of amyloid beta (A[beta][subscript 1-42]). Recently, we have shown that [beta]-secretase (BACE 1) activity can be reliably detected within the brain and human CSF. Here, we have examined an association between the ApoE…

  7. Screening of formulation variables for the preparation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing the local anesthetic benzocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Carolina Morales; de Matos, Angélica Prado; Grillo, Renato; de Melo, Nathalie F S; de Paula, Eneida; Dias Filho, Newton Luiz; Rosa, André Henrique; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2011-03-01

    In this work we describe the screening of four parameters in the preparation, by nanoprecipitation, of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules, used as a drug carrier system for the local anesthetic, benzocaine. A 2(4-1) factorial experimental design was used to study the influence of four different independent variables (polymer, oily phase, Span 60 and Tween 80) on nanocapsule characteristics (size, polydispersion index, zeta potential) and drug loading capability. Best results were obtained using an aqueous formulation comprising 100 mg of polymer, 200 mg of oily phase, 40 mg of Span 60 and 60 mg of Tween 80 in a final volume of 10 mL which produced a colloidal system with particle size of 188 nm, zeta potential -32 mV, polydispersion index 0.07, and benzocaine association efficiency > 87%. These findings open the way for future clinical studies using such formulations.

  8. Hydrogen bond driven chemical reactions: Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime into epsilon-caprolactam in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Mauro; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Liew, Chee Chin; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Parrinello, Michele

    2004-05-26

    Recent experiments have shown that supercritical water (SCW) has the ability to accelerate and make selective synthetic organic reactions, thus replacing the common but environmentally harmful acid and basic catalysts. In an attempt to understand the intimate mechanism behind this observation, we analyze, via first-principles molecular dynamics, the Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime into epsilon-caprolactam in supercritical water, for which accurate experimental evidence has been reported. Differences in the wetting of the hydrophilic parts of the solute, enhanced by SCW, and the disrupted hydrogen bond network are shown to be crucial in triggering the reaction and in making it selective. Furthermore, the enhanced concentrations of H(+) in SCW play an important role in starting the reaction.

  9. Transmission-line analysis of an epsilon near zero tunneling circuit using a double ridge rectangular waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung-Mun [Gyeongbuk Provincial College, Yecheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyeok-Woo; Cho, Young-Ki [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jae-Pyo [Kyungil University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    We present a simple method for efficient modeling of the tunneling effect in an Epsilon Near Zero (ENZ) channel waveguide based on a transmission-line model. The proposed ENZ channel uses a double-ridge rectangular waveguide (RWG) and is located in the middle of the input-output standard rectangular waveguides (IORWG). The height of the channel waveguide is much smaller than that of the IORWG. The detailed design of the ENZ channel is presented, and the optimum length for tunneling phenomena is calculated. These theoretical studies highlight the substantial differences between this unique tunneling phenomenon and higher-frequency Fabry-Perot resonances. We perform a simulation for the designed ENZ channel by using a commercial FEM simulator. The simulated and the measured results for the fabricated ENZ channel structure are in good agreement.

  10. Epsilon-Near-Zero behavior from plasmonic Dirac point: theory and realization using two-dimensional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mattheakis, Marios; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic response of a two-dimensional metal embedded in a periodic array of a dielectric host can give rise to a plasmonic Dirac point that emulates Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) behavior. This theoretical result is extremely sensitive to tructural features like periodicity of the dielectric medium and thickness imperfections. We propose that such a device can actually be realized by using graphene as the 2D metal and materials like the layered semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides or hexagonal boron nitride as the dielectric host. We propose a systematic approach, in terms of design characteristics, for constructing metamaterials with linear, elliptical and hyperbolic dispersion relations which produce ENZ behavior, normal or negative diffraction.

  11. Magnetized Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Structures: Hall Opacity, Hall Transparency, and One-Way Photonic Surface States

    CERN Document Server

    Davoyan, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We study propagation of transverse-magnetic (TM) electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge: we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one-way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to a possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation.

  12. Epsilon-near-zero behavior from plasmonic Dirac point: Theory and realization using two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheakis, Marios; Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-11-01

    The electromagnetic response of a two-dimensional metal embedded in a periodic array of a dielectric host can give rise to a plasmonic Dirac point that emulates epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) behavior. This theoretical result is extremely sensitive to structural features like periodicity of the dielectric medium and thickness imperfections. We propose that such a device can actually be realized by using graphene as the two-dimensional metal and materials like the layered semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides or hexagonal boron nitride as the dielectric host. We propose a systematic approach, in terms of design characteristics, for constructing metamaterials with linear, elliptical, and hyperbolic dispersion relations which produce ENZ behavior, normal or negative diffraction.

  13. Periodic Imbert-Fedrov shift in a prism-coupling waveguide with epsilon-near-zero metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tingting; Li, Jie; Luo, Li; Li, Chaoyang

    2017-01-01

    We study the periodic Imbert-Fedrov (IF) shift in a prism-coupling waveguide with epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial. We take into account the influence of ENZ metamaterial and gold layer thicknesses as well as the metal material on the IF effect in our proposed waveguide. The calculation method is derived and theoretical analysis is given. Based on simulation results, we can find periodic IF shifts can be observed which provides us an opportunity to realize enhanced IF effect at various incident angle. Further calculations shows that ENZ metamaterial thickness determines the maximum IF shift value, the periodic property and incident angle corresponding to IF shift peak. However, the metal thickness and permittivity only has an important influence on maximum IF shift value which will not affect the periodic property and incident angle corresponding to IF shift peak.

  14. A Simplified and Improved Free-Variable Framework for Hilbert's epsilon as an Operator of Indefinite Committed Choice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Claus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Free variables occur frequently in mathematics and computer science with ad hoc and altering semantics. We present the most recent version of our free-variable framework for two-valued logics with properly improved functionality, but only two kinds of free variables left (instead of three): implicitly universally and implicitly existentially quantified ones, now simply called "free atoms" and "free variables", respectively. The quantificational expressibility and the problem-solving facilities of our framework exceed standard first-order and even higher-order modal logics, and directly support Fermat's descente infinie. With the improved version of our framework, we can now also model Henkin quantification, neither using quantifiers (binders) nor raising (Skolemization). We propose a new semantics for Hilbert's epsilon as a choice operator with the following features: We avoid overspecification (such as right-uniqueness), but admit indefinite choice, committed choice, and classical logics. Moreover, our seman...

  15. Three-dimensional aerodynamic simulations of two-box automobile using kappa-epsilon turbulence model with quick scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kenji; Kuriyama, Toshihiko

    1993-09-01

    A new computational method that can be actually useful for an initial designing phase of automobile development has being developed. Standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model and QUICK (Quadratic Upwind Interpolation for Convective Kinematics) of the third-order-upwind scheme were used. A commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code, BFC (Boundary Fitted Coordinate) /SCRYU is applied. With this method, the reattachment point of backward-facing step flow is improved even in a rough calculational grid. When it was applied to 3-D (three dimensional) two-box automobile, it is able to improve the error of C(sub D) from 27 percent to 2 percent. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) time was within 20 hours by CRAY Y-MP (1 CPU), and the total analysis time was shortened from three weeks to five days.

  16. The epsilon glutathione S-transferases contribute to the malathion resistance in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Luo-Luo; Huang, Yong; Dou, Wei; Chen, Chang-Tong; Wei, Dong; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Epsilon glutathione S-transferases (eGSTs) play important roles in xenobiotics detoxification and insecticides resistance in insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of eGSTs-mediated insecticide resistance remain largely unknown in the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most notorious pests in the world. Here, we investigated the roles of eight GST genes which belonged to epsilon class (BdGSTe1, BdGSTe2, BdGSTe3, BdGSTe4, BdGSTe5, BdGSTe6, BdGSTe7 and BdGSTe9) in conferring malathion resistance in B. dorsalis. Adult developmental stage-, sex- and tissue-specific expression patterns of the eight eGST genes were analyzed via quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The results showed that BdGSTe2, BdGSTe3, BdGSTe4 and BdGSTe9 were abundant in the midgut, fat body and Malpighian tubules. Notably, BdGSTe2, BdGSTe4 and BdGSTe9 were significantly overexpressed in a malathion-resistant (MR) strain of B. dorsalis compared to the malathion-susceptible (MS) strain. Functional expression and cytotoxicity assays showed significantly higher malathion detoxification capabilities in BdGSTe2-, BdGSTe3-, BdGSTe4- and BdGSTe9-expressing Sf9 cells compared to the parental and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Sf9 cells. Moreover, malathion susceptibility in MS adults was increased 30%, 14%, and 33% when BdGSTe2, BdGSTe3 and BdGSTe4 mRNA levels were repressed by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown, respectively. Taken together, overexpression of the isoforms of eGSTs, including BdGSTe2, BdGSTe4, and particularly, BdGSTe9 plays an important role in the malathion resistant development in B. dorsalis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Low Reynolds number kappa-epsilon and empirical transition models for oscillatory pipe flow and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christopher

    1993-11-01

    Stirling engine heat exchangers are shell-and-tube type with oscillatory flow (zero-mean velocity) for the inner fluid. This heat transfer process involves laminar-transition turbulent flow motions under oscillatory flow conditions. A low Reynolds number kappa-epsilon model, (Lam-Bremhorst form), was utilized in the present study to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a circular tube. An empirical transition model was used to activate the low Reynolds number k-e model at the appropriate time within the cycle for a given axial location within the tube. The computational results were compared with experimental flow and heat transfer data for: (1) velocity profiles, (2) kinetic energy of turbulence, (3) skin friction factor, (4) temperature profiles, and (5) wall heat flux. The experimental data were obtained for flow in a tube (38 mm diameter and 60 diameter long), with the maximum Reynolds number based on velocity being Re(sub max) = 11840, a dimensionless frequency (Valensi number) of Va = 80.2, at three axial locations X/D = 16, 30 and 44. The agreement between the computations and the experiment is excellent in the laminar portion of the cycle and good in the turbulent portion. Moreover, the location of transition was predicted accurately. The Low Reynolds Number kappa-epsilon model, together with an empirical transition model, is proposed herein to generate the wall heat flux values at different operating parameters than the experimental conditions. Those computational data can be used for testing the much simpler and less accurate one dimensional models utilized in 1-D Stirling Engine design codes.

  18. Evaluating the epsilon-domination based multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for a quick computation of Pareto-optimal solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Kalyanmoy; Mohan, Manikanth; Mishra, Shikhar

    2005-01-01

    Since the suggestion of a computing procedure of multiple Pareto-optimal solutions in multi-objective optimization problems in the early Nineties, researchers have been on the look out for a procedure which is computationally fast and simultaneously capable of finding a well-converged and well-distributed set of solutions. Most multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) developed in the past decade are either good for achieving a well-distributed solutions at the expense of a large computational effort or computationally fast at the expense of achieving a not-so-good distribution of solutions. For example, although the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm or SPEA (Zitzler and Thiele, 1999) produces a much better distribution compared to the elitist non-dominated sorting GA or NSGA-II (Deb et al., 2002a), the computational time needed to run SPEA is much greater. In this paper, we evaluate a recently-proposed steady-state MOEA (Deb et al., 2003) which was developed based on the epsilon-dominance concept introduced earlier(Laumanns et al., 2002) and using efficient parent and archive update strategies for achieving a well-distributed and well-converged set of solutions quickly. Based on an extensive comparative study with four other state-of-the-art MOEAs on a number of two, three, and four objective test problems, it is observed that the steady-state MOEA is a good compromise in terms of convergence near to the Pareto-optimal front, diversity of solutions, and computational time. Moreover, the epsilon-MOEA is a step closer towards making MOEAs pragmatic, particularly allowing a decision-maker to control the achievable accuracy in the obtained Pareto-optimal solutions.

  19. Photo-crosslinked poly(epsilon-caprolactone fumarate) networks for guided peripheral nerve regeneration: material properties and preliminary biological evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanfeng; Yaszemski, Michael J; Knight, Andrew M; Gruetzmacher, James A; Windebank, Anthony J; Lu, Lichun

    2009-06-01

    In an effort to achieve suitable biomaterials for peripheral nerve regeneration, we present a material design strategy of combining a crystallite-based physical network and a crosslink-based chemical network. Biodegradable polymer disks and conduits have been fabricated by photo-crosslinking three poly(epsilon-caprolactone fumarate)s (PCLF530, PCLF1250, and PCLF2000), which were synthesized from the precursor poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) diols with nominal molecular weights of 530, 1250, and 2000 g mol(-1), respectively. Thermal properties such as glass transition temperature (T(g)), melting temperature (T(m)), and crystallinity of photo-crosslinked PCLFs were examined and correlated with their rheological and mechanical properties. Furthermore, in vitro degradation of uncrosslinked and crosslinked PCLFs in PBS crosslinked PCLFs in 1 N NaOH aqueous solution at 37 degrees C was studied. In vitro cytocompatibility, attachment, and proliferation of Schwann cell precursor line SPL201 cells on three PCLF networks were investigated. Crosslinked PCLF2000 with the highest crystallinity and mechanical properties was found to best support cell attachment and proliferation. Using a new photo-crosslinking method, single-lumen crosslinked PCLF nerve conduits without defects were fabricated in a glass mold. Crosslinked PCLF2000 nerve conduits were selected for evaluation in a 1cm gap rat sciatic nerve model. Histological evaluation demonstrated that the material was biocompatible with sufficient strength to hold sutures in place after 6 and 17 weeks of implantation. Nerve cable with myelinated axons was found in the crosslinked PCLF2000 nerve conduit.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and in vitro degradation of a biodegradable photo-cross-linked film from liquid poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-lactide-co-glycolide) diacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jin Y; Pan, Xiao Y; Lim, Chin H; Chan-Park, Mary B; Zhu, Xiao; Beuerman, Roger W

    2007-02-01

    There has been little study on the effect of composition or molecular weight on the biodegradation rate of photo-cross-linked biodegradable aliphatic polyesters though such information is important for tissue engineering scaffolds. We have synthesized a new series of photopolymerizable linear poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-lactide-co-glycolide) diacrylates with different molecular weights (Mn = 1800, 4800, and 9300 Da) and compositions (20%, 40%, and 60% epsilon-CL) and studied their biodegradation rates. The resultant oligomers were amorphous and appeared as viscous liquids at room temperature. Liquid-to-solid polymerization was carried out by UV irradiation in the presence of a photoinitiator. The photocuring yield was high (greater than 95%), and the photo-cross-linked polymers were amorphous and rubbery. Mechanical measurements showed that the polymers can be stretchable or rigid; the high molecular weight/low epsilon-CL network has a strain of 176% and a modulus of 1.66 MPa while the low molecular weight/high epsilon-CL network has a strain of 21% and a modulus of 12.3 MPa. In a 10 week in vitro biodegradation study, the polymers exhibited a two-stage degradation behavior. In the first stage, the polymer weight and strain remained almost constant, but a linear decrease in the Young's modulus (E) and ultimate stress (sigma) were observed. Lower oligomer molecular weight or epsilon-CL content correlated with a faster decrease in Young's modulus. In the second stage, which began when the Young's modulus dropped below 1 MPa, there was rapid weight loss and strain increase. The lower the epsilon-CL content, the earlier the second stage happened. Low molecular weight and high epsilon-CL content correlated with a longer modulus half-life (time for the modulus to degrade to 50% of its initial value). The degradation results suggest principles that may be helpful in predicting the biodegradation behavior of similar polymeric cross-linked networks. Films formed from these

  1. Evolution of DNA polymerases: an inactivated polymerase-exonuclease module in Pol epsilon and a chimeric origin of eukaryotic polymerases from two classes of archaeal ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirov, Tahir H; Makarova, Kira S; Rogozin, Igor B; Pavlov, Youri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-03-18

    Evolution of DNA polymerases, the key enzymes of DNA replication and repair, is central to any reconstruction of the history of cellular life. However, the details of the evolutionary relationships between DNA polymerases of archaea and eukaryotes remain unresolved. We performed a comparative analysis of archaeal, eukaryotic, and bacterial B-family DNA polymerases, which are the main replicative polymerases in archaea and eukaryotes, combined with an analysis of domain architectures. Surprisingly, we found that eukaryotic Polymerase epsilon consists of two tandem exonuclease-polymerase modules, the active N-terminal module and a C-terminal module in which both enzymatic domains are inactivated. The two modules are only distantly related to each other, an observation that suggests the possibility that Pol epsilon evolved as a result of insertion and subsequent inactivation of a distinct polymerase, possibly, of bacterial descent, upstream of the C-terminal Zn-fingers, rather than by tandem duplication. The presence of an inactivated exonuclease-polymerase module in Pol epsilon parallels a similar inactivation of both enzymatic domains in a distinct family of archaeal B-family polymerases. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicate that eukaryotic B-family polymerases, most likely, originate from two distantly related archaeal B-family polymerases, one form giving rise to Pol epsilon, and the other one to the common ancestor of Pol alpha, Pol delta, and Pol zeta. The C-terminal Zn-fingers that are present in all eukaryotic B-family polymerases, unexpectedly, are homologous to the Zn-finger of archaeal D-family DNA polymerases that are otherwise unrelated to the B family. The Zn-finger of Polepsilon shows a markedly greater similarity to the counterpart in archaeal PolD than the Zn-fingers of other eukaryotic B-family polymerases. Evolution of eukaryotic DNA polymerases seems to have involved previously unnoticed complex events. We hypothesize that the archaeal

  2. Develop High Efficiency Liquid-Feed PEM Electrolyzer Based on Integrated Flow Field (IFF) Structure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis units are currently designed to require active water flow and phase separation, or are based on a passive vapor...

  3. The cooling conditions effects on the fraction and morphology of the epsilon primary phase in an ACuZinc5TM commercial alloy; Efecto de las condiciones de enfriamiento sobre la fraccion y morfologia de la fase primaria epsilon en una aleacion comercial ACuZinc5TM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jareno, E. D.; Maldonado, S. I.; Hernandez, F. A.

    2012-07-01

    The mechanical properties of ACuZinc5TM alloys are influenced by the fraction solid of the primary epsilon (e) phase and their interrelations with the eta ({eta}) phase. In this study the primary epsilon phase fraction results from cooling conditions similar to that applied in different casting processes have been measured. Additionally an analysis was made from the morphology's changes and from the thermal analysis results to suggest the probably adequate moment to apply stirring in semisolid metal processing. From these results it is possible to design experimental thermal cycles to obtain an adequate distribution of e and . phases in the end castings microstructure. (Author) 21 refs.

  4. Molecular evolution of the human immunoglobulin E response: high incidence of shared mutations and clonal relatedness among epsilon VH5 transcripts from three unrelated patients with atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    We have analyzed the nucleotide sequences of 19 epsilon VH5 transcripts derived from in vivo isotype switched peripheral blood B cells of three patients with atopic dermatitis. Comparison with the patients' own germline VH5 gene segments revealed that the epsilon transcripts were derived from both functional members of the human VH5 gene family and harbored numerous somatic mutations (range 5-36 per VH5 gene). In two patients, we detected clonally related but diverged transcripts, permitting the construction of a genealogical tree in one patient. We observed a high proportion of shared silent (S) and replacement (R) mutations among epsilon VH5 sequences derived from all three individuals, even among transcripts descending from the two different germline VH5 gene segments. A remarkably high number of these mutations is shared with previously reported VH5 genes encoding antibodies with defined specificities. The shared S mutations, and likely a fraction of the R mutations, appear to mark preferential sites ("hot spots") of somatic hypermutations in human VH5 genes. The distribution of R and S mutations over complementarity determining region and framework regions in the majority of VH regions deviated from that characteristic of antigen-driven immune response. We hypothesize that the V regions of immunoglobulin E-bearing B cells have accumulated "selectively neutral" mutations over extended periods of clonal expansion, resulting in unusual R/S ratios. We propose that the molecular characteristics of the epsilon VH regions in atopic dermatitis may be representative of antigens that recurrently or chronically stimulate the immune system. PMID:8418213

  5. DNA ligase I selectively affects DNA synthesis by DNA polymerases delta and epsilon suggesting differential functions in DNA replication and repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Mossi, R; Ferrari, E; Hübscher, U

    1998-01-01

    The joining of single-stranded breaks in double-stranded DNA is an essential step in many important processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and genetic recombination. Several data implicate a role for DNA ligase I in DNA replication, probably coordinated by the action of other enzymes and proteins. Since both DNA polymerases delta and epsilon show multiple functions in different DNA transactions, we investigated the effect of DNA ligase I on various DNA synthesis events catalyzed by th...

  6. Tyrosine phosphatases epsilon and alpha perform specific and overlapping functions in regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels in Schwann cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiran, Zohar; Peretz, Asher; Sines, Tal

    2006-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) epsilon and alpha are closely related and share several molecular functions, such as regulation of Src family kinases and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. Functional interrelationships between PTPepsilon and PTPalpha and the mechanisms by which they regulate K...... but are not fully redundant. We conclude that PTPepsilon and PTPalpha differ significantly in their regulation of Kv channels and Src in the system examined and that similarity between PTPs does not necessarily result in full functional redundancy in vivo....

  7. Pharmacokinetics and first-pass effects of epsilon-acetamidocaproic acid after administration of zinc acexamate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Y H; Lee, U; Suh, J H; Kim, Y G; Choi, E-Y; Oh, E; Lee, M G

    2010-07-01

    1. Zinc acexamate (ZAC) is ionized to zinc and epsilon-acetamidocaproic acid (AACA). Thus, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of zinc and AACA after intravenous (50 mg kg(-1)) and oral (100 mg kg(-1)) administration of ZAC were evaluated in rats. Also the pharmacokinetics of AACA after intravenous (10, 20, 30, and 50 mg kg(-1)) and oral (20, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1)) administration of ZAC and the first-pass extractions of AACA at a ZAC dose of 20 mg kg(-1) were evaluated in rats. 2. After oral administration of ZAC (20 mg kg(-1)), approximately 0.408% of the oral dose was not absorbed, the F value was approximately 47.1%, and the hepatic and gastrointestinal (GI) first-pass extractions of AACA were approximately 8.50% and 46.4% of the oral dose, respectively. The incomplete F value of AACA was mainly due to the considerable GI first-pass extraction in rats. 3. Affinity of rat tissues to zinc and AACA was low-the tissue-to-plasma (T/P) ratios were less than unity. The equilibrium plasma-to-blood cells partition ratios of AACA were independent of initial blood ZAC concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 microg ml(-1)-the mean values were 0.481, 0.490, and 0.499, respectively. The bound fractions of zinc and AACA to rat plasma were 96.6% and 39.0%, respectively.

  8. Increased BDNF protein expression after ischemic or PKC epsilon preconditioning promotes electrophysiologic changes that lead to neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Jake T; Thompson, John W; Raval, Ami P; Cohan, Charles H; Koronowski, Kevin B; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) via protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ) activation induces neuroprotection against lethal ischemia. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a pro-survival signaling molecule that modulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Interestingly, BDNF mRNA expression increases after IPC. In this study, we investigated whether IPC or pharmacological preconditioning (PKCɛ activation) promoted BDNF-induced neuroprotection, if neuroprotection by IPC or PKCɛ activation altered neuronal excitability, and whether these changes were BDNF-mediated. We used both in vitro (hippocampal organotypic cultures and cortical neuronal-glial cocultures) and in vivo (acute hippocampal slices 48 hours after preconditioning) models of IPC or PKCɛ activation. BDNF protein expression increased 24 to 48 hours after preconditioning, where inhibition of the BDNF Trk receptors abolished neuroprotection against oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro. In addition, there was a significant decrease in neuronal firing frequency and increase in threshold potential 48 hours after preconditioning in vivo, where this threshold modulation was dependent on BDNF activation of Trk receptors in excitatory cortical neurons. In addition, 48 hours after PKCɛ activation in vivo, the onset of anoxic depolarization during OGD was significantly delayed in hippocampal slices. Overall, these results suggest that after IPC or PKCɛ activation, there are BDNF-dependent electrophysiologic modifications that lead to neuroprotection.

  9. Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin mutant Y30A-Y196A as a recombinant vaccine candidate against enterotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Hall, Charlotte A; Vance, Charlotte; Fernandes da Costa, Sérgio P; Savva, Christos G; Naylor, Claire E; Cole, Ambrose R; Basak, Ajit K; Moss, David S; Titball, Richard W

    2014-05-13

    Epsilon toxin (Etx) is a β-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens toxinotypes B and D and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of enterotoxemia, a severe, often fatal disease of ruminants that causes significant economic losses to the farming industry worldwide. This study aimed to determine the potential of a site-directed mutant of Etx (Y30A-Y196A) to be exploited as a recombinant vaccine against enterotoxemia. Replacement of Y30 and Y196 with alanine generated a stable variant of Etx with significantly reduced cell binding and cytotoxic activities in MDCK.2 cells relative to wild type toxin (>430-fold increase in CT50) and Y30A-Y196A was inactive in mice after intraperitoneal administration of trypsin activated toxin at 1000× the expected LD50 dose of trypsin activated wild type toxin. Moreover, polyclonal antibody raised in rabbits against Y30A-Y196A provided protection against wild type toxin in an in vitro neutralisation assay. These data suggest that Y30A-Y196A mutant could form the basis of an improved recombinant vaccine against enterotoxemia.

  10. Trapping mid-infrared rays in a lossy film with the Berreman mode, epsilon near zero mode, and magnetic polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Bin; Chiu, Feng-Cheng

    2013-09-09

    Triple mechanisms were employed to trap mid-infrared (mid-IR) rays within a semi-transparent SiO(2) film sandwiched between gold gratings and a gold substrate. Dimensions of four absorbers were explicitly determined using an LC (inductor-capacitor) circuit model considering the role transition of SiO(2) film. The film behaves as a capacitance and an inductance when the real part of relative electric permittivity for SiO(2) is positive and negative, respectively. At the normal incidence of transverse magnetic waves, every absorptance spectrum of absorbers showed a peak at wavelength λ = 10 μm due to the first mode excitation of magnetic polaritons (MP). At oblique incidence, the Berreman mode led to another peak at λ = 8 μm while its bandwidth was expanded with epsilon near zero mode excited by diffracted waves. The full-width-at-half-maximum of both peaks exceeded 0.6 μm thanks to the SiO(2) loss. Other minor absorptance peaks in the mid-IR were caused by variants of the same MP mode.

  11. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Is an Inductor of Transcription Factor Activating Protein 2 Epsilon Expression during Chondrogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Niebler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor AP-2ε (activating enhancer-binding protein epsilon is expressed in cartilage of humans and mice. However, knowledge about regulatory mechanisms influencing AP-2ε expression is limited. Using quantitative real time PCR, we detected a significant increase in AP-2ε mRNA expression comparing initial and late stages of chondrogenic differentiation processes in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, in these samples the expression pattern of the prominent hypoxia marker gene angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4 strongly correlated with that of AP-2ε suggesting that hypoxia might represent an external regulator of AP-2ε expression in mammals. In order to show this, experiments directly targeting the activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1, the complex mediating responses to oxygen deprivation, were performed. While the HIF1-activating compounds 2,2′-dipyridyl and desferrioxamine resulted in significantly enhanced mRNA concentration of AP-2ε, siRNA against HIF1α led to a significantly reduced expression rate of AP-2ε. Additionally, we detected a significant upregulation of the AP-2ε mRNA level after oxygen deprivation. In sum, these different experimental approaches revealed a novel role for the HIF1 complex in the regulation of the AP-2ε gene in cartilaginous cells and underlined the important role of hypoxia as an important external regulatory stimulus during chondrogenic differentiation modulating the expression of downstream transcription factors.

  12. Preparation and characterization of bioactive calcium silicate and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocomposite for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Heo, S J; Liu, Changsheng; Kim, D H; Kim, S E; Hyun, Y T; Shin, Ji-Wang; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2009-09-01

    A novel biocomposite of nanosized calcium silicate (n-CS) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was successfully fabricated directly using n-CS slurry, not dried n-CS powder, in a solvent-casting method. The in vitro bioactivity of the composite was evaluated by investigating the apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid. A proliferation assay with mouse L929 fibroblasts was used to test the in vitro biocompatibility. The composition, hydrophilicity, and mechanical properties were also evaluated. Results suggest that the incorporation of n-CS could significantly improve the hydrophilicity, compressive strength, and elastic modulus of n-CS/PCL composites, with the enhancements mainly dependent on n-CS content. The n-CS/PCL composites exhibit excellent in vitro bioactivity, with surface apatite formation for 40% (w/w) n-CS (C40) exceeding that of 20% (w/w) n-CS (C20) at 7 and 14 days. The Ca/P ratios of apatite formed on C20 and C40 surfaces were 1.58 and 1.61, respectively, indicating nonstoichiometric apatite with defective structure. Composites demonstrated significantly better cell attachment and proliferation than that of PCL alone, with C40 demonstrating the best bioactivity. The apatite layers that formed on the composite surfaces facilitated cell attachment (4 h) and proliferation during the early stages (1 and 4 days). Collectively, these results suggest that the incorporation of n-CS produces biocomposites with enhanced bioactivity and biocompatibility.

  13. Fibrin adhesive implant in wound healing repair of dental sockets with topical application of epsilon aminocaproic acid: histological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovan, Luis Eduardo M; Okamoto, Tetuo; Rezende, Maria Cristina Rossifini Alves; Curvêllo, Victor Prado; Nicolielo, Daniela; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2005-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate wound healing repair of dental sockets after topical application of 5% epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) and the use of fibrin adhesive implant in rats under anticoagulant therapy with warfarin. Sixty Albinus wistar rats were used, divided into three groups of 20. In Group I, the animals were given 0.1 mL/100 mg of 0.9% saline solution per day, beginning 6 days before dental extraction and continuing throughout the experimental period. In Group II, the animals received 0.03 mL of sodium warfarin daily, beginning 6 days before the surgery and continuing until the day of sacrifice; after tooth extractions, the sockets were filled with fibrin adhesive material. In Group III the animals were treated as in Group II, and after extractions, the sockets were irrigated with 5 mL of 5% EACA and filled with the same fibrin adhesive material. All groups presented biological phases of wound healing repair, the differences being evident only in the chronology. The results obtained in Group III were very similar to those of Group I in the last period of wound repair, whereas Group II presented a late chronology compared to the other groups.

  14. Taming the Invisible Monster: System Parameter Constraints for Epsilon Aurigae from the Far-Ultraviolet to the Mid-Infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Hoard, D W; Stencel, R E

    2010-01-01

    We have assembled new Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera observations of the mysterious binary star Epsilon Aurigae, along with archival far-ultraviolet to mid-infrared data, to form an unprecedented spectral energy distribution spanning three orders of magnitude in wavelength from 0.1 microns to 100 microns. The observed spectral energy distribution can be reproduced using a three component model consisting of a 2.2+0.9/-0.8 Msun F type post-asymptotic giant branch star, and a 5.9+/-0.8 Msun B5+/-1 type main sequence star that is surrounded by a geometrically thick, but partially transparent, disk of gas and dust. At the nominal HIPPARCOS parallax distance of 625 pc, the model normalization yields a radius of 135+/-5 Rsun for the F star, consistent with published interferometric observations. The dusty disk is constrained to be viewed at an inclination of i > 87 deg, and has effective temperature of 550+/-50 K with an outer radius of 3.8 AU and a thickness of 0.95 AU. The dust content of the disk ...

  15. Roles of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials in optical metatronic circuit networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fereshteh; Engheta, Nader

    2014-10-20

    The concept of metamaterial-inspired nanocircuits, dubbed metatronics, was introduced in [Science 317, 1698 (2007); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005)]. It was suggested how optical lumped elements (nanoelements) can be made using subwavelength plasmonic or non-plasmonic particles. As a result, the optical metatronic equivalents of a number of electronic circuits, such as frequency mixers and filters, were suggested. In this work we further expand the concept of electronic lumped element networks into optical metatronic circuits and suggest a conceptual model applicable to various metatronic passive networks. In particular, we differentiate between the series and parallel networks using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials. We employ layered structures with subwavelength thicknesses for the nanoelements as the building blocks of collections of metatronic networks. Furthermore, we explore how by choosing the non-zero constitutive parameters of the materials with specific dispersions, either Drude or Lorentzian dispersion with suitable parameters, capacitive and inductive responses can be achieved in both series and parallel networks. Next, we proceed with the one-to-one analogy between electronic circuits and optical metatronic filter layered networks and justify our analogies by comparing the frequency response of the two paradigms. Finally, we examine the material dispersion of near-zero relative permittivity as well as other physically important material considerations such as losses.

  16. Synthesis of poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) by iodine: an interesting route to synthesize bio reabsorbable polymers via green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Lidiane G. da; Leyva, Maria E.; Barrak, Elcio R.; Sachs, Daniela; Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. de [Centro de Investigaco e Inovacao de Materiais Funcionais Avancados, Universidade Federal de Itajuba - UNIFEI, MG (Brazil); Barca, Luiz F. [Laboratorio de Separacao de Fases, Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Itajuba - UNIFEI, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) and their copolymers, are used as biomaterial for tissue engineering and drug delivery system. In the present study the thermal characterization (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC), structural characterization by NMR {sup 1}H {sup 13}C and FTIR spectroscopy, determination of particle size and morphology of Poly(e-caprolactone) synthesized by change transfer complex method using iodine as initiation, were investigated. The FT-IR spectra shows strong of the carbonyl stretching mode around 1720,4 cm.1. The particle size was 2,8 {mu}m and 1,8 {mu}m . The scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed porous larger than 2 {mu}m and DSC measuring conferred Tm 57,8 degree C for PCL and 53,04 degree C for SPCL(Sigma-Aldrich- Poly(e-caprolactone).Thus the polymerisation of e- caprolactone is a very clean, easy and efficient method to obtain small polymers of polycaprolactone with controlled molecular weight may be obtained. (author)

  17. Interaction of Clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin with biological and model membranes: A putative protein receptor in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Marco M; Sot, Jesús; Goñi, Félix M

    2015-03-01

    Epsilon-toxin (ETX) is a powerful toxin produced by some strains of Clostridium perfringens (classified as types B and D) that is responsible for enterotoxemia in animals. ETX forms pores through the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells, consisting of a β-barrel of 14 amphipathic β-strands. ETX shows a high specificity for certain cell lines, of which Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) is the first sensitive cell line identified and the most studied one. The aim of this study was to establish the role of lipids in the toxicity caused by ETX and the correlation of its activity in model and biological membranes. In MDCK cells, using cell counting and confocal microscopy, we have observed that the toxin causes cell death mediated by toxin binding to plasma membrane. Moreover, ETX binds and permeabilizes the membranes of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMV). However, little effect is observed on protein-free vesicles. The data suggest the essential role of a protein receptor for the toxin in cell membranes.

  18. A soluble form of the high affinity IgE receptor, Fc-epsilon-RI, circulates in human serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dehlink

    Full Text Available Soluble IgE receptors are potential in vivo modulators of IgE-mediated immune responses and are thus important for our basic understanding of allergic responses. We here characterize a novel soluble version of the IgE-binding alpha-chain of Fc-epsilon-RI (sFcεRI, the high affinity receptor for IgE. sFcεRI immunoprecipitates as a protein of ∼40 kDa and contains an intact IgE-binding site. In human serum, sFcεRI is found as a soluble free IgE receptor as well as a complex with IgE. Using a newly established ELISA, we show that serum sFcεRI levels correlate with serum IgE in patients with elevated IgE. We also show that serum of individuals with normal IgE levels can be found to contain high levels of sFcεRI. After IgE-antigen-mediated crosslinking of surface FcεRI, we detect sFcεRI in the exosome-depleted, soluble fraction of cell culture supernatants. We further show that sFcεRI can block binding of IgE to FcεRI expressed at the cell surface. In summary, we here describe the alpha-chain of FcεRI as a circulating soluble IgE receptor isoform in human serum.

  19. $\\phi^3$ theory with $F_4$ flavor symmetry in $6-2\\epsilon$ dimensions: 3-loop renormalization and conformal bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Yi; Su, Ning

    2016-01-01

    We consider $\\phi^3$ theory in $6-2\\epsilon$ with $F_4$ global symmetry. The beta function is calculated up to 3 loops, and a stable unitary IR fixed point is observed. The anomalous dimensions of operators quadratic or cubic in $\\phi$ are also computed. We then employ conformal bootstrap technique to study the fixed point predicted from the perturbative approach. For each putative scaling dimension of $\\phi$ ($\\Delta_{\\phi})$, we obtain the corresponding upper bound on the scaling dimension of the second lowest scalar primary in the ${\\mathbf 26}$ representation $(\\Delta^{\\rm 2nd}_{{\\mathbf 26}})$ which appears in the OPE of $\\phi\\times\\phi$. In $D=5.95$, we observe a sharp peak on the upper bound curve located at $\\Delta_{\\phi}$ equal to the value predicted by the 3-loop computation. In $D=5$, we observe a weak kink on the upper bound curve at $(\\Delta_{\\phi},\\Delta^{\\rm 2nd}_{{\\mathbf 26}})$=$(1.6,4)$.

  20. Local clouds ionization, temperatures, electron densities and interfaces, from GHRS and IMAPS spectra of epsilon Canis Majoris

    CERN Document Server

    Gry, C; Gry, Cecile; Jenkins, Edward B.

    2001-01-01

    The composition and physical properties of several local clouds, including the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC) in which the Sun is embedded, are derived from absorption features in the UV spectrum of the star epsilon CMa. We derive temperatures and densities for three components by combining our interpretations of the ionization balance of magnesium and the relative population of C II in an excited fine-structure level. We find that for the LIC n(e) = 0.12 +/-0.05 cm-3 and T = 7000 +/-1200 K. We derive the ionization fractions of hydrogen and discuss the ionizing processes. In particular the hydrogen and helium ionizations in the LIC are compatible with photoionization by the local EUV radiation fields from the hot stars and the cloud interface with the hot gas. We confirm the detection of high ionization species : Si III is detected in all clouds and C IV in two of them, including the LIC, suggesting the presence of ionized interfaces around the local clouds.

  1. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele is associated with ventricular expansion rate and surface morphology in dementia and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussotte, Florence F; Gutman, Boris A; Madsen, Sarah K; Colby, John B; Narr, Katherine L; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-06-01

    The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 allele (ApoE-ε4) is the strongest known genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease. Expansion of the lateral ventricles occurs with normal aging, but dementia accelerates this process. Brain structure and function depend on ApoE genotype not just for Alzheimer's disease patients but also in healthy elderly individuals, and even in asymptomatic young individuals. Therefore, we hypothesized that the ApoE-ε4 allele is associated with altered patterns of longitudinal ventricular expansion, in dementia and normal aging. We tested this hypothesis in a large sample of elderly participants, using a linear discriminant analysis-based approach. Carrying more ApoE-ε4 alleles was associated with faster ventricular expansion bilaterally and with regional patterns of lateral ventricle morphology at 1- and 2-year follow up, after controlling for sex, age, and dementia status. ApoE genotyping is considered critical in clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease. These findings, combined with earlier investigations showing that ApoE is also directly implicated in other conditions, suggest that the selective enrollment of ApoE-ε4 carriers may empower clinical trials of other neurological disorders.

  2. Gabapentin Inhibits Protein Kinase C Epsilon Translocation in Cultured Sensory Neurons with Additive Effects When Coapplied with Paracetamol (Acetaminophen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Vellani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs. We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKCε translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen, a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKCε. We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients.

  3. Spin Hall effect of transmitted light in a three-layer waveguide with lossy epsilon-near-zero metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tingting; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yanfen; Li, Chaoyang; Luo, Li

    2016-11-28

    We study spin Hall effect (SHE) of transmitted light in a three-layer waveguide with epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial. As the increased loss of anisotropic ENZ metamaterial brings decreased propagation loss for oblique incidence, the transmission of incident light is enhanced which induces a different distribution of transverse shift peaks. Based on simulation results, the influences of ENZ permittivity components and thickness as well as gold layer thickness on transverse shift of left-circularly polarized light in ENZ/Au/ENZ waveguide are analyzed. In order to make our results convincing we make use of alternating thin layers of silver and germanium stacking to construct anisotropic ENZ metamaterial. The transverse shifts of incident light with different ENZ metamaterial and gold layer thicknesses are obtained. Calculation results show the maximum transverse shifts of left-polarized light for linear polarized light can achieve 49.6 microns. Meanwhile, the enhanced SHE of transmitted light is invariant with the variation of gold layer which shows a great tolerance to fabrication error.

  4. DNA polymerase epsilon, acetylases and remodellers cooperate to form a specialized chromatin structure at a tRNA insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Namrita; Raab, Jesse; Guzzo, Julie; Szyjka, Shawn J; Gangadharan, Sunil; Aparicio, Oscar M; Andrews, Brenda; Kamakaka, Rohinton T

    2009-09-02

    Insulators bind transcription factors and use chromatin remodellers and modifiers to mediate insulation. In this report, we identified proteins required for the efficient formation and maintenance of a specialized chromatin structure at the yeast tRNA insulator. The histone acetylases, SAS-I and NuA4, functioned in insulation, independently of tRNA and did not participate in the formation of the hypersensitive site at the tRNA. In contrast, DNA polymerase epsilon, functioned with the chromatin remodeller, Rsc, and the histone acetylase, Rtt109, to generate a histone-depleted region at the tRNA insulator. Rsc and Rtt109 were required for efficient binding of TFIIIB to the tRNA insulator, and the bound transcription factor and Rtt109 in turn were required for the binding of Rsc to tRNA. Robust insulation during growth and cell division involves the formation of a hypersensitive site at the insulator during chromatin maturation together with competition between acetylases and deacetylases.

  5. Computation of supersonic jet mixing noise for an axisymmetric CD nozzle using k-epsilon turbulence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavaran, A.; Krejsa, E. A.; Kim, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    The turbulent mixing noise of a supersonic jet is calculated for a round convergent-divergent nozzle at the design pressure ratio. Aerodynamic computations are performed using the PARC code with a k-epsilon turbulence model. Lighthill's acoustic analogy combined with Ribner's assumption is adopted. The acoustics solution is based upon the methodology followed by GE in the MGB code. The source correlation function is expressed as a linear combination of second-order tensors. Assuming separable second-order correlations and incorporating Batchelor's isotropic turbulence model, the source term was calculated from the kinetic energy of turbulence. A Gaussian distribution for the time-delay of correlation was introduced. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution was used to obtain the source strength as well as the characteristic time-delay of correlation. The effect of sound/flow interaction was incorporated using the high frequency asymptotic solution to Lilley's equation for axisymmetric geometries. Acoustic results include sound pressure level directivity and spectra at different polar angles. The aerodynamic and acoustic results demonstrate favorable agreement with experimental data.

  6. An $\\epsilon$-pseudoclassical Model for Quantum Resonances in a Periodically Laser-Driven Dilute Atomic Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Beswick, Benjamin T; Gardiner, Simon A; Hughes, Ifan G; Andersen, Mikkel F; Daszuta, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Atom interferometers are a useful tool for precision measurements of fundamental physical phenomena, ranging from local gravitational field strength to the atomic fine structure constant. In such experiments, it is desirable to implement a high momentum transfer "beam-splitter," which may be achieved by inducing quantum resonance in a finite-temperature laser-driven atomic gas. We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate these quantum resonances in the regime where the gas receives laser pulses of finite duration, and demonstrate that an $\\epsilon$-classical model for the dynamics of the gas atoms is capable of reproducing quantum resonant behavior for both zero-temperature and finite-temperature non-interacting gases. We show that this model agrees well with the fully quantum treatment of the system over a time-scale set by the choice of experimental parameters. We also show that this model is capable of correctly treating the time-reversal mechanism necessary for implementing an interferometer with this p...

  7. Asteroseismology with the WIRE satellite. I. Combining Ground- and Space-based Photometry of the Delta Scuti Star Epsilon Cephei

    CERN Document Server

    Bruntt, H; Bedding, T R; Buzasi, D L; Moya, A; Amado, P J; Martin-Ruiz, S; Garrido, R; De Coca, P L; Rolland, A; Costa, V; Olivares, I; Garcia-Pelayo, J M

    2006-01-01

    We have analysed ground-based multi-colour Stromgren photometry and single-filter photometry from the star tracker on the WIRE satellite of the delta scuti star Epsilon Cephei. The ground-based data set consists of 16 nights of data collected over 164 days, while the satellite data are nearly continuous coverage of the star during 14 days. The spectral window and noise level of the satellite data are superior to the ground-based data and this data set is used to locate the frequencies. However, we can use the ground-based data to improve the accuracy of the frequencies due to the much longer time baseline. We detect 26 oscillation frequencies in the WIRE data set, but only some of these can be seen clearly in the ground-based data. We have used the multi-colour ground-based photometry to determine amplitude and phase differences in the Stromgren b-y colour and the y filter in an attempt to identify the radial degree of the oscillation frequencies. We conclude that the accuracies of the amplitudes and phases a...

  8. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) microcapsules containing erythromycin by emulsion solvent evaporation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.J.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, J.R.; Lee, H.B. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea); Hong, S.K. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this work was the producing of a biodegradable poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) microcapsule and the analyzing of form and features for the manufacturing conditions which could be observed in a prospective drug delivery systems (DDS) through drug release. The effects of different stirring rate, stirring times and concentrations of emulsifier for the diameter and form of the microcapsules were observed using image analyzer (IA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a results, the microcapsules were made in wrinkle and spherical forms with a mean particle size of 40{approx}300{+-}20 {mu}m. PCL microcapsules containing drugs were confirmed using FT-IR spectra. The role of interfacial adhesion between PCL and drug was determined by contact angle measurements. The drug release test of PCL microcapsules was characterized by UV/vis. spectra. It was found that the drug release rate of the microcapsules prepared with high concentration emulsifier was significantly fast. (author). 30 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Exonuclease mutations in DNA polymerase epsilon reveal replication strand specific mutation patterns and human origins of replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbrot, Eve; Henninger, Erin E; Weinhold, Nils; Covington, Kyle R; Göksenin, A Yasemin; Schultz, Nikolaus; Chao, Hsu; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Sander, Chris; Pursell, Zachary F; Wheeler, David A

    2014-11-01

    Tumors with somatic mutations in the proofreading exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase epsilon (POLE-exo*) exhibit a novel mutator phenotype, with markedly elevated TCT→TAT and TCG→TTG mutations and overall mutation frequencies often exceeding 100 mutations/Mb. Here, we identify POLE-exo* tumors in numerous cancers and classify them into two groups, A and B, according to their mutational properties. Group A mutants are found only in POLE, whereas Group B mutants are found in POLE and POLD1 and appear to be nonfunctional. In Group A, cell-free polymerase assays confirm that mutations in the exonuclease domain result in high mutation frequencies with a preference for C→A mutation. We describe the patterns of amino acid substitutions caused by POLE-exo* and compare them to other tumor types. The nucleotide preference of POLE-exo* leads to increased frequencies of recurrent nonsense mutations in key tumor suppressors such as TP53, ATM, and PIK3R1. We further demonstrate that strand-specific mutation patterns arise from some of these POLE-exo* mutants during genome duplication. This is the first direct proof of leading strand-specific replication by human POLE, which has only been demonstrated in yeast so far. Taken together, the extremely high mutation frequency and strand specificity of mutations provide a unique identifier of eukaryotic origins of replication.

  10. Gabapentin Inhibits Protein Kinase C Epsilon Translocation in Cultured Sensory Neurons with Additive Effects When Coapplied with Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Gabapentin is a well-established anticonvulsant drug which is also effective for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although the exact mechanism leading to relief of allodynia and hyperalgesia caused by neuropathy is not known, the blocking effect of gabapentin on voltage-dependent calcium channels has been proposed to be involved. In order to further evaluate its analgesic mechanisms, we tested the efficacy of gabapentin on protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) translocation in cultured peripheral neurons isolated from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRGs). We found that gabapentin significantly reduced PKCε translocation induced by the pronociceptive peptides bradykinin and prokineticin 2, involved in both inflammatory and chronic pain. We recently showed that paracetamol (acetaminophen), a very commonly used analgesic drug, also produces inhibition of PKCε. We tested the effect of the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, and we found that the inhibition of translocation adds up. Our study provides a novel mechanism of action for gabapentin in sensory neurons and suggests a mechanism of action for the combined use of paracetamol and gabapentin, which has recently been shown to be effective, with a cumulative behavior, in the control of postoperative pain in human patients.

  11. The epsilon isoform of 14-3-3 protein is a component of the prion protein amyloid deposits of Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fede, Giuseppe; Giaccone, Giorgio; Limido, Lucia; Mangieri, Michela; Suardi, Silvia; Puoti, Gianfranco; Morbin, Michela; Mazzoleni, Giulia; Ghetti, Bernardino; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2007-02-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved, ubiquitous molecules involved in a variety of biologic events, such as transduction pathway modulation, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. Seven isoforms have been identified that are abundant in the brain, preferentially localized in neurons. Remarkable increases in 14-3-3 are seen in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and it has been found in pathologic inclusions of several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, the zeta isoform has been detected in prion protein (PrP) amyloid deposits of CJD patients. To further investigate the cerebral distribution of 14-3-3 in prion-related encephalopathies, we carried out an immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis of brain tissue from patients with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) and sporadic, familial and acquired forms of CJD, using specific antibodies against the seven 14-3-3 isoforms. The study showed a strong immunoreactivity of PrP amyloid plaques of GSS patients for the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform, but not for the other isoforms. The epsilon isoform of 14-3-3 was not found in PrP deposits of CJD. These results indicate that the epsilon isoform of 14-3-3 is a component of PrP amyloid deposits of GSS and suggest that this is the sole 14-3-3 isoform specifically involved in the neuropathologic changes associated with this disorder.

  12. Modeling and simulation of Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius N47 cultivation and epsilon-rhodomycinone production with kinetic equations and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviharju, Kristiina; Salonen, Kalle; Leisola, Matti; Eerikäinen, Tero

    2006-11-10

    This study focuses on comparing different kinetic growth models and the use of neural networks in the batch cultivation of Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius producing epsilon-rhodomycinone. Contois, Monod and Teissier microbial growth models were used as well as the logistic growth modeling approach, which was found best in the simulations of growth and glucose consumption in the batch growth phase. The lag phase was included in the kinetic model with a CO2 trigger and a delay factor. Substrate consumption and product formation were included as Luedeking-Piret and logistic type equations, respectively. Biomass formation was modeled successfully with a 6-8-2 network, and the network was capable of biomass prediction with an R2-value of 0.983. Epsilon-rhodomycinone production was successfully modeled with a recursive 8-3-1 network capable of epsilon-rhodomycinone prediction with an R2-value of 0.903. The predictive power of the neural networks was superior to the kinetic models, which could not be used in predictive modeling of arbitrary batch cultivations.

  13. Towards the rational design of a candidate vaccine against pregnancy associated malaria: conserved sequences of the DBL6epsilon domain of VAR2CSA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Badaut

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental malaria is a disease linked to the sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells (IRBC in the placenta, leading to reduced materno-fetal exchanges and to local inflammation. One of the virulence factors of P. falciparum involved in cytoadherence to chondroitin sulfate A, its placental receptor, is the adhesive protein VAR2CSA. Its localisation on the surface of IRBC makes it accessible to the immune system. VAR2CSA contains six DBL domains. The DBL6epsilon domain is the most variable. High variability constitutes a means for the parasite to evade the host immune response. The DBL6epsilon domain could constitute a very attractive basis for a vaccine candidate but its reported variability necessitates, for antigenic characterisations, identifying and classifying commonalities across isolates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Local alignment analysis of the DBL6epsilon domain had revealed that it is not as variable as previously described. Variability is concentrated in seven regions present on the surface of the DBL6epsilon domain. The main goal of our work is to classify and group variable sequences that will simplify further research to determine dominant epitopes. Firstly, variable sequences were grouped following their average percent pairwise identity (APPI. Groups comprising many variable sequences sharing low variability were found. Secondly, ELISA experiments following the IgG recognition of a recombinant DBL6epsilon domain, and of peptides mimicking its seven variable blocks, allowed to determine an APPI cut-off and to isolate groups represented by a single consensus sequence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A new sequence approach is used to compare variable regions in sequences that have extensive segmental gene relationship. Using this approach, the VAR2CSA DBL6 domain is composed of 7 variable blocks with limited polymorphism. Each variable block is composed of a limited number of consensus types

  14. Quantitative assessment of fibrinogen cross-linking by epsilon aminocaproic acid in patients with end-stage liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Thien; Tippens, Melissa; Szlam, Fania; Van Dyke, Rebecca; Levy, Jerrold H; Csete, Marie

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the effectiveness of antifibrinolytic therapy for liver transplant recipients is hampered by lack of quantitative assays for assessing drug effects. We adapted chemical engineering tools used in polymerization studies to quantify fibrinogen cross-linking by plasma from liver transplant patients obtained before and after epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) therapy. A target fluorescein isothiocyanate-fibrinogen (FITC-fibrinogen) molecule was constructed; it fluoresces in a quantifiable pattern when in solution, and undergoes cross-linking in the presence of plasmin inhibitors. Cross-linking quenches the fluorescent signal, and the quenching is a quantifiable endpoint. Thus fluorescence from this reporter molecule can be used to assess functional improvement in fibrinogen cross-linking as a result of antifibrinolytic therapies, and it is sensitive to picomolar amounts of plasmin inhibitors and activators. Cross-linking of FITC-fibrinogen by patient plasma, before and after EACA therapy, was assessed using fluorescence spectrometry. Fluorescence patterns from FITC-fibrinogen indicated no significant cross-linking of the target fibrinogen as a consequence of EACA in posttreatment plasma. When the fibrinogen-FITC target was assayed without plasma in the presence of EACA at concentrations that bracket therapeutic levels (100 and 400 microg/ml), significant fluorescence quenching (target FITC-fibrinogen cross-linking) was achieved. These results suggest that fibrinogen-FITC fluorescence is sensitive enough to detect EACA activity in clinically relevant ranges, but that EACA given in usual doses is insufficient to promote fibrinogen cross-linking in patients with end-stage liver disease.

  15. Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1 haplotypes are associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor A Malik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1 plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis and progression of several types of cancers. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs2274223 in PLCE1 has been identified as a novel susceptibility locus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of three potentially functional SNPs (rs2274223A > G, rs3765524C > T, and rs7922612C > T of PLCE1 in gastric cancer patients from Kashmir Valley. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted in 108 GC cases and 195 healthy controls from Kashmir Valley. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Data were statistically analyzed using c2 test and logistic regression models. A P value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Results: The frequency of PLCE1 A2274223C3765524T7922612, G2274223C3765524T7922612 , and G2274223T3765524C7922612 haplotypes were higher in patients compared with controls, conferred high risk for GC [odds ratio (OR =6.29; P = 0.001; Pcorr = 0.003], (OR = 3.23; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033, and (OR = 5.14; P = 0.011; Pcorr = 0.033, respectively. Smoking and salted tea are independent risk factors for GC, but we did not find any significant modulation of cancer risk by PLCE1 variants with smoking or excessive consumption of salted tea. Conclusion: These results suggest that variation in PLCE1 may be associated with GC risk in Kashmir Valley.

  16. Sustained ex vivo skin antiseptic activity of chlorhexidine in poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsule encapsulated form and as a digluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lboutounne, Hassan; Chaulet, Jean-François; Ploton, Christine; Falson, Françoise; Pirot, Fabrice

    2002-08-21

    In this work, the sustained bactericidal activity of chlorhexidine base loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone), PCL, nanocapsules against Staphylococcus epidermidis inoculated onto porcine ear skin was investigated. Drug loaded nanocapsules were prepared by the interfacial polymer deposition following solvent displacement method, then characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, electrophoretic measurements, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Antimicrobial activity of these colloidal carriers was evaluated (i) in vitro against eight strains of bacteria, and (ii) ex vivo against Staphylococcus epidermidis inoculated for 12 h onto porcine ear skin surface treated for 3 min either with 0.6% chlorhexidine base loaded or unloaded nanocapsules suspended in hydrogel, or 1% chlorhexidine digluconate aqueous solution. Chlorhexidine absorption into the stratum corneum (SC) was evaluated by the tape-stripping method. The results showed that chlorhexidine nanocapsules in aqueous suspension having a 200-300 nm size and a positive charge exhibited similar minimum inhibitory concentrations against several bacteria with chlorhexidine digluconate aqueous solution. Ex vivo, there was a significant reduction in the number of colony forming units (CFUs) from 3-min treated skin with chlorhexidine nanocapsule suspension (5 to <1 log(10)) compared to chlorhexidine digluconate solution (5 to 2.02 log(10)) after a 8-h artificial contamination. After a 12-h artificial contamination, both formulations failed to achieve a 5 log(10) reduction. Furthermore, from a 3-min treatment with an identical applied dose and a subsequent 12-h artificial contamination, a residual chlorhexidine concentration in the SC was found to be three-fold higher with chlorhexidine nanocapsule suspension than with chlorhexidine digluconate solution. Interestingly, nanocapsules were shown in porcine skin follicles. Consequently, a topical application of chlorhexidine base-loaded positively charged

  17. Evidence for major gene inheritance of Alzheimer disease in families of patients with and without Apolipoprotein E {epsilon}4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, V.S.; Auerbach, S.A.; Farrer, L.A. [Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the single most important determinant to the common form of Alzheimer disease (AD) yet identified. Several studies show that family history of AD is not entirely accounted for by APOE genotype. Also, there is evidence for an interaction between APOE genotype and gender. We carried out a complex segregation analysis in 636 nuclear families of consecutively ascertained and rigorously diagnosed probands in the Multi-Institutional Research in Alzheimer Genetic Epidemiology study in order to derive models of disease transmission which account for the influences of APOE genotype of the proband and gender. In the total group of families, models postulating sporadic occurrence, no major gene effect, random environmental transmission, and Mendelian inheritance were rejected. Transmission of AD in families of probands with at least one {epsilon}4 allele best fit a dominant model. Moreover, single gene inheritance best explained clustering of the disorder in families of probands lacking E4, but a more complex genetic model or multiple genetic models may ultimately account for risk in this group of families. Our results also suggest that susceptibility to AD differs between men and women regardless of the proband`s APOE status. Assuming a dominant model, AD appears to be completely penetrant in women, whereas only 62%-65% of men with predisposing genotypes develop AD. However, parameter estimates from the arbitrary major gene model suggests that AD is expressed dominantly in women and additively in men. These observations, taken together with epidemiologic data, are consistent with the hypothesis of an interaction between genes and other biological factors affecting disease susceptibility. 76 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Transcriptional increase and misexpression of 14-3-3 epsilon in sea urchin embryos exposed to UV-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Roberta; Zito, Francesca; Costa, Caterina; Bonaventura, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Members of the 14-3-3 protein family are involved in many important cellular events, including stress response, survival and apoptosis. Genes of the 14-3-3 family are conserved from plants to humans, and some members are responsive to UV radiation. Here, we report the isolation of the complete cDNA encoding the 14-3-3 epsilon isoform from Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos, referred to as Pl14-3-3ε, and the phylogenetic relationship with other homologues described in different phyla. Pl14-3-3ε mRNA levels were measured by QPCR during development and found to increase from the mesenchyme blastula to the prism stage. In response to UV-B (312 nm) exposure, early stage embryos collected 2 h later showed a 2.3-fold (at 400 J/m2) and a 2.7-fold (at 800 J/m2) increase in Pl14-3-3ε transcript levels compared with controls. The spatial expression of Pl14-3-3ε mRNA, detected by whole mount in situ hybridization in both control and UV-B exposed embryos, harvested at late developmental stages, showed transcripts to be located in the archenteron of gastrula stage and widely distributed in all germ layers, respectively. The Pl14-3-3ε mRNA delocalization parallels the failure in archenteron elongation observed morphologically, as well as the lack of specific endoderm markers, investigated by indirect immuno-fluorescence on whole mount embryos. Results confirm the involvement of 14-3-3ε in the stress response elicited by UV-B and demonstrate, for the first time, its contribution at the transcriptional level in the sea urchin embryo. PMID:20607471

  19. Alcohol binding in the C1 (C1A + C1B) domain of protein kinase C epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pany, Satyabrata; Das, Joydip

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol regulates the expression and function of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε). In a previous study we identified an alcohol binding site in the C1B, one of the twin C1 subdomains of PKCε. Methods In this study, we investigated alcohol binding in the entire C1 domain (combined C1A and C1B) of PKCε. Fluorescent phorbol ester, SAPD and fluorescent diacylglycerol (DAG) analog, dansyl-DAG were used to study the effect of ethanol, butanol, and octanol on the ligand binding using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). To identify alcohol binding site(s), PKCεC1 was photolabeled with 3-azibutanol and 3-azioctanol, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of alcohols and the azialcohols on PKCε were studied in NG108-15 cells. Results In the presence of alcohol, SAPD and dansyl-DAG showed different extent of FRET, indicating differential effects of alcohol on the C1A and C1B subdomains. Effects of alcohols and azialcohols on PKCε in NG108-15 cells were comparable. Azialcohols labeled Tyr-176 of C1A and Tyr-250 of C1B. Inspection of the model structure of PKCεC1 reveals that these residues are 40 Å apart from each other indicating that these residues form two different alcohol binding sites. Conclusions The present results provide evidence for the presence of multiple alcohol-binding sites on PKCε and underscore the importance of targeting this PKC isoform in developing alcohol antagonists. PMID:26210390

  20. Sialidases affect the host cell adherence and epsilon toxin-induced cytotoxicity of Clostridium perfringens type D strain CN3718.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens type B or D isolates, which cause enterotoxemias or enteritis in livestock, produce epsilon toxin (ETX. ETX is exceptionally potent, earning it a listing as a CDC class B select toxin. Most C. perfringens strains also express up to three different sialidases, although the possible contributions of those enzymes to type B or D pathogenesis remain unclear. Type D isolate CN3718 was found to carry two genes (nanI and nanJ encoding secreted sialidases and one gene (nanH encoding a cytoplasmic sialidase. Construction in CN3718 of single nanI, nanJ and nanH null mutants, as well as a nanI/nanJ double null mutant and a triple sialidase null mutant, identified NanI as the major secreted sialidase of this strain. Pretreating MDCK cells with NanI sialidase, or with culture supernatants of BMC206 (an isogenic CN3718 etx null mutant that still produces sialidases enhanced the subsequent binding and cytotoxic effects of purified ETX. Complementation of BMC207 (an etx/nanH/nanI/nanJ null mutant showed this effect is mainly attributable to NanI production. Contact between BMC206 and certain mammalian cells (e.g., enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells resulted in more rapid sialidase production and this effect involved increased transcription of BMC206 nanI gene. BMC206 was shown to adhere to some (e.g. Caco-2 cells, but not all mammalian cells, and this effect was dependent upon sialidase, particularly NanI, expression. Finally, the sialidase activity of NanI (but not NanJ or NanH could be enhanced by trypsin. Collectively these in vitro findings suggest that, during type D disease originating in the intestines, trypsin may activate NanI, which (in turn could contribute to intestinal colonization by C. perfringens type D isolates and also increase ETX action.

  1. Avaliação de três modelos dielétricos derivados da função [(épsilon'-1/épsilon"] na estimativa do teor de água de sementes de feijão Evaluation of three dielectric models derived from the function [(epsilon'-1/epsilon"] for estimating the moisture content of common bean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Berbert

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensores capacitivos operando em radiofreqüências são considerados ferramentas mais adequadas para a estimativa on-line do teor de água de grãos por meio de sua utilização na medição da permissividade elétrica relativa (épsilon' e do fator de perda dielétrica (épsilon'' desses produtos. No entanto, devido à impossibilidade de controlar o fluxo de massa de grãos em movimento, há que se buscar soluções para a redução da influência da massa específica aparente (ro nos resultados obtidos com esse tipo de sensor, em que a melhor alternativa tem sido a utilização de modelos dielétricos que correlacionem épsilon' e épsilon'' ao teor de água e que sejam independentes de ro. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse trabalho consistiu na avaliação do grau de acurácia dos resultados, calculados a partir de três funções derivadas da função [(épsilon'-1/épsilon"] na determinação on-line do teor de água de sementes de feijão em movimento. O melhor desempenho foi obtido com o modelo que utiliza duas freqüências e foi derivado a partir da combinação da função [(épsilon'-1/épsilon"]/ [(2Öe'/(1+Öe'] com o ln(épsilon", permitindo estimar-se o teor de água do feijão com erro-padrão da estimativa e erro máximo de 0,5 e 1,0 ponto percentual, respectivamente.Capacitive sensors operating at radiofrequencies are considered one of the best tools for estimating grain moisture content on-line through the measurement of the relative permittivity epsilon' and dielectric loss factor - epsilon". However, due to the impossibility of controlling moving grain mass flow rate, one has to search solutions for the bulk density effect on the results obtained with this kind of sensor. The best alternative has been the use of density-independent dielectric models capable of correlating grain moisture content and the dielectric parameters epsilon' and epsilon". The object of this research work was to assess the degree of accuracy of

  2. Long-term regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve through a biodegradable poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) nerve guide: tissue reactions with focus on collagen III/IV reformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Koen; Meek, Marcel F; van der Werff, John F A; van Wachem, Pauline B; van Luyn, Marja J A

    2004-05-01

    Long-term studies on nerve-guide regeneration are scarce. Therefore, in rats, long-term (16 months) sciatic nerve regeneration through poly(DL-lactide-epsilon-caprolactone) [poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL)] nerve guides was studied and compared with the nonoperated control side. Poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) degradation and possible long-term foreign body reaction against poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides, as well as the distribution of both collagen type III and IV were studied. In vivo poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) studies have been performed before but not for such long time points; also, a detailed analysis of collagen III/IV has not been presented before. The results demonstrate that biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides yield good nerve regeneration and collagen III/IV deposition relative to the anatomy of the control side. Regenerated nerve showed almost similar collagen type III/IV distribution patterns as compared with the nonoperated control side, although the delineation of matrix was clearer in the control side. The relative amount of collagen III and IV immunostaining in nerve cross-sections did not, however, differ between the control nerve tissue and the operated side after 16 months. After 16 months of implantation, however, some very small fragments of biomaterial could still be found on the edge of the epineurium of the regenerated nerve, indicating remnants of a secondary foreign body reaction. The biomaterial fragments and foreign body reaction did not influence the nerve regeneration process after 16 months. Biodegradable poly(DLLA-epsilon-CL) nerve guides are useful for long-term bridging of short peripheral nerve gaps.

  3. Redetermination of the Sm-Nd Age and Initial (Epsilon)Nd of Lunar Troctolite 76535: Implications for Lunar Crustal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2012-01-01

    Lunar troctolite 76535 is an old lunar rock predating the era of the lunar cataclysmic bombardment, but its radiometrially determined ages have been discordant [1-3]. The most recent multi-chronometer study [4] gave preferred ages of 4226+/-35 Ma and 4236+/-15 Ma from a Pb-207/Pb-206 isochron and an U-Pb upper concordia intercept, resp. We derive an age of 4323+/-64 Ma from Sm-Nd data reported by [4] for the bulk rock and three mineral separates. They derived an age of approx.4.38 Ga from combined Rb-Sr data [3,4] by omitting data for olivine separates. Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of approx.4.2 Ga are summarized by [5]. New Sm-147-Nd-143 data presented here give an age of 4335+/-71 Ma in agreement with the Sm-Nd age from [4], whereas Sm-146-Nd-142 data give a model age T(sub LEW) = 4439+/-22 Ma. Further, initial (Epsilon)Nd-143 for 76535 conforms to the Nd-143 evolution expected in an urKREEP [6] reservoir, consistent with inheritance of urKREEP Sm-Nd systematics via assimilation. We show that urKREEP Sm-Nd systematics require the lunar initial (Epsilon)Nd-143 to exceed the Chondritic Uniform Reservoir (CHUR) value [7], but are consistent with evolution from initial (Epsilon)Nd-143 like that of the HED meteorite parent body as defined by a 4557+/-20 Ma internal isochron for the cumulate eucrites Y-980433 and Y- 980318 [8].

  4. Comparison of the carbohydrate moieties of recombinant soluble Fc epsilon receptor (sFc epsilon RII/sCD23) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Different O-glycosylation sites are used by yeast and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsner, I; Schneider, F J; Geyer, R; Ahorn, H; Maurer-Fogy, I

    1992-08-01

    Recombinant human soluble low affinity receptor for the Fc portion of IgE (sFc epsilon RII/sCD23) was produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Chinese hamster ovary cells and subjected to carbohydrate analysis. Applied methods included analytical SDS-PAGE, reversed phase HPLC, methylation analysis and sequential degradation with exoglycosidases. The results revealed that sFc epsilon RII derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells is glycosylated exclusively at Ser-147, containing mainly the trisaccharide Sia(alpha 2-3)Gal(beta 1-3)GalNAc, whereas the yeast derived glycoprotein was glycosylated at Ser-167 and contained only alpha-mannosyl residues. It is shown here for the first time that different amino acids of a given protein can be O-glycosylated when expressed in yeast or Chinese hamster ovary cells.

  5. Relationship of changes in cognitive and depressive symptoms during antidepressant treatment of individuals with geriatric depression and their relationship to the APOE epsilon 4 allele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheli; Lan, Guanghua; Shen, Xinhua; Pan, Xingen; Chen, Xiaoxun; Li, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Background Co-occurring cognitive impairment in geriatric depression may not improve with antidepressant treatment and it may progress to dementia. Aim Assess the relationship between changes in cognitive and depressive symptoms among patients with geriatric depression and their association with the APOE epsilon 4 allele before and after antidepressant treatment. Methods The presence of the APOE epsilon 4 allele was assessed in 64 incident cases of geriatric depression and 31 elderly individuals without depression and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), digit span test, and Trail Making Tests A and B (TMT-A, TMT-B) were administered to these subjects at baseline and 12 months after baseline, during which time the depressed group received standardized treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Results Prior to treatment patients with geriatric depression had significantly worse cognitive functioning than control subjects and 31 (48%) met criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). After treatment depressed patients with and without comorbid MCI both had significant improvements in their depressive and cognitive symptoms, but those with MCI had more residual symptoms. The severity of cognitive symptoms was not associated with the severity of depressive symptoms at baseline, but they were positively correlated at the 12-month follow-up. The APOE epsilon 4 allele was identified in 14% (9/64) of the patients and in 3% (1/31) of the controls (Fisher's Exact Test, p=0.158). Compared to depressed patients without the allele, depressed patients with the allele had more severe cognitive deficits both before and after treatment, though only some of these differences were statistically significant. Conclusions There is substantial cognitive impairment in elderly individuals with geriatric depression. Both the depressive and cognitive symptoms improve with standard SSRI treatment, but individuals with comorbid MCI

  6. B fields in OB stars (BOB): on the detection of weak magnetic fields in the two early B-type stars beta CMa and epsilon CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Fossati, L; Morel, T; Langer, N; Briquet, M; Carroll, T A; Hubrig, S; Nieva, M F; Oskinova, L M; Przybilla, N; Schneider, F R N; Scholler, M; Simon-Diaz, S; Ilyin, I; de Koter, A; Reisenegger, A; Sana, H

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of the "B fields in OB stars (BOB)" collaboration, we used the HARPSpol spectropolarimeter to observe the early B-type stars beta CMa (HD44743; B1 II/III) and epsilon CMa (HD52089; B1.5 II). For both stars, we consistently detected the signature of a weak (<30 G in absolute value) longitudinal magnetic field. We determined the physical parameters of both stars and characterise their X-ray spectrum. For beta CMa, our mode identification analysis led to determining a rotation period of 13.6+/-1.2 days and of an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 57.6+/-1.7 degrees, with respect to the line of sight. On the basis of these measurements and assuming a dipolar field geometry, we derived a best fitting obliquity of ~22 degrees and a dipolar magnetic field strength (Bd) of ~100 G (60epsilon CMa we could only determine a lower limit on the dipolar magnetic field strength of 13 G. For this s...

  7. The Properties of the local Interstellar Medium and the Interaction of the Stellar Winds of epsilon Indi and lambda Andromedae with the Interstellar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian E.; Alexander, William R.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1996-01-01

    We present new observations of the Ly alpha lines of Epsilon Indi (K5 5) and A Andromedae (G8 4-3 + ?) These data were obtained by the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. Analysis of the interstellar H 1 and D 1 absorption lines reveals that the velocities and temperatures inferred from the H 1 lines are inconsistent with the parameters inferred from the D 1 lines, unless the H 1 absorption is assumed to be produced by two absorption components. One absorption component is produced by interstellar material. For both lines of sight observed, the velocity of this component is consistent with the velocity predicted by the local flow vector. For the Epsilon Indi data, the large velocity separation between the stellar emission and the interstellar absorption allows us to measure the H 1 column density independent of the shape of the intrinsic stellar Ly alpha profile. This approach permits us to quote an accurate column density and to assess its uncertainty with far more confidence than in previous analyses, for which the errors were dominated by uncertainties in the assumed stellar profiles.

  8. Molecular weight dependence of the thermal degradation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone): a thermogravimetric differential thermal Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Miriam; Vogel, Christian; Siesler, Heinz W

    2010-07-01

    The effect of molecular weight on the thermal degradation of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in combination with differential thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA/DTA/FT-IR). The measurements were made in the temperature range 40-720 degrees C and it was found that PCL undergoes completely different degradation processes in nitrogen and oxygen atmosphere. Thus, in nitrogen atmosphere low molecular weight (M(n) = 10,000 g/mol) PCL (PCL(10k)) decomposed in a three-step mechanism. The evolved gases detected by FT-IR spectroscopy were identified as epsilon-caprolactone, 5-hexenoic acid, CO(2), and methyl pentanoate and traces of H(2)O. In the case of high molecular weight (M(n) = 80,000 g/mol) PCL (PCL(80k)) only a two-step degradation was observed. By FT-IR spectroscopy 5-hexenoic acid, CO(2), H(2)O, and methyl pentanoate were detected as decomposition products. In an oxygen environment, similar degradation products were detected for the different molecular-weight PCLs. The recorded FT-IR spectra of the evolved gases were identified as CO(2), CO, H(2)O, and short-chain carboxylic acids.

  9. Cationic peptides as RNA compaction agents: a study on the polyA compaction activity of a linear alpha,epsilon-oligo-L-lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviello, Giovanni N; Musumeci, Domenica; Roviello, Valentina

    2015-05-15

    In this work, we investigate the compaction activity of a sequential alpha,epsilon-peptide composed of l-lysines towards two RNA targets, in view of its possible pharmaceutical application in RNA-targeting and RNA delivery. The basic oligolysine, object of the present study, proved not only to be efficient in compacting the single-stranded polyA RNA, but also to strongly interact with the polyA·polyU complex, as evidenced by CD-binding and UV-melting experiments. In particular, the marked differences in the CD spectra of the RNA targets upon addition of the peptide, as well as the different UV melting behaviour for the polyA·polyU complex in the presence and absence of the peptide, sustain the hypothesis of a strong RNA compaction capacity of the alpha,epsilon-oligolysine. Finally, by using HPLC analysis, we found a good resistance of the peptide against the lytic action of human serum, an important requirement in view of in vitro/in vivo biological assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptation of the TH Epsilon Mu formalism for the analysis of the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak and electroweak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The TH epsilon mu formalism, used in analyzing equivalence principle experiments of metric and nonmetric gravity theories, is adapted to the description of the electroweak interaction using the Weinberg-Salam unified SU(2) x U(1) model. The use of the TH epsilon mu formalism is thereby extended to the weak interactions, showing how the gravitational field affects W sub mu (+ or -1) and Z sub mu (0) boson propagation and the rates of interactions mediated by them. The possibility of a similar extension to the strong interactions via SU(5) grand unified theories is briefly discussed. Also, using the effects of the potentials on the baryon and lepton wave functions, the effects of gravity on transition mediated in high-A atoms which are electromagnetically forbidden. Three possible experiments to test the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak interactions, which are technologically feasible, are then briefly outline: (1) K-capture by the FE nucleus (counting the emitted X-ray); (2) forbidden absorption transitions in high-A atoms' vapor; and (3) counting the relative Beta-decay rates in a suitable alpha-beta decay chain, assuming the strong interactions obey the equivalence principle.

  11. Novel star-type methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) copolymeric nanoparticles for controlled release of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Runliang; Zhu Wenxia; Song Zhimei, E-mail: zhimei_song@126.com [University of Jinan, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Medicine and Life Sciences (China); Zhao Liyan [Hebei North University, Department of Pharmacy (China); Zhai Guangxi [Shandong University, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy (China)

    2013-06-15

    To improve curcumin's (CURs) water solubility and release property, a novel star methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) copolymer was synthesized through O-alkylation, basic hydrolysis and ring-opening polymerization reaction with MPEG, epichlorohydrin, and {epsilon}-caprolactone as raw materials. The structure of the novel copolymer was characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR, and GPC. The results of FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter of CUR-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by dialysis method showed that CUR was successfully encapsulated into the SMP12 copolymeric NPs with 98.2 % of entrapment efficiency, 10.91 % of drug loading, and 88.4 {+-} 11.2 nm of mean particle diameter in amorphous forms. The dissolubility of nanoparticulate CUR was increased by 1.38 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} times over CUR in water. The obtained blank copolymer showed no hemolysis. A sustained CUR release to a total of approximately 56.13 % was discovered from CUR-NPs in 40 % of ethanol saline solution within 72 h on the use of dialysis method. The release behavior fitted the ambiexponent and biphasic kinetics equation. In conclusion, the copolymeric NPs loading CUR might serve as a potential nanocarrier to improve the solubility and release property of CUR.

  12. Comparison of epsilon- and delta-class glutathione S-transferases: the crystal structures of the glutathione S-transferases DmGSTE6 and DmGSTE7 from Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scian, Michele; Le Trong, Isolde; Mazari, Aslam M A; Mannervik, Bengt; Atkins, William M; Stenkamp, Ronald E

    2015-10-01

    Cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) comprise a large family of enzymes with canonical structures that diverge functionally and structurally among mammals, invertebrates and plants. Whereas mammalian GSTs have been characterized extensively with regard to their structure and function, invertebrate GSTs remain relatively unstudied. The invertebrate GSTs do, however, represent potentially important drug targets for infectious diseases and agricultural applications. In addition, it is essential to fully understand the structure and function of invertebrate GSTs, which play important roles in basic biological processes. Invertebrates harbor delta- and epsilon-class GSTs, which are not found in other organisms. Drosophila melanogaster GSTs (DmGSTs) are likely to contribute to detoxication or antioxidative stress during development, but they have not been fully characterized. Here, the structures of two epsilon-class GSTs from Drosophila, DmGSTE6 and DmGSTE7, are reported at 2.1 and 1.5 Å resolution, respectively, and are compared with other GSTs to identify structural features that might correlate with their biological functions. The structures of DmGSTE6 and DmGSTE7 are remarkably similar; the structures do not reveal obvious sources of the minor functional differences that have been observed. The main structural difference between the epsilon- and delta-class GSTs is the longer helix (A8) at the C-termini of the epsilon-class enzymes.

  13. An evaluation of the Fe-N phase diagram considering long-range order of N atoms in gamma'-Fe4N1-x and epsilon-Fe2N1-z

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, BJ; Somers, MAJ; Mittemeijer, EJ

    1996-01-01

    The chemical potential of nitrogen was described asa function of nitrogen content for the Fe-N phases alpha-FE[N], gamma'-Fe4N1-x, and epsilon-Fe2N1-x. For alpha-Fe[N], an ideal random distribution of the nitrogen atoms over the octahedral interstices of the bcc iron lattice was assumed; for gamma'-

  14. zeta-, epsilon-, and gamma-Globin mRNA in blood samples and CD71(+) cell fractions from fetuses and from pregnant and nonpregnant women, with special attention to identification of fetal erythroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, A M; Hviid, T V; Christensen, B;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information about the appearance of gamma-, epsilon-, and zeta-globin mRNAs in fetal erythroblasts during gestation and about the presence and amounts of these mRNAs in pregnant and nonpregnant women is important from the perspective of using these molecules as a marker of fetal...... analysis of gamma- and epsilon-globin cDNA, and quantitative analysis of gamma-globin mRNA based on competitive RT-PCR to investigate these aspects. RESULTS: All adult whole-blood samples were negative for epsilon- and zeta-globin mRNA. Analyses of CD71(+) cell fractions showed that specimens from 19 of 20...... nonpregnant and 10 of 14 pregnant women (at 9-13 weeks of gestation) were positive for gamma-globin mRNA (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.13), and those from 3 of 20 nonpregnant and 5 of 14 pregnant women were positive for zeta-globin mRNA (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.23). No epsilon-globin mRNA was detected in CD...

  15. Theory of wave propagation in magnetized near-zero-epsilon metamaterials: evidence for one-way photonic states and magnetically switched transparency and opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoyan, Arthur R; Engheta, Nader

    2013-12-20

    We study propagation of transverse-magnetic electromagnetic waves in the bulk and at the surface of a magnetized epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium in a Voigt configuration. We reveal that in a certain range of material parameters novel regimes of wave propagation emerge; we show that the transparency of the medium can be altered with the magnetization leading either to magnetically induced Hall opacity or Hall transparency of the ENZ. In our theoretical study, we demonstrate that surface waves at the interface between either a transparent or an opaque Hall medium and a homogeneous medium may, under certain conditions, be predominantly one way. Moreover, we predict that one-way photonic surface states may exist at the interface of an opaque Hall ENZ and a regular metal, giving rise to the possibility for backscattering immune wave propagation and isolation.

  16. Epsilon-Near-Zero Al-Doped ZnO for Ultrafast Switching at Telecom Wavelengths: Outpacing the Traditional Amplitude-Bandwidth Trade-Off

    CERN Document Server

    Kinsey, N; Kim, J; Ferrera, M; Shalaev, V M; Boltasseva, A

    2015-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides have recently gained great attention as CMOS-compatible materials for applications in nanophotonics due to their low optical loss, metal-like behavior, versatile/tailorable optical properties, and established fabrication procedures. In particular, aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) is very attractive because its dielectric permittivity can be engineered over a broad range in the near infrared and infrared. However, despite all these beneficial features, the slow (> 100 ps) electron-hole recombination time typical of these compounds still represents a fundamental limitation impeding ultrafast optical modulation. Here we report the first epsilon-near-zero AZO thin films which simultaneously exhibit ultra-fast carrier dynamics (excitation and recombination time below 1 ps) and an outstanding reflectance modulation up to 40% for very low pump fluence levels (< 4 mJ/cm2) at the telecom wavelength of 1.3 {\\mu}m. The unique properties of the demonstrated AZO thin films are the result of...

  17. Laboratory injection molder for the fabrication of polymeric porous poly-epsilon-caprolactone scaffolds for preliminary mesenchymal stem cells tissue engineering applications

    KAUST Repository

    Limongi, Tania

    2016-12-16

    This study presents a simple and rapid fabrication technique involving injection molding and particle leaching (IM/PL) to fabricate the porous scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Sucrose are separately mixed with the poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) granules using a screwed thermo regulated extruder, than the biocompatible scaffolds are fabricated through injection molding. The micro/nano structure of the samples and their different grade of porosity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are chose to cell culture and Hoechst 33342 staining was used to verify the biocompatibility of the polymeric porous surfaces. We concluded that, by using the same fast solvent free injection/leaching process, the use of Sucrose as porogen, instead of NaCl, allowed the obtainment of biocompatible scaffolds with a higher grade of porosity with suitable cell adhesion capacity for tissue engineering purpose.

  18. Contribution of the net charge to the regulatory effects of amino acids and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Azusa; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2006-01-01

    The effects of lysine (Lys), monosodium glutamate (GluNa), glycine, alanine and epsilon-poly(L-lysine) (PL) with different degrees of polymerization on the gelatinization behavior of potato starch granules were investigated by DSC, viscosity and swelling measurements, microscopic observation, and measurement of the retained amino acid amount to clarify the contribution of the net charge to their regulatory effects on the gelatinization behavior. The amino acids and PL each contributed to an increase in the gelatinization temperature, and a decrease in the peak viscosity and swelling. These effects strongly depended on the absolute value of their net charge. The disappearance of a negative or positive net charge by adjusting the pH value weakened the contribution. The swelling index and size of the potato starch granules changed according to replacement of the swelling medium. The amino acids and PL were easily retained by the swollen potato starch granules according to replacement of the outer solution of the starch granules.

  19. Preparation and in vitro characterization of poly (epsilon-caprolactone-based tamoxifen citrate-loaded cylindrical subdermal implant for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiremath Jagadeesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study cylindrical poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL-based biodegradable polymeric tamoxifen citrate-loaded subdermal implants were prepared by laboratory-based modified melt extrusion technique. The prepared implants were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters. Drug content in implants by high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM studies of tamoxifen citrate-loaded implants. Determination of in vitro hydrolytic degradation of polymeric and tamoxifen citrate-loaded implants and in vitro drug release was carried out by using indigenously developed dissolution apparatus. DSC and XRD studies proved that the drug is entrapped in the implant. The highest rate of hydrolytic degradation (weight loss was observed in blank implants when compared to tamoxifen citrate-loaded implants. The studies proved that the developed method have potential in terms of industrial feasibility.

  20. Application of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing atrazine herbicide as an alternative technique to control weeds and reduce damage to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anderson E S; Grillo, Renato; Mello, Nathalie F S; Rosa, Andre H; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2014-03-15

    Nanoparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) containing the herbicide atrazine were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in terms of their herbicidal activity and genotoxicity. The stability of the nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of three months, considering the variables: size, polydispersion index, pH, and encapsulation efficiency. Tests on plants were performed with target (Brassica sp.) and non-target (Zea mays) organisms, and the nanoparticle formulations were shown to be effective for the control of the target species. Experiments using soil columns revealed that the use of nanoparticles reduced the mobility of atrazine in the soil. Application of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay demonstrated that the nanoparticle systems were able to reduce the genotoxicity of the herbicide. The formulations developed offer a useful means of controlling agricultural weeds, while at the same time reducing the risk of harm to the environment and human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The biosynthesis of hypusine (N epsilon-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine). Alignment of the butylamine segment and source of the secondary amino nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M H; Liberato, D J; Yergey, A L; Folk, J E

    1984-10-10

    The unusual amino acid hypusine is produced in a single protein of mammalian cells by a novel posttranslational event in which a lysine residue is conjugated with the four-carbon moiety from the polyamine spermidine to form an intermediate deoxyhypusine, and in which this intermediate is subsequently hydroxylated. Specifically isotopically labeled precursors of hypusine were used to identify the biosynthetic origin of some of the atoms of hypusine and thus to provide further insight into the mechanism of this in vivo chemical modification reaction. Radiolabel from [1,4-3H] putrescine, [1,8-3H]spermidine, and [5-3H]spermidine entered hypusine during growth of Chinese hamster ovary cells. The occurrence of this label at positions 1 and 4, at position 4, and at position 1, respectively, in the 4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl portion of hypusine revealed an alignment of atoms identical to that in the butylamine segment of spermidine. Growth of cells with [epsilon-15N]lysine as the source of lysine yielded hypusine enriched in 15N, whereas only isotope-free hypusine during growth by [4-15N]spermidine. These was found in cells whose spermidine was replaced during growth by [4-15N]spermidine. These findings are in accordance with a proposal that the first phase of hypusine biosynthesis, the production of intermediate deoxyhypusine, occurs through transfer of the butylamine moiety from spermidine to the epsilon-amino nitrogen of protein-bound lysine. The technique of thermospray high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry provided positive identification of 15N in hypusine through final separation and on-column direct analysis of this amino acid. Methods of preparation are given for spermidine of high specific radioactivity, labeled specifically at position 5 with 3H, and for spermidine with 15N at the 4-position.

  2. Low Reynolds number kappa-epsilon and empirical transition models for oscillatory pipe flow and heat transfer. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Christopher

    1993-01-01

    Stirling engine heat exchangers are shell-and-tube type with oscillatory flow (zero-mean velocity) for the inner fluid. This heat transfer process involves laminar-transition turbulent flow motions under oscillatory flow conditions. A low Reynolds number kappa-epsilon model, (Lam-Bremhorst form), was utilized in the present study to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in a circular tube. An empirical transition model was used to activate the low Reynolds number k-e model at the appropriate time within the cycle for a given axial location within the tube. The computational results were compared with experimental flow and heat transfer data for: (1) velocity profiles, (2) kinetic energy of turbulence, (3) skin friction factor, (4) temperature profiles, and (5) wall heat flux. The experimental data were obtained for flow in a tube (38 mm diameter and 60 diameter long), with the maximum Reynolds number based on velocity being Re(sub max) = 11840, a dimensionless frequency (Valensi number) of Va = 80.2, at three axial locations X/D = 16, 30 and 44. The agreement between the computations and the experiment is excellent in the laminar portion of the cycle and good in the turbulent portion. Moreover, the location of transition was predicted accurately. The Low Reynolds Number kappa-epsilon model, together with an empirical transition model, is proposed herein to generate the wall heat flux values at different operating parameters than the experimental conditions. Those computational data can be used for testing the much simpler and less accurate one dimensional models utilized in 1-D Stirling Engine design codes.

  3. Disulfide bond formation between the COOH-terminal domain of the beta subunits and the gamma and epsilon subunits of the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase. Structural implications and functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggeler, R; Haughton, M A; Capaldi, R A

    1995-04-21

    A set of mutants of the Escherichia coli F1F0-type ATPase has been generated by site-directed mutagenesis as follows: beta E381C, beta S383C, beta E381C/epsilon S108C, and beta S383C/epsilon S108C. Treatment of ECF1 isolated from any of these mutants with CuCl2 induces disulfide bond formation. For the single mutants, beta E381C and beta S383C, a disulfide bond is formed in essentially 100% yield between a beta subunit and the gamma subunit, probably at Cys87 based on the recent structure determination of F1 (Abrahams, J. P., Leslie, A. G. W., Lutter, R., and Walker, J. E. (1994) Nature 370, 621-628). In the double mutants, two disulfide bonds are formed, again in essentially full yield, one between beta and gamma, the other between a beta and the epsilon subunit via Cys108. The same two cross-links are produced with CuCl2 treatment of ECF1F0 isolated from either of the double mutants. These results show that the parts of gamma around residue 87 (a short alpha-helix) and the epsilon subunit interact with different beta subunits. The yield of covalent linkage of beta to gamma is nucleotide dependent and highest in ATP and much lower with ADP in catalytic sites. The yield of covalent linkage of beta to epsilon is also nucleotide dependent but in this case is highest in ADP and much lower in ATP. Disulfide bond formation between either beta and gamma, or beta and epsilon inhibits the ATPase activity of the enzyme in proportion to the yield of the cross-linked product. Chemical modification of the Cys at either position 381 or 383 of the beta subunit inhibits ATPase activity in a manner that appears to be dependent on the size of the modifying reagent. These results are as expected if movements of the catalytic site-containing beta subunits relative to the gamma and epsilon subunits are an essential part of the cooperativity of the enzyme.

  4. Post-conditioning protects cardiomyocytes from apoptosis via PKC(epsilon)-interacting with calcium-sensing receptors to inhibit endo(sarco)plasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shiyun; Teng, Zongyan; Lu, Fang-Hao; Zhao, Ya-Jun; Li, Hulun; Ren, Huan; Chen, He; Pan, Zhen-Wei; Lv, Yan-Jie; Yang, Bao-Feng; Tian, Ye; Xu, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2010-08-01

    The intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) is increased during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), leading to endo(sarco)plasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Persistent ER stress, such as with the accumulation of [Ca(2+)](i), results in apoptosis. Ischemic post-conditioning (PC) can protect cardiomyocytes from IRI by reducing the [Ca(2+)](i) via protein kinase C (PKC). The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), a G protein-coupled receptor, causes the production of inositol phosphate (IP(3)) to increase the release of intracellular Ca(2+) from the ER. This process can be negatively regulated by PKC through the phosphorylation of Thr-888 of the CaR. This study tested the hypothesis that PC prevents cardiomyocyte apoptosis by reducing the [Ca(2+)](i) through an interaction of PKC with CaR to alleviate [Ca(2+)](ER) depletion and [Ca(2+)](m) elevation by the ER-mitochondrial associated membrane (MAM). Cardiomyocytes were post-conditioned after 3 h of ischemia by three cycles of 5 min of reperfusion and 5 min of re-ischemia before 6 h of reperfusion. During PC, PKC(epsilon) translocated to the cell membrane and interacted with CaR. While PC led to a significant decrease in [Ca(2+)](i), the [Ca(2+)](ER) was not reduced and [Ca(2+)](m) was not increased in the PC and GdCl(3)-PC groups. Furthermore, there was no evident psi(m) collapse during PC compared with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) or PKC inhibitor groups, as evaluated by laser confocal scanning microscopy. The apoptotic rates detected by TUNEL and Hoechst33342 were lower in PC and GdCl(3)-PC groups than those in I/R and PKC inhibitor groups. Apoptotic proteins, including m-calpain, BAP31, and caspase-12, were significantly increased in the I/R and PKC inhibitor groups. These results suggested that PKC(epsilon) interacting with CaR protected post-conditioned cardiomyocytes from programmed cell death by inhibiting disruption of the mitochondria by the ER as well as preventing calcium-induced signaling of the

  5. Gene fusions with human carbonic anhydrase II for efficient expression and rapid single-step recovery of recombinant proteins: expression of the Escherichia coli F1-ATPase epsilon subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heeke, G; Shaw, R; Schnizer, R; Couton, J M; Schuster, S M; Wagner, F W

    1993-08-01

    A new expression vector was constructed which allows the overproduction in Escherichia coli of tripartite proteins consisting of human carbonic anhydrase isozyme II (hCAII), a peptide linker containing an enterokinase cleavage site, and a target protein of interest. Carbonic anhydrase is soluble and stable in E. coli and serves as a highly specific purification tag in the recovery of the fusion protein by a single affinity chromatography step. The enterokinase cleavage site was engineered into the construct to allow accurate and efficient release of the target protein. To demonstrate the practical value of this vector, the E. coli F1-ATPase epsilon subunit was expressed as a fusion with hCAII. After a single purification step, biologically active recombinant E. coli F1-ATPase epsilon subunit was recovered following proteolytic removal of the hCAII moiety.

  6. zeta-, epsilon-, and gamma-Globin mRNA in blood samples and CD71(+) cell fractions from fetuses and from pregnant and nonpregnant women, with special attention to identification of fetal erythroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, A M; Hviid, T V; Christensen, B

    2001-01-01

    nonpregnant and 10 of 14 pregnant women (at 9-13 weeks of gestation) were positive for gamma-globin mRNA (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.13), and those from 3 of 20 nonpregnant and 5 of 14 pregnant women were positive for zeta-globin mRNA (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.23). No epsilon-globin mRNA was detected in CD...

  7. Dielectric saturation of the ion hydration shell and interaction between two double helices of DNA in mono- and multivalent electrolyte solutions: foundations of the epsilon-modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavryushov, Sergei

    2007-05-17

    Potentials of mean force between single Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations and a highly charged spherical macroion in SPC/E water have been determined using molecular dynamics simulations. Results are compared to the electrostatic energy calculations for the primitive polarization model (PPM) of hydrated cations describing the ion hydration shell as a dielectric sphere of low permittivity (Gavryushov, S.; Linse, P. J. Phys. Chem. B 2003, 107, 7135). Parameters of the ion dielectric sphere and radius of the macroion/water dielectric boundary were extracted by means of this comparison to approximate the short-range repulsion of ions near the interface. To explore the counterion distributions around a simplified model of DNA, the obtained PPM parameters for Na+ and Ca2+ have been substituted into the modified Poisson-Boltzmann (MPB) equations derived for the PPM and named the epsilon-MPB (epsilon-MPB) theory. epsilon-MPB results for DNA suggest that such polarization effects are important in the case of 2:1 electrolyte and highly charged macromolecules. The three-dimensional implementation of the epsilon-MPB theory was also applied to calculation of the energies of interaction between two parallel macromolecules of DNA in solutions of NaCl and CaCl2. Being compared to results of MPB calculations without the ion polarization effects, it suggests that the ion hydration shell polarization and inhomogeneous solvent permittivity might be essential factors in the experimentally known hydration forces acting between charged macromolecules and bilayers at separations of less than 20 A between their surfaces.

  8. Biocompatible photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) based on functionalized poly(epsilon-caprolactone) prepolymer shows surface erosion controlled drug release in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönkäre, J; Hakala, R A; Vlasova, M A; Huotari, A; Kilpeläinen, M; Kiviniemi, A; Meretoja, V; Herzig, K H; Korhonen, H; Seppälä, J V; Järvinen, K

    2010-09-15

    Star-shaped poly(epsilon-caprolactone) oligomers functionalized with succinic anhydride were used as prepolymers to prepare photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) to evaluate their in vivo drug delivery functionality and biocompatibility. Thus, in this work, erosion, drug release and safety of the photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) were examined in vitro and in vivo. A small water-soluble drug, propranolol HCl (M(w) 296 g/mol, solubility 50 mg/ml), was used as the model drug in an evaluation of the erosion controlled release. Drug-free and drug-loaded (10-60% w/w) poly(ester anhydride) discoids eroded in vitro (pH 7.4 buffer, +37 degrees C) linearly within 24-48 h. A strong correlation between the polymer erosion and the linear drug release in vitro was observed, indicating that the release had been controlled by the erosion of the polymer. Similarly, in vivo studies (s.c. implantation of discoids in rats) indicated that surface erosion controlled drug release from the discoids (drug loading 40% w/w). Oligomers did not decrease cell viability in vitro and the implanted discoids (s.c., rats) did not evoke any cytokine activity in vivo. In summary, surface erosion controlled drug release and the safety of photocrosslinked poly(ester anhydride) were demonstrated in this study.

  9. Galectin-1 is implicated in the protein kinase C epsilon/vimentin-controlled trafficking of integrin-beta1 in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Shannon; Le Mercier, Marie; Camby, Isabelle; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Berger, Walter; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Cell motility and resistance to apoptosis characterize glioblastoma (GBM) growth and malignancy. In our current work we report that galectin-1, a homodimeric adhesion molecule and carbohydrate-binding protein with affinity for beta-galactosides, is linked with cell surface expression of integrin beta1 and the process of integrin trafficking. Using immunofluorescence, depletion of galectin-1 through both stable knockdown and transient-targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment induces an intracellular accumulation of integrin-beta1 coincident with a diminution of integrin-beta1 at points of cellular adhesion at the cell membrane. Galectin-1 depletion does not alter the gene expression level of integrin-beta1. Transient galectin-1 depletion effectuates as well the perinuclear accumulation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) and the intermediate filament vimentin, both of which have been shown to mediate integrin recycling in motile cells. Our results argue for the involvement of galectin-1 in the PKCepsilon/vimentin-controlled trafficking of integrin-beta1. The understanding of molecular mediators such as galectin-1 and the pathways through which they drive the cell invasion so descriptive of GBM is anticipated to reveal potential therapeutic targets that promote glioma malignancy.

  10. Novel differential refractometry study of the enzymatic degradation kinetics of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) particles dispersed in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, HiuFung; Gong, Xiangjun; Wu, Chi

    2007-02-22

    A poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) diblock copolymer was micronized into small micelle-like particles (approximately 80 nm) via dialysis-induced microphase inversion. The enzymatic biodegradation of the PCL portion of these particles in water was in situ investigated inside a recently developed novel differential refractometer. Using this refractometry method, we were able to monitor the real-time biodegradation via the refractive index change (Deltan) of the dispersion because Deltan is directly proportional to the particle mass concentration. We found that the degradation rate is proportional to either the polymer or enzyme concentration. Our results directly support previous speculation on the basis of the light-scattering data that the biodegradation follows the first-order kinetics for a given enzyme concentration. This study not only leads to a better understanding of the enzymatic biodegradation of PCL, but also demonstrates a novel, rapid, noninvasive, and convenient way to test the degradability of polymers.

  11. Y-shaped biotin-conjugated poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer for the targeted delivery of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenxia; Song, Zhimei; Wei, Peng; Meng, Ning; Teng, Fangfang; Yang, Fengying; Liu, Na; Feng, Runliang

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve curcumin's low water-solubility and selective delivery to cancer, we reported ligand-mediated micelles based on a Y-shaped biotin-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (epsilon-caprolactone)2 (biotin-PEG-PCL2) copolymer. Its structure was characterized by (1)H NMR. The blank and drug-loaded micelles obtained by way of thin-film hydration were characterized by dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and hemolytic test. Curcumin was loaded into micelles with a high encapsulating efficiency (93.83%). Curcumin's water-solubility was enhanced 170,400 times higher than free curcumin. Biotin-PEG-PCL2 micelles showed slower drug release in vitro than H2N-PEG-PCL2 micelles. In vitro cellular uptake and cytotoxicity tests showed that higher dosage of curcumin might overcome the effect of slow release on cytotoxicities because of its higher uptake induced by biotin, resulting in higher anticancer activities against MDA-MB-436 cells. In brief, Y-shaped biotin-PEG-PCL2 is a promising delivery carrier for anticancer drug.

  12. Detection of magnetic fields in both B-type components of the $\\epsilon$ Lupi system: a new constraint on the origin of fossil fields?

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, M; Alecian, E

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution circular spectropolarimetric observations, obtrained with ESPaDOnS in the context of the BinaMIcS Large Program, have revealed a magnetic field in the B3V secondary component of the SB2 binary system $\\epsilon$ Lupi (B2/B3). As the B2V primary is already known to be magnetic, this is the first detection of a magnetic field in both components of an early-type binary system. The longitudinal magnetic field of the primary is $\\sim -200$ G; that of the secondary $\\sim +100$ G. Observations can be approximately reproduced by a model assuming the magnetic axes of the two stars are anti-aligned, and roughly parallel to their respective rotation axes. Estimated magnetospheric radii indicate a high probability that their magnetospheres are interacting. As many of the arguments for the different proposed formation scenarios of fossil magnetic fields rely upon evidence drawn from investigations of close binaries, in particular the rarity of magnetic ABO stars in close binaries and the previous absence of...

  13. General Strategy for Broadband Coherent Perfect Absorption and Multi-wavelength All-optical Switching Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Multilayer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Young; Badsha, Md. Alamgir; Yoon, Junho; Lee, Seon Young; Jun, Young Chul; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2016-03-01

    We propose a general, easy-to-implement scheme for broadband coherent perfect absorption (CPA) using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) multilayer films. Specifically, we employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as a tunable ENZ material, and theoretically investigate CPA in the near-infrared region. We first derive general CPA conditions using the scattering matrix and the admittance matching methods. Then, by combining these two methods, we extract analytic expressions for all relevant parameters for CPA. Based on this theoretical framework, we proceed to study ENZ CPA in a single layer ITO film and apply it to all-optical switching. Finally, using an ITO multilayer of different ENZ wavelengths, we implement broadband ENZ CPA structures and investigate multi-wavelength all-optical switching in the technologically important telecommunication window. In our design, the admittance matching diagram was employed to graphically extract not only the structural parameters (the film thicknesses and incident angles), but also the input beam parameters (the irradiance ratio and phase difference between two input beams). We find that the multi-wavelength all-optical switching in our broadband ENZ CPA system can be fully controlled by the phase difference between two input beams. The simple but general design principles and analyses in this work can be widely used in various thin-film devices.

  14. Vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell culture on NaOH-treated poly(epsilon-caprolactone) films: a preliminary study for vascular graft development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, María Concepción; Portolés, María Teresa; Vallet-Regí, María; Izquierdo, Isabel; Galletti, Lorenzo; Comas, Juan Valentín; Pagani, Raffaella

    2005-05-23

    Tissue engineering offers the potential of providing vessels that can be used to replace diseased and damaged native blood vessels. The endothelization of a synthetic vascular graft minimizes the failures associated with blood clotting and platelet activation. The aim of this study was to culture vascular-derived endothelial and smooth muscle cells on both untreated and NaOH-treated poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) films, a biocompatible and bio-resorbable polymer, and to evaluate the behavior of both cell types as a preliminary study for vascular graft development. PCL films were prepared by hot pressing; characterized by DSC, IR, SEM, and scanning force microscopy; and treated with NaOH to increase the surface hydrophilicity before cell culture. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells, isolated from pig cava vein, were characterized by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy studies of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and alpha-smooth muscle actin. Good adhesion, growth, viability and morphology of both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells on PCL films were obtained, but a light stimulation of mitochondrial activity was observed during short culture times. NaOH treatment improved the adhesion and enhanced the proliferation in both cell types. This verified the possible use of this modified polymer as a support in the preparation of a synthetic vascular graft. [Diagram: see text] SEM micrograph of smooth muscle cells cultured on NaOH-treated PCL film. (Original magnification: 1000x).

  15. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-site control study comparing blood loss prevention of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA for corrective spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Kenneth M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilevel spinal fusion surgery has typically been associated with significant blood loss. To limit both the need for transfusions and co-morbidities associated with blood loss, the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents has been proposed. While there is some literature comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA in cardiac procedures, there is currently no literature directly comparing TXA to EACA in orthopedic surgery. Methods/Design Here we propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study evaluating the effects of TXA, EACA, and placebo for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS, and adult deformity (AD via corrective spinal surgery. Efficacy will be determined by intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. Other clinical outcomes that will be compared include transfusion rates, preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic values, and length of hospital stay after the procedure. Discussion The primary goal of the study is to determine perioperative blood loss as a measure of the efficacy of TXA, EACA, and placebo. Based on current literature and the mechanism by which the medications act, we hypothesize that TXA will be more effective at reducing blood loss than EACA or placebo and result in improved patient outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00958581

  16. The turbulent destruction of clouds - I. A k-epsilon treatment of turbulence in 2D models of adiabatic shock-cloud interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pittard, J M; Hartquist, T W; Dyson, J E

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of a shock with a cloud has been extensively studied in the literature, where the effects of magnetic fields, radiative cooling and thermal conduction have been considered. However, the formation of fully developed turbulence has often been prevented by the artificial viscosity inherent in hydrodynamical simulations, and a uniform post-shock flow has been assumed in all previous single-cloud studies. In reality, the flow behind the shock is also likely to be turbulent, with non-uniform density, pressure and velocity structure created as the shock sweeps over inhomogenities upstream of the cloud. To address these twin issues we use a sub-grid compressible k-epsilon turbulence model to estimate the properties of the turbulence generated in shock-cloud interactions and the resulting increase in the transport coefficients that the turbulence brings. A detailed comparison with the output from an inviscid hydrodynamical code puts these new results into context. We find that cloud destruction in invi...

  17. An Extreme Analogue of $\\epsilon$ Aurigae: An M-giant Eclipsed Every 69 Years by a Large Opaque Disk Surrounding a Small Hot Source

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Joseph E; Lund, Michael B; Siverd, Robert J; Pepper, Joshua; Tang, Sumin; Kafka, Stella; Gaudi, Scott; Conroy, Kyle E; Beatty, Thomas G; Stevens, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    We present TYC 2505-672-1 as a newly discovered, remarkable eclipsing system comprising an M-type red giant that undergoes a ~3.45 year long, near-total eclipse (depth of ~4.5 mag) with a very long period of ~69.1 yr. This therefore becomes the longest-period eclipsing binary system yet discovered, more than twice as long as that of the currently longest-period system, $\\epsilon$ Aurigae. We show from analysis of the light curve including both our own data and historical data spanning more than 120 yr and from modeling of the spectral energy distribution, both before and during eclipse, that the red giant primary is orbited by a moderately hot source (T$_{eff}$~8000 K) that is itself surrounded by an extended, opaque circumstellar disk. From the measured ratio of luminosities, the radius of the hot companion must be in the range 0.1-0.5 Rsun (depending on the assumed radius of the red giant primary), which is an order of magnitude smaller than that for a main sequence A star and 1-2 orders of magnitude larger...

  18. A near-infrared interferometric survey of debris disk stars. I. Probing the hot dust content around epsilon Eridani and tau Ceti with CHARA/FLUOR

    CERN Document Server

    Di Folco, E; Augereau, J -C; Mérand, A; Foresto, V Coudé du; Thévenin, F; Defrère, D; Kervella, P; Brummelaar, T A ten; McAlister, H A; Ridgway, S T; Sturmann, J; Sturmann, L; Turner, N H

    2007-01-01

    We probed the first 3AU around tau Ceti and epsilon Eridani with the CHARA array (Mt Wilson, USA) in order to gauge the 2micron excess flux emanating from possible hot dust grains in the debris disks and to also resolve the stellar photospheres. High precision visibility amplitude measurements were performed with the FLUOR single mode fiber instrument and telescope pairs on baselines ranging from 22 to 241m of projected length. The short baseline observations allow us to disentangle the contribution of an extended structure from the photospheric emission, while the long baselines constrain the stellar diameter. We have detected a resolved emission around tau Cet, corresponding to a spatially integrated, fractional excess flux of 0.98 +/- 0.21 x 10^{-2} with respect to the photospheric flux in the K'-band. Around eps Eri, our measurements can exclude a fractional excess of greater than 0.6x10^{-2} (3sigma). We interpret the photometric excess around tau Cet as a possible signature of hot grains in the inner de...

  19. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Nathan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lessard, Guillaume A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Phipps, Marry E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goodwin, Peter M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lidke, Diane S [UNM; Wilson, Bridget S [UNM

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  20. A Missense Mutation in Epsilon-subunit of Acetylcholine Receptor Causing Autosomal Dominant Slow-channel Congenital Myasthenic Syndrome in a Chinese Family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Ze Tan; Yuan Man; Fei Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Background:Congenital myasthenic syndromes are a group orrare disorders that are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and caused by mutations in the genes encoding proteins of the neuromuscular junction.Here,we described a Chinese family that presented with phenotypes of classic slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS).Methods:Clinical characteristics and electrophysiological features of three patients from a Chinese family were examined,and next-generation sequencing followed by direct sequencing was carried out.Results:The patients revealed variability in clinical and electrophysiological features.However,weakness,scoliosis,and repetitive-compound muscle action potential were found in all affected members in the family.A heterozygous C>T missense mutation at nucleotide 865 in acetylcholine receptor epsilon-subunit (CHRNE) gene that causes a leucine-to-phenylalanine substitution at position 289 (L289F) was found.Conclusions:We reported a SCCMS family of Chinese origin.In the family,classical clinical phenotype with phenotypic variability among different members was found.Genetic testing could help diagnose this rare disease.

  1. Expression of fully assembled TCR-CD3 complex on double positive thymocytes: synergistic role for the PRS and ER retention motifs in the intra-cytoplasmic tail of CD3epsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Jean-Francois; Li, Samantha; Damlaj, Ousama; Dave, Vibhuti P

    2009-12-01

    TCR expression on double-positive (DP) thymocytes is a prerequisite for thymic selection that results in the generation of mature CD4(+) and CD8(+) single-positive T cells. TCR is expressed at very low level on preselection DP thymocytes and is dramatically up-regulated on positively selected thymocytes. However, mechanism governing TCR expression on developing thymocytes is not understood. In the present report, we demonstrate that the intra-cytoplasmic (IC) domain of CD3epsilon plays a critical role in regulating TCR expression on DP thymocytes. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence to show that the CD3epsilon IC domain mutations result in elevated expression of fully assembled TCR on DP thymocytes. We also demonstrate that TCR up-regulation on DP thymocytes in these transgenic mice occurs in a ligand-independent manner. Further, we show that the proline-rich sequence and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motifs in the IC domain of CD3epsilon play synergistic role in regulating TCR surface expression on DP thymocytes.

  2. Numerical Analysis of Turbulent Structures with a {kappa}-{epsilon} 3D Model of a Flow over a Cubic Obstacle; Estudio numerico de estructuras turbulentas con un modelo {kappa}-{epsilon} en 3D de un flujo sobre un obstaculo cubico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan Barrera, Cecia; Ramirez Leon, Hermilo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    A numerical analysis is applied to a flow in an open channel and deformed by a three dimensional obstacle. The proposed model solves the 3-D Navier-Stokes equations, to which a {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model is coupled. The numerical analysis was constructed using a finite difference formulation for time evaluation purposed and staggered cells for space evaluation. The main goal of the present work was to study the turbulent structures and patterns of the flow due to an obstacle at the bottom of the channel plate. Our results are according to those found in the related literature. Flow patterns allow establishing the generation of turbulent structures by means of a comparison between this study and a most recent related work that evaluates the vorticity of the flow. [Spanish] Se reportan los resultados obtenidos, mediante simulaciones numericas, del movimiento del flujo en un canal con superficie libre y un obstaculo en el fondo. El sistema ecuaciones utilizado resuelve las ecuaciones de Navier-Stokes en tres dimensiones, al cual se le acoplo un modelo de turbulencia tipo {kappa}-{epsilon}. La solucion se obtiene numericamente utilizando un esquema en diferencias finitas para la evaluacion temporal de las variables y una celda escalonada para la evaluacion espacial de las mismas. El objetivo del modelo es estudiar los patrones de flujo y las estructuras turbulentas que se generan debido a la presencia del obstaculo. El estudio se realizo para un flujo en tres dimensiones. Los resultados son satisfactorios, ya que muestran concordancia con otros estudios numericos y experimentales encontrados en la literatura.

  3. The polymorphism of YWHAE, a gene encoding 14-3-3epsilon, and brain morphology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Kido

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: YWHAE is a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia that encodes 14-3-3epsilon, a Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1-interacting molecule, but the effect of variation in its genotype on brain morphology remains largely unknown. METHODS: In this voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study, we conducted whole-brain analyses regarding the effects of YWHAE single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs28365859, rs11655548, and rs9393 and DISC1 SNP (rs821616 on gray matter volume in a Japanese sample of 72 schizophrenia patients and 86 healthy controls. On the basis of a previous animal study, we also examined the effect of rs28365859 genotype specifically on hippocampal volume. RESULTS: Whole-brain analyses showed no significant genotype effect of these SNPs on gray matter volume in all subjects, but we found significant genotype-by-diagnosis interaction for rs28365859 in the left insula and right putamen. The protective C allele carriers of rs28365859 had a significantly larger left insula than the G homozygotes only for schizophrenia patients, while the controls with G allele homozygosity had a significantly larger right putamen than the C allele carriers. The C allele carriers had a larger right hippocampus than the G allele homozygotes in schizophrenia patients, but not in healthy controls. No significant interaction was found between rs28365859 and DISC1 SNP on gray matter volume. CONCLUSIONS: These different effects of the YWHAE (rs28365859 genotype on brain morphology in schizophrenia and healthy controls suggest that variation in its genotype might be, at least partly, related to the abnormal neurodevelopment, including in the limbic regions, reported in schizophrenia. Our results also suggest its specific role among YWHAE SNPs in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  4. Etoposide-loaded biodegradable amphiphilic methoxy (poly ethylene glycol) and poly (epsilon caprolactone) copolymeric micelles as drug delivery vehicle for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Anjan K; Dilnawaz, Fahima; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2010-07-01

    Amphiphilic diblock copolymers composed of methoxy poly ethylene glycol (MePEG) and poly epsilon caprolactone (PCL) were synthesized for the formation of micelles by ring opening mechanism using stannous octoate as a catalyst. The effects of the molecular weight of MePEG and the copolymer ratio on the properties of micelles were investigated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). The diblock copolymers were self-assembled to form micelles and their hydrophobic core was used for the encapsulation of the anti-cancer drug (etoposide) in aqueous solution. The sizes of micelles were less than 250 nm with a narrow size distribution with monodispersed unimodal pattern. Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) thermogram was done for etoposide-loaded micelles to understand the crystalline nature of the drug after entrapment. A drug loading capacity up to 60% (w/w) with an entrapment efficiency of 68% was achieved as determined by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In vitro release kinetics showed a biphasic release pattern of etoposide for 2 weeks. The cytotoxic efficacy of the etoposide-loaded micelles demonstrated greater anti-proliferative activity (IC(50) = 1.1 microg/ml) as compared to native drug (IC(50) = 6.3 microg/ml) in pancreatic cancer cell line MIA-PaCa-2. Thus, etoposide-loaded MePEG/PCL block copolymeric micelles can be used as an efficient drug delivery vehicle for pancreatic cancer therapy.

  5. In vitro biocompatibility and antibacterial efficacy of a degradable poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer incorporated with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samberg, Meghan E; Mente, Peter; He, Ting; King, Martin W; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A

    2014-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-nps) are currently used as a natural biocide to prevent undesired bacterial growth in clothing, cosmetics and medical products. The objective of the study was to impart antibacterial properties through the incorporation of Ag-nps at increasing concentrations to electrospun degradable 50:50 poly(L-lactide-co-epsilon-caprolactone) scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds containing Ag-nps was evaluated with human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK); cell viability and proliferation were evaluated using Live/Dead and alamarBlue viability assays following 7 and 14 days of cell culture on the scaffolds. Significant decreases in cell viability and proliferation were noted for the 1.0 mg(Ag) g(scaffold)(-1) after 7 and 14 days on Ag-nps scaffolds. After 14 days, scanning electron microscopy revealed a confluent layer of HEK on the surface of the 0.0 and 0.1 mg(Ag) g(scaffold)(-1). Both 0.5 and 1.0 mg(Ag) g(scaffold)(-1) were capable of inhibiting both Gram positive and negative bacterial strains. Uniaxial tensile tests revealed a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the modulus of elasticity following Ag-nps incorporation compared to control. These findings suggest that a scaffold containing between 0.5 and 1.0 mg(Ag) g(scaffold)(-1) is both biocompatible and antibacterial, and is suitable for skin tissue engineering graft scaffolds.

  6. Pore size and LbL chitosan coating influence mesenchymal stem cell in vitro fibrosis and biomineralization in 3D porous poly(epsilon-caprolactone) scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Nima Ghavidel; Li, Xian; Chen, Gaoping; Favis, Basil D; Hoemann, Caroline D

    2015-07-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) is a hydrophobic bioplastic under development for bone tissue engineering applications. Limited information is available on the role of internal geometry and cell-surface attachment on osseous integration potential. We tested the hypothesis that human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) deposit more mineral inside porous 3D PCL scaffolds with fully interconnected 84 or 141 µm pores, when the surfaces are coated with chitosan via Layer-by-Layer (LbL)-deposited polyelectrolytes. Freshly trypsinized MSCs were seeded on PCL 3D cylinders using a novel static cold seeding method in 2% serum to optimally populate all depths of the scaffold discs, followed by 10 days of culture in proliferation medium and 21 additional days in osteogenic medium. MSCs were observed by SEM and histology to spread faster and to proliferate more on chitosan-coated pore surfaces. Most pores, with or without chitosan, became filled by collagen networks sparsely populated with fibroblast-like cells. After 21 days of culture in osteogenic medium, sporadic matrix mineralization was detected histologically and by micro-CT in highly cellular surface layers that enveloped all scaffolds and in cell aggregates in 141 µm pores near the edges. LbL-chitosan promoted punctate mineral deposition on the surfaces of 84 µm pores (p chitosan coatings are sufficient to promote MSC attachment to PCL but only enhance mineral formation in 84 µm pores, suggesting a potential inhibitory role for MSC-derived fibroblasts in osteoblast terminal differentiation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dexamethasone-loaded poly(D, L-lactic acid) microspheres/poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) micelles composite for skin augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Min; Liao, Jinfeng; Guo, Gang; Ding, Qiuxia; Yang, Yi; Luo, Feng; Qian, Zhiyong

    2014-04-01

    Soft tissue augmentation using various injectable fillers has gained popularity as more patients seek esthetic improvement through minimally invasive procedures requiring little or no recovery time. The currently available injectable skin fillers can be divided into three categories. With careful assessment, stimulatory fillers are the most ideal fillers. In this study, dexamethasone-loaded poly(D, L-lactic acid) (PLA) microspheres of approximately 90 micro m suspended in poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE) micelles were prepared as stimulatory filler for skin augmentation. The biodegradable PECE copolymer can form nano-sized micelles in water, which instantly turns into a non-flowing gel at body temperature due to micellar aggregation. The PECE micelles (making up 90% of composite) served as vehicle for subcutaneous injection were metabolized within 44 days. At the same time, the dexamethasone-loaded PLA microspheres (10% of composite) merely served as stimulus for connective tissue formation. Dexamethasone-loaded PLA microspheres/PECE micelles composite presented great hemocompatibility in vitro. It was demonstrated in the in vive study that the composite was biodegradable, biocompatible, nontoxic and nonmigratory. Histopathological studies indicated that the composite could stimulate collagen regeneration. Furthermore, granuloma, the main complication of the stimulatory fillers, did not appear when the composite was injected into the back of SD rats, because of the dexamethasone controlled release from the composite. All results suggested that dexamethasone-loaded PLA microspheres/PECE micelles composite may be an efficient and promising biomaterial for skin augmentation.

  8. Determination of stilbenes (delta-viniferin, trans-astringin, trans-piceid, cis- and trans-resveratrol, epsilon-viniferin) in Brazilian wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitrac, Xavier; Bornet, Aurélie; Vanderlinde, Regina; Valls, Josep; Richard, Tristan; Delaunay, Jean-Claude; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Teissédre, Pierre-Louis

    2005-07-13

    Phenolics from grapes and wines can play a role against oxidation and development of atherosclerosis. Stilbenes have been shown to protect lipoproteins from oxidative damage and to have cancer chemopreventive activity. We describe a method for the direct determination of stilbenes in several red wines using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. In a survey of 12 commercial wines from the south of Brazil (Rio Grande del Sul), levels of delta-viniferin are reported for the first time in different varieties of red wines. Brazilian red wine contains trans-astringin, trans-piceid, trans-resveratrol, cis-resveratrol (in high quantity: 5 times more than the trans form), epsilon-viniferin, and a compound isolated for the first time in wine, trans-delta-viniferin. Isolation and identification of delta-viniferin was achieved by NMR after extraction and fractionation of red wine phenolics. delta-Viniferin contributes, as well as cis-resveratrol and trans-piceid, to a significant proportion of stilbenes in wine dietary intake, particularly with Merlot varieties containing an average level of 10 mg/L for delta-viniferin, 15 mg/L for cis-resveratrol, and 13 mg/L for trans-piceid. The total stilbene intake from wine origin was estimated for the Brazilian population as 5.3 mg/day per person (on the basis of a regular wine consumption of 160 mL/day). delta-Viniferin can contribute to around 20% of total stilbenes in wine (average of 6.4 mg/L in red Brazilian wines). It would be important in the future to investigate the origins of the differences in wine stilbene levels in relation to the vine varieties, and the bioavailability of the newly extracted stilbene delta-viniferin in plasma after consumption of different types of wines.

  9. An autoantibody against N{sup {epsilon}}-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL): Possible involvement in the removal of CEL-modified proteins by macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mera, Katsumi [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Nagai, Ryoji, E-mail: nagai-883@umin.ac.jp [Department of Food and Nutrition, Laboratory of Nutritional Science and Biochemistry, Japan Women' s University, Tokyo (Japan); Takeo, Kazuhiro; Izumi, Miyoko [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Maruyama, Toru [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Center for Clinical Pharmaceutical Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Otagiri, Masaki [Department of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} A higher amount of autoantibody against CEL than that of other AGEs was observed in human plasma. {yields} The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody specifically reacted with CEL. {yields} Anti-CEL antibody accelerated the uptake of {sup 125}I-CEL-HSA by macrophage in vitro. {yields} Endocytic uptake of {sup 125}I-CEL-HSA by mice liver was accelerated in the presence of anti-CEL antibody. -- Abstract: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are believed to play a significant role in the development of diabetic complications. In this study, we measured the levels of autoantibodies against several AGE structures in healthy human plasma and investigated the physiological role of the autoantibodies. A high titer of the autoantibody against N{sup {epsilon}}-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) was detected in human plasma compared with other AGE structures such as CML and pentosidine. The purified human anti-CEL autoantibody reacted with CEL-modified human serum albumin (CEL-HSA), but not CML-HSA. A rabbit polyclonal anti-CEL antibody, used as a model autoantibody against CEL, accelerated the uptake of CEL-HSA by macrophages, but did not enhance the uptake of native HSA. Furthermore, when {sup 125}I-labeled CEL-HSA was injected into the tail vein of mice, accumulation of {sup 125}I-CEL-HSA in the liver was accelerated by co-injection of the rabbit anti-CEL antibody. These results demonstrate that the autoantibody against CEL in plasma may play a role in the macrophage uptake of CEL-modified proteins.

  10. The stalk region of the Escherichia coli ATP synthase. Tyrosine 205 of the gamma subunit is in the interface between the F1 and F0 parts and can interact with both the epsilon and c oligomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, S D; Tang, C; Capaldi, R A

    1996-11-08

    The soluble portion of the Escherichia coli F1F0 ATP synthase (ECF1) and E. coli F1F0 ATP synthase (ECF1F0) have been isolated from a novel mutant gammaY205C. ECF1 isolated from this mutant had an ATPase activity 3.5-fold higher than that of wild-type enzyme and could be activated further by maleimide modification of the introduced cysteine. This effect was not seen in ECF1F0. The mutation partly disrupts the F1 to F0 interaction, as indicated by a reduced efficiency of proton pumping. ECF1 containing the mutation gammaY205C was bound to the membrane-bound portion of the E. coli F1F0 ATP synthase (ECF0) isolated from mutants cA39C, cQ42C, cP43C, and cD44C to reconstitute hybrid enzymes. Cu2+ treatment or reaction with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid) induced disulfide bond formation between the Cys at gamma position 205 and a Cys residue at positions 42, 43, or 44 in the c subunit but not at position 39. Using Cu2+ treatment, this covalent cross-linking was obtained in yields as high as 95% in the hybrid ECF1 gammaY205C/cQ42C and in ECF1F0 isolated from the double mutant of the same composition. The covalent linkage of the gamma to a c subunit had little effect on ATPase activity. However, ATP hydrolysis-linked proton translocation was lost, by modification of both gamma Cys-205 and c Cys-42 by bulky reagents such as 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitro-benzoic acid) or benzophenone-4-maleimide. In both ECF1 and ECF1F0 containing a Cys at gamma 205 and a Cys in the epsilon subunit (at position 38 or 43), cross-linking of the gamma to the epsilon subunit was induced in high yield by Cu2+. No cross-linking was observed in hybrid enzymes in which the Cys was at position 10, 65, or 108 of the epsilon subunit. Cross-linking of gamma to epsilon had only a minimal effect on ATP hydrolysis. The reactivity of the Cys at gamma 205 showed a nucleotide dependence of reactivity to maleimides in both ECF1 and ECF1F0, which was lost in ECF1 when the epsilon subunit was removed. Our

  11. A single-channel method for evaluation of very magnitudes of Ca2+ ion fluxes through epsilon4/zeta1 N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channels in bilayer lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, M; Hirano, A; Sugawara, M; Uchino, S; Nakajima-Iijima, S

    2001-01-01

    A single-channel method for evaluating agonist selectivity in terms of the very number of Ca2+ ions passed through the epsilon4/zeta1 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ion channel in bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) is described. The number of Ca2+ passed through the single-channel was obtained from single-channel recordings in a medium where the primary permeant ion is Ca2+. The recombinant epsilon4/zeta1 NMDA channel was partially purified from Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the channel and incorporated in BLMs formed by the tip-dip method. It was found that the epsilon4/zeta1 channel in BLMs is permeable to Ca2+ and Na+, but the number of Ca2+ passed through the channel is much fewer than that of Na+. The integrated Ca2+ currents induced by three typical agonists NMDA, L-glutamate and L-CCG-IV were obtained at concentration of 50 microM, where the integrated currents for all the agonists reached their saturated values. The integrated Ca2+ currents obtained are (3.1+/-0.21) x 10(-13) C/s for NMDA, (4.6+/-0.31) x 10(-13) C/s for L-glutamate and (5.7+/-0.25) x 10(-13) C/s for L-CCG-IV, respectively, suggesting that the three kinds of agonists have different efficacies to induce permeation of Ca2+. The range of the agonist selectivity thus obtained is much narrower than that of binding affinities for the NMDA receptors from rat brain. The present method is able to detect Ca2+ permeation with a detection limit of approximately 10(5) Ca2+ ions/s.

  12. Evidence that insulin-like growth factor-1 requires protein kinase C-epsilon, PI3-kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways to protect human vascular smooth muscle cells from apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Todd R; Krueger, Kristopher D; Hunter, William J; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2005-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 has been implicated in the development of occlusive vascular lesions. Although its role in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and migration are fairly well characterized, anti-apoptotic signals of IGF-1 in human VSMC remain largely unknown. In this study, we examined IGF-1 signals that protect human and rat VSMC from staurosporine (STAU)- and c-myc- induced apoptosis, respectively. Treatment with STAU resulted in apoptotic DNA fragmentation, phosphatidylserine externalization and cell shrinkage, but only occasional VSMC 'blebbing'. STAU-induced death and IGF-1-mediated survival were concentration dependent, while time-lapse video microscopy showed that IGF-1 inhibited c-myc-induced apoptosis by 90%. Pretreatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors UO126 and PD098059, or with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor wortmannin, reversed IGF-1-mediated human VSMC survival by 25-27% and 66%, respectively. Translocation studies showed that IGF-1 activated protein kinase C (PKC)-epsilon, but not PKC-alpha or PKC-delta, even in the presence of STAU, while pharmacological PKC inhibition (Ro-318220 or Go6976) implicated PKC-zeta or a novel PKC isozyme in IGF-1-mediated survival. Transient expression of activated PKC-epsilon but not activated PKC-zeta decreased myc-induced apoptosis in rat VSMC. In human VSMC, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to PKC-epsilon partially reversed IGF-1-induced survival. In addition, IGF-1 elicited a mild but sustained activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in human VSMC that was abolished after 1 h in the presence of STAU. PKC downregulation reversed both IGF-1- and PMA-induced ERK activity, but platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced activity was unchanged. These results indicate for the first time that IGF-1 can protect human VSMC via multiple signals, including PKC-epsilon, PI3-K and mitogen

  13. Epsilon. A System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: -- Languages based on nets. -- The problem of time in nets. -- Nets and related models. -- Nets and formal semantics. -- Pa...

  14. Chemoselective biohydrogenation of chalcone (2{Epsilon})-3-(1,3-benzodioxole-5-yl)-1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one mediated by baker yeasts immobilized in polymeric supports; Bioidrogenacao quimioseletiva da chalcona (2{Epsilon})-3-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-il)-1-fenil-2-propen-1-ona mediada por fermentos de pao imobilizado em suportes polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundstock, Flavia L.S.; Silva, Vanessa D.; Nascimento, Maria da G., E-mail: mundstock@qmc.ufsc.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (DQ/UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, baker's yeast (BY) was immobilized in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), sodium caseinate (SC), gelatin (G) films and in agar (A) and gelatin (G) gels, and used as a biocatalyst in the biohydrogenation reaction of (2{Epsilon})-3-(1,3-benzodioxyl-5-yl)-1-phenyl-2-propen-1-one (1). The transformation of (1) into the corresponding dehydro chalcone (2) through biohydrogenation reactions was carried out in n-hexane at 25 or 35 deg C, for 4-48 h reaction. The product conversion, under different experimental conditions, was evaluated by hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance, {sup 1}H NMR.The highest conversion degrees were achieved using BY immobilized in agar gel, (29-47%), depending also on the temperature. Using BY immobilized in PEO, PVA, SC and G films, the conversion into (2) was lower (0-21%). The results show the feasibility of the use of BY immobilized in polymeric materials to reduce a,b-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. (author)

  15. Produção e caracterização de anticorpos monoclonais contra toxina épsilon de Clostridium perfringens Tipo D Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Clostridium perfringens Type D epsilon toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theonys Diógenes Freitas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens tipo D é o agente etiológico da enterotoxemia em ruminantes, causada pela toxina épsilon e caracterizada por edema cardíaco, pulmonar, renal e cerebral. Anticorpos monoclonais contra toxina épsilon de C. perfringens tipo D foram produzidos a partir da fusão da linhagen de mieloma P3-X63-Ag8 653 com células do baço de camundongos Balb/c imunizados com o toxóide épsilon. Seis linhagens de híbridos secretores de anticorpos monoclonais das classes e IgM e IgG foram estabelecidas.Clostridium perfringens type D is the aetiological agent of enterotoxemia in ruminants. The disease is caused by epsilon toxin characterized by cardiac, pulmonary, kidney and brain edema. Monoclonal antibodies were produced by using myeloma cell line P3-X63-Ag8 653 fused with spleen cells from Balb/c mice, immunized with epsilon toxoid of C. perfringens type D. Six hybrids were established secreting monoclonal antibodies of the IgM class and IgG3 subclass.

  16. Analysis and Enlightenments of the Success on Japan's Epsi l on Rock et%日本 Epsilon 火箭发射成功的分析及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛朝军; 蔡远文; 王韬; 姚静波; 李岩

    2014-01-01

    The progress and the design orientation of the Epsilon Rocket are summarized .Vari-ous measures to improve the performance and responsiveness of Epsilon Rocket are analyzed in detail . It is estimated that the foresights on integrated design and innovations on technology application are pointed out and are the key factors for the development success .Finally ,the paper also points out that the successful launching of the rocket will bring enlightenment to our space technology develop-ment .%概述了Epsilon火箭的发展历程和设计定位,详细分析了该型运载火箭为改进性能、提升快速性所采取的各种措施及其技术特点。指出Epsilon火箭整体设计上的前瞻性和技术应用的创新性是其发展成功的主要因素,提出了该火箭成功发射对我国航天技术发展的启示。

  17. Mapping Protein–Protein Interactions of the Resistance-Related Bacterial Zeta Toxin–Epsilon Antitoxin Complex (ε2ζ2 with High Affinity Peptide Ligands Using Fluorescence Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Fernández-Bachiller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin–antitoxin systems constitute a native survival strategy of pathogenic bacteria and thus are potential targets of antibiotic drugs. Here, we target the Zeta–Epsilon toxin–antitoxin system, which is responsible for the stable maintenance of certain multiresistance plasmids in Gram-positive bacteria. Peptide ligands were designed on the basis of the ε2ζ2 complex. Three α helices of Zeta forming the protein–protein interaction (PPI site were selected and peptides were designed conserving the residues interacting with Epsilon antitoxin while substituting residues binding intramolecularly to other parts of Zeta. Designed peptides were synthesized with an N-terminal fluoresceinyl-carboxy-residue for binding assays and provided active ligands, which were used to define the hot spots of the ε2ζ2 complex. Further shortening and modification of the binding peptides provided ligands with affinities <100 nM, allowing us to determine the most relevant PPIs and implement a robust competition binding assay.

  18. Biodegradable polyurethanes for implants. II. In vitro degradation and calcification of materials from poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene oxide) diols and various chain extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorna, Katarzyna; Gogolewski, Sylwester

    2002-06-15

    Linear, biodegradable, aliphatic polyurethanes with various degrees of hydrophilicity were synthesized in bulk at 50-100 degrees C. The ratios between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments were 0:100, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, and 70:30, respectively. The hydrophilic segment consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) diol (molecular weight = 600 or 2000) or the poly(ethylene-propylene-ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) diol Pluronic F-68 (molecular weight = 8000). The hydrophobic segment was made of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) diol (molecular weight = 530, 1250, or 2000). The chain extenders were 1,4-butane diol and 2-amino-1-butanol. The diisocyanate was aliphatic hexamethylene diisocyanate. The polymers absorbed water in an amount that increased with the increasing content of the PEO segment in the polymer chain. The total amount of absorbed water did not exceed 2% for the poly(ester urethane)s and was as high as 212% for some poly(ester ether urethane)s that behaved in water like hydrogels. The polymers were subjected to in vitro degradation at 37 +/- 0.1 degrees C in phosphate buffer solutions for up to 76 weeks. The poly(ester urethane)s showed 1-2% mass loss at 48 weeks and 1.1-3.8% mass loss at 76 weeks. The poly(ester ether urethane)s manifested 1.6-76% mass loss at 48 weeks and 1.6-96% mass loss at 76 weeks. The increasing content and molecular weight of the PEO segment enhanced the rate of mass loss. Similar relations were also observed for polyurethanes from PEO-PPO-PEO (Pluronic) diols. Materials obtained with 2-amino-1-butanol as the chain extender degraded at a slower rate than similar materials synthesized with 1,4-butane diol. All the materials already manifested a progressive decrease in the molecular weight in the first month of in vitro aging. The rate of molecular weight loss was higher for poly(ester ether urethane)s than for poly(ester urethane)s. For poly(ester ether urethane)s, the rate of molecular weight loss was higher for materials containing

  19. Downstream signaling of reactive oxygen species, protein kinase C epsilon translocation and delayed neuroprotection in sevoflurane preconditioned rats following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Ye; Qulian Guo; E Wang; Yundan Pan; Qing Li; Honghao Zhou

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brief exposure to the anesthetic sevoflurane results in delayed neuroprotection.However, few studies have addressed delayed neuroprotection after preconditioning with a single administration of sevoflurane.OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between a single preconditioning administration of sevoflurane and reactive oxygen species production and protein kinase C-epsilon (PKC- ε ) translocation.DESIGN, TIME, AND SETTING: The randomized, controlled, animal experiment was conducted at the Central Laboratory, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, China from November 2007 to April 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 120 healthy, male, Sprague Dawley rats were equally and randomly assigned into five groups: sham operation, ischemia/reperfusion, sevoflurane, 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (2-MPG, a selective reactive oxygen species scavenger) + sevoflurane (MPG + sevoflurane), and MPG. Sevoflurane (Baxter, USA) and MPG (Sigma, USA) were used in this study.METHODS: Intervention consisted of three procedures. (1) MPG injection: a selective reactive oxygen species scavenger, MPG (20 mg/kg), was infused into the rat caudal vein in the MPG and MPG + sevoflurane groups. (2) Sevoflurane preconditioning: 30 minutes following MPG injection,rats in the sevoflurane and MPG + sevoflurane groups breathed a mixed gas of 2.4% sevoflurane and 97.6% oxygen for 60 minutes. Rats in the sham operation, ischemia/reperfusion, and MPG groups breathed 100% pure oxygen for 60 minutes. (3) Ischemia/reperfusion: 24 hours after sevoflurane or pure oxygen preconditioning, middle cerebral artery occlusion models were established in the ischemia/reperfusion, sevoflurane, MPG + sevoflurane, and MPG groups.Following 2 hours ischemia/6 hours and 24 hours reperfusion, the carotid artery was separated, but the middle cerebral artery was not occluded, in the sham operation group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In the ischemic hemisphere, PKC-ε translocation in the rat parietal cortex was measured by Western

  20. Sobre as diferenças entre éthos com epsílon e êthos com eta On the differences between ethos with epsilon and ethos with eta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Spinelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo consiste em detalhar como os termos éthos (grafado com epsílon e êthos (com eta, ao mesmo tempo em que diferem, se completam entre si. Visto que os dois termos estão intimamente associados aos conceitos de phýsis (de natureza e de moîra (de necessidade ou destino este estudo quer também explicitar como se dá essa inter-relação.The objective of this article is to describe the terms éthos (writed with epsilon and êthos (with eta, that are in the same time different and complementary. This two terms are closely associates to the concepts of phýsis (of nature and moîra (of necessity or destination and this study wants to show how this interrelation is done.