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Sample records for vivo ultrasonographical study

  1. An in vivo endoluminal ultrasonographic study of peristaltic activity in the distal porcine ureter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roshani, H.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Dijkhuis, T.; Kurth, K. H.; Lamers, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Experiments were performed to quantify the duration and frequency of ureteric peristaltic activity in the laparotomized and non-laparotomized pig in its virgin and postinstrumented states. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pigs (n = 10) in a steady state of hydration were studied under halothane

  2. The effect of in vivo rotator cuff muscle contraction on glenohumeral joint translation: An ultrasonographic and electromyographic study.

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    Rathi, Sangeeta; Taylor, Nicholas F; Green, Rodney A

    2016-12-08

    The proposed stabilizing mechanism of rotator cuff muscles is to limit excessive humeral head translation. However, an accurate measurement of glenohumeral joint translation in vivo has been challenging. We aimed to measure the effect of rotator cuff muscle contraction on glenohumeral joint translation using real time ultrasound (RTUS) and electromyography. Twenty healthy adults with no history of shoulder pathology were recruited. Six intramuscular electrodes were inserted in the rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, upper and lower infraspinatus, teres minor, upper and lower subscapularis). Anterior and posterior glenohumeral translations were measured in testing conditions (with and without translation force, with and without isometric internal and external rotation), in two positions (shoulder neutral, abduction) and views (anterior, posterior). There was reduced glenohumeral translation with rotator cuff muscle contraction in the neutral anterior (F 2,38 =17.8, pmuscles in response to anterior and posterior translation forces (pmuscles, infraspinatus and teres minor, appeared to tether anterior translation of the humeral head. Our results confirm that the rotator cuff functions as a stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint by limiting humeral head translation and this is likely to be in a direction-specific manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastroparesis in diabetes mellitus: an ultrasonographic study.

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    Moldovan, Corina; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Demian, Luiza; Brisc, Ciprian; Vatca, Liliana; Magheru, Sorina

    2005-03-01

    To investigate diabetic gastro-paresis, a complication of diabetes mellitus and its determinants. A group of 36 patients with diabetes and 20 healthy controls, with comparable age and sex ratio were investigated with an established ultrasonographic method. A mixed test meal of 400 kcal was given. Antral fasting and postprandial area, postprandial distension and emptying time were assessed. Glucose control was estimated by the measurement of fasting and postprandial glucose as well as by assessing HbA1c. Antral area was nonsignificantly larger in diabetes mellitus. Postprandial antral area and postprandial antral distension were higher in diabetes than in the controls. The prevalence of gastroparesis was 52.7%, without differences between the two types of diabetes: 53.8% in type I and 52.2% in type II diabetes mellitus. Gastroparesis was associated with poor short and long time control of blood glucose and with positive parasympathetic tests. Gastroparesis did not correlate with symptoms. Gastroparesis is a real complication in diabetes mellitus and can be documented using an ultrasonographic method. Poor glucose control and autonomic neuropathy are associated with gastroparesis.

  4. Symptomatic and asymptomatic interphalageal osteoarthritis: An ultrasonographic study.

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    Usón, Jacqueline; Fernández-Espartero, Cruz; Villaverde, Virginia; Condés, Emilia; Godo, Javier; Martínez-Blasco, Maria Jesus; Miguélez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    To date few studies have examined whether ultrasonography can depict morphologic differences in painful and painless osteoarthritis (OA). This study describes and compares the clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of patients with both painful and painless proximal interphalgeal (PIP) and/or distal interphalgeal (DIP) OA. Patients with PIP and/or DIP OA (ACR criteria) were prospectively recruited. The clinical rheumatologist chose up to 3 painful joints and up to 3 painless symmetric joints in each patient to define 2 cohorts of OA: symptomatic (SG) and asymptomatic (ASG). A conventional postero-anterior hand x ray was performed and read by one rheumatologist following the OARSI atlas, blinded to clinical and sonographic data. Ultrasound (US) was performed by an experienced rheumatologist, blinded to both clinical and radiographic data in joints previously selected by the clinical rheumatologist. US-pathology was assessed as present or absent as defined in previous reports: osteophytes, joint space narrowing, synovitis, intra-articular power doppler signal, intra-articular bony erosion, and visualization of cartilage. Radiographic and ultrasonographic intrareader reliability test was performed. A total of 50 joints in the SG and ASG were included from 20 right handed women aged 61.85 (46-73) years with PIP and DIP OA diagnosed 6.8 (1-17) years ago. 70% SG joints and ASG were right and left sided respectively. The SG showed significantly more osteophytes, synovitis and non-visualization of joint cartilage. Intrareader radiographic and ultrasonographic agreement was excellent. This study demonstrates that painful PIP and/or DIP OA have more ultrasonographic structural changes and synovitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Gallbladder benign neoplasms: relationship with lithiasis and cancer (ultrasonographic study).

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    Brogna, A; Bucceri, A M; Branciforte, G; Travali, S; Loreno, M; Muratore, L A; Catalano, F

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the prevalence of gallbladder benign neoplasms, their ultrasonographic appearance and their relationship with gallbladder lithiasis and cancer. This study was carried out on 9000 consecutive patients having ultrasound of upper abdomen. Only adenomas and papillomas are considered as true benign neoplasms of the gallbladder. Adenomiomatosis and cholesterol polyps, often erroneously labelled as benign neoplasms, were excluded. Patients were followed-up by ultrasound every three months up to two years. The prevalence of benign neoplasms was 1.19%. Papillomas were found more frequently than adenomas both in males (68.51%) and in females (94.33%). Gallstones were not concomitant with benign neoplasms in any case. Neither stones nor growth of gallbladder benign neoplasms were recorded within the two-year follow-up period. Papillomas were more frequent than adenomas. No gallstone was concurrent with gallbladder benign neoplasms in our series. However, when gallstones are evidenced at ultrasound, further attention is recommended to discover probable concomitant neoplasms. Papillomas and adenomas more than 1 cm in diameter should be quarterly followed-up, while smaller masses could be six-monthly controlled. Surgery should be indicated for large-sized or rapidly growing masses because of the risk for cancer development.

  6. Association of Bicipital Peritendinous Effusion with Subacromial Impingement: A Dynamic Ultrasonographic Study of 337 Shoulders

    OpenAIRE

    Ke-Vin Chang; Wei-Ting Wu; Levent Özçakar

    2016-01-01

    Bicipital peritendinous effusion (BPE) is the most common biceps tendon abnormality and can be related to various shoulder ultrasonographic findings. Since the association of BPE with subacromial impingement is unclear, our study aimed to explore its association with the dynamic subacromial impingement test during ultrasound (US) imaging. We included 337 shoulders referred for US examinations and quantified the amount of BPE. Effusion more than 1?mm in thickness was considered a positive find...

  7. Ultrasonographic findings in patients examined in cataract detection-andtreatment campaigns: a retrospective study

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    Marcio Henrique Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A cataract is defined as an opacity of any portion of the lens, regardless of visual acuity. In some advanced cases of cataracts, in which good fundus visualization is not possible, an ultrasound examination provides better assessment of the posterior segment of the globe. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the ultrasonographic records of patients with advanced cataracts who were examined during cataract campaigns. METHODS: The ultrasonographic findings obtained from 215 patients examined in cataract campaigns conducted by the Hospital das Clínicas Department of Ophthalmology of the Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo between the years of 2005 and 2007 were evaluated, and the utility of this exam in changing the treatment procedures was studied. RESULTS: A total of 289 eyes from 215 patients were examined. Of the eyes examined, 77.5% presented with findings in the vitreous cavity and the posterior pole. A posterior vitreous detachment with no other complications was observed in 47.4% of the eyes. The remaining 30.1% presented with eye diseases that could result in a reduced visual function after surgery. The most frequent eye diseases observed were diffuse vitreous opacity (12.1% of the eyes and detachment of the retina (9.3% of the eyes. DISCUSSION: In many cases, the ultrasonographic evaluation of the posterior segment revealed significant anomalies that changed the original treatment plan or contra-indicated surgery. At the very least, the evaluation was useful for patient counseling. CONCLUSION: The ultrasonographic examination revealed and differentiated between eyes with cataracts and eyes with ocular abnormalities other than cataracts as the cause of poor vision, thereby indicating the importance of its use during ocular evaluation.

  8. Effects of repetitive shortwave diathermy for reducing synovitis in patients with knee osteoarthritis: an ultrasonographic study.

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    Jan, Mei-Hwa; Chai, Huei-Ming; Wang, Chung-Li; Lin, Yeong-Fwu; Tsai, Li-Ying

    2006-02-01

    Shortwave (SW) diathermy can be used to improve vascular circulation and reduce inflammation and pain for patients with osteoarthritis. However, reduction in synovial inflammation has never been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether repetitive SW diathermy, using ultrasonographic examination, could reduce synovitis in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Thirty subjects with 44 osteoarthritic knees participated in this study. Eleven subjects received SW, and 10 subjects received SW and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nine subjects received no treatment and served as a control group. Synovial sac thickness superior, medial, and lateral to the patella was measured using ultrasonography. The sum of these 3 measurements was taken as the total synovial sac thickness. Subjects in the treatment groups underwent ultrasonographic examination before and after 10, 20, and 30 treatments, whereas control subjects underwent ultrasonographic examination before the experiment and then once every 2 or 3 weeks for a total of 3 follow-up measurements. After 10 SW diathermy treatments, the total synovial sac thickness in both treatment groups was significantly less than the initial thickness, and the synovial sac continued to become significantly thinner with 20 sessions of treatment. These observations were not made in the control subjects. The results indicate that SW diathermy in patients with knee osteoarthritis can significantly reduce both synovial thickness and knee pain. Such reductions of synovial sac thickness and pain index continue over treatment sessions.

  9. Ultrasonographic study of subcutaneous penile granuloma secondary to silicone injection

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    Lucio Dell'Atti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Penile augmentation has been reported in the literature by injecting various materials. This study reports our experience in management of penile augmentation complications associated with selfpenile injection of silicone liquid. After a careful ultrasound study, the penile skin was excised through a circumferential sub-coronal incision and dissected with the silicon mass. Histology was well-compatible with silicone granulomas. The patient was discharged after 24 hours. Ultrasonography has permitted preoperatively to determine if the plane between the indurated inflammatory tissue and the Buck’s fascia was preserved for the complete surgical excision of affected tissue.

  10. Masseter muscle thickness in different skeletal morphology: An ultrasonographic study

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    Rani Sushma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The thickness of the masseter muscle during relaxation and contraction states was measured by ultrasonography. Subjects were classified according to their sagittal skeletal relationships. The association between muscle thickness and facial morphology was studied. Context: Masseter muscle thickness influences the skeletal patterns. Aim: To measure and compare the thickness of the masseter muscle in individuals with skeletal class I occlusion and skeletal class II malocclusions and to correlate its relationship with craniofacial morphology. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in a hospital setup and was designed to study the thickness of the masseter muscle in different skeletal morphologies. Materials and Methods: Seventy two individuals between the ages of 18 and 25 years were divided into Group I, Group IIA and Group IIB according to their skeletal relationships. Masseter muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography. Eight linear and six angular cephalometric measurements were assessed. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance and Pearson′s correlation analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in muscle thickness between subjects of different skeletal patterns. Significant positive correlation between masseter muscle thickness and posterior total face height, jarabak ratio, ramus height, mandibular length and significant negative correlations with mandibular plane angle, gonial angle and PP-MP angle were observed. Conclusion: This study indicates the strong association between the masseter muscle and skeletal morphology.

  11. Does vitamin D affect femoral cartilage thickness? An ultrasonographic study.

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    Malas, Fevziye Unsal; Kara, Murat; Aktekin, Lale; Ersöz, Murat; Ozçakar, Levent

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the association between vitamin D levels and distal femoral cartilage thickness in healthy subjects. Eighty patients who were admitted to our outpatient clinic between May and July 2013 were classified into three subgroups according to their 25-OH vitamin D levels of vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D levels and US measurements in the severe vitamin D deficiency group at RLC (r = 444, p = 0.020), LMC (r = 357, p = 0.067), and LLC (r = 568, p = 0.002). Low levels of vitamin D seem to affect the femoral cartilage thickness, adversely. Further studies are necessary to ascertain the clinical relevance of this change in cartilage thickness and whether vitamin D supplementation can reverse the cartilage thinning process or the allied clinical symptoms in the course of knee osteoarthritis.

  12. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

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    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa; Patrícia Novita Garcia; Letícia Fernandes Barroso; Marco Antonio Ferreira; Érika Araki Okuda; Norma Allemann

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes we...

  13. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation.

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    Costa, Márcio Augusto Nogueira; Garcia, Patrícia Novita; Barroso, Letícia Fernandes; Ferreira, Marco Antonio; Okuda, Érika Araki; Allemann, Norma

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed). Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and measure the intraocular foreign body, directing

  14. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

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    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  15. Ultrasonographic study of Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in chondrocalcinosis.

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    Falsetti, Paolo; Frediani, Bruno; Acciai, Caterina; Baldi, Fabio; Filippou, Georgios; Prada, Edwin Parra; Sabadini, Luciano; Marcolongo, Roberto

    2004-11-01

    To investigate by high frequency grey-scale ultrasonography (US) and power Doppler sonography (PDS) the modality and frequency of involvement of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in chondrocalcinosis (CC), and to correlate these findings with clinical complaints and radiographic evidence. The heels of 57 consecutive patients with CC were evaluated by US, PDS, and radiography. One control group of 50 consecutive patients with osteoarthritis (OA) without signs of CC was studied in the same way. A second control group of 50 healthy subjects underwent only US/PDS examination. All subjects also underwent clinical assessment. US revealed Achilles tendon calcifications in 57.9% of those with CC, but none in the control groups. Plantar fascia calcifications were observed in 15.8% of CC and in 2% of OA cases, but not in healthy controls. US showed no significant difference in postero-inferior and inferior calcaneal enthesophytosis between subjects with CC (59.6% and 61.4%, respectively) and those with OA (46% and 44%, respectively). Such alterations were also present, in lower percentages, in the healthy controls. Posterior and inferior calcaneal erosions were absent in all groups. Achilles enthesopathy was found in 22.8% of patients with CC (14.9% of heels, with vascular signals in 11.4% of heels on PDS). Deep retrocalcaneal bursitis was found in 10.5% of patients with CC (7% of heels, with vascular signals in 5.2% of heels on PDS). Plantar fasciitis was found in 40.3% of patients with CC (36% of heels, with vascular signals in 2.6% of heels on PDS) and in 14% of OA patients, but not in healthy controls. No significant correlation was found between talalgia or sex of patients and presence of calcifications. A significant correlation was observed between talalgia and Achilles enthesopathy (r = 0.78, p talalgia and vascular signals on PDS was observed in Achilles enthesopathy (r = 0.91, p < 0.0001) and deep retrocalcaneal bursitis (r = 0.65, p < 0.0001). The presence of

  16. Ultrasonographic and clinical study of post-stroke painful hemiplegic shoulder

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    Mohamed, Rania E.; Amin, Mohamed A.; Aboelsafa, Ashraf A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the work: To describe the structural abnormalities of the painful hemiplegic shoulder (PHS) by ultrasound (U/S) and their relationship with some clinical variables. Materials and methods: Eighty consecutive patients with post-stroke PHS were subjected to both clinical assessment and ultrasonographic examination of both shoulders. Ultrasonographic imaging data were classified into five grades. Results: The biceps tendon sheath effusion (51.25%) and the SA–SD bursitis (43.75%) were...

  17. Comparative Ultrasonographic, Anatomotopographic and Macromorphometric Study of the Spleen and Pancreas in Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

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    Rosen Stefanov DIMITROV

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to perform comparative analysis of the metric anatomy of the spleen and pancreas in rabbit, determined by applying of transabdominal ultrasonography and convectional anatomical research. Twelve mature, clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits 8 months of age from and weighed between 2.8 kg and 3.2 kg were looked at. The transabdominal B-mode ultrasonography was performed by Diagnostic Ultrasound System. The spleen and pancreas were imaged sagittally and transversally. The approaches w?re percutaneous transabdominal hypochondral left and percutaneous transabdominal epigastric. After euthanizing the animals a laparotomy was performed. The topography, shape and morphometry were made. In longitudinal ultrasongraphic study of the spleen has been seen its elongated shape. There were ultrasonographic metric data presented. The organ was seized to the greater curvature of the stomach in the area of the bottom and portions of the body of the stomach. The ultrasonography and postmortem study showed that the pancreas in rabbit is disseminated organ. The body of the pancreas was localized in the mesoduodenum of the duodenal sigmoid flexure, immediately behind the porta hepatic, as it has been cut through by the portal vein. From the comparative analysis of the obtained results could be conclude, that the study of some quantitative parameters of the structure of the pancreas in rabbit should contribute to the accurate diagnostics of the pancreatic lesions and the abdominal surgical practice in the animals.

  18. Association of Bicipital Peritendinous Effusion with Subacromial Impingement: A Dynamic Ultrasonographic Study of 337 Shoulders.

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    Chang, Ke-Vin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-12-12

    Bicipital peritendinous effusion (BPE) is the most common biceps tendon abnormality and can be related to various shoulder ultrasonographic findings. Since the association of BPE with subacromial impingement is unclear, our study aimed to explore its association with the dynamic subacromial impingement test during ultrasound (US) imaging. We included 337 shoulders referred for US examinations and quantified the amount of BPE. Effusion more than 1 mm in thickness was considered a positive finding. A comparison of three grades of subacromial impingement, adjusted by patient demographics, static sonographic shoulder pathology, and physical findings, by using multivariate regression models revealed that the odds ratio of subacromial impingement (with 95% confidence intervals) in the presence of BPE was 6.54 (3.21-13.32) in grade 1, 6.93 (3.05-15.76) in grade 2 and 3.18 (1.48-6.80) in grade 3. An increase in age, subdeltoid bursitis, full-thickness supraspinatus tendon tear, and shoulder stiffness were also associated with BPE. Since our study demonstrated a positive association of BPE with all grades of impingement, a US dynamic subacromial impingement test is suggested when BPE is present. Future prospective studies are needed to identify changes in BPE after treatment.

  19. Evaluation of oral pentoxifylline in the management of oral submucous fibrosis – An ultrasonographic study

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    Jayachandran Sadaksharam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of oral pentoxifylline in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients by assessing the clinical symptoms such as burning sensation, mouth opening, and submucosal layer thickness and echogenicity using ultrasonography, both pre- and post-operatively. Materials and Methods: Thirty study subjects were included in the study and divided into two groups in single-blind randomized manner, oral pentoxifylline and dexamethasone group. Burning sensation, mouth opening, ultrasonographic submucosal thickness, and echogenicity were recorded both pre- and post-operatively. Any adverse effects reported by the patients were also noted. The data collected were statistically analyzed, and response to pentoxifylline and intralesional dexamethasone with hyaluronidase was observed using ultrasonography. Results: A highly significant reduction (P < 0.001 in burning sensation, improvement in mouth opening, and changes in submucosal thickness were noticed in both groups, and significant improvement (P < 0.05 in echogenicity in both the groups was noticed. However, pentoxifylline group showed marginally better improvement than dexamethasone group. Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can bring about significant improvement in OSMF, which can be used as better alternative where intralesional steroid was contraindicated or not well tolerated.

  20. The Acupuncture Effect on Median Nerve Morphology in Patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: An Ultrasonographic Study

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    Fatma Gülçin Ural

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to explore the acupuncture effect on the cross-sectional area (CSA of the median nerve at the wrist in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS and, additionally, to identify whether clinical, electrophysiological, and ultrasonographic changes show any association. Methods. Forty-five limbs of 27 female patients were randomly divided into two groups (acupuncture and control. All patients used night wrist splint. The patients in the acupuncture group received additional acupuncture therapy. Visual analog scale (VAS, Duruöz Hand Index (DHI, Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire scores, electrophysiologic measurements, and median nerve CSAs were noted before and after the treatment in both groups. Results. VAS, DHI, Quick DASH scores, and electrophysiological measurements were improved in both groups. The median nerve CSA significantly decreased in the acupuncture group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Conclusion. After acupuncture therapy, the patients with CTS might have both clinical and morphological improvement.

  1. Ultrasonographic staging of cutaneous malignant tumors: an ultrasonographic depth index.

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    Crisan, Maria; Crisan, Diana; Sannino, Gianpaolo; Lupsor, Monica; Badea, Radu; Amzica, Florin

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the role of conventional and high-frequency ultrasound in the evaluation of the depth of cutaneous skin cancer. The study was performed on 46 subjects, divided into 3 categories, according to their skin pathology [basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 18 subjects; superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), 8 subjects; nodular melanoma (NM), 20 subjects]. Conventional and high-frequency ultrasonographic measurements were performed in order to assess the thickness of the tumors and the vascularization degree. We compared the mean values of the tumoral thickness obtained by using ultrasound (ultrasonographic depth index) with the histological depth index, obtained after performing histological sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin, and specific monoclonal antibodies in case of pigmented tumors. We established a correlation index between the histological and ultrasonographic values of the tumoral thickness. We found a strong correlation between the ultrasonographic index (measured by high-frequency sonography) and the histological index for nodular BCC (correlation of 98.4 %), NM subjects (correlation of 98.4 %), and SSM subjects (correlation of 99.4 %). An increase of the blood supply was noticed in nodular lesions only. Ultrasonography allows a very accurate assessment of skin cancer. The ultrasonographic depth index can be considered an objective, non-invasive marker for cutaneous tumors, comparable to the histological one, with a very good sensitivity (98-99 %).

  2. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Achilles tendon in children with flatfoot: A case-control morphometric study.

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    Gonul, Y; Yucel, O; Eroglu, M; Senturk, I; Eroglu, S; Dikici, O; Cartilli, O; Ulasli, M

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether any relationships exist between the presence of flatfoot and ultrasonographic morphometric findings of Achilles tendon in children. The study included 30 pediatric patients with a mean age of 11.96±2.44 (SD) years (range: 9-16 years) with flexible flatfoot and 29 healthy pediatric controls who were matched for age and served as a control group. Demographic data of both groups such as age, height and weight, and anthropometric measurements including leg length and, length and cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendon on ultrasonography were tabulated. Relationships between the cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon and flatfoot and the other parameters were searched for using backward multiple regression analysis. No associations between flatfoot and length and cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendon, age, height, leg and foot length were found. A negative correlation was found between the cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon and presence of flatfoot (Beta=-4.93, P=0.01) and age (Beta=-1.96, P=0.04). A positive correlation was found between the cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon and shoe size (Beta=2.13, P=0.007). Flatfoot, shoe size, age and weight must be kept in mind as a clue for a thinner Achilles tendon morphometry which can be a risk factor in lower limb pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Does ultrasonographic volume of the thyroid gland correlate with difficult intubation? An observational study

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    Basak Ceyda Meco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preoperative ultrasonographic evaluation of the thyroid gland done by surgeons could let us foresee airway management challenges. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of thyroid-related parameters assessed preoperatively by surgeons via ultrasonography and chest X-ray on intubation conditions. METHODS: Fifty patients undergoing thyroid surgery were enrolled. Thyromental distance, Mallampati score, neck circumference and range of neck movement were evaluated before the operation. Thyroid volume, signs of invasion or compression and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray were also noted. The intubation conditions were assessed with Cormack and Lehane score and the intubation difficulty scale. Statistical analyses were done with SPSS 15.0 software. RESULTS: The mean thyroid volume of the patients was 26.38 ± 14 mL. The median intubation difficulty scale was 1 (0-2. Thyromental distance (p = 0.011; r = 0.36; 95% CI 0.582-0.088, Mallampati score (p = 0.041; r = 0.29; 95% CI 0.013-0.526, compression or invasion signs (p = 0.041; r = 0.28; 95% CI 0.006-0.521 and tracheal deviation on chest X-ray (p = 0.041; r = 0.52; 95% CI 0.268-0.702 were correlated with intubation difficulty scale. Also patients were classified into two groups related to their intubation difficulty scale (Group I, n = 19: intubation difficulty scale = 0; Group II, n = 31: 1 < intubation difficulty scale ≤ 5 and difficult intubation predictors and thyroid-related parameters were compared. Only Mallampati score was significantly different between groups (p = 0.025. CONCLUSION: The thyroid volume is not associated with difficult intubation. However clinical assessment parameters may predict difficult intubation.

  4. Clinical and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Lower-extremity Vein Thrombosis in Behcet Syndrome: An Observational Study.

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    Seyahi, Emire; Cakmak, Osman Serdal; Tutar, Burcin; Arslan, Caner; Dikici, Atilla Suleyman; Sut, Necdet; Kantarci, Fatih; Tuzun, Hasan; Melikoglu, Melike; Yazici, Hasan

    2015-11-01

    Vascular involvement can be seen in up to 40% of patients with Behcet syndrome (BS), the lower-extremity vein thrombosis (LEVT) being the most common type. The aim of the current study was to compare venous Doppler findings and clinical features between BS patients with LEVT and control patients diagnosed as having LEVT due to other causes.All consecutive 78 patients (71 men, 7 women; mean age 38.6 ± 10.3 years) with LEVT due to BS and 50 control patients (29 men, 21 women; mean age 42.0 ± 12.5 years) who had LEVT due to other causes, or idiopathic, were studied with the help of a Doppler ultrasonography after a detailed clinical examination. Patterns of venous disease were identified by cluster analyses. Clinical features of chronic venous disease were assessed using 2 classification systems. Venous claudication was also assessed.Patients with BS were more likely to be men, had significantly earlier age of onset of thrombosis, and were treated mainly with immunosuppressives and less frequently with anticoagulants. Furthermore, they had significantly more bilateral involvement, less complete recanalization, and more frequent collateral formation. While control patients had a disorganized pattern of venous involvement, BS patients had a contiguous and symmetric pattern, involving all deep and superficial veins of the lower extremities, with less affinity for crural veins. Clinical assessment, as measured by the 2 classification systems, also indicated a more severe disease among the BS patients. In line, 51% of the BS patients suffered from severe post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) and 32% from venous claudication, whereas these were present in 8% and 12%, respectively, among the controls. Among BS patients, a longer duration of thrombosis, bilateral femoral vein involvement, and using no anticoagulation along with immunosuppressive treatment when first diagnosed were found to be associated independently with severe PTS.Lower-extremity vein thrombosis

  5. The prevalence of fluid associated with the iliotibial band in asymptomatic recreational runners: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelsing, Elena J; Finnoff, Jonathan; Levy, Bruce; Smith, Jay

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and distribution of fluid associated with the iliotibial band (ITB) in asymptomatic recreational runners. Prospective cohort study. Sports medicine center at a tertiary medical center. Five male and 15 female asymptomatic recreational runners (10-30 miles per week) ages 18-40 years. Participants were examined with the use of ultrasonography to assess for the presence of fluid at the level of the lateral femoral epicondyle and determine its relationship to the ITB at 0 and 30° of knee flexion in both supine (non-weight-bearing) and standing (weight-bearing) positions. Fluid was associated with the ITB in 100% of asymptomatic recreational runners and was bilateral in 90%. When examined in full extension with the subject supine, fluid was seen in 67.5% of knees (n = 40) compared with 95% of the knees when standing. When examined in 30° of flexion, the presence of fluid decreased to 30% when supine and 22.5% when standing. With the knee in full extension in a supine/standing position, fluid was located anterior and deep 70%/74% of the time and was anterior only 11%/0% of the time. With the knee flexed to 30° in a supine/standing position, fluid was located anterior and deep 50%/33% of the time and anterior only 33%/67% of the time. The prevalence of fluid associated with the ITB varied with body and knee position, was most common in the standing position with the knee extended, and was generally located anterior or anterior and deep to the ITB. The clinical significance of our findings are 2-fold: (1) body position should be considered when searching for fluid in the vicinity of the ITB, and (2) clinicians and imagers should exercise caution when interpreting the clinical significance of fluid associated with the ITB during ultrasonographic evaluation of runners with lateral knee pain. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of asymptomatic tears of the rotator cuff: an ultrasonographic and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmayer, S; Smith, H-J; Tariq, R; Larmo, A

    2009-02-01

    We undertook clinical and ultrasonographic examination of the shoulders of 420 asymptomatic volunteers aged between 50 and 79 years. MRI was performed in selected cases. Full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff were detected in 32 subjects (7.6%). The prevalence increased with age as follows: 50 to 59 years, 2.1%; 60 to 69 years, 5.7%; and 70 to 79 years, 15%. The mean size of the tear was less than 3 cm and tear localisation was limited to the supraspinatus tendon in most cases (78%). The strength of flexion was reduced significantly in the group with tears (p = 0.01). Asymptomatic tears of the rotator cuff should be regarded as part of the normal ageing process in the elderly but may be less common than hitherto believed.

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of gynecomastia

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    Kim, Ji Hyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Yoon, Choon Sik; Park, Chang Yun [Yongdong Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    The purposes of our study were to find out characteristic ultrasonographic findings of gynecomastia and to analyze age distribution, causative factors of gynecomastia. For these purposes, medical records of 39 male patients with gynecomastia were reviewed and sonographic findings of 13 cases of gentamycin were analyzed. Gynecomastia was found most commonly in teenagers and commonly in twenties. Almostly, it occurred without any evident etiology and classified as idiopathic or pirbuterol type. Less frequently, it occurred due to drug administration, systemic disease, or male hormone deficiency. Unilateral involvement was seen in 29 cases; 17cases involving the left and 12 cases the right. Bilateral involvement was seen in 10 cases. Sonographically,gynecomastia appeared as hypoechoic or intermediate echoic mass with various shape in the subareolar area. One case showed diffuse fatty breast pattern without definable mass. On sonographic evaluation, prominent nipple should not be misinterpreted as a breast mass. For the correct diagnosis of gynecomastia, both side breasts should be evaluated for comparison

  8. Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearance of the caecum in clinically healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Harriet; Freiche, Valérie; Baril, Aurélie; Charpentier, Julie; Desquilbet, Loïc; Le Poder, Sophie; Servely, Jean-Luc; Laloy, Eve; Pey, Pascaline

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the ultrasonographic and endoscopic appearance and characteristics of the caecum in asymptomatic cats, and to correlate these findings with histology. Methods Ex vivo ultrasonographic and histologic evaluations of a fresh caecum were initially performed. Then, 20 asymptomatic cats, privately owned or originating from a reproductive colony, were recruited. All cats had an ultrasonographic examination of the ileocaecocolic junction, where the thickness of the caecal wall, ileocolic lymph nodes and the echogenicity of the local fat were assessed. They all underwent a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the mucosa and biopsies for histology. Results An ultrasonographic hypoechoic nodular inner layer, which corresponded to the coalescence of multiple lymphoid follicles originating from the submucosa and protruding in the mucosa on histology, was visible in all parts of the caecum. The combined mucosa and submucosa was measured ultrasonographically and defined as the follicular layer. Although all cats were asymptomatic, 3/19 cats showed mild caecal inflammation on histology. The most discriminatory ultrasonographic parameter in assessing this subclinical inflammation was the thickness of the follicular layer at the entrance of the caecum, with a cut-off value of 2.0 mm. All cats (20/20) showed some degree of macroscopic 'dimpling' of the caecal mucosa on endoscopy. Conclusions and relevance Lymphoid follicles in the caecal mucosa and submucosa constitute a unique follicular layer on ultrasound. In asymptomatic cats, a subtle, non-clinically relevant inflammation may exist and this is correlated with an increased thickness of the follicular layer on ultrasound. On endoscopy, a 'dimpled aspect' to the caecal mucosa is a normal finding in the asymptomatic cat.

  9. In vivo longitudinal study of rodent skeletal muscle atrophy using ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Antonietta; Fonzino, Adriano; Rana, Francesco; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Bellis, Michela; Conte, Elena; Giustino, Arcangela; Conte Camerino, Diana; Desaphy, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Muscle atrophy is a widespread ill condition occurring in many diseases, which can reduce quality of life and increase morbidity and mortality. We developed a new method using non-invasive ultrasonography to measure soleus and gastrocnemius lateralis muscle atrophy in the hindlimb-unloaded rat, a well-accepted model of muscle disuse. Soleus and gastrocnemius volumes were calculated using the conventional truncated-cone method and a newly-designed sinusoidal method. For Soleus muscle, the ultrasonographic volume determined in vivo with either method was linearly correlated to the volume determined ex-vivo from excised muscles as muscle weight-to-density ratio. For both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, a strong linear correlation was obtained between the ultrasonographic volume and the muscle fiber cross-sectional area determined ex-vivo on muscle cryosections. Thus ultrasonography allowed the longitudinal in vivo evaluation of muscle atrophy progression during hindlimb unloading. This study validates ultrasonography as a powerful method for the evaluation of rodent muscle atrophy in vivo, which would prove useful in disease models and therapeutic trials.

  10. Addressing requests for emergency ultrasonographic examinations when implementing teleradiology services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junca-Laplace-Valageas, C; Gervaise, A; Pernin, M; Naulet, P; Portron, Y; Lapierre-Combes, M

    2015-11-01

    To prospectively assess how to address requests for ultrasonographic examinations when setting up an on-call teleradiology service. An analytical prospective study was performed from January 2012 to December 2012 inclusively. All requests received for after-hours ultrasonographic examinations during this period were analyzed. Ultrasound requests were classified as being postponable until working hours, replaceable by an alternate cross-sectional imaging modality, or urgent and needing to be performed after hours. A total of 176 requests for ultrasonographic examinations were analyzed. They predominantly included requests for abdominal and pelvic ultrasonographic examinations (63%). Thirty-nine requests (22.2%) were considered as postponable, 49 (27.8%) as replaceable and 64 (36.4%) as both postponable and replaceable. Twenty-four requests (13.6%) were considered as urgent; they consisted of 10 requests for venous duplex Doppler ultrasonographic examinations of the lower limbs, eight requests for testicular ultrasonographic examinations, five for pelvic ultrasonographic examinations and one for soft-tissue ultrasonographic examination. In these urgent cases, realistic options were either to transfer the patient to another institution or to train emergency department physicians in ultrasonography for local handling. Although the need for addressing requests for ultrasonographic examinations should be taken into account when setting up an on-call teleradiology service, it should not impede such plans. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of insemination volume on uterine contractions and inflammatory response and on elimination of semen in the mare uterus-scintigraphic and ultrasonographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnemaa, L; Järvimaa, T; Lehmonen, N; Mäkelä, O; Reilas, T; Sankari, S; Katila, T

    2005-11-01

    The effect of artificial insemination (AI) volume on uterine contractility and inflammation and on elimination of semen in the reproductive tract of mares was examined for 4 h after AI using two methods, scintigraphy and ultrasonography. The same doses were used in both methods: 2 and 100 ml of skim milk-extended frozen semen. In the scintigraphic study, the number of reproductively normal mares was four per group and in the ultrasonographic study five per group. For scintigraphy, the semen was radiolabelled with technetium-99m. The static scintigrams were acquired immediately before and 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after AI. The activities in the vagina and uterus were calculated and the values for sperm that had been discharged from the mare were obtained by subtracting the counts for the uterus and vagina from the total radioactivity. The dynamic scintigrams were taken continuously for the first 30 min after AI and in 5-min periods immediately after having acquired the static scintigrams. The uterine contractions were counted. In the ultrasonographic study, the mares were scanned before AI and at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min after AI, for at least 1 min each time. The examinations were videotaped and contractions counted per minute. More contractions were observed with the ultrasonographic method than with the scintigraphic method. No difference was present in the number of contractions between the groups, except in the ultrasonographic study at 4 h, when the mares inseminated with 100 ml showed more contractions than did the mares inseminated with 2 ml. The intraluminal fluid was sampled with a tampon and by uterine lavage 4 h after AI in the ultrasonographic study. The numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and spermatozoa were counted, but the differences between the groups were not significant. Under our experimental conditions and with the number of mares examined, the volume of the AI dose had an insignificant effect on

  12. Reliability of new software in measuring cervical multifidus diameters and shoulder muscle strength in a synchronized way; an ultrasonographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rahnama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the inter-session reliability of new software to measure the diameters of the cervical multifidus muscle (CMM, both at rest and during isometric contractions of the shoulder abductors in subjects with neck pain and in healthy individuals.METHOD: In the present study, the reliability of measuring the diameters of the CMM with the Sonosynch software was evaluated by using 24 participants, including 12 subjects with chronic neck pain and 12 healthy individuals. The anterior-posterior diameter (APD and the lateral diameter (LD of the CMM were measured in a resting state and then repeated during isometric contraction of the shoulder abductors. Measurements were taken on separate occasions 3 to 7 days apart in order to determine inter-session reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, standard error of measurement (SEM, and smallest detectable difference (SDD were used to evaluate the relative and absolute reliability, respectively.RESULTS: The Sonosynch software has shown to be highly reliable in measuring the diameters of the CMM both in healthy subjects and in those with neck pain. The ICCs 95% CI for APD ranged from 0.84 to 0.94 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.86 to 0.94 in healthy subjects. For LD, the ICC 95% CI ranged from 0.64 to 0.95 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.82 to 0.92 in healthy subjects.CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic measurement of the diameters of the CMM using Sonosynch has proved to be reliable especially for APD in healthy subjects as well as subjects with neck pain.

  13. The utility of ultrasonographic bone age determination in detecting growth disturbances; a comparative study with the conventional radiographic technique

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    Hajalioghli, Parisa; Tarzamni, Mohammad Kazem; Arami, Sara [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fouladi, Daniel Fadaei [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghojazadeh, Morteza [Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To test whether the conventional radiographic technique in determining bone age abnormalities can be replaced by ultrasonography. A total of 54 Caucasian subjects up to 7 years of age with clinically suspected growth problems underwent left hand and wrist radiographic and ultrasonographic bone age estimations with the use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The ultrasonographic scans targeted the ossification centers in the radius and ulna distal epiphysis, carpal bones, epiphyses of the first and third metacarpals, and epiphysis of the middle phalanx, as described in previous reports. The degree of agreement between the two sets of data, as well as the accuracy of the ultrasonographic method in detecting radiographically suggested bone age abnormities, was examined. The mean chronological age, radiographic bone age, and ultrasonographic bone age (all in months) were 41.96 ± 22.25, 26.68 ± 14.08, and 26.71 ± 13.50 in 28 boys and 43.62 ± 24.63, 30.12 ± 17.69, and 31.27 ± 18.06 in 26 girls, respectively. According to the Bland-Altman plot there was high agreement between the results of the two methods with only three outliers. The deviations in bone age from the chronological age taken by the two techniques had the same sign in all patients. Supposing radiography to be the method of reference, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of sonography in detecting growth abnormalities were all 100 % in males and 90.9, 100, 100, and 93.8 %, respectively, in females. The conventional radiographic technique for determining bone age abnormalities could be replaced by ultrasonography. (orig.)

  14. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the bovine eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Timothy J; Hallowell, Gayle D; Bowen, I Mark

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to describe the ultrasonographic appearance and measurements of the normal bovine eye, to compare the measurements to those reported previously for cadaveric eyes and to describe differences between ocular dimensions of Holstein Friesian and Jersey cattle. Sixty transpalpebral ocular ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 30 adult Holstein Friesian cows, and 16 examinations were performed on 8 adult Jersey cows. Transpalpebral ultrasonographic images were obtained with a 10 MHz linear transducer in both horizontal and vertical imaging planes. The ultrasonographic appearance of structures within the bovine eye is similar to that in other species, although the ciliary artery was frequently identified, appearing as a 0.33 +/- 0.04 cm diameter hypoechoic area. The axial length of the globe was significantly greater in Holstein Friesian cattle (3.46 +/- 0.09 cm) compared with Jersey cattle (3.27 +/- 0.19 cm; P = 0.001), although the vitreous depth was smaller in Holstein Friesian cattle (1.46 +/- 0.09 cm) (P = 0.0009). The anterioposterior depth of the lens was significantly greater in Jersey cattle (1.92 +/- 0.11 cm) and the cornea was thinner in Jersey cattle (0.17 +/- 0.02 cm). The appearance and ocular distances for live animals were similar to those reported previously for cadaveric specimens. The knowledge of normal ocular dimensions facilitates the use of ultrasonography in the evaluation of ocular disease in cattle.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis

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    Han, Jong Kyu; Lee, Hae Kyung; Moon, Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Kwi Hyang; Choi, Deuk Lin [Soonchunhyangi University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of the patients with sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP). Thirteen patients with surgically confirmed sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were involved in this study. Because of intestinal obstruction, all patients had received operations. Among 13 patients, 12 cases had continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 2 months-12 years and 4 months from (mean; 6 years and 10 months), owing to chronic renal failure and one patient had an operation due to variceal bleeding caused by liver cirrhosis. On ultrasonographic examination, all patients showed loculated ascites which were large (n=7) or small (n=6) in amount with multiple separations. The small bowel loops were tethered posteriorly perisaltic movement and covered with the thick membrane. The ultrasonographic of findings of sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis were posteriorly tethered small bowels covered with a thick membrane and loculated ascites with multiple septa. Ultrasonographic examination can detect the thin membrane covering the small bowel loops in the early phase of the disease, therefore ultrasonography would be a helpful modality to diagnose SEP early.

  16. Evaluation of Masseter Muscle Thickness and Its Relation with Mandibular Growth Pattern: An Ultrasonographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aims of the study were to measure the thickness of masseter muscle in both males and females of different growth pattern and then to evaluate the relation of thickness of masseter muscle with different growth pattern in both genders. Materials and methods: This was a double-blind study conducted on 40 subjects in the age range of 15 to 24 years consisting of twenty females and twenty males selected for the study based on clinical examination. However four subjects which included four male subjects refused to undergo ultrasonography. Therefore, only thirty-six subjects were undergone ultrasonography. Their ultrasonography was done to measure the masseter muscle thickness. Lateral cephalograms taken to assess their growth pattern. Based on the growth pattern, the subjects were divided into three groups hypodivergents, normodivergents and hyperdivergents and their relation to muscle thickness was evaluated. A null hypothesis was formulated after beginning of study and it was assumed that masseter muscle thickness have no correlation with growth pattern. Results: The results showed significantly (0.05 in both normal and clenched position. Thicker muscle mass was found on the right side as compared to the left side in both males and females whereas gender wise thicker muscle mass was found in males as compared to females. Females showed more variation in muscle thickness values.

  17. Evaluation of the long-term stability of sheath plication using absorbable sutures in 51 patients with diastasis of the recti muscles: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestak, Ondrej; Kullac, Robert; Mestak, Jan; Nosek, Alex; Krajcova, Aneta; Sukop, Andrej

    2012-11-01

    Rectus sheath plication within abdominoplasty is a standard treatment for diastasis of the recti muscles. There are questions regarding the efficacy and long-term stability of the correction of rectus diastasis and whether absorbable sutures work as well as nonabsorbable sutures. The authors conducted a case-control study to assess the outcomes of recti muscle diastasis correction with absorbable suture. The authors assessed the outcomes by physical and ultrasonographic examinations and a patient questionnaire, which asked about the number of pregnancies and the types of deliveries, other abdominal operations before or after the abdominoplasty, and the interval of time required to return to full activity. During the examination, the interrecti distances were measured at three levels: halfway between the xiphoid and umbilicus, just above the umbilicus, and halfway between the umbilicus and the pubis. The same examination was performed on a control group of nulliparous women. The authors examined a group of 51 patients aged 25 to 64 years (mean, 41 years). The time interval between the operation and the ultrasonographic examination was 12 to 41 months (mean, 20.8 months). There was no statistically significant difference between the studied group and the control group with respect to their interrecti distances. Rectus sheath plication using absorbable sutures in patients with diastasis of the recti muscles is a reliable method that maintains the long-term stability of the abdominal wall. Therapeutic, II.

  18. Prevalence of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis in shoulder pain: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draghi, Ferdinando; Scudeller, Luigia; Draghi, Anna Guja; Bortolotto, Chandra

    2015-06-01

    The presence of the subacromial-subdeltoid (SASD) bursa inflammation has recently been proposed as a primary radiologic factor predicting persistent limitation and pain in operated patients. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis that pain, or increased shoulder pain, could be associated with SASD bursitis not only in operated patients but also in general population. A consecutive series of 1940 shoulder ultrasound examinations were performed by our Department over a 5-year period using linear multi-frequency probes. All reports of examination executed for shoulder pain were reviewed. The video clips were independently reviewed by two radiologists: effusion in the SASD bursa and the presence of other pathological conditions were evaluated and confirmed. A total of 1147 shoulder video clips were re-evaluated, and 1587 pathologies were detected; 65.5 % of patients had only one pathology, 30.4 % had two and 4.1 % presented three pathologies. The difference between the group with and without effusion is statistically significant for acromioclavicular joint arthritis, supraspinatus tendon calcific tendinopathy, full-thickness and superficial tear of the supraspinatus, traumas and rheumatoid arthritis with a p value <0.01. Our study shows that the effusion in the SASD bursa is frequently associated with shoulder pain often independently from the underlying pathology; further studies are needed to confirm the statistical significance of this relationship by clarifying possible confounding factors.

  19. AN ULTRASONOGRAPHIC STUDY OF CAROTID ARTERY PATHOLOGY IN ISCHAEMIC STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puthiya Maliyakkal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Majority of ischaemic strokes are due to extracranial carotid artery disease. Ultrasonography of the carotid arteries is easily available, cost-effective noninvasive method of evaluation in preventing ischaemic strokes. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the carotid artery pathology, and grade the stenotic lesions by ultrasonography in ischaemic stroke patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS In 25 patients of clinically diagnosed cerebrovascular insufficiency, carotid and vertebral arteries on both sides were examined. The site, size, echogenicity, luminal narrowing and velocity changes at the site of atherosclerotic plaque was recorded. The observations in percentages were compared and analysed. RESULTS Hemiparesis was the commonest presenting complaint. Among these 25 patients, 58% of them had atheromatous plaque. Smoking had a strong association with the development of plaque. 64% of these patients with atheromatous plaque were males with a sex ratio of 1.8:1, 57% of plaques were found at carotid bifurcation predominantly on left side, 57% of these plaques had significant stenosis and one had complete occlusion. Predominant type of these plaque were strongly echogenic with calcification (52%, 35% of these patients had a PSV ratio of 2-4 and 14% >4. CONCLUSION The study showed atheromatous plaque changes with significant stenosis among cerebrovascular insufficiency patients. The findings were consistent with the other studies.

  20. Measurement of gingival thickness using digital vernier caliper and ultrasonographic method: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swati; Thakur, Srinath L; Joshi, Shyamsunder K; Kulkarni, Sudhindra S

    2014-05-01

    The measurement of the thickness of the gingival tissues has been done using different techniques. Trans-gingival probing with a graduated probe, use of vernier calipers, ultrasonography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), have all been tried, but no one technique has been shown to be consistent and better than the others. The present study was done to evaluate and compare the gingival thickness as measured with a digital vernier caliper and ultrasonography. A total of 30 systemically healthy, non-smokers were included in the study. The gingival measurements were made and recorded from the maxillary and mandibular lateral incisor areas at 2 locations: (a) at a point apical to the free gingival groove; and (b) at a point immediately coronal to the muco-gingival junction. The mean gingival thickness ranged from 0.56 to 1.02 mm. Males had a significantly thicker gingiva as compared to females (P vernier caliper and those made with ultrasonography were compared. The thickness of the gingiva was in the range of 0.56-1.02 mm. A digital vernier caliper and ultrasonography both can be used to assess the gingival thickness with equal accuracy. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Ultrasonographic study and Doppler flow velocimetry of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Helena Daher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Longitudinal study with B-mode ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy, to establish and quantify normality parameters, correlating them with physiological changes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five pregnant women were assessed and selected to participate in the study, each of them undergoing four examinations at the first, second, third trimesters and postpartum. Results: Findings during pregnancy were the following: increased renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation with incidence of 45.4% in the right kidney, and 9% in the left kidney; nephrolithiasis, 18.1% in the right kidney, 13.6% in the left kidney. With pyelocaliceal dilatation, mean values for resistivity index were: 0.68 for renal arteries; 0.66 for segmental arteries; 0.64 for interlobar arteries; 0.64 for arcuate arteries. Without pyelocaliceal dilatation, 0.67 for renal arteries; 0.64 for segmental arteries; 0.63 for interlobar arteries; and 0.61 for arcuate arteries. Portal vein flow velocities presented higher values in pregnancy, with mean value for maximum velocity of 28.9 cm/s, and 22.6 cm/s postpartum. The waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein presented changes persisting in the postpartum period in 31.8% of the patients. Cholelithiasis was observed in 18.1% of the patients. Conclusion: Alterations in renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, changes in portal vein flow velocity, alterations in waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein, proved to be significant.

  2. Ultrasonographic study and Doppler flow velocimetry of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daher, Cibele Helena; Gomes, Andrea Cavalanti; Kobayashi, Sergio; Chammas, Maria Cristina, E-mail: cibeledaher@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (In-Rad/HC-FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina

    2015-05-15

    Objective: longitudinal study with B-mode ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography of maternal kidneys and liver in low-risk pregnancy, to establish and quantify normality parameters, correlating them with physiological changes. Materials and methods: twenty-five pregnant women were assessed and selected to participate in the study, each of them undergoing four examinations at the first, second, third trimesters and postpartum. Results: findings during pregnancy were the following: increased renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation with incidence of 45.4% in the right kidney, and 9% in the left kidney; nephrolithiasis, 18.1% in the right kidney, 13.6% in the left kidney. With pyelocaliceal dilatation, mean values for resistivity index were: 0.68 for renal arteries; 0.66 for segmental arteries; 0.64 for interlobar arteries; 0.64 for arcuate arteries. Without pyelocaliceal dilatation, 0.67 for renal arteries; 0.64 for segmental arteries; 0.63 for interlobar arteries; and 0.61 for arcuate arteries. Portal vein flow velocities presented higher values in pregnancy, with mean value for maximum velocity of 28.9 cm/s, and 22.6 cm/s postpartum. The waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein presented changes persisting in the postpartum period in 31.8% of the patients. Cholelithiasis was observed in 18.1% of the patients. Conclusion: alterations in renal volume, pyelocaliceal dilatation, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, changes in portal vein flow velocity, alterations in waveform pattern of the right hepatic vein, proved to be significant. (author)

  3. Heel fat pad involvement in rheumatoid arthritis and in spondyloarthropathies: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsetti, P; Frediani, B; Acciai, C; Baldi, F; Filippou, G; Marcolongo, R

    2004-01-01

    Heel fat pad inflammation and degeneration have been frequently proved to cause talalgia. Painful heel fat pad is often confused with plantar fasciitis, and only magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasonography (US) can differentiate these conditions. Scanty data are available about heel fat pad involvement in the course of chronic polyarthritis. To investigate with US the heel fat pad involvement in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathies (SpA); to describe and compare the clinical and sonographic features of this lesion in the two groups. The heels of 181 consecutive outpatients with RA and 160 with SpA were studied by US and radiography. A control group of 60 healthy subjects was examined by US. Two different patterns of involvement of the heel fat pad were observed. The inflammatory-oedematous pattern was more frequent in patients with RA (6.6%) than in those with SpA (1.8%), and was associated with talalgia--even if it was not associated with plantar fasciitis or enthesophyte (bony spur). The degenerative-atrophic pattern was less frequent (1.1% in RA, 1.9% in SpA), and was associated with plantar fasciitis and subcalcaneal enthesophyte. The inflammatory-oedematous lesion of the heel fat-pad is relatively frequent in RA and causes subcalcaneal pain. Degenerative-atrophic changes of the heel fat pad can be observed in RA and SpA, and seem to be associated with chronic abnormalities of the plantar fascia and of its enthesis.

  4. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Acupuncture Effect on Common Extensor Tendon Thickness in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Fatma Gülçin; Öztürk, Gökhan Tuna; Bölük, Hüma; Akkuş, Selami

    2017-10-01

    To explore the effect of acupuncture on common extensor tendon (CET) thickness in patients with lateral epicondylitis (LE). Additionally, to identify whether clinical and ultrasonographic changes showed any correlation. Forty-one patients were randomly assigned to acupuncture and control groups. Conventional treatment (rest, NSAİİ, bracing, exercise) methods for LE were applied to all patients. In addition to this, the acupuncture treatment was applied to the acupuncture group. The visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Duruoz Hand Index (DHI) for functioning of the affected limb, the pressure pain threshold, and CET thickness (via ultrasound imaging) were assessed before and end of the treatment in both groups. The VAS and DHI scores in both groups decreased. The pressure pain threshold and CET thickness only demonstrated improvement in the acupuncture group. These findings show that the CET thickness was reduced after 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment in LE patients.

  5. Evaluation of Internal Echogenic Pattern of Masseter in Subjects with Myofascial Pain/ Myositis, Oral Submucous Fibrosis, Chewers, Bruxers and Healthy Individuals- A Preliminary Ultrasonographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan Iyengar, Asha; Patil, Seema; Guddannanavar Karibasappa, Ganga; Beloor Vasudev, Subash; Kumar Joshi, Revan

    2016-12-01

    The masseter is generally involved in myofascial pain, myositis, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), bruxism, and in subjects with habitual tobacco/arecanut chewing. In all the above conditions, changes in the internal echogenic pattern on ultrasonography of the muscle may be observed. The present study aimed at evaluating the internal echogenic pattern of masseter by ultrasonography in subjects with various conditions affecting masster muscle. The study subjects were categorized into 5 groups consisting of 20 subjects each with the following conditions; Group 1: myofascial pain or myositis, Group 2: oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), Group 3: habitual chewing of tobacco/arecanut without OSMF, Group 4: bruxism. Group 5 consisted of 20 healthy subjects. An ultrasonographic examination of masseter was performed in all subjects and the echogenic pattern was classified into Types I, II and III. The images were examined by two observers and inter-observer variability was assessed. Differences in internal echogenic pattern between study groups and control group was evaluated using Chi- square test. A good inter observer agreement was noted (k value= 0.8). An equal distribution of Types II and III echogenic pattern was noted in myofascial pain/myositis group. Type II was predominant in subjects with OSMF, habitual tobacco/arecanut chewing and bruxism. Type I was predominant in controls. The echogenic pattern differed significantly from controls in subjects with myofascial pain/myositis and OSMF (p=0.00001*, 0.0237* respectively), whereas in subjects with habitual tobacco/ arecanut chewing and bruxism, it did not differ significantly from controls (p=0.2482, 0.1223 respectively). Ultrasonographic examination of the echogenic pattern may help in understanding the nature of the disease process affecting the masseter muscle in various conditions.

  6. Bedside ultrasonographic measurement of the inferior vena cava fails to predict fluid responsiveness in the first 6 hours after cardiac surgery: a prospective case series observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczyk, Dorota; Nycz, Krzysztof; Andruszkiewicz, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    To assess validity of respiratory variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) diameter to predict fluid responsiveness and guide fluid therapy in mechanically ventilated patients during the first 6 hours after elective cardiac surgery. Prospective observational case series study. Single-center hospital. 50 consecutive patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Transthoracic bedside echocardiography. Parameters derived from ultrasonographic assessment of the IVC diameter (collapsibility index [CI], distensibility index [DI], and IVC/aorta index). In the whole study group, change in fluid balance correlated with change in IVC maximum diameter (p = 0.034, r = 0.176). IVC-CI and IVC-DI correlated with IVC/aorta index. A weak correlation between central venous pressure (CVP) and IVC-derived parameters (IVC-CI and IVC-DI) was noticed. Despite statistical significance (p<0.05), all observed correlations expressed low statistical power (r<0.21). There were no statistically significant differences between fluid responders and nonresponders in relation to clinical parameters, CVP, ultrasound IVC measurement, and IVC-derived indices. Dynamic IVC-derived parameters (IVC-CI, IVC-DI, and IVC/aorta index) and CVP are not reliable predictors of fluid responsiveness in the first 6 hours after cardiac surgery. Complexity of physiologic factors modulating cardiac performance in this group may be responsible for the difficulty in finding a plausible monitoring tool for fluid guidance. Bedside ultrasonographic measurement of IVC is unable to predict fluid responsiveness in the first 6 hours after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential Activation of the Dorsal Neck Muscles During a Light Arm-Elevation Task in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Neck Pain and Asymptomatic Controls: An Ultrasonographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, Raziyeh; Rahnama, Leila; Karimi, Noureddin; Goodarzi, Fereshte; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2017-07-01

    Disturbance in neck muscle function is a well-known complication of chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNNP). It is, however, unclear which muscles are more susceptible to functional impairment in patients with CNNP during upper limb tasks. To compare ultrasonographic changes in dorsal neck muscles thickness in patients with CNNP and asymptomatic controls while they performed a light load upper-limb movement. Case control. University research laboratory. Twenty individuals with CNNP with a mean age of 23.35 ± 2.94 and 20 asymptomatic controls with a mean age of 22.30 ± 2.86, without any history of cervical diskopathy, fracture, trauma, inflammation, and spinal deformity were recruited for this study. Ultrasonographic measurement of dorsal neck muscles thickness was performed during a light load 3-second arm-elevation task (shoulder scaption to 120°) in the 2 groups. Associations between pain intensity and patients' perceived disability and between pain intensity and muscle thickness also were evaluated at the state of rest. The thickness changes of the dorsal neck muscles throughout the arm elevation were calculated. The pain intensity and the patient's perceived disability also were measured. A significant main effect of muscle activity status was revealed for the multifidus and semispinalis cervicis and the splenius capitis, indicating an increase in their thickness throughout the arm elevation (P < .001). The only muscle that showed a difference between groups was the multifidus (P = .007). Direct associations between pain and disability (r = .48, P = .03) and between pain and multifidus thickness (r = -.49, P = .03) also were observed. The deteriorating effect of CNNP on the neck muscles targets the deep layer of the dorsal neck muscles (ie, the multifidus) more than the superficial muscles during light upper-limb tasks. III. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Arm and neck pain in ultrasonographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claes, Frank; Berger, Jan; Stassijns, Gaëtane

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of upper-body-quadrant pain among ultrasonographers and to evaluate the association between individual ergonomics, musculoskeletal disorders, and occurrence of neck pain. A hundred and ten (N = 110) Belgian and Dutch male and female hospital ultrasonographers were consecutively enrolled in the study. Data on work-related ergonomic and musculoskeletal disorders were collected with an electronic inquiry, including questions regarding ergonomics (position of the screen, high-low table, and ergonomic chair), symptoms (neck pain, upper-limb pain), and work-related factors (consecutive working hours a day, average working hours a week). Subjects with the screen on their left had significantly more neck pain (odds ratio [OR] = 3.6, p = .0286). Depending on the workspace, high-low tables increased the chance of developing neck pain (OR = 12.9, p = .0246). A screen at eye level caused less neck pain (OR = .22, p = .0610). Employees with a fixed working space were less susceptible to arm pain (OR = 0.13, p = .0058). The prevalence of arm pain was significantly higher for the vascular department compared to radiology, urology, and gynecology departments (OR = 9.2, p = .0278). Regarding prevention of upper-limb pain in ultrasonograph, more attention should be paid to the work environment and more specialty to the ultrasound workstation layout. Primary ergonomic prevention could provide a painless work situation for the ultrasonographer. Further research on the ergonomic conditions of ultrasonography is necessary to develop ergonomic solutions in the work environment that will help to alleviate neck and arm pain. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. Ultrasonographic anatomy of bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucy, Daniel S; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Zwingenberger, Allison L

    2015-04-15

    To determine which organs can be reliably visualized ultrasonographically in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), describe their normal ultrasonographic appearance, and describe an ultrasonographic technique for use with this species. Cross-sectional study. 14 healthy bearded dragons (6 females and 8 males). Bearded dragons were manually restrained in dorsal and sternal recumbency, and coelomic organs were evaluated by use of linear 7- to 15-MHz and microconvex 5- to 8-MHz transducers. Visibility, size, echogenicity, and ultrasound transducer position were assessed for each organ. Coelomic ultrasonography with both microconvex and linear ultrasound transducers allowed for visualization of the heart, pleural surface of the lungs, liver, caudal vena cava, aorta, ventral abdominal vein, gallbladder, fat bodies, gastric fundus, cecum, colon, cloaca, kidneys, and testes or ovaries in all animals. The pylorus was visualized in 12 of 14 animals. The small intestinal loops were visualized in 12 of 14 animals with the linear transducer, but could not be reliably identified with the microconvex transducer. The hemipenes were visualized in 7 of 8 males. The adrenal glands and spleen were not identified in any animal. Anechoic free coelomic fluid was present in 11 of 14 animals. Heart width, heart length, ventricular wall thickness, gastric fundus wall thickness, and height of the caudal poles of the kidneys were positively associated with body weight. Testis width was negatively associated with body weight in males. Results indicated coelomic ultrasonography is a potentially valuable imaging modality for assessment of most organs in bearded dragons and can be performed in unsedated animals.

  10. Anatomical and ultrasonographic study of the femoral nerve within the iliopsoas muscle in beagle dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, Giovanni; Layssol-Lamour, Catherine; Mahler, Stephan; Charrouin, Maxime; Boyer, Guillaume; Verwaerde, Patrick; Jourdan, Géraldine

    2015-07-01

    An ultrasound (US)-guided ventral suprainguinal approach to block the femoral nerve (FN) within the iliopsoas muscle (IPM) has recently been described in dogs. The goal of the present study was to provide the operator with additional information to locate the FN within the IPM in dogs and cats using US. The study was carried out in three phases: a dissection of the FN (phase 1); an in vivo US-assisted nerve study (phase 2), and an anatomical cross-sectional study (phase 3). Nine healthy adult beagle dogs and nine healthy adult cats. Dissections were performed to investigate the anatomical characteristics of the FN and its related structures in one dog and one cat. Ultrasound scans of the left and right FN were performed in eight dogs and eight cats. The FN diameter and the distance between the FN and the external iliac artery (EIA) in US images and in anatomical cryosections were measured. The median FN diameter did not differ significantly between cats and dogs (1.1 mm versus 1.0 mm) or between the two techniques (US versus anatomical cross-sectional study) (1.1 mm versus 1.1 mm in dogs; 1.0 mm versus 1.1 mm in cats). The US and anatomical measurements of the median distances between the FN and EIA differed significantly between dogs and cats (8.2 mm versus 5.8 mm by US; 5.7 mm versus 4.8 mm in the anatomical study). The distance between the EIA and FN is reproducible in beagle dogs and cats and can be used in locating the FN within the IPM. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  11. Differences in the Properties of the Radial Artery between Cun, Guan, Chi, and Nearby Segments Using Ultrasonographic Imaging: A Pilot Study on Arterial Depth, Diameter, and Blood Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeuk U. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study. The three conventional pulse-diagnostic palpation locations (PLs on both wrists are Cun, Guan, and Chi, and each location reveals different clinical information. To identify anatomical or hemodynamic specificity, we used ultrasonographic imaging to determine the arterial diameter, radial artery depth, and arterial blood flow velocity at the three PLs and at nearby non-PL segments. Methods. We applied an ultrasound scanner to 44 subjects and studied the changes in the arterial diameter and depth as well as in the average/maximum blood flow velocities along the radial artery at three PLs and three non-PLs located more proximally than Chi. Results. All of the measurements at all of the PLs were significantly different (P < 0.01. Artery depth was significantly different among the non-PLs; however, this difference became insignificant after normalization to the arm circumference. Conclusions. Substantial changes in the hemodynamic and anatomical properties of the radial artery around the three PLs were insignificant at the nearby non-PLs segments. This finding may provide a partial explanation for the diagnostic use of “Cun, Guan, and Chi.”

  12. Ultrasonographic evaluation of inflammatory swellings of buccal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The main objective of the study was a to differentiate cellulitis and abscess in buccal space region, b to study the ultrasonographic anatomy of cheek region and c to investigate the use of ultrasound in the diagnosis of inflammatory swellings of cheek region. Patients and Methods : The study consisted of 25 patients with unilateral buccal space inflammatory swellings of odontogenic origin. The contra lateral side was used as control. Toshiba ultrasonographic device with a linear array transducer (5-8 MHz was used. The areas of interest were scanned under both transverse and longitudinal sections and were interpreted by a single observer. The clinical diagnosis of cellulitis or abscess was confirmed by the absence or presence of pus respectively both sonographically and by aspiration. Also various anatomical structures present in buccal space were studied. Results : Clinically 23(92% were diagnosed as buccal space abscess and 2 (8% were cellulitis. Ultrasonographically and therapeutically 24 (96% were buccal space abscess and 1 (4% was cellulits. The sensitivity of clinical criteria over ultrasonographic diagnosis was 96% with a specificity of 100%. Also the cheek thickness in males and females varied from 8.2 to 17.1mm with a mean of 11.6mm±2.1 (SD and 8.2 mm to 14.2 mm with a mean of 11±1.8 (SD. The subcutaneous tissue appeared moderately echogenic, buccinator - highly echogenic, deep adipose tissue - less echogenic and parotid duct was appreciated as a thin hyperechogenic band crossing the buccinator muscle. Buccal space, masticator space and parotid space were appreciated. Conclusion : This study supports the ultrasonographic method of imaging of orofacial inflammatory swellings with high sensitivity and specificity. This imaging modality can also help in aspiration of pus in different spaces. We have described the ultrasonographic anatomy of the above mentioned spaces which can help a beginner in this field.

  13. Inter-examiner reliability of a standardized Ultra-sonographic method for classification of changes related to supraspinatus tendinopathy – a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Hjarnbæk, John

    2015-01-01

    athletes. For optimizing rehabilitation to the different stages of tendinopathy (1) ultra-sonography (US) may be used. Reliability of such method for RT is lacking. Aims. To develop and test inter-examiner reliability of US for classifying RT. Materials and Methods. A three-phased standardized protocol......Inter-examiner reliability of a standardized Ultra-sonographic method for classification of changes related to supraspinatus tendinopathy – a pilot study Ingwersen KG1, 2, Hjarbaek J3, Eshøj H1, Larsen CM1, 4, Vobbe J5, Juul-Kristensen B1, 6 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics......, with the between-examiner difference tested by paired t-test. Kappa was interpreted as 0.00-0.40 (poor-fair); 0.41-0.80 (moderate-substantial) and 0.81-1.00 (almost perfect) (2). Results. Ten healthy controls and 10 cases with RT participated. For calcification and neovascularisation kappa was 0.76 and 1...

  14. Clinical evaluation of the shape of the suprascapular notch--an ultrasonographic and computed tomography comparative study: Application to shoulder pain syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polguj, Michał; Synder, Marek; Kwapisz, Adam; Stefańczyk, Katarzyna; Grzelak, Piotr; Podgórski, Michał; Topol, Mirosław

    2015-09-01

    The most common site of suprascapular nerve compression and injury is the suprascapular notch. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of sonography in determining the type of suprascapular notch (SSN). Thirty randomized patients (60 upper extremities) underwent USG examination of the shoulder area. The results were further compared with three-dimensional reconstructions of the scapulae obtained through CT examination to place the SSNs within a fivefold classification. For identification of type I, the sensitivity was 73.3% and the specificity 97.8%. For identification of type III, the values was 96.9% and 85.7%, respectively. Type II was not found in USG examination. Discrimination between type IV and V was not possible. The mean distance between the line connecting the edges of the SSN and the skin was 38 mm in right-handed patients and 34 mm in ambidextrous subjects. Ultrasonographic examination of the SSN is characterized by high specificity for type I, and high sensitivity for type III SSN. Discrimination between type IV and V of the SSN is not recommended based on sonographic evaluation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Posterior breast cancer: Mammographic and ultrasonographic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Posterior breast cancers are located in the prepectoral region of the breast. Owing to this distinctive anatomical localization, physical examination and mammographic or ultrasonographic evaluation can be difficult. The purpose of the study was to assess possibilities of diagnostic mammography and breast ultrasonography in detection and differentiation of posterior breast cancers. Methods. The study included 40 women with palpable, histopathological confirmed posterior breast cancer. Mammographic and ultrasonographic features were defined according to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. Results. Based on standard two-view mammography 87.5%, of the cases were classified as BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories, while after additional mammographic views all the cases were defined as BIRADS 4 and 5 categories. Among 96 mammographic descriptors, the most frequent were: spiculated mass (24.0%, architectural distortion (16.7%, clustered microcalcifications (12.6% and focal asymmetric density (12.6%. The differentiation of the spiculated mass was significantly associated with the possibility to visualize the lesion at two-view mammography (p = 0.009, without the association with lesion diameter (p = 0.083 or histopathological type (p = 0.055. Mammographic signs of invasive lobular carcinoma were significantly different from other histopathological types (architectural distortion, p = 0.003; focal asymmetric density, p = 0.019; association of four or five subtle signs of malignancy, p = 0.006. All cancers were detectable by ultrasonography. Mass lesions were found in 82.0% of the cases. Among 153 ultrasonographic descriptors, the most frequent were: irregular mass (15.7%, lobulated mass (7.2%, abnormal color Doppler signals (20.3%, posterior acoustic attenuation (18.3%. Ultrasonographic BI-RADS 4 and 5 categories were defined in 72.5% of the cases, without a significant difference among various histopathological types (p = 0

  16. Ultrasonographic finding of trophoblastic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Kyung Soo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    Authors analysed ultrasonographic findings of 50 cases of trophoblastic diseases which were confirmed by D and E or hysterectomy. The following result was observed. 1. Among the 50 cases, 43 cases were hydatidiform moles and remainders were choriocarcionmas 2. Ultrasonographic findings of hydatidi form mole were as follows. a. The size of uterus was larger than that of expected one in 55 percent of cases and smaller than that in 9 percent. b. The vesicular pattern of internal echo could be found in all of the cases, and homogeneous echo pattern were observed in 32 cases(75 percent). c. secondary change, such as myometrial hemorrhage or necrosis, was shown in 33 cases (77 percent). d.In 34 cases (80 percent), sharply separable uterine wall from internal echo was demonstrated. e. In 8 cases(19 percent), ovarian theca-lutein cysts were observed. Among them, 5 cases contained bilateral cysts. All cysts had internal septation. 3. Ultrasonographic findings of choriocarcinomas showed similar findings of those of hydatidiform moles, but different findings from H-moles were more irregular vesicular pattern(4 cases: 57 percent) and inseparable vesicular pattern from uterine wall echo. 4. Correct diagnosis was made in 48 cases out of 50 and the diagnostic accuracy was 95 percent

  17. Placental Morphological and Ultrasonographical Particularities in Post-Term Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MIHU

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Post-term pregnancies are evaluated, using 2D and Doppler ultrasonography. Apparition of fetal distress is certified by the increase of PRI. The current study aimed to establish a relationship between the ultrasonographical particularities of placentae and morphologic and morphometric aspects noticed in placentae postpartum.

  18. Ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal glands in healthy and sick cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Anaïs; Pey, Pascaline; Paepe, Dominique; Rosenberg, Dan; Daminet, Sylvie; Putcuyps, Ingrid; Bedu, Anne-Sophie; Duchateau, Luc; de Fornel-Thibaud, Pauline; Benchekroun, Ghita; Saunders, Jimmy H

    2013-06-01

    The first part of the study aimed to describe prospectively the ultrasonographic features of the adrenal glands in 94 healthy cats and 51 chronically sick cats. It confirmed the feasibility of ultrasonography of adrenal glands in healthy and chronically sick cats, which were not statistically different. The typical hypoechoic appearance of the gland surrounded by hyperechoic fat made it recognisable. A sagittal plane of the gland, not in line with the aorta, may be necessary to obtain the largest adrenal measurements. The reference intervals of adrenal measurements were inferred from the values obtained in the healthy and chronically sick cats (mean ± 0.96 SD): adrenal length was 8.9-12.5 mm; cranial height was 3.0-4.8 mm; caudal height was 3.0-4.5 mm. The second part of the study consisted of a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal glands in cats with adrenal diseases (six had hyperaldosteronism and four had pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism) and a descriptive comparison with the reference features obtained in the control groups from the prospective study. Cats with hyperaldosteronism presented with unilateral severely enlarged adrenal glands. However, a normal contralateral gland did not preclude a contralateral infiltration in benign or malignant adrenal neoplasms. The ultrasonographic appearance of the adrenal glands could not differentiate benign and malignant lesions. The ultrasonographic appearance of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was mainly a symmetrical adrenal enlargement; however, a substantial number of cases were within the reference intervals of adrenal size.

  19. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented.

  20. Ultrasonographic features of BCG lymphadenitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Youn; Lee, Sun Wha; Hwang, Ji Young [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of BCG lymphadenitis complicated by BCG vaccination in children. Ultrasonography was performed for 22 cases of BCG lymphadenitis in 21 patients who were diagnosed by clinical (n=10) or pathological (n=11) examinations. Their age ranged from 4 months to 3 years (mean age; 14 months). We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasonographic findings for location, multiplicity, size, shape, margin, echogenecity, posterior enhancement, calcifications, inner anechoic portion and Doppler pattern of the BCG lymphadenitis. The BCG lymphadenitis was found at the axillary area in 15 cases (68%) and at the supraclavicular area in 7 cases (32%). There were ten cases (45%) of solitary lesion and 12 cases (55%) of multiple conglomerated lesions. The maximum diameter ranged from about 0.9 cm to 3.2 cm. The BCG lymphadenitis showed as round (82%), well defined (86%), or heterogeneous hypoechoic (68%) lesions with posterior enhancement (78%). Calcifications were found in 6 cases (27%) and 5 cases (83%) had been vaccinated more than 5 months ago. There were eccentric inner anechoic portions in 16 cases (73%), which were pathologically confirmed as having caseating necrosis. There were increased Doppler flow patterns in 15 cases (68%); 4 cases (18%) were of the central type, 6 cases (27%) were of the peripheral type and 5 cases (23%) were of mixed type. BCG lymphadenitis is frequently located at the axillary area adjacent to a vaccination site. The ultrasonographic findings of BCG lymphadenitis are well-defined, round, heterogeneously hypoechoic lesions with posterior enhancement, calcifications and inner eccentric anechoic portion.

  1. Ultrasonographic findings of breast disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang Uk; Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Hee Chung; Shin, Kyung Ja; Kim, Young Chul; Lee, Sang Chun [Seoul Red Cross Hopital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    The authors analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 60 cases of breast lesions which were proven surgically of pathologically at Seoul Red Cross Hospital from September 1986 to February 1989. The results were as follows; 1. There were 30 fibrocystic diseases, 12 fibroadenomas, 8 carcinomas, 3 abscesses, 3 foreign bodies, 2 gynecomastias, 1 intraductal papilloma, 1 malignant cystosarcoma phylloides. 2. Ultrasonography provided accurate information for the size, location, internal structure and relationship between lesion and adjacent structure. 3. Ultrasonography can be used as an adjunct to film mammography in selective patients and useful for guiding fine needle aspiration biopsies.

  2. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Su-Mi Shin; Jee Won Chai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD) due to adrenal insufficiency (AI) in preterm infants. Methods: Among the 257 preterm infants born at

  3. Clinical, Radiological and Ultrasonographic Findings Related to Knee Pain in Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Keith K.W. Chan; Sit, Regina W. S.; Wu, Ricky W. K.; Allen H Y Ngai

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is the predominant symptom of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and the main reason of disability. Ultrasound is now one of the new imaging modality in Musculoskeletal medicine and its role in assessing the pain severity in the knee osteoarthritis is evaluated in this study. Objectives (1) To study the correlation between ultrasonographic (US) findings and pain score and (2) whether ultrasonographic findings show a better association of pain level than conventional X-rays in patients s...

  4. Ultrasonographic findings of ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yang Sook; Kim, Soo Han; Kim, Seung Hyup; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    The ultrasound is easily available and noninvasive diagnostic method without radiation hazard. We can approach to differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors by gray scale ultrasound which can display the detailed structure of soft tissue. In department of radiology, Korea Veterans Hospital, 27 cases of histologically confirmed ovarian tumors collected from March 1984 to February 1986 were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The age distribution was from 13 to 72 years. 2. The histologic diagnosis of ovarian tumors (27 cases) are as follows; teratoma (14), mucinous cystadenoma (8), mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (1), serous cystadenoma (2), Krukenburg tumor (1) and malignant thecoma (1). 3. The long diameter of ovarian tumors ranges from 4 cm to 28 cm. In these, mucinous cystadenoma is the largest and their size are as follows; less than 10 cm; 25%, 11-15 cm; 12%, 16-20 cm; 25% and more than 20 cm; 38%. 4. The ultrasonographic findings of teratoma (14) were mainly cystic (8) or echogenic (6). There were echogenic solid components showing distal acoustic shadowing or fat-fluid level within cystic masses. Echogenecity of solid masses was heterogenous. 5. The ultrasonographic findings of mucinous cystadenoma and cystadenocarcinoma (9) were unilocular cystic (3) or multilocular cystic (6). There were variable amount of echogenic component within cystic masses. 6. Those of serous cystadenoma (2) were unilocular cystic (1) or multilocular cystic (1). 7. Krukenburg tumor (1) and Malignant thecoma (1) were heterogenously echogenic.

  5. Paternal psychological response after ultrasonographic detection of structural fetal anomalies with a comparison to maternal response: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Norway almost all pregnant women attend one routine ultrasound examination. Detection of fetal structural anomalies triggers psychological stress responses in the women affected. Despite the frequent use of ultrasound examination in pregnancy, little attention has been devoted to the psychological response of the expectant father following the detection of fetal anomalies. This is important for later fatherhood and the psychological interaction within the couple. We aimed to describe paternal psychological responses shortly after detection of structural fetal anomalies by ultrasonography, and to compare paternal and maternal responses within the same couple. Methods A prospective observational study was performed at a tertiary referral centre for fetal medicine. Pregnant women with a structural fetal anomaly detected by ultrasound and their partners (study group,n=155) and 100 with normal ultrasound findings (comparison group) were included shortly after sonographic examination (inclusion period: May 2006-February 2009). Gestational age was >12 weeks. We used psychometric questionnaires to assess self-reported social dysfunction, health perception, and psychological distress (intrusion, avoidance, arousal, anxiety, and depression): Impact of Event Scale. General Health Questionnaire and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Fetal anomalies were classified according to severity and diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity at the time of assessment. Results Median (range) gestational age at inclusion in the study and comparison group was 19 (12–38) and 19 (13–22) weeks, respectively. Men and women in the study group had significantly higher levels of psychological distress than men and women in the comparison group on all psychometric endpoints. The lowest level of distress in the study group was associated with the least severe anomalies with no diagnostic or prognostic ambiguity (p anomaly group (p anomaly including ambiguity significantly

  6. The effect of radiofrequency ablation on different organs: Ex vivo and in vivo comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoo Na [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyunchul, E-mail: rhimhc@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dongil; Kim, Young-sun; Lee, Min Woo; Chang, Ilsoo; Lee, Won Jae; Lim, Hyo K. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-Ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purposes of this study are to evaluate the ex vivo and in vivo efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on different porcine tissues by the ablation of three different sites simultaneously. Materials and methods: A multichannel RFA system, enables three separate tumors to be ablated simultaneously, was used. RFA procedures were applied to normal porcine liver, kidney, and muscle together ex vivo (n = 12) and in vivo (n = 17). Pre-impedances, defined as baseline systemic impedances of tissues before beginning RFA, and the areas of ablation zones were measured and compared. Results: The areas of ablation zones among three organs had a significant difference in decreasing order as follows: liver, muscle, and kidney in the ex vivo study (p = 0.001); muscle, liver, and kidney in the in vivo study (p < 0.0001). The areas of ablation zones between ex vivo and in vivo had a significant difference in the liver and muscle (each p < 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the areas of ablation zones and pre-impedances in both studies. Conclusions: Renal RFA produced the smallest ablation zone in both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Muscular RFA demonstrated the largest ablation zone in the in vivo study, and hepatic RFA showed the largest ablation zone in the ex vivo study. This variability in the tissues should be considered for performing an optimized RFA for each organ site.

  7. Caliber of the common bile duct: effect of cholecystectomy and other factors in a ultrasonographic study of 8534 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, W; Wahl, S; Vonend, C; Schmidt, S A; Öztürk, S; Hänle, M M; Mason, R A; Seufferlein, T; Gräter, T

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of different factors impacting the caliber of the common bile duct (CBD) and a comparison of maximum extrahepatic bile duct caliber in patients with and without a history of cholecystectomy. A retrospective data analysis was undertaken of 8534 patients (4480 females; 4054 males; average age: 59.2±18.0 years) with sonographic documentation of bile duct caliber. Maximum intra- and extrahepatic bile duct diameters were studied. The normal maximum diameter of the extrahepatic bile duct was defined as 7 mm. In patients who had undergone prior cholecystectomy, a maximum bile duct diametermaximum diameter of the CBD amounted to 5.3±3.0 mm for the overall collective. In patients who had undergone prior cholecystectomy, maximum CBD diameters in the normal range (7 mm) were observed in 45%. In the collective of patients without prior cholecystectomy, CBD diameters in the normal range (7 mm (for those with prior cholecystectomy, p=0.0485; without prior cholecystectomy, p<0.001). Our data show a positive correlation between age and CBD diameter. There was no statistically significant relationship between CBD diameter and prior cholecystectomy, postoperative interval and BMI. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Evaluation of the internal oblique, external oblique, and transversus abdominalis muscles in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üşen, Ahmet; Kuran, Banu; Yılmaz, Figen; Aksu, Neşe; Erçalık, Cem

    2017-11-01

    The objectives of the study are to compare abdominal muscle thickness in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with healthy subjects and determine the factors affecting these muscle thickness. Thirty-five male patients with a previous diagnosis of AS according to the Modified New York criteria and a control group consisting of 35 healthy male individuals were included in this cross-sectional and case-control study. Thicknesses of the internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO), and transversus abdominalis (TrA) muscles were measured with ultrasound (US). AS patients were classified according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). There were 35 AS patients with a mean age of 35.17 ± 8.05 years and 35 healthy subjects with a mean age 32.57 ± 7.05 years. No significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of abdominal muscle thicknesses (p > 0.005). When the AS patients were classified according to the IPAQ scores, thicknesses of the IO and TrA muscles were significantly lower in patients who had the low level of IPAQ scores (p < 0.05). In the light of our first and preliminary results, muscle thickness of the IO, EO, and TrA muscles were similar in AS patients to healthy subjects. However, AS patients who had lower level of physical activity have also reduced thickness of IO and TrA muscles.

  9. Ultrasonographic features of spontaneous breast tumor infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Kang, Bong Joo; Lee, A Won; Song, Byung Joo; Kim, Hyen Sook; Cha, Eun Suk

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the ultrasonographic features of spontaneous breast tumor infarction. The pathologic information system database of the Department of Radiology was retrospectively searched. Between 2009 and 2011, nine cases in eight patients were pathologically confirmed as spontaneous breast tumor infarctions. Mammographic images and the ultrasonographic images were acquired. Two other radiologists analyzed the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. Most common features were oval, indistinct, heterogeneously hypoechoic mass with posterior enhancement. All lesions were classified as C4 (suspicious finding) except one case. Spontaneous breast tumor infarction should be included in the differential diagnoses of hetereogeneously hypoechoic suspicious solid lesions mimicking malignancy.

  10. Is poststroke complex regional pain syndrome the combination of shoulder pain and soft tissue injury of the wrist?: A prospective observational study: STROBE of ultrasonographic findings in complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Wook; Kim, Yoon; Kim, Jong Moon; Hong, Ji Seong; Lim, Hyun Sun; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-08-01

    Patients with poststroke complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) show different symptoms compared to other types of CRPS, as they usually complain of shoulder and wrist pain with the elbow relatively spared. It is thus also known by the term "shoulder-hand syndrome."The aim of this study is to present a possible pathophysiology of poststroke CRPS through ultrasonographic observation of the affected wrist before and after steroid injection at the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon in patients suspected with poststroke CRPS.Prospective evaluation and observation, the STROBE guideline checklist was used.Twenty-three patients diagnosed as poststroke CRPS in accordance to clinical criteria were enrolled. They had a Three Phase Bone Scan (TPBS) done and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of EDC tendon was measured by using ultrasonography. They were then injected with steroid at the EDC tendon. The CSA of EDC tendon, visual analogue scale (VAS), and degree of swelling of the wrist were followed up 1 week after the injection.TPBS was interpreted as normal for 4 patients, suspected CRPS for 10 patients, and CRPS for 9 patients. Ultrasonographic findings of the affected wrist included swelling of the EDC tendon. After the injection of steroid to the wrist, CSA and swelling of the affected wrist compared to that before the treatment was significantly decreased (P shoulder or rotator cuff tear of shoulder and soft tissue injury of the wrist caused by the hemiplegic nature of patients with stroke.

  11. Evolution of schistosomiasis-induced pathology after therapy and interruption of exposure to schistosomes: a review of ultrasonographic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, J

    2000-10-23

    urogenital lesions led to complications many years after exposure. Contrary to hepatosplenic and urinary pathology, knowlegde on the evolution of other organic abnormalities is very limited: studies on the evolution of biliary abnormalities or intestinal pathology have not been published. Genital pathology may be induced by all Schistosoma spp. Post-therapy evolution of genital schistosomiasis is largely ignored. In some European travellers partial regression of prostatic fibrosis has been described. Schistosomal adnexitis leading to infertility and/or ectopic pregnancy has been reported occurring many years after interruption of exposure. Ultrasonography (US) has never been used to study the influence of schistosomiasis on pregnancy. Concluding, current knowlegde on the evolution of pathology after treatment and/or interruption of exposure is still fragmentary. Frequently, fibrosis reverses after therapy, but advanced pathology may persist for long. Therefore, the possibility of severe clinical complications has to be taken into account, even if the infection is inactive since many years. In interventions aimed at controlling schistosomiasis-related morbidity, evolution of pathology must be monitored by US in representative patient cohorts. Further systematic US-studies are needed not only on the evolution of hepatosplenic and urinary pathology but also on that of intestinal, biliary and genital pathology induced by schistosomiasis, as well as on the influence of schistosomiasis on the outcome of pregnancy.

  12. Involvement of the inconstant bursa of the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint in psoriatic arthritis: a clinical and ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, Giovanni; Volpinari, Stefania; Fotinidi, Maria; Furini, Federica; Farina, Ilaria; Bortoluzzi, Alessandra; Ferracin, Manuela; Bandinelli, Francesca; Orzincolo, Carlo; Trotta, Francesco; Govoni, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the involvement of the bursa located next to the head of the 5th metatarsal bone in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in comparison with the other seronegative spondyloarthritis (SpA). All patients with PsA seen during a period of 24 months were enrolled. The control group included healthy subjects and patients with the other SpA. All subjects underwent clinical and ultrasound (US) examination of the lateral surface of the 5th metatarsal. 150 PsA patients (88 M; 62 F), 172 SpA (107 M; 65 F), and 95 healthy controls (58 M; 37 F) were evaluated. Based on clinical and US evaluation, bursitis was diagnosed in 17/150 (11.3%) PsA patients but in none of the SpA (P bursa of the 5th metatarsophalangeal joint appears to be involved in PsA more frequently than by chance. If confirmed by other studies, this finding could be considered as a distinctive clinical sign of PsA, useful for differential diagnosis with the other SpA. In asymptomatic patients, US proved to be more sensitive in the detection of bursitis.

  13. Response of symptoms and synovitis to intra-muscular methylprednisolone in osteoarthritis of the hand: an ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Helen I; Wakefield, Richard J; Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Emery, Paul; Conaghan, Philip G

    2010-06-01

    To examine the relationship between ultrasound (US)-detected synovial pathology in hand OA and the clinical response to parenteral corticosteroids. People with symptomatic OA of the hand completed questionnaires [visual analogue scale (VAS) pain, Australian Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index and VAS global] and underwent an US examination of both hands prior to receiving an i.m. dose of methylprednisolone. Four- and twelve-week assessments were performed to assess therapeutic response. Thirty-six subjects with established OA were enrolled. Twenty-four (67%) subjects met the primary end-point of a 20% reduction in VAS pain, 25 (69.4%) met the Osteoarthritis Research Society International response criteria at 4 weeks. Overall in the group, there was a reduction in levels of pain in the most painful joint, pain in all joints and in global disease activity at 4 weeks (P power Doppler signal. In this observational study, parenteral corticosteroids were associated with a statistically significant reduction in symptoms, but no statistically significant reduction in US-detected synovial inflammation. The latter finding may, however, reflect the relatively low levels of synovial inflammation detected ultrasonagraphically in hand joints.

  14. Ultrasonographic findings of posterior interosseous nerve syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youdong Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings associated with posterior interosseous nerve (PIN syndrome. Methods Approval from the Institutional Review Board was obtained. A retrospective review of 908 patients' sonographic images of the upper extremity from January 2001 to October 2010 revealed 10 patients suspicious for a PIN abnormality (7 male and 3 female patients; mean age of 51.8±13.1 years; age range, 32 to 79 years. The ultrasonographic findings of PIN syndrome, including changes in the PIN and adjacent secondary changes, were evaluated. The anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic PIN was measured in eight patients and the anteroposterior diameter of the contralateral asymptomatic PIN was measured in six patients, all at the level immediately proximal to the proximal supinator border. The size of the pathologic nerves and contralateral asymptomatic nerves was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Swelling of the PIN proximal to the supinator canal by compression at the arcade of Fröhse was observed in four cases. Swelling of the PIN distal to the supinator canal was observed in one case. Loss of the perineural fat plane in the supinator canal was observed in one case. Four soft tissue masses were noted. Secondary denervation atrophy of the supinator and extensor muscles was observed in two cases. The mean anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic nerves (n=8, 1.79±0.43 mm was significantly larger than that of the contralateral asymptomatic nerves (n=6, 1.02±0.22 mm (P=0.003. Conclusion Ultrasonography provides high-resolution images of the PIN and helps to diagnose PIN syndrome through visualization of its various causes and adjacent secondary changes.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of posterior interosseous nerve syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youdong; Ha, Doo Hoe; Lee, Sang Min

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings associated with posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) syndrome. Approval from the Institutional Review Board was obtained. A retrospective review of 908 patients' sonographic images of the upper extremity from January 2001 to October 2010 revealed 10 patients suspicious for a PIN abnormality (7 male and 3 female patients; mean age of 51.8±13.1 years; age range, 32 to 79 years). The ultrasonographic findings of PIN syndrome, including changes in the PIN and adjacent secondary changes, were evaluated. The anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic PIN was measured in eight patients and the anteroposterior diameter of the contralateral asymptomatic PIN was measured in six patients, all at the level immediately proximal to the proximal supinator border. The size of the pathologic nerves and contralateral asymptomatic nerves was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Swelling of the PIN proximal to the supinator canal by compression at the arcade of Fröhse was observed in four cases. Swelling of the PIN distal to the supinator canal was observed in one case. Loss of the perineural fat plane in the supinator canal was observed in one case. Four soft tissue masses were noted. Secondary denervation atrophy of the supinator and extensor muscles was observed in two cases. The mean anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic nerves (n=8, 1.79±0.43 mm) was significantly larger than that of the contralateral asymptomatic nerves (n=6, 1.02±0.22 mm) (P=0.003). Ultrasonography provides high-resolution images of the PIN and helps to diagnose PIN syndrome through visualization of its various causes and adjacent secondary changes.

  16. Ultrasonographic findings of posterior interosseous nerve syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You Dong; Ha, Doo Hoe; Lee, Sang Min [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings associated with posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) syndrome. Approval from the Institutional Review Board was obtained. A retrospective review of 908 patients' sonographic images of the upper extremity from January 2001 to October 2010 revealed 10 patients suspicious for a PIN abnormality (7 male and 3 female patients; mean age of 51.8±13.1 years; age range, 32 to 79 years). The ultrasonographic findings of PIN syndrome, including changes in the PIN and adjacent secondary changes, were evaluated. The anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic PIN was measured in eight patients and the anteroposterior diameter of the contralateral asymptomatic PIN was measured in six patients, all at the level immediately proximal to the proximal supinator border. The size of the pathologic nerves and contralateral asymptomatic nerves was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Swelling of the PIN proximal to the supinator canal by compression at the arcade of Fröhse was observed in four cases. Swelling of the PIN distal to the supinator canal was observed in one case. Loss of the perineural fat plane in the supinator canal was observed in one case. Four soft tissue masses were noted. Secondary denervation atrophy of the supinator and extensor muscles was observed in two cases. The mean anteroposterior diameter of the pathologic nerves (n=8, 1.79±0.43 mm) was significantly larger than that of the contralateral asymptomatic nerves (n=6, 1.02±0.22 mm) (P=0.003). Ultrasonography provides high-resolution images of the PIN and helps to diagnose PIN syndrome through visualization of its various causes and adjacent secondary changes.

  17. Realtime ultrasonographic findings in gallbladder carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Y. T.; Woo, S. K.; Suh, I. J.; Lim, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Kim, S. Y.; Ahn, C. Y. [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    It is well known that realtime ultrasonography is the primary diagnostic modality to evaluate gallbladder diseases. The authors studied ultrasonographic findings of 10 pathologically proven gallbladder carcinoma patients, and it was compared with the findings of 4 cases of ERCP and 2 cases of CT which were performed at the same period. The results were as follows: 1. They were 6 males and 4 females with over 50 years of age except a 41 year old female. 2. The ultrasonographic classifications of the cases were 4 of fungating mass types, 3 of mass filling gallbladder types, 2 wall thickening types and 1 of mixed type, wall thickening and fungating mass. 3. Seven cases of cholecystitis, 6 cases of intrahepatic biliary duct dilatation, 5 cases of gallstone, 4 cases of common bile duct dilatation, 4 cases of sludge bile, 2 cases of gallbladder dilatation, 1 case of right sub phrenic and pericholecystic abscess due to perforated gallbladder. 4. Five cases of mesenteric infiltrations, 3 cases of hepatic infiltration adjacent to gallbladder, 2 cases of lymphatic metastasis to right lobe of liver and 2 cases of pericholedochal and pericaval lymph node metastasis. 5. The indistinct margin between gallbladder and surrounding organ adjacent to gallbladder mass or gallbladder wall thickening suggest cancer infiltration to adjacent organ such as liver or omentum. 6. If gallstone is engulfed in thickened gallbladder wall, the wall thickening suggests gallbladder carcinoma. 7. The differentiation between fungating mass and sludge bile, and the determination of mass could be done by positional change. 8. The preoperative ultrasonic diagnositc accuracy was in 9 out of 10 cases (90%). 9. Because of the frequent cystic duct obstruction by associated inflammation, the diagnostic accuracy of ERCP for gallbladder carcinoma was low.

  18. [Ultrasonographic study of Peyronie's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, M; Doratiotto, S; Marzio, A; De Candia, A

    2000-12-01

    Induratio penis plastica (IPP) is a degenerative disease, which consists in a thickening of the albuginea tunica of cavernous corpora, especially on the dorsal aspect. In 25% of the cases a calcified deposit is present. This disease can determine a bending of the penis, usually upward, pain during erection and impotentia coeundi. It is associated with Dupuytren's disease in 25% of the cases. IPP is of unknown etiological origin. The more reliable etiological theories are the degenerative one (micro trauma and inflammation) and the autoimmune one. The assessment of IPP is based on story, physical examination, autophotography (which are necessary) and on imaging techniques such as ultrasound, color Doppler, CT, MRI and X-ray in mammography. Color Doppler has demonstrated to be the best technique because of its cost/benefit and cost/effectiveness ratio. RMI with gadolinium can determine plaques activity but it has a lower cost/benefit ratio. Color Doppler can determine the presence of an IPP plaque and its status, which is size, location, and degree of calcification. Some authors sustain that inflammation can be suggested by the presence of micro vascularization around the plaque. US can be very useful to detect plaque in a size not easily accessible by physical examination (on the dorsal aspect of the penis) and to demonstrate plaques in different evolution moment. Ultrasonography is the better technique to show directly albuginea tunica. Authors illustrate the methodology, which use intra-cavernous injection of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) to induce erection and its semeiotic findings.

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of pelvic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youn Jin; Hong, In Soo; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-09-15

    Ultrasonography affords an accurate assessment of the presence, size, location and internal consistency of a pelvic mass. We present our experience of 105 cases of pelvic masses in female patients by ultrasonography, and the results are as described: 1. Ultrasonography is nonspecific, however, the possibility of mucinous cystadenoma of ovary, teratoma (demoid cyst), uterine leiomyoma and trophoblastic disease can be suggested due to their characteristic internal consistency. 2. Thin smooth internal septation seen within mucinous cystadenoma, eccentric solid mural component of dermoid cyst, enlarged uterine wall with lobulated outer margin of leiomyoma, and yesicular appearance of trophoblastic disease were the specific sonographic features. 3. Loculated ascites and hydronephrosis were identified with malignant ovarian neoplasm and pelvic metastasis. 4. Accurate ultrasonographic diagnosis was made in 88 cases (83.7%) and it may be improved with clinical history of the mass in question.

  20. Ultrasonographic findings of ovarian cystadenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwack, Dong Yeub; Lee, Il Gi; Kim, Si Won [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Ga [Catholic Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    The ultrasonographic findings of 49 ovarian cystadenomas were analyzed. The results were as follows. 1. The most common age group was 3rd decade and most patients (83%) belong to active reproductive period. 2. In 80% of serous cystadenoma the size of the tumor was ranged in 6-10 cm in diameter. The large tumors of 16-20 cm in diameter were mostly mucinous cystadenomas. 3. Purely cystic appearance was the most common finding (40%) of serous cystadenoma and thick linear septation with and without solid component was the most common finding (38%) of mucious cystadenoma. 4. Thick linear septation with solid component was not found in serous cystadenoma. 5. Well defined nodular projection was found in 3 cases of serous cystadenoma but not identified in mucinous cystadenoma.

  1. Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of uterine arteries during normal canine puerperium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, P R; Gobello, C; Corrada, Y; Pons, E; Arias, D O; Blanco, P G

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Doppler ultrasonographic changes of uterine arteries during normal canine puerperium. Eight healthy, pure-bred bitches, were ultrasonographically assessed during the postpartum period on Days -3, 3, 10, 17, 24, 38, 52 and 80 (Day 0 defined as the day of parturition). Total horn diameters (TD) and endometrium thickness (E) were evaluated. Color Doppler was used to localize uterine arteries at both sides of the body and pulsed-wave Doppler was performed to obtain the waveforms. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured. Resistance index [(PSV-EDV)/PSV] was automatically calculated. Values of TD, E, PSV, EDV and RI were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by LSD test (SPSS 18.0; SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). A correlation analysis was also carried out between RI and TD. A progressive decrease of TD (P<0.01) and E (P<0.01) was found in the course of the study. A gradual diminution of PSV (P<0.01) and EDV (P<0.01) and an increase of RI (P<0.01) were also found throughout the study period. The resistance index negatively correlated with TD (r=-0.46; P<0.01) and E (r=-0.44; P<0.01) while the ultrasonographic and vascular changes in this period are concurrent with regenerative changes in the glandular and epithelial structures of the uterus. It is concluded that uterine artery RI progressively increased during normal canine puerperium, associated to the two-dimensional ultrasonographic regression of the organ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonographic evaluation of displaced neurovascular bundle in Dupuytren disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Kosuke; Miura, Toshiki; Morizaki, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Ohe, Takashi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2013-01-01

    Neurovascular injury is a serious complication after surgery for Dupuytren disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the cord and the neurovascular bundle ultrasonographically. We included 22 healthy volunteers and 14 Dupuytren disease patients (25 fingers) in this study. We evaluated the cord and the digital artery with high-resolution ultrasound. We first investigated the effect of the angle of metacarpophalangeal joint on the position of the radial and ulnar digital arteries in volunteers without evidence of Dupuytren disease. We compared 3 parameters of the radial and ulnar digital arteries, including differences in depth, differences in lateral shift, and the shape of the cross-section of the artery, between volunteers and patients with Dupuytren disease. None of these parameters changed with flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of 0°, 30°, and 60°. Digital arteries and cords could be identified ultrasonographically in all patients, and we confirmed ultrasonographic findings by operative findings in 13 fingers. We classified the fingers into 3 subgroups based on the ultrasonographic findings: type A (n = 13), in which the cord was above the artery; type B (n = 5), in which the cord was below the artery; and type C (n = 7), in which the cord was located between the radial and ulnar digital arteries. Types A, B, and C corresponded to natatory cord/abductor digiti minimi cord, spiral cord, and central cord, respectively. Comparisons among volunteers and patient subgroups showed that the difference in depth in type B patients was significantly larger than that of the other groups. When we set the cutoff point of the difference in depth to 3 mm, sensitivity and specificity to detect the spiral cord were 80% and 76%, respectively. The relationship between the neurovascular bundle and the type of Dupuytren disease cord can be evaluated by high-resolution ultrasound. Diagnostic III. Copyright © 2013 American Society for

  3. Multimodal ultrasonographic algorithm in the differentiation of submandibular masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopf, Andreas; Cortolezis, Nikolaus; Bas, Murat; Mansour, Naglaa; Hofauer, Benedikt

    2017-06-01

    The multimodal diagnostic algorithm is a simple diagnostic tool in the pre-operative assessment of submandibular masses that enables one-stage surgical concepts. The pre-operative assessment of submandibular masses is of major clinical impact. This study assesses the diagnostic utility of a newly introduced diagnostic algorithm in the differentiation of submandibular masses based on epidemiological and B-mode ultrasonographic data. One hundred and eighty-eight patients with submandibular triangle masses were included. Epidemiological and ultrasonographic data of 128 consecutively included patients were assessed and structured in a multimodal algorithm. The diagnostic algorithm was prospectively validated in a further 60 patients. Single epidemiological and ultrasonographic data do not reliably predict the lesional entity. The multimodal diagnostic algorithm achieved a diagnostic sensitivity/specificity of 100%/100% in sialolithiasis, 44%/100% in benign submandibular gland diseases (BSD), 94%/96% in nodal lymphoma/unspecific lymphadenitis, and 91%/84% in carcinomas. Reduced sensitivity in BSD or specificity in carcinomas increased after intra-operative fresh frozen section in patients suspected for BSD.

  4. Ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and cardia in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gory, Guillaume; Rault, Delphine N; Gatel, Laure; Dally, Claire; Belli, Patrick; Couturier, Laurent; Cauvin, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for regurgitation and vomiting in dogs include diseases of the gastroesophageal junction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of the abdominal esophagus and gastric cardia in normal dogs and dogs with clinical disease involving this region. A total of 126 dogs with no clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and six dogs with clinical diseases involving the gastroesophageal junction were included. For seven euthanized dogs, ultrasonographic features were also compared with gross pathology and histopathology. Cardial and abdominal esophageal wall thicknesses were measured ultrasonographically for all normal dogs and effects of weight, sex, age, and stomach filling were tested. Five layers could be identified in normal esophageal and cardial walls. The inner esophageal layer was echogenic, corresponding to the cornified mucosa and glandular portion of the submucosa. The cardia was characterized by a thick muscularis, and a transitional zone between echogenic esophageal and hypoechoic gastric mucosal layers. Mean (±SD) cardial wall thicknesses for normal dogs were 7.6 mm (±1.6), 9.7 mm (±1.8), 10.8 mm (±1.6), 13.3 mm (±2.5) for dogs in the dog weight group. Ultrasonography assisted diagnosis in all six clinically affected dogs. Findings supported the use of transabdominal ultrasonography as a diagnostic test for dogs with suspected gastroesophageal disease. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. In vivo and ex vivo confocal endomicroscopy of pancreatic cystic lesions: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Somashekar G; Modi, Rohan M; Kamboj, Amrit K; Swanson, Benjamin J; Hart, Phil A; Dillhoff, Mary E; Manilchuk, Andrei; Schmidt, Carl R; Conwell, Darwin L

    2017-05-14

    To investigate the reproducibility of the in vivo endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) - guided needle based confocal endomicroscopy (nCLE) image patterns in an ex vivo setting and compare these to surgical histopathology for characterizing pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). In a prospective study evaluating EUS-nCLE for evaluation of PCLs, 10 subjects underwent an in vivo nCLE (AQ-Flex nCLE miniprobe; Cellvizio, MaunaKea, Paris, France) during EUS and ex vivo probe based CLE (pCLE) of the PCL (Gastroflex ultrahigh definition probe, Cellvizio) after surgical resection. Biopsies were obtained from ex vivo CLE-imaged areas for comparative histopathology. All subjects received intravenous fluorescein prior to EUS and pancreatic surgery for in vivo and ex vivo CLE imaging respectively. A total of 10 subjects (mean age 53 ± 12 years; 5 female) with a mean PCL size of 34.8 ± 14.3 mm were enrolled. Surgical histopathology confirmed 2 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs), 3 mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), 2 cystic neuroendocrine tumors (cystic-NETs), 1 serous cystadenoma (SCA), and 2 squamous lined PCLs. Characteristic in vivo nCLE image patterns included papillary projections for IPMNs, horizon-type epithelial bands for MCNs, nests and trabeculae of cells for cystic-NETs, and a "fern pattern" of vascularity for SCA. Identical image patterns were observed during ex vivo pCLE imaging of the surgically resected PCLs. Both in vivo and ex vivo CLE imaging findings correlated with surgical histopathology. In vivo nCLE patterns are reproducible in ex vivo pCLE for all major neoplastic PCLs. These findings add further support the application of EUS-nCLE as an imaging biomarker in the diagnosis of PCLs.

  6. Hydrocele of the spermatic cord; Ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Byoung Hee; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Cho, Byung Jae [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ki, Won Woo [Samsung Cheil Hospital, CL women' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of hydrocele of the spermatic cord. Ultrasonographic findings of twenty patients with surgically (n=7), clinically and ultrasonographically (n=13) proven hydrocele of the spermatic cord were retrospectively analyzed from April 1998 to February 2000. The location size, shape, thickness and regularity of the outer wall, and internal echo of the hydroceles were evaluated. Hydroceles were located on the left side in eleven cases and on the right side in nine cases. Fourteen of 20 hydroceles were situated superior to the testis while the remaining six cases were in the inguinal area. Shapes included oval (n=13) or elongated shape (n=7) with the tapered end toward the inguinal area. The thickness of walls of hydroceles was thin in all cases, but two of 20 hydroceles had irregular walls. Internal echo was anechoic in twelve cases while there were internal echoes in the remaining eight cases, showing septa like echoes in five cases, diffusely hypoechoic in two cases and debris with linear echoes in one case. All hydroceles showed separation from the testis and epididymis. In three cases, change in size during palpation was noted, but there was no ultrasonographic evidence of connection with the peritoneal cavity. There was one other case which showed change in size during ultrasonographic examination. Spermatic cord hydrocele can be effectively diagnosed by ultrasonography based on its specific location and shape. Furthermore, ultrasonography can be useful to exclude hernia, enlargement of the lymph node, or other solid masses.

  7. Ultrasonographic assessment of male breast diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xueyu; Zhu, Qiang; Jia, Wenxiu; Ma, Teng; Wang, Xixi; Guo, Ning; Ji, Hongtao

    2018-01-08

    Although rare and accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancers, the incidence of breast cancer in men has increased by 26% over the past few decades. Very little has been reported on the sonographic appearance of benign and malignant male breast conditions. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic features of male breast disease and the value of ultrasound in the evaluation of male breast disease. Between December 2006 and October 2014, ultrasound examinations were performed in 560 male patients presenting with enlargement of, pain in, and/or a lump in the breast. One hundred and thirty-six patients (24.3%) underwent surgical excision, and 424 patients (75.7%) were diagnosed by ultrasound. Their ultrasonographic features were retrospectively evaluated. The final diagnoses were gynecomastia (n = 537), primary breast cancer (n = 9), lipoma (n = 7), chronic mastitis (n = 6), and fibroadenoma (n = 1). Of the 560 lesions, 356 (63.6%) were classified as Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) category 2, 191 (34.1%) were classified as BI-RADS category 3, and 13 (2.3%) were classified as BI-RADS 4 or 5. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the detection of malignant breast masses according to ultrasound were 100%, 99.3%, 69.2%, 100%, and 97.7% respectively. The sonographic patterns of gynecomastia were nodular (n = 131, 24.4%), dendritic (n = 50, 9.3%), and diffuse glandular (n = 356, 66.3%). Color Doppler flow imaging revealed hypervascularity in five of these malignant masses, moderate vascularity in two of the masses, and mild vascularity in the remaining two masses. Other diseases included in the study are also described. Ultrasonography (US) is useful in the diagnosis of male breast diseases, especially in differentiating cancer from benign lesions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of canine supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistieri, Maria Ligia A; Wigger, Antje; Canola, Julio C; Filho, João G P; Kramer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis is an uncommon finding in dogs. Although its radiographic appearance has been described previously, radiographs alone do not provide detailed information about the tendon parenchyma. Tendon ultrasonography has been widely applied for the diagnosis of human tendinosis, but it remains underused in dogs. This article reviews the ultrasonographic technique and variable appearance of canine supraspinatus calcifying tendinosis observed in 33 tendons. The ultrasonographic findings are described. The most common ultrasonographic finding was a hyperechoic area accompanied by distal acoustic shadowing. No relationship with bicipital tenosynovitis was found. A color Doppler examination was possible in only five of the tendons, revealing no blood flow in those tendons. There was evidence that the presence of a hypoechoic area surrounding the calcification was related to clinical signs of pain, suggesting an active inflammatory process. Ultrasonography was an excellent technique to evaluate lesions of the supraspinatus tendon and it revealed details not apparent on radiographs.

  9. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF AMOEBIC LIVER ABSCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS To study the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis, followup, resolution and percutaneous interventions of amoebic liver abscesses. METHODOLOGY 25 patients with 38 amoebic liver abscesses were included in this study. The diagnostic criteria being compatible history, tender and enlarged liver, radiological and ultrasound findings and response to metronidazole therapy. Confirmed cases of amoebic liver abscesses were followed up by ultrasonography till complete resolution. RESULTS The highest incidence of age was seen between 3 rd and 5 th decades (84% with a male sex incidence of 92%, disease preponderance in people belonging to low socioeconomic group and a high incidence among alcoholics. The radiological findings were: Elevation of right dome of diaphragm (56%, restricted diaphragmatic movements (88%, right basal lung changes (48%, right pleural effusion (12%, and indistinct hazy diaphragmatic contour (40%. The ultrasonographic findings were: 87% of the abscesses were located in right lobe, 11% in left lobe and 2% in both lobes. Among the 25 patients, 76% showed solitary and 24% showed multiple abscesses. Of the 38 amoebic abscesses, 79% were hypoechoic, 13% were hyperechoic and 8% were anechoic. 11 patients were subjected for ultrasound-guided aspiration. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is a safe, reliable and non-invasive imaging modality for the diagnosis, followup and percutaneous interventions of amoebic liver abscesses. The sonographic resolution time of amoebic liver abscesses varies from 28 to 286 days.

  10. Role of ultrasonographic chronic kidney disease score in the assessment of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, Mustafa; Çakır, Özgür; Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Dayanan, Ramazan; Akın, Selçuk; Değirmen, Elif; Yıldırım, Mustafa; Turgut, Faruk

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is an inexpensive, noninvasive and easy imaging procedure to comment on the kidney disease. Data are limited about the relation between estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) and all 3 renal US parameters, including kidney length, parenchymal thickness and parenchymal echogenicity, in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between e-GFR and ultrasonographic CKD score calculated via these ultrasonographic parameters. One hundred and twenty patients with stage 1-5 CKD were enrolled in this study. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. US was performed by the same radiologist who was blinded to patients' histories and laboratory results. US parameters including kidney length, parenchymal thickness and parenchymal echogenicity were obtained from both kidneys. All 3 parameters were scored for each kidney, separately. The sum of the average scores of these parameters was used to calculate ultrasonographic CKD score. The mean age of patients was 63.34 ± 14.19 years. Mean kidney length, parenchymal thickness, ultrasonographic CKD score and median parenchymal echogenicity were found as 96.2 ± 12.3, 10.97 ± 2.59 mm, 6.28 ± 2.52 and 1.0 (0-3.5), respectively. e-GFR was positively correlated with kidney length (r = 0.343, p < 0.001), parenchymal thickness (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with CKD score (r = -0.587, p < 0.001) and parenchymal echogenicity (r = -0.683, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for distinction of e-GFR lower than 60 mL/min showed that the ultrasonographic CKD score higher than 4.75 was the best parameter with the sensitivity of 81% and positive predictivity of 92% (AUC, 0.829; 95% CI, 0.74-0.92; p < 0.001). We found correlation between e-GFR and ultrasonographic CKD score via using all ultrasonographic parameters. Also, our study showed

  11. Accuracy of Ultrasonographic Measurements of Adrenal Glands in Dogs: Comparison with Necroscopic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, E; Tarducci, A; Borrelli, A; Iotti, B; Tursi, M; Zanatta, R

    2017-04-01

    Ultrasonographic evaluation of the adrenal glands was performed in 85 dogs, followed by macroscopic and histopathological examination either post-mortem or after adrenalectomy. This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated the difference between gross and ultrasonographic measurements to determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography in the evaluation of canine adrenal gland size. The differences were assessed for gland length, thickness at cranial, middle and caudal regions, and surface area. In our sample, ultrasound error accuracy ranged between 0% in measurement of the right adrenal gland surface area and 25.21% for left cranial pole thickness. The parameters with minor errors were caudal pole thickness (3.64% right side and 3.49% left side) and length (5.75% right side and 2.19% left side). The ultrasonographic measurements generally underestimated the actual size of the adrenal glands. No statistically significant differences were observed for measurement errors between normal and pathological adrenal glands. This study confirmed that the caudal pole of both glands is the best parameter for ultrasonographic evaluation of normal and pathological adrenal glands size in dog. Furthermore, the surface area could be considered as a dimensional parameter for better assessment of the complex shape and the global aspect of the adrenal glands, while standardize ultrasonographic projections are needed to measure the cranial pole of both adrenal glands. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Clinical and ultrasonographic findings of some ocular conditions in sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. El-Tookhy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to describe the ultrasonographic findings in relation to the clinical symptoms of some common ocular conditions in sheep and goats. Fifty animals (32 goats and 18 sheep with different ocular problems were examined. Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a B-mode ocular ultrasound unit, and the structure of the globe was evaluated at a depth of 4-6 cm. Early cases (n=35, 70% showed varying ocular conditions; hypopyon, (n=8, 16%, stromal abscesses, (n=4, 8%, and anterior uveitis (n=23, 46%. Hypopyon appeared clinically as a white or yellowish material in the anterior chamber, and ultrasonographically as a hyperechoic mass in the anterior chamber. Severe iridocyclitis was noticed in acute cases of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC accompanied by blepharospasm, photophobia, excessive tearing and eyelid margin crust formation. Ultrasonographically, the pupil appeared constricted with increased hyperechoic thickening of the ciliary body. In chronic cases of IKC, corneal pigmentation (n=5, 10% and cataract (n=10, 20% were seen. Ultrasonographically the type and degree of cataract were diagnosed. The present study provides an inside view of the inner ocular structures during the course of certain eye diseases where ophthalmoscopic examination is not possible. Our findings, although preliminary, are relevant for the more complete diagnosis of certain external ocular conditions in sheep and goat herds.

  13. The relationship between synovial fluid VEGF and serum leptin with ultrasonographic findings in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Rim; Lee, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Kyoung-Woon; Kim, Bo-Mi; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine synovial fluid and serum biomarkers which could accord with radiological and ultrasonographic findings in knee osteoarthritis. Thirty-four patients with knee osteoarthritis were detected with joint effusion by clinical examination. Both knee joints were examined using plain radiographs and ultrasonography. Questions were obtained for visual analog scale (VAS), Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index and Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Synovial fluid (SF) and serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, leptin, resistin and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Synovial fluid VEGF level was positively correlated with Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades and it was higher in patients with KL grade 4 than those with KL grade 2. SF VEGF correlated with ultrasonographic findings, such as the length of medial osteophytes. The amount of effusion was positively correlated with SF resistin. Serum leptin level had positive correlation with HAQ and the length of medial osteophytes. MMP-13 or COMP levels were not correlated with radiographic or ultrasonographic findings. Synovial fluid VEGF level was correlated with radiographic grading, ultrasonographic findings and functional statues in knee osteoarthritis, and serum leptin level also correlated with the ultrasonographic findings and functional status of knee osteoarthritis. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the shoulder in elite Italian beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, G; Tramontana, A; Mc Donald, K; Sorge, R; Tiloca, A; Foti, C

    2015-10-01

    Beach volleyball is an overhead sport that subjects the hitting shoulder to intense functional loads. The purpose of this study is to identify ultrasonographically the prevalence of myotendinous alterations in professional Italian beach volleyball players at the Italian championship and to look for associations between ultrasound findings and the other data collected. Fifty-three beach volleyball players (31 women, 22 men) were recruited during the second stage of the Italian championship held in July 2012 in Rome, Italy. Clinical history was obtained from all subjects, followed by physical exam. Each athlete completed a questionnaire regarding sports activities. Bilateral ultrasonographic evaluation of the shoulders was then performed. Calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff of the hitting shoulder was identified ultrasonographically in 30% of the athletes. The mean age of the athletes with calcific tendinopathy was older than subjects with other abnormalities on ultrasonographic examination (33.1 years vs. 25.8 years, t-test; Pvolleyball players has a prevalence of 30% ultrasonographically, greater than that reported in the general population. In these athletes, the presence of calcific tendinopathy correlates positively with age.

  15. Ultrasonographic and clinical findings of inguinal hernia containing the ovary or omentum in girls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su Mi; Chai, Jee Won [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To characterize the ultrasonographic and clinical findings of inguinal hernia containing the ovary or omentum in girls. We studied 46 girls (49 cases) who were diagnosed with inguinal hernia on ultrasonography between March 2009 and December 2015. The ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed with respect to location, age at detection, contents of hernia, diameter of the canal of Nuck, and incidence of reducibility, incarceration and strangulation. The clinical findings included the number of cases that underwent operation, contents of hernia discovered during operation, and duration between ultrasonographic diagnosis and operation. The two groups in which inguinal hernia contained the ovary and omentum were statistically compared. Of the 49 cases, the contents of hernia were the ovary or tube in 14 cases, omentum in 32 cases, and bowel in 3 cases. The ovarian herniation group was significantly younger (10.1 months vs. 4.9 years, p < 0.001), had a lower incidence of reducibility (n = 3 vs. n = 29, p < 0.001), higher incidence of incarceration (n = 4 vs. n = 0, p = 0.006), and a shorter duration between ultrasonographic diagnosis and operation (5.7 days vs. 55.8 days, p = 0.032) than the omental herniation group. The ovarian herniation group was younger, had a lower incidence of reducibility, higher incidence of incarceration, and a shorter duration between ultrasonographic diagnosis and operation.

  16. Prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi Jin [Samsung Cheil Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic characteristic of a rare malformation comples, Cloacal anomaly on prenatal ultrasonography. From March 1991 to July 2001, eight cases with the persistent cloaca (4 cases in female and 1 case in male) and cloacal exstrophy (3 cases) diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound examination were included, and all of them were pathologically confirmed by autopsy. One radiologist retrospectively analyzed the prenatal sonographic images, including the urinary bladder, kidney, pelvic cyst, abdominal wall defect and amount of amniotic fluid. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was established at 21.8 {+-} 7.8 weeks of gestation. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of the persistent cloaca were absent bladder (n=2), distended bladder (n=2) and small thick bladder (n=1). Sonography of the kidney showed normal (n=2), hydronephrosis (n=1), dysplasia (n=1) and unilateral hydronephrosis with absent contralateral kidney (n=1). Four fetuses showed septated pelvic cyst; three fetuses, oligohydramnios. The prenatal ultrasonographic findings of cloacal exstrophy included absent bladder (n=3), normal kidney (n=1), hydronephrosis (n=1) and absent kidney (n=1). All fetuses with cloacal exstrophy had abdominal wall defect while two of them had oligohydramnios. A prenatal diagnosis of persistent cloaca can be confidently made when there is septated pelvic cyst combined oligohydramnios, sediments within the cyst and intraluminal calcifications. Cloacal exstrophy should be included in diagnosis if there is a low abdominal wall defect with absent urinary bladder.

  17. Suitability of obstetric ultrasonographic parameters in determining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analysis suggested that BPD and Composite value were more comparable to the values from LMP than the other assessed obstetric ultrasonographic parameter. In conclusion BPD and Composite value are better parameters for ultrasonic assessment of gestational age in mid to third trimester pregnancy in our ...

  18. Differentiation between early rheumatoid and early psoriatic arthritis by the ultrasonographic study of the synovio-entheseal complex of the small joints of the hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabotti, Alen; Salvin, Sara; Quartuccio, Luca; De Vita, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether ultrasonographic findings of the synovio-entheseal complex of the hand small joints could be used to differentiate between early rheumatoid and early psoriatic arthritis. Thirty-four early rheumatoid and 26 early psoriatic arthritis patients with a prevalent involvement of the hands were examined with ultrasound (US). All exams were performed at the first visit by evaluating synovitis, peritendon extensor digitorum tendon oedema, enthesitis of the central slip of extensor tendon, flexor tenosynovitis and soft tissue oedema. In the same patient, the two most clinically involved joints, if possible of the same digit, were evaluated. Sixty-eight clinically involved joints were evaluated in 34 early rheumatoid arthritis patients and 52 joints in 26 early psoriatic arthritis patients.Synovitis was significantly more frequently detected in early rheumatoid arthritis compared to early psoriatic arthritis patients (p=0.0001), in 91.1% joints of the former and in 59.6% joints of the latter. At metacarpohalangeal joint, the presence of peritendon extensor digitorum tendon inflammation was observed in 2.5% of the joints in the early rheumatoid arthritis group and in 54.1% of the joints in the early psoriatic arthritis group (p=0.0001). At PIP joints, central slip enthesitis was exclusively observed in EPsA (p=0.0045). When considering the most clinically involved finger per patient, soft tissue oedema was detected almost exclusively in psoriatic arthritis (p=0.0002). The US involvement of synovio-entheseal complex and US extrasynovial features may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between early rheumatoid and early psoriatic arthritis.

  19. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the supraspinous ligament in a series of ridden and unridden horses and horses with unrelated back pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knezevic Sabina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury to the supraspinous ligament (SSL is reported to cause back pain in the horse. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed by ultrasonographic examination. The ultrasonographic appearance of the supraspinous ligament has been well described, but there are few studies that correlate ultrasonographic findings with clinical pain and/or pathology. This preliminary study aims to test the hypothesis that unridden horses (n = 13 have a significantly reduced frequency of occurrence of ultrasonographic changes of the SSL consistent with a diagnosis of desmitis when compared to ridden horses (n = 13 and those with clinical signs of back pain (n = 13. Results The supraspinous ligament of all horses was imaged between T(thoracic6-T18 and ultrasonographic appearance. There was an average of 2.08 abnormal images per horse from the whole group. The average number of abnormalities in unridden horses was 4.92, in ridden horses 2.92 and in horses with clinical back pain 4.69. No lesions were found between T6 and T10 and 68% of lesions were found between T14 and T17. No significant difference (p Conclusion The main conclusion was that every horse in this study (n = 39 had at least one site of SSL desmitis (range 2 to 11. It was clear that ultrasonographically diagnosed SSL desmitis cannot be considered as prima facie evidence of clinically significant disease and further evidence is required for a definitive diagnosis.

  20. Transperineal Ultrasonographic findings of female urethral diverticulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Han; Koo, Bong Sik; Nam, Ki Dong; Choi, Jong Cheol; Park, Byeong Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Kweon, Heon Young [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    The purpose of the study was to explore the role of sonography for women with a suspected urethral diverticulum and to evaluate the transperineal ultrasonographic findings of female urethral diverticulum. Eight women (mean age, 44 years) who presented with urethral symptoms and clinically suspected urethral diverticula underwent transperineal ultrasonography; sagittal and coronal images were obtained. Sonography was done with either a 7-5 MHz curved array transducer or 10-5 MHz linear transducer, placed on the perineum at the level of the urethra. Ultrasonograms were assessed for the presence, size, location, shape, echogenicity, and septum. Five patients underwent voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). Results of the sonograms and VCUGs were compared with each other and with surgical findings. Longitudinally, all lesions were located in a middle third of the urethra. In axial plane, 4 diverticula wrapped around 50-100% of the urethra. 3 cases located posteriorly, and 1 case laterally. Seven diverticula contained echogenic debris. Three cases have septa in the diverticulum. The outer margin of the diverticula was smooth in 2 patients and was lobulated in 6 patients. In 3 of 5 cases who underwent VCUG, diverticula were filled with contrast, and appeared to be smaller than those of ultrasonography. In addition, all were single diverticulum in VCUG. Most urethral diverticulum were located in a middle third of the urethra, wrapped around the urethra or round posteriorly. Many cases appear unilocular or multilocular with echogenic debris. Transperineal ultrasonography is easy to operate and accurate for showing urethral diverticulum, and it may be useful for diagnosing this group of women with urethral symptoms and suspected urethral diverticulum. It provides information on the extent and location of the diverticulum, which are important in surgical excision.

  1. Ultrasonographic Findings of Prepubertal Testicular Teratoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Jang Han; Cho, Jae Ho [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of testicular teratoma arising in pre-pubertal children. We studied 6 cases in 5 patients with pathologically proven testicular teratoma. Ultrasonography was performed in all cases and MRI in 5 cases. The location, size, shape, margin and internal echo pattern of the lesion were evaluated on ultrasonography and the shape, signal intensity and presence or absence of contrast enhancement were evaluated on MRI. The shape of all cases was round or oval and the lesion size ranged from 0.5 to 3.5 cm (average, 1.7 cm). Four of 6 cases were seen as cystic lesions, Three of which were multilocular and one was unilocular. The cystic lesions were filled with echo-free fluid without any solid component. The inner wall and septa were minutely granulated. One of 6 cases was seen as a predominantly cystic lesion containing heterogeneous, high echoic portions. One case was seen as a heterogeneous mixed echoic lesion with dirty posterior sonic shadowing. Three of the 4 cases seen as a cyst on ultrasonography were also seen as a cyst on MRI. In one case seen as a predominantly cystic lesion on ultrasonography, the periphery of the lesion was hypointense and the center was hyperintense on T2-weighted image. The remaining case seen as a heterogeneous mixed echoic mass was markedly heterogeneous in signal intensity both on T2- and T1-weighted images and hyperintense fat components were noted. Contrast enhancement was not seen in any of the 4 cases. On ultrasonography, pre-pubertal testicular teratoma is commonly seen as a multilocular or unilocular cyst and a minutely granulated appearance is noted in the inner wall or septa of the cystic lesion

  2. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    OpenAIRE

    Badakhshan Mahdi Pour; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara (L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods: The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results: All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions: Methanolic...

  3. Antimicrobial Blue Light Therapy for Infectious Keratitis: Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Kochevar, Irene E; Behlau, Irmgard; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Fenghua; Wang, Yucheng; Sun, Xiaodong; Hamblin, Michael R; Dai, Tianhong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of antimicrobial blue light (aBL) as an alternative or adjunctive therapeutic for infectious keratitis. We developed an ex vivo rabbit model and an in vivo mouse model of infectious keratitis. A bioluminescent strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was used as the causative pathogen, allowing noninvasive monitoring of the extent of infection in real time via bioluminescence imaging. Quantitation of bacterial luminescence was correlated to colony-forming units (CFU). Using the ex vivo and in vivo models, the effectiveness of aBL (415 nm) for the treatment of keratitis was evaluated as a function of radiant exposure when aBL was delivered at 6 or 24 hours after bacterial inoculation. The aBL exposures calculated to reach the retina were compared to the American National Standards Institute standards to estimate aBL retinal safety. Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis fully developed in both the ex vivo and in vivo models at 24 hours post inoculation. Bacterial luminescence in the infected corneas correlated linearly to CFU (R2 = 0.921). Bacterial burden in the infected corneas was rapidly and significantly reduced (>2-log10) both ex vivo and in vivo after a single exposure of aBL. Recurrence of infection was observed in the aBL-treated mice at 24 hours after aBL exposure. The aBL toxicity to the retina is largely dependent on the aBL transmission of the cornea. Antimicrobial blue light is a potential alternative or adjunctive therapeutic for infectious keratitis. Further studies of corneal and retinal safety using large animal models, in which the ocular anatomies are similar to that of humans, are warranted.

  4. Digital Radiography for Determination of Primary Tooth Length: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Basso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Methods for determining the root canal length of the primary tooth should yield accurate and reproducible results. In vitro studies show some limitations, which do not allow their findings to be directly transferred to a clinical situation. Aim. To compare the accuracy of radiographic tooth length obtained from in vivo digital radiograph with that obtained from ex vivo digital radiograph. Method. Direct digital radiographs of 20 upper primary incisors were performed in teeth (2/3 radicular resorption that were radiographed by an intraoral sensor, according to the long-cone technique. Teeth were extracted, measured, and mounted in a resin block, and then radiographic template was used to standardise the sensor-target distance (30 cm. The apparent tooth length (APTL was obtained from the computer screen by means of an electronic ruler accompanying the digital radiography software (CDR 2.0, whereas the actual tooth length (ACTL was obtained by means of a digital calliper following extraction. Data were compared to the ACTL by variance analysis and Pearson’s correlation test. Results. The values for APTL obtained from in vivo radiography were slightly underestimated, whereas those values obtained from ex vivo were slightly overestimated. No significance was observed (P≤0.48 between APTL and ACTL. Conclusion. The length of primary teeth estimated by in vivo and ex vivo comparisons using digital radiography was found to be similar to the actual tooth length.

  5. Identification of surgically-induced longitudinal lesions of the equine deep digital flexor tendon in the digital flexor tendon sheath using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: an ex-vivo pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuglia, Andrea; Mollo, Giulia; Bullone, Michela; Riccio, Barbara

    2014-11-25

    Longitudinal tears in the lateral aspect of the deep digital flexor tendon are the most common causes of pain localised to the equine digital flexor tendon sheath. However conventional ultrasonographic techniques provide limited information about acute lesions. Ultrasonographic contrast agents are newly developed materials that have contributed to advancement in human diagnostic imaging. They are currently approved for intravenous use in human and animal models. In this study we described intrathecal use in the horse. This study was undertaken to evaluate the reliability of standard and angle contrast-enhanced ultrasonography to detect and characterize surgically-induced longitudinal lesions in the deep digital flexor tendons.In this pilot study surgically-induced lesions were created in the lateral aspect of the deep digital flexor tendon within the digital flexor tendon sheath in 10 isolated equine limbs to generate a replicable model for naturally occurring lesions. Another 10 specimens were sham operated. All the limbs were examined ultrasonographically before and shortly after the intrasynovial injection of an ultrasound contrast agent containing stabilised microbubbles. The images were blindly evaluated to detect the ability to identify surgically-created lesions. The deep digital flexor tendons were dissected and a series of slices were obtained. The depth of longitudinal defects identified with contrast-enhanced ultrasound scans was compared to the real extent of the lesions measured in the corresponding gross tendon sections. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with both angle and standard approach provided a significant higher proportion of correct diagnoses compared to standard and angle contrast ultrasonography (p ultrasonography reliably estimated the depth of surgically-induced longitudinal lesions in the deep digital flexor tendons. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the digital flexor tendon sheath could be an effective tool to detect intrasynovial

  6. Ultrasonographic identification of the cricothyroid membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M S; Teoh, W H; Rudolph, S S

    2016-01-01

    with the clinical techniques. We identified the best-documented techniques for bedside use, their success rates, and the necessary training for airway-ultrasound-naïve clinicians. After a short but structured training, the cricothyroid membrane can be identified using ultrasound in difficult patients by previously...... ultrasonographic identification; a service that we should aim at making available in all locations where anaesthesia is undertaken and where patients with difficult airways could be encountered....

  7. Atypical ultrasonographic presentation of ovarian vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graupera, B; Pascual, M A; Garcia, P; Di Paola, R; Ubeda, B; Tresserra, F

    2011-01-01

    Ovarian vein trombosis (OVT) is a pathologic entity classically considered as a postpartum complication and only rarely associated with other diseases. Due to its vague symptoms, it is usually underdiagnosed. However its consequences can be fatal. We report a case of an incidental finding of ovarian thrombosis in an asymptomatic 45-year-old woman who underwent surgery due to the ultrasonographic finding of a para-ovarian cyst.

  8. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Badakhshan Mahdi; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara (L. Camara) in Artemia salina. The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure.

  9. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of coxofemoral subluxation in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Suzanne; Whitcomb, Mary Beth

    2009-01-01

    The clinical and ultrasonographic features of seven horses with coxofemoral subluxation are presented. Affected horses included five adult geldings (11-20 years), one large pony (6 years) and a 3-month-old filly. All were lame at the walk except for the pony with grade 3/5 lameness. Lameness was acute in all horses, but three horses progressed after initial improvement. Crepitus, muscle atrophy, and pelvic asymmetry were inconsistent findings. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of subluxation required dynamic visualization of femoral head displacement from the acetabulum while placing weight on the affected limb and subsequent replacement into its normal position upon limb resting. Acetabular rim fractures and joint effusion were visible regardless of weight bearing status in six horses each. No fractures were identified in the pony; the only patient with a good outcome. Six horses had a poor outcome with severe chronic lameness, four of which were euthanized. Postmortem ventrodorsal radiographs obtained in two horses confirmed subluxation only on extended limb projections, but not on hip-flexed projections. Acetabular rim fractures were not visible radiographically in either horse but were confirmed at necropsy. Subluxation was due to an elongated but intact ligament of the head of the femur in both horses. Osteoarthrosis was evident ultrasonographically, radiographically, and at necropsy. Dynamic ultrasonography was readily performed in the standing horse and produced diagnostic images with a low frequency curvilinear transducer. The apparent poor prognosis for horses with subluxation and acetabular fracture illustrate the importance of this imaging technique to identify affected horses.

  10. Ultrasonographic features of pseudotumorous form of ascariasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Joyce Y.H.; Woo, Patrick C.Y. E-mail: pcywoo@hkucc.hku.hk; Kan, Pan Shing; Lai, Yeong Man; Tang, Alice P.Y

    2001-09-01

    We report the ultrasonographic findings of a 60 year old woman with pseudotumorous form of ascariasis. Real-time ultrasonographic examination using a curved array transducer revealed grossly thickened small bowel loops, multiple small circular deposits throughout the peritoneal cavity, and a moderate amount of ascites. The English literature on the different forms of abdominal ascariasis is reviewed. Specific signs, which include the 'strip' sign, the 'four-lines', 'inner tube', or 'double tube' sign, the 'bull's eye' or 'target' sign, a 'worm mass' or 'spaghetti-like' appearance, and the 'zig-zag' sign can be present in any form of abdominal ascariasis, as they represent the image of the Ascaris worms visualized under ultrasonographic examination. However, the non-specific signs are not peculiar to A. lumbricoides infections, but are results of secondary changes due to A. lumbricoides infections in the corresponding organs.

  11. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the coxofemoral joint region in young foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottensteiner, U; Palm, F; Kofler, J

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to map the coxofemoral region in foals to obtain ultrasonographic reference values for the interpretation of potentially pathological findings in hip joints. Using a 7.5 MHz linear transducer, 38 examinations were carried out: 10 (20 joints) on cadavers and 28 (55 joints) on live healthy foals up to 8 weeks of age. The chosen plane of examination was caudolateral-craniomedial oblique on an imaginary line connecting the greater trochanter and the cranial edge of the tuber sacrale. The relatively thin muscular layer covering the coxofemoral joint allowed good image quality. The evaluated structures included the bone surface of the ilium and acetabulum, the subchondral bone on the femoral head and greater trochanter, the joint cartilage on the femoral head, the fibrocartilaginous acetabular labrum, the femoral capital physis, the cartilaginous layer covering the greater trochanter, the joint capsule and the presence of visible synovial fluid and the gluteal muscles. A bilateral anatomical frozen section in the plane of examination was made in one cadaver. A good correlation was found between ultrasonographic and corresponding anatomical measurements on the frozen section. This study indicated that ultrasound is a valuable diagnostic tool which can provide good image quality in neonates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproducibility of Ultrasonographic Measurements of the Ulnar Nerve at the Cubital Tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, Alexandra; Teggeler, Marlijn; Schmitz, Marc; Janssen, Jaap; Pisters, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the ulnar nerve is thought to be indicative of ulnar nerve entrapment. The purpose of the study was to determine reproducibility of ultrasonographic measurements of CSA of the ulnar nerve at the cubital tunnel in healthy adults. Two sonographers tested 69

  13. Ocular ketoconazole-loaded proniosomal gels: formulation, ex vivo corneal permeation and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Ghada A; Amin, Maha M; Zakaria, Mohamed Y

    2017-11-01

    Vesicular drug carriers for ocular delivery have gained a real potential. Proniosomal gels as ocular drug carriers have been proven to be an effective way to improve bioavailability and patient compliance. Formulation and in vitro/ex vivo/in vivo characterization of ketoconazole (KET)-loaded proniosomal gels for the treatment of ocular keratitis. The effect of formulation variables; HLB value, type and concentration of non-ionic surfactants (Tweens, Spans, Brijs and Pluronics) with or without lecithin on the entrapment efficiency (EE%), vesicle size and in vitro KET release was evaluated. An ex vivo corneal permeation study to determine the level of KET in the external eye tissue of albino rabbits and an in vivo assessment of the level of KET in the aqueous humors were performed. In vivo evaluation showed an increase in bioavailability up to 20-folds from the optimum KET proniosomal gel formula in the aqueous humor compared to drug suspension (KET-SP). The selected formulae were composed of spans being hydrophobic suggesting the potential use of a more hydrophobic surfactant as Span during the formulation of formulae. Factors that stabilize the vesicle membrane and increase the entrapment efficiency of KET (namely low HLB, long alkyl chain, high phase transition temperature) slowed down the release profile. Proniosomal gels as drug delivery carriers were proven to be a promising approach to increase corneal contact and permeation as well as retention time in the eye resulting in a sustained action and enhanced bioavailability.

  14. In Vivo Cytogenetic Studies on Aspartame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entissar S. AlSuhaibani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspartame (a-Laspartyl-L-phenylalanine 1-methylester is a dipeptide low-calorie artificial sweetener that is widely used as a nonnutritive sweetener in foods and drinks. The safety of aspartame and its metabolic breakdown products (phenylalanine, aspartic acid and methanol was investigated in vivo using chromosomal aberration (CA test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE test in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to aspartame (3.5, 35, 350 mg/kg body weight. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analyzed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges. Treatment with aspartame induced dose dependently chromosome aberrations at all concentrations while it did not induce sister chromatid exchanges. On the other hand, aspartame did not decrease the mitotic index (MI. However, statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame is not significantly genotoxic at low concentration.

  15. Ultrasonographic features of vascular closure devices: initial and 6 month followup results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Hye Jung; Jeong, Hae Woong; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Tae; Seo, Jung Hwa; Lee, Sun Joo; Park, Young Mi [Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Sung Chul [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings for various types of vascular closure devices (VCDs) immediately after the angiographic procedure and at 6-month follow-up. We included 18 VCDs including Angio-Seal (n=4), FemoSeal (n=8), ExoSeal (n=3), Perclose (n=2), and StarClose (n=1) in this study. Four patients were implanted with 2 VCDs at the each side of bilateral femoral arteries, while the remaining 8 patients were inserted 1 VCD at the right femoral artery. Ultrasonography was performed within 10 days and at approximately 6 months after the angiographic procedure. Ultrasonographic morphology of the attached VCD and its relationship with the arterial wall were analyzed. Initial ultrasonography revealed the attached VCD as the relevant unique structure with successful deployment and hemostasis. Follow-up ultrasonography demonstrated partial absorption of hemostatic materials in cases of Angio-Seal (n=3), FemoSeal (n=5), and ExoSeal (n=3), changes in the soft tissue surrounding the femoral artery in case of Angio-Seal (n=1), arterial intimal hyperplasia in cases of FemoSeal (n=3), and no gross changes as compared with the initial ultrasonographic findings in cases of Perclose (n=2) and StarClose (n=1). Initial ultrasonographic evaluation reflected the unique structure of each VCD, with most of them being easily distinguishable. Follow-up ultrasonography revealed various changes in the affected vessels.

  16. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Su Mi; Chai, Jee Won [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD) due to adrenal insufficiency (AI) in preterm infants. Among the 257 preterm infants born at <33 weeks of gestation between December 2009 and February 2014 at our institution, 35 preterm infants were diagnosed with AI. Brain ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed before and after LCD in 14 preterm infants, after exclusion of the other 21 infants with AI due to the following causes: death (n=2), early AI (n=5), sepsis (n=1), and patent ductus arteriosus (n=13). Fourteen of 257 infants (5.4%) were diagnosed with LCD due to AI. The age at LCD was a median of 18.5 days (range, 9 to 32 days). The last ultrasonographic findings before LCD occurred showed grade 1 periventricular echogenicity (PVE) in all 14 patients and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) with focal cystic change in one patient. Ultrasonographic findings after LCD demonstrated no significant change in grade 1 PVE and no new lesions in eight (57%), grade 1 PVE with newly appearing GMH in three (21%), and increased PVE in three (21%) infants. Five infants (36%) showed new development (n=4) or increased size (n=1) of GMH. Two of three infants (14%) with increased PVE developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia. LCD due to AI may be associated with the late development of GMH, increased PVE after LCD, and cystic PVL with rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia.

  17. Comparison between ultrasonographic and clinical findings in 43 dogs with gallbladder mucoceles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Kim, Ahyoung; Keh, Seoyeon; Oh, Juyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Yoon, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is the current standard recommended treatment for dogs with gallbladder mucoceles. However, medical management with monitoring has also been recommended for asymptomatic dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare ultrasonographic patterns of gallbladder mucoceles with clinical disease status in a group of dogs. For each included dog, the ultrasonographic pattern of the mucocele was classified into one of six types: type 1, immobile echogenic bile; type 2, incomplete stellate pattern; type 3, typical stellate pattern; type 4, kiwi like pattern and stellate combination; type 5, kiwi like pattern with residual central echogenic bile; and type 6, kiwi like pattern. A total of 43 dogs were included. Twenty-four dogs, including 11 dogs with gallbladder rupture, were symptomatic. Nineteen dogs were asymptomatic. Cholecystectomy (n = 19), medical therapy (n = 17), or monitoring (n = 6) treatments were applied according to clinical signs and owners' requests. One dog suspected of having gallbladder rupture was euthanized. Frequencies of gallbladder mucocele patterns were as follows: type 1 = 10 (23%), type 2 = 13 (30%), type 3 = 5 (12%), type 4 = 11 (26%), type 5 = 4 (9%), and type 6 = 0. In dogs with gallbladder rupture, type 2 (8/13) was the most common. No significant correlations were found between ultrasonographic patterns of gallbladder mucoceles and clinical disease status or gallbladder rupture. Findings indicated that ultrasonographic patterns of gallbladder mucoceles may not be valid bases for treatment recommendations in dogs. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Medical management of first trimester miscarriage according to ultrasonographic findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Thomas; Nilas, Lisbeth; Rørbye, Christina

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of medical treatment of first trimester miscarriages may depend on the regimen used, the definition of success, clinical symptoms, and, possibly, on the ultrasonographic findings. Our primary aim was to assess if a single dose of misoprostol could reduce the number...... and 3 (43.6%; pmedically-treated first trimester miscarriages varied according to the ultrasonographic definitions...

  19. Early results on canine fetal kidney development: Ultrasonographic evaluation and value in prediction of delivery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Elaine Mayumi Ueno; Garcia, Daniela Aparecida Ayres; Giannico, Amália Turner; Froes, Tilde Rodrigues

    2017-11-16

    To date there have been no studies that describe the ultrasonographic evaluation of kidney development in canine fetuses. The aim of this prospective and longitudinal study was to monitor fetal kidney development with ultrasound and use fetal kidney measurements as a complementary biometric index for estimation of gestational age. Ultrasonographic examinations were performed on 15 clinically healthy pregnant bitches every four days from 30(th) day of pregnancy, until visualization of the fetal renal pelvis was no longer possible. Four distinct periods of ultrasonographic canine fetal kidney development were defined. Kidney length and renal pelvis distention were measured on longitudinal plane images. The fetal kidney ranged from 0.40 cm to 2.30 cm in length, and diameter of the pelvis ranged from 0.06 cm to 0.17 cm, however by the end of gestation the renal pelvis was no longer dilated and so its diameter could not be measured. Statistical analysis confirmed a relationship between gestational age and fetal kidney growth. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fetal kidney development is simple to perform. There is a strong correlation between gestational age and kidney length, which allowed generation of an equation to estimate delivery date with high sensitivity between 48 and 52 days of pregnancy. Fetal organ development can be considered complete when the renal pelvis is no longer dilated, this finding can assist the ultrasonographer in staging the gestation by prompting examination for fetal intestinal motility which begins at the same gestational age. Measurement of fetal kidney length can be used in conjunction with other methods to estimate gestational age and predict delivery time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrasonographic and CT findings of hepatosplenic tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Un Hyeon; Lee, Jeong Seok; Ko, Kang Seok; Park, Byung Ran; Yang, Dong Cheol; Im, Ju Hyeon [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Young [Kwangju Green Cross Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic and CT findings of hepatosplenic tuberculosis Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic and CT findings of confirmed hepatosplenic tuberculosis in 12 patients. Six were men and six were women ; their average age was 41, and most were in their twenties. Lesions of the liver and spleen, as well as associated findings such as abdominal tuberculosis and other organ involvement of tuberculosis were analyzed. Results : There were three cases of hepatic tuberculosis, seven of splenic tuberculosis, and two of hepatosplenic involvement of tuberculosis. On the basis of the ultrasonographic and CT findings, hepatosplenic tuberculosis was classified as one of two patterns : miliary or micronodular, ormacronodular. The micronodular type was more common (9/12 cases) being characterized by innumerable micronodules,and with easy coalescence in the liver and spleen in five of the nine cases. The macronodular type of low density mass was noted in the other three patients. Splenomegaly was noted in 12 cases and hepatomegaly in ten. Pulmonary tuberculosis-including the miliary type(n=5)-was noted in eight patients. Associated abdominal tuberculosis such as lymphadenopathy with central low density and peripheral rim enhancement (n=6), tuberculous peritonitis(n=3),highly attenuated ascites(n=6), adrenal tuberculosis(n=1), renal tuberculosis(n=1), ovarian abscess(n=1), psoasabscess(n=1), and systemic tuberculosis such as central nervous system tuberculoma(n=2), cervical lymphadenopathy(n=4) and tuberculous spondylitis(n=1) were noted. Conclusion : Ultrasonography and CT were valuable in the detection and diagnosis of hepatosplenic tuberculosis.

  1. Selected recent in vivo studies on chemical measurements in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdi, S; Ren, L; Fathali, H; Li, X; Ewing, A G

    2015-06-07

    In vivo measurements of neurotransmitters and related compounds have provided a better understanding of the chemical interactions that are a major part in functioning of brains. In addition, a great deal of technology has been developed to measure chemical species in other areas of living organisms. A key part of this work has been sampling technologies as well as direct measurements in vivo. This is extremely important when sampling from the smallest animal systems. Yet, very small invertebrate systems are excellent models and often have better defined and more easily manipulated genetics. This review focuses on in vivo measurements, electrochemical methods, fluorescence techniques, and sampling and is further narrowed to work over approximately the last three years. Rapid developments of in vivo studies in these model systems should aid in finding solutions to biological and bioanalytical challenges related to human physiological functions and neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. A method to study in vivo stability of DNA nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Sunaina; Bhatia, Dhiraj; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2013-11-01

    DNA nanostructures are rationally designed, synthetic, nanoscale assemblies obtained from one or more DNA sequences by their self-assembly. Due to the molecularly programmable as well as modular nature of DNA, such designer DNA architectures have great potential for in cellulo and in vivo applications. However, demonstrations of functionality in living systems necessitates a method to assess the in vivo stability of the relevant nanostructures. Here, we outline a method to quantitatively assay the stability and lifetime of various DNA nanostructures in vivo. This exploits the property of intact DNA nanostructures being uptaken by the coelomocytes of the multicellular model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. These studies reveal that the present fluorescence based assay in coelomocytes of C. elegans is an useful in vivo test bed for measuring DNA nanostructure stability. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Assessment of patients' knowledge of first-trimester combined Down syndrome screening at the time of their first trimester ultrasonographic evaluation: Results of a prospective study about 201 women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villardi de Montlaur, D; Desseauve, D; Marechaud, M; Pierre, F

    2016-01-01

    Assess pregnant women's knowledge on first-trimester combined Down syndrome screening, at the time of their first trimester ultrasound scan. A questionnaire was submitted to the patients coming for their 12-week pregnancy ultrasonographic evaluation in a University Hospital prenatal clinic between May 2012 and May 2013. Correct and incorrect statements on Down syndrome screening were proposed to the mothers who were asked to rate them. Each patient was questioned on her prior exposition to Down syndrome screening, the category of medical of professional she previously consulted, and the information she received. Patients' knowledge was evaluated according to these criteria. Two hundred and one patients were included in this study. The average correct answer rating was 4.6 (out of 8 questions). The average incorrect answer rating was 2.4 (out of 6 questions). No difference was found between the different social and demographic groups, nor according to the category of professional consulted before the first ultrasound scan. Higher correct answer ratings were observed when the patient had already been submitted to a Down syndrome screening (P=0.039), when they had previously received explanations about the screening (P=0.003); and when they stated that they had been sufficiently informed (P=0.042). These results show that patients' knowledge on Down syndrome screening is inadequate and depends on their experience of previous screening and information. It is deemed necessary to improve information especially to young women who are pregnant for the first time. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Ultrasonographic appearance of normal and injured lateral patellar ligaments in the equine stifle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, R; Whitcomb, M B; Vaughan, B; Galuppo, L D; Spriet, M

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound is widely used in horses with stifle lameness, yet limited information is available regarding the appearance of normal and injured lateral patellar ligaments (LPL). To map the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the LPL. To describe the clinical and ultrasonographic features of LPL injuries. Descriptive study of healthy horses and retrospective case series. Twelve horses without stifle lameness underwent ultrasonographic examination of bilateral LPLs and ultrasonographic features were recorded. Eighteen horses with LPL injury were identified from 1999 to 2011. The normal LPL changes in appearance from origin to insertion. It shows ill-defined margins at the patella, becomes flattened and bilobed over the lateral trochlear ridge, is oval-triangular shaped with variable echogenicity and fibre pattern distal to the LTR, and becomes tapered with striations at the tibial insertion. LPL injury was identified in 18 horses of multiple breeds and uses. All injuries were acute, and 12 had wounds. Eleven horses were severely lame (grade 4-5/5). Ultrasonographic lesions were severe in 78% of cases. The mid to insertional portion of the LPL was most often affected. Radiography showed fractures of the tibial tuberosity (n = 6), patella (n = 4) and lateral trochlear ridge (n = 1). Fractures involved LPL attachments in 9 horses. Five were treated for osteomyelitis and one for synovial sepsis. Recheck ultrasound in 4 horses showed minimal to no change in the appearance of LPL injuries. Nine horses returned to riding, one continued as a broodmare, 2 were retired, one became a broodmare, 2 were lost to follow-up and 3 were subjected to euthanasia owing to concurrent injuries. Normal variations in shape, echogenicity and fibre pattern of the LPL are important considerations to prevent false positive diagnoses during ultrasonography. LPL injuries were often severe and associated with craniolateral stifle trauma. Prognosis varied from good to guarded in horses without

  5. Accuracy of physical and ultrasonographic examinations by emergency physicians for the early diagnosis of intraabdominal haemorrhage in blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyuncu, S; Cete, Y; Bozan, H; Kartal, M; Akyol, A J

    2007-05-01

    To determine the accuracy of physical examination and ultrasonographic evaluation performed by emergency physicians in cases of blunt abdominal trauma for the early diagnosis of intraabdominal haemorrhage. In this clinical prospective study, trauma patients were evaluated with four-quadrant ultrasonography by emergency physicians after initial stabilisation and physical examination. Diagnoses based on demographic data, physical examination and emergency physician's ultrasonography were compared with the subsequent clinical course. A total of 442 patients participated in the study. The sensitivity and specificity of emergency physician's ultrasonographic examination to detect intraabdominal haemorrhage were 86 and 99%, respectively. Pre-test sensitivity and specificity of physical examination to detect intraabdominal haemorrhage were 39 and 90%, respectively. Physical examination was not a reliable method to detect intraabdominal haemorrhage in cases of blunt abdominal trauma. In contrast, abdominal ultrasonography performed by emergency physicians was a reliable diagnostic tool. Emergency physicians should be familiar with abdominal ultrasonographic examination, which should be routine in cases of blunt abdominal trauma.

  6. Determination of the best position and site for color Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of the testicular vein to define the clinical grades of varicocele ultrasonographically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Mehdi; Mazdak, Hamid; Khanbabapour, Saeid; Adibi, Atoosa; Nasr, Nafiseh

    2014-01-01

    There are no generally accepted criteria for the ultrasonographic diagnosis and grading of varicocele. We aimed to determine the best position and site for color Doppler ultrasonographic (CDUS) evaluation of the testicular vein to define the clinical grades of varicocele ultrasonographically. This study consisted of 103 men (44 normal and 59 with clinical varicocele). First, WHO clinical grade of varicocele was determined by physical examination. Then, the diameter of largest testicular vein at four different sites was measured in both upright and supine positions with or without Valsalva maneuver. Finally, the cut-off points of venous diameter for different clinical grades were determined using the values of the position and sites that had the strongest correlation with the clinical grades. The strongest correlation between venous diameter and clinical grade of varicocele was observed when the venous diameter was measured at the level of epididymal head in the upright position with Valsalva maneuver (r: 0.87, P-value best position for CDUS examination of patients suspected of having varicocele is the upright position with Valsalva maneuver, and the best site for venous diameter measurement is at the level of epididymal head.

  7. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE RUPTURED MEDIAL HEAD OF GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Lukac

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Tennis leg, a common injury of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle in the muscle-tendon junction, is usually reported in men during recreational sports. Sudden pain is the main symptom accompanied by the feeling of rupture in the calf. Clinical examination followed by ultrasound is the standard diagnostic procedure. Objective: The main objectives of this study are to compare clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cases of tennis leg, evaluate the location and type of lesion in the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, and evaluate the edema volume and the presence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Second, the healing process was monitored with ultrasound to distinguish the level of recovery and to record the presence of chronic sequelae. Methods: Eighty-one subjects with clinical symptoms of rupture of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle participated in the study. A linear probe (7-12 MHz was used for ultrasonographic (US and a Doppler was used to verify the presence of DVT. Results: In 78 of 81 subjects examined, we found obvious US changes (96.3% and three of them had no positive findings. In 67 of them, we diagnosed rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Most of them had partial rupture (73.13% and the remaining had total rupture (26.87%. The edema (30.84% was found in the space between the aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. DVT with the clinical signs of tennis leg was observed in 5 of 81 patients (6.17%. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ultrasound is very important for early diagnosis of muscle-tendon injuries in the leg. In addition, monitoring the healing process and assessing the chosen treatment showed a high efficiency. Ultrasonography is an effective method to identify and differentiate the sequelae of the injured muscles and vascular complications.

  8. Ultrasonographic changes after steroid injection in carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Choi, Eunseok

    2017-11-01

    To determine the ultrasonographic changes after steroid injection in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasound in post-treatment examination with clinical correlation. Twenty-seven wrists with idiopathic CTS after a single injection of 40 mg of prednisolone hydrochloride were prospectively studied using a high-resolution ultrasound. Axial images of the wrists were obtained at the level of the distal radius, pisiform and hamate prior to and 1, 4 and 8 weeks after steroid injection. The cross-sectional area (CSA, mm2) and flattening ratio (FR) of the median nerve were measured. The bowing of the flexor retinaculum (palmar displacement: PD, mm) and the transverse sliding distance of the median nerve (TSD, mm) during flexion-extension of the index finger were computed. Pre- and post-injection ultrasonographic findings were analyzed in relation to clinical parameters such as pain score. At all levels of the wrist, the CSA decreased significantly at 1 week after the injection, which continued to 8 weeks post-injection. The PD also diminished significantly 1 week after the injection. Furthermore, the TSD significantly increased from 1 week after injection, which lasted to the end of this study. The CSA, PD and TSD showed significant correlation with improvement of pain scores. Ultrasound is useful in follow-up examinations of CTS. Significant ultrasound findings after steroid injections in CTS include decreased swelling of the median nerve, decreased bowing of the flexor retinaculum and increased mobility of the median nerve. All of them significantly correlate with clinical symptoms.

  9. Ultrasonographic Measures of Volume Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    5.3 Ranges of Variables By evaluating the ROC criterion, we were able to identify reasonable upper and lower cut-off values for all of the...point-of-care cardiac evaluations [28,29], and recently Blanco et al. proposed adding it to the rapid ultrasound in shock [32]. This study indicates...2510 Fifth St., Bldg. 840 Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433-7913 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited

  10. Ultrasonographic evaluation of lschial bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Kyung Sook; Chang, Jae Suck; Lee, Soo Ho [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Joong Mo [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kil Ho [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the findings of ultrasonography (US) in patients with ischial bursitis. Our study included 27 patients (mean age 62 years) who underwent US for a painful mass or tenderness in the buttock area. In six of these 27, serous fluid was obtained by needle aspiration, and in five cases, bursal excision permitted histologic confirmation. The other sixteen patients were followed up for one or two months with only NSAID medication; all showed some improvement or remission of symptoms. Using a 5-10 MHz linear array probe, US examination was performed while the patient was lying face down. US images were analyzed with regard to location and size of the lesions, thickness of cyst wall, the presence of internal septa or mural nodules, echogenicity of the cyst wall, fluid content, internal septa, compressibility by a probe, and Doppler signals within the cyst wall. In all 27 patients, ischial bursitis was located superficially to ischial tuberosity. Lesion size(maximum diameter) was 1.5-7(mean 3.8)cm, and the cyst wall was 0.2-0.8cm thick. Internal septa and mural nodules were seen in 12 cases (44%) and 13 cases (48%), respectively. The cyst wall was identifiable in 21 cases (78%), appearing as a single layer with low echogenicity (n=10) or with high echogenicity (n=1); it also appeared as two (n=6) or three (n=4) layers of different echogenicities. When internal septa were present, fluid within the cyst was low echoic in 59% of cases, high echoic in 30%, and of mixed echogenicity (so-called compartmentalization) in 15%. In all cases, the cyst became deformed, when compressed by a probe. In all patients who underwent doppler examination, some vascularity was found within the cyst wall. US helped to detect ischial bursitis; US findings were thin-walled cystic lesion located superficially to ischial tuberosity, with or without internal septa and mural nodules, and easy compressibility.

  11. Ultrasonographic assessment of skin structure according to age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Crisan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-frequency ultrasound is a noninvasive tool that offers characteristic markers, quantifying the cutaneous changes of the physiological senescence process. Aims: The aim was to assess the changes in skin thickness, dermal density and echogenicity, as part of the ageing process, with different age intervals. Methods : The study was performed on 160 patients, aged 40.4 ± 21.2, divided into four age categories: <20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80. Ultrasonographic images (Dermascan device were taken from three sites: dorsal forearm (DF, medial arm (MA, zygomatic area (ZA. We assessed the thickness of epidermis and dermis (mm, number of low, medium, high echogenicity pixels, the ratio between the echogenicity of the upper and lower dermis (LEPs/LEPi, and SLEB (subepidermal low echogenicity band. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15.00. A P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: On all examined sites, it was found that the dermal thickness increases in the 21 to 40 year interval (P<0.0001. After the 21 to 40 year interval, the number of low echogenic pixels increases significantly, especially on photoexposed sites. High-echogenic pixels follow the same pattern on all examined sites: they increase in the 21 to 40 year interval and decrease in the 3rd and 4th age category. The LEPs/LEPi ratio increases significantly with age, at all sites (P<0.05, due to an increase of hypoechogenic pixels in the upper dermis. Conclusions: High-frequency ultrasound is a noninvasive "histological" tool that can assess the cutaneous structure and age-related changes. It offers imagistic markers, comparable to the histological parameters and also characteristic ultrasonographic markers. Histology remains the gold standard for the investigation of the integumentary system.

  12. Ultrasonographic assessment of skin structure according to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Diana; Lupsor, Monica; Boca, Andreea; Crisan, Maria; Badea, Radu

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound is a noninvasive tool that offers characteristic markers, quantifying the cutaneous changes of the physiological senescence process. The aim was to assess the changes in skin thickness, dermal density and echogenicity, as part of the ageing process, with different age intervals. The study was performed on 160 patients, aged 40.4 ± 21.2, divided into four age categories: <20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80. Ultrasonographic images (Dermascan device) were taken from three sites: dorsal forearm (DF), medial arm (MA), zygomatic area (ZA). We assessed the thickness of epidermis and dermis (mm), number of low, medium, high echogenicity pixels, the ratio between the echogenicity of the upper and lower dermis (LEPs/LEPi), and SLEB (subepidermal low echogenicity band). The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15.00. A P value <0.05 was considered significant. On all examined sites, it was found that the dermal thickness increases in the 21 to 40 year interval (P<0.0001). After the 21 to 40 year interval, the number of low echogenic pixels increases significantly, especially on photoexposed sites. High-echogenic pixels follow the same pattern on all examined sites: they increase in the 21 to 40 year interval and decrease in the 3rd and 4th age category. The LEPs/LEPi ratio increases significantly with age, at all sites (P<0.05), due to an increase of hypoechogenic pixels in the upper dermis. High-frequency ultrasound is a noninvasive "histological" tool that can assess the cutaneous structure and age-related changes. It offers imagistic markers, comparable to the histological parameters and also characteristic ultrasonographic markers. Histology remains the gold standard for the investigation of the integumentary system.

  13. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Maria Regina Marrocos; Tavares, Marcos Roberto; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Objective To determine what ultrasonographic features can identify metastatic cervical lymph nodes, both preoperatively and in recurrences after complete thyroidectomy. Study Design Prospective. Setting Outpatient clinic, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Subjects and Methods A total of 1976 lymph nodes were evaluated in 118 patients submitted to total thyroidectomy with or without cervical lymph node dissection. All the patients were examined by cervical ultrasonography, preoperatively and/or postoperatively. The following factors were assessed: number, size, shape, margins, presence of fatty hilum, cortex, echotexture, echogenicity, presence of microcalcification, presence of necrosis, and type of vascularity. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each variable were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to determine the best cutoff value for the number of variables to discriminate malignant lymph nodes. Results Significant differences were found between metastatic and benign lymph nodes with regard to all of the variables evaluated ( P < .05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that size and echogenicity were the best combination of altered variables (odds ratio, 40.080 and 7.288, respectively) in discriminating malignancy. The ROC curve analysis showed that 4 was the best cutoff value for the number of altered variables to discriminate malignant lymph nodes, with a combined specificity of 85.7%, sensitivity of 96.4%, and efficiency of 91.0%. Conclusion Greater diagnostic accuracy was achieved by associating the ultrasonographic variables assessed rather than by considering them individually.

  14. [Ultrasonographic findings in ocular toxocariasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Fábio Barreto; Maciel, Ana Lúcia; Arantes, Tiago Eugênio Farias e; Muccioli, Cristina; Allemann, Norma

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate ophthalmic ultrasound findings in the three presentation forms of ocular toxocariasis (peripheral or posterior pole granulomas and chronic endophthalmitis), in patients with confirmed diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis. 11 patients (11 eyes) with clinical and confirmed diagnosis of active ocular toxocariasis, presented positive ELISA test, were analyzed, prospectively, in the study. The patients were submitted to an ocular ultrasound examination (10-MHz transducer, contact technique). In the series of 11 patients, mean age was 7.9 years-old (range from 2 to 17 y), 73% male, referring previous contact with dogs (91%), and with the soil (50%), no referral of appetite perversion. In the analyses of compromised eyes (11 eyes), the ophthalmoscopic examination revealed the following distribution of the 3 forms of ocular toxocariasis: 7 cases (63.6%), posterior pole granuloma; 1 (9.1%), chronic endophthalmitis; 2 (18.2%), peripheral granuloma; and 1 (9.1%), posterior pole granuloma associated with chronic endophthalmitis. Visual acuity impairment: no light perception (3 eyes, 27.3%); hand motion (4 eyes, 36.4%); counting fingers at 10 cm (1 eye, 9.1%); 20/200 (1 eye, 9.1%); 20/70 (1 eye, 9.1%); undefined (1 eye, 9.1%). Serology was positive to Toxocara canis (ELISA test) in 100% of the cases. Ophthalmoscopy was difficult or impossible in 64% of the cases due to the media opacity. Ultrasound findings noted were vitreous membranes with retinal attachment (100%); parietal lesions (granulomas) with high (80%) or medium (20%) reflectivity. The most consistent ultrasound finding in the eye with toxocariasis was a high-reflectivity retinal mass, located in posterior pole or periphery, which may be calcified, and which has as main characteristic the adherence of vitreous membranes. In addition to clinical history, systemic evaluation and serology, the ultrasound can help in the diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis, especially in media opacities.

  15. Persistence of DNA studied in different ex vivo and in vivo rat models simulating the human gut situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcks, A.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Joosten, R.G.; Jacobsen, B.B.L.; Aarts, H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of DNA sequences from genetically modified plants to persist in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. PCR analysis and transformation assays were used to study DNA persistence and integrity in various ex vivo and in vivo systems using gnotobiotic rats. DNA

  16. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of pyometra in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Carlos Prestes

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A B-mode ultrasonography (SCANNER 450 (5MHz, Pie Medical, Netherlands was used either alone or associated with laboratorial and radiographic examinations in 33 bitches with clinical diagnosis of pyometra. The increased uterus appeared as a well defined tubular structure with diameter ranging from 0.5 up to 4.0 cm. The uterine lumen was less echoic than the wall, with evident echoic shinings. There was an accordance between the increasing in the viscosity of the vaginal secretion and the echoigenicity. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was possible in 31 bitches (94% confirmed by laparotomy and autopsy. The B-mode ultrasonography can be used in the diagnosis of bitches with pyometra.

  17. Healing of AchiIIes Tendon lnjury : Ultrasonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hyoen [Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of ruptured Achilles tendon after healing by surgical or conservative treatment. Ultrasonography of Achilles tendon was performed in 15 patients with Achilles tendon injury that was believed to be cured after surgical or conservative treatment. We used 7MHz liner transducer. Ultrasonographic characteristics of the affected tendon were compared with those of the opposite healthy tendon in terms of echogenicity and thickness of tendon, contour disruption, and surrounding fluid collection. The thickness of the affected Achilles tendon was significantly greater than that of the healthy tendon(P<0.001). Ultrasonographic findings included focal hylpoechogenicity(4), diffusehypoechogenicity(9), isoecho-genicity(2) and focal sonolucent area(6). Ultrasonographic findings of healed Achilles are diffuse increase in thickness and diffuse or focal decrease in echogenicity in the avsence of surrounding fluid collection or hematoma

  18. Coagulation Management in Jersey Calves: An ex vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, Sabine; Maas, Judith; van Geul, Svenja; Rossaint, Rolf; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Grottke, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Jersey calves are frequently used as an experimental animal model for in vivo testing of cardiac assist devices or orthopedic implants. In this ex vivo study, we analyzed the coagulation system of the Jersey calves and the potential of human-based coagulation management to circumvent perioperative bleeding complications during surgery. Experimental Procedure: Blood from 7 Jersey calves was subjected to standard laboratory tests and thromboelastometry analysis. An ex vivo model of dilutional coagulopathy was used to study the effects of fibrinogen or prothrombin complex concentrate supplementation. Fibrinolysis was induced with tissue plasminogen activator to identify potential therapeutic strategies involving tranexamic acid or aprotinin. Furthermore, anticoagulation strategies were evaluated by incubating the blood samples with dabigatran or rivaroxaban. Baseline values for thromboelastometry and standard laboratory parameters, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin III, and D-dimers, were established. Fifty percent diluted blood showed a statistically significant impairment of hemostasis. The parameters significantly improved after the administration of fibrinogen or prothrombin complex concentrate. Tranexamic acid and aprotinin ameliorated tissue plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis. Both dabigatran and rivaroxaban significantly prolonged the coagulation parameters. In this ex vivo study, coagulation factors, factor concentrate, antifibrinolytic reagents, and anticoagulants regularly used in the clinic positively impacted coagulation parameters in Jersey calf blood. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Ultrasonographic appearance of the major duodenal papilla in dogs without evidence of hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Jeremy R; Maddox, Thomas W; White, Gillian M; Blundell, Richard J; Monné, Josep M; Lillis, Susannah M

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the ultrasonographic appearance of the major duodenal papilla (MDP) in dogs without evidence of hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease. ANIMALS 40 adult client-owned dogs examined because of conditions that did not include hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease. PROCEDURES Ultrasonographic examination of the MDP was performed. Each MDP was measured in 3 planes. Intraobserver reliability of measurements was determined, and associations between MDP dimensions and characteristics of the dogs were investigated. Histologic examination of longitudinal sections of the MDP was performed for 1 dog to compare the ultrasonographic and histologic appearance. RESULTS The MDP appeared as a layered structure with a hyperechoic outer layer, hypoechoic middle layer, and hyperechoic inner layer that corresponded to the duodenal serosa, duodenal muscularis, and duodenal submucosa, respectively. Layers visible during ultrasonographic examinations were consistent with layers identified histologically. Intraobserver reliability was substantial for each plane of measurement. Mean ± SD length, width, and height of the MDP were 15.2 ± 3.5 mm, 6.3 ± 1.6 mm, and 4.3 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. An increase in body weight of dogs was significantly associated with increased values for all measurements. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The ultrasonographic appearance and approximate dimensions of the MDP of dogs without evidence of hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or gastrointestinal tract disease were determined. Additional studies are needed to evaluate possible ultrasonographic lesions of the MDP in dogs with hepatobiliary, pancreatic, or intestinal diseases and to investigate clinical implications of these lesions with regard to diagnosis and prognosis.

  20. In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickwell, E [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Cole, B E [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Fitzgerald, A J [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom); Pepper, M [Semiconductor Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wallace, V P [TeraView Ltd, Unit 302/4 Cambridge Science Park, Cambridge CB4 0WG (United Kingdom)

    2004-05-07

    Studies in terahertz (THz) imaging have revealed a significant difference between skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma) and healthy tissue. Since water has strong absorptions at THz frequencies and tumours tend to have different water content from normal tissue, a likely contrast mechanism is variation in water content. Thus, we have previously devised a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) model which is able to closely simulate the interaction of THz radiation with water. In this work we investigate the interaction of THz radiation with normal human skin on the forearm and palm of the hand in vivo. We conduct the first ever systematic in vivo study of the response of THz radiation to normal skin. We take in vivo reflection measurements of normal skin on the forearm and palm of the hand of 20 volunteers. We compare individual examples of THz responses with the mean response for the areas of skin under investigation. Using the in vivo data, we demonstrate that the FDTD model can be applied to biological tissue. In particular, we successfully simulate the interaction of THz radiation with the volar forearm. Understanding the interaction of THz radiation with normal skin will form a step towards developing improved imaging algorithms for diagnostic detection of skin cancer and other tissue disorders using THz radiation.

  1. Ultrasonographic findings in the ovine udder during lactogenesis in healthy ewes or ewes with pregnancy toxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbagianni, Mariana S; Gouletsou, Pagona G; Valasi, Irene; Petridis, Ioannis G; Giannenas, Ilias; Fthenakis, George C

    2015-08-01

    Objective of the study was to record, by means of ultrasonographic examination, changes occurring during lactogenesis in the udder of healthy ewes and of ewes with pregnancy toxaemia. The work was carried out in 28 ewes, 16 with pregnancy toxaemia (group A) and 12 healthy controls (group B). B-mode and Doppler ultrasonographic examination of the udder of ewes was performed. During the last month of pregnancy, grey-scale intensity values of mammary parenchyma in group A were significantly greater than in group B (P = 0.007), as was also the progressive increase in grey-scale intensity values in both groups (P 0.35). Differences between group A and group B in all other haemodynamic parameters studied were not significant, neither throughout the last month of pregnancy (P > 0.25), nor during the first week of lactation (P > 0.06). However, their progressive changes during the last month of pregnancy were significant (P < 0.02).

  2. The anatomic relationship between the internal jugular vein and the carotid artery in children after laryngeal mask insertion. An ultrasonographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Ravi G; Wilson, Morven; Wilson, Graham; Marciniak, Bruno; Engelhardt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Central venous cannulation, although challenging in children and prone to complications, is frequently required for total parenteral nutrition and infusion of drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomic relationship between the internal jugular vein (IJV) and carotid artery (CA) before, and after, insertion of laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in children using ultrasound. Patients aged 2-16 were recruited to this prospective study and divided into three groups of 20 patients each: group 1: LMA size 2, group 2: LMA size 2½, and group 3: LMA size 3. Prior to, and following, LMA insertion, the position and depth of the vessels, and time to locate them were recorded. All measurements were taken at the level of the cricoid cartilage in a neutral head position in the spontaneously breathing patient during expiration. The IJV position in relation to the CA was noticed as anterior (A), anterolateral (AL), lateral (L), or medial (M). The position of the IJV was found to be in the anterolateral (AL) or anterior (A) position to the CA in the majority of cases. The anatomic relationship changed in 10/120 (8.3%) following insertion of the LMA. The mean depth was 0.80 (± 0.15) cm for the right IJV before LMA insertion and 0.84 (± 0.17) cm after insertion. Similar measurements were taken on the left side [0.81 (± 0.14) cm and 0.83 (± 0.18) cm]. The diameter as well as the depth of the IJV increased with the age and weight of the patient. This study demonstrates that the IJV is anterior or anterolateral to the artery in the majority of cases and that the anatomic relationship may change following the insertion of the LMA. It supports the need for using ultrasound-guided techniques for IJV cannulation following LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. An Ultrasonographic Study of Ovarian Antral Follicular Dynamics in Prepubertal Gilts During the Expected Activation of the Hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARZ, Tomasz; MURAWSKI, Maciej; WIERZCHOŚ, Edward; BARTLEWSKI, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Daily transrectal ultrasonography was carried out in eight 4–5-month-old Polish Large White × Polish Landrace gilts for 42 days to monitor the growth of individual ovarian antral follicles ≥2 mm in diameter. In total, 52.4 ± 16.2 and 123.0 ± 6.7 follicles per gilt (mean ± SD) that grew to ≥4 mm were identified during the first and second 21-day study periods, respectively (Pgilts. The number of follicles and maximum diameter they attain increase significantly during the expected activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian axis in prepubescent gilts. PMID:23708742

  4. Spontaneous infarction of benign breast lesion during pregnancy: Ultrasonographic and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Kyu Soon; Kim, Ju Hun [Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Hak [Dept. of Radiology, Health Care Center, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The spontaneous infarction of benign breast lesions is a rare entity and hence is not usually considered in the differential diagnosis during radiologic or clinical examination. There have been a few published cases of infarction during pregnancy and lactation. In this study we report the ultrasonographic and pathologic features of a spontaneous infarction of a lactating adenoma with acute mastitis and abscess and a spontaneously infarcted fibroadenoma.

  5. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa S; Hirakawa, Humberto S; Oliveira, Ana B; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (ppalpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment.

  6. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su-Mi; Chai, Jee Won

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD) due to adrenal insufficiency (AI) in preterm infants. Among the 257 preterm infants born at cystic change in one patient. Ultrasonographic findings after LCD demonstrated no significant change in grade 1 PVE and no new lesions in eight (57%), grade 1 PVE with newly appearing GMH in three (21%), and increased PVE in three (21%) infants. Five infants (36%) showed new development (n=4) or increased size (n=1) of GMH. Two of three infants (14%) with increased PVE developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia. LCD due to AI may be associated with the late development of GMH, increased PVE after LCD, and cystic PVL with rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia.

  7. Ultrasonographic peculiarities of fetoplacental complex in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbina, Nicholay A; Vygovskaya, Liudmyla A

    the relevance of intrauterine infections is determined by significant peri- and postnatal loss as well as health impairment, which often results in disability and reduced quality of life. Ultrasonography is employed in order to provide a reliable assessment of the functional state of the fetoplacental system secondary to intrauterine fetal infection in the course of pregnancy. Ultrasound imaging is essential in diagnosis of various preclinical complications of pregnancy and detection of abnormalities in the developing fetus. The aim of the study was to perform ultrasonographic assessment of fetoplacental complex in pregnancy complicated by intrauterine infection. the study involved 304 pregnant women who underwent ultrasonographic and bacteriological somatogenic examination. The women were divided into the following groups depending on the presence and nature of the diagnosed infection: Group 1 - 50 patients with normal pregnancy, who were not found to have signs of infection (control group), Group 2 - 50 pregnant women with viral infections (CMV and herpes simplex virus); Group 3 - 50 pregnant women with bacterial infections (chlamydia, ureaplasma, mycoplasma), Group 4 - 154 patients with mixed viral and bacterial infections. Clinical groups with intrauterine infections (IUI) were considered main ones. increased echogenicity of the endothelium of internal and provisional organs was considered to be the main ultrasonographic sign of intrauterine fetal infections as these changes were equally observed in pregnant women of the main group. Main symptoms of viral infections included ventriculomegaly, hypoplasia of the chest, echogenic fibrous inclusions in the papillary muscles and valve flaps, hepatomegaly, placental hypoplasia, oligohydramnios. Dolichocephalic skull, choroid plexus cysts, gastromegaly, placental calcifications, polyhydramnios were more common in bacterial infections. Pregnant women with mixed viral and bacterial infections were found to have those

  8. Clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis with caecal and colonic dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Khalphallah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to describe the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings of caecal and colonic dilatation in Egyptian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. A total number of forty buffaloes were included in the study and divided into two groups: control group (n = 20 and diseased group (n = 20. Diseased buffalo were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Assiut University-Egypt. Each of the diseased animals was subjected to clinical, rectal, laboratory and ultrasonographic examinations. Clinically, buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed reduced appetite, distended right abdomen, abdominal pain and tensed abdomen. Rectal examination indicated empty rectum with the presence of mucus and dilated loop of caecum and/or colon. Buffalo with dilated caecum/colon showed significant (P < 0.05 hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia with significant (P < 0.05 increase in blood serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALK. Ultrasonographically, the dilated caecum and proximal loop of colon occupied the last right three intercostal space (ICSs particularly their ventral part, intertangled with the liver dorsally in these ICSs. Dilated colon did not hinder the visibility of the liver. The dilated caecum/colon also filled the whole right flank region, with hiding of right kidney, loops and peristaltic movement of the small intestines. The closest wall of the dilated caecum and proximal loop of the colon was imaged as thick semi-circular echogenic line. The furthest wall and contents of dilated caecum/colon were not imaged. In conclusion, buffalo with caecal and/or colonic dilatation have non-specific clinical and laboratory findings; however the affected animals show characteristic ultrasonographic findings.

  9. Persistence of DNA studied in different ex vivo and in vivo rat models simulating the human gut situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; van Hoek, A.H.A.M.; Joosten, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of DNA sequences from genetically modified plants to persist in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. PCR analysis and transformation assays were used to study DNA persistence and integrity in various ex vivo and in vivo systems using gnotobiotic rats. DNA...... studied was either plasmid DNA, naked plant DNA or plant DNA embedded in maize flour. Ex vivo experiments performed by incubating plant DNA in intestinal samples, showed that DNA is rapidly degraded in the upper part of the GI tract whereas degradation is less severe in the lower part. In contrast...

  10. The role of ultrasonographic measurements of the median nerve in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesildag, A. E-mail: ahmetysd@hotmail.com; Kutluhan, S.; Sengul, N.; Koyuncuoglu, H.R.; Oyar, O.; Guler, K.; Gulsoy, U.K

    2004-10-01

    AIM: The aim of study was to assess the usefulness of ultrasonographic measurements of the median nerve in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-six patients with carpal tunnel syndrome confirmed by electromyography and 45 asymptomatic controls were included in the study and underwent high-resolution ultrasonography of the wrists. The cross-sectional area and flattening ratio at the level of the pisiform bone of the proximal carpal tunnel were measured. Data from the patient group and control group were compared to determine the statistical significance. The accuracy of the ultrasonographic diagnostic criteria for carpal tunnel syndrome was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight wrists of 86 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and 76 wrists of 45 control patients were examined. All measurements showed significant differences between patients and controls. Increased cross-sectional area of the median nerve was the most predictive measurement of carpal tunnel syndrome. Using the ROC curve, a cut-off value of >10.5 mm{sup 2} at the level of pisiform bone provided a diagnostic sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 94.7% CONCLUSION: The ultrasonographic measurement of the median nerve cross-sectional area is a sensitive, specific and useful non-invasive method for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  11. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  12. Evaluation of oral submucous fibrosis using ultrasonographic technique: A new diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Manjunath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF by clinical and histopathological examination, and compare the results with those from ultrasonographic technique. Materials and Methods: 30 clinically diagnosed OSMF patients were subjected to both ultrasonographic and histopathological evaluation before treatment. Later, only ultrasonographical examination was done during 4 th and 8 th week of treatment. Prognosis of the lesion for the treatment was evaluated. Peak systolic velocity (PSV of blood in the lesional area was statistically analyzed. 10 normal individuals without any mucosal lesions were considered as the control group. Results: In normal individuals, ultrasonography delineates normal mucosa with uniform fine mottled appearance with interspersed hypoechoic areas. Color Doppler and spectral Doppler depicts uniform distribution of blood vessels and normal peak systolic velocity of blood respectively. All OSMF patients were diagnosed upon clinical and histopathological examination. Clinical examination revealed 14 individuals with unilateral palpable fibrotic bands and 16 individuals with bilateral fibrotic bands whereas, ultrasonographic evaluation revealed 6 individuals with unilateral fibrotic bands and 24 individuals were with bilateral fibrotic bands, which was statistically significant. Ultrasonography demonstrated number, length and thickness of the fibrotic bands. Color Doppler and spectral Doppler showed decreased vascularity and PSV in lesional area. Prognosis evaluation revealed 25 cases of good prognosis and 5 cases were showed poor prognosis. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test revealed no significant difference of PSV was seen in poor prognosis patients. Conclusion: Ultrasonography is a non-invasive diagnostic tool for OSMF. It could be a better diagnostic tool compared to clinical and histopathological examination.

  13. Ultrasonographic imaging of the temporomandibular joint in healthy cattle and pathological findings in one clinical case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, N C; Weissengruber, G E; Huber, J; Kofler, J

    2016-11-01

    To describe the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in cattle, and to describe the ultrasonographic pathology of the TMJ as assessed in one cow with TMJ disease. The TMJ of 12 healthy Holstein-Friesian cows were examined using a portable ultrasonographic unit with a 7.5 MHz linear probe and a 6.0 MHz convex probe. Each TMJ was scanned in a rostrolateral, lateral and caudolateral plane. In addition, the TMJ of one 2-year-old cow with clinical signs of food retention in the mouth, head tilt, swelling and pain in the right TMJ region and an infected horn fracture was examined ultrasonographically. The bone surfaces of the temporal process, the zygomatic process and the temporal bone, the larger muscles of the TMJ region, the superficial temporal vein, and the parotid salivary gland could be imaged in all normal healthy cattle. Using the linear probe, the joint capsule was visible in 17/24 (71%) cases in the caudolateral plane, but the articular disc could not be visualised. With the convex probe, the joint capsule could be imaged in all cases in the caudolateral plane, and the articular disc in 13/24 (54%) cases in the caudolateral plane. It was never possible to see the synovial pouch in healthy cattle using either probe. By contrast, in the cow diagnosed with septic arthritis of the right TMJ, a marked anechoic and heterogeneous hypoechoic effusion of the TMJ with distension of the joint capsule was visualised. The results of this descriptive study serve to provide a reference for ultrasonography of pathological conditions of the TMJ region in cattle. As many veterinarians are equipped with ultrasound machines with 5-8 MHz linear rectal probes, the authors recommend using these probes for further investigation of clinical cases with swelling of the TMJ region and/or masticatory problems of unclear origin to exclude or diagnose TMJ disorders.

  14. Brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction due to adrenal insufficiency in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Mi Shin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to characterize the brain ultrasonographic findings of late-onset circulatory dysfunction (LCD due to adrenal insufficiency (AI in preterm infants. Methods: Among the 257 preterm infants born at <33 weeks of gestation between December 2009 and February 2014 at our institution, 35 preterm infants were diagnosed with AI. Brain ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed before and after LCD in 14 preterm infants, after exclusion of the other 21 infants with AI due to the following causes: death (n=2, early AI (n=5, sepsis (n=1, and patent ductus arteriosus (n=13. Results: Fourteen of 257 infants (5.4% were diagnosed with LCD due to AI. The age at LCD was a median of 18.5 days (range, 9 to 32 days. The last ultrasonographic findings before LCD occurred showed grade 1 periventricular echogenicity (PVE in all 14 patients and germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH with focal cystic change in one patient. Ultrasonographic findings after LCD demonstrated no significant change in grade 1 PVE and no new lesions in eight (57%, grade 1 PVE with newly appearing GMH in three (21%, and increased PVE in three (21% infants. Five infants (36% showed new development (n=4 or increased size (n=1 of GMH. Two of three infants (14% with increased PVE developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL and rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia. Conclusion: LCD due to AI may be associated with the late development of GMH, increased PVE after LCD, and cystic PVL with rapid progression to macrocystic encephalomalacia.

  15. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa peregrina leaves, ex vivo and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Oran, Sawsan Atallah; Hassuneh, Mona Rushdie; Al-Qaralleh, Haitham Naief; Rayyan, Walid Abu; Al-Thunibat, Osama Yosef; Mallah, Eyad; Abu-Rayyan, Ahmed; Salem, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the in vivo and ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of the ethanol leaves extract of Moringa peregrina in Balb/c mice. For this study, five groups of 5 Balb/c mice were given a single acute subtoxic oral dose of the ethanolic extract at 1.13, 11.30, 23.40 and 113.4 mg/kg and the immunomodulatory effect was assessed on the 6th day following the ingestion. In the (non-functional) assessment, the effect of the extract on the body weight, relative lymphoid organ weight, splenic cellularity and peripheral blood hematologic parameters were evaluated. While in the immunomodulation assessment (functional), we investigated the effect of the extract on the proliferative capacity of splenic lymphocytes and peripheral T and B lymphocytes using mitogen blastogenesis, mixed allogeneic MLR and IgM-Plaque forming cells assays. The ingestion of M. peregrina extract caused a significant increase in the body weight, weight and number of cells of spleen and lymph nodes of the treated mice. Furthermore, the count of RBCs, WBCs, platelets, hemoglobin concentration and PCV % were increased by the extract treatment in a dose-dependent manner. M. peregrina enhanced the proliferative responses of splenic lymphocytes for both T cell and B-cell mitogens. Likewise, the mixed lymphocyte reaction MLR assay has revealed a T-cell dependent proliferation enhancement in the extract treated mice. Moreover, the oral administration of M. peregrina leaves extracts significantly increased PFCs/106 splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, subtoxic acute doses of M. peregrina extract demonstrated significant potential as an immunomodulatory agent even at the lowest dose of 1.13 mg/kg. PMID:29204086

  16. Immunomodulatory effect of Moringa peregrina leaves, ex vivo and in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Salameh Al-Majali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the in vivo and ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of the ethanol leaves extract of Moringa peregrina in Balb/c mice. For this study, five groups of 5 Balb/c mice were given a single acute subtoxic oral dose of the ethanolic extract at 1.13, 11.30, 23.40 and 113.4 mg/kg and the immunomodulatory effect was assessed on the 6th day following the ingestion. In the (non-functional assessment, the effect of the extract on the body weight, relative lymphoid organ weight, splenic cellularity and peripheral blood hematologic parameters were evaluated. While in the immunomodulation assessment (functional, we investigated the effect of the extract on the proliferative capacity of splenic lymphocytes and peripheral T and B lymphocytes using mitogen blastogenesis, mixed allogeneic MLR and IgM-Plaque forming cells assays. The ingestion of M. peregrina extract caused a significant increase in the body weight, weight and number of cells of spleen and lymph nodes of the treated mice. Furthermore, the count of RBCs, WBCs, platelets, hemoglobin concentration and PCV % were increased by the extract treatment in a dose-dependent manner. M. peregrina enhanced the proliferative responses of splenic lymphocytes for both T cell and B-cell mitogens. Likewise, the mixed lymphocyte reaction MLR assay has revealed a T-cell dependent proliferation enhancement in the extract treated mice. Moreover, the oral administration of M. peregrina leaves extracts significantly increased PFCs/10 6 splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, subtoxic acute doses of M. peregrina extract demonstrated significant potential as an immunomodulatory agent even at the lowest dose of 1.13 mg/kg.

  17. Ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic features of segmental dilatations of the common bile duct in four cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Spain

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary This case series documents ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic features of four cats with marked segmental dilatations of the common bile duct (CBD. All cats had additional ultrasonographic changes to the hepatobiliary system, including hepatomegaly, tubular to saccular intra/extrahepatic biliary duct dilatation and biliary debris accumulation. Based on all available data the presence of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction (EHBDO was ruled out in 3/4 cases and was equivocal in one case. One cat underwent re-routing surgery to address the CBD dilatation after multiple recurrent infections, one cat was euthanized and had a post-mortem examination and two cats were medically managed with antibiotics, liver protectants, gastroprotectants and cholerectics. Relevance and novel information The ultrasonographic features of the CBD in this population of cats were supportive of choledochal cysts (CCs. The maximal diameter of the CBD dilatations exceeded 5 mm in all cases, a sign that has been previously reported to be consistent with EHBDO. In our study, dilatations were segmental rather than diffuse. Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with hepatobiliary surgery in cats, segmental dilatation of the CBD should not prompt emergency surgery. Some cats may respond to medical management. Careful planning for cyst resection was beneficial in one cat. Evaluation of CC morphology (eg, size, location, concurrent intrahepatic anomalies may assist in selecting cats that could benefit from surgical intervention.

  18. The relationship between the ultrasonographic diagnosis of innocent amniotic band development and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehbeh, H; Fleisher, J; Karimi, A; Mathony, A; Minkoff, H

    1993-04-01

    To determine the importance of amniotic bands diagnosed ultrasonographically and their relationship to pregnancy outcome. We reviewed retrospectively the ultrasonographic records at State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn and Kings County Hospital Center, identifying 25 cases of amniotic band diagnosed during 1986-1990. Cases were compared with 50 controls who had ultrasound evaluation at the same gestational age. Outcomes studied included fetal anomalies, obstetric factors or complications, pregnancy outcome, and maternal factors that may have predisposed to the formation of bands. All cases had unrestricted fetal movement on the index sonogram. No fetal abnormalities were observed in either the case or control series. The groups were not significantly different in terms of maternal risk factors, but significant differences were found for delivery at less than 37 weeks and birth weight less than 2500 g. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of an amniotic band in connection with sonographic findings of normal fetal anatomy may be a risk factor for preterm delivery and low birth weight. No association between amniotic band development and fetal anomalies was observed.

  19. [Ultrasonographic examination of the hip joint region and bony pelvis in cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubelnik, M; Kofler, J; Martinek, B; Stanek, Ch

    2002-01-01

    Transcutaneous and transrectal ultrasonographic examination of the hip joint region and the pelvis was carried out in 7 cadavers, transcutaneous ultrasonography in 17 healthy young and adult cattle, and transrectal sonography was performed in 12 healthy cows in order to study the normal ultrasonographic appearance of these regions. 7.5 MHz linear-, 5.0 MHz and 3.5 MHz convex transducers and a 7.5 MHz rectal probe were used. The bone surfaces of the greater trochanter, the femoral neck and head, the acetabulum and the other pelvic bones were visualised as hyperechoic contours. The coxofemoral joint space was identified in all cadavers and live cattle. The joint pouch could not be visualised, neither in cadavers nor in live cattle. After experimental filling of the coxofemoral joint pouch by injection of 35-45 ml eosin-solution it appeared as a large anechoic zone between the articular surface and the echogenic joint capsule. The inner contours of the pelvic girdle, both iliosacral joint spaces, the abdominal aorta and the external iliac arteries were depicted clearly by transrectal ultrasonography. The practical application of diagnostic ultrasound in these regions is demonstrated in clinical patients suffering from a septic coxarthritis and a sequestration of a part of the tuber coxae following an open fracture. These results serve as reference data for ultrasonographic investigation of disorders of the hip joint and the pelvic region in cattle.

  20. Ultrasonographic findings in ceftriaxone: associated biliary sludge and pseudolithiasis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, A; Kaya, M; Zeyrek, D; Ozturk, E; Kat, N; Ziylan, S Z

    2005-02-01

    To prospectively evaluate the incidence of biliary sludge and pseudolithiasis in children treated with ceftriaxone. Thirty-three children (14 girls, 19 boys) treated with ceftriaxone for prophylaxis (n=13) or for an infection (n=20) were included in this study. The incidences of biliary sludge and pseudolithiasis were investigated using ultrasonography. The ultrasonographic evaluations were performed prior to and on the 4th-5th days and on the 8th-10th days of treatment. The patients who had biliary sludge or pseudolithiasis were followed up with ultrasonographic evaluation periodically until these pathological phenomena disappeared. Ceftriaxone was administrated intravenously at a dosage of 100 mg kg(-1) day(-1). Serial gallbladder sonograms were performed before treatment and on the 4th-5th and 8th-10th days of therapy. Nineteen children developed pseudolithiasis and sludge in the gallbladder, and all were asymptomatic. No significant differences were found between the patients with normal versus abnormal sonographic findings in regard to gender, age, duration of the therapy, oral restriction except the presence of surgery (Pceftriaxone-associated biliary pseudolithiasis. It is emphasized that when gallstone and/or sludge are detected in the gallbladder in children by ultrasonographic examination, the administration of ceftriaxone must be sought beyond other causative factors.

  1. In Vivo Assessment of Muscle Contractility in Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Shama R; Valencia, Ana P; Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Lovering, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies. Animal models provide unmitigated access to histological samples, which provide a "direct measure" of damage. However, even with unconstrained access to tissue morphology and biochemistry assays, the findings typically do not account for loss of muscle function. Thus, the most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is assessment of its primary function, which is to produce contractile force. The majority of animal models testing contractile force have been limited to the muscle groups moving the ankle, with advantages and disadvantages depending on the equipment. Here, we describe in vivo methods to measure torque, to produce a reliable muscle injury, and to follow muscle function within the same animal over time. We also describe in vivo methods to measure tension in the leg and thigh muscles.

  2. Study on advancement of in vivo counting using mathematical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinase, Sakae [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-05-01

    To obtain an assessment of the committed effective dose, individual monitoring for the estimation of intakes of radionuclides is required. For individual monitoring of exposure to intakes of radionuclides, direct measurement of radionuclides in the body - in vivo counting- is very useful. To advance in a precision in vivo counting which fulfills the requirements of ICRP 1990 recommendations, some problems, such as the investigation of uncertainties in estimates of body burdens by in vivo counting, and the selection of the way to improve the precision, have been studied. In the present study, a calibration technique for in vivo counting application using Monte Carlo simulation was developed. The advantage of the technique is that counting efficiency can be obtained for various shapes and sizes that are very difficult to change for phantoms. To validate the calibration technique, the response functions and counting efficiencies of a whole-body counter installed in JAERI were evaluated using the simulation and measurements. Consequently, the calculations are in good agreement with the measurements. The method for the determination of counting efficiency curves as a function of energy was developed using the present technique and a physiques correction equation was derived from the relationship between parameters of correction factor and counting efficiencies of the JAERI whole-body counter. The uncertainties in body burdens of {sup 137}Cs estimated with the JAERI whole-body counter were also investigated using the Monte Carlo simulation and measurements. It was found that the uncertainties of body burdens estimated with the whole-body counter are strongly dependent on various sources of uncertainty such as radioactivity distribution within the body and counting statistics. Furthermore, the evaluation method of the peak efficiencies of a Ge semi-conductor detector was developed by Monte Carlo simulation for optimum arrangement of Ge semi-conductor detectors for

  3. Ultrasonographic findings of benign soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Sung; Oh, Dong Heon; Jung, Tae Gun; Kim, Yong Kil; Kwon, Jung Hyeok [Dongkang Genernal Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To clarify the characteristic sonographic features of benign soft tissue tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic imaging. We retrospectively reviewed ultrasonographic images of 70 cases in 68 patients with histologically proved benign soft tissue tumors. The tumors include 33 lipomas, 11 hemangiomas, 11 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, 2 fibromas, 1 mesenchymoma, and 1 myxoma. The sonographic appearances of the lesions were mainly solid in 53 cases(33 lipomas, 8 hemangiomas, 2 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 2 fibromas and 1 mesenchymoma), mainly cystic in 14 cases(1 hemangioma, 8 lymphangiomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, and 1 myxomal), and mixed in 3 cases(2 hemangiomas and 1 lymphangioma). Although an accurate histologic prediction could not be made in most cases, certain patterns appeared to be characteristic of specific tumor types. 26 cases(78%) of lipoma were seen as lentiform, iso- or hyperechoic, solid mass. Hemangioma had variable appearance and characteristic calcifications were seen in 3 cases. Unicameral or multiseptated cystic mass with variable thickness of echogenic septa and solid portion was the characteristic finding of lymhangioma. Neurilemmoma showed lobulated, oval to round , relatively hypoechoic mass or with without internal cystic portion. Sonographic evaluation of benign soft tissue tumors is useful in demonstrating the location, size, extent, and internal characteristic of the mass. A relatively confident diagnosis can made when the characteristic features of the benign soft tissue tumor are present on sonographic imaging.

  4. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of liver cavernous hemangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwang Bok; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Seol, Hae Young; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Suh, Won Hyunk [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Hepatic hemangioma which is usually small in size and peripheral in location, is the most common benign tumor in the liver. It is less significant clinically because of its no specific symptoms. Hepatic hemangioma therefore, does not need specific treatment, but occasionally due to its large sized lesions, it must be differentiated from malignant tumors or other ominous hepatic lesions. The authors evaluated the ultrasonographic findings of 29 lesions of hepatic hemangioma and suggested diagnostic work-ups for the focal echogenic liver lesions. The results were as follows: 1. The size of tumor was less than 3cm in 27 lesions and more than 3cm in 2. 2. The hemangioma involved right lobe in 25 cases. 3. 26 lesions in 25 patients were seen as hyper echoic pattern and 3 lesions appeared as hypoechoic. 4. Posterior acoustic enhancement was noted in 2 cases of echogenic hemangioma 5. A sonographic follow-up is useful every 3 months in lesions that are less than 2cm, with a hyperechoic, sharply demarcated border. If the lesion is larger than 2cm, or small but hypoechoic mass, further evaluations with CT, angiography and biopsy are necessary

  5. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Bifid Median Nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Joh, Joon Hee [Myoungji Hospital, Gwandong University College of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    We wanted to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of bifid median nerve and its clinical significance. We retrospectively reviewed five cases (three men and two women, mean age: 54 years) of incidentally found bifid median nerve from 264 cases of clinically suspected carpal-tunnel syndrome that were seen at our hospital during last 6 years. Doppler sonography was performed in all five cases and MR angiography was done in one case for detecting a persistent median artery. The difference ({Delta}CSA) between the sum of the cross-sectional areas of the bifid median nerve at the pisiform level (CSA2) and the cross-sectional area proximal to the bifurcation(CSA1) was calculated. The incidence of a bifid median nerve was 1.9%. All the patients presented with a tingling sensation on a hand and two patients had nocturnal pain. All the cases showed bifurcation of the nerve bundle proximal to the carpal tunnel. The margins appeared relatively smooth and each bundle showed a characteristic fascicular pattern. A persistent median artery was noted between the bundles in four cases. {Delta}CSA was more than 2 mm 2 in four cases. Bifid median nerve with a persistent median artery is a relatively rare normal variance and these are very important findings before performing surgical intervention to avoid potential nerve injury and massive bleeding. We highly suggest that radiologists should understand the anatomical characteristics of this anomaly and make efforts to detect it

  6. The functions of laminins: lessons from in vivo studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryan, M C; Christiano, A M; Engvall, E

    1996-01-01

    here. Instead, I will focus on the recent evidence gathered from gene knock out experiments in mice and from naturally occurring human and mouse gene mutations. The most obvious lesson from the above studies--other than demonstrating the importance of laminins in general--is that the structural......, through interactions with various receptors. It is interesting that the in vivo studies summarized above support both activities. In the case of laminin 5 mutations, the phenotypic consequence appears to be due primarily to the loss of an important structural link between the epithelial cytokeratins...

  7. Comparative Pharmaceutical Evaluation of Candesartan and Candesartan Cilexetil: Physicochemical Properties, In Vitro Dissolution and Ex Vivo In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Ahmed M; Allam, Ahmed N; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2017-09-25

    The aim of the present work is to answer the question is it possible to replace the ester prodrug candesartan cilexetil (CC) by its active metabolite candesartan (C) to bypass the in vivo variable effect of esterase enzymes. A comparative physicochemical evaluation was conducted through solubility, dissolution, and stability studies; additionally, ex vivo permeation and in vivo studies were assessed. C demonstrated higher solubility over CC at alkaline pH. Moreover, dissolution testing using the pharmacopeial method showed better release profile of C even in the absence of surfactant in the testing medium. Both drugs demonstrated a slight degradation in acidic pH after short-term stability. Instead, shifting to alkaline pH of 6.5 and 7.4 showed superiority of C solution stability compared to CC solution. The ex vivo permeation results demonstrated that the parent compound C has a significant (P candesartan for clinical use similarly to azilsartan and its prodrug.

  8. An ex vivo culture system to study thyroid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmarcelle, Anne-Sophie; Villacorte, Mylah; Hick, Anne-Christine; Pierreux, Christophe E

    2014-06-06

    The thyroid is a bilobated endocrine gland localized at the base of the neck, producing the thyroid hormones T3, T4, and calcitonin. T3 and T4 are produced by differentiated thyrocytes, organized in closed spheres called follicles, while calcitonin is synthesized by C-cells, interspersed in between the follicles and a dense network of blood capillaries. Although adult thyroid architecture and functions have been extensively described and studied, the formation of the "angio-follicular" units, the distribution of C-cells in the parenchyma and the paracrine communications between epithelial and endothelial cells is far from being understood. This method describes the sequential steps of mouse embryonic thyroid anlagen dissection and its culture on semiporous filters or on microscopy plastic slides. Within a period of four days, this culture system faithfully recapitulates in vivo thyroid development. Indeed, (i) bilobation of the organ occurs (for e12.5 explants), (ii) thyrocytes precursors organize into follicles and polarize, (iii) thyrocytes and C-cells differentiate, and (iv) endothelial cells present in the microdissected tissue proliferate, migrate into the thyroid lobes, and closely associate with the epithelial cells, as they do in vivo. Thyroid tissues can be obtained from wild type, knockout or fluorescent transgenic embryos. Moreover, explants culture can be manipulated by addition of inhibitors, blocking antibodies, growth factors, or even cells or conditioned medium. Ex vivo development can be analyzed in real-time, or at any time of the culture by immunostaining and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, thyroid explant culture combined with downstream whole-mount or on sections imaging and gene expression profiling provides a powerful system for manipulating and studying morphogenetic and differentiation events of thyroid organogenesis.

  9. Ultrasonographic features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    To analyze ultrasonographic (US) features of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). US features of 15 patients with pathologically proven focal XGP were retrospectively analyzed by two radiologists who reached a consensus, in terms of the location, margin, size, and echo texture of the mass-like lesion, and presence or absence of associated calculi, lymphadenopathy, or local extension. These US findings were compared with CT findings. The patients were checked for the clinical symptom and sign through the review of hospital records. Thirteen of 15 patients were adults and 2 were children, and 10 were males. Their age ranged from 6 to 57 (mean, 39) years at presentation. Eight of 15 cases (53%) were in right kidney, and on US scan 12 cases (80%) were well circumscribed. The size of the mass ranged from 2.5 to 5.8 (mean, 3.8) cm. Of 15 masses, 13 (87%) were solid and two were cystic. Thirteen solid masses were composed of 10 masses (77%) with inner hypo- or anechoic foci and the other three masses without inner hypo- or anechoic foci, and the preoperative diagnosis was either renal cell carcinoma (n=11) or Wilms' tumor (n=2). The preoperative diagnosis in two cystic lesions (13%) was renal abscess. Renal calculi were found in one case, but lymphadenopathy or local extension was not depicted. Clinical symptoms and signs of flank pain, fever, leukocytosis, or anemia were found in 11 of 15 patients. Focal XGP revealed US features of solid or cystic masses confined within the renal outline mimicking renal tumor or abscess. US features, however, in association with clinical findings and other imaging findings (such as CT or MR imaging) may help the differential diagnosis of this lesion.

  10. Effects of weighted and un-weighted pendulum exercises on ultrasonographic acromiohumeral distance in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Nuray; Akkaya, Semih; Gungor, Harun R; Yaşar, Gokce; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Sahin, Fusun

    2017-01-01

    Although functional results of combined rehabilitation programs are reported, there have been no reports studying the effects of solo pendulum exercises on ultrasonographic measurements of acromiohumeral distance (AHD). To investigate the effects of weighted and un-weighted pendulum exercises on ultrasonographic AHD and clinical symptoms in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Patients with subacromial impingement syndrome were randomized to performing weighted (1.5 kilograms hand held dumbbell, N= 18) or un-weighted (free of weight, N= 16) pendulum exercises for 4 weeks, 3 sessions/day. Exercises were repeated for each direction of shoulder motion in each session (ten minutes). Clinical situation was evaluated by Constant score and Shoulder Pain Disability Index (SPADI). Ultrasonographic measurements of AHD at 0°, 30° and 60° shoulder abduction were performed. All clinical and ultrasonographic evaluations were performed at the beginning of the exercise program and at end of 4 weeks of exercise program. Thirty-four patients (23 females, 11 males; mean age 41.7 ± 8.9 years) were evaluated. Significant clinical improvements were detected in both exercise groups between pre and post-treatment evaluations (p shoulder abduction between groups (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference for pre and post-treatment narrowing of AHD (narrowing of 0°-30°, and 0°-60°) between groups (p > 0.05). While significant clinical improvements were achieved with both weighted and un-weighted solo pendulum exercises, no significant difference was detected for ultrasonographic AHD measurements between exercise groups.

  11. Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearances of the caecum in cats presenting with chronic clinical signs of caecocolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Harriet; Pey, Pascaline; Baril, Aurélie; Charpentier, Julie; Desquilbet, Loic; Le Poder, Sophie; Château-Joubert, Sophie; Laloy, Eve; Freiche, Valerie

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to describe the ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological characteristics of the caecum and ileocaecocolic junction in cats suffering from chronic clinical signs compatible with caecocolic disease. Methods Cats presenting with clinical signs suggestive of a caecocolic disease were prospectively recruited. All cats underwent an ultrasonographic examination of the caecum, ileum, colon, ileocolic lymph nodes and local mesenteric fat, in addition to comprehensive abdominal ultrasonography. This was followed by a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the caecocolic mucosa; caecocolic tissue samples were systematically collected for histologic analysis. Results Eighteen cats were included. Eleven of 18 cats had ultrasonographic abnormalities adjacent to the ileocaecocolic junction (lymphadenopathy, local steatitis) and 13/18 cats had abnormalities directly related to the junction (wall thickening, loss of wall layering). Seventeen of 18 cats had at least one ultrasonographic abnormality. Endoscopically, hyperaemia, oedema, discoloration and/or erosions were found in all cats. Each cat was classified as having mild or moderate-to-severe lesions according to endoscopic results; no classification could be established statistically for ultrasonographic results. The accentuation of the dimpled pattern tended to be inversely related to the severity of endoscopic lesion scoring. Histologically, a large proportion of cats showed typhlitis (13/16), one had lymphoma and two were normal. All cats with typhlitis also had colitis. There was only slight agreement between endoscopic and histological caecal results regarding the severity of lesions. Loss of caecal wall layering on ultrasound was found in 7/18 cats and, surprisingly, did not appear as a reliable predictor of the severity of inflammation or of malignancy; neither did local steatitis nor lymph node size. Conclusions and relevance Ultrasonography and endoscopy should not be used as the

  12. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with abomasal lymphosarcoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Sven

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This case report describes the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in a Swiss Braunvieh cow with lymphosarcoma of the abomasum. Case Presentation The main clinical findings were vomiting in response to eating and melena. The results of serum biochemistry and rumen fluid analysis were indicative of abomasal reflux syndrome. The main ultrasonographic findings were two enlarged lymph nodes caudal to the reticulum and a severely enlarged abomasum with thickening of the abomasal wall and folds. Based on all the findings, pyloric stenosis caused by lymphosarcoma was tentatively diagnosed and later confirmed at postmortem examination. Conclusions This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of abomasal reflux syndrome.

  13. Free radicals induced by sunlight in different spectral regions - in vivo versus ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohan, Silke B; Müller, Robert; Albrecht, Stephanie; Mink, Kathrin; Tscherch, Kathrin; Ismaeel, Fakher; Lademann, Jürgen; Rohn, Sascha; Meinke, Martina C

    2016-05-01

    Sunlight represents an exogenous factor stimulating formation of free radicals which can induce cell damage. To assess the effect of the different spectral solar regions on the development of free radicals in skin, in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations with human volunteers and ex vivo studies on excised human and porcine skin were carried out. For all skin probes, the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region stimulates the most intensive radical formation, followed by the visible (VIS) and the near infrared (NIR) regions. A comparison between the different skin models shows that for UV light, the fastest and highest production of free radicals could be detected in vivo, followed by excised porcine and human skin. The same distribution pattern was found for the VIS/NIR spectral regions, whereby the differences in radical formation between in vivo and ex vivo were less pronounced. An analysis of lipid composition in vivo before and after exposure to UV light clearly showed modifications in several skin lipid components; a decrease of ceramide subclass [AP2] and an increase of ceramide subclass [NP2], sodium cholesterol sulphate and squalene (SQ) were detectable. In contrast, VIS/NIR irradiation led to an increase of ceramides [AP2] and SCS, and a decrease of SQ. These results, which are largely comparable for the different skin models investigated in vivo and ex vivo, indicate that radiation exposure in different spectral regions strongly influences radical production in skin and also results in changes in skin lipid composition, which is essential for barrier function. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fiducial markers for MR histological correlation in ex vivo or short-term in vivo animal experiments: a screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvière, Olivier; Reynolds, Carol; Le, Yuan; Lai, Jinping; Roberts, Lewis R; Felmlee, Joel P; Ehman, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    To test injectable fiducial markers for magnetic resonance (MR) histological correlation in ex vivo or in vivo animal experiments. A total of 35 potential markers were tested ex vivo in pork muscle. The end-points were: 1) visibility, size, and shape on MR images and at macroscopic examination; 2) 24-hour stability; and 3) microscopic appearance. Selected markers were injected in vivo (rabbit's muscle and breast tumor tissue) to test their three-hour in vivo stability and their potential toxicity. Finally, different dilutions of the two best markers were assessed again through the same screening tests to determine whether their size on MR images could be customized by dilution. Two fluid acrylic paints containing inorganic pigments were found to be potentially interesting markers. On MR images, they created well-defined susceptibility artifacts. The markers made with iridescent bronze paint (iron oxide coated mica particles) were readily visible on microscopy and their size on MR images could be customized by dilution. The iridescent stainless steel paint (iron, chromium, nickel) created ex vivo the smallest markers in tissue but needed colloidal iron staining to be visible on microscopy and could not be easily diluted. Fluid acrylic paints are potentially interesting markers for MR histological correlation. Further studies are needed to assess their long-term properties.

  15. Ultrasonographic appearance of the coelomic cavity in healthy green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Mason F; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen; Frank, Paul M

    2008-08-15

    To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of the coelomic cavity in healthy green iguanas. Cross-sectional study. 26 healthy green iguanas (20 males and 6 females). For coelomic ultrasonography, animals were physically restrained in dorsal recumbency by an assistant; chemical restraint was not used. Qualitative and quantitative observations were recorded. Structures that could be visualized in all animals included the heart and cardiac chambers; liver; caudal vena cava; hepatic veins; portal vein; gallbladder; pyloric portion of the stomach; and, when distended, urinary bladder. Visualization of the kidneys was poor. The spleen could be identified in 17 animals, and the gonads could be identified in 22, but were most easily identified in males evaluated during November (ie, during the breeding season); no females were evaluated during the breeding season. Physiologic enlargement of the testes yielded an acoustic window for the spleen by displacing overlying intestine. Anechoic, free coelomic fluid was identified in 3 animals. Measurements of overall cardiac size, ventricular wall thickness, gallbladder size, thickness of the pyloric portion of the stomach, and splenic size were obtained. Only ventricular wall thickness was significantly correlated with body weight. Results suggested that ultrasonography allowed examination of most coelomic structures in green iguanas. The procedure was easily performed and was well tolerated in conscious animals.

  16. Ultrasonographic Findings of the Ulnar Nerves in Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Young Hwan; Chai, Jee Won; Chung, Se Yeong; Choi, Young Ho; Cha, Joo Hee [Seoul Municipal Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To determine useful diagnostic criteria of cubital tunnel syndrome (CTS), using ultrasonographic ulnar nerve cross-sectional areas (UNCSA) measurements. The CTS group included 28 patients confirmed with nerve conduction study and the control group included 17 healthy adults. Ulnar nerve cross sectional areas (UNCSA) were measured at the distal 1/3 upper arm level and in the cubital tunnel (CTN). US findings of CTS were ulnar nerve dislocation (n = 2), ulnar nerve subluxation (n = 5), ganglion (n = 1), sever elbow joint osteoarthritis (n = 1) and elbow joint valgus deformity after fracture (n = 1). UNCSA, the ratio of UNCSA in CTN to distal 1/3 upper arm level (CH ratio), and the difference of UNCSA between CTN and distal 1/3 upper arm level (CH difference) were evaluated to obtain the optimal diagnostic cutoff value of CTS, using ROC curve. The mean UNCSA in CTN was 0.168 cm2 in the CTS and 0.067 cm2 in the control. The CTS could be diagnosed when UNCSA, the CH ratio and the CH difference are larger than 0.096 cm2, 1.371 and 0.036 cm2 respectively. The ROC curve area was largest and the sensitivity, specificity was respectively 82.4%, 95.8%, when the CH difference was used as cutoff value. Ultrasound is useful for the detection of CTS pathogenic lesions in CTN. The highest diagnostic accuracy was acquired when the CH difference is larger than 0.036 cm2

  17. Ultrasonographic features differentiating thyroglossal duct cysts from dermoid cysts

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    Hyoung In Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify ultrasonographic features that can be used to differentiate between thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs and dermoid cysts (DCs. Methods We searched surgical pathology reports completed between January 2004 and October 2015 and identified 66 patients with TGDCs or DCs who had undergone preoperative ultrasonography. The ultrasound images were reviewed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathological diagnosis. They evaluated the following parameters: dimensions, shape, margin, location in relation to the midline, level in relation to the hyoid bone, attachment to the hyoid bone, the depth of the lesion in relation to the strap muscles, internal echogenicity, internal echogenic dots, multilocularity, the presence of a longitudinal extension into the tongue base, posterior acoustic enhancement, the presence of internal septae, and intralesional vascularity. Results There were 50 TGDCs and 16 DCs. TGDCs were significantly more likely than DCs to have an irregular shape, an ill-defined margin, attachment to the hyoid bone, an intramuscular location, heterogeneous internal echogenicity, multilocularity, and longitudinal extension into the tongue base. Conclusion Ultrasound findings may inform the differential diagnosis between TGDCs and DCs.

  18. Photoacoustic analysis of thyroid cancer in vivo: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Min-Hee; Jo, Kwanhoon; Ha, Jeonghoon; Kim, Yongmin; Lim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-03-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers. About 3-8% of the people in the United States have thyroid nodules, and 5-15% of these nodules are malignant. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a standard procedure to diagnose malignity of nodules. However, about 10-20% of FNABs produce indeterminable results, which leads to repeat biopsies and unnecessary surgical operations. We have explored photoacoustic (PA) imaging as a new method to identify cancerous nodules. In a pilot study to test its feasibility, we recruited patients with thyroid nodules (currently 36 cases with 21 malignant and 15 benign nodules), acquired in vivo PA and ultrasound (US) images of the nodules in real time using a recently-developed clinical PA/US imaging system, and analyzed the acquired data offline. The preliminary results show that malignant and benign nodules could be differentiated by utilizing their PA amplitudes at different excitation wavelengths. This is the first in vivo PA analysis of thyroid nodules. Although a larger-scale study is needed for statistical significance, the preliminary results show the good potential of PA imaging as a non-invasive tool for triaging thyroid cancer.

  19. Fetal echopsy (ultrasonographic autopsy of an acardius myelancephalus and its correlation with antenatal ultrasonographic findings

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    Balakumar Karippaliyil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant transplacental arteriovenous shunts between the placental and cord vessels of monozygotic monoamniotic twins or triplets result in the formation of an acardius. The prenatal diagnosis of this condition has been reported occasionally in the literature. A subtype categorized as acardius myelancephalus was diagnosed at 32 weeks of gestation by ultrasonography (USG. The pregnancy was aborted because of poor prognostic predictors and the acardius was subjected to ultrasonographic autopsy (fetal echopsy. The antenatal USG features were correlated with echopsy findings for confirmation of the antenatal findings and for a better visual perception of the prenatal diagnostic features. The echopsy revealed more precise details. Fetal echopsy avoids the medicolegal problems concerned with parental consent for classical invasive fetal autopsy.

  20. Comparative In vivo, Ex vivo, and In vitro Toxicity Studies of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efforts to reduce the number of animals in engineered nanomaterials (ENM) toxicity testing have resulted in the development of numerous alternative toxicity testing methods, but in vivo and in vitro results are still evolving and variable. This inconsistency could be due to the f...

  1. Predicting mode of delivery using mid‑pregnancy ultrasonographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective is to determine the relationship between cervical length at mid‑pregnancy and mode of delivery and preterm delivery. Materials and Methods: Trans‑vaginal ultrasonographic scan measurement of cervical length was done for 281 pregnant women at a mean gestational age of 22 weeks.

  2. In vitro and in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Hou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure, mechanical property, electrochemical behavior and biocompatibility of magnesium alloy (BioDe MSM™ were studied in the present work. The experimental results demonstrated that grain refining induced by extrusion improves the alloy strength significantly from 162 MPa for the as-cast alloy to 241 MPa for the as-extruded one. The anticorrosion properties of the as-extruded alloy also increased. Furthermore, the hemolysis ratio was decreased from 4.7% for the as-cast alloy to 2.9% for the as-extruded one, both below 5%. BioDe MSM™ alloy shows good biocompatibility after being implanted into the dorsal muscle and the femoral shaft of the New Zealand rabbit, respectively, and there are no abnormalities after short-term implantation. In vivo observation indicated that the corrosion rate of this alloy varies with different implantation positions, with higher degradation rate in the femur than in the muscle.

  3. ESTABLISHING MARGINAL LYMPH NODE ULTRASONOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN HEALTHY BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS ( TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martony, Molly E; Ivančić, Marina; Gomez, Forrest M; Meegan, Jennifer M; Nollens, Hendrik H; Schmitt, Todd L; Erlacher-Reid, Claire D; Carlin, Kevin P; Smith, Cynthia R

    2017-12-01

    Pulmonary disease has been well documented in wild and managed dolphin populations. The marginal lymph nodes of the dolphin thorax provide lymphatic drainage to the lungs and can indicate pulmonary disease. This study standardized a technique for rapid, efficient, and thorough ultrasonographic evaluation of the marginal lymph nodes in bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus). Thoracic ultrasonography was performed on 29 clinically healthy adult bottlenose dolphins. Reference intervals for lymph node dimensions and ultrasonographic characteristics of marginal lymph nodes were determined from four transducer orientations: longitudinal, transverse, oblique, and an orientation optimized to the ultrasonographer's eye. The relationship between lymph node dimensions and dolphin age, sex, length, weight, origin, and management setting (pool versus ocean enclosure) were also evaluated. The mean marginal lymph nodes measured 5.26 cm in length (SD = 1.10 cm, minimum = 3.04 cm, maximum = 7.61 cm, reference interval [10th to 90th percentiles per node dimension] 3.78-6.55 cm) and 3.72 cm in depth (SD = 0.59 cm, minimum = 2.64, maximum = 5.38 cm, reference interval 2.98-4.50 cm). Sex, dolphin length, weight, and management setting had no effect on lymph node dimensions. Dolphins >30 yr of age had longer node lengths than dolphins 5-10 yr old. Node dimensions did differ between dolphins from various origins. Most commonly, the lymph node was found to be hyperechoic relative to surrounding soft tissues (98%) and to have irregular caudal borders (84%), ill-defined deep borders (83%), flat superficial border (67%), triangular or rounded triangle shape (59%), irregular cranial border (55%), and moderate heterogeneity (34%). The data reported in this study serve as a baseline reference that may contribute to earlier detection of pleural and pulmonary disease of managed and wild cetacean populations.

  4. Effectiveness of circumoral muscle exercises in the developing dentofacial morphology in adenotonsillectomized children: An ultrasonographic evaluation

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    Das U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the functions of the facial muscle can establish changes in facial skeleton and in the development of occlusion. The effect of mouth breathing on the facial morphology is probably greatest during the growth period. Removal of nasal obstruction, adenoids, and tonsils have not given beneficial results in the reversion of the habit unless intercepted with various muscle exercises. Hence, this study was conducted to ultrasonographically evaluate the effectiveness of circumoral muscle exercises in the developing dentofacial morphology in adenotonsillectomized children.

  5. Antinociceptive properties of shikonin: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawana; Chakraborty, Sabyasachi; Saha, Soumya; Chandel, Sunita Gulabsingh; Baranwal, Atul Kumar; Banerjee, Manish; Chatterjee, Mousumi; Chaudhury, Ashok

    2016-07-01

    Shikonin possess a diverse spectrum of pharmacological properties in multiple therapeutic areas. However, the nociceptive effect of shikonin is not largely known. To investigate the antinociceptive potential of shikonin, panel of GPCRs, ion channels, and enzymes involved in pain pathogenesis were studied. To evaluate the translation of shikonin efficacy in vivo, it was tested in 3 established rat pain models. Our study reveals that shikonin has significant inhibitory effect on pan sodium channel/N1E115 and NaV1.7 channel with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 7.6 μmol/L and 6.4 μmol/L, respectively, in a cell-based assay. Shikonin exerted significant dose dependent antinociceptive activity at doses of 0.08%, 0.05%, and 0.02% w/v in pinch pain model. In mechanical hyperalgesia model, dose of 10 and 3 mg/kg (intraperitoneal) produced dose-dependent analgesia and showed 67% and 35% reversal of hyperalgesia respectively at 0.5 h. Following oral administration, it showed 39% reversal at 30 mg/kg dose. When tested in first phase of formalin induced pain, shikonin at 10 mg/kg dose inhibited paw flinching by ∼71%. In all studied preclinical models, analgesic effect was similar or better than standard analgesic drugs. The present study unveils the mechanistic role of shikonin on pain modulation, predominantly via sodium channel modulation, suggesting that shikonin could be developed as a potential pain blocker.

  6. Electron microscopy methods for studying in vivo DNA replication intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the DNA replication process requires structural insight. The combination of psoralen crosslinking and electron microscopy has been extensively exploited to reveal the fine architecture of in vivo DNA replication intermediates. This approach proved instrumental to uncover the basic mechanisms of DNA duplication, as well as the perturbation of this process by genotoxic treatments. The replication structures need to the stabilized in vivo (by psoralen crosslinking) prior to extraction and enrichment procedures, finally leading to the visualization at the transmission electron microscope. This chapter outlines the procedures required to visualize in vivo replication intermediates of genomic DNA, extracted from budding yeast or cultured mammalian cells.

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of Kikuchi cervical lymphadenopathy in children

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    Ji Young Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the ultrasonographic (USG findings of Kikuchi cervical lymphadenopathy in pediatric patients. Methods Between April 2007 and September 2016, 84 children (42 male and 42 female; mean±standard deviation age, 12.9±3.2 years; range, 5 to 18 years confirmed with Kikuchi disease were enrolled. Clinical findings and USG findings of Kikuchi cervical lymphadenopathy were retrospectively reviewed. Localized symptoms, systemic symptoms, and laboratory findings including the white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP were analyzed. An analysis of the USG findings included evaluation of the location, size, and presence of intranodal abscess; intranodal calcification; perinodal fat swelling; localized fluid collection; and loss of nodal echogenic hilum. Results Among the patients, 49 (58% showed localized tenderness at the cervical lymphadenopathy. Fever was present in 55 (66%, while 27 (32% had prolonged fever. Of 74 with lab results, 54 (73% had leukopenia but none had leukocytosis. Among the same 74, there was a high ESR (>50 mm/hr in 10 (14% and a high CRP level (>5 mg/dL in seven (9%. The USG findings of most of the patients (n=72, 86% showed unilateral neck involvement, especially in the left side neck (45 of 72, 63%. The most common site of Kikuchi lymphadenopathy involvement was the area at cervical lymph node level V, at the posterior triangle (n=77, 92%. Conglomerated nodal distribution (n=57, 68%, preserved central nodal echogenic hilum (n=84, 98%, and perinodal fat swelling (n=55, 65% were common USG findings in the children with Kikuchi. In addition, multiple cervical lymph nodes showed a relatively even size distribution (n=73, 87%. Conclusion The common USG findings of Kikuchi disease in the pediatric population of our study were multiple conglomerated unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy showing perinodal fat swelling and even size distribution.

  8. Ultrasonographic findings of Kikuchi cervical lymphadenopathy in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Yun, Bo La [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the ultrasonographic (USG) findings of Kikuchi cervical lymphadenopathy in pediatric patients. Between April 2007 and September 2016, 84 children (42 male and 42 female; mean±standard deviation age, 12.9±3.2 years; range, 5 to 18 years) confirmed with Kikuchi disease were enrolled. Clinical findings and USG findings of Kikuchi cervical lymphadenopathy were retrospectively reviewed. Localized symptoms, systemic symptoms, and laboratory findings including the white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed. An analysis of the USG findings included evaluation of the location, size, and presence of intranodal abscess; intranodal calcification; perinodal fat swelling; localized fluid collection; and loss of nodal echogenic hilum. Among the patients, 49 (58%) showed localized tenderness at the cervical lymphadenopathy. Fever was present in 55 (66%), while 27 (32%) had prolonged fever. Of 74 with lab results, 54 (73%) had leukopenia but none had leukocytosis. Among the same 74, there was a high ESR (>50 mm/hr) in 10 (14%) and a high CRP level (>5 mg/dL) in seven (9%). The USG findings of most of the patients (n=72, 86%) showed unilateral neck involvement, especially in the left side neck (45 of 72, 63%). The most common site of Kikuchi lymphadenopathy involvement was the area at cervical lymph node level V, at the posterior triangle (n=77, 92%). Conglomerated nodal distribution (n=57, 68%), preserved central nodal echogenic hilum (n=84, 98%), and perinodal fat swelling (n=55, 65%) were common USG findings in the children with Kikuchi. In addition, multiple cervical lymph nodes showed a relatively even size distribution (n=73, 87%). The common USG findings of Kikuchi disease in the pediatric population of our study were multiple conglomerated unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy showing perinodal fat swelling and even size distribution.

  9. RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ABDOMINAL ANATOMY IN CAPTIVE RING-TAILED LEMURS (LEMUR CATTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-06-01

    The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in

  10. Clinical Characteristics and Ultrasonographic Findings of Acute Bacterial Enterocolitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Peter; Lim, Taek Jin; Hwang, Eun Ha; Mun, Sang Wook; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Park, Jae Hong

    2017-06-01

    This study clarified the bacterial pathogens currently causing acute infectious enterocolitis (AIE) in children and evaluated the clinical characteristics and ultrasonographic findings according to the different pathogens. Medical records regarding age, sex, clinical symptoms, laboratory data, identified enteropathogens, ultrasonographic findings, treatment, and outcome of 34 patients who were diagnosed with AIE via stool examination using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture, were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four patients (70.6%) were male. The mean age of the patients was 8.5±6.2 (range, 1.1-17.1) years. Six bacterial pathogens were isolated: Salmonella species (spp.) (32.4%), Campylobacter spp. (20.6%), verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (14.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (11.8%), Clostridium difficile (8.8%), and Shigella spp. (2.9%). Abdominal pain occurred in all patients regardless of pathogen. The patients infected with Salmonella were older than those infected with verotoxin-producing E. coli (pCampylobacter infections than in those with verotoxin-producing E. coli infection (p<0.05), the other clinical and laboratory data were indistinguishable between pathogens. Ultrasonography demonstrated diverse involvement of bowel segments according to pathogen. Wall thickening of both the ileum and the entire colon was the most common lesion site regardless of pathogen. Various bacterial agents cause AIE and the symptoms are diverse symptoms, however, all most children recovered spontaneously. Use of multiplex PCR on stool samples warrants improvement of its sensitivity for diagnosis of enteropathogenic bacteria. Ultrasonographic examination is useful for diagnosis of AIE; it can also detect the disease extent and severity.

  11. Ultrasonographic features of adrenal gland lesions in dogs can aid in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Elena; Tursi, Massimiliano; Lorenzi, Chiara; Tarducci, Alberto; Bruno, Barbara; Borgogno Mondino, Enrico Corrado; Zanatta, Renato

    2016-11-28

    Ultrasonography to visualize adrenal gland lesions and evaluate incidentally discovered adrenal masses in dogs has become more reliable with advances in imaging techniques. However, correlations between sonographic and histopathological changes have been elusive. The goal of our study was to investigate which ultrasound features of adrenal gland abnormalities could aid in discriminating between benign and malignant lesions. To this end, we compared diagnosis based on ultrasound appearance and histological findings and evaluated ultrasound criteria for predicting malignancy. Clinical records of 119 dogs that had undergone ultrasound adrenal gland and histological examination were reviewed. Of these, 50 dogs had normal adrenal glands whereas 69 showed pathological ones. Lesions based on histology were classified as cortical adrenal hyperplasia (n = 67), adenocarcinoma (n = 17), pheochromocytoma (n = 10), metastases (n = 7), adrenal adenoma (n = 4), and adrenalitis (n = 4). Ultrasonographic examination showed high specificity (100%) but low sensitivity (63.7%) for identifying the adrenal lesions, which improved with increasing lesion size. Analysis of ultrasonographic predictive parameters showed a significant association between lesion size and malignant tumors. All adrenal gland lesions >20 mm in diameter were histologically confirmed as malignant neoplasms (pheochromocytoma and adenocarcinoma). Vascular invasion was a specific but not sensitive predictor of malignancy. As nodular shape was associated with benign lesions and irregular enlargement with malignant ones, this parameter could be used as diagnostic tool. Bilaterality of adrenal lesions was a useful ultrasonographic criterion for predicting benign lesions, as cortical hyperplasia. Abnormal appearance of structural features on ultrasound images (e.g., adrenal gland lesion size, shape, laterality, and echotexture) may aid in diagnosis, but these features alone were not pathognomic

  12. Mood Disorders Are Glial Disorders: Evidence from In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias L. Schroeter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been suggested that mood disorders can be characterized by glial pathology as indicated by histopathological postmortem findings. Here, we review studies investigating the glial marker S100B in serum of patients with mood disorders. This protein might act as a growth and differentiation factor. It is located in, and may actively be released by, astro- and oligodendrocytes. Studies consistently show that S100B is elevated in mood disorders; more strongly in major depressive than bipolar disorder. Successful antidepressive treatment reduces S100B in major depression whereas there is no evidence of treatment effects in mania. In contrast to the glial marker S100B, the neuronal marker protein neuron-specific enolase is unaltered. By indicating glial alterations without neuronal changes, serum S100B studies confirm specific glial pathology in mood disorders in vivo. S100B can be regarded as a potential diagnostic biomarker for mood disorders and as a biomarker for successful antidepressive treatment.

  13. Placental glucose transfer: a human in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane M Holme

    Full Text Available The placental transfer of nutrients is influenced by maternal metabolic state, placenta function and fetal demands. Human in vivo studies of this interplay are scarce and challenging. We aimed to establish a method to study placental nutrient transfer in humans. Focusing on glucose, we tested a hypothesis that maternal glucose concentrations and uteroplacental arterio-venous difference (reflecting maternal supply determines the fetal venous-arterial glucose difference (reflecting fetal consumption.Cross-sectional in vivo study of 40 healthy women with uncomplicated term pregnancies undergoing planned caesarean section. Glucose and insulin were measured in plasma from maternal and fetal sides of the placenta, at the incoming (radial artery and umbilical vein and outgoing vessels (uterine vein and umbilical artery.There were significant mean (SD uteroplacental arterio-venous 0.29 (0.23 mmol/L and fetal venous-arterial 0.38 (0.31 mmol/L glucose differences. The transplacental maternal-fetal glucose gradient was 1.22 (0.42 mmol/L. The maternal arterial glucose concentration was correlated to the fetal venous glucose concentration (r = 0.86, p<0.001, but not to the fetal venous-arterial glucose difference. The uteroplacental arterio-venous glucose difference was neither correlated to the level of glucose in the umbilical vein, nor fetal venous-arterial glucose difference. The maternal-fetal gradient was correlated to fetal venous-arterial glucose difference (r = 0.8, p<0.001 and the glucose concentration in the umbilical artery (r = -0.45, p = 0.004. Glucose and insulin concentrations were correlated in the mother (r = 0.52, p = 0.001, but not significantly in the fetus. We found no significant correlation between maternal and fetal insulin values.We did not find a relation between indicators of maternal glucose supply and the fetal venous-arterial glucose difference. Our findings indicate that the maternal-fetal glucose gradient is significantly

  14. In vivo localization studies in the stramenopile alga Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Daniel; Stork, Simone; Reislöhner, Sven; Grosche, Christopher; Maier, Uwe-G

    2015-02-01

    The tiny eustigmatophyte Nannochloropsis sp. recently emerged as a promising model organism for biotechnology as it possesses a considerably high cellular oil content interesting for biodiesel production. Furthermore, the alga was shown to be genetically well accessible providing powerful tools for biotechnological engineering as well as basic research. Nannochloropsis sp. can be transformed very efficiently taking advantage of homologous recombination, however, so far it remained unclear whether these organisms are also suitable model systems for in vivo protein localization studies due to their small cell size. Here we present, to our knowledge, the first protein localization studies based on the expression of chimeric fluorescent fusion proteins in the genus Nannochloropsis using N. oceanica CCMP1779 as a model organism. Besides expressing a cytosolic green fluorescent protein (GFP), the reporter could be directed into subcellular structures such as the mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum and secretory pathway as well as the complex plastid including the periplastidal compartment and the stroma via fusion of specific N-terminal targeting sequences. These results expand the potential of N. oceanica as a model system in biotechnology as well as cellular biology for which now an almost complete molecular tool set exists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. EVALUATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RELATION TO ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDING IN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS

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    Dragan Lončar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity leads to the development of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is 1/100 births. The most common place of ectopic implantation of the fertilized ovum is the oviduct (98% with predilection for the ampullar part of the Fallopian tube. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive importance of beta-hCG and progesterone concentration compared to ultrasonographic finding in the ectopic pregnancy diagnosis.We examined 24 patients with ectopic pregnancies which we divided according to the days of amenorrhea into two groups: the first group with the total of 28 patients from 16–42 days and another group of 8 patients with amenorrhea longer than 42 days. The control group was comprised of 20 patients with vital intrauterine pregnancy, gestational age of 42-52 days. Blood samples for quantitative determination of hormones were collected on three occasions after 48 hours in the forenoon time in the examined and control group of pregnant women. Ultrasonographic examinations of all pregnant women were carried out immediately after blood sampling, with the trans-vaginal approach using "make loop" option, and measurements with an accuracy of 0.1 mm.Mean values for beta-hCG range from 698-1774 mlU/ml in the first group of pregnant women, and in the second group of 1896 mlU/ml to 4410 mlU/ml with a statistically significant difference compared to the values in the control group (p <0.001. The concentration of progesterone in the first group of women ranging from 41-70 nmol/l, and in the second group of 76-94 nmol/l which is also the statistically significant difference compared to the control group (p<0.002. We have shown that ultrasonographic finding with its parameters reliably predicts the values of biochemical parameters both in normal intrauterine pregnancy and in the case of ectopic pregnancy.Embryo viability and implantation place condition the values of

  16. Reliability and validity of ultrasonographic measurements of acromion-greater tuberosity distance in poststroke hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Bradley, Michael; Gray, Selena; Swinkels, Annette

    2011-05-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the intrarater reliability of ultrasonographic measurements of acromion-greater tuberosity (AGT) distance in patients with stroke using portable ultrasound. A secondary aim was to determine the discriminant validity of the ultrasonographic technique by comparison of AGT distance measurements of stroke-affected and unaffected shoulders. Test-retest design. Two local National Health Service hospitals in the South West of England. Patients with first-time stroke (N=26; 16 men, 10 women; mean age ± SD, 71±10y) with 1-sided weakness who gave informed consent were recruited. Not applicable. Portable diagnostic ultrasound was used to record measurements on day 1 and again within a fortnight. Bedside measurements were undertaken by a single physical therapist with patients seated upright in a standard hospital chair. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard errors of measurement were used to assess reliability. Minimum detectable change (MDC90) scores were used to estimate the magnitude of change that is likely to exceed measurement error. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess discriminant validity. Mean ± SD AGT distances on the stroke-affected side and unaffected side were 2.3±0.6cm and 1.9±0.3cm, respectively. ICC for within-day reliability was .98 for the affected shoulder and .95 for the unaffected shoulder. Corresponding values for between-day reliability were .94 and .76. The standard error of measurement for both affected and unaffected shoulders was less than 0.2cm. Within-day MDC90 for the affected shoulder and the unaffected shoulder was ±0.2cm and ±0.1cm, respectively. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed a significant difference between mean AGT distance for the affected and unaffected shoulders. Ultrasonographic measurement of AGT distance demonstrates both intrarater reliability and discriminant validity and has the potential to assess shoulder subluxation in patients

  17. Laser welding and syncristallization techniques comparison: "Ex vivo" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Meleti, Marco; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Rocca, Jean-Paul

    2013-12-30

    Stabilization of implant abutments through electric impulses at high voltage for a very short time (electrowelding) was developed in the Eighties. In 2009, the same procedure was performed through the use of laser (laser welding) The aim of this study is to compare electrowelding and laser welding for intra-oral implant abutments stabilization on "ex vivo models" (pig jaws). Six bars were welded with two different devices (Nd:YAG laser and Electrowelder) to eighteen titanium implant abutment inserted in three pig jaws. During the welding process, thermal increase was recorded, through the use of k-thermocouples, in the bone close to the implants. The strength of the welded joints was evaluated by a traction test after the removal of the implants. For temperature measurements a descriptive analysis and for traction test "values unpaired t test with Welch's correction" were performed: the significance level was set at Pwelding gives a lower thermal increase than Electrowelding at the bone close to implants (Mean: 1.97 and 5.27); the strength of laser welded joints was higher than that of Electrowelding even if nor statistically significant. (Mean: 184.75 and 168.29) CONCLUSION: Electrowelding seems to have no advantages, in term of thermal elevation and strength, while laser welding may be employed to connect titanium implants for immediate load without risks of thermal damage at surrounding tissues.

  18. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing (/sup 3/H)-biotin and (/sup 14/C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 ..mu..M biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host.

  19. In Vivo Toxicity Studies of Europium Hydroxide Nanorods in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Abdel Moneim, Soha S.; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence properties and pro-angiogenic to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mgKg−1day−1) and time dependent manner (8–60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice sacrificed on day 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods. PMID:19616569

  20. Gravitational physiology of human immune cells: a review of in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogoli, A.

    1996-01-01

    The study of the function of immune cells in microgravity has been studied for more than 20 years in several laboratories. It is clear today that the immune system is depressed in more than 50% of the astronauts during and after space flight and that the activation of T lymphocytes by mitogens in vitro changes dramatically. This article gives an overview of the gravitational studies conducted by our laboratory in Spacelab, in MIR station, in sounding rockets and on the ground in the clinostat and the centrifuge. Three experimental approaches are followed in our work: (i) Ex vivo studies are performed with blood samples drawn from astronauts; (ii) in vivo studies are based on the application of seven antigens to the skin of the astronauts; (iii) in vitro studies are carried out with immune cells purified from the blood of healthy donors (not astronauts). The data from our in vivo and ex vivo studies are in agreement with those of other laboratories and show that the immunological function is depressed in the majority of astronauts as a consequence of the stress of space flight rather than by a direct influence of gravity on the cell. Immune depression may become a critical hazard on long duration flights on space stations or to other planets. In vitro experiments show that cultures of free-floating lymphocytes and monocytes undergo a dramatic depression of activation by the mitogen concanavalin A, while activation is more than doubled when the cells are attached to microcarrier beads. Such effects may be attributed to both direct and indirect effects of gravitational unloading on basic biological mechanisms of the cell. While the in vitro data are very important to clarify certain aspects of the biological mechanism of T cells activation, they are not descriptive of the changes of the immunological function of the astronauts.

  1. Ultrasonographic assessment of tendon thickness, Doppler activity and bony spurs of the elbow in patients with lateral epicondylitis and healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, T P; Fredberg, U; Christensen, Robin

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Tennis elbow, also known as lateral epicondylitis (LE), is a common disorder often assessed by ultrasound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic outcomes and methods used in LE research and clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was designed as an intra...

  2. The role of vitamin C in pushing back the boundaries of skin aging: an ultrasonographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Diana; Roman, Iulia; Crisan, Maria; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Badea, Radu

    2015-01-01

    Imagistic methods stand as modern, non-invasive, and objective means of assessing the impact of topical cutaneous therapies. This study focuses on the evaluation, by high-frequency ultrasound, of the cutaneous changes induced by topical use of a vitamin C complex at facial level. A vitamin C-based solution/Placebo moisturizer cream was applied at facial level of 60 healthy female subjects according to a predetermined protocol. Ultrasonographic images (Dermascan C, 20 MHz) were taken from zygomatic level initially, at 40 and 60 days after therapy. The following parameters were assessed for every subject: thickness of the epidermis and dermis (mm), the number of low (LEP), medium (MEP), high echogenic pixels (HEP), and the number of LEP in the upper dermis/lower dermis (LEPs/LEPi). LEP decreased significantly in all age categories during and after therapy, but especially in the first 2 age intervals, up to the age of 50 (P=0.0001). MEP and HEP, pixel categories that quantify protein synthesis also had an age-dependent evolution in the study, increasing significantly in all age categories but most of all in the first age interval (P=0.002). Our ultrasonographic data suggest that collagen synthesis increased significantly after topical vitamin C therapy, and is responsible for the increase in MEP and HEP and consequent decrease of the LEP. Our study shows that topically applied vitamin C is highly efficient as a rejuvenation therapy, inducing significant collagen synthesis in all age groups with minimal side effects.

  3. Ultrasonographic characteristics of the cisterna chyli in eight dogs and four cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Anne-Laure; Cavrenne, Romain; Gommeren, Kris; Bolen, Géraldine; Busoni, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the cisterna chyli has been used in humans to diagnose increased lymphatic flow or lymph flow obstruction and to guide percutaneous embolization of the thoracic duct via the cisterna chyli. The aim of this study was to describe the ultrasonographic characteristics of the dorsal portion of cisterna chyli in dogs and cats with chylous ascites or chylothorax and in a group of healthy dogs and cats. The aorta and the cranial mesenteric artery were used as anatomic landmarks. Ultrasonography was performed before and 2 h after a fatty meal in healthy dogs and cats. The visualized structure was confirmed to be a dilated cisterna chyli at necropsy in a dog with chylous ascites. The confirmed or presumed cisterna chyli was consistently detected using ultrasonography in nonfasted healthy animals and clinically affected animals and appeared as an anechoic tubular structure, without detectable flow, at the right dorsolateral aspect of the aorta. It had a similar ultrasonographic appearance in patients with chyloabdomen and in nonfasted healthy dogs and cats. There was considerable overlap in diameters of the cisterna chyli for affected and healthy animals. The shape and size of the cisterna chyli in an individual animal were variable during the same ultrasound examination and between different examinations. This study demonstrated the appearance of the presumed dorsal portion of the cisterna chyli by ultrasonography and might provide useful preliminary data for further studies into the feasibility of ultrasound-guided injections or aspirations of the cisterna chyli in dogs and cats. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  4. Ex vivo and in vivo topographic studies of bladder by optical coherence tomography (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniltchenko, Dmitri; Sachs, Markus D.; Lankenau, Eva; Koenig, Frank; Burkhardt, Mick; Huettmann, Gereon; Kristiansen, Glen; Schnorr, Dietmar; Al-Shukri, Salman; Loening, Stefan A.

    2005-06-01

    Conventional imaging modalities like CT or ultrasonography have a spatial resolution of 70-1000 rim. OCT is a new method by which light of a certain wavelength is introduced into a fiberglass optic to measure tissue structures of up to 2.5 mm depth with a spatial resolution of up to 10-15 μm. We utilized the Tomograph Sirius 713, developed at the Medical Laser Centre in cooperation with 4-Optics AG, Lubeck, Germany. This apparatus uses a special Super- Luminescence-Diode (SLD) that produces light within the near infrared wavelength, with a central wavelength of 1300 nm. The coherence length is reduced to 15 μm. The light is introduced into a fiberglass optic which is several meters long and is easy to handle. To measure the depth of invasion and position of urothelial bladder tumors, the fiberglass optic is attached to a regular endoscope (Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany) via an OCT adapter. That way, in parallel to the regular endoscopic view of the bladder mucosa with or without pathologic findings, an OCT picture of the superficial as well as the deeper muscle layers is visible online. OCT was used to obtain 945 images from the bladder in vivo und ex vivo of 65 patients. OCT of normal bladder mucosa allows to image a cross section of up to 2.5 mm. It is possible to distinguish transitional epithelium, lamina propria, smooth muscles and capillaries. In cystitis, the thickness of the mucosa is constant, but the distinction between the different layers is blurred. In squamous metaplasia there is thickening of the epithelial layer, with preservation of lamination of the lower layers. In transitional cell carcinoma there is a complete loss of the regular layered structure. It is easily possible to distinguish the border between tumour and normal bladder tissue. OCT is a new high-resolution imaging procedure. It has the potential to improve the diagnostics of the urothelium and its lesions. In conjunction with a highly sensitive orientating procedure like fluorescence

  5. In and ex vivo breast disease study by Raman spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raniero, L.; Canevari, R. A.; Ramalho, L. N. Z.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Raman spectra in the 900-1,800 cm(-1) wavenumber region of in vivo and ex vivo breast tissues of both healthy mice (normal) and mice with induced mammary gland tumors (abnormal) were measured. In the case of the in vivo tissues, the Raman spectra were collected for both transcutaneous...... (with skin) and skin-removed tissues. To identify the spectral differences between normal and cancer breast tissue, the paired t-test was carried out for each wavenumber using the whole spectral range from both groups. Quadratic discriminate analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) was also...... used to determine and evaluate differences in the Raman spectra for the various samples as a basis for diagnostic purposes. The differences in the Raman spectra of the samples were due to biochemical changes at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. The sensitivity and specificity...

  6. First Trimester Cystic Hygroma : Ultrasonographic Findings and Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hwa [Chunan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-15

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings and the outcome of the cystic hygroma diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy. Eleven fetuses with cystic hygroma were found on routine antenatal trans vaginal ultrasonography. Nine fetuses had karyotyping. All of the continued pregnancies had detailed-ultrasonographic follow-up and postnatal physical examination. The thickness of the nuchaltranslucency was 3{approx}8 mm. Seperation was seen in 3 of 11 cases. 10 cases showed nuchal translucency in dorsalaspect and 1 showed lateral extension. Aneuploidy was found in 2 (Trisomy 21, Triploidy XXY) of 9 cases, which was 22.2%. Among 7 euploid cases, one was spontaneously aborted and one was terminated due to cystic hygroma and bilateral polycystic kidney. Nuchal thickening in the second trimester was found in 3 of 7 cases. One of 7delivered cases showed hemangioma in the cheek and 6 case showed normal on physical examination. If fetal cystic hygroma is suspected in the first trimester, antenatal karyotyping should be done, and detailed-ultrasonographic examination and postnatal physical examination should be recommended for possible associated anomaly even if the karyotype is normal

  7. The Correlation Between Electrodiagnostic Results and Ultrasonographic Findings in the Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine which ultrasonographic measurement can be used as an indicator reflecting the severity of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), by comparing electrodiagnostic results with ultrasonographic measurements in females. Many previous studies have tried to reveal that the ultrasonography (US) can possibility be used for diagnosis and severity of CTS. However, the criteria are different by gender. Thus far, there have been many efforts towards providing patients with a CTS diagnosis and severity prediction using US, but studies' results are still unclear due to lack of data on gender differences. Methods We collected data from 54 female patients. We classified the severity of CTS according to electrodiagnostic results. Ultrasonographic measurements included proximal and distal cross-sectional areas of the median nerve and carpal tunnel. Results The severity by electrodiagnostic results statistically correlated to the proximal cross-sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve and carpal tunnel. However, there was no relationship between the proximal and distal nerve/tunnel indexes and the severity by electrodiagnostic results. Conclusion In female patients with CTS, the proximal CSAs of the median nerve and carpal tunnel increase. They correlate with the severity by electrodiagnostic findings. The CSA of the proximal median nerve could be particularly used as a predictor of the severity of CTS in female patients. However, the nerve/tunnel index is constant, irrespective of the severity of CTS. PMID:28971044

  8. Relationship among vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of female pelvic floor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proper evaluation of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM is essential for choosing the correct treatment. Currently, there is no gold standard for the assessment of female PFM function. Objective: To determine the correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the female PFM. Method: This cross-sectional study evaluated 80 women between 18 and 35 years of age who were nulliparous and had no pelvic floor dysfunction. PFM function was assessed based on digital palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, electromyographic activity, bilateral diameter of the bulbocavernosus muscles and the amount of bladder neck movement during voluntary PFM contraction using transperineal bi-dimensional ultrasound. The Pearson correlation was used for statistical analysis (p<0.05. Results: There was a strong positive correlation between PFM function and PFM contraction pressure (0.90. In addition, there was a moderate positive correlation between these two variables and PFM electromyographic activity (0.59 and 0.63, respectively and movement of the bladder neck in relation to the pubic symphysis (0.51 and 0.60, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that there was a correlation between vaginal palpation, vaginal squeeze pressure, and electromyographic and ultrasonographic variables of the PFM in nulliparous women. The strong correlation between digital palpation and PFM contraction pressure indicated that perineometry could easily be replaced by PFM digital palpation in the absence of equipment.

  9. Ultrasonographic anatomy of the coelomic organs of boid snakes (Boa constrictor imperator, Python regius, Python molurus molurus, and Python curtus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzato, Tommaso; Russo, Elisa; Finotti, Luca; Milan, Maria C; Gianesella, Matteo; Zotti, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    To determine the ultrasonographic features of the coelomic organs of healthy snakes belonging to the Boidae and Pythonidae families. 16 ball pythons (Python regius; 7 males, 8 females, and 1 sexually immature), 10 Indian rock pythons (Python molurus molurus; 5 males, 4 females, and 1 sexually immature), 12 Python curtus (5 males and 7 females), and 8 boa constrictors (Boa constrictor imperator; 4 males and 4 females). All snakes underwent complete ultrasonographic evaluation of the coelomic cavity; chemical restraint was not necessary. A dorsolateral approach to probe placement was chosen to increase image quality and to avoid injury to the snakes and operators. Qualitative and quantitative observations were recorded. The liver, stomach, gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines, kidneys, cloaca, and scent glands were identified in all snakes. The hemipenes were identified in 10 of the 21 (48%) male snakes. The spleen was identified in 5 of the 46 (11%) snakes, and ureters were identified in 6 (13%). In 2 sexually immature snakes, the gonads were not visible. One (2%) snake was gravid, and 7 (15%) had small amounts of free fluid in the coelomic cavity. A significant positive correlation was identified between several measurements (diameter and thickness of scent glands, gastric and pyloric walls, and colonic wall) and body length (snout to vent) and body weight. The study findings can be used as an atlas of the ultrasonographic anatomy of the coelomic cavity in healthy boid snakes. Ultrasonography was reasonably fast to perform and was well tolerated in conscious snakes.

  10. Reliability of ultrasonographic measurements in suspected patients of developmental dysplasia of the hip and correlation with the acetabular index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Copuroglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is accepted as a useful imaging modality in the early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Early detection and early treatment of DDH prevents hip dislocation and related physical, social, economic, and psychological problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of ultrasonographic and roentgenographic measurements measured by seven different observers. Materials and Methods: The alpha angles of 66 hips in 33 patients were measured using the Graf method by seven different observers. Acetabular index degrees on plane roentgenograms were measured in order to assess the correlation between the ultrasonographic alpha angle and the radiographic acetabular index, which both show the bony acetabular depth, retrospectively. Results: The interclass correlation coefficient, measuring the interobserver reliability, was high and statistically significant for the ultrasonographic measurements. There was a negative correlation between the alpha angle and the acetabular index. Conclusions: Ultrasonography, when applied properly, is a reliable technique between different observers, in the diagnosis and follow up of DDH. When assessed concomitantly with the roentgenographic measurements, the results are reliable and statistically meaningful.

  11. Qualichem In Vivo: A Tool for Assessing the Quality of In Vivo Studies and Its Application for Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxim, Laura; van der Sluijs, Jeroen P.

    2014-01-01

    In regulatory toxicology, quality assessment of in vivo studies is a critical step for assessing chemical risks. It is crucial for preserving public health studies that are considered suitable for regulating chemicals are robust. Current procedures for conducting quality assessments in safety agencies are not structured, clear or consistent. This leaves room for criticism about lack of transparency, subjective influence and the potential for insufficient protection provided by resulting safety standards. We propose a tool called “Qualichem in vivo” that is designed to systematically and transparently assess the quality of in vivo studies used in chemical health risk assessment. We demonstrate its use here with 12 experts, using two controversial studies on Bisphenol A (BPA) that played an important role in BPA regulation in Europe. The results obtained with Qualichem contradict the quality assessments conducted by expert committees in safety agencies for both of these studies. Furthermore, they show that reliance on standardized guidelines to ensure scientific quality is only partially justified. Qualichem allows experts with different disciplinary backgrounds and professional experiences to express their individual and sometimes divergent views—an improvement over the current way of dealing with minority opinions. It provides a transparent framework for expressing an aggregated, multi-expert level of confidence in a study, and allows a simple graphical representation of how well the study integrates the best available scientific knowledge. Qualichem can be used to compare assessments of the same study by different health agencies, increasing transparency and trust in the work of expert committees. In addition, it may be used in systematic evaluation of in vivo studies submitted by industry in the dossiers that are required for compliance with the REACH Regulation. Qualichem provides a balanced, common framework for assessing the quality of studies that may

  12. Presumed normal ultrasonographic findings of the testis and epididymis of botos (Inia geoffrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio Ribeiro; da Silva, Vera Maria Ferreira; Martin, Anthony Richard; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-12-01

    Fifteen live adult male botos, or Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis), were examined using ultrasonography during the yearly capture expedition, between October and November 2005, at the Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, within the Brazilian Amazon (3 degrees S, 65 degrees W). All examinations were performed with a Sonosite 180 plus ultrasound unit in conjunction with a 2- to 5-MHz multifrequency transducer convex array 180 Plus/Elite-C60. Age and maturity estimates were determined considering the body length, weight, and external characteristics. In all examinations, the testes were discerned by the presence of a hyperechoic central line, called the mediastinum testis, a landmark for their identification during ultrasonography. No significant differences in echogenicity were detected on the ultrasonographic appearance of the testes among the studied animals. On adult male botos, apparent parenchymal nodulation of the testis was observed on scanning in most of the animals and probably constituted evidence of reproductive maturity. Using the color Doppler technique, blood flow was detected along the mediastinum testis that progressively decreased toward the periphery of this organ. Little blood flow could be identified by color Doppler. Power Doppler allowed better accuracy to identify testicular vessels, their topography, and their differentiation from adjacent structures. Ultrasonographic examination provides useful data for morphologic characterization of the boto's testes. Examination using Doppler techniques was considered a valuable tool to evidence blood flow through the testicular parenchyma.

  13. A Clinical Observation of Ultrasonographic Diagnosis on Right upper Quadrant Pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suck Hong; Moon, T. Y.; Chang, H. Y.; Kim, B. S. [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-12-15

    The author analyzed a total of 127 cases of ultrasonography studied for evaluation of the causes of right upper quadrant pain during ten months from Feb.1 to Nov. 30 1981, at the department of radiology, Busan national university and St. Benedict hospital. The results were as follows: 1. ultrasonographic findings of the total of 127 cases are normal in 41(32.3%) cases, and abnormal in 86(67.6%) cases. 2. Clinical diagnosis of normal ultrasonographic cases is unknown in 15(36.6%) cases, hepatitis in 10(24.3%) cases, pancreatitis in 6(14.6%) case,enterocolitis in 5(12.1%) cases, acute gastritis in 3(7.5%), acute pyelonephritis in 1(2.4%) case, and clonorchiasis in 1(2.4%) case. 3. Pathological diagnosis of 50 cases out of 86 cases of abnormal ultrasonography is GB stone in 36(72.0%) cases, pancreatic cancer in 5(10.0%) cases, hepatoma in 3(6.0%) cases, CBD stone in 4(8.0%) cases, pancreatic pseudocyst in 1(12.9%) case and liver abscess in 1(2.0%) case. 4. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography of GB stone was 91.7%, false positive 2.8% and false negative 6.6%. 5. Ultrasonography has the advantage of noninvasiveness and easy performance, but the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography alone was low. Ultrasonography is considered as a good screening and complementary method for evaluation of right upper quadrant pain

  14. Ultrasonographic characteristics of the reproductive tract and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations in captive female red wolves (Canis rufus) with and without reproductive tract disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kadie M; Schook, Mandi W; Goodrowe, Karen L; Waddell, William T; Wolf, Karen N

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe ultrasonographic characteristics of the reproductive tract and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations in captive female red wolves (Canis rufus) with and without reproductive tract disease. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 13 adult female red wolves. PROCEDURES Wolves with varying parity and history of contraceptive treatment were anesthetized to facilitate ultrasonographic examination and measurement of the reproductive tract and blood collection for determination of serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations in December 2011 and June 2012. Additionally, during the December evaluation, fine-needle aspirate samples of the uterus were obtained for cytologic evaluation. Measurements were compared between wolves with and without reproductive tract disease and between wolves that had and had not received a contraceptive. RESULTS 7 of 13 wolves had or developed reproductive tract disease during the study. Ranges for measurements of reproductive tract structures overlapped between ultrasonographically normal and abnormal tracts, but measurements for abnormal tracts were generally greater than those for normal tracts. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was consistent with the histologic diagnosis for reproductive tracts obtained from wolves that were sterilized, were euthanized, or died during the study. Cytologic results for fine-needle aspirate samples of the uterus and serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations were unable to distinguish wolves with and without reproductive tract disease. Reproductive tract disease was not associated with parity or contraceptive administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The ultrasonographic images, reproductive tract measurements, and descriptions of reproductive tract lesions provided in this study can be used as diagnostic guidelines for the treatment and management of red wolves with reproductive tract disease.

  15. Ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in a patient with a renal transplantation: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byeong Seong; Yang, Myeon Jun; Kim, Young Min; Youm, Yoon Seok; Choi, Seong Hoon; Park, Sung Bin; Jeong, Ae Kyung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Aspergillus bursitis is an uncommon condition demonstrated as a nonspecific soft tissue mass. To our knowledge, the ultrasonographic findings of aspergillus bursitis in immunocompromised patients have not been previously reported. Here, we report a case of aspergillus bursitis in a renal transplant recipient, accompanied by the associated ultrasonographic findings.

  16. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral computed...... tomographic images correlates with that on computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images and that spiral computed tomographic imaging predicts the histomorphometric plaque content....

  17. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  18. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S W

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  19. Laser welding to assist penetrating keratoplasty: in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menabuoni, Luca; Mincione, F.; Mincione, G. P.; Pini, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Laser-induced corneal welding has been tested in vivo to perform experimental trials of penetrating keratoplasty (corneal transplantation). Twenty rabbits of 2500 - 3500 g in weight were selected to undergo laser-assisted corneal transplantation and then subjected to follow up on 2 - 15 postoperative days. Good sealing along the entire cut length was obtained soon after the surgical operation. Histology examinations evidenced that the laser-assisted surgical procedure provides a satisfactory healing process of corneal tissue in times that are substantially shorter than those of the conventional procedure.

  20. Experimental Design and Data Analysis of In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Lin, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide researchers who conduct in vivo fluorescence imaging studies with guidance in statistical aspects in the experimental design and data analysis of such studies. In the first half of this chapter, we introduce the key statistical components for designing a sound in vivo experiment. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues and designs that pertain to fluorescence imaging studies. Examples representing several popular types of fluorescence imaging experiments are provided as case studies to demonstrate how to appropriately design such studies. In the second half of this chapter, we explain the fundamental statistical concepts and methods used in the data analysis of typical in vivo experiments. We also provide specific examples in in vivo imaging studies to illustrate the key steps of analysis procedure.

  1. Lipid nanoparticles for transdermal delivery of flurbiprofen: formulation, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Vobalaboina

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the study is to prepare aqueous dispersions of lipid nanoparticles – flurbiprofen solid lipid nanoparticles (FLUSLN and flurbiprofen nanostructured lipid carriers (FLUNLC by hot homogenization followed by sonication technique and then incorporated into the freshly prepared hydrogels for transdermal delivery. They are characterized for particle size, for all the formulations, more than 50% of the particles were below 300 nm after 90 days of storage at RT. DSC analyses were performed to characterize the state of drug and lipid modification. Shape and surface morphology were determined by TEM which revealed fairly spherical shape of the formulations. Further they were evaluated for in vitro drug release characteristics, rheological behaviour, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies. The pharmacokinetics of flurbiprofen in rats following application of SLN gel (A1 and NLC gel (B1 for 24 h were evaluated. The Cmax of the B1 formulation was 38.67 ± 2.77 μg/ml, which was significantly higher than the A1 formulation (Cmax = 21.79 ± 2.96 μg/ml. The Cmax and AUC of the B1 formulation were 1.8 and 2.5 times higher than the A1 gel formulation respectively. The bioavailability of flurbiprofen with reference to oral administration was found to increase by 4.4 times when gel formulations were applied. Anti-inflammatory effect in the Carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat was significantly higher for B1 and A1 formulation than the orally administered flurbiprofen. Both the SLN and NLC dispersions and gels enriched with SLN and NLC possessed a sustained drug release over period of 24 h but the sustained effect was more pronounced with the SLN and NLC gel

  2. Bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 containing lumbrokinase isolated from Lumbricus rubellus: ex vivo, in vivo, and pharmaceutic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Trisina, Jessica; Rahayu, Puji; Prasetya, Lorentius Agung; Hanafiah, Aang; Rachmawati, Heni

    2014-01-01

    DLBS1033 is a bioactive protein fraction isolated from Lumbricus rubellus that tends to be unstable when exposed to the gastrointestinal environment. Accordingly, appropriate pharmaceutical development is needed to maximize absorption of the protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo stability assays were performed to study the stability of the bioactive protein fraction in gastric conditions. The bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 was found to be unstable at low pH and in gastric fluid. The "enteric coating" formulation showed no leakage in gastric fluid-like medium and possessed a good release profile in simulated intestinal medium. DLBS1033 was absorbed through the small intestine in an intact protein form, confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) analysis. This result confirmed that an enteric coating formula using methacrylic acid copolymer could protect DLBS1033 from the acidic condition of the stomach by preventing the release of DLBS1033 in the stomach, while promoting its release when reaching the intestine. From the blood concentration-versus-time curve, (99m)Tc-DLBS1033 showed a circulation half-life of 70 minutes. This relatively long biological half-life supports its function as a thrombolytic protein. Thus, an enteric delivery system is considered the best approach for DLBS1033 as an oral thrombolytic agent.

  3. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  4. Clinical and ultrasonographic criteria for using ventriculoperitoneal shunts in newborns with myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Roberto Tude Melo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Hydrocephalus is one of the main complications associated with myelomeningocele (MM. This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasonographic criteria for using ventriculoperitoneal (VP shunts in this group of patients.Method A retrospective cohort study, based on established protocol for VP shunt implant in hydrocephalic children with MM. Parameters used to guide the indication of VP shunts included measurement of head circumference (HC, evaluation of fontanels, and measurement of lateral ventricular atrium (LVA width by transcranial ultrasonography.Results 43 children were included in the analysis, of which 74% had hydrocephalus and required a VP shunt. These children had LVA width ≥ 15 mm, showed increased HC, or had bulging fontanels.Conclusion VP shunt is required in children with increased HC (≥ 2 standard deviation regarding age group, bulging fontanels, or LVA width of ≥ 15 mm after the closure of MM.

  5. Clinical, radiological and ultrasonographic findings related to knee pain in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Keith K W; Sit, Regina W S; Wu, Ricky W K; Ngai, Allen H Y

    2014-01-01

    Pain is the predominant symptom of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and the main reason of disability. Ultrasound is now one of the new imaging modality in Musculoskeletal medicine and its role in assessing the pain severity in the knee osteoarthritis is evaluated in this study. (1) To study the correlation between ultrasonographic (US) findings and pain score and (2) whether ultrasonographic findings show a better association of pain level than conventional X-rays in patients suffering from primary knee osteoarthritis. In this multi-center study, 193 patients with primary knee OA were asked to score their average knee pain using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis (WOMAC) questionnaire;patients would then go for a radiological and an US evaluation of their painful knee. Findings from both imaging modalities will be studied with the associated pain score. Ultrasound showed that knee effusion has positive correlation with pain score upon walking (r = 0.217) and stair climbing (r = 0.194). Presence of suprapatellar synovitis had higher pain score on sitting (Spearman's Rank correlation  = 0.355). The medial(r = 0.170) and lateral meniscus protrusion (r = 0.201) were associated with pain score upon stair climbing. Our study found that both imaging modalities shown some significant association with the aspect of pain; neither one is clearly better but rather complementary to each other. A trend is found in both modalities: walking pain is related to pathologies of the either the lateral or medial tibiofemoral joint(TFJ)while stair climbing pain is related to both tibiofemoral joint pathologies and also to the patellofemoral joint (PFJ) pathology. This suggested that biomechanical derangement is an important aspect in OA knee pain.

  6. Clinical, radiological and ultrasonographic findings related to knee pain in osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith K W Chan

    Full Text Available Pain is the predominant symptom of knee osteoarthritis (OA and the main reason of disability. Ultrasound is now one of the new imaging modality in Musculoskeletal medicine and its role in assessing the pain severity in the knee osteoarthritis is evaluated in this study.(1 To study the correlation between ultrasonographic (US findings and pain score and (2 whether ultrasonographic findings show a better association of pain level than conventional X-rays in patients suffering from primary knee osteoarthritis.In this multi-center study, 193 patients with primary knee OA were asked to score their average knee pain using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis (WOMAC questionnaire;patients would then go for a radiological and an US evaluation of their painful knee. Findings from both imaging modalities will be studied with the associated pain score.Ultrasound showed that knee effusion has positive correlation with pain score upon walking (r = 0.217 and stair climbing (r = 0.194. Presence of suprapatellar synovitis had higher pain score on sitting (Spearman's Rank correlation  = 0.355. The medial(r = 0.170 and lateral meniscus protrusion (r = 0.201 were associated with pain score upon stair climbing.Our study found that both imaging modalities shown some significant association with the aspect of pain; neither one is clearly better but rather complementary to each other. A trend is found in both modalities: walking pain is related to pathologies of the either the lateral or medial tibiofemoral joint(TFJwhile stair climbing pain is related to both tibiofemoral joint pathologies and also to the patellofemoral joint (PFJ pathology. This suggested that biomechanical derangement is an important aspect in OA knee pain.

  7. Metastatic intramammary lymph nodes: mammographic and ultrasonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil E-mail: isilbilgen@hotmail.com; Memis, Aysenur; Uestuen, EsinEmin

    2001-10-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings in patients with intramammary lymph node (IMLN) involvement in breast cancer. Materials and methods: The mammograms of 1655 histopathologically proven breast cancer cases diagnosed during the last 10 years were retrospectively reviewed. There were 16 cases in which metastasis to intramammary lymph nodes was suspected mammographically and proven histopathologically. The clinical and radiological features of these 16 cases were evaluated. Results: On mammograms, the involved lymph nodes were all well circumscribed, homogeneous, oval or round opacities in the upper outer quadrant of the breast. They were all larger than 1 cm in size. On US, they were seen as well circumscribed, homogeneously hypoechoic masses with mild acoustic enhancement. In one case, besides enlargement, development of malignant microcalcifications was seen inside the node in the follow up period. In another case with IMLN metastasis, the primary focus of the breast cancer could not be detected either mammographically or histopathologically. So the case was accepted as occult breast carcinoma. All of the primary tumors detected were invasive histopathologically and their sizes varied between 1-6 cm (mean, 3 cm). Conclusion: The involvement of the IMLN can be suspected with mammographic and ultrasonographic features. Metastatic disease from breast cancer to IMLN may be the first clinical and/or radiological sign of breast cancer.

  8. [Ultrasonographic Findings of Cervical Lymphadenopathy with Infectious Mononucleosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian-Shui; Ren, Liu-Qiong; Yang, Li-Juan; Lü, Ke; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Zhen-Cai

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the high-resolution and color Doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of cervical lymphadenopathy in patients with infectious mononucleosis. High-resolution and color Doppler US were performed in 30 patients aged 2 to 30 years with a total of 59 palpable enlarged cervical lymph nodes due to infectious mononucleosis. The US characteristics of the nodes including shape,echotexture,hilum,border,matting,cystic necrosis,calcification and vascular pattern were assessed. Three patients received cervical lymph nodes biopsies. The common US findings of cervical lymphadenopathy due to infectious mononucleosis were round shape (69.5%),bilateral distribution (96.7%),matting (83.3%) [even bilateral matting (66.6%)],indistinct margin (79.7%),absence of hilum (66.1%),heterogeneous echotecture (61.0%),and central hilar vascular pattern(89.8%). In 2 patients with absence of the echoic hilum,lymph nodes biopsies showed histological features including marked effacement of the normal architecture in the medullary region accompanied by a mixed proliferation of lymphocytes and histiocytes. In all infectious mononucleosis nodes with a hilum,85.0% had heterogeneously hypo/iso-echoic hila and indistinct demarcation to the cortex. One of them underwent lymph node biopsy and histological findings showed obvious dilation of the sinus oidal lumen and proliferation of histiocytes. Although several ultrasonographic characteristics frequently present in the nodes of infectious mononucleosis are not specific,the combination of ultrasound findings may be valuable in differential diagnosis.

  9. Ultrasonographic assessment of long-term enterectomy sites in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareschal, Augustin; Penninck, Dominique; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight enterectomy sites from 28 dogs were evaluated sonographically 6 months postoperatively or later. The longest time between the enterectomy and sonography was nearly 7 years. The enterectomy site was visible sonograpically in 22/28 (78.6%) dogs. The enterectomy scar typically appeared as mild focal intestinal wall thickening (90.9%) with altered (90.9%) or absent wall layering (9.1%) over a short distance of the bowel (median 1.2 cm, range from 0.6 to 2.5 cm). Intramural hyperechoic foci, most likely representing fibrosis or nonabsorbed suture material were noted in 63.6% of the visible enterectomy sites. A focal accumulation of intraluminal gas was often seen (81.8%) at the enterectomy site. Additional ultrasonographic features included the presence of an irregular hyperechoic rim bordering the enterectomy site (50%), and a focal deviation of the intestinal course (45.5%). These descriptive features may assist ultrasonographers in differentiating a previous enterectomy site from other focal intestinal changes.

  10. Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of fetal intracranial tumors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, D M; Onyeije, C I

    1998-05-01

    Our objective was to review current literature pertaining to prenatal ultrasonography of various fetal intracranial neoplastic and non-neoplastic tumors. To this goal, all manuscripts published in the English language regarding this topic obtained from a MEDLINE search from 1966 through January 1998 were selected and reviewed. Additional sources were identified through cross-referencing. Intracranial fetal tumors are extremely rare and precise diagnosis is dependent on histology examination of tissue obtained at subsequent surgery or autopsy. Currently, prenatal ultrasonographic findings associated with the following fetal intracranial tumors have been described: teratomas; neuroepithelial tumors including: glioblastoma, astrocytoma, gangliocytoma, medulloblastoma, choroid plexus, and papilloma; and mesenchymal tumors. Non-neoplastic fetal intracranial tumors are even less frequent and include: unilateral megalencephaly, heterotopia, and lipoma of the corpus callosum. Cardinal ultrasonographic findings associated with fetal intracranial tumors include: echogenic and semicystic space occupying lesions with or without distortion of normal symmetrical intracranial (usually midline) structures, calcifications, craniomegaly, polyhydramnios, obstructive hydrocephaly, high-output cardiac failure (hydrops fetalis), the presence of other associated structural anomalies, and infrequently abnormal cerebral Doppler flow velocimetry.

  11. The 4-vessel Sampling Approach to Integrative Studies of Human Placental Physiology In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ane M; Holm, Maia B; Roland, Marie C P; Horne, Hildegunn; Michelsen, Trond M; Haugen, Guttorm; Henriksen, Tore

    2017-08-02

    The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain. We aimed to study human placenta physiology in vivo at term, and present a detailed protocol of the method. Exploiting the intraabdominal access to the uterine vein just before the uterine incision during planned cesarean section, we collect blood samples from the incoming and outgoing vessels on the maternal and fetal sides of the placenta. When combining concentration measurements from blood samples with volume blood flow measurements, we are able to quantify placental and fetal uptake and release of any compound. Furthermore, placental tissue samples from the same mother-fetus pairs can provide measurements of transporter density and activity and other aspects of placental functions in vivo. Through this integrative use of the 4-vessel sampling method we are able to test some of the current concepts of placental nutrient transfer and metabolism in vivo, both in normal and pathological pregnancies. Furthermore, this method enables the identification of substances secreted by the placenta to the maternal circulation, which could be an important contribution to the search for biomarkers of placenta dysfunction.

  12. Evaluation of bioaccumulation using in vivo laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Annie V; Woodburn, Kent B; Koelmans, Albert A; Parkerton, Thomas F; McElroy, Anne E; Borgå, Katrine

    2009-10-01

    A primary consideration in the evaluation of chemicals is the potential for substances to be absorbed and retained in an organism's tissues (i.e., bioaccumulated) at concentrations sufficient to pose health concerns. Substances that exhibit properties that enable biomagnification in the food chain (i.e., amplification of tissue concentrations at successive trophic levels) are of particular concern due to the elevated long-term exposures these substances pose to higher trophic organisms, including humans. Historically, biomarkers of in vivo chemical exposure (e.g., eggshell thinning, bill deformities) retrospectively led to the identification of such compounds, which were later categorized as persistent organic pollutants. Today, multiple bioaccumulation metrics are available to quantitatively assess the bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals and identify substances that, upon or before environmental release, may be characterized as persistent organic pollutants. This paper reviews the various in vivo measurement approaches that can be used to assess the bioaccumulation of chemicals in aquatic or terrestrial species using laboratory-exposed, field-deployed, or collected organisms. Important issues associated with laboratory measurements of bioaccumulation include appropriate test species selection, test chemical dosing methods, exposure duration, and chemical and statistical analyses. Measuring bioaccumulation at a particular field site requires consideration of which test species to use and whether to examine natural populations or to use field-deployed populations. Both laboratory and field methods also require reliable determination of chemical concentrations in exposure media of interest (i.e., water, sediment, food or prey, etc.), accumulated body residues, or both. The advantages and disadvantages of various laboratory and field bioaccumulation metrics for assessing biomagnification potential in aquatic or terrestrial food chains are discussed

  13. Ultrasonographic findings in patients with peristomal bulging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödahl, Rune I; Thorelius, Lars; Hallböök, Olof J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy.......The aim of this study was to obtain a classification of peristomal bulging based on findings at ultrasonography in patients with a sigmoid colostomy....

  14. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging System for in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moinuddin Hassan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a fluorescence lifetime imaging system for small animals is presented. Data were collected by scanning a region of interest with a measurement head, a linear fiber array with fixed separations between a single source fiber and several detection fibers. The goal was to localize tumors and monitor their progression using specific fluorescent markers. We chose a near-infrared contrast agent, Alexa Fluor 750 (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA. Preliminary results show that the fluorescence lifetime for this dye was sensitive to the immediate environment of the fluorophore (in particular, pH, making it a promising candidate for reporting physiologic changes around a fluorophore. To quantify the intrinsic lifetime of deeply embedded fluorophores, we performed phantom experiments to investigate the contribution of photon migration effects on observed lifetime by calculating the fluorescence intensity decay time. A previously proposed theoretical model of migration, based on random walk theory, is also substantiated by new experimental data. The developed experimental system has been used for in vivo mouse imaging with Alexa Fluor 750 contrast agent conjugated to tumor-specific antibodies (trastuzumab [Herceptin]. Three-dimensional mapping of the fluorescence lifetime indicates lower lifetime values in superficial breast cancer tumors in mice.

  15. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF AMOEBIC LIVER ABSCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    AIMS To study the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis, followup, resolution and percutaneous interventions of amoebic liver abscesses. METHODOLOGY 25 patients with 38 amoebic liver abscesses were included in this study. The diagnostic criteria being compatible history, tender and enlarged liver, radiological and ultrasound findings and response to metronidazole therapy. Confirmed cases of amoebic liver abscesses were followed up by ultrasonography till complete resol...

  16. The role of vitamin C in pushing back the boundaries of skin aging: an ultrasonographic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan D

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diana Crisan,1 Iulia Roman,2 Maria Crisan,2 Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek,1 Radu Badea31Clinic of Dermatology and Allergology, University Clinic Ulm, Ulm, Germany; 2Clinic of Dermatology and Venereology, 3Department of Clinical Imaging Ultrasound, Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaBackground: Imagistic methods stand as modern, non-invasive, and objective means of assessing the impact of topical cutaneous therapies.Objective: This study focuses on the evaluation, by high-frequency ultrasound, of the cutaneous changes induced by topical use of a vitamin C complex at facial level.Methods: A vitamin C-based solution/Placebo moisturizer cream was applied at facial level of 60 healthy female subjects according to a predetermined protocol. Ultrasonographic images (Dermascan C, 20 MHz were taken from zygomatic level initially, at 40 and 60 days after therapy. The following parameters were assessed for every subject: thickness of the epidermis and dermis (mm, the number of low (LEP, medium (MEP, high echogenic pixels (HEP, and the number of LEP in the upper dermis/lower dermis (LEPs/LEPi.Results: LEP decreased significantly in all age categories during and after therapy, but especially in the first 2 age intervals, up to the age of 50 (P=0.0001. MEP and HEP, pixel categories that quantify protein synthesis also had an age-dependent evolution in the study, increasing significantly in all age categories but most of all in the first age interval (P=0.002. Our ultrasonographic data suggest that collagen synthesis increased significantly after topical vitamin C therapy, and is responsible for the increase in MEP and HEP and consequent decrease of the LEP.Conclusion: Our study shows that topically applied vitamin C is highly efficient as a rejuvenation therapy, inducing significant collagen synthesis in all age groups with minimal side effects.Keywords: ascorbic acid, rejuvenation, ultrasound, collagen synthesis

  17. [Fetal weight estimation during labour: comparison of the clinical and ultrasonographic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdriolle-Galet, E; Thiebaugeorges, O; Lamy, C; Makke, L; Barbier, A; Monceau, E; Morel, O

    2014-10-01

    The estimation of the fetal weight is of major interest in many situations when the route of delivery has to be determined: breech presentations, diabetes and suspected macrosomia. The objective was to evaluate the accuracy of different methods for estimating fetal weight (EFW) during labour. A quality audit of the ultrasound images was also performed. This was a prospective study performed in thirty patients at 37 weeks gestation or more, during the second stage of labour. The accuracy of clinical versus ultrasonographic (US) approach for EFW was tested (by two formulas according to Hadlock, with one that does not account head circumference [HC]). The ultrasound images' quality was also evaluated. The clinical assessment was significantly more accurate (-1 ± 8.5%) than the US approach using the formula with HC (-8 ± 9.8 %) (Plabour. Taking into account the cephalic measurements appeared as a limitation of the accuracy of US formulas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The validity of ultrasonographic scanning as screening method for abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, J.S; Vammen, S; Juul, Svend

    1999-01-01

    Objective:the sensitivity and specificity of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) with ultrasonographic scanning (US) is unknown. The aim of the study was to validate US as screening test for AAAs.Methods and material:4176 (76.3%) of 5470 men aged 65–73 attended hospital-based US...... screening for an AAA at their local hospital. Two observers and one scanner were used. The maximal anterior–posterior (AP) of the dilated aorta, or 2 cm above the bifurcation, and at the crossing of left renal vein was recorded. In 50 cases, blinded measurements were carried out by two observers. An AAA...... for AAA. Screening for proximal infrarenal aorta aneurysm remains acceptable because the majority of aortic diameters in this segment are so much smaller than the diameters that define an AAA....

  19. Ultrasonographic features of metastatic lymph nodes in papillary thyroid microcarinomas and macrocarcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Young Gyung; Kang, Hee; Joh, Young Doc; Jeong, Kyung Soon; Kim, Beom Su [Dept. of Radiology, Kosin University Gospel Hospital, Busan(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    To analyze ultrasonographic (US) features of metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC) and in papillary thyroid macrocarcinomas. The study reviewed US findings of 273 patients with pathologically confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and metastatic LNs based on the US examination. Patients were divided into two groups: PTMC and papillary thyroid macrocarcinomas. The 273 patients with PTC included 87 with PTMC and 186 with papillary thyroid macrocarcinoma. No significant difference of US features in patients with lateral neck node metastasis was found between PTMC (n = 96) and macrocarcinoma (n = 29). In central neck node metastasis, round shape was the most frequent findings in both groups (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in US features of metastatic LNs between PTMC and papillary thyroid macrocarcinomas. Therefore, careful evaluation of the whole neck should be made.

  20. Correlation of histology of healed fractures and tissue surrounding implants with ultrasonographic and radiographic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risselada, M; van Bree, H; Kramer, M; Chiers, K; Duchateau, L; Verleyen, P

    2008-05-01

    To determine if there was histological correlation with ultrasonographic images of healed fractures and implant-associated tissue after fracture treatment by plate osteotomy. Eight adult dogs were included in this retrospective study. Ultrasonography (B-mode and power Doppler) and radiography were performed before plate removal. Surgical biopsies were taken of the fracture site and the tissue adjacent to the plate. These were stained with haematoxylin and eosin to assess histomorphology and bone content and immunolabelled with CD31 to assess vascularity. Ultrasound and radiographic diagnoses of a healed fracture correlated with histological finding of bone healing. Ultrasonography and histology findings of vascularity were also highly correlated. The tissue surrounding the surgical implants was significantly more vascularised on both ultrasonography and histology than that at the fracture site itself. Ultrasonography can be used to diagnose fracture healing in plated fractures. Power Doppler ultrasonography examination of fracture healing should be performed away from surgical implants to avoid false-positive results of vascularisation.

  1. Primary B-cell Lymphoma of the Thyroid Featuring the Different Ultrasonographic Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Na; Choi, Yoon Jung; Kim, Dong Hoon [Kangbuk Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-06-15

    We review here 3 cases of primary thyroid lymphoma that we experienced during the past 5 years (age range: 39-55, all of the patients were female). The clinical and various ultrasonographic characteristics together with the other imaging modalities of primary thyroid lymphomas are described. The clinical features at presentation for one patient were a goiter with rapid growth and this was accompanied by compressive symptoms. The tumors of the other 2 patients were incidentally found during screening thyroid ultrasound exams. The pathologic studies of 2 cases showed a diffuse B-cell lymphoma with associated Hashimoto's thyroiditis and one case was a B-cell lymphoma of the MALT type. An extra-thyroid extension was shown in one case. The treatments included surgery alone for two cases, and chemotherapy and radiation therapy for one case. A US exam of thyroid lymphoma can show various morphological features, and US-CNB is helpful for diagnosing thyroid lymphoma.

  2. Transabdominal ultrasonographic assessment of prostate size and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The prostate volume has been measured by various methods including digital rectal examination, cystourethrography, urethroscopy, and urethral pressure flow ... We studied prostate dimensions and volume by transabdominal ... had enlarged prostates (range, 22.5–387 ml) with a mean.

  3. Ultrasonographic evaluation to diagnose hepatic lipidosis in Egyptian Zaraibi goats with vitamin B12 deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabry A. El-Khodery

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As little is known about the ultrasonographic features of hepatic lipidosis (white liver disease in goats, this study was undertaken to evaluate the use of ultrasound for the diagnosis of hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin deficiency in Egyptian Zaraibi goats. A total of 38 goats (28 with weight loss, diarrhoea and anaemia and 10 clinically healthy were studied. Twenty-one goats were demonstrated to have cobalt and cyanocobalamin deficiency (0.33 ± 0.12 μmol/l and 0.17 ± 0.10 μg/l, respectively. Goats were examined with a real-time ultrasound system using a 5-MHz convex transducer. Ultrasound-guided liver biopsies and blood samples were obtained from each animal at examination. Based on the histopathological findings, diseased goats were classified as having mild (n = 6, moderate (n = 6 or severe lipidosis (n = 9. Ultrasonographic-hepatic changes were recorded in 19 (90.4% out of 21 goats. Severe lipidosis showed diffuse hyper-echogenicity of hepatic parenchyma. However, focal hyper-echoic lesions with various shapes, sizes and positions were visualized in mild and moderate lipidosis. Liver size increased significantly (P < 0.05 in severely affected goats compared with the controls. Histopathologically, macrovacuolations, congestion of hepatic sinusoids and infiltration of the portal area with inflammatory cells and connective tissues were evident in moderate and severely affected cases. There were varying degrees of anaemia, hypoglycemia and hypoproteinemia with significant increases (P < 0.05 of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in diseased animals compared with the controls. In conclusion, ultrasound may be a useful diagnostic tool in goats with suspected hepatic lipidosis associated with vitamin B12 deficiency.

  4. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection of the brain: MR imaging and ultrasonographic findings of parventricular cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Woo Mok; Hwang, Mi Soo [College of Medicine, Yeungnam Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Although the neuroradiological findings of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are well known, little has been reported concerning the imaging findings of paraventricular cysts occurring in patients with cytomegalovirus infection involving the brain. The purpose of this study is to describe the features of paraventricular cysts observed at MRI and ultrasonography. MR and ultrasonographic studies of ten patients with congenital cytomegalovirus infections involving the brain were retrospectively reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by positive culture of the virus in urine (n=4), the presence of CMV Ig G antibody (n=4), or positive CMV Ig M antibody (n=2), and on the basis of characteristic MR imaging findings. Initial MRI in all patients and initial ultrasonography in four of five with paraventricular cysts were performed. Three patients underwent follow-up MRI and ultrasonography for the evaluation of cystic change, and the size, location, bilaterality and morphology of the cysts were evaluated. Bilateral paraventricular cysts averaging 15 (range. 10-23) mm in size were found in five of the ten patients (50%). They were adjacent to the foramen of Monro in three cases, the occipital horn in one, an dthe temporal horn in one. MR imaging showed that the fluid content of all cysts was of similar signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid (T1-WI, hypointense; T2-WI, hyperintense). The ultrasonographic findings varied: there was one pure cyst and one with a thick wall and septations, and two contained complex fluid. In three patients, follow up MRI and ultrasonography showed that the cysts disappeared after 4-23 months. Although paraventricular cysts may appear at MRI to be purely cystic, ultrasonography may indicate that their contents are more complex, or that septations are present.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON INFLAMMATION : II. EXPERIMENTAL CHEMICAL INFLAMMATION IN VIVO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, E P

    1923-03-31

    1. None of the salts tested produce a marked inflammation in vivo in concentrations under 10 per cent. Potassium salts and the different citrates produced atypical inflammatory reactions in mice, but not in frogs. There was no true inflammation, however, characterized by blood vessel changes, migration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes, and fluid exudation. 2. Synergistic action occurs when equal parts of strontium and magnesium salts are employed. There is a change in the appearance of the mesentery without a true inflammation, and this change does not occur with either salt alone. 3. Amino-acids and amines as a class do not produce inflammation, but histamine produces a marked inflammatory reaction in frogs and mice. 4. Tyramine does not cause an inflammatory reaction but has other marked effects; agglutination thrombi occur within the smaller blood vessels, both veins and arteries; in frogs there is a rapid clumping of the white blood cells followed by a true coagulation with strands of fibrin and entanglement of erythrocytes. This is very widespread and often kills the animal within an hour after injection. In mice it is the erythrocytes that clump and coagulation occurs very much later, usually at the end of 24 hours; still later there is complete absorption of the coagulated masses and the mesenteric circulation returns to normal. None of the mice died during the stage of clumping, and the clots never extended up the larger vessels as they did in the frogs. These effects are similar to the phenomena observed in the in vitro work, in which clumping of the cells appeared constantly. 5. Cantharidinum, histamine, and turpentine produced the most rapid and marked inflammation of any substances tried. These substances are all strongly positively chemotactic in vitro. The differences occurring when these substances are used in different species is a quantitative rather than a qualitative one, the body temperature being of some importance. Papain acted

  6. Kinetics of corneal epithelium turnover in vivo. Studies of lovastatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R. (Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, MO (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The authors developed a direct chemical approach for estimating the rate of turnover of the corneal epithelium in vivo. The method was used to examine the effects of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, on proliferation and turnover of the epithelium. Corneal DNA was labeled by pulse injection (IP) of the rat with 3H-thymidine, and 3H-labeled DNA was recovered from peripheral and central corneas over the next 15 days. Only the epithelium became labeled, and the loss of label by cell desquamation began 3 days after injection. The loss of 3H-DNA from the cornea (peripheral plus central region) followed first-order kinetics. The half-life of the disappearance was about 3 days. The peripheral cornea became more highly labeled than the central cornea and began to lose 3H-DNA before the central cornea. These observations support the possibility of a higher mitotic rate in the peripheral region and the centripetal movement of a population of peripheral epithelial cells in the normal cornea. The half-lives of the disappearance of 3H-DNA from peripheral and central corneas measured between days 5 and 15 postinjection were identical, both at 3 days. Complete turnover of the corneal epithelium would, therefore, require about 2 weeks (4-5 half-lives). Treatment of the rat with lovastatin had no obvious effects upon the proliferation or turnover of the corneal epithelium. Although lovastatin inhibited corneal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key regulatory enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, the cornea compensated by induction of this enzyme so that there was no net inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the cornea.

  7. Stratum corneum damage and ex vivo porcine skin water absorption - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duch Lynggaard, C; Bang Knudsen, D; Jemec, G B E

    2009-01-01

    A simple ex vivo screening technique would be of interest for mass screening of substances for potential barrier disruptive qualities. Ex vivo water absorption as a marker of skin barrier integrity was studied on pig ear skin. Skin water absorption was quantified by weighing and weight changes were...... found to reflect prehydration barrier damage. It is suggested that this simple model may be elaborated to provide a rapid, economical screening tool for potential skin irritants....

  8. Bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 containing lumbrokinase isolated from Lumbricus rubellus: ex vivo, in vivo, and pharmaceutic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandrawinata RR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Raymond R Tjandrawinata,1 Jessica Trisina,1 Puji Rahayu,1 Lorentius Agung Prasetya,1 Aang Hanafiah,2 Heni Rachmawati3 1Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica, Cikarang, Indonesia; 2National Nuclear Energy Agency, Bandung, Indonesia; 3School of Pharmacy, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia Abstract: DLBS1033 is a bioactive protein fraction isolated from Lumbricus rubellus that tends to be unstable when exposed to the gastrointestinal environment. Accordingly, appropriate pharmaceutical development is needed to maximize absorption of the protein fraction in the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo stability assays were performed to study the stability of the bioactive protein fraction in gastric conditions. The bioactive protein fraction DLBS1033 was found to be unstable at low pH and in gastric fluid. The “enteric coating” formulation showed no leakage in gastric fluid–like medium and possessed a good release profile in simulated intestinal medium. DLBS1033 was absorbed through the small intestine in an intact protein form, confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE analysis. This result confirmed that an enteric coating formula using methacrylic acid copolymer could protect DLBS1033 from the acidic condition of the stomach by preventing the release of DLBS1033 in the stomach, while promoting its release when reaching the intestine. From the blood concentration–versus-time curve, 99mTc-DLBS1033 showed a circulation half-life of 70 minutes. This relatively long biological half-life supports its function as a thrombolytic protein. Thus, an enteric delivery system is considered the best approach for DLBS1033 as an oral thrombolytic agent. Keywords: bioactive protein fraction, enteric coated tablet, pharmacodynamic

  9. A rapid ex vivo tissue model for optimising drug detection and ionisation in MALDI imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, K; Aichler, M; Sun, N; Buck, A; Li, Z; Fernandez, I E; Hauck, S M; Zitzelsberger, H; Eickelberg, O; Janssen, K P; Keller, U; Walch, A

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to establish an ex vivo model for a faster optimisation of sample preparation procedures, for example matrix choice, in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) drug imaging studies. The ionisation properties of four drugs, afatinib, erlotinib, irinotecan and pirfenidone, were determined in an ex vivo tissue experiment by spotting decreasing dilution series onto liver sections. Hereby, the drug signals were distinctly detectable using different matrix compounds, which allowed the selection of the optimal matrix for each drug. The analysis of afatinib and erlotinib yielded high drug signals with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid matrix, whereas 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid was identified as optimal matrix for irinotecan and pirfenidone detection. Our method was validated by a MALDI drug imaging approach of in vivo treated mouse tissue resulting in corresponding findings, indicating the spotting method as an appropriate approach to determine the matrix of choice. The present study shows the accordance between the detection of ex vivo spotted drugs and in vivo administered drugs by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-FT-ICR imaging, which has not been demonstrated so far. Our data suggest the ex vivo tissue spotting method as an easy and reliable model to optimise MALDI imaging measurements and to predict drug detection in tissue sections derived from treated mice prior to the recruitment of laboratory animals, which helps to save animals, time and costs.

  10. In vitro and in vivo study of commercial calcium phosphate cement HydroSet™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Niall W; Blunn, Gordon; Karpukhina, Natalia; Davis, Graham; de Godoy, Roberta Ferro; Wilson, Rory M; Coathup, Melanie; Onwordi, Lyris; Quak, Wen Yu; Hill, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The commercial calcium phosphate cement, HydroSet™, was investigated in vitro, studying phase formation, compressive strength and setting time, followed by an ovine in vivo study to measure osseointegration, bone apposition and bone-to-graft contact. The X-ray diffraction and 31 P Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) results showed the initial formation of octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite at one hour. Over 7 days the octacalcium phosphate transformed to apatite, which was the only crystalline phase of the cement at 28 days. This apatite phase is thought to be a calcium deficient apatite. In the scanning electron microscopy, histological images of 12-week ovine in vivo results showed a high degree of osseointegration, 92.5%. Compressive strength comparisons between in vitro and in vivo measurements showed a dramatic difference between the in vitro measurements (highest 25.4 MPa) and in vivo (95 MPa), attributed to bone ingrowth into the cement in vivo. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time phase evolution of HydroSet™ and the properties studied in vitro complement the in vivo evaluation of the cement in a publication. The significance of the new finding of initial formation of octacalcium phosphate in this cement is discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 21-30, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. AN ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF FOETAL CEPHALIC INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic index is the ratio of head’s breadth to length, which reflects the cranial dimensions and is an important parameter in anthropometry. Cephalic index is also known as cranial index and was defined by Swedish professor of anatomy Anders Retzius. It is useful to differentiate different types of crania belonging to different races, gender, age, geographical zones, tradition and nutrition, etc. AIMS To estimate foetal cephalic index by ultrasonography, to classify foetal heads as per international categories and to know the frequent head types in second and third trimesters of pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective cross-sectional study included 100 normal singleton pregnant women with foetuses in the duration 12 to 40 weeks of gestational age. By ultrasonography, foetal head breadth and length was measured. Cephalic index was calculated by Breadth/Length X 100 and all the heads were classified as per international categories. RESULTS Of the total 100 foetal heads in the gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks, the mean cephalic index was 78.95±03.01. Mean biparietal diameter was 68.04±22.26. Mean occipitofrontal diameter was 86.38±28.61. According to cephalic index value 51% mesocephalic, 38% brachycephalic, 10% dolichocephalic and 1% hyperbrachycephalic heads were noticed. A mean cephalic index of 80 at 12-16 weeks, 78.48 at 36-40 weeks and a constant cephalic index of 78 to 79 was observed between 16-36 weeks. CONCLUSIONS The mean cephalic index in the present study was 78.95 and is of mesocephalic phenotype in our study. It is the most frequent head type noticed. A linear correlation was observed between gestational age versus biparietal diameter and occipitofrontal diameter. No linear relationship was seen between gestational age and cephalic index. Brachycephalic heads at 12-16 weeks, mesocephalic heads at 36-40 weeks and a constant cephalic index of 78 to 79 was noticed from 16 to 36 weeks of gestation.

  12. Electrophysiologic and Ultrasonographic Assessment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Wheelchair Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Beom Suk; Kim, Min Je; Kim, Ki Hoon; Park, Byung Kyu; Kim, Dong Hwee

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the contributing factors of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), electrodiagnostic and ultrasonographic findings of median nerve, and median nerve change after exercise in wheelchair basketball (WCB) players. Fifteen WCB players with manual wheelchairs were enrolled in the study. Medical history of the subjects was taken. Electrodiagnosis and ultrasonography of both median nerves were performed to assess CTS in WCB players. Ultrasonographic median nerves evaluation was conducted after wheelchair propulsion for 20 minutes. Average body mass index (BMI) and period of wheelchair use of CTS subjects were greater than those of normal subjects. Electrodiagnosis revealed CTS in 14 of 30 hands (47%). Cross-sectional area (CSA) of median nerve was greater in CTS subjects than in normal subjects at 0.5 cm and 1 cm proximal to distal wrist crease (DWC), DWC, 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, and 3.5 cm distal to DWC. After exercising, median nerve CSAs at 0.5 cm and 1 cm proximal to DWC, DWC, and 3 cm and 3.5 cm distal to DWC were greater than baseline CSAs in CTS subjects; and median nerve CSAs at 1 cm proximal to DWC and DWC were greater than baseline CSAs in normal subjects. The changes in median nerve CSA after exercise in CTS subjects were greater than in normal subjects at 0.5 cm proximal to DWC and 3 cm and 3.5 cm distal to DWC. BMI and total period of wheelchair use contributed to developing CTS in WCB players. The experimental exercise might be related to the median nerve swelling around the inlet and outlet of carpal tunnel in WCB athletes with CTS.

  13. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of ovary-containing hernias of the canal of Nuck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Sang Won; Lim, Sung Jig [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Jin; Lim, Joo Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to describe the ultrasonographic findings of ovary-containing hernias of the canal of Nuck. This was a retrospective analysis of 22 hernia cases of the canal of Nuck. The following gray scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic features were analyzed: the site and the size of the hernia, the texture of the hernia contents, and the presence or absence of blood flow in the hernia contents. All of the patients had swelling of the right inguinal region (n=10), left inguinal region (n=8), or both (n=2). On ultrasonography, the hernias appeared as either solid masses (n=17) or solid masses containing cysts (n=5). The mean anteroposterior diameter of the hernia sac of the canal of Nuck was 9.1 mm (range, 5 to 18 mm). The mean anteroposterior diameters of the hernia sac were 11.6 mm (range, 7.6 to 18 mm) for hernias containing an ovary, and 8.3 mm (range, 5 to 13 mm) for hernias containing omental fat. During surgery, among the 17 cases with solid-appearing hernia contents on ultrasonography, omental fat was identified in the hernia sac in four cases, but no structure was identified in 13 cases. All five cases that appeared as solid masses containing cysts on ultrasonography contained ovary tissue in the hernia sac. Among the four cases of ovary-containing hernias, color Doppler ultrasonography identified blood flow within the ovary in three cases, but no flow signal was seen in one case of incarcerated hernia. Ultrasonography may be helpful for the diagnosis of ovary-containing hernias of the canal of Nuck by detecting solid masses containing small cysts.

  14. Limited-sequence magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver Hospital and Helath Services Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)]. E-mail: schang@vanhosp.bc.ca; Cooperberg, P.L.; Wong, A.D. [Univ. of British Columbia, St. Paul' s Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Llewellyn, P.A. [Lion' s Gate Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bilbey, J.H. [Royal Inland Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Kamloops, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-04-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of limited-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the elucidation of ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic masses. This study focused only on pelvic masses in which the origin of the mass (uterine v. extrauterine) could not be determined by ultrasonography (US). The origin of a pelvic mass has clinical implications. A mass arising from the uterus is most likely to be a leiomyoma, which is a benign lesion, whereas an extrauterine mass will have a higher likelihood of malignancy and usually requires surgery. Eighty-one female patients whose pelvic mass was of indeterminate origin on US also underwent limited-sequence MRI of the pelvis. Most of the MRI examinations were performed on the same day as the US. Limited-sequence MRI sequences included a quick gradient-echoT{sub 1}-weighted localizer and a fast spin-echoT{sub 2}-weighted sequence. Final diagnoses were established by surgical pathology or by clinical and imaging follow-up. Limited-sequence MRI was helpful in 79 of the 81 cases (98%). Fifty-two of the 81 masses (64%) were leiomyomas. One was a leiomyosarcoma. The extrauterine masses (26/81 [32%]) were identified as 14 ovarian malignancies, 4 endometriomas, 3 dermoids, an ovarian fibroma, an infarcted fibrothecoma, an infarcted hemorrhagic cyst, a sigmoid diverticular abscess and a gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the ileum. In the other 2 cases (2/81 [2%]), the origin of the pelvic mass remained indeterminate. Both of these indeterminate masses showed low signal onT{sub 2}-weighted images and were interpreted as probable leiomyomas. They were not surgically removed but were followed clinically and had a stable course. Limited-sequence MRI is a quick and efficient way to further evaluate ultrasonographically indeterminate pelvic masses. Limited-sequence MRI of the pelvis can suffice, in these cases, without requiring a full MRI examination. (author)

  15. The initial ultrasonographic examination of hands and feet joints in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ponikowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim was to assess of the morphology, intensity, and activity of changes in the first ultrasonographic (US examination of hands and feet in patients with early arthritis (lasting up to 12 months who were ultimately diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA. An attempt was made to demonstrate a correlation between the intensity of lesions in US and selected laboratory parameters. Material and methods : Ultrasonographic examination was performed using a LOGIC GE 500 device on a group of 60 patients with arthritis (46 women, 14 men aged 18–80, previously untreated. In total, 3120 hand and feet joints were examined. The assessment focused on the presence of joint effusion, synovial proliferation and power Doppler signals (assessed on a semi-quantitative scale. Each patient underwent laboratory tests, necessary for making a diagnosis. In order to analyze the correlations between changes in US and laboratory parameters, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, reactive protein test (CRP, rheumatoid factor (RF, and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs were used. Results : In the study group, the average duration of arthritis symptoms until the first US examination was 5.6 months. Among the 3120 examined hand and foot joints, deviations from the norm appeared in 1093 joints, synovial hypertrophy was found in 471 joints (grade 1 synovial hypertrophy was reported most frequently, while presence of signal in Power Doppler was revealed in 261 joints (grade 1 was observed most frequently. A statistically significant correlation was found between the intensity of changes in Power Doppler and CRP concentration. Conclusions : In patients with increased concentrations of CRP, we may expect arthritis of higher intensity, therefore, in order to prevent the progression of destructive changes, it is necessary to quickly implement effective disease-modifying antirheumatic treatment. The conducted research showed that the activity of joint

  16. Ultrasonographic Diagnosis and Clinical Evaluation of the Foreign Body Complications in the Compound Stomach of Cattle and Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat E. El esawy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to detect and record the clinical and ultrasonographic findings of the different complications resulted from the foreign bodies lodged in the compound stomach of cattle and buffaloes. A total of 105 animals (37 cattle and 68 buffaloes were subjected to study. Based on the clinical and ultrasonographic examination, animals were classified into; acute local reticuloperitonitis (ALRP (15 cattle and 28 buffaloes, chronic local reticuloperitonitis (CLRP (6 cattle and 14 buffaloes, acute diffuse reticuloperitonitis (ADRP (5 cattle and 3buffaloes, reticular abscesses (RA (4 cattle and 7 buffaloes, traumatic pericarditis (TP (6 cattle and16 buffaloes and liver abscess (one cattle. Results revealed that ALRP represented the highest percentage of 40.5% in cattle and 41.2 % in buffalos between the different complications of TRP. TP represented the second complications of higher incidence (16.2% in cows and 23.5% in buffalos. Liver abscess represented the lowest percentage (2.8% and was recorded in cows only. The pregnant animals were affected more than the non pregnant. Clinical findings represented in systemic reaction and pain tests were commonly encountered in TRP and its complications. Some of the affected animals were negatively respond to metal detector test. Results of the present study indicated that the ultrasonographic examination provide a specific echogenic pattern for the different complications of TRP. It was concluded that, clinical examination only is not efficient to give accurate diagnosis of foreign body lodged in the reticulum and rumen and their complications. Ultrasonography is a safe, non invasive diagnostic confirmatory method that could be used for early detection of such conditions.

  17. Ultrasonographic assessment of the equine palmar tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padaliya, N R; Ranpariya, J J; Kumar, Dharmendra; Javia, C B; Barvalia, D R

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the equine palmar tendon by ultrasonography (USG) in standing the position. USG of palmar tendons was performed in 40 adult horses using linear transducer having frequency of 10-18 MHz (e-soate, My Lab FIVE) and L52 linear array transducer (Titan, SonoSite) with frequencies ranging from 8 to 10 MHz. Palmar tendon was divided into 7 levels from distal to accessory carpal bone up to ergot in transverse scanning and 3 levels in longitudinal scanning. The USG evaluation was very useful for diagnosis of affections of the conditions such as chronic bowed tendon, suspensory ligament desmitis, carpal sheath tenosynovitis and digital sheath effusions. The mean cross-sectional area (cm(2)) of affected tendons was significantly increased in affected than normal tendons. The echogenicity was also found reduced in affected tendons and ligaments along with disorganization of fiber alignment depending on the severity of lesion and injury. USG proved ideal diagnostic tool for diagnosis and post-treatment healing assessment of tendon injuries in horses.

  18. [Menopause and ultrasonographic measurements of calcaneus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caudana, Alma Ethelia; Castillo-Calderón, María Griselda; Ávila-Jiménez, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In Mexico, calcaneal ultrasound measurements -bone mineral density (BMD), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS), ultrasonic quantitative index (QUI)- and their differences in regards to menopause have not been documented. It was carried out a cross-sectional study in 862 women from 20 to 90 years old, incorporated through consecutive sample, who were users of the Sistema para el Desarrollo Integral de la Familia (DIF) in Morelos. Sociodemographic, reproductive and life style factors were identified. BMD, BUA, SOS and QUI were measured with quantitative ultrasound (QUS), using a Sunlight Omnisense 7000 S device. Adjusted differences in the mean of these measurements were estimated between pre and postmenopausal women through multiple linear regression. The medians were: BMD, 0.455 g/cm² (IQR, interquartile range = 0.378, 0.538); BUA, 66.0 dB/mHz (IQR = 54.3, 78.1); SOS, 1530.7 m/s (IQR = 1509.8, 1551.7); QUI = 83.7 units (IQR = 71.1, 96.6). In postmenopausal women, adjusted mean for BUA was -4.34 dB/mHz (CI 95 % = -8.23,-0.43); for SOS, -4.26 m/s (CI 95 % = -13.82, 5.30) ; for QUI, -4.42 units (CI 95 % = -8.64,-0.19). This report increases information about the clinical applicability of QUS. SOS in calcaneus does not reflect changes related with menopause.

  19. Ultrasonographic Findings of Mammographic Architectural Distortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jeong Hyun; Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Hwangbo, Seol; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Park, Chang Suk; Kim, Sung Hun; Choi, Jae Jeong; Chung, Yong An [Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To review the sonographic findings of various diseases showing architectural distortion depicted under mammography. We collected and reviewed architectural distortions observed under mammography at our health institution between 1 March 2004, and 28 February 2007. We collected 23 cases of sonographically-detected mammographic architectural distortions that confirmed lesions after surgical resection. The sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion were analyzed by use of the BI-RADS lexicon for shape, margin, lesion boundary, echo pattern, posterior acoustic feature and orientation. There were variable diseases that showed architectural distortion depicted under mammography. Fibrocystic disease was the most common presentation (n = 6), followed by adenosis (n = 2), stromal fibrosis (n = 2), radial scar (n = 3), usual ductal hyperplasia (n = 1), atypical ductal hyperplasia (n = 1) and mild fibrosis with microcalcification (n = 1). Malignant lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) (n = 2), lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) (n = 2), invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 2) and invasive lobular carcinoma (n = 1) were observed. As observed by sonography, shape was divided as irregular (n = 22) and round (n = 1). Margin was divided as circumscribed (n = 1), indistinct (n = 7), angular (n = 1), microlobulated (n = 1) and sipculated (n = 13). Lesion boundary was divided as abrupt interface (n = 11) and echogenic halo (n = 12). Echo pattern was divided as hypoechoic (n = 20), anechoic (n = 1), hyperechoic (n = 1) and isoechoic (n = 1). Posterior acoustic feature was divided as posterior acoustic feature (n = 7), posterior acoustic shadow (n = 15) and complex posterior acoustic feature (n = 1). Orientation was divided as parallel (n = 12) and not parallel (n = 11). There were no differential sonographic findings between benign and malignant lesions. This study presented various sonographic findings of mammographic architectural distortion and that it is

  20. In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escrivá, L; Font, G; Manyes, L

    2015-04-01

    This review summarizes the information regarding the in vivo studies of Fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade. The most common studies are classified as subacute toxicity, subchronic toxicity, acute toxicity, toxicokinetic studies and teratogenicity in order of importance. The most used animals in in vivo studies are pigs, rats, chickens and mice. Fumonisin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, nivalenol and T-2 toxin are the most studied fusarotoxins. Studies with combinations of mycotoxins are also frequent, deoxynivalenol generally being one of them. The predominant route of administration is oral, administered mostly in the form of naturally contaminated feed. Other administration routes also used are intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous. In vivo research on Fusarium mycotoxins has increased since 2010 highlighting the need for such studies in the field of food and feed safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ultrasonographic parameters of the liver, spleen and kidneys among a cohort of school children in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnakulasuriya, Dianne Tania Dayanthi; Peries, Pattiya Pathirennahalage Uddika Chamila; Rathnasekara, Yaddehi Arachchillage Chaminda; Jayawardena, KaluArachchige Thushari Madurika; Upasena, Angappulige; Wickremasinghe, Anada Rajitha

    2017-11-16

    Liver, spleen and kidney dimensions on ultrasonography vary with the age, weight and ethnicity. Reference standards of these parameters for normal Sri Lankan children are not available. Our aim was to establish normative data for longitudinal length of liver, spleen and kidneys in healthy children. Three hundred fifty-seven children, 5-13 years of age were selected from two randomly selected schools in the Gampaha district in the western province of Sri Lanka. A questionnaire was administered to the parents after obtaining informed written consent. Participants were screened for risk factors for organomegaly and were examined by a trained officer. Children with a past history of infective, inflammatory, haematological, malignant, congestive, collagenous or congenital conditions that can affect the size of the organs were excluded as well as those with clinically evident malnutrition, anemia, lymphadenopathy or organomegaly. Ultrasonographic assessment was done using a high resolution real-time scanner with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer by a trained officer. Children with ultrasonographic abnormalities of organs were also excluded from the study and referred for further evaluation. The study comprised 332 children comprising 176 girls (53%). There was a significant difference in the longitudinal dimension of the liver between the two sexes with a higher value recorded among females (Mann Whitney U = 11,830.5, p = 0.037). Body weight was correlated with the dimensions of the liver, the spleen and the kidneys. On multiple regression analysis body weight significantly associated with all the organs. (p < 0.01) Percentile graphs for longitudinal length of liver, spleen, right and left kidneys were formed according to the body weight. The organ dimensions showed the highest correlation with body weight. We hope the normal ultrasonographic values of healthy Sri Lankan children will assist in interpretation of sonographic examinations in daily clinical practice.

  2. A novel antithrombotic effect of sulforaphane via activation of platelet adenylate cyclase: ex vivo and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Chen, Wei-Fan; Lu, Wan-Jung; Chou, Duen-Suey; Hsiao, George; Hsu, Chung-Yi; Sheu, Joen-Rong; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying

    2013-06-01

    Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, which can be found in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli and cabbage. Sulforaphane was found to have very potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth through regulation of diverse mechanisms. However, no data are available concerning the effects of sulforaphane on platelet activation and its relative issues. Activation of platelets caused by arterial thrombosis is relevant to a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the in vivo antithrombotic effects of sulforaphane and its possible mechanisms in platelet activation. Sulforaphane (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) was effective in reducing the mortality of ADP-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism in mice. Other in vivo studies also revealed that sulforaphane (0.25 mg/kg) significantly prolonged platelet plug formation in mice. In addition, sulforaphane (15-75 μM) exhibited more-potent activity of inhibiting platelet aggregation stimulated by collagen. Sulforaphane inhibited platelet activation accompanied by inhibiting relative Ca(2+) mobilization; phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC)γ2, protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt; and hydroxyl radical (OH(●)) formation. Sulforaphane markedly increased cyclic (c)AMP, but not cyclic (c)GMP levels, and stimulated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation. SQ22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, but not ODQ (1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxal in-1-one), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, obviously reversed the sulforaphane-mediated effects on platelet aggregation; PKC activation, p38 MAPK, Akt and VASP phosphorylation; and OH(●) formation. Furthermore, a PI3-kinase inhibitor (LY294002) and a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) both significantly diminished PKC activation and p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation; in contrast, a PKC inhibitor (RO318220) did not diminish p38 MAPK or Akt phosphorylation stimulated by collagen. This

  3. Ultrasonographic appearance of early embryonic mortality in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Catone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic mortality is one of the main causes responsible of the decline in fertility that occurs in buffaloes during periods of increasing daylight length (out sexual breeding season. Transrectal ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis offers some advantages over palpation per rectum: earlier diagnosis of pregnancy/non-pregnancy, determination of embryo/fetus viability, reduction of misdiagnosis, and reduction of .potential. iatrogenic embryo/fetal attrition. Non pregnant buffaloes on Day 25 after AI showed higher Resistive Index (RI (P<0.05 and Pulsatility Index (P=0.07 values, registered on CL on Days 10 after AI, compared to pregnant buffaloes. RI values were significantly higher (P=0.02 in non pregnant buffaloes also on Day 45 after AI. Colour Doppler sonography could be used to gain specific information relating to the ovarian blood flow in predicting early embryonic loss and to describe the ultrasonographic features of early embryonic death in buffaloes.

  4. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the renal dimensions in captive tigers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaijantug, Somkiat; Manatpreprem, Komsan; Manatpreprem, Sukhumarn; Yatmark, Paranee

    2017-01-10

    Ultrasonographic measurements of kidney size are useful in the practical diagnosis of kidney diseases in animals. In tigers, there is a lack of information regarding the ultrasonography methods used to measure the kidney size of the tiger. Thirty-three healthy captive tigers (Panthera tigris) were placed in lateral recumbency for ultrasonography. The measurements obtained from the ultrasonography were computed, and the results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between genders in terms of body weight and renal length. The length of the right kidney was significantly different from that of the left kidney (10.23 ± 0.76 cm in males versus 9.94 ± 0.80 cm in females; Ptigers. However, kidney size evaluation must be performed using not only ultrasound but other clinical forms of technology and parameters.

  5. Clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic features of nonseptic osteitis of the axial border of the proximal sesamoid bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderperren, K; Bergman, H J; Spoormakers, T J P; Pille, F; Duchateau, L; Puchalski, S M; Saunders, J H

    2014-07-01

    Lysis of the axial aspect of equine proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) is a rare condition reported to have septic or traumatic origins. Limited information exists regarding imaging of nonseptic axial osteitis of a PSB. To report the clinical, radiographic, ultrasonographic, computed tomographic and intra-arterial contrast-enhanced computed tomographic abnormalities in horses with axial nonseptic osteitis of a PSB. Retrospective clinical study. Eighteen horses diagnosed with nonseptic osteitis of the axial border of a PSB between 2007 and 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Case details, clinical examination, radiographic, ultrasonographic, computed tomographic and intra-arterial/intra-articular contrast-enhanced computed tomographic features were recorded, when available. Radiographic, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic evaluations of the fetlock region had been performed on 18, 15 and 9 horses, respectively. The effect of the degree of lysis on the grade and duration of lameness was determined. All horses had chronic unilateral lameness, 4 with forelimb and 14 with hindlimb signs. On radiographs, lysis was identified in both PSBs in 14 horses, one PSB in 3 horses and in one horse no lysis was identified. The degree of osteolysis was variable. Ultrasonography identified variably sized irregularities of the bone surface and alteration in echogenicity of the palmar/plantar ligament (PL). All horses undergoing computed tomographic examination (n = 9) had biaxial lysis. The lesions were significantly longer and deeper on computed tomographic images compared with radiographic images. Intra-arterial contrast-enhanced computed tomography may reveal moderate to marked contrast enhancement of the PL. There was no significant effect of the degree of lysis on the grade and duration of lameness. Lesions of nonseptic axial osteitis of a PSB can be identified using a combination of radiography and ultrasonography. Computed tomography provides additional information regarding

  6. Male breast disease: clinical, mammographic, and ultrasonographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenhan-Bilgen, Isil E-mail: isilbilgen@hotmail.com; Bozkaya, Halil; Uestuen, Esin Emin; Memis, Aysenur

    2002-09-01

    Purpose: To describe and quantitate the radiological (mammographic and ultrasonographic) characteristics of male breast disease and to report the clinical and pathological findings. Materials and methods: Two-hundred-thirty-six male patients with different male breast diseases, diagnosed at our institution between January 1990 and July 2001, were retrospectively evaluated. The history, physical examination, mammographic and ultrasonographic findings were analyzed. Results: The spectrum of the disease in 236 male patients were gynecomastia (n=206), primary breast carcinoma (n=14), fat necrosis (n=5), lipoma (n=3), subareolar abscess (n=2), epidermal inclusion cyst (n=1), sebaceous cyst (n=1), hematoma (n=1), myeloma (n=1), and metastatic carcinoma (n=2). The distribution of patterns of gynecomastia were; 34% (n=71) nodular, 35% (n=73) dendritic and 31% (n=62) diffuse glandular. Gynecomastia was unilateral in 55% (n=113) and bilateral in 45% (n=93) of the patients. Male breast cancer presented as a mass without microcalcifications in 86% (n=12) and with microcalcifications in 7% (n=1) of patients. The mass was obscured by gynecomastia, partially in two, totally in one patient. The location of the mass was retroareolar in 46% (n=6) and eccentric to the nipple in 54% (n=7) of patients. On ultrasonography (US), the contours were well-circumscribed in 20% (n=3) and irregular in 80% (n=12) of the masses. Conclusion: Male breast has a wide spectrum of diseases, some of which have characteristic radiological appearances that can be correlated with their pathologic diagnosis. In the evaluation of the male breast, mammography and US are essential and should be performed along with physical examination.

  7. The biopsy of the boar testes using ultrasonographic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laima Liepa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The biopsy of live animal testes is an important clinical manipulation to control spermatogenesis and reproductive system pathologies. The aim was to develop a method of boar testes biopsy using a biopsy gun with ultrasound guidance and to investigate the influence of this procedure on the boar testes parenchyma and quality of ejaculate. The biopsy was carried out in six 8-month-old boars. Fourteen days prior to and 21 days after biopsy, the quality of ejaculate was examined (weight of ejaculate; concentration and motility of spermatozoa with a seven-day intervals. Ultrasound images of the testes parenchyma were recorded three times: directly before and 15 minutes after the biopsy, then 21 days after the procedure. The testes biopsies of generally anesthetized boars were performed with the biopsy gun for needle biopsy with a 12cm long, disposable 16-gauge needle 1.8mm in diameter (Vitesse through 1cm skin incision in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm of parenchyma. Fifteen minutes after the biopsy, macroscopic injures of the parenchyma of all the boar testes were not detected in the ultrasound image. Twenty one days after biopsy, the hyperechogenic line 0.1-0.2cm in diameter was seen in the testes parenchyma of six boars in the depth of 1.2-1.6cm. The biopsy of boar testes did not influence the quality of boars ejaculate. The ultrasonographic examination of boar testicles before the biopsy reduced possibilities to traumatize large blood vessels of the testes. A perfect boar testicular biopsy was easy to perform using ultrasonographic examination in the pigsty conditions.

  8. Ultrasonographic evaluation of pilomatrixoma (Calcifying epithelioma of malherbe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Byung Chul; Lee, Sun Wha [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To investigate the sonographic features including color Doppler pattern of pilomatrixoma in children. We respectively reviewed the ultrasonographic features of 11 patients (M:F=9:2) who had pathologically proven as pilomatrixoma for 5 years. Their age ranged from 1 to 11 years (average: 4.3 years old). Imaging performed under a 7 MHz linear transducer and color Doppler ultrasonography was additionally performed in 9 cases. The analysis of ultrasonographic features was focused on the lesion's location, shape, size, and margin of mass, internal echogenicity and periphery of mass, calcification, and the color Doppler signal. On the color Doppler examination, we assessed the Doppler signals inner and outer portions of mass. The masses were detected in the cheek (n=5), preauricular area (n=3), eyebrow (n=1), zygomatic area (n=1), and submandibular area (n=1), and all were localized within the subcutaneous fat layer. All masses were oval shaped and their sizes were measured as 3.6-15.2 X 7.0-22.9 mm. The margin of masses was well-defined in 10/11 (91%) and ill-defined in 1/11 (9%). Internal echogenicity of all masses were hypoechoic, which was heterogeneous in 8/11 (73%) or homogeneous in 3/11 (27%). Posterior shadowing was seen in 7/11 (64%). Hypoechoic rim (thickness: 0.4-1.9 mm) was visualized in 7/11 (64%). In one Doppler examination, color Doppler flow signals were observed in the inner portion of the masses in 4/9 (44%) and outer portion of the masses in 7/9 (78%). The sonographic features of pilomatrixoma are hypoechoic mass with well-defined margin and calcification within the subcutaneous fat layer. Color Doppler signals can be observed in the inner and/or outer portion of the pilomatrixoma.

  9. Cranial ultrasonographic findings in healthy full-term neonates: A retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lun Hsu

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of minor and major anomalies detected by cranial ultrasonographic screening examinations in healthy full-term neonates is 6.3% and 0.06%, respectively. Thus, cranial ultrasonographic screening testing may play a role in the early diagnosis of intracranial anomalies of otherwise healthy neonates. However, this examination cannot exclude or detect all cranial abnormalities, including many potential neurologic diseases of neonates, so continuing clinical diligence is still important for all infants.

  10. Ultrasonographic findings of ascaris in the small bowel: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University college of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic disease worldwide and evoked variable clinical manifestations by the migration of worm in the alimentary and biliary tract. The ultrasonographic detection of ascaris in the small bowel is relatively difficult, and no report on the ultrasonographic findings have been published in Korea. On abdominal ultrasonography, ascaris is seen as an intraluminal tubular structure with 4 linear echogenic stripes and movement. We report a case of ascaris in the small bowel detected by abdominal ultrasonography.

  11. Ultrasonographic prediction of highly aggressive telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyuk; Ki, Chang-Seok; Hahn, Soo Yeon; Oh, Young Lyun; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Shin, Jung Hee

    2017-08-01

    Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations are found in highly aggressive thyroid malignancies. Our aim was to define the ultrasonographic features of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer and to evaluate their predictive performances. Ultrasonographic findings were reviewed for 185 patients with surgically confirmed papillary thyroid cancer between 1994 and 2004. Genomic DNA to identify telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations was extracted from archived surgical specimens. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare clinical factors and ultrasonographic findings between telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated and wild-type papillary thyroid cancers. A telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutation was detected in 8.1% (15 of 185) of specimens from papillary thyroid cancer patients with a strong trend toward increasing age. Nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin were independent ultrasonographic findings for predicting telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer in patients over 50 years (odds ratio 5.898, 95% confidence interval 1.092-31.851, P = 0.039 for orientation; odds ratio 5.813, 95% confidence interval 1.320-25.602, P = 0.020 for margin). Prevalence of telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter mutations increased to 50.0% in papillary thyroid cancer patients older than 50 years with both ultrasonographic findings and was 0% in patients without either finding. For identifying telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer, ultrasonographic had 64.3% sensitivity, 80.8% specificity, 50.0% positive predictive value and 88.4% negative predictive value. Telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter-mutated papillary thyroid cancer could be suggested by the ultrasonographic features of nonparallel orientation and microlobulated margin in patients older than 50 years. Prebiopsy recognition of this unique

  12. A radiotracer for In vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase: p-[{sup 18}F]fluorodonepezil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y.; Choi, Y. S.; Choi, Y.; Kim, S. E.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, B. T. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. W. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of senile dementia caused by lack of acetylcholine in central nervous system, and in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) have been carried out using many radiolabeled AChE inhibitors (donepezil, tacrine, physostigmine, CP-126,998, etc). Donepezil, a FDA approved drug for AD is now in clinical use. Therefore, we synthesized and evaluated p-[{sup 18}F]fluorodonepezil in mice. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that p-[{sup 18}F]fluorodonepezil binds non-specifically in vivo and does not suffer from metabolism in mouse brain. This study suggests that radioligands with higher binding affinity may be required to visualize AChE in vivo and further studies are needed to develop better radiotracers.

  13. Imaging of Small Vessels Using Photoacoustics: An In Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siphanto, Ronald I.; Kolkman, R.G.M.; Huisjes, A.; Pilatou, M.H.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Adrichem, Leon N.A.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ability to correctly visualize the architectural arrangement of microvasculature is valuable to many diverse fields in medicine. In this study, we applied photoacoustics (PA) to obtain high-resolution images of submillimeter blood vessels. - Study Design/Materials and

  14. Quantification of cancer risk of each clinical and ultrasonographic suspicious feature of thyroid nodules: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Paolo; Ianni, Francesca; Rota, Carlo Antonio; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo

    2014-05-01

    In order to quantify the risk of malignancy of clinical and ultrasonographic features of thyroid nodules (TNs), we did a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies. We did a literature search in MEDLINE for studies published from 1st January 1989 until 31st December 2012. Studies were considered eligible if they investigated the association between at least one clinical/ultrasonographic feature and the risk of malignancy, did not have exclusion criteria for the detected nodules, had histologically confirmed the diagnoses of malignancy, and had a univariable analysis available. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics and outcomes. The meta-analysis included 41 studies, for a total of 29678 TN. A higher risk of malignancy expressed in odds ratio (OR) was found for the following: nodule height greater than width (OR: 10.15), absent halo sign (OR: 7.14), microcalcifications (OR: 6.76), irregular margins (OR: 6.12), hypoechogenicity (OR: 5.07), solid nodule structure (OR: 4.69), intranodular vascularization (OR: 3.76), family history of thyroid carcinoma (OR: 2.29), nodule size ≥4 cm (OR: 1.63), single nodule (OR: 1.43), history of head/neck irradiation (OR: 1.29), and male gender (OR: 1.22). Interestingly, meta-regression analysis showed a higher risk of malignancy for hypoechoic nodules in iodine-sufficient than in iodine-deficient geographical areas. The current meta-analysis verified and weighed out each suspicious clinical and ultrasonographic TN feature. The highest risk was found for nodule height greater than width, absent halo sign, and microcalcifications for ultrasonographic features and family history of thyroid carcinoma for clinical features. A meta-analysis-derived grading system of TN malignancy risk, validated on a large prospective cohort, could be a useful tool in TN diagnostic work-up.

  15. Development of Curcumin loaded chitosan polymer based nanoemulsion gel: In vitro, ex vivo evaluation and in vivo wound healing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lydia; Zakir, Foziyah; Mirza, Mohd Aamir; Anwer, Md Khalid; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Iqbal, Zeenat

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, various nanoemulsions were prepared using Labrafac PG+Triacetin as oil, Tween 80 as a surfactant and polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) as a co-surfactant. The developed nanoemulsions (NE1-NE5) were evaluated for physicochemical characterizations and ex-vivo for skin permeation and deposition studies. The highest skin deposition was observed for NE2 with 46.07% deposition amongst all developed nanoemulsions (NE1-NE5). Optimized nanoemulsion (NE2) had vesicle size of 84.032±0.023nm, viscosity 78.23±22.2 cps, refractive index 1.404. Nanoemulsion gel were developed by incorporation of optimized nanoemulsion (NE2) into 1-3% chitosan and characterized by physical evaluation and rheological studies. Chitosan gel (2%) was found to be suitable for gelation of nanoemulsion based on its consistency, feel and ease of spreadability. The flux of nanoemulsion gel was found 68.88μg/cm2/h as compared to NE2 (76.05μg/cm2/h) is significantly lower suggesting limited skin permeation of curcumin form gel. However, the retained amount of curcumin on skin by gel formulation (980.75±88μg) is significantly higher than NE2 (771.25±67μg). Enhanced skin permeation of NE2 (46.07%) was observed when compared to nanoemulsion gel (31.25%) and plain gel (11.47%). The outcome of this study evidently points out the potential of curcumin entrapped nanoemulsion gel in wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Renal denervation by intravascular ultrasound: Preliminary in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinelnikov, Yegor; McClain, Steve; Zou, Yong; Smith, David; Warnking, Reinhard

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasound denervation has recently become a subject of intense research in connection with the treatment of complex medical conditions including neurological conditions, development of pain management, reproduction of skin sensation, neuropathic pain and spasticity. The objective of this study is to investigate the use of intravascular ultrasound to produce nerve damage in renal sympathetic nerves without significant injury to the renal artery. This technique may potentially be used to treat various medical conditions, such as hypertension. The study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Ultrasound was applied to renal nerves of the swine model for histopathological evaluation. Therapeutic ultrasound energy was delivered circumferentially by an intravascular catheter maneuvered into the renal arteries. Fluoroscopic imaging was conducted pre-and post-ultrasound treatment. Animals were recovered and euthanized up to 30 hours post procedure, followed by necropsy and tissue sample collection. Histopathological examination showed evidence of extensive damage to renal nerves, characterized by nuclear pyknosis, hyalinization of stroma and multifocal hemorrhages, with little or no damage to renal arteries. This study demonstrates the feasibility of intravascular ultrasound as a minimally invasive renal denervation technique. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of this technique and its related clinical significance.

  17. In vivo studies of peritendinous tissue in exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    Soft tissue injury of tendons represents a major problem within sports medicine. Although several animal and cell culture studies have addressed this, human experiments have been limited in their ability to follow changes in specific tissue directly in response to interventions. Recently, methods...

  18. Impact of Environmental Enrichment Devices on NTP In Vivo Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Sheba R; Morgan, Daniel L; Kissling, Grace E; Travlos, Gregory S; King-Herbert, Angela P

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether the use of nesting material or polycarbonate shelters as enrichment devices would have an impact on end points commonly measured during the conduct of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) 13-week studies. The study design was consistent with the NTP 13-week toxicity studies. Harlan Sprague-Dawley (HSD) rats and their offspring and B6C3F1/N mice were assigned to control (unenriched) and enriched experimental groups. Body weight, food and water consumption, behavioral observations, fecal content, clinical pathology, gross pathology, organ weights, and histopathology were evaluated. Enriched male mice and male and female rats exhibited decreased feed intake without a subsequent decrease in body weight; this may have been the result of the nesting material reducing the effect of cold stress, thereby allowing for more efficient use of feed. There were statistical differences in some hematological parameters; however, these were not considered physiologically relevant since all values were within the normal range. Gross pathology and histopathological findings were background changes and were not considered enrichment-related. Nesting material and shelters were used frequently and consistently and allowed animals to display species-typical behavior. There was no significant impact on commonly measured end points in HSD rats and B6C3F1/N mice given enrichment devices. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. MTR and In-vivo 1H-MRS studies on mouse brain with parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Moon-Hyun; Kim, Hyeon-Jin; Chung, Jin-Yeung; Doo, Ah-Reum; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Seung-Nam; Choe, Bo-Young

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the changes in the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram are related to specific characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) and to investigate whether the MTR histogram parameters are associated with neurochemical dysfunction by performing in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). MTR and in vivo 1H-MRS studies were performed on control mice (n = 10) and 1-methyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine intoxicated mice (n = 10). All the MTR and in vivo 1H-MRS experiments were performed on a 9.4 T MRI/MRS system (Bruker Biospin, Germany) using a standard head coil. The protondensity fast spin echo (FSE) images and the T2-weighted spin echo (SE) images were acquired with no gap. Outer volume suppression (OVS), combined with the ultra-short echo-time stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM), was used for the localized in-vivo 1H-MRS. The quantitative analysis of metabolites was performed from the 1H spectra obtained in vivo on the striatum (ST) by using jMRUI (Lyon, France). The peak height of the MTR histograms in the PD model group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p early phase of neuronal dysfunction of neurotransmitters.

  20. Large scale in vivo recordings to study neuronal biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giocomo, Lisa M

    2015-06-01

    Over the last several years, technological advances have enabled researchers to more readily observe single-cell membrane biophysics in awake, behaving animals. Studies utilizing these technologies have provided important insights into the mechanisms generating functional neural codes in both sensory and non-sensory cortical circuits. Crucial for a deeper understanding of how membrane biophysics control circuit dynamics however, is a continued effort to move toward large scale studies of membrane biophysics, in terms of the numbers of neurons and ion channels examined. Future work faces a number of theoretical and technical challenges on this front but recent technological developments hold great promise for a larger scale understanding of how membrane biophysics contribute to circuit coding and computation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In Vivo Assessment of Muscle Contractility in Animal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Shama R.; Valencia, Ana P.; Hern?ndez-Ochoa, Erick O.; Richard M Lovering

    2016-01-01

    In patients with muscle injury or muscle disease, assessment of muscle damage is typically limited to clinical signs, such as tenderness, strength, range of motion, and more recently, imaging studies. Animal models provide unmitigated access to histological samples, which provide a ?direct measure? of damage. However, even with unconstrained access to tissue morphology and biochemistry assays, the findings typically do not account for loss of muscle function. Thus, the most comprehensive meas...

  2. In vivo studies of peritendinous tissue in exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    Soft tissue injury of tendons represents a major problem within sports medicine. Although several animal and cell culture studies have addressed this, human experiments have been limited in their ability to follow changes in specific tissue directly in response to interventions. Recently, methods...... exercise. This coincides with a surprisingly marked drop in tissue pressure during contraction. With regards to both circulation, metabolism and collagen formation, peritendinous tissue represents a dynamic, responsive region that adapts markedly to acute muscular activity....

  3. Photodynamic activity of tetraazachlorin derivate studied in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ivanova-Radkevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigation for photodynamic activity of new tetraazachlorin derivate – tetramethyltribenzotetraazachlorin, synthesized in Research Institute of Organic Intermediates and Dyes. The study was performed on female mice of СВА line. The tumor model was transferred solid ascetic sarcoma S-37. The samples of photosensitizer, previously solubilized in 10% aqueou s solution ofCremophor EL, injected to mice intravenously on the 7th day of tumor growth in dose of 1–2 mg/kg. Two hours later the irradiation of sensitized tumor using light emitting diode device in a maximal wavelength of 755 nm (light power density – 50 mW/cm2, maximal total light dose – 300 J/cm2 was performed. The efficacy of photodynamic therapy was assessed by growth inhibition rates in the study group comparing with control group. The study showed that photodynamic therapy with investigated sample in dose of 2 mg/kg and light dose of 300 J/cm2 significantly inhibited the tumor growth (inhibition rate of 70–80% within 20 days, indicating prospectivity of subsequent investigations of tetraazachlorin as photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors. 

  4. Critical considerations when planning experimental in vivo studies in dental traumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens O; Andersson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In vivo studies are sometimes needed to understand healing processes after trauma. For several reasons, not the least ethical, such studies have to be carefully planned and important considerations have to be taken into account about suitability of the experimental model, sample size and optimizing...

  5. Image enhancement based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaozhou; Han, Zhimin; Yao, Liqing; Zhong, Yunshi; Shi, Qiang; Fu, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Wang, Xiguang; Xie, Tianyu

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been recognized as a powerful tool for noninvasive disease detection in the gastrointestinal field. However, most of the studies on HSI in this field have involved ex vivo biopsies or resected tissues. We proposed an image enhancement method based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images. First, we developed a flexible gastroscopy system capable of obtaining in vivo hyperspectral images of different types of stomach disease mucosa. Then, depending on a specific object, an appropriate band selection algorithm based on dependence of information was employed to determine a subset of spectral bands that would yield useful spatial information. Finally, these bands were assigned to be the color components of an enhanced image of the object. A gastric ulcer case study demonstrated that our method yields higher color tone contrast, which enhanced the displays of the gastric ulcer regions, and that it will be valuable in clinical applications.

  6. Image enhancement based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaozhou; Han, Zhimin; Yao, Liqing; Zhong, Yunshi; Shi, Qiang; Fu, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Wang, Xiguang; Xie, Tianyu

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been recognized as a powerful tool for noninvasive disease detection in the gastrointestinal field. However, most of the studies on HSI in this field have involved ex vivo biopsies or resected tissues. We proposed an image enhancement method based on in vivo hyperspectral gastroscopic images. First, we developed a flexible gastroscopy system capable of obtaining in vivo hyperspectral images of different types of stomach disease mucosa. Then, depending on a specific object, an appropriate band selection algorithm based on dependence of information was employed to determine a subset of spectral bands that would yield useful spatial information. Finally, these bands were assigned to be the color components of an enhanced image of the object. A gastric ulcer case study demonstrated that our method yields higher color tone contrast, which enhanced the displays of the gastric ulcer regions, and that it will be valuable in clinical applications.

  7. The usefulness of a computer-aided diagnosis scheme for improving the performance of clinicians to diagnose non-mass lesions on breast ultrasonographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibusawa, Mai; Nakayama, Ryohei; Okanami, Yuko; Kashikura, Yumi; Imai, Nao; Nakamura, Takashi; Kimura, Hiroko; Yamashita, Masako; Hanamura, Noriko; Ogawa, Tomoko

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme for improving the performance of clinicians to diagnose non-mass lesions appearing as hypoechoic areas on breast ultrasonographic images. The database included 97 ultrasonographic images with hypoechoic areas: 48 benign cases [benign lesion with benign mammary tissue or fibrocystic disease (n = 20), fibroadenoma (n = 11), and intraductal papilloma (n = 17)] and 49 malignant cases [ductal carcinoma in situ (n = 17) and invasive ductal carcinoma (n = 32)]. Seven clinicians, three expert breast surgeons, and four general surgeons participated in the observer study. They were asked their confidence level concerning the possibility of malignancy in all 97 cases with and without the use of the CAD scheme. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the CAD scheme. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) improved for all observers when they used the CAD scheme and increased from 0.649 to 0.783 (P = 0.0167). Notably, the AUC for the general surgeon group increased from 0.625 to 0.793 (P = 0.045). This study showed that the performance of clinicians to diagnose non-mass lesions appearing as hypoechoic areas on breast ultrasonographic images was improved by the use of a CAD scheme.

  8. Study of cultured fibroblasts in vivo using NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczmar, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to study the compartmentation of phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates in intact Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts (CEFs) using /sup 31/P NMR at 109 MHz. Because glycolysis is regulated differently in normal and virally transformed CEFs, NMR experiments were performed on both types of cells. A technique for maintaining functional cells at high densities in an NMR magnet is described. Signals were detected from cytoplasmic inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/), ATP, NAD, NADH, phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine. The effect of external glucose on cytoplasmic pools of phosphates was studied. However, experiments with /sup 32/P labelled P/sub i/ showed that as the concentration of glucose in the medium was increased, the amount of phosphate sequestered in the cells increased. They conclude that there is a pool of P/sub i/ which is not detected by high resolution of NMR and that the size of this pool increases as the rate of glycolysis increases. These effects were found only in cultured cells; the data for transformed and normal cells were similar. Longitudinal relaxation times of intracellular phosphates in normal, transformed, and primary CEFs were measured.

  9. Study of cultured fibroblasts in vivo using NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczmar, G.S.

    1984-08-01

    The goal was to study the compartmentation of phosphorylated glycolytic intermediates in intact Chicken Embryo Fibroblasts (CEFs) using /sup 31/P NMR at 109 MHz. A technique for maintaining functional cells at high densities in an NMR magnet is described. Signals were detected from cytoplasmic inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/), ATP, NAD, NADH, phosphorylcholine and phosphorylethanolamine. The effect of external glucose on cytoplasmic pools of phosphates was studied. When cells were perfused with glucose-free medium the rate of glycolysis decreased, the amplitudes of the ATP resonances decreased, and the P/sub i/ intensity increased. The quantity of NMR-detectable P/sub i/ produced was significantly greater than the quantity of NMR-detectable ATP which was lost. Experiments with /sup 32/P labeled P/sub i/ showed that as the concentration of glucose in the medium was increase, the amount of phosphate sequestered in the cells increased. We conclude that there is a pool of P/sub i/ which is not detected by high resolution NMR and that the size of this pool increases as the rate of glycolysis increase. Longtitudinal relaxation times of intracellular phosphates in normal, transformed, and primary CEFs were measured. The results demonstrate that relaxation times of phosphates are sensitive to structural and metabolic changes which occur when cells are grown in culture. 59 references. 31 figures.

  10. Studies of DNA supercoiling in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David Nelson [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1990-10-01

    This thesis describes a number of diverse experiments whose common theme is to elaborate some aspect of DNA supercoiling. The torsion elastic constant of DNA is measure as a function of superhelix density using the technique of picosecond Time Resolved Fluorescence Polarization Anisotropy (FPA) of intercalated ethidium bromide. The results agree with theories which predict that the anisotropy decay should vary with the square root of the relative viscosity. This experiment furthermore demonstrates a sensitivity of FPA to a change in torsion elastic constant of less than 10%. A number of covalently closed DNA samples, ranging in superhelix density from = -0.123 to +0.042, are then examined. A novel method for measuring changes in local supercoiling on a large PNA molecule which is sensitive to changes in supercoiling of regions of chromosomal DNA as short as 1 kilobase in length is presented. Study of chromosomal supercoiling regulating anaerobic gene expression in the facultative photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus showed that no stable change in chromosomal supercoiling upon a shift from aerobic respiratory growth to anaerobic photosynthetic conditions. Studies to detect transient changes in DNA supercoiling indicate that DNA downstream from heavily transcribed genes for the photosynthetic reaction center are relaxed or perhaps overwound upon the induction of photosynthetic metabolism. These results are interpreted in terms of the twin domain model of transcriptional supercoiling.

  11. Studies of DNA supercoiling in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, D.N.

    1990-10-01

    This thesis describes a number of diverse experiments whose common theme is to elaborate some aspect of DNA supercoiling. The torsion elastic constant of DNA is measure as a function of superhelix density using the technique of picosecond Time Resolved Fluorescence Polarization Anisotropy (FPA) of intercalated ethidium bromide. The results agree with theories which predict that the anisotropy decay should vary with the square root of the relative viscosity. This experiment furthermore demonstrates a sensitivity of FPA to a change in torsion elastic constant of less than 10%. A number of covalently closed DNA samples, ranging in superhelix density from = [minus]0.123 to [plus]0.042, are then examined. A novel method for measuring changes in local supercoiling on a large PNA molecule which is sensitive to changes in supercoiling of regions of chromosomal DNA as short as 1 kilobase in length is presented. Study of chromosomal supercoiling regulating anaerobic gene expression in the facultative photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus showed that no stable change in chromosomal supercoiling upon a shift from aerobic respiratory growth to anaerobic photosynthetic conditions. Studies to detect transient changes in DNA supercoiling indicate that DNA downstream from heavily transcribed genes for the photosynthetic reaction center are relaxed or perhaps overwound upon the induction of photosynthetic metabolism. These results are interpreted in terms of the twin domain model of transcriptional supercoiling.

  12. Studying Kinetochores In Vivo Using FLIM-FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Tae Yeon; Needleman, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Kinetochores play essential roles in coordinating mitosis, as a mechanical connector between chromosome and microtubule and as a source of numerous biochemical signals. These mechanical and biochemical behaviors of kinetochores change dynamically in cells during mitosis. Therefore, understanding kinetochore function requires an imaging tool that quantifies the protein-protein interactions or biochemical changes with high spatiotemporal resolution. FRET has previously been used in combination with biosensors to probe protein-protein interactions and biochemical activity. In this chapter, we introduce FLIM-FRET, a lifetime-based method that quantifies FRET, and describe the use of FLIM-FRET as a method for studying dynamic kinetochore behavior in cells with high spatiotemporal resolution.

  13. Ac magnetic susceptibility study of in vivo nanoparticle biodistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, L; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, S; Serna, C J; Morales, M P [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM-CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); MejIas, R; Barber, D F [Centro Nacional de BiotecnologIa, CNB-CSIC, Darwin 3, Cantoblanco 28049, Madrid (Spain); Lazaro, F J, E-mail: lucia@icmm.csic.es [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales y Fluidos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Maria de Luna 3, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-06-29

    We analysed magnetic nanoparticle biodistribution, before and after cytokine conjugation, in a mouse model by ac susceptibility measurements of the corresponding resected tissues. Mice received repeated intravenous injections of nanoparticle suspension for two weeks and they were euthanized 1 h after the last injection. In general, only 10% of the total injected nanoparticles after multiple exposures were found in tissues. The rest of the particles may probably be metabolized or excreted by the organism. Our findings indicate that the adsorption of interferon to DMSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles changes their biodistribution, reducing the presence of nanoparticles in lungs and therefore their possible toxicity. The specific targeting of the particles to tumour tissues by the use of an external magnetic field has also been studied. Magnetic nanoparticles were observed by transmission electron microscopy in the targeted tissue and quantified by ac magnetic susceptibility.

  14. Intravital microscopy to study leukocyte recruitment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Vanessa; Coelho, Fernanda Matos; Menezes, Gustavo Batista; Cara, Denise Carmona

    2011-01-01

    The intravital microscopy is a valuable tool to capture images of cells in living organisms and to make studies of molecular determinants of leukocyte trafficking easier. Using this technique, we can directly visualize and measure each step of the leukocyte recruitment paradigm, including leukocyte rolling flux, rolling velocity, adhesion, and emigration. Thus, it is possible to understand the process involved in leukocyte homing as well as the cell recruitment to inflammatory tissues. Nowadays, two types of intravital microscopy are used routinely. The light microscopy is used to assess migration of intravascular cells in thin, tissues which must be sufficiently translucent. Epifluorescence microscopy allows the visualization of the microcirculation while permitting the distinction of leukocyte subpopulations in solid organs.

  15. Novel instrumentation to determine peel force in vivo and preliminary studies with adhesive skin barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Evan M; Cullum, Malford E; Nichols, Thom R; Taylor, Michael G; Sexton, William L; Murahata, Richard I

    2013-11-01

    Adhesive barriers secure medical devices to skin. Laboratory adhesion models are not predictive of in vivo performance. The objectives of these studies were to validate a novel peel force device, and to investigate relationships between barrier formulations, barrier width, subjective discomfort during barrier removal, and substrates. Three hydrocolloid barrier formulations in three widths were adhered to ethylene/methyl acrylate film (EMA), VITRO-SKIN(®) and human abdominal skin. Peel force was measured using a MTS Insight™ and a cyberDERM Inc. Mini Peel Tester (CMPT). Subjects reported their discomfort. Peel forces were highly correlated between devices and highly dependent on substrate. Data suggested a weak direct association between peel force in vivo and discomfort. The 0.5″-wide barriers had the most precise peel forces measurements in vivo. A weak negative relationship between normalized peel force and barrier width on human skin was found. There was a strong positive relationship between peel force in vivo and on EMA, whereas no correlation was observed with VITRO-SKIN(®). The CMPT correlates with a standard instrument and can advantageously investigate adhesion in vivo. Barrier width and substrate impact the reliability and predictability of peel force measurements. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. High-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance angiography: a feasibility study on biological and medical tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boel Lene WT

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In biomedical sciences, ex vivo angiography is a practical mean to elucidate vascular structures three-dimensionally with simultaneous estimation of intravascular volume. The objectives of this study were to develop a magnetic resonance (MR method for ex vivo angiography and to compare the findings with computed tomography (CT. To demonstrate the usefulness of this method, examples are provided from four different tissues and species: the human placenta, a rice field eel, a porcine heart and a turtle. Results The optimal solution for ex vivo MR angiography (MRA was a compound containing gelatine (0.05 g/mL, the CT contrast agent barium sulphate (0.43 mol/L and the MR contrast agent gadoteric acid (2.5 mmol/L. It was possible to perform angiography on all specimens. We found that ex vivo MRA could only be performed on fresh tissue because formalin fixation makes the blood vessels permeable to the MR contrast agent. Conclusions Ex vivo MRA provides high-resolution images of fresh tissue and delineates fine structures that we were unable to visualise by CT. We found that MRA provided detailed information similar to or better than conventional CTA in its ability to visualize vessel configuration while avoiding interfering signals from adjacent bones. Interestingly, we found that vascular tissue becomes leaky when formalin-fixed, leading to increased permeability and extravascular leakage of MR contrast agent.

  17. Numerical Model Study of In Vivo Magnetic Nanoparticle Tumor Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John A; Petryk, Alicia A; Hoopes, P Jack

    2017-12-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are currently under investigation as heating agents for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Major determinants of effective heating include the biodistribution and minimum iron oxide loading required to achieve adequate heating at practically achievable magnetic field strengths. These inter-related criteria ultimately determine the practicality of this approach to tumor treatment. Further, in our experience the currently used treatment assessment criterion for hyperthermia treatment-cumulative equivalent minutes at 43 °C, CEM43 -provides an inadequate description of the expected treatment effectiveness. Couple numerical models to experimental measurements to study the relative heating effectiveness described by cell death predictions. FEM numerical models were applied to increase the understanding of a carefully calibrated series of experiments in mouse mammary adenocarcinoma. The numerical model results indicate that minimum tumor loadings between approximately 1.3 to 1.8 mg of Fe per cm3 of tumor tissue are required to achieve the experimentally observed temperatures in magnetic field strengths of 32 kA/m (rms) at 162 kHz. We show that including multiple cell death processes operating in parallel within the numerical models provides valuable perspective on the likelihood of successful treatment. We show and believe that these assessment methods are more accurate than a single assessment figure of merit based only on the comparison of thermal histories, such as the CEM method.

  18. Clindamycin and tetracycline as immunomodulating agents: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, I; Suarez, A; Lima, A; Ballestero, S; Gómez-Lus, M L; Prieto, J

    1989-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of clindamycin and tetracycline, both intravenously administered, on antibody response to thymus-dependent antigen (PC-KLH) in BALB/c mice. The immunological parameters evaluated were: DPFC/spleen (direct plaque forming-cells), antibody secretion median rate (PC50), heterogeneity index (Hi), number of total splenic lymphocytes and cellular viability. The results showed that clindamycin (i.v.) increased the humoral response; 28 mg/kg was the dose that showed the greatest enhancement (+73%). The PC50 was not affected by clindamycin but Hi decreased at 28 mg/kg and increased at 2.8 mg/kg doses, although neither result was statistically significant. When tetracycline was given i.v., a slight decrease in the anti-PC DPFC number was observed. Although the PC50 was greater at 10 mg/kg (p less than 0.05), Hi was smaller at the 1 mg/kg dose (p less than 0.05).

  19. In vivo cerebral blood flow autoregulation studies using rheoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodo, M.; Pearce, F.; Garcia, A.; Van Albert, S.; Settle, T.; Szebeni, J.; Baranyi, L.; Hartings, J.; Armonda, R.

    2010-04-01

    Acute management of patients with traumatic brain/blast injury is a challenge. To minimize secondary injury and improve outcome, it is critical to detect neurological deterioration early, when it is potentially reversible. One potential monitoring method is cerebral electrical impedance (rheoencephalography-REG) because of its non-invasiveness and good time resolution. Reported here are the results of cerebral blood flow (CBF) manipulations comparing electroencephalogram (EEG) with REG (both intra-cerebral) and measuring with surface and skull REG electrodes. Our hypothesis was that REG would reflect spreading depression and CBF autoregulation. Animal experiments were performed using one rat (four trials with intracerebral electrodes), monkeys (n=8, with surface electrodes) and pigs (n = 24 pigs with skull electrodes; 57 trials, 19 types of liposomes). Challenges included intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation, liposome infusion, and hemorrhage. Data were stored on a PC and evaluated off line. CBF autoregulation was evaluated both by visual inspection and by a Matlab script. These studies confirmed that REG reflects CBF autoregulation and that REG is useful for detecting spreading depression (SD), vasospasm and the lower limit of CBF autoregulation. These findings have clinical relevance for use in noninvasive neuro-monitoring in the neurosurgery intensive care and during transportation of patients with brain injury.

  20. In vivo study of myocardial elastography under graded ischemia conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wei-Ning; Provost, Jean; Konofagou, Elisa E [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Fujikura, Kana [Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Wang Jie, E-mail: ek2191@columbia.edu [Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)

    2011-02-21

    The capability of currently available echocardiography-based strain estimation techniques to fully map myocardial abnormality at early stages of myocardial ischemia is yet to be investigated. In this study, myocardial elastography (ME), a radio-frequency (RF)-based strain imaging technique that maps the full 2D transmural angle-independent strain tensor in standard echocardiographic views at both high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The objectives were to (1) evaluate the performance of ME on mapping the onset, extent and progression of myocardial ischemia at graded coronary constriction levels (from partial to complete coronary flow reduction), and (2) validate the accuracy of the strain estimates against sonomicrometry (SM) measurements. A non-survival canine ischemic model (n = 5) was performed by gradually constricting the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary blood flow from 0% (baseline blood flow) to 100% (zero blood flow) at 20% increments. An open-architecture ultrasound system was used to acquire RF echocardiograms in a standard full short-axis view at the frame rate of 211 fps, at least twice higher than what is typically used in conventional echocardiographic systems, using a previously developed, fully automated composite technique. Myocardial deformation was estimated by ME and validated against sonomicrometry. ME estimates and maps transmural (1) 2D displacements using RF cross-correlation and recorrelation; and (2) 2D polar (radial and circumferential) strains, derived from 2D (i.e. both lateral and axial) displacement components, at high accuracy. Full-view strain images were shown and found to reliably depict decreased myocardial function in the region at risk at increased levels of coronary flow reduction. The ME radial strain was deemed to be a more sensitive, quantitative, regional measure of myocardial ischemia as a result of coronary flow reduction when compared to the conventional wall motion score index and ejection fraction

  1. In vivo study of myocardial elastography under graded ischemia conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Ning; Provost, Jean; Fujikura, Kana; Wang, Jie; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2011-02-01

    The capability of currently available echocardiography-based strain estimation techniques to fully map myocardial abnormality at early stages of myocardial ischemia is yet to be investigated. In this study, myocardial elastography (ME), a radio-frequency (RF)-based strain imaging technique that maps the full 2D transmural angle-independent strain tensor in standard echocardiographic views at both high spatial and temporal resolution is presented. The objectives were to (1) evaluate the performance of ME on mapping the onset, extent and progression of myocardial ischemia at graded coronary constriction levels (from partial to complete coronary flow reduction), and (2) validate the accuracy of the strain estimates against sonomicrometry (SM) measurements. A non-survival canine ischemic model (n = 5) was performed by gradually constricting the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary blood flow from 0% (baseline blood flow) to 100% (zero blood flow) at 20% increments. An open-architecture ultrasound system was used to acquire RF echocardiograms in a standard full short-axis view at the frame rate of 211 fps, at least twice higher than what is typically used in conventional echocardiographic systems, using a previously developed, fully automated composite technique. Myocardial deformation was estimated by ME and validated against sonomicrometry. ME estimates and maps transmural (1) 2D displacements using RF cross-correlation and recorrelation; and (2) 2D polar (radial and circumferential) strains, derived from 2D (i.e. both lateral and axial) displacement components, at high accuracy. Full-view strain images were shown and found to reliably depict decreased myocardial function in the region at risk at increased levels of coronary flow reduction. The ME radial strain was deemed to be a more sensitive, quantitative, regional measure of myocardial ischemia as a result of coronary flow reduction when compared to the conventional wall motion score index and ejection fraction

  2. An in vivo study on bone formation behavior of microporous granular calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmônico, G M L; Franczak, P F; Levandowski, N; Camargo, N H A; Dallabrida, A L; da Costa, B D; Gil, O García; Cambra-Moo, O; Rodríguez, M A; Canillas, M

    2017-06-27

    This study was developed based on in vivo investigation of microporous granular biomaterials based on calcium phosphates, involving matrices of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic compositions of both phases and a control group. The physicochemical characterization of materials was carried out by X-Ray diffraction (DRX) and mercury porosimetry. Biodegradability, bioactivity and neoformation processes were investigated by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarized light conducted on biopsies obtained from in vivo tests for periods of 90 and 180 days. These were performed to evaluate the behavior of granular microporous compositions in relation to bone neoformation. Through the performance obtained from in vivo assays, excellent osseointegration and bone tissue neoformation were observed. The results are encouraging and show that the microporous granular biomaterials of HA, β-TCP and biphasic compositions show similar results with perfect osseointegration. Architectures simulating a bone structure can make the difference between biomaterials for bone tissue replacement and repair.

  3. Glycation of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) hemoglobin and blood proteins: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Justin A.; Degenhardt, Thorsten; Baynes, John W.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of in vivo freezing and glucose cryoprotectant on protein glycation were investigated in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Our studies revealed no difference in the fructoselysine content of blood plasma sampled from control, 27 h frozen and 18 h thawed wood frogs. Glycated hemoglobin (GHb) decreased slightly with 48 h freezing exposure and was below control levels after 7 d recovery, while glycated serum albumin was unchanged by 48 h freezing but did increase after 7 d of recovery. In vitro exposure of blood lysates to glucose revealed that the GHb production in wood frogs was similar to that of the rat but was lower than in leopard frogs. We conclude that wood frog hemoglobin was glycated in vitro; however, GHb production was not apparent during freezing and recovery when in vivo glucose is highly elevated. It is possible that wood frog blood proteins have different in vivo susceptibilities to glycation. PMID:19540217

  4. Revisiting optical clearing with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO): in vitro and in vivo studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, R. Anthony; Stoianovici, Charles; Karma, Sanjeev; Choi, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Functional optical characterization of disease progression and response to therapy suffers from loss of spatial resolution and imaging depth due to scattering, impacting the ability of researchers to localize and quantify molecular processes. Here we report on the ability of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to reduce temporarily the optical scattering of skin. Data collected from in vitro phantom images and in vivo fluorescence images demonstrate the potential of this simple method to mitigate the blurring effects of scattering with topical application, which we expect will improve the accuracy and localization of in vivo molecular imaging studies.

  5. Applicability of handmade expanded polytetrafluoroethylene trileaflet-valved conduits for pulmonary valve reconstruction: An ex vivo and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Chung-Dann; Wang, Jieh-Neng; Chen, Wei-Ling; Lu, Pong-Jeu; Chan, Ming-Yao; Lin, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Wan-Chin

    2017-09-20

    The handmade expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) trileaflet-valved conduit could potentially be used as a substitute pulmonary valve replacement material, especially in children. The current study investigated (1) the function of the ePTFE trileaflet-valved conduits in an ex vivo experimental system and (2) the short-term performance of the conduit in a porcine model to verify its clinical applicability. The competency of the ePTFE trileaflet-valved conduits was estimated through ex vivo (using a pulmonary mock circulation loop) and in vivo (in a porcine model with a damaged pulmonary valve) experiments. Explants were examined by gross morphology and histopathologic examination. In the ex vivo experiment, the ePTFE trileaflet-valved conduits were determined to effectively increase mean pulmonary pressure from 10.2 to 14.4 mm Hg compared with defective silicon-valved conduits. In addition, the regurgitation fraction value of ePTFE trileaflet-valved conduits was 15.9% to 18.1%, which was significantly better than the defective valve conduits (regurgitation fraction = 73.5%-85.7%). In the in vivo experiment, the valved conduits were confirmed to be with good valve position maintenance, and the valve and leaflets showed no signs of thickening or peeling after a short-term implantation period. There were also no significant signs of inflammation reaction on histopathologic examination. The ePTFE trileaflet-valved conduits for pulmonary valve reconstruction showed acceptable performance and outcomes in the ex vivo and in vivo experiments. The ePTFE trileaflet-valved conduit may be clinically useful, although additional studies in animals should be conducted to determine its long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Soft Tissue Masses in the Extremities: The Accuracy of an Ultrasonographic Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji Young; Park, So Young; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Ryu, Kyung Nam [Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to retrospectively determine the accuracy of an ultrasonographic diagnosis of superficial soft tissue masses in the extremities by using the histologic results as the reference standard. From January 2005 to June 2010, 154 patients with soft tissue masses in the extremities and who underwent ultrasonographic evaluation followed by biopsy or resection were retrospectively evaluated. The ultrasonographic and histologic diagnoses of the soft tissue masses were lipoma, ganglion cyst, hemangioma, neurogenic tumor, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, epidermoid cyst, fibroma, glomus tumor, Baker's cyst and neurofibromatosis. Out of 154 patients, 114 (74%) patients showed concordance between the histologic diagnosis and the ultrasonographic diagnosis, and the remaining 40 (26%) patients did not. The diagnostic accuracy of each soft tissue mass was 95% for lipoma, 83% for ganglion cyst, 75% for hemangioma, 72% for neurogenic tumor, 50% for giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, 43% for epidermoid cyst, 33% for fibroma and 100% each for glomus tumor, fibromatosis and Baker's cyst. Aside from these tumors, there were also sarcoma, malignant melanoma, elastofibroma, Kimura disease and pilomatricoma. Among the cases that showed discordance between the histologic diagnosis and the ultrasonographic diagnosis, three of them were notable; pilomatricoma being misdiagnosed as dermatofibroma protuberans, angiolipoma being misdiagnosed as vascular leiomyoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma being misdiagnosed as a malignant soft tissue mass. The accuracy of an ultrasonographic diagnosis for soft tissue masses in the extremities varies greatly according to each type of mass. Lipoma, ganglion cyst, hemangioma, glomus tumor, neurogenic tumor and Baker's cyst showed a relatively high rate of concordance between the ultrasonographic diagnosis and the histologic diagnosis, but epidermoid cyst and fibroma showed a relatively lower rate of concordance

  7. Light-dependent pigment migration in blowfly photoreceptors studied by in vivo CLSM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Leertouwer, HL; Smits, RP

    The light-dependent migration of pigment granules in the soma of fly photoreceptors has been studied in vivo with a fast confocal laser scanning microscope. Images as well as photometric measurements were obtained in the reflection and fluorescence modes. Measurements at the single cell level were

  8. GABAERGIC MODULATION OF STRIATAL CHOLINERGIC INTERNEURONS - AN IN-VIVO MICRODIALYSIS STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBOER, P; WESTERINK, BHC

    Striatal cholinergic interneurons have been shown to receive input from striatal gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing cell elements. GABA is known to act on two different types of receptors, the GABA(A) and the GABA(B) receptor. Using in vivo microdialysis, we have studied the effect of

  9. An experimental model to study isolated effects of thrombin in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siller-Matula, J.M.; Bayer, G.; Bergmeister, H.; Quehenberger, P.; Petzelbauer, P.; Friedl, P.H.A.; Mesteri, I.; Jilma, B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to a recognized role in the coagulation cascade and haemostasis, thrombin is known to have multiple functions. We hypothesized that protracted intravenous infusion of thrombin at steady state will allow to study isolated thrombin effects in vivo. METHODS: Thrombin

  10. Small animal positron emission tomography imaging and in vivo studies of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hag, Anne Mette Fisker; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a growing health challenge globally, and despite our knowledge of the disease has increased over the last couple of decades, many unanswered questions remain. As molecular imaging can be used to visualize, characterize and measure biological processes at the molecular and cellu...... knowledge obtained from in vivo positron emission tomography studies of atherosclerosis performed in small animals....

  11. Ultrasonographic findings of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma of the uterus with a focus on cystic degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ga Eun; Rha, Sung Eun; Oh, Soon Nam; Lee, Ah Won; Lee, Keun Ho; Kim, Mee Ran [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    The goal of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the ultrasonographic findings associated with low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Ten pathologically confirmed cases of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma at our institution from January 2007 to April 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent a preoperative transvaginal ultrasound. Two radiologists came to a consensus regarding the location, size, margin, and echogenicity of the tumor, as well as the presence of intratumoral cystic degeneration and its extent and configuration. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma manifested as an intramural mass protruding into the endometrial cavity (n=6) or as a purely intramural mass (n=4). The maximal diameter of the lesion ranged from 4 to 9.1 cm (mean, 6.2 cm). The imaging features of low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma were variable: six cases involved predominantly solid masses containing cystic degeneration, one was a predominantly unilocular cystic mass, two were ill-defined infiltrative solid masses, and one was a well-defined solid mass. Among the seven cases with internal cystic degeneration, five patients showed a multiseptated cystic area or a cystic area with multiple small clusters, while a unilocular cystic area within the tumor was found in two patients. Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma is associated with variable ultrasonographic findings with regard to the location, margin, and configuration of the lesion. Multiseptated cystic areas and multiple small areas of cystic degeneration are common.

  12. Ultrasonographic assessment of the atlanto-occipital space in healthy Thoroughbred foals and Thoroughbred foals with neonatal maladjustment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C J; Haggett, E F; Pinchbeck, G L; Marr, C M

    2017-05-01

    Ultrasonography of the atlanto-occipital (AO) space may be useful as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in neonatal foals. The aims of the study were establish a range of values for ultrasonographic measurements of the AO space in healthy Thoroughbred foals and to compare these variables in healthy foals with foals diagnosed with neonatal maladjustment syndrome (NMS). Ultrasonography of the AO space was performed on 38 healthy Thoroughbred foals and 28 Thoroughbred foals with NMS≤4days of age. Transverse image spinal cord height (P=0.001), width (P<0.001) and spinal cord cross sectional area (P<0.001), and longitudinal image dorsoventral diameter of the ventral spinal artery, were significantly smaller in foals with NMS than in healthy foals. Ratios of spinal canal to cord width and cross sectional area were significantly smaller in healthy foals than in foals with NMS (P<0.001). Spinal canal variables were not significantly different between groups. Several ultrasonographic measurements of the AO space were significantly different between healthy foals and foals with NMS. Further investigation is warranted to investigate the clinical application of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-Time Amperometric Recording of Extracellular H2O2 in the Brain of Immunocompromised Mice: An In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Characterisation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Caroline H.; Finnerty, Niall J.

    2017-01-01

    We detail an extensive characterisation study on a previously described dual amperometric H2O2 biosensor consisting of H2O2 detection (blank) and degradation (catalase) electrodes. In vitro investigations demonstrated excellent H2O2 sensitivity and selectivity against the interferent, ascorbic acid. Ex vivo studies were performed to mimic physiological conditions prior to in vivo deployment. Exposure to brain tissue homogenate identified reliable sensitivity and selectivity recordings up to seven days for both blank and catalase electrodes. Furthermore, there was no compromise in pre- and post-implanted catalase electrode sensitivity in ex vivo mouse brain. In vivo investigations performed in anaesthetised mice confirmed the ability of the H2O2 biosensor to detect increases in amperometric current following locally perfused/infused H2O2 and antioxidant inhibitors mercaptosuccinic acid and sodium azide. Subsequent recordings in freely moving mice identified negligible effects of control saline and sodium ascorbate interference injections on amperometric H2O2 current. Furthermore, the stability of the amperometric current was confirmed over a five-day period and analysis of 24-h signal recordings identified the absence of diurnal variations in amperometric current. Collectively, these findings confirm the biosensor current responds in vivo to increasing exogenous and endogenous H2O2 and tentatively supports measurement of H2O2 dynamics in freely moving NOD SCID mice. PMID:28698470

  14. Real-Time Amperometric Recording of Extracellular H₂O₂ in the Brain of Immunocompromised Mice: An In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Characterisation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Caroline H; Finnerty, Niall J

    2017-07-08

    We detail an extensive characterisation study on a previously described dual amperometric H₂O₂ biosensor consisting of H₂O₂ detection (blank) and degradation (catalase) electrodes. In vitro investigations demonstrated excellent H₂O₂ sensitivity and selectivity against the interferent, ascorbic acid. Ex vivo studies were performed to mimic physiological conditions prior to in vivo deployment. Exposure to brain tissue homogenate identified reliable sensitivity and selectivity recordings up to seven days for both blank and catalase electrodes. Furthermore, there was no compromise in pre- and post-implanted catalase electrode sensitivity in ex vivo mouse brain. In vivo investigations performed in anaesthetised mice confirmed the ability of the H₂O₂ biosensor to detect increases in amperometric current following locally perfused/infused H₂O₂ and antioxidant inhibitors mercaptosuccinic acid and sodium azide. Subsequent recordings in freely moving mice identified negligible effects of control saline and sodium ascorbate interference injections on amperometric H₂O₂ current. Furthermore, the stability of the amperometric current was confirmed over a five-day period and analysis of 24-h signal recordings identified the absence of diurnal variations in amperometric current. Collectively, these findings confirm the biosensor current responds in vivo to increasing exogenous and endogenous H₂O₂ and tentatively supports measurement of H₂O₂ dynamics in freely moving NOD SCID mice.

  15. Biocompatibility assessment of modified Portland cement in comparison with MTA® : In vivo and in vitro studies

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    I Khalil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study is to elaborate a new cement based on Portland cement (PC, Modified Portland Cement (MPC with modified chemical and physical properties that allow easier clinical manipulation and faster setting time than MTA® and then to evaluate its cytotoxicity in vitro and its biocompatibility in vivo in comparison with MTA® . Materials and Methods: Elaboration of MPC: Portland cement powder slenderly grinded to homogenize the particles, mixed with a radiopaque element and a setting time accelerator. A comparative in vitro study (MTS test of the toxic effect of MTA® and MPC with culture isolated from the calvaria of 18-day-old fetal Swiss OF1 mice are done. A comparative in vivo study of the biocompatibility of MTA® and MPC: Under general anaesthesia, three holes (2.5 mm were made in both the left and right femurs of six White New Zealand rabbits. In the first hole MPC is placed, in the second MTA® and the third one is left empty (negative control group. Three weeks after implantation, two rabbits are sacrificed, then two other rabbits over six weeks and the last two after twelve weeks. The neck of the femur is trimmed and prepared for undecalcified histological studies. Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the results. Results: The cell viability test according to the morphological observations suggested the biocompatibility of the two biomaterials tested. The in vivo test showed similar biocompatibility between MTA® and MPC. Bone healing and minimal inflammatory response adjacent to MTA® and MPC implants were observed at all experimental periods (3, 6 and 12 weeks, suggesting that both materials are well tolerated. Conclusion: This pilot comparative study of MTA® and MPC showed no or very limited toxic effects of both cements in vitro and similar biocompatibility in vivo. However, additional in vivo and clinical studies should be done on MPC before it can be introduced in our clinical practice.

  16. Nigrosome-1 on Susceptibility Weighted Imaging to Differentiate Parkinson's Disease From Atypical Parkinsonism: An In Vivo and Ex Vivo Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.J.A.; Steens, S.C.A.; Rumund, A. van; Cappellen van Walsum, A.M. van; Kusters, B.; Esselink, R.A.J.; Verbeek, M.M.; Bloem, B.R.; Góraj, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous case-control studies have suggested that the absence of a swallow-tail appearance in the substantia nigra on high-resolution SWI, representing nigrosome-1, has high accuracy to identify Parkinson's disease (PD). The first goal of our study was to evaluate nigrosome-1 ex vivo

  17. The Ultrasonographic Findings of Trigger Points of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in a Rabbit Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Kyung Mi; Park, Seog Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Heon; Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Han Kyum [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common cause of musculoskeletal pain. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) have been repeatedly described by numerous authors. However, there have been few studies in which their existence and behavior was supported and their location confirmed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diagnostic ultrasonography is an objective diagnostic tool which is able to significantly identify or detect the soft tissue changes in the region of clinically identified active MTrPs by using a rabbit experimental model. Ten MPS model rabbits were used in this study. We made an MPS animal model by causing the rabbits to overuse one leg for 3 weeks by cutting the contralateral L4 spinal nerve root. We compared the ultrasonographic findings of the taut band at pre-OP with those at post-OP during the consecutive three week period. To find the taut bands of the muscle, after skin exposure, the muscles were gently rubbed or pinched with the thumb and index finger on the two opposing surfaces of the muscle across the direction of the fibers. Then, the muscle was held in the same way, but with a 5-8 MHz stick probe being used in place of the thumb. After the palpation of various muscles, we selected the hardest and largest myofascial trigger nodule, in order to observe the ultrasonographic and power Doppler findings of the MPS. The size, shape, echogenecity and vascularity of the MTrPs were observed. The analysis of the results of the ultrasonography revealed that all MTrPs have a hyperechoic area. The mean thickness of the hyperechoic lesion in the biceps was 0.96{+-}0.14 cm in the MPS site (at pre-OP?), and 0.49{+-}0.12 cm at post-OP 3weeks (p < 0.01). The hyperechoic lesions in all of the studied biceps femoris of the rabbits were observed by high resolution ultrasonography. No definitively decreased vascularity was observed within the hyperechoic area by power Doppler imaging. Until now, there has been no objective method for the diagnosis of

  18. Effect of chronic treatment with Rosiglitazone on Leydig cell steroidogenesis in rats: In vivo and ex vivo studies

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    Lima Maria C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to examine the effect of chronic treatment with rosiglitazone - thiazolidinedione used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus for its insulin sensitizing effects - on the Leydig cell steroidogenic capacity and expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc in normal adult rats. Methods Twelve adult male Wistar rats were treated with rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg administered by gavage for 15 days. Twelve control animals were treated with the vehicle. The ability of rosiglitazone to directly affect the production of testosterone by Leydig cells ex vivo was evaluated using isolated Leydig cells from rosiglitazone-treated rats. Testosterone production was induced either by activators of the cAMP/PKA pathway (hCG and dbcAMP or substrates of steroidogenesis [22(R-hydroxy-cholesterol (22(R-OH-C, which is a substrate for the P450scc enzyme, and pregnenolone, which is the product of the P450scc-catalyzed step]. Testosterone in plasma and in incubation medium was measured by radioimmunoassay. The StAR and P450scc expression was detected by immunocytochemistry. Results The levels of total circulating testosterone were not altered by rosiglitazone treatment. A decrease in basal or induced testosterone production occurred in the Leydig cells of rosiglitazone-treated rats. The ultrastructural and immunocytochemical analysis of Leydig cells from rosiglitazone-treated rats revealed cells with characteristics of increased activity as well as increased StAR and P450scc expression, which are key proteins in androgen biosynthesis. However, a number of rosiglitazone-treated cells exhibited significant mitochondrial damage. Conclusion The results revealed that the Leydig cells from rosiglitazone-treated rats showed significant reduction in testosterone production under basal, hCG/dbcAMP- or 22 (R-OH-C/pregnenolone-induced conditions, although

  19. Black pepper constituent piperine: genotoxicity studies in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Anette; Buskens, Carin; Woehrle, Tina; Etheve, Stéphane; Schoenmakers, Ankie; Fehr, Markus; Beilstein, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Piperine is responsible for the hot taste of black pepper. Publications on genotoxicity of piperine are reported: negative Ames Tests and one in vitro micronucleus test (MNT). In vivo tests were mainly negative. In the majority of the data the administered dose levels did not follow the dose selection requirements of regulatory guidelines of having dose levels up to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The only oral high dose studies were a positive in vivo MNT in mice in contrast to a negative in vivo chromosome aberration test in rats. Thus, conflicting results in genotoxicity testing are published. To investigate this further, we administered piperine to mice up to the MTD and determined micronuclei-frequency. Piperine reduces core body temperature and interferes with blood cells both being known to result in irrelevant positive in vivo MNTs. Therefore we added mechanistic endpoints: core body temperature, haematology, erythropoietin level, and organ weights. Additionally an in vitro MNT in Chinese hamster ovary cells was performed. Piperine was negative in the in vitro MNT. It caused significant reduction of core body temperature, decrease of white blood cells and spleen weights but no increase in the micronucleus-frequency. Thus, in our studies piperine was not genotoxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic ultrasonographic measurement of passive coxofemoral joint laxity in puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, R T; Dueland, R T; Adams, W C; Meinen, J

    1997-01-01

    A new method of dynamic ultrasonographic evaluation of passive coxofemoral joint laxity was used to examine a total of 30 greyhound (n = 13) and nongreyhound (n = 17) puppies. Puppies were evaluated sonographically at four, six, eight, 12, 16, and 26 weeks of age. The coxofemoral joints were distracted manually, and the femoral head displacements were measured during distraction. The greyhounds had significantly smaller (p less than 0.01) maximum distraction distance (mean +/- standard deviation [SD], 0.11 +/- 0.04 cm) than nongreyhound puppies (mean +/- SD, 0.26 +/- 0.10 cm). In six- to eight-week-old puppies, the maximum distraction distance was correlated significantly (p of 0.0001, adjusted correlation coefficient [r2] of 0.27) with stress radiographic indices. Coxofemoral joints interpreted as being abnormal on hip-extended radiographs taken at one year of age were associated significantly (p of 0.0001) with higher maximum distraction distances in six- to eight-week-old puppies.

  1. [The Abdominal Ultrasonographic Appearance of Acute Phlegmonous Gastritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odai, Tsuyoshi; Hibino, Takenori

    2016-03-01

    Phlegmonous gastritis (PG) is a nonspecific suppurative inflammation disease arising from the submucosal layer, and extending to the full thickness of the stomach. We herein report on a case of acute PG which was diagnosed with abdominal ultrasonography. A 64-year-old man presented at a hospital after having recently undergone pacemaker implantation for the treatment of complete atrioventricular block. He was admitted as an emergency due to a fever of 39 degrees C. He showed anorexia, epigastralgia, vomiting of coffee-ground emesis on the second hospital day, and abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) performed on the third hospital day showed the disappearance of the normal laminated structure and hypoechoic thickening of the stomach walls. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed significant hyperplasia of the stomach walls, an erythrogenic mucosa, and poor extension. On the fourth hospital day, computed tomography revealed concentric thickening of the stomach walls. Streptococcus pyogenes was cultured from his blood sample. Based on those findings, the patient was diagnosed as having acute phlegmonous gastritis. His clinical symptoms improved and the abnormal ultrasonographic examination findings thereafter returned to normal following the administration of antibiotics. PG should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis when encountering patients with acute abdomen. We experienced a rare case of acute phlegmonous gastritis and AUS was useful for making an early diagnosis.

  2. Ultrasonographic Findings in Hemiplegic Knees of Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Pin Yang

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and radiologic asymmetric arthritic differences between paralyzed and nonparalyzed limbs of stroke patients have been reported. Arthritic pathology aggravates motor dysfunction and compromises rehabilitation. Musculoskeletal ultrasonography plays an important role in showing soft tissue and the articular cartilage of the knee. Fifty-nine patients with either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke-induced right or left hemiplegia were recruited to evaluate soft-tissue and intra-articular cartilage changes in hemiplegic knees of stroke patients using ultrasonography. An additional 15 subjects (30 knees without knee disease or a history of knee trauma or surgery were used as controls. There were significant differences in suprapatellar effusion and patellar tendinitis between hemiplegic and nonhemiplegic knees. Suprapatellar effusion and pes anserinus tendinitis were correlated with Brunnstrom stage. The length of time since stroke onset was not significantly correlated with positive ultrasonographic findings in hemiplegic knees. In conclusion, ultrasonography is useful for detecting periarticular soft-tissue changes and intra-articular lesions in hemiplegic knees of stroke patients.

  3. Ultrasonographic findings of the soft tissue lesions of the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Hee; Lee, Kun Won; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck; Son, Won Young [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-02-15

    The ultrasonography is safe, rapid, and very effective method for evaluation of soft tissue lesions, especially by using high frequency transducer. The authors analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 49 cases of the soft tissue lesions of extremities which were proven clinically and surgically and/or pathologically in Korea University Hospital for recent 5 years. The result were as follows: 1. Of the 49 cases, 27 cases were male and 22 cases female. 2. Infectious conditions were 22 case, benign tumor 6 cases, malignant tumor 6 cases, and miscellaneous 15 cases. 3. The accurate diagnosis of nature of the lesions was possible in all cases except tuberculous tendinitis of Achilles tendon in infectious conditions (21/22), except neurilemmoma in benign tumors (5/6), except soft tissue synovial sarcoma and liposarcoma in malignant tumors (4/6), and all cases of miscellaneous conditions (15/15) with clinical symptom and plain X-ray film. 4. By using high frequency transducer for extremity lesions, we obtained precise location, size , shape, and internal structure of the lesions and guide for aspiration and/or biopsy.

  4. Evaluation of MRCP for further examination after ultrasonographic check up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuma, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Masao; Habu, Daiki; Takino, Toshiko; Iwano, Masahiro; Mizuno, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Akihiko; Yamada, Shigenobu [Yodogawa Christian Hospital, Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Usefulness of MRCP, which presents images of bile and pancreatic ducts clearly, was evaluated as a further examination method after ultrasonographic check up of the abdomen. Of 7,191 persons who had received ultrasonography in a health examination, 32 cases were the subjects who exhibited abnormality in those ducts. MRI apparatus used was Siemens Magnetom Impact Expart (1.0 T) using surface coil of body array type. Imaging was done according to Haste (half Fourier single shot turbo spin echo) method on coronary, oblique and cross sections, from which MRCP images were reconstructed with MIP (maximum intensity projection). Conditions were all T2-weighted ones and T1-weighted ones were employed only when necessary. MRCP findings were evaluated together with findings by ultrasonography, surgery and ERCP. As a result, one case with a cancer at the duodenum papilla and one with confluence abnormality of bile and pancreatic juice were found out and thus MRCP was thought useful for the purpose. (K.H.)

  5. Repeatability of Doppler ultrasonographic measurement of equine digital blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies-Gow, Nicola J; Marr, Celia M

    2007-01-01

    The repeatability and sensitivity of Doppler ultrasonographic measurement of lateral digital arterial and venous blood flow has not been previously determined. Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure blood flow within the forelimb lateral digital vessels in one normal adult Thoroughbred horse on six occasions and in six normal adult Thoroughbred horses on three occasions, each occasion being at least 1 h apart, to determine the within- and between-horse variation. The values obtained from the right and left lateral digital vessels did not differ significantly. The within-horse coefficients of variation (CV) for arterial and venous measurements were all acceptable ( or = 0.71) for all parameters except venous diameter; the between-horse ICC demonstrated good to excellent repeatability (> or = 0.67) for all parameters except TaVb. Doppler ultrasonography can detect differences of 0.005 and 0.01 ml/ min in digital arterial and venous flow, respectively, using measurements from six horses on three occasions (80% power; P < 0.05). Thus, the technique is sufficiently repeatable and sensitive to be able to detect changes in flow during different physiological or pathological states or following pharmacologic intervention.

  6. Comparative study of nanosecond electric fields in vitro and in vivo on hepatocellular carcinoma indicate macrophage infiltration contribute to tumor ablation in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recurrence and metastasis are associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma even in the patients who have undergone radical resection. Therefore, effective treatment is urgently needed for improvement of patients' survival. Previously, we reported that nanosecond pulse electric fields (nsPEFs can ablate melanoma by induction of apoptosis and inhibition of angiogenesis. This study aims to investigate the in vivo ablation strategy by comparing the dose effect of nanosecond electric fields in vitro and in vivo on hepatocellular carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines HepG2, SMMC7721, Hep1-6, and HCCLM3 were pulsed to test the anti-proliferation and anti-migration ability of 100 ns nsPEFs in vitro. The animal model of human subdermal xenograft HCCLM3 cells into BALB/c nude mouse was used to test the anti-tumor growth and macrophage infiltration in vivo. RESULTS: In vitro assays showed anti-tumor effect of nsPEFs is dose-dependant. But the in vivo study showed the strategy of low dose and multiple treatments is superior to high dose single treatment. The macrophages infiltration significantly increased in the tumors which were treated by multiple low dose nsPEFs. CONCLUSION: The low dose multiple nsPEFs application is more efficient than high dose single treatment in inhibiting the tumor volume in vivo, which is quite different from the dose-effect relationship in vitro. Beside the electric field strength, the macrophage involvement must be considered to account for effect variability and toxicology in vivo.

  7. Clinical and histopathologic findings in dogs with the ultrasonographic appearance of gastric muscularis unorganized hyperechoic striations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Hock Gan; Lim, Chee Kin; Steinbach, Sarah; Broman, Meaghan Maureen; Miller, Margaret Allan

    2018-02-09

    Ultrasonographic appearance of unorganized hyperechoic striations (UHS) has been observed in the canine gastric muscularis layer. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence, sonographic and postmortem histologic features, and to determine the clinical significance of canine gastric muscularis UHS. In the prospective study, 72 dogs were included. The presence of gastric muscularis UHS were reviewed to determine its distribution and location. In the retrospective study, 167 dogs that had both abdominal ultrasonography and necropsy were included. The prevalence of gastric muscularis UHS in dogs was 37.5% in the prospective and 5.4% in the retrospective studies respectively. The higher prevalence in prospective study was due to greater anticipation by the radiologists in search for gastric muscularis UHS. In the ventral gastric wall, the muscularis UHS were better defined when the gastric lumen was empty or non-distended, and were mostly parallel with the serosa when the gastric wall was distended (with gas or fluid). Visualization of the dorsal gastric wall was often obscured by gas shadowing from luminal gas. Histopathology was performed on eight dogs with gastric muscularis UHS, three of which had fibrous tissue observed with Masson's trichrome stain. Presence of gastric muscularis UHS in dogs may have been attributable to presence of incomplete interfaces between the inner oblique, middle circular and outer longitudinal layers of the gastric tunica muscularis or due to presence of fibrous tissue within the gastric muscularis layer. The clinical significance of canine gastric muscularis UHS is uncertain.

  8. In vitro and in vivo haemolytic studies of tentacle-only extract from jellyfish Cyanea capillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Qian-qian; He, Qian; Liu, Si-hua; Li, Yue; Zhang, Li-ming

    2010-06-01

    To approach the real haemolytic process of jellyfish toxins, both in vitro and in vivo haemolysis of tentacle-only extract (TOE) from jellyfish Cyanea capillata has been studied. Dose-response curves of the haemolytic activity of TOE in vitro were sigmoid shaped in both erythrocyte suspension and diluted whole blood, with the former more sensitive to TOE. The in vivo haemolysis increased sharply in the first 10 min and was followed by a gradual increase in the following 3h, with increasing blood potassium and lactic acid accordingly. SC5b-9 complexes were significantly up-regulated in vitro, but not in vivo. These results showed that the haemolysis of TOE in diluted whole blood and in vivo is not totally consistent with that in the erythrocyte suspension, and blood plasma might play a protective role against haemolysis. Thus we suggested that erythrocyte suspension can be used to test the damage of toxin on erythrocyte membrane, while the diluted whole blood may be more suitable to test the haemolysis of toxins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Studying liver cancer metastasis by in vivo imaging and flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Gu, Zhengqin; Guo, Jin; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wei, Xunbin

    2009-11-01

    Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, or HCC) is associated with liver cirrhosis 60-80% of the time. Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with approximately 1,000,000 cases reported every year. About 80% of people with primary liver cancer are male. Although two-thirds of people have advanced liver disease when they seek medical help, one third of the patients have cancer that has not progressed beyond the liver. HCC may metastasize to the lung, bones, kidney, and many other organs. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current HCC therapies. However the outcomes are poor: the survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of HCC cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern liver tumor cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo with real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess liver tumor cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating liver tumor cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  10. A Critical Analysis of the Available In Vitro and Ex Vivo Methods to Study Retinal Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Moleiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a biological process with a central role in retinal diseases. The choice of the ideal method to study angiogenesis, particularly in the retina, remains a problem. Angiogenesis can be assessed through in vitro and in vivo studies. In spite of inherent limitations, in vitro studies are faster, easier to perform and quantify, and typically less expensive and allow the study of isolated angiogenesis steps. We performed a systematic review of PubMed searching for original articles that applied in vitro or ex vivo angiogenic retinal assays until May 2017, presenting the available assays and discussing their applicability, advantages, and disadvantages. Most of the studies evaluated migration, proliferation, and tube formation of endothelial cells in response to inhibitory or stimulatory compounds. Other aspects of angiogenesis were studied by assessing cell permeability, adhesion, or apoptosis, as well as by implementing organotypic models of the retina. Emphasis is placed on how the methods are applied and how they can contribute to retinal angiogenesis comprehension. We also discuss how to choose the best cell culture to implement these methods. When applied together, in vitro and ex vivo studies constitute a powerful tool to improve retinal angiogenesis knowledge. This review provides support for researchers to better select the most suitable protocols in this field.

  11. Ultrasonographic Findings of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Comparison with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hun; Kim, Bum Soo; Jung, So Lyung [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2009-04-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) findings of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) as compared to findings for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 21 cases of MTC that were surgically diagnosed between 2002 and 2007 and 114 cases of PTC that were diagnosed in 2007. Two radiologists reached a consensus in the evaluation of the US findings. The US findings were classified as recommended by the Thyroid Study Group of the Korean Society of Neuroradiology and Head and Neck Radiology (KSNHNR) and each nodule was identified as suspicious malignant, indeterminate or probably benign. The findings of medullary and papillary carcinomas were compared with use of the chi-squared test. The common US findings for MTCs were solid internal content (91%), an ovoid to round shape (57%), marked hypoechogenicity (52%) and calcifications (52%). Among the 21 cases of MTC nodules, 17 (81%) were classified as suspicious malignant nodules. The mean size (longest diameter) of MTC nodules was 19 {+-}13.9 mm and the mean size (longest diameter) of PTC nodules was 11 {+-} 7.4 mm; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). An ovoid to round shape was more prevalent for MTC lesions than for PTC lesions (p < 0.05). The US criteria for suspicious malignant nodules as recommended by the Thyroid Study Group of the KSNHNR correspond to most MTC cases. The US findings for MTC are not greatly different from PTC except for the prevalence of an ovoid to round shape.

  12. Precision-cut hamster liver slices as an ex vivo model to study amoebic liver abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Santiago-Mauricio, María Guadalupe; Guzmán-Delgado, Nancy Elena; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Lozano-Garza, Gerardo; Ventura-Juárez, Javier; Balderas-Rentería, Isaías; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2010-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the etiological agent of amoebiasis, the second cause of global morbidity and mortality due to parasitic diseases in humans. In approximately 1% of the cases, amoebas penetrate the intestinal mucosa and spread to other organs, producing extra-intestinal lesions, among which amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common. To study ALA, in vivo and in vitro models are used. However, animal models may pose ethical issues, and are time-consuming and costly; and cell cultures represent isolated cellular lineages. The present study reports the infection of precision-cut hamster liver slices with Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites. The infection time-course, including tissue damage, parallels findings previously reported in the animal model. At the same time amoebic virulence factors were detected in the infected slices. This new model to study ALA is simple and reproducible, and employs less than 1/3 of the hamsters required for in vivo analyses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Design, development and in vitro-in vivo study of tramadol-paracetamol inlay tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotta, Sabna; Bijumol, C; Anitha, Y; Dileep, K J; Valsala, Kumari

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this work is to formulate, optimize and evaluate in-lay tablets of tramadol-paracetamol. This study investigated the effect of hydrophobic, plastic and hydrophilic types of polymers and their content level on release profile of a highly water-soluble drug tramadol hydrochloride. A 3(2) full factorial design was employed for the optimization of the sustained release (SR) formula of tramadol hydrochloride using ethyl cellulose, eudragit and carbopol. CP9 (66% carbopol and compression load of 6 ton) with a percentage drug release of 89.03 after 12 hours were found to be most comparable to the marketed product in terms of similarity factor and most appropriately fits to zero-order kinetics. Hence, it was selected for in vivo study. Statistical analysis of in vivo studies showed that the plasma drug level after oral administration from the prepared formulation is almost comparable to the marketed product (p 971).

  14. A nanoparticle dispersion method for in vitro and in vivo nanotoxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong C; Chen, Da-Ren; Qi, Chaolong; Gelein, Robert M; Finkelstein, Jacob N; Elder, Alison; Bentley, Karen; Oberdörster, Günter; Pui, David Y H

    2010-03-01

    The dispersion in air of nanoparticles of different sizes, materials and morphologies with controlled agglomeration involving aerosol delivery for in vivo and in vitro studies is one of the most difficult challenges in the field of nanoparticle toxicology. We describe here a nanoparticle dispersion system using an electrospray method to deliver airborne nanoparticles (approximately 10-100 nm) with spatial uniformity and controllable particle concentration for in vitro and in vivo studies. With the dispersion method, single nanoparticles (polystyrene latex particles, TiO(2), Au, Mn, quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes) can be delivered to cells and animals via the air. The degree of agglomeration can be controlled by changing the suspension feeding rate to simulate realistic conditions for exposure studies.

  15. Ultrasonographic features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy

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    Sung, Hwa Sung; Kim, Young Seon [Dept. of Radiology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. This study was performed with approval from our Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Six traumatic neuromas in five patients were included in this study. The US findings of traumatic neuromas were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. The final assessment was also recorded. On US, all six lesions presented as a mass within the pectoralis muscle layer (mean size, 4.8 mm; range, 3.9 to 5.5 mm). Of the six masses, four had an oval shape with a circumscribed margin, and two had an irregular shape and an indistinct margin. They were all hypoechoic. Two lesions showed a non-parallel orientation. On color Doppler examinations, two lesions showed internal vascularity. Strain elastography was performed for four neuromas, resulting in scores of 1 (n=1), 4 (n=2), and 5 (n=1). The final assessment categories were BI-RADS 3 (n=2), 4A (n=2), and 4B (n=2). On US, an oval shape, circumscribed margin, parallel orientation, and hypoechogenicity were the most frequent features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Neuromas may show increased vascularity on color Doppler imaging and present as a hard mass on elastography.

  16. Ultrasonographic features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwa Sung Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic (US features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Methods This study was performed with approval from our Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Six traumatic neuromas in five patients were included in this study. The US findings of traumatic neuromas were evaluated retrospectively by two radiologists according to the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS lexicon. The final assessment was also recorded. Results On US, all six lesions presented as a mass within the pectoralis muscle layer (mean size, 4.8 mm; range, 3.9 to 5.5 mm. Of the six masses, four had an oval shape with a circumscribed margin, and two had an irregular shape and an indistinct margin. They were all hypoechoic. Two lesions showed a non-parallel orientation. On color Doppler examinations, two lesions showed internal vascularity. Strain elastography was performed for four neuromas, resulting in scores of 1 (n=1, 4 (n=2, and 5 (n=1. The final assessment categories were BI-RADS 3 (n=2, 4A (n=2, and 4B (n=2. Conclusion On US, an oval shape, circumscribed margin, parallel orientation, and hypoechogenicity were the most frequent features of traumatic neuromas in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Neuromas may show increased vascularity on color Doppler imaging and present as a hard mass on elastography.

  17. Effects of different strength training on muscle architecture: clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Fevziye Ünsal; Ozçakar, Levent; Kaymak, Bayram; Ulaşlı, Alper; Güner, Senem; Kara, Murat; Akıncı, Ayşen

    2013-08-01

    Different strengthening exercises are generally prescribed to overcome the undesirable effects of decreased muscular function on the osteoarthritic joint. Although a few studies have shown the effects of strengthening on the muscle structure in healthy individuals, the literature lacks relevant data concerning knee osteoarthritis. To evaluate the effects of different exercises on quadriceps muscle strength and structure in persons with knee osteoarthritis. A randomized controlled study. Physical medicine and rehabilitation department of a university hospital. Sixty-one patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into 6 exercise groups (isometric right/left, isotonic right/left, isokinetic right/left). Subjects were evaluated for pain and functional status with use of the visual analog pain scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index, 50-step walking, and single-leg stance tests before and after 15 sessions of physical therapy. Isokinetic tests were performed at 60° per second. Ultrasonographic measurements for pennation angle, fascicle length, and muscle thickness were performed from the vastus lateralis muscles bilaterally. Increased knee extensor strength was observed bilaterally in the isometric group (P effects of different strength training on muscle strength and architecture in patients with knee osteoarthritis by using isokinetic measurements and ultrasound. Our results suggest that exercises may influence the muscle architecture in patients with knee osteoarthritis. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate the effects of cross-education on muscle architecture. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of biochemical and ultrasonographic measurements as indicators of undernutrition in cattle

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    S. Strydom

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Body condition scoring (BCS gives an indication of the nutritional status of an animal and it is thus an invaluable management tool in domestic livestock systems. It is, however, subjective. This study aimed at identifying biochemical indicators which could be objectively used as an indicator of undernutrition in ruminants. Blood samples were collected from 50 cattle with BCS ≤ 1 and from 50 cattle with BCS ≥ 2.5, using a 0-5 scale, and analysed for albumin, urea, creatinine, fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, total serum protein and haematocrit. Rumpfat and ribfat thickness and marbling relative index were determined ultrasonographically in 15 of the low BCS group and 13 of the high BCS group. The laboratory measure with the best predictive ability for severe undernutrition was albumin, which correctly classified 94 % of cattle, using a cut-off of 31.5 g / ℓ. In contrast to a previous study, our study did not find the fructosamine : albumin ratio to be an accurate test to indicate undernutrition in cattle. Ultrasonic measurement of subcutaneous rumpfat and ribfat proved to reliably predict undernutrition, but may, however be impractical for routine use under most field conditions.

  19. Resolution of a pancreatic pseudocyst in a dog following percutaneous ultrasonographic-guided drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S A; Biller, D S

    1998-01-01

    A six-year-old, spayed female Shetland sheepdog was presented with acute onset of anorexia and vomiting. An inflammatory leukogram and elevated serum amylase, lipase, alkaline phosphatase, alanine transferase, and triglycerides supported a diagnosis of severe acute pancreatitis. An enlarged, hypoechoic pancreas was visualized on abdominal ultrasonography. The patient clinically responded to medical therapy consisting of nothing per os, total parenteral nutrition, and supportive care. She presented again three weeks later with anorexia and vomiting. A large, anechoic mass was seen in the left limb of the pancreas on ultrasonographic examination of the abdomen. Differentials for this mass included abscess, focal peritonitis, and pancreatic pseudocyst. Clinical signs resolved with supportive care. The mass failed to resolve. Sterile fluid (35 ml) was removed via ultrasonographic-guided centesis 42 days after initial presentation. Ultrasonographic appearance, biochemical analyses, and fluid examination with negative cultures suggested pancreatic pseudocyst. The pseudocyst gradually resolved over the next seven months postcentesis.

  20. Technical innovation for noninvasive and early diagnosis of biliary atresia: the ultrasonographic "triangular cord" sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W H; Choi, S O; Lee, H J

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we introduce our experience regarding a new and noninvasive diagnostic tool, using ultrasonography, for the early and definite diagnosis of biliary atresia. We have focussed on the ultrasonographic image of the cone-shaped periportal fibrous mass in infants with biliary atresia since 1992, and have finally identified a triangular or band-like periportal echogenicity ("triangular cord" sign), mainly cranial to the portal vein. Based on our experience and other reports from Japan and Singapore, the ultrasonographic triangular cord sign is a simple, time-saving, highly reliable, and definite tool in the diagnosis of biliary atresia from infantile intrahepatic cholestasis, representing a positive predictive value greater than 95%. We have proposed a new diagnostic strategy in the evaluation of infantile cholestasis, with emphasis on the ultrasonographic triangular cord sign.

  1. Definition and Reliability Assessment of Elementary Ultrasonographic Findings in Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippou, Georgios; Scirè, Carlo A; Damjanov, Nemanja

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the ultrasonographic characteristics of calcium pyrophosphate crystal (CPP) deposits in joints and periarticular tissues and to evaluate the intra- and interobserver reliability of expert ultrasonographers in the assessment of CPP deposition disease (CPPD) according to the new...... definitions. METHODS: After a systematic literature review, a Delphi survey was circulated among a group of expert ultrasonographers, who were members of the CPPD Ultrasound (US) Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) subtask force, to obtain definitions of the US characteristics of CPPD at the level...... of fibrocartilage (FC), hyaline cartilage (HC), tendon, and synovial fluid (SF). Subsequently, the reliability of US in assessing CPPD at knee and wrist levels according to the agreed definitions was tested in static images and in patients with CPPD. Cohen's κ was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: HC and FC...

  2. Ultrasonographic determination of the thyroid volume in 7- 10 years old children of Bushehr port 2007

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    Farzad Morad Haseli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Determination of thyroid volume using ultrasound has been recommended for monitoring public control of iodine deficiency programs in areas with mild iodine deficiency or with no iodine deficiency, instead of physical examination, in order to estimate the prevalence rate of goiter. The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges of thyroid volume in Bushehr port. Methods: Thyroid volume of 1247 primary schoolchildren aged 7-10 years who were selected by probability proportionate to size method from rural and urban areas of Bushehr port was determined using ultrasonography. Medians and percentiles of thyroid volumes for age and body surface area were calculated for both genders. Results: The 97th percentiles of thyroid volume of Bushehr port schoolchildren according to age and sex were all lower than the corresponding sex-specific normative WHO reference values. Goiter prevalence was 1.68% according to WHO thyroid volume references for age in the studied population. The goiter prevalence according to age and body surface area-specific new normative WHO reference values were 7.13 and 7.17%, respectively. Conclusion: The 97th percentile for thyroid volume, calculated by ultrasonography in Bushehr port schoolchildren, were lower than the international WHO newly recommended reference values in all ages. Therefore, determination of a native reference value for estimating the prevalence rate of thyroid is highly recommended. According to ultrasonographically determined goiter prevalence, Bushehr is an iodine sufficient area.

  3. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CAVERNOUS TRANSFORMATION OF THE OBSTRUCTED PORTAL VEIN IN SMALL ANIMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specchi, Swan; Pey, Pascaline; Ledda, Gianluca; Lustgarten, Meghann; Thrall, Donald; Bertolini, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the process of development of collateral vessels with hepatopetal flow around the portal vein in order to bypass an obstruction is called "cavernous transformation of the portal vein." The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional, multicentric study was to describe presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in small animals with portal vein obstruction using ultrasound and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT). Databases from three different institutions were searched for patients with an imaging diagnosis of cavernous transformation of the portal vein secondary to portal vein obstruction of any cause. Images were retrieved and reanalyzed. With MDCT-angiography, two main portoportal collateral pathways were identified: short tortuous portoportal veins around/inside the thrombus and long portoportal collaterals bypassing the site of portal obstruction. Three subtypes of the long collaterals, often coexisting, were identified. Branches of the hepatic artery where involved in collateral circulation in nine cases. Concomitant acquired portosystemic shunts were identified in six patients. With ultrasound, cavernous transformation of the portal vein was suspected in three dogs and one cat based on visualization of multiple and tortuous vascular structures corresponding to periportal collaterals. In conclusion, the current study provided descriptive MDCT and ultrasonographic characteristics of presumed cavernous transformation of the portal vein in a sample of small animals. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein could occur as a single condition or could be concurrent with acquired portosystemic shunts. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  4. In vivo functional genomic studies of sterol carrier protein-2 gene in the yellow fever mosquito.

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    Rong Peng

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient DNA delivery method to introduce extrachromosomal DNA into mosquito embryos would significantly aid functional genomic studies. The conventional method for delivery of DNA into insects is to inject the DNA directly into the embryos. Taking advantage of the unique aspects of mosquito reproductive physiology during vitellogenesis and an in vivo transfection reagent that mediates DNA uptake in cells via endocytosis, we have developed a new method to introduce DNA into mosquito embryos vertically via microinjection of DNA vectors in vitellogenic females without directly manipulating the embryos. Our method was able to introduce inducible gene expression vectors transiently into F0 mosquitoes to perform functional studies in vivo without transgenic lines. The high efficiency of expression knockdown was reproducible with more than 70% of the F0 individuals showed sufficient gene expression suppression (<30% of the controls' levels. At the cohort level, AeSCP-2 expression knockdown in early instar larvae resulted in detectable phenotypes of the expression deficiency such as high mortality, lowered fertility, and distorted sex ratio after induction of AeSCP-2 siRNA expression in vivo. The results further confirmed the important role of AeSCP-2 in the development and reproduction of A. aegypti. In this study, we proved that extrachromosomal transient expression of an inducible gene from a DNA vector vertically delivered via vitellogenic females can be used to manipulate gene expression in F0 generation. This new method will be a simple and efficient tool for in vivo functional genomic studies in mosquitoes.

  5. Chitosan-alginate capsules as oral delivery system for insulin: studies in vitro and in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, C.A.; R. M. LUCINDA-SILVA; P. CLASEN; S. MAFFEZZOLLI; Bürger, C

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess chitosan:alginate capsules as gastric resistant systems for oral administration of insulin. Chitosan:alginate capsules of insulin were tested in simulated gastric and intestinal media and in vivo. The capsules released only about 20% of the insulin after 60 minutes of incubation in simulated gastric medium. On the other hand, almost all the encapsulated insulin was released after being incubated for 90 min in simulated intestinal medium. When capsules conta...

  6. Ankle tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation

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    Ana Luiza Naves Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate ankle tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients, regarding its presence, the kind of tendon involved and the concordance between clinical and ultrasound findings. Methods: Twenty patients with rheumatoid arthritis and pain or swollen ankle joint were evaluated. Tendon involvement was evaluated with ultrasound imaging. The Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ was performed for disability evaluation. Age, sex, disease duration, and vocational activity levels were also obtained. The statistical analysis included Fisher’s exact test. The significance level was 0.05. Results: Tenosynovitis was found in 13 of 20 (65.0% patients in 19 joints, in which 6 were bilaterally (46.1% and unilateral in 7 (53.8%. Tibialis posterior tenosynovitis was seen in nine (45.0% patients, Achilles tenosynovitis in seven (35.0%, tibialis anterior tenosynovitis in three (15.0%, and peroneal tenosynovitis in three (15.0% patients. We found concordance between symptomatic ankle and ultrasonographic findings in 92.3% of the patients with tenosynovitis. Association between severe HAQ with tendon involvement was not found (p>0.05. Disease duration was not associated with tenosynovitis. Patients were predominantly older, female, with mean age around 50.8 years. The long disease duration of patients presented a mean of 11.4 years and, most of them, with no vocational activity (65.0%. Conclusions: The results indicate that ankle tenosynovitis is very common in rheumatoid arthritis patients, both unilateral and bilateral. Tibialis posterior was the most common tendon involvement found. Finally, we found concordance between the clinical and ultrasound findings in almost all rheumatoid arthritis patients with ankle tenosynovitis.

  7. Antitumor effects of Osthol from Cnidium monnieri: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Szu-Yuan; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Wang, Kun-Teng; Wang, Min-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Chiung

    2007-03-01

    Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson is a Chinese medicine which is used widely by traditional medicine doctors. Osthol is a major bio-activity compound of the herb. In this study, osthol was isolated from C. monnieri and its in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects studied. The results of the in vitro study showed: that osthol inhibited the growth of HeLa, in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with IC(50) values of 77.96 and 64.94 microm for 24 and 48 h, respectively; that osthol had lower cytotoxic effects in primary cultured normal cervical fibroblasts; and that increased DNA fragmentation and activated PARP in HeLa after treatment with osthol which could induce apoptosis. The results of the in vivo model showed that the survival days of the P-388 D1 tumor-bearing CDF(1) mice were prolonged (ILS% = 37) after osthol (30 mg/kg) was given once a day for 9 days. Based on these results, it is suggested that osthol could inhibit P-388 D1 cells in vivo and induce apoptosis in HeLa cells in vitro, and that osthol is good lead compound for developing antitumor drugs. However, C. formosanum Yabe of Taiwan's endemic plants contained little osthol, with no imperatorin, and its major components were different from that of C. monnieri. Therefore, it is suggested that C. formosanum also may possess economic worth.

  8. Improving In Vitro to In Vivo Extrapolation by Incorporating Toxicokinetic Measurements: A Case Study of Lindane-Induced Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approaches for extrapolating in vitro toxicity testing results for prediction of human in vivo outcomes are needed. The purpose of this case study was to employ in vitro toxicokinetics and PBPK modeling to perform in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of lindane neurotoxicit...

  9. Descemet Membrane Thickening as a Sign for the Diagnosis of Corneal Graft Rejection: An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDenBerg, Ryan; Diakonis, Vasilios F; Bozung, Alison; Gameiro, Gustavo Rosa; Fischer, Oliver; El Dakkak, Ahmed; Ulloa-Padilla, Jan Paul; Anagnostopoulos, Apostolos; Dubovy, Sander; Abou Shousha, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    To disclose, using an ex vivo study, the histopathological mechanism behind in vivo thickening of the endothelium/Descemet membrane complex (En/DM) observed in rejected corneal grafts (RCGs). Descemet membrane (DM), endothelium, and retrocorneal membranes make up the total En/DM thickness. These layers are not differentiable by high-definition optical coherence tomography; therefore, the source of thickening is unclear from an in vivo perspective. A retrospective ex vivo study (from September 2015 to December 2015) was conducted to measure the thicknesses of DM, endothelium, and retrocorneal membrane in 54 corneal specimens (31 RCGs and 23 controls) using light microscopy. Controls were globes with posterior melanoma without corneal involvement. There were 54 corneas examined ex vivo with mean age 58.1 ± 12.2 in controls and 51.7 ± 27.9 years in RCGs. The ex vivo study uncovered the histopathological mechanism of En/DM thickening to be secondary to significant thickening (P vivo study shows that DM is responsible for thickening of the En/DM in RCGs observed in vivo by high-definition optical coherence tomography and not the endothelium or retrocorneal membrane.

  10. Correlation of ultrasonographic measurements, histopathological grading, and clinical staging in oral submucous fibrosis

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    Rashmi Kewal Agarwal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the presence and thickness of submucosal fibrosis in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF patients ultrasonographically and to correlate these findings with the clinical stage and histological grade of OSMF. Materials and Methods: Forty participants (twenty cases and twenty controls were included in the study. The patients diagnosed clinically as having OSMF and consented for biopsy were included in the cases, and completely healthy individuals with no habit history or oral lesions were included in the control group after matching the body mass index. After clinically staging, the patients' transcutaneous ultrasonography (USG was performed and after that punch biopsy was taken and the specimen was graded histopathologically. Results: The data were statistically analyzed using Mann–Whitney test and Spearman's rank correlation. The cases showed increased submucosal thickness as compared to the controls. The USG measurements statistically correlated with the clinical stage and histopathological grade of OSMF. Conclusion: USG proves to be a valuable adjunctive modality in diagnosing, staging and also evaluating the prognosis of OSMF.

  11. Relationship between ultrasonographically determined kidney volume and progression of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegar Zubović, Sandra; Kristić, Spomenka; Sefić Pašić, Irmina

    2016-08-01

    Aim To investigate a correlation between calculated creatinine clearance as a measure of kidney's functional abilities and ultrasonographically determined kidney volume, which represents actual size of the kidney, in fact residual renal mass in chronic kidney disease, in order to determine possibilities of ultrasound as a diagnostic method in diagnosing and follow up of chronic renal disease. Methods Prospective study included 150 patients with registered demographic and anthropometric data, and also with relevant laboratory tests of renal function. Longitudinal diameter, thickness and width of the kidney and renal volume calculated according to the Dinkel's formula were measured by ultrasound. A correlation between the measured volume of the kidneys and calculated creatinine clearance was done by the Spearman method, with statistical significance of pkidney volume was found (pkidneys' volume showed a linear decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease: the kidney volume in the control healthy group was 171.7 ± 32.6 mL (95.22- 229.59 mL), and in the subjects classified in stage IV it was 74.7 ± 24.6 mL (43.22-165.65 mL). Conclusion Calculated volume of kidney well correlated with creatinine clearance as a measure of functional ability of the kidneys and with the stage of chronic renal disease. It can be used in clinical practice for monitoring of chronic kidney disease in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory parameters. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.

  12. Detection of Pulmonary Embolism During Cardiac Arrest-Ultrasonographic Findings Should Be Interpreted With Caution.

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    Aagaard, Rasmus; Caap, Philip; Hansson, Nicolaj C; Bøtker, Morten T; Granfeldt, Asger; Løfgren, Bo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the right ventricle is more dilated during resuscitation from cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary embolism, compared with hypoxia and primary arrhythmia. Twenty-four pigs were anesthetized and cardiac arrest was induced using three different methods. Pigs were resuscitated after 7 minutes of untreated cardiac arrest. Ultrasonographic images were obtained and the right ventricular diameter was measured. University hospital animal laboratory. Female crossbred Landrace/Yorkshire/Duroc pigs (27-32 kg). Pigs were randomly assigned to cardiac arrest induced by pulmonary embolism, hypoxia, or primary arrhythmia. There was no difference at baseline. During induction of cardiac arrest, the right ventricle dilated in all groups (p cardiac ultrasonography were able to detect a difference in right ventricle diameter of approximately 10 mm with a sensitivity of 79% (95% CI, 64-94) and a specificity of 68% (95% CI, 56-80). The right ventricle was more dilated during resuscitation when cardiac arrest was caused by pulmonary embolism compared with hypoxia and primary arrhythmia. However, the right ventricle was dilated, irrespective of the cause of arrest, and diagnostic accuracy by physicians with basic training in focused cardiac ultrasonography was modest. These findings challenge the paradigm that right ventricular dilatation on ultrasound during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is particularly associated with pulmonary embolism.

  13. The correlation between GnRH stimulation testing and obstetric ultrasonographic parameters in precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binay, Cigdem; Simsek, Enver; Bal, Cengiz

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine reliable cut-off levels of basal gonadotropin and to assess the correlation of obstetric ultrasound parameters with the GnRH stimulation test. The GnRH stimulation test was performed in a cohort of young female patients who presented at our hospital for the evaluation of early signs of puberty. Using receiver operating curves (ROCs), the sensitivity and specificity of basal luteinising hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), basal and stimulated LH/FSH ratio, oestradiol levels and ultrasonographic parameters were evaluated at each level, and the area under curve (AUC) was measured. One hundred female children were assessed. We found that LH levels, peak LH/FSH ratio, fundal/cervical ratio, uterus length, and ovarian volume were reliable predictors of central precocious puberty (CPP). Cut-off levels of basal LH and the peak LH/FSH ratio had high specificity in our cohort. In addition, obstetric ultrasound parameters represent reliable predictors for the diagnosis of CPP.

  14. Postoperative ultrasonographic appearance of uncomplicated enterotomy or enterectomy sites in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Andrea R; Penninck, Dominique G; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2008-01-01

    The ultrasonographic findings in 20 dogs with 25 healing enterotomy and enterectomy sites resulting from the removal of foreign material or correction of intussusceptions are presented. In this prospective study, dogs had preoperative abdominal ultrasound examinations followed by sequential sonographic examinations on the first, third, sixth, and 10th days postenterotomy or enterectomy with an additional sonographic examination after 20 days postoperatively. Documented sonographic features included length and maximal intestinal wall thickness of the enterotomy or enterectomy sites, echogenicity of omental/mesenteric fat, amount of free gas and abdominal effusion, and gastrointestinal motility. Sonographically, 57% of enterotomies and 100% of enterectomies were visualized. Pneumoperitoneum, hyperechoic omental/mesenteric fat, and abdominal effusion did not appreciably hamper evaluation of the intestinal surgical site. Absent wall layering at the surgical site was noted in 96% of dogs at day 1 postoperatively. At the final sonographic examination, wall layering remained altered to absent in 100% of dogs and normal thickness was noted in only 20% of dogs. The median maximal wall thickness was 7 and 8 mm for enterotomies and enterectomies respectively, which occurred between days 1 and 3 and days 3 and 6 postoperatively. Effusion and increased echogenicity of omental/mesenteric fat localized to the surgical site were noted in 42% and 60% of dogs respectively at day 1 postoperatively, with resolution noted between days 3 and 10 postoperatively in 92% and 80% of dogs. Generalized abdominal effusion and pneumoperitoneum were seen in 100% of dogs immediately postoperatively and resolved in 80% by day 10.

  15. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegon, Anat; Kim, Sung-Won; Logan, Jean; Hooker, Jacob M.; Muench, Lisa; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Methods Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor [11C]vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Results Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in [11C]vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Conclusions Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior. PMID:20188349

  16. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Logan, J.; Hooker, J.M.; Muench, L.; Fowler, J.S.

    2010-01-12

    Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor [{sup 11}C]vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior.

  17. Anxiety reactivity and anxiety perseveration represent independent dimensions of anxiety vulnerability: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudaizky, Daniel; MacLeod, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is a relatively stable disposition reflecting an individual's tendency to experience anxious symptomatology, typically measured using questionnaires such as the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T). While trait anxiety commonly is considered a unitary construct, recent questionnaire research suggests that two different dimensions of anxiety vulnerability account for independent variance in trait anxiety scores. These dimensions are anxiety reactivity (AR), reflecting the intensity of anxiety reactions to stressors, and anxiety perseveration (AP), reflecting the persistence of anxiety symptoms. This study investigated whether in vivo measures of these two facets independently contribute to anxiety vulnerability. Seventy-two participants were exposed to a novel stress task designed to yield measures of AR and AP. Regression analysis determined that these in vivo measures were unrelated to each other, and each accounted for independent variance in trait anxiety scores. The implications of these findings for the assessment and understanding of anxiety vulnerability are discussed.

  18. In Vivo Imaging Study of Angiogenesis in a Channelized Porous Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Tamplenizza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main scientific issue hindering the development of tissue engineering technologies is the lack of proper vascularization. Among the various approaches developed for boosting vascularization, scaffold design has attracted increasing interest over the last few years. The aim of this article is to illustrate a scaffold design strategy for enhancing vascularization based on sacrificial microfabrication of embedded microchannels. This approach was combined with an innovative poly(ether urethane urea (PEUtU porous scaffold to provide an alternative graft substitute material for the treatment of tissue defects. Fluorescent and chemiluminescent imaging combined with computed tomography were used to study the behavior of the scaffold composition within living subjects by analyzing angiogenesis and inflammation processes and observing the variation in x-ray absorption, respectively. For this purpose, an IntegriSense 680 probe was used in vivo for the localization and quantification of integrin αvβ3, due to its critical involvement in angiogenesis, and a XenoLight RediJect Inflammation Probe for the study of the decline in inflammation progression during healing. Overall, the collected data suggest the advantages of embedding a synthetic vascular network into a PEUtU porous matrix to enhance in vivo tissue integration, maturation, and regeneration. Moreover, our imaging approach proved to be an efficient and versatile tool for scaffold in vivo testing.

  19. Hepatoprotective activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum emodi extracts: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Khaja, Mohammed Nane; Aara, Anjum; Khan, Aleem Ahmed; Habeeb, Mohammed Aejaz; Devi, Yalavarthy Prameela; Narasu, Mangamoori Lakshmi; Habibullah, Chitoor Mohammed

    2008-04-28

    To study the hepatoprotective capacity of Sapindus mukorossi (S. mukorossi) and Rheum emodi (R. emodi) extracts in CCl(4) treated male rats. The dried powder of S. mukorossi and R. emodi was extracted successively with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and ethanol and concentrated in vacuum. Primary rat hepatocyte monolayer cultures were used for in vitro studies. In vivo, the hepatoprotective capacity of the extract of the fruit pericarp of S. mukorossi and the rhizomes of R. emodi was analyzed in liver injured CCl(4)-treated male rats. In vitro: primary hepatocytes monolayer cultures were treated with CCl(4) and extracts of S. mukorossi & R. emodi. A protective activity could be demonstrated in the CCl(4) damaged primary monolayer culture. In vivo: extracts of the fruit pericarp of S. mukorossi (2.5 mg/mL) and rhizomes of R. emodi (3.0 mg/mL) were found to have protective properties in rats with CCl(4) induced liver damage as judged from serum marker enzyme activities. The extracts of S. mukorossi and R. emodi do have a protective capacity both in vitro on primary hepatocytes cultures and in in vivo in a rat model of CCl(4) mediated liver injury.

  20. Efficacy of biogenic selenium nanoparticles against Leishmania major: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Nasibeh; Soflaei, Saied; Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Yazdi, Mohammad Hossein; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of biogenic selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs), biosynthesized by Bacillus sp. MSh-1, against Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER). The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity effects of the biogenic Se NPs against both promastigote and amastigote forms of L. major. In a separate in vivo experiment, we also determined the preventive and therapeutic effects of biogenic Se NPs in BALB/c mice following subcutaneous infected with L. major. The MTT assays showed that the highest toxicity occurred after 72 h against both promastigote and amastigote forms of L. major. The cytotoxicity of Se NPs was higher at all incubation times (24, 48, and 72 h) against the promastigote than the amastigote form (pdoses of biogenic Se NPs delayed the development of localized cutaneous lesions. Moreover, daily administration of Se NPs (5 or 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) in similarly infected BALB/c mice that had not received prophylactic doses of Se NPs also abolished the localized lesions after 14 days. Based on these in vitro and in vivo studies, biogenic Se NPs can be considered as a novel therapeutic agent for treatment of the localized lesions typical of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Crystallization Study and Comparative in Vitro–in Vivo Hydrolysis of PLA Reinforcement Ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beslikas, Theodore; Gigis, Ioannis; Goulios, Vasilios; Christoforides, John; Papageorgiou, George Z.; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the crystallization behavior and in vitro–in vivo hydrolysis rates of PLA absorbable reinforcement ligaments used in orthopaedics for the repair and reinforcement of articulation instabilities were studied. Tensile strength tests showed that this reinforcement ligament has similar mechanical properties to Fascia Latta, which is an allograft sourced from the ilio-tibial band of the human body. The PLA reinforcement ligament is a semicrystalline material with a glass transition temperature around 61 °C and a melting point of ~178 °C. Dynamic crystallization revealed that, although the crystallization rates of the material are slow, they are faster than the often-reported PLA crystallization rates. Mass loss and molecular weight reduction measurements showed that in vitro hydrolysis at 50 °C initially takes place at a slow rate, which gets progressively higher after 30–40 days. As found from SEM micrographs, deterioration of the PLA fibers begins during this time. Furthermore, as found from in vivo hydrolysis in the human body, the PLA reinforcement ligament is fully biocompatible and after 6 months of implantation is completely covered with flesh. However, the observed hydrolysis rate from in vivo studies was slow due to high molecular weight and degree of crystallinity. PMID:22072906

  2. The role of chloride channels in rat corpus cavernosum: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Hsieh, Ju-Ton

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have identified the existence of outward, depolarizing chloride currents in isolated rat, rabbit, and human corpus cavernosum muscle cells. However, few articles have demonstrated the functional role of chloride channels in vivo in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Aim. To investigate the role of calcium-dependent chloride channels in erectile function of rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Adult male Wistar rats were used to perform an in vivo study in a rat model of erection. Both crura of the rats were isolated to in order to record intracavernosal pressure (ICP) during basal conditions and electrical stimulation of erection, with and without intracorporeal injection of norepinephrine, chloride transport inhibitors, and chloride channel blockers. ICP. ICP increased as the amplitude of electrical stimulation increased, and decreased in a dose-dependent manner (during electrical stimulation) as norepinephrine injection strength increased. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel blockers, niflumic acid, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene-disulfonic acid increased ICP. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, and HCO(3)-free 4-(2-hydroxyethyl )-1-1- piperazine ethanesulphonic acid buffer, and also increase the ICP. The effects of both Cl(-) channel blockers and Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors on ICP were concentration-dependent. Our findings suggest that chloride channels play an important role in the regulation of corpus cavernous smooth muscle tone in vivo.

  3. Drosophila melanogaster as an animal model for the study of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Mulcahy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing both acute and chronic infections in susceptible hosts. Chronic P. aeruginosa infections are thought to be caused by bacterial biofilms. Biofilms are highly structured, multicellular, microbial communities encased in an extracellular matrix that enable long-term survival in the host. The aim of this research was to develop an animal model that would allow an in vivo study of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections in a Drosophila melanogaster host. At 24 h post oral infection of Drosophila, P. aeruginosa biofilms localized to and were visualized in dissected Drosophila crops. These biofilms had a characteristic aggregate structure and an extracellular matrix composed of DNA and exopolysaccharide. P. aeruginosa cells recovered from in vivo grown biofilms had increased antibiotic resistance relative to planktonically grown cells. In vivo, biofilm formation was dependent on expression of the pel exopolysaccharide genes, as a pelB::lux mutant failed to form biofilms. The pelB::lux mutant was significantly more virulent than PAO1, while a hyperbiofilm strain (PAZHI3 demonstrated significantly less virulence than PAO1, as indicated by survival of infected flies at day 14 postinfection. Biofilm formation, by strains PAO1 and PAZHI3, in the crop was associated with induction of diptericin, cecropin A1 and drosomycin antimicrobial peptide gene expression 24 h postinfection. In contrast, infection with the non-biofilm forming strain pelB::lux resulted in decreased AMP gene expression in the fly. In summary, these results provide novel insights into host-pathogen interactions during P. aeruginosa oral infection of Drosophila and highlight the use of Drosophila as an infection model that permits the study of P. aeruginosa biofilms in vivo.

  4. Cannabinoid antagonist in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs): design, characterization and in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Ravani, Laura [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Drechsler, Markus [BIMF/Soft Matter Electron Microscopy, University of Bayreuth (Germany); Mariani, Paolo [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences and CNISM, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60100 Ancona (Italy); Contado, Catia [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ruokolainen, Janne [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Ratano, Patrizia; Campolongo, Patrizia [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Roma (Italy); Trezza, Viviana [Department of Science, Roma Tre University, 00146 Roma (Italy); Nastruzzi, Claudio, E-mail: nas@unife.it [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Cortesi, Rita [Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization, and in vivo evaluation in rats of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) encapsulating rimonabant (RMN) as prototypical cannabinoid antagonist. A study was conducted in order to optimize NLC production by melt and ultrasonication method. NLCs were prepared by alternatively adding the lipid phase into the aqueous one (direct protocol) or the aqueous phase into the lipid one (reverse protocol). RMN-NLCs have been characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), X-ray, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and sedimentation field flow fractionation (SdFFF). Reverse NLCs were treated with polysorbate 80. RMN release kinetics have been determined in vitro by dialysis method. In vivo RMN biodistribution in rats was evaluated after intranasal (i.n.) administration of reverse RMN-NLC. The reverse protocol enabled to prevent the lost of lipid phase and to achieve higher RMN encapsulation efficacy (EE) with respect to the direct protocol (98% w/w versus 67% w/w). The use of different protocols did not affect NLC morphology and dimensional distribution. An in vitro dissolutive release rate of RMN was calculated. The in vivo data indicate that i.n. administration of RMN by reverse NLC treated with polysorbate 80 increased RMN concentration in the brain with respect to the drug in solution. The nanoencapsulation protocol presented here appears as an optimal strategy to improve the low solubility of cannabinoid compounds in an aqueous system suitable for in vivo administration. - Highlights: • Rimonabant (RMN) can be encapsulated in nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). • Nanoencapsulation improves RMN solubility in a stable physiologic aqueous formulation. • RMN is released in vitro from NLC by a controlled dissolutive release modality. • I.n. administration leads to higher RMN concentration in the brain with respect to plasma. • NLC increases RMN concentration in the brain with respect to

  5. Effect of renal perfusion and structural heterogeneity on shear wave elastography of the kidney: an in vivo and ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaona; Li, Na; Xu, Tao; Sun, Fang; Li, Rui; Gao, Qimin; Chen, Lianxiang; Wen, Chaoyang

    2017-08-08

    To evaluate the effect of perfusion status on elasticity measurements of different compartments in the kidney using shear wave elastography (SWE) both in vivo and ex vivo. Thirty-two rabbit kidneys were used to observe the elasticity variation caused by renal artery stenosis and vein ligation in vivo, and six beagle kidneys were studied ex vivo to explore the effect of renal perfusion on elasticity. Supersonic SWE was applied to quantify the elasticity values of different renal compartments (cortex, medulla and sinus). Additionally, histopathological examination was performed to explore the possible mechanisms. The elasticity of the cortex was higher than that of the medulla, and the elasticity of the sinus was lowest among the compartments in native kidneys. The Young's modulus (YM) of the cortex, medulla and sinus increased gradually as the duration of renal vein ligation increased, from 16.34 ± 1.01 kPa to 55.06 ± 5.61 kPa, 13.71 ± 1.16 kPa to 39.63 ± 2.91 kPa, and 12.61 ± 0.84 kPa to 29.30 ± 2.04 kPa, respectively. In contrast, the YM of the three compartments respectively decreased with progressive artery stenosis, from 16.34 ± 1.83 kPa to 11.21 ± 1.79 kPa, 13.31 ± 1.67 kPa to 8.07 ± 1.37 kPa, and 12.78 ± 2.66 kPa to 6.72 ± 0.95 kPa. Artery perfusion was the main factor influencing elasticity in ex vivo. The cortical elasticity was more prone to change with renal perfusion both in vivo and ex vivo. Histopathological examination showed progressive changes in the structure and content of the three compartments, consistent with the elasticity variation. Both the complex structure/anisotropy and the perfusion of the kidney obviously influence the evaluation of renal elasticity. The measurement of SWE should be performed at a specific location along a certain angle or direction, and renal perfusion status should also be taken into account to ensure reproducible detection.

  6. Waiving in vivo studies for monoclonal antibody biosimilar development: National and global challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathryn; Adjei, Akosua; Baldrick, Paul; da Silva, Antonio; De Smet, Karen; DiCicco, Richard; Hong, Seung Suh; Jones, David; Leach, Michael W; McBlane, James; Ragan, Ian; Reddy, Praveen; Stewart, Donald I H; Suitters, Amanda; Sims, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Biosimilars are biological medicinal products that contain a version of the active substance of an already authorised original biological medicinal product (the innovator or reference product). The first approved biosimilar medicines were small proteins, and more recently biosimilar versions of innovator monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs have entered development as patents on these more complex proteins expire. In September 2013, the first biosimilar mAb, infliximab, was authorised in Europe. In March 2015, the first biosimilar (Zarxio™, filgrastim-sndz, Sandoz) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration; however, to date no mAb biosimilars have been approved in the US. There are currently major differences between how biosimilars are regulated in different parts of the world, leading to substantial variability in the amount of in vivo nonclinical toxicity testing required to support clinical development and marketing of biosimilars. There are approximately 30 national and international guidelines on biosimilar development and this number is growing. The European Union's guidance describes an approach that enables biosimilars to enter clinical trials based on robust in vitro data alone; in contrast, the World Health Organization's guidance is interpreted globally to mean in vivo toxicity studies are mandatory. We reviewed our own experience working in the global regulatory environment, surveyed current practice, determined drivers for nonclinical in vivo studies with biosimilar mAbs and shared data on practice and study design for 25 marketed and as yet unmarketed biosimilar mAbs that have been in development in the past 5y. These data showed a variety of nonclinical in vivo approaches, and also demonstrated the practical challenges faced in obtaining regulatory approval for clinical trials based on in vitro data alone. The majority of reasons for carrying out nonclinical in vivo studies were not based on scientific rationale, and therefore the authors

  7. Efeito do ultra-som terapêutico em tendinite experimental de eqüinos: estudo clínico, ultra-sonográfico e histopatológico de dois protocolos Clinic, ultrasonographic and histopatological studies of two protocols of ultrasonic therapy on experimental tendonitis in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.L. Fernandes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se dois protocolos de ultra-som no tratamento de lesões do tendão flexor digital superficial (TFDS. Foram estudados 18 eqüinos, nos quais foi injetada uma solução de colagenase a 0,25% no TFDS esquerdo, à altura do terço médio da região metacarpiana. Os eqüinos foram divididos em: grupo A - tratado por ultra-som (UST na freqüência de 3 MHz e intensidade de 1W/cm², no modo contínuo, por seis minutos; grupo B - tratado na mesma freqüência, intensidade e tempo, no modo pulsado; e grupo C - controle. Os tratamentos foram iniciados 48h após a indução da lesão, totalizando oito sessões. Os eqüinos foram estudados por 40 dias, avaliando-se o quadro clínico e a regressão dos sintomas. Por meio de exames ultra-sonográficos semanais avaliaram-se a área transversal e a ecogenicidade da lesão para estabelecimento do índice de severidade (IS. A lesão resultou em aumento médio de 1,5cm na circunferência da região metacarpiana, resposta à pressão digital de leve a moderada e grau de claudicação de 1 a 3. A regressão dos sintomas ocorreu, em média, nove dias no grupo A, 12 dias no grupo B e 21 dias no grupo C. O percentual de regressão no IS aos 40 dias foi de 42,5, 57,7 e 34,1, respectivamente. A avaliação histológica mostrou neovascularização pronunciada e maior atividade fibroblástica nos grupos tratados (A e B comparados ao grupo-controle. Estes resultados sugerem que o UST é efetivo na redução dos sintomas clínicos da tendinite.In order to evaluate two therapeutic ultrasound protocols for treatment of injuries of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT a study was performed in 18 horses. In each horse, a 0.25% solution of collagenase was injected in the middle of the left SDFT. The horses were randomly and equally divided into three groups. Horses from Group A were treated with therapeutic ultrasound of 3 MHz frequency and 1 W/cm² intensity on continuous mode for six minutes; horses from Group

  8. Ex vivo comparative study on three sinus lift tools for transcrestal detaching maxillary sinus mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfeng; Hu, Pin; Han, Yishi; Fan, Jiadong; Dong, Xinming; Ren, Huan; Yang, Chunhao; Shi, Tingting; Xia, Dong

    2017-07-04

    The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate 3 different sinus lift tools, namely umbrella-shaped sinus lift curette YSL-04, our recently designed probe-improved sinus lift curettes, and our newly invented elevator 014, using our previous developed goat ex vivo models for direct visualizing the effectiveness of detaching sinus mucosa in real time. Goat ex vivo models for direct visualizing the effectiveness of detaching sinus mucosa in real time were generated according to our previously developed protocol. The effectiveness for each tool was evaluated through the length of sinus mucosa detached in mesial and distal directions or buccal and palatal directions, and the space volume created by detaching maxillary sinus mucosa in mesial, distal, buccal and palatal directions. The results showed that all 3 sinus lift tools could transcrestally detach the maxillary sinus mucosa and create extra space under the elevated sinus floor on the goat ex vivo sinus models. Moreover, our newly invented elevator 014 had advantages over the other 2 in term of the capability to detach the sinus mucosa. Our newly invented elevator 014 might be a promising tool for detaching maxillary sinus mucosa in transcrestal maxillary sinus floor elevation.

  9. Studying circulating prostate cancer cells by in-vivo flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Gu, Zhengqin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in American men and the second leading cause of deaths from cancer, after lung cancer. The tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. As the cancer advances, however, it can metastasize throughout other areas of the body, such as the bones, lungs, and liver. Surgical resection, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current prostate cancer therapies. Treatments for prostate cause both short- and long-term side effects that may be difficult to accept. Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of cancer cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern prostate cancer cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo in real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess prostate cancer cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of prostate cancer cells. We have measured the depletion kinetics of cancer cells with different metastatic potential. Interestingly, more invasive PC-3 prostate cancer cells are depleted faster from the circulation than LNCaP cells.

  10. Studies on the in vivo biotransformation of the tobacco alkaloid beta-nicotyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Castagnoli, K; Van Der Schyf, C J; Castagnoli, N

    2000-05-01

    This paper reports the results of studies on the in vivo metabolic fate of the tobacco alkaloid 1-methyl-2-(3-pyridinyl)pyrrole (beta-nicotyrine) in New Zealand white rabbits. Two previously characterized metabolites, 5-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone (5-hydroxycotinine) and 2-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-3-pyrrolin-2-one, were present in low concentrations in the urine of the treated animals. The major urinary metabolite of beta-nicotyrine was identified as cis-3'-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrrolidinone (cis-3'-hydroxycotinine), the diastereoisomer of the major urinary metabolite of (S)-nicotine. The pathway leading to cis-3'-hydroxycotinine is proposed to proceed via autoxidation of 2-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)pyrrole, a postulated cytochrome P450-generated metabolite of beta-nicotyrine, followed by reduction of the carbon-carbon double bond present in the resulting 3-hydroxy-3-pyrrolin-2-one species. This proposal is supported by the in vivo biotransformation of 2-acetoxy-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)pyrrole, a latent form of the putative hydroxypyrrole intermediate, to cis-3'-hydroxycotinine. The in vivo conversion of 5-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-(3-pyridinyl)-3-pyrrolin-2-one to 5-hydroxycotinine is offered as evidence that supports the proposed reduction step.

  11. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  12. Antiangiogenic Effects of VH02, a Novel Urea Derivative: In Vitro and in Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwadee Phowichit

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 is a vital target for therapeutic intervention in cancer. We have recently described a computer-based drug design for a small molecule VEGFR2 inhibitor named VH02 (1-((1-(1H-indazol-6-yl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-ylmethyl-3-(3-chloromethylphenylurea. This study aimed to further explore the anti-angiogenic activity of VH02 both in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro assays include cell viability, capillary-like tube formation, MMP activity, and western blot analyses of signaling through VEGFR2 while the in vivo anti-angiogenic response were performed to evaluate the effect on vascularization in Matrigel plug applied in C57BL/6L mice. VH02 reduced angiogenesis behavior of EA.hy926 including cell viability, migration, adhesion, capillary-like tube formation, and MMP-2 activity induced by VEGF. Furthermore, VH02 regulated angiogenesis by directly inhibiting VEGFR2 on Tyr1175 signaling pathway leading to the inhibition of Akt-mediated cell survival and migration. Disruption of phosphorylation at VEGFR2-Tyr1175 by VH02 abolished FAK-Tyr397 signaling but not phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. This suggests that blockade of FAK by VH02 apparently associated with reduction of endothelial cell motility. Actin cytoskeleton rearrangement was diminished by VH02 in human endothelial cells. The anti-angiogenic effect of VH02 was confirmed in the in vivo model, revealing the reduction of vascular density in Matrigel plug after VH02 treatment. Additionally, the pericyte-like cells surrounding blood vessels in the plugs were significantly reduced as well as vascular density and p-Akt intensity. Our findings indicate that VH02 successfully inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo models. The compound could be further developed as an antiangiogenesis agent for cancer therapy.

  13. In vivo thermoluminescent dosimetry in studies of helicoid computed tomography and excretory urogram; Dosimetria termoluminiscente In vivo en estudios de tomografia computada helicoidal y urograma excretor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz C, D.; Azorin N, J. [UAM-I, 09340 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Saucedo A, V.M.; Barajas O, J.L. [Unidad de Especialidades Medicas, Secretaria de la Defensa Nacional, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The dosimetry is the field of measurement of the ionizing radiations. It final objective is to determine the 'absorbed dose' for people. The dosimetry is vital in the radiotherapy, the radiological protection and the treatment technologies by irradiation. Presently work, we develop 'In vivo' dosimetry, in exposed patients to studies of helical computed tomography and excretory urogram. The dosimetry 'in vivo' was carried out in 20 patients selected aleatorily, for each medical study. The absorbed dose was measured in points of interest located in crystalline, thyroid, chest and abdomen of each patient, by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD) LiF: Mg,Cu,P + Ptfe of national fabrication. Also it was quantified the dose in the working area. (Author)

  14. Hepatic colon cancer metastases in mice: dynamic in vivo correlation with hypoechoic rims visible at US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskal, J B; Thomas, P; Nasser, I; Cay, O; Kane, R A

    2000-06-01

    To use videomicroscopy of tumor-bearing livers of live mice to depict tumors directly to determine the exact nature of rims seen on corresponding ultrasonographic (US) scans. Seventy-six hepatic colorectal cancer metastases were studied in exteriorized livers of 18 mice by using intravital microscopy, US, and histologic examination of the same tumors. Hypoechoic rims correlated with distended sinusoidal spaces in vivo. These spaces surrounded only locally invasive tumors (mean diameter, 0.85 mm) that had obstructed the supplying terminal portal venules. These spaces, containing adherent leukocytes and tumor cells, gave rise to new tumor vasculature. Results of histologic examination of rims (portal inflammation, congested or compressed sinusoids, cell atrophy) correlated with leukocyte endothelial adherence, occluded sinusoids, and new vessel formation in vivo. Unlike results from previous studies, dynamic in vivo observations of peritumoral rims demonstrated distended sinusoidal spaces giving rise to new tumor-penetrating vessels. These sinusoids arose around locally invasive tumors and were associated with more advanced intrahepatic disease. These dynamic observations provide a pathophysiologic explanation for previous histologic correlates of peritumoral rims.

  15. Modeling gastrointestinal drug absorption requires more in vivo biopharmaceutical data: experience from in vivo dissolution and permeability studies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennernäs, Hans

    2007-10-01

    The majority (84%) of the 50 most-sold pharmaceutical products in the US and European markets are given orally. The dominating role of this route in drug therapy is a consequence of it being safe, efficient and easily accessible with minimal discomfort to the patient in comparison with other routes of drug administration. A successful drug discovery and development of oral pharmaceutical products require an in-depth understanding of multiple biochemical and physiological processes that determine the dissolution rate, intestinal permeability, gastrointestinal transit, first-pass extraction and systemic exposure-time profiles of drugs. It is crucial to realize that these basic biopharmaceutic and pharmacokinetic properties are crucial to focus on to allow successful drug development. Identification of the rate-limiting step(s) in order to overcome these barriers and understanding of the sources of variability are important in the selection of suitable candidate molecules in drug development. Several reports based on in vitro investigations in various cell models have suggested that carrier-mediated intestinal efflux may be a major reason for incomplete absorption and variable bioavailability of drugs, as well being a site for drug-drug and specific food-drug interactions. However, many drugs which were initially suggested to undergo significant efflux in vitro were later shown to be completely absorbed in vivo. This apparent discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo results may be due to several factors that will be discussed in this review. Novel data on solubility and dissolution in human gastrointestinal derived fluids will be reviewed. The effect of food intake on solubility and dissolution rate of a range of drugs including felodipine, danazol, griseofulvin, cyclosporine, probucol and ubiquinone in simulated and real intestinal fluids is discussed. The biopharmaceutic and physicochemical data discussed here can potentially be used as a benchmark set for

  16. Effects of single injection of local anesthetic agents on intervertebral disc degeneration: ex vivo and long-term in vivo experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Analgesic discography (discoblock can be used to diagnose or treat discogenic low back pain by injecting a small amount of local anesthetics. However, recent in vitro studies have revealed cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on intervertebral disc (IVD cells. Here we aimed to investigate the deteriorative effects of lidocaine and bupivacaine on rabbit IVDs using an organotypic culture model and an in vivo long-term follow-up model.For the organotypic culture model, rabbit IVDs were harvested and cultured for 3 or 7 days after intradiscal injection of local anesthetics (1% lidocaine or 0.5% bupivacaine. Nucleus pulposus (NP cell death was measured using confocal microscopy. Histological and TUNEL assays were performed. For in vivo study, each local anesthetic was injected into rabbit lumbar IVDs under a fluoroscope. Six or 12 months after the injection, each IVD was prepared for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and histological analysis.In the organotypic culture model, both anesthetic agents induced time-dependent NP cell death; when compared with injected saline solution, significant effects were detected within 7 days. Compared with the saline group, TUNEL-positive NP cells were significantly increased in the bupivacaine group. In the in vivo study, MRI analysis did not show any significant difference. Histological analysis revealed that IVD degeneration occurred to a significantly level in the saline- and local anesthetics-injected groups compared with the untreated control or puncture-only groups. However, there was no significant difference between the saline and anesthetic agents groups.In the in vivo model using healthy IVDs, there was no strong evidence to suggest that discoblock with local anesthetics has the potential of inducing IVD degeneration other than the initial mechanical damage of the pressurized injection. Further studies should be performed to investigate the deteriorative effects of the local injection of analgesic agents

  17. An ex vivo approach to botanical-drug interactions: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinwen; Zhu, Hao-Jie; Munoz, Juliana; Gurley, Bill J; Markowitz, John S

    2015-04-02

    Botanical medicines are frequently used in combination with therapeutic drugs, imposing a risk for harmful botanical-drug interactions (BDIs). Among the existing BDI evaluation methods, clinical studies are the most desirable, but due to their expense and protracted time-line for completion, conventional in vitro methodologies remain the most frequently used BDI assessment tools. However, many predictions generated from in vitro studies are inconsistent with clinical findings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to develop a novel ex vivo approach for BDI assessment and expand the safety evaluation methodology in applied ethnopharmacological research. This approach differs from conventional in vitro methods in that rather than botanical extracts or individual phytochemicals being prepared in artificial buffers, human plasma/serum collected from a limited number of subjects administered botanical supplements was utilized to assess BDIs. To validate the methodology, human plasma/serum samples collected from healthy subjects administered either milk thistle or goldenseal extracts were utilized in incubation studies to determine their potential inhibitory effects on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4/5, respectively. Silybin A and B, two principal milk thistle phytochemicals, and hydrastine and berberine, the purported active constituents in goldenseal, were evaluated in both phosphate buffer and human plasma based in vitro incubation systems. Ex vivo study results were consistent with formal clinical study findings for the effect of milk thistle on the disposition of tolbutamide, a CYP2C9 substrate, and for goldenseal׳s influence on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam, a widely accepted CYP3A4/5 substrate. Compared to conventional in vitro BDI methodologies of assessment, the introduction of human plasma into the in vitro study model changed the observed inhibitory effect of silybin A, silybin B and hydrastine and berberine on CYP2C9 and CYP3A4/5, respectively, results which more

  18. [In vivo dosimetry study of semi-conductors EPD-20 in total body irradiation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besbes, M; Mahjoubi, H; Kochbati, L; Ben Abdennabi, A; Farhat, L; Abdessaied, S; Salem, L; Frikha, H; Nasr Ben Ammar, C; Hentati, D; Gargouri, W; Messai, T; Benna, F; Maalej, M

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was the study of in vivo dosimetry performed in a series of 54 patients receiving total body irradiation (TBI) at the Salah-Azaiz Institute of Tunis since 2004. In vivo dosimetry measurements were compared to analytically calculated doses from monitor units delivered. The irradiation was conducted by a linear accelerator (Clinac 1800, Varian, Palo Alto, USA) using nominal X-rays energies of 6 MV and 18 MV, depending on the thickness of the patient at the abdomen. The dose was measured by semi-conductors p-type EPD-20. These diodes were calibrated in advance with an ionization chamber "PTW Farmer" type of 0.6cm(3) and were placed on the surface of plexiglas phantom in the same TBI conditions. A study of dosimetric characteristics of semi-conductors EPD-20 was carried out as a function of beam direction and temperature. Afterwards, we conducted a comparative analysis of doses measured using these detectors during irradiation to those calculated retrospectively from monitor units delivered to each patient conditioned by TBI. Experience showed that semi-conductors are sensitive to the angle of beam radiation (0-90 degrees ) and the temperature (22-40 degrees C). The maximum variation is respectively 5 and 7%, but in our irradiation conditions these correction factors are less than 1%. The analysis of the results of the in vivo dosimetry had shown that the ratio of the average measured doses and analytically calculated doses at the abdomen, mediastina, right lung and head are 1.005, 1.007, 1.0135 and 1.008 with a standard deviation "type A" respectively of 3.04, 2.37, 7.09 et 4.15%. In vivo dosimetry by semi-conductors is in perfect agreement with dosimetry by calculation. However, in vivo dosimetry using semiconductors is the only technique that can reflect the dose actually received instantly by the patient during TBI given the many factors that calculation can not take into account: patient and organs motions and the heterogeneity of the

  19. Nanomedicine for Inner Ear Diseases: A Review of Recent In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Kee Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are promising therapeutic options for inner ear disease. In this report, we review in vivo animal studies in the otologic field using nanoparticles over the past 5 years. Many studies have used nanoparticles to deliver drugs, genes, and growth factors, and functional and morphological changes have been observed. The constituents of nanoparticles are also diversifying into various biocompatible materials, including poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. The safe and effective delivery of drugs or genes in the inner ear will be a breakthrough for the treatment of inner ear diseases, including age-related hearing loss.

  20. Effect of implanted brachytherapy seeds on optical fluence distribution: preliminary ex vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Ding, Meisong; Newman, Francis; Dole, Kenneth C.; Huang, Zheng; Blanc, Dominique

    2007-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gradually found its place in the treatment of malignant and non-malignant human diseases. Currently, interstitial PDT is being explored as an alternative modality for newly diagnosed and recurrent organ-confined prostate cancer. The interstitial PDT for the treatment of prostate cancer might be considered to treat prostates with permanent radioactive seeds implantation. However, the effect of implanted brachytherapy seeds on the optical fluence distribution of PDT light has not been studied before. This study investigated, for the first time, the effect of brachytherapy seed on the optical fluence distribution of 760 nm light in ex vivo models (meat and canine prostate).

  1. The ultrasonographic features of endometriomas: morphologic analysis and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sung; Park, Chan Sup; Song, Soon Young; Lee, Eun Ja; Park, No Hyuck [College of Medicine, Kwandong Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Min [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Chan Kyo [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To analyze the sonographic, morphologic, and internal echo patterns of endometriomas, and thus determine which ultrasonographic (US) findings assist diagnosis. One hundred and forty-seven eases of pathologically proven adnexal masses in 130 women were divided into three groups: group I, in which endometriomas were diagnosed at both preoperative US and surgery (true positive) (n=97); group II, in which endometriomas were misdiagnosed at preoperative US, and were confirmed after surgery to be other pathologic entities (false positive) (n=10); group III, in which other adnexal masses were misdiagnosed at preoperative US, but were proven after surgery to be endometriomas (false negative) (n=40). The US findings in these cases were retrospectively reviewed in terms of (a) morphologic type: unilocular, multiseptated, multilobulated, solid and cystic, or mixed; (b) internal echo pattern: homogeneous fine, anechoic, fine septation, or complex; (c) size; (d) wall thickness; (e) the presence or absence of septation; (f) wall nodularity; (g) echogenic wall foci; and (h) a solid area. In group I, the most common morphological type was unilocular cyst (n=63; 65%). In lesions most commonly emitted homogeneous fine echoes (n=76; 78%). In this group, most masses (86%) were less than 10 cm in diameter and the wall thickness in 65% of cases was less than 3 mm. Additionally, internal septation, wall nodularity, focal echogenic wall foci, and a solid area were observed at US. Group II, cases were pathologically confirmed as mucinous cystadenoma (n=3), mucinous cystadenoma with borderline malignancy, hemorrhagic cyst, functional cyst, endometrioid carcinoma, and hematoma. In group III, cases were misdiagnosed as cystadenoma (n=15), hemorrhagic cyst, teratoma, ovarian cancer, functional cyst and ectopic pregnancy at preoperative US. There were no significant differences in size or wall thickness between groups II and III, and group I. At US, groups II and III also showed internal

  2. VEGF-releasing suture material for enhancement of vascularization: development, in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigalke, Christian; Luderer, Frank; Wulf, Katharina; Storm, Thilo; Löbler, Marian; Arbeiter, Daniela; Rau, Bettina M; Nizze, Horst; Vollmar, Brigitte; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Klar, Ernst; Sternberg, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    As it has been demonstrated that bioactive substances can be delivered locally using coated surgical suture materials, the authors developed a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-releasing suture material that should promote vascularization and potentially wound healing. In this context, the study focused on the characterization of the developed suture material and the verification of its biological activity, as well as establishing a coating process that allows reproducible and stable coating of a commercially available polydioxanone suture material with poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and 0.1μg and 1.0μg VEGF. The in vitro VEGF release kinetics was studied using a Sandwich ELISA. The biological activity of the released VEGF was investigated in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The potential of the VEGF-releasing suture material was also studied in vivo 5days after implantation in the hind limb of Wistar rats, when the histological findings were analyzed. The essential results, enhanced cell viability in vitro as well as significantly increased vascularization in vivo, were achieved using PLLA/1.0μg VEGF-coated suture material. Furthermore, ELISA measurements revealed a high reproducibility of the VEGF release behavior. Based on the results achieved regarding the dose-effect relationship of VEGF, the stability during its processing and the release behavior, it can be predicted that a bioactive suture material would be successful in later in vivo studies. Therefore, this knowledge could be the basis for future studies, where bioactive substances with different modes of action are combined for targeted, overall enhancement of wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasonographic findings in a cow with vascular hamartoma of the liver: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosinski Katrin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is the first description of the ultrasonographic findings in a cow with vascular hamartoma of the liver. Case presentation Ultrasonographic examination of a six-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow revealed an excessive number of hypoechogenic blood vessels in the liver parenchyma and a thrombus in the right hepatic vein. The activities of the liver enzymes and the concentration of bilirubin were within the reference ranges. At postmortem examination, a poorly delineated, non-encapsulated lesion, measuring approximately 10 cm × 10 cm in diameter, was found in the right liver lobe. The cut surface of the lesion was sponge-like and contained extremely dilated blood vessels, one of which was occluded with a branching red thrombus. A vascular hamartoma of the liver with thrombosis was diagnosed based on the histological findings. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of the ultrasonographic findings of vascular hamartoma of the liver in a cow. Hamartoma should be considered part of the differential diagnosis in cows with an abnormally large number of blood vessels in the liver parenchyma. This case report broadens the spectrum of liver diseases and ultrasonographic findings of the liver in cattle.

  4. Construction and application of hierarchical decision tree for classification of ultrasonographic prostate images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, R. J.; Huynen, A. L.; Aarnink, R. G.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Debruyne, F. M.; Wijkstra, H.

    1996-01-01

    A non-parametric algorithm is described for the construction of a binary decision tree classifier. This tree is used to correlate textural features, computed from ultrasonographic prostate images, with the histopathology of the imaged tissue. The algorithm consists of two parts; growing and pruning.

  5. Noninvasive detection of hepatic lipidosis in dairy cows with calibrated ultrasonographic image analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starke, A.; Haudum, A.; Weijers, G.; Herzog, K.; Wohlsein, P.; Beyerbach, M.; Korte, C.L. de; Thijssen, J.M.; Rehage, J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of calibrated digital analysis of ultrasonographic hepatic images for diagnosing fatty liver in dairy cows. Digital analysis was performed by means of a novel method, computer-aided ultrasound diagnosis (CAUS), previously published by the authors. This method implies

  6. The vanishing twin: morphologic and cytogenetic evaluation of an ultrasonographic phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Vejerslev, L O; Junge, Jette

    1991-01-01

    Twin pregnancy was observed by ultrasonographic examination in the 6th week of gestation. After singleton term delivery a thickening of the membranes opposite to the main placenta showed degenerated chorionic villi embedded between one layer of amnion and chorion; no fetal parts were observed...

  7. Spiral computed tomographic imaging related to computerized ultrasonographic images of carotid plaque morphology and histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wagner, A; Wiebe, B M

    2001-01-01

    Echolucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques, as evaluated by computerized B-mode ultrasonographic images, has been associated with an increased incidence of brain infarcts on cerebral computed tomographic scans. We tested the hypotheses that characterization of carotid plaques on spiral comput...

  8. CRISPR/Cas9 Promotes Functional Study of Testis Specific X-Linked Gene In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyan Li

    Full Text Available Mammalian spermatogenesis is a highly regulated multistage process of sperm generation. It is hard to uncover the real function of a testis specific gene in vitro since the in vitro model is not yet mature. With the development of the CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 system, we can now rapidly generate knockout mouse models of testis specific genes to study the process of spermatogenesis in vivo. SYCP3-like X-linked 2 (SLX2 is a germ cell specific component, which contains a Cor1 domain and belongs to the XLR (X-linked, lymphocyte regulated family. Previous studies suggested that SLX2 might play an important role in mouse spermatogenesis based on its subcellular localization and interacting proteins. However, the function of SLX2 in vivo is still elusive. Here, to investigate the functions of SLX2 in spermatogenesis, we disrupted the Slx2 gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Since Slx2 is a testis specific X-linked gene, we obtained knockout male mice in the first generation and accelerated the study process. Compared with wild-type mice, Slx2 knockout mice have normal testis and epididymis. Histological observation of testes sections showed that Slx2 knockout affected none of the three main stages of spermatogenesis: mitosis, meiosis and spermiogenesis. In addition, we further confirmed that disruption of Slx2 did not affect the number of spermatogonial stem cells, meiosis progression or XY body formation by immunofluorescence analysis. As spermatogenesis was normal in Slx2 knockout mice, these mice were fertile. Taken together, we showed that Slx2 itself is not an essential gene for mouse spermatogenesis and CRISPR/Cas9 technique could speed up the functional study of testis specific X-linked gene in vivo.

  9. AN IN VIVO STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION ON TISSUES BY LASER FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Guseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laser fluorescence spectroscopy (LFS is widely used in various medical areas, oncology being the most known of them. In general, the LFS is used for in vivo diagnostics of tumors. Recent studies have shown that this method could be used for diagnostics of local inflammation, induced by thermal or mechanical injury. It is of interest if LFS could be used for assessment of soft biological tissue injury caused by radiation exposure. Aim: To study fluorescence of an exogenous photosensitizer and its changes over time in the radiation injury area by LFS method in vivo. Materials and methods: The experiment was done in 12 outbred SHK mice whose right hind limbs were irradiated using a gamma-therapy device ROKUS-AM (source, 60Co, at dose of 15 Gy. Before irradiation, the photosensitizer Photosens was administered to all animals intraperitoneally at dose of 2.5 mg/kg. For 21 days fluorescence was assessed in vivo with a laser diagnostic system LAKK-M in the “fluorescence” operation mode, with an excitation wavelength of 635 nm. At days 7 and 21, tissue samples from the irradiated areas of the model animals were studied histologically and differential blood cell counts were assessed simultaneously. Results: The LFS method showed an increase in the accumulation of the photosensitizer in the affected area, compared to an intact contralateral area, with higher signal intensity from the irradiated limb. The changes in the fluorescence signal from the affected over time had two characteristic peaks at days 3 and 14, probably reflecting the stage of local radiation injury. Conclusion: The use of LFS with an exogenous photosensitizer has a potential for a personalized assessment of radiation reactions in radiology.

  10. In Vivo Quantification of the Nonlinear Shear Modulus in Breast Lesions: Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Miguel; Chamming's, Foucauld; Couade, Mathieu; Bercoff, Jeremy; Tanter, Mickaël; Gennisson, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer detection in the early stages is of great importance since the prognosis, and the treatment depends more on this. Multiple techniques relying on the mechanical properties of soft tissues have been developed to help in early detection. In this study, we implemented a technique that measures the nonlinear shear modulus (NLSM) (μ(NL)) in vivo and showed its utility to detect breast lesions from healthy tissue. The technique relies on the acoustoelasticity theory in quasi-incompressible media. In order to recover μ(NL), static elastography and supersonic shear imaging are combined to subsequently register strain maps and shear modulus maps while the medium is compressed. Then, μ(NL) can be recovered from the relationship between the stress, deduced from strain maps, and the shear modulus. For this study, a series of five nonlinear phantoms were built using biological tissue (pork liver) inclusions immersed in an agar-gelatin gel. Furthermore, 11 in vivo acquisitions were performed to characterize the NLSM of breast tissue. The phantom results showed a very good differentiation of the liver inclusions when measuring μ(NL) with a mean value of -114.1 kPa compared to -34.7 kPa for the gelatin. Meanwhile, values for the shear modulus for the liver and the gelatin were very similar, 3.7 and 3.4 kPa, respectively. In vivo NLSM mean value for the healthy breast tissue was of -95 kPa, while mean values of the benign and the malignant lesions were -619 and -806 kPa with a strong v ariability, respectively. This study shows the potential of the acoustoelasticity theory in quasi-incompressible medium to bring a new parameter for breast cancer diagnosis.

  11. A Compton imager for in-vivo dosimetry of proton beams-A design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kormoll, T., E-mail: thomas.kormoll@physik.tu-dresden.d [Technische Universitaet Dresden, OncoRay-Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Fiedler, F.; Schoene, S. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute for Radiation Research, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Wuestemann, J. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, OncoRay-Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Enghardt, W. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, OncoRay-Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute for Radiation Research, Bautzner Landstr. 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-01-21

    In-beam SPECT during therapeutic proton beam irradiation is a novel method for three dimensional in-vivo dose verification. For this purpose a Compton camera design is evaluated with respect to the special requirements and conditions that arise from this application. Different concepts are studied by means of simulation concerning the angular resolution and efficiency. It was found that a cadmium zinc telluride system can perform sufficiently well. For further evaluation the construction of a semiconductor scintillator hybrid system is under way.

  12. In vivo studies of aquaporins 3 and 10 in human stratum corneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Bomholt, Julie; Bajraktari, Niada

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute one family of transmembrane proteins facilitating transport of water across cell membranes. Due to their specificity, AQPs have a broad spectrum of physiological functions, and for keratinocytes there are indications that these channel proteins are involved in cell...... by AQP3 and AQP10 antibodies. In conclusion, identification of AQP3 and AQP10 protein in SC in an in vivo model is new. Together with the new “minimal-invasive” method for SC collection presented, this opens for new possibilities to study the role of AQPs in relation to function of the skin barrier....

  13. An in vivo model to study the anti-malaric capacity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Chinchilla

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available An in vivo model to study the antimalaric effect of plant extracts is described. White mice (25-30g body weight are treated subcutaneously with 0.6ml of the diluted extract starting seven days before P. berghei infection; treatment continues until death or for 30 days. Simultaneously 0.2ml of the extract are applied per os starting three days before infection. In a test of the model, treated and non-treated animals differed in body weight, survival time, haematocrite, parasitemia development, and spleen or liver weight of recent dead or killed mice.

  14. In vivo absorption studies of insulin from an oral delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry, N; Anitha, Y; Sharma, C P; Sony, P

    2001-01-01

    Alginate microspheres prepared by an emulsion-based process were loaded with insulin by a remote loading process. We observed that the time of exposure, pH of the remote loading medium, and beta-cyclodextrin complexation of insulin influenced drug loading. In vivo absorption studies of insulin from optimized microspheres were carried out in diabetic albino rats. Serum sugar levels on administration of multiple oral doses of the microspheres and a radioimmunoassay for serum insulin indicated absorption of insulin from the gastrointestinal region. This process could be utilized for the development of an oral insulin delivery system.

  15. Evaluation of the Doxycycline Release from AH26 Sealer-Doxycycline Combination: An ex vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Moazeni, Esmaeil; Mirzayi Rad, Sina

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The purpose of this ex vivo study was to determine the releasing characteristics and doxycycline dentinal diffusion of AH26 sealer-doxycycline combination from apical 3mm of tooth root and apical foramen. MATERIALS AND METHODS One-hundred and two recently extracted single-rooted human teeth were decoronated and prepared with #3 and #4 Gates-Glidden drills and rotary Mtwo files. Smear layer was removed; all surfaces except for apical 3mm of each root were sealed with two coats of ...

  16. Diamidines versus Monoamidines as Anti-Pneumocystis Agents: An in Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Moukhtar Aliouat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds articulated around a piperazine or an ethylenediamine linker have been evaluated in vitro to determine their activity in the presence of a 3T6 fibroblast cell line and an axenic culture of Pneumocystis carinii, respectively. The most efficient antifungal derivatives, namely N,N′-bis(benzamidine-4-ylethane-1,2-diamine (compound 6, a diamidine and N-(benzamidine-4-yl-N′-phenylethane-1,2-diamine (compound 7, a monoamidine, exhibited no cytotoxicity and were evaluated in vivo in a rat model. Only the diamidine 6 emerged as a promising hit for further studies.

  17. Detection of pre-charring optical behavior at a laser catheter-tip in blood: ex vivo and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mei; Ito, Arisa; Kajihara, Takuro; Arai, Tsunenori

    2011-03-01

    We studied a pre-charring optical behavior of blood at a laser catheter-tip during a red laser irradiation (663 nm, CW) with around 50 W/cm2 in blood to prevent charring at the laser catheter-tip. The laser irradiated red-blood-cell shape changes were microscopically observed. A round formation, aggregation, and hemolysis were found until blood charring (ex vivo). A time-history of diffuse-reflected light power and transmitted light power from a thin blood layer which was irradiated by the red laser were measured with microscope optics to investigate the charring process. The diffusereflected light power decreased following a gentle peak before the charring. This decrease indicated the pre-charring behavior which might be induced by scattering and absorption changes due to red-blood-cell degenerations described above. Using the laser catheter located in porcine heart, we successfully detected the pre-charring behavior by a backscattering light power (in vivo). We demonstrated charring prevention availability with the laser power control (ex vivo). We think that the backscattering light power measurement and laser power control via the laser catheter might be useful to detect pre-charring behavior, and to prevent the charring for therapeutic laser irradiation in blood under catheterization such as arrhythmia treatment with photodynamic therapy.

  18. Novel approach to in vivo screening for radioprotective activity in whole mice. In vivo electron spin resonance study probing the redox reaction of nitroxyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Yuri; Anzai, Kazunori; Ueda, Jun-ichi; Ozawa, Toshihiko [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    Previously, we reported that X-irradiation enhanced the signal decay of a spin probe injected into whole mice measured by in vivo ESR, and that the observed enhancement was suppressed by the preadministration of cysteamine, a radioprotector [Miura, Y., Anzai, K., Urano, S. and Ozawa, T. (1997) Free Rad. Biol. Med. 23: 533-540]. In the present study, the suppression activity of the X-ray-induced increase in the ESR signal decay rate (termed suppression index, SI) was measured for several radioprotectors: 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)-ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721), 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-piperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL), cimetidine, interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and stem cell factor (SCF). The enhancement of the ESR signal decay of carbamoyl-PROXYL due to X-irradiation was suppressed by a treatment with all of the radioprotectors examined, showing positive SI values. However, a dose-dependency of 5-HT or WR-2721 was not observed, suggesting that several mechanisms exist for radioprotection and a modification of the signal decay rate. Although the in vivo ESR system cannot be used in place of the 30-day survival method for the assessment of radioprotectors, this system might be applicable to in vivo, non-invasive screening prior to using the 30 day survival method. (author)

  19. Subacute granulomatous (De Quervain′s thyroiditis: Fine-needle aspiration cytology and ultrasonographic characteristics of 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çigdem Vural

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Subacute granulomatous thyroiditis (SGT is an inflammatory disease that presents with different clinical and cytological characteristics. Although the diagnosis is generally made clinically, imaging methods and fine-needle aspiration (FNA may provide assistance, particularly in atypical cases. The objective of this study is to reveal the ultrasonographic (USG and cytological characteristics of SGT. Materials and Methods: The clinical, USG and cytological findings of 21 cases diagnosed with SGT were reviewed. Results: Ultrasonographic data was available in 20 cases. A hypoechoic thyroid nodule with irregular margins was detected in 12 of the 20 total cases. Of these, 9 cases complained about pain in the thyroid lodge and generally had unilateral lesions, heterogeneous and hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins, rather than nodular lesions, which were seen in 7 cases. Cytologically, the multinuclear giant cells (MNGCs found in all cases were accompanied by a dirty background containing varying numbers of granulomatous structures, including isolated epithelioid histiocytes, proliferated/regenerated follicle epithelium cells and inflammatory cells and colloid. Conclusion: Though hypoechoic and heterogeneous areas with irregular margins are strongly associated with thyroiditis, SGT may also appear as painful or painless hypoechoic, solid nodules and generate challenges in differential diagnosis. Although the most remarkable characteristic observed in FNA cytology was the presence of multiple MNGCs with cytoplasm, a dirty background accompanied by mild-moderate cellularity, degenerated-proliferated follicular epithelium cells, rare epithelioid granulomas and mixed type inflammatory cells are characteristic for SGT. The assessment of these radiological and cytological findings in conjunction with clinical findings will assist in the achievement of an accurate diagnosis.

  20. Ocular Surface Epithelialization Pattern After Simple Limbal Epithelial Transplantation: An In Vivo Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vikas; Jain, Rajat; Mittal, Ruchi

    2015-10-01

    To study the in vivo pattern of ocular surface epithelialization after simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET). A retrospective interventional case series was performed at a cornea and anterior segment services of a referral tertiary care center between June 2012 and March 2015. Patients with unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency who underwent SLET and whose medical records had serial and detailed photographic documentation of ocular surface healing were reviewed. The outcome measures consisted of the pattern of ocular surface epithelialization, time taken for complete ocular surface epithelialization, and assessment of the possible variations in the explants' characteristics in vivo. Five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 30.8 years, the male:female ratio was 4:1. Mean follow-up after the SLET period was 10.8 months. A 2-line improvement in visual acuity was seen in 3 of 5 patients. The mean number of explants was 11.4 (range, 5-19). The first clinical evidence of proliferation of the corneal epithelium from the limbal explants was seen on the second day in all patients, and ocular surface epithelialization was complete in all cases within 14 days. The explants disappeared within 1 to 2 months in all but 1 case (24 weeks). Variations were seen in explant activity with the size and age of the explants. The in vivo pattern of ocular surface epithelialization after SLET appears to be similar to in vitro epithelialization observed after CLET. The observations in this study provide a lead for performing further laboratory and clinical research in SLET.

  1. In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging for the Study of Intestinal Colonization by Escherichia coli in Mice▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, M.-L.; Thomas, L.; Goussard, S.; Branchini, B. R.; Grillot-Courvalin, C.

    2010-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is emerging as a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of infections in living animals. However, since luciferases are oxygenases, it has been suggested that the requirement for oxygen may limit the use of BLI in anaerobic environments, such as the lumen of the gut. Strains of Escherichia coli harboring the genes for either the bacterial luciferase from Photorhabdus luminescens or the PpyRE-TS and PpyGR-TS firefly luciferase mutants of Photinus pyralis (red and green thermostable P. pyralis luciferase mutants, respectively) have been engineered and used to monitor intestinal colonization in the streptomycin-treated mouse model. There was excellent correlation between the bioluminescence signal measured in the feces (R2 = 0.98) or transcutaneously in the abdominal region of whole animals (R2 = 0.99) and the CFU counts in the feces of bacteria harboring the luxABCDE operon. Stability in vivo of the bioluminescence signal was achieved by constructing plasmid pAT881(pGB2ΩPamiluxABCDE), which allowed long-term monitoring of intestinal colonization without the need for antibiotic selection for plasmid maintenance. Levels of intestinal colonization by various strains of E. coli could be compared directly by simple recording of the bioluminescence signal in living animals. The difference in spectra of light emission of the PpyRE-TS and PpyGR-TS firefly luciferase mutants and dual bioluminescence detection allowed direct in vitro and in vivo quantification of two bacterial populations by measurement of red and green emitted signals and thus monitoring of the two populations simultaneously. This system offers a simple and direct method to study in vitro and in vivo competition between mutants and the parental strain. BLI is a useful tool to study intestinal colonization. PMID:19880653

  2. In vivo bioluminescence imaging for the study of intestinal colonization by Escherichia coli in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, M-L; Thomas, L; Goussard, S; Branchini, B R; Grillot-Courvalin, C

    2010-01-01

    Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) is emerging as a powerful tool for real-time monitoring of infections in living animals. However, since luciferases are oxygenases, it has been suggested that the requirement for oxygen may limit the use of BLI in anaerobic environments, such as the lumen of the gut. Strains of Escherichia coli harboring the genes for either the bacterial luciferase from Photorhabdus luminescens or the PpyRE-TS and PpyGR-TS firefly luciferase mutants of Photinus pyralis (red and green thermostable P. pyralis luciferase mutants, respectively) have been engineered and used to monitor intestinal colonization in the streptomycin-treated mouse model. There was excellent correlation between the bioluminescence signal measured in the feces (R2=0.98) or transcutaneously in the abdominal region of whole animals (R2=0.99) and the CFU counts in the feces of bacteria harboring the luxABCDE operon. Stability in vivo of the bioluminescence signal was achieved by constructing plasmid pAT881(pGB2OmegaPamiluxABCDE), which allowed long-term monitoring of intestinal colonization without the need for antibiotic selection for plasmid maintenance. Levels of intestinal colonization by various strains of E. coli could be compared directly by simple recording of the bioluminescence signal in living animals. The difference in spectra of light emission of the PpyRE-TS and PpyGR-TS firefly luciferase mutants and dual bioluminescence detection allowed direct in vitro and in vivo quantification of two bacterial populations by measurement of red and green emitted signals and thus monitoring of the two populations simultaneously. This system offers a simple and direct method to study in vitro and in vivo competition between mutants and the parental strain. BLI is a useful tool to study intestinal colonization.

  3. A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying, E-mail: yli582@usc.edu; Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk [NIH Transducer Resource Center and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1111 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 μm, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

  4. A feasibility study of in vivo applications of single beam acoustic tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-10-01

    Tools that are capable of manipulating micro-sized objects have been widely used in such fields as physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Several devices, including optical tweezers, atomic force microscope, micro-pipette aspirator, and standing surface wave type acoustic tweezers have been studied to satisfy this need. However, none of them has been demonstrated to be suitable for in vivo and clinical studies. Single beam acoustic tweezers (SBAT) is a technology that uses highly focused acoustic beam to trap particles toward the beam focus. Its feasibility was first theoretically and experimentally demonstrated by Lee and Shung several years ago. Since then, much effort has been devoted to improving this technology. At present, the tool is capable of trapping a microparticle as small as 1 μm, as well as a single red blood cell. Although in comparing to other microparticles manipulating technologies, SBAT has advantages of providing stronger trapping force and deeper penetration depth in tissues, and producing less tissue damage, its potential for in vivo applications has yet been explored. It is worth noting that ultrasound has been used as a diagnostic tool for over 50 years and no known major adverse effects have been observed at the diagnostic energy level. This paper reports the results of an initial attempt to assess the feasibility of single beam acoustic tweezers to trap microparticles in vivo inside of a blood vessel. The acoustic intensity of SBAT under the trapping conditions that were utilized was measured. The mechanical index and thermal index at the focus of acoustic beam were found to be 0.48 and 0.044, respectively, which meet the standard of commercial diagnostic ultrasound system.

  5. The Antimicrobial efficacy of Elaeis guineensis: characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarathna, Soundararajan; Zakaria, Zuraini; Chen, Yeng; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Kanwar, Jagat R; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-04-26

    The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested Elaeis guineensis Jacq (Arecaceae) methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that E. guineensis exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the E. guineensis extracts was observed against C. albicans whereby E. guineensis extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited C. albicans growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on C. albicans. Imaging using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated C. albicans. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. In vivo antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with C. albicans and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.

  6. Carbon-11 labeling of CP-126,998*: A radiotracer for in vivo studies of acetylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musachio, J.L.; Flesher, J.E.; Scheffel, U. [Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    The study of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) via PET is of interest as reduced activity of this enzyme has been observed in Alzheimer`s disease. Our efforts to develop a radiotracer for mapping of AChE have focused on the N-benzylpiperidine benzisoxazole, CP-126,998, a highly potent (IC{sub 50}=0.48 nm) and selective inhibitor of AChE. High specific activity [C-11] CP-126,998 was synthesized (14 - 24% radiochemical yield, non-decay corrected) by treatment of the desmethyl precursor, CP-118,954, with [C-11] methyl iodide and tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in DMF. In vivo studies with [C-11] CP-126,998 in mice show that this radiotracer displays highest uptake in striatum (6.2 %ID/g), a brain region known to be rich in AChE. The (striatum-cerebellum)/cerebellar radioactivity ratio reached a maximum of 4.3 at 30 min postinjection, and this ratio decreased to 2.4 at 120 min. .Radiotracer binding was saturable in vivo by pretreatment with CP-118,954. Pretreatment of mice with diisopropylfluorophosphate (4 mg/kg i.p.), a known AChE inhibitor, significantly inhibited binding in striatum in a dose-dependent manner. Initial results suggest that [C-11] CP-126,998 may prove useful as a marker for the study of AChE in humans via PET.

  7. Remineralization of early enamel lesions using casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium Phosphate: An ex-vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Vashisht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at qualitatively evaluating the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate on artificial early enamel lesions in an ex-vivo scenario by observing the treated tooth surface using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Materials and Methods: This randomized study was conducted on 10 subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment with premolar extraction as part of their treatment. Artificial white lesions were created with the application of 37% phosphoric acid for 20 mins. Teeth were then divided into two groups: one experimental and the other control. Customised orthodontic band with a window was luted with intermediate restorative material in the experimental group whereas in the control group, band without a window was luted. The casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate (GC TOOTH MOUSSE paste was then applied on the window region of the experimental group for 3 mins thrice daily after meals for 14 days, whereas no paste was applied in the control group. After 14 days, teeth were extracted and viewed under an SEM. Results: The study groups showed remineralization of the lesions as compared with the control group in most of the samples. Conclusion: Casein phophopeptide could significantly remineralize the artificial enamel lesions in vivo.

  8. In vivo field dependence of proton relaxation times in human brain, liver and skeletal muscle: a multicenter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; de Certaines, J D; Spisni, A

    1993-01-01

    and MRS, the in vivo field dispersion of T1 and T2 has been measured in order to evaluate whether ex vivo data are representative for the in vivo situation. Brain, skeletal muscle, and liver of healthy human volunteers were studied. Fifteen MR units with a field strength ranging from 0.08 T to 1.5 T took......T1 and T2 relaxation times are fundamental parameters for signal contrast behaviour in MRI. A number of ex vivo relaxometry studies have dealt with the magnetic field dispersion of T1. By means of multicenter study within the frame of the COMAC BME Concerted Action on Tissue Characterization by MRI...... part in the trial, which comprised 218 volunteers. All the MR systems were tested for measurement accuracy using the Eurospin TO5 test object. The measured relaxation data were subsequently corrected according to the obtained calibration curves. The results showed a clear field dispersion of T1...

  9. Comparative study of skin autofluorescence expression in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis: A prospective in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, J H; Jeong, K H; Shin, M K

    2017-05-01

    Treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis requires their differentiation from other eczematoid dermatitis and a determination of disease severity. However, both can be clinically difficult and the findings subjectively interpreted. We investigated the utility of in vivo autofluorescence (AF) measurements for diagnosis of both diseases, and determination of severity. Thirty patients with AD and 30 with psoriasis were recruited, together with sex- and age-matched patients with healthy skin. AF intensity was measured using the EcoSkin® fluorescence video dermatoscope. In AD and psoriasis patients, AF in non-sun-exposed lesional and non-lesional skin was measured. To identify the locations that reflect characteristics of AD, AF was also measured at the other sites in the patients with AD. AD was associated with lower AF and psoriasis with higher AF intensity peaking around 620 nm. In addition, skin AF intensity of each disease was associated with severity of lesion. Non-invasive measurement of skin AF in vivo can aid in diagnosis of AD and psoriasis as well as in treatment monitoring. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. PREVALENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF AN ULTRASONOGRAPHIC COLONIC MUSCULARIS HYPERECHOIC BAND PARALLELING THE SEROSAL LAYER IN DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Hock Gan; Lim, Chee Kin; Miller, Margaret A; Broman, Meaghan M

    2015-01-01

    The muscularis layer of the canine colon has been reported to appear homogeneously hypoechoic on ultrasonography. A hyperechoic band in the muscularis layer paralleling the serosal surface has been observed by authors in routine canine abdominal ultrasound examinations. The purpose of this prospective and retrospective cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of this lesion, characterize its ultrasonographic and postmortem histologic features, and correlate its presence with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. In the prospective study, all dogs that underwent routine abdominal ultrasonography by one of two observers during a 4-week period were included without any exclusion criteria. One observer reviewed ultrasound images and recorded the presence or absence of this lesion and its distribution, e.g. focal ( 2 cm long). In the retrospective study, all dogs that had both abdominal ultrasonography and necropsy from January 2011 to December 2013 were included without any exclusion criteria. Histologic examinations were performed by two observers and Masson's trichrome stain was used to identify fibrous collagen. Prevalence for the hyperechoic band was 32% in the prospective and 4.8% in the retrospective sample populations, respectively. The hyperechoic band appeared as diffuse, focal, or a combination of both. Histologic sections were available for six dogs. In a few cases, the lesion corresponded to the presence of fibrous tissue in the myenteric plexus or in the tunica muscularis. None of the dogs had a history of diarrhea. Findings supported the hypothesis that a colonic muscularis hyperechoic band paralleling the serosal layer in dogs could be a normal variant rather than a marker of disease. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Study of in vivo catheter biofilm infections using pediatric central venous catheter implanted in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashwini; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Venous access catheters used in clinics are prone to biofilm contamination, contributing to chronic and nosocomial infections. Although several animal models for studying device-associated biofilms were previously described, only a few detailed protocols are currently available. Here we provide a protocol using totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) implanted in rats. This model recapitulates all phenomena observed in the clinic, and it allows bacterial biofilm development and physiology to be studied. After TIVAP implantation and inoculation with luminescent pathogens, in vivo biofilm formation can be monitored in situ, and biofilm biomass can be recovered from contaminated TIVAP and organs. We used this protocol to study host responses to biofilm infection, to evaluate preventive and curative antibiofilm strategies and to study fundamental biofilm properties. For this procedure, one should expect ∼3 h of hands-on time, including the implantation in one rat followed by in situ luminescence monitoring and bacterial load estimation.

  12. An immunohistological study of anhydrous topical ascorbic acid compositions on ex vivo human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Geoffrey K; Markovic, Boban; Hayes, Amanda

    2006-06-01

    Ascorbic acid has numerous essential and beneficial functions in normal and photoaged skin. Ionisation of ascorbic acid in aqueous topical formulations leads to oxidative degradation. Ascorbic acid in an anhydrous vehicle would inherently have greater stability. The objective of this study was to observe the effects of two anhydrous formulations containing microfine particles of ascorbic acid on neocollagenesis and cytokeratin production in ex vivo human skin. Vitamin C preparations were applied topically onto the surface of freshly excised human abdominal skin. Following an exposure time of 48 h with appropriate controls, skin discs were cut into sections, placed on slides and assessed using immunohistochemical (antibodies: collagen type I, III, cytokeratin) staining. Analysis was performed using microscopy and descriptive rating. Both formulations resulted in increased production of collagen types I and III and cytokeratin. The application of anhydrous formulations containing microfine particles of ascorbic acid to ex vivo human skin in this study resulted in neocollagenesis and increased production of cytokeratin. This approach appears to enable biological effects of ascorbic acid in the skin using a vehicle which would provide it greater stability than an aqueous vehicle.

  13. In vivo study effect of particulate Bioglass in the prevention of infection in open fracture fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zong-Ping; Zhang, Chang-Qing; Yi, Cheng-Qing; Qiu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Zhou, Juan

    2009-07-01

    There are many in vitro experiments showing that particulate bioactive glasses have a broad and certain antibacterial effect, but there is no report about this antibacterial effect in vivo so far. The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy of particulate Bioglass in reducing the rate of infection with Staphylococcus aureus after the fixation of open tibial fractures in rabbits. The test in vivo was carried out with male rabbits split into two groups infected with Staphylococcus aureus at the right tibial fracture sites fixed with plate and screw, either with or without bioactive glass respectively. Culture results show that six of ten rabbits from the control group had a positive culture for the strain of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923, compared with six of the nine rabbits from the Bioglass group. The median radiographic score is 4.5 points for the rabbits from the control group and 4 points for the rabbits from the Bioglass group. The median histopathological score was 2.5 points for the rabbits in the control group and 3 points for the rabbits in the Bioglass group. In conclusion, this study showed no significant difference between the rates of infection of two groups. Particulate Bioglass did not reduce the rate of infection with Staphylococcus aureus after the fixation of open tibial fractures in rabbits. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ex vivo rabbit cornea diffusion studies with a soluble insert of moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián-Morelló, María; Calatayud-Pascual, María Aracely; Rodilla, Vicent; Balaguer-Fernández, Cristina; López-Castellano, Alicia

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate an ocular insert for the controlled drug delivery of moxifloxacin which could perhaps be used in the treatment of corneal keratitis or even bacterial endophthalmitis. We have evaluated the ex vivo ocular diffusion of moxifloxacin through rabbit cornea, both fresh and preserved under different conditions. Histological studies were also carried out. Subsequently, drug matrix inserts were prepared using bioadhesive polymers. The inserts were evaluated for their physicochemical parameters. Ophthalmic ex vivo permeation of moxifloxacin was carried out with the most promising insert. The formulate insert was thin and provided higher ocular diffusion than commercial formulations. Ocular diffusion studies revealed significant differences between fresh and frozen corneas. Histological examinations also showed differences in the thickness of stroma between fresh and frozen corneas. The ophthalmic insert we have developed allows a larger quantity of moxifloxacin to permeate through the cornea than existing commercial formulations of the drug. Ocular delivery of moxifloxacin with this insert could be a new approach for the treatment of eye diseases.

  15. Laser system for optical biopsy and in-vivo study of the human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Ekaterina G.; Avramov, Lachezar A.

    2001-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of the diagnostic potential of noninvasive laser-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy (LIAFS) for human skin in vivo. The autofluorescence characterization of tissue relies on different spectral properties of tissue. It was demonstrated a differentiation between normal skin and skin with vitaligo. In our experimental investigation of the autofluorescence spectrum of human skin in vivo a nitrogen laser with excitation wavelength 337 nm was used. Two fluorescence bands were observed at 440 and 490 nm, these were attributed to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and collagen. The intensity of the NADH emission band was markedly reduced in the skin with vitaligo compared with the normal skin, which could indicate different redox conditions in skin with vitaligo. The autofluorescence spectrum of human skin depends on the main internal absorbers, which are blood and melanin. In this study was described the effect caused by melanin content on the shape of the autofluorescence spectrum of human skin. Human skin fluorescence spectrum might provide dermatologists with important information and such investigations are successfully used now in skin disease diagnostics, in investigation of the environmental factor impact or for evaluation of treatment efficiency. The goal of this work is optimization of detection and diagnosis of hollow organs and skin.

  16. A review of in vivo animal studies in retinal prosthesis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertschinger, Dimiter R; Beknazar, Evgueny; Simonutti, Manuel; Safran, Avinoam B; Sahel, José A; Rosolen, Serge G; Picaud, Serge; Salzmann, Joel

    2008-11-01

    The development of a functional retinal prosthesis for acquired blindness is a great challenge. Rapid progress in the field over the last 15 years would not have been possible without extensive animal experimentation pertaining to device design and fabrication, biocompatibility, stimulation parameters and functional responses. This paper presents an overview of in vivo animal research related to retinal prosthetics, and aims to summarize the relevant studies. A Pubmed search of the English language literature was performed. The key search terms were: retinal implant, retinal prosthesis, artificial vision, rat, rabbit, cat, dog, sheep, pig, minipig. In addition a manual search was performed based on references quoted in the articles retrieved through Pubmed. We identified 50 articles relevant to in vivo animal experimentation directly related to the development of a retinal implant. The highest number of publications related to the cat (n = 18). The contribution of animal models to the development of retinal prosthetic devices has been enormous, and has led to human feasibility studies. Grey areas remain regarding long-term tissue-implant interactions, biomaterials, prosthesis design and neural adaptation. Animals will continue to play a key role in this rapidly evolving field.

  17. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Joachim H.; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Madsen, Signe S.; Hansen, Peter M.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2013-03-01

    A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequen- tial beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imag- ing (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence that was implemented on the UltraView system acquires both SASB-THI and DRF-THI simultaneously. Twenty-four simultaneously acquired video sequences of in-vivo abdominal SASB-THI and DRF-THI scans on 3 volunteers of 4 different sections of liver and kidney tissues were created. Videos of the in-vivo scans were presented in double blinded studies to two radiologists for image quality performance scoring. Limitations to the systems transmit stage prevented user defined transmit apodization to be applied. Field II simulations showed that side lobes in SASB could be improved by using Hanning transmit apodization. Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.

  18. Improvement of thymol properties by complexation with cyclodextrins: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieddu, Maria; Rassu, Giovanna; Boatto, Gianpiero; Bosi, Paolo; Trevisi, Paolo; Giunchedi, Paolo; Carta, Antonio; Gavini, Elisabetta

    2014-02-15

    Thymol, an effective agent for microbial diseases, has a low aqueous solubility and a strong bitter/irritating taste. These physicochemical characteristics need to be improved to develop pharmaceutical preparations. This study evaluates whether β-cyclodextrin and a copolymer based on dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) interact with thymol in order to control powderization, solubilization, and taste-masking properties. The thymol-β-cyclodextrin complex was prepared by co-precipitation and sealed-heating methods. The DMAEMA copolymer was mixed with the complex using a new approach, instead of spray coating, to decrease thymol volatility. In vivo studies were performed. Sealed-heating is a suitable method for including thymol in β-cyclodextrin with a good loading efficiency; thymol volatility control is achieved by mixing the complex with the DMAEMA copolymer. β-Cyclodextrin accelerates the in vivo thymol absorption rate compared with the free drug; the thymol half-life is still long. Therefore, a low number of administrations per day are required. Although bioavailability is unchanged with respect to free thymol, high doses could be administered of a selected formulation without compromising the compliance. Furthermore, thymol that is not absorbed is held along the intestine, where it can useful in the treatment and/or prevention of intestinal bacterial diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydroxytyrosol inhibits cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth: an in vivo and in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Han, Zhiyang; Ma, Yong; Song, Ruipeng; Pei, Tiemin; Zheng, Tongsen; Wang, Jiabei; Xu, Dongsheng; Fang, Xiang; Jiang, Hongchi; Liu, Lianxin

    2014-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a type of digestive tumor that is associated with a high rate of mortality due to the difficulty of early diagnosis and the resistance of this tumor type to chemotherapy. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), which is derived from virgin olive oil (VOO), has recently been reported to inhibit the proliferation of various types of human cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HT on CCA. The antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of HT on CCA were evaluated in the human CCA cell lines TFK-1 and KMBC and the human gallbladder cancer cell line GBS-SD. We also assessed this effect in vivo. We found that 75 µM HT inhibited the proliferation of the TFK-1, KMBC and GBS-SD cell lines. However, 200 µM HT treatment did not affect the proliferation of the human bile duct cell line HIBEpiC. More importantly, HT (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) markedly inhibited the growth of CCA xenografts in mice. G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were observed using flow cytometry and western blotting, and we also noted a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of phospho-ERK, with no changes in total-ERK, during treatment with HT. The present study showed that HT induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that HT, which possesses excellent biocompatibility and few side-effects, could be developed as a novel agent against CCA.

  20. In vivo studies: comparing the administration via and the impact on the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Suyene Rocha; Sarcinelle, Michelle Alvares; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; da Silva, Franciana Maria Rosa; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Almeida do Nascimento, Patricia; Carvalho, Cosme Leonardo Gomes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

    2014-10-01

    The use of in vivo assay to determine the biodistribution and subsequent inter-comparison with human parameters has been used since the dawn of science. The use of this type of test admits the metabolic equity among animals for inter-comparison. Thus, the use of Wistar rats in particular is quite frequent. Regarding routes of administration, there are three ways to test priority: jugular vein, intraocular (eye plexus) and caudal; there is a consensus that these three pathways behave in the same way, or at least very similar. Biodistribution studies of drugs, especially radiopharmaceuticals, have been using randomly any of these pathways believed to be effective in their likeness without worrying about your real analytic equity. In this study, we performed in vivo assay in 8 Wistar rats using 99mTc -labeled Herceptin to review the route of administration on the biodistribution result. Thus, four mice were injected via the intraocular (eye plexus), and four were injected via tail (caudal plexus). The results were quite disparate and call the attention of the scientific community to reassess the protocols for animal experiments, in order to have uniformity and fairness between the data and may represent a test for human inter-comparison of more reliable and trustworthy way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Controlled release of dutasteride from biodegradable microspheres: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyang Xie

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the in vitro/in vivo characteristics of dutasteride loaded biodegradable microspheres designed for sustained release of dutasteride over four weeks. An O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method was used to incorporate dutasteride, which is of interest in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, into poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA. A response surface method (RSM with central composite design (CCD was employed to optimize the formulation variables. A prolonged in vitro drug release profile was observed, with a complete release of the entrapped drug within 28 days. The pharmacokinetics study showed sustained plasma drug concentration-time profile of dutasteride loaded microspheres after subcutaneous injection into rats. The in vitro drug release in rats correlated well with the in vivo pharmacokinetics profile. The pharmacodynamics evaluated by determination of the BPH inhibition in the rat models also showed a prolonged pharmacological response. These results suggest the potential use of dutasteride loaded biodegradable microspheres for the management of BPH over long periods.

  2. The strain behavior of the anterior cruciate ligament during stair climbing: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, B C; Beynnon, B D; Renstrom, P A; Johnson, R J; Nichols, C E; Peura, G D; Uh, B S

    1999-03-01

    Stair climbing is a closed kinetic chain exercise that is thought to be useful for knee rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction while protecting the graft from excessive strain. The objectives of this study were to measure the strain produced in the anteromedial band (AMB) of the normal ACL during stair climbing in vivo. We have previously shown that the normal AMB strain pattern during knee passive flexion-extension motion is similar to that of an ACL graft immediately after graft fixation. We successfully tested five subjects with normal ACLs, who were candidates for arthroscopic meniscectomy under local anesthesia. AMB strain was measured in vivo using the Differential Variable Reluctance Transducer (MicroStrain, Burlington, VT). The stair climbing activities were performed on a StairMaster 4000PT (Randall Sports Medicine, Kirkland, WA). Two different climbing cadences were evaluated; 80 and 112 steps per minute. Consistent with our previous studies of ACL biomechanics, strain values increased as the knee was moved from a flexed to an extended position. The mean peak AMB strain values for the 80 and 112 steps per minute conditions were 2.69% (+/-2.89&) and 2.76% (+/-2.68%), respectively. These values were not significantly different. Compared with other rehabilitation activities previously tested in the same manner, the AMB strain values produced during stair climbing were highly variable across subjects. High strain values were observed in some patients but not in others.

  3. Targeting brain cells with glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes: in vitro and in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Heba F; Ahmed, Sayed M; Hassaballah, Ashraf E; Omar, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    Background The blood–brain barrier prevents many drug moieties from reaching the central nervous system. Therefore, glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes have been engineered to enhance the targeting of flucytosine to the brain. Methods Glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration technique and evaluated in the primary brain cells of rats. Lecithin, cholesterol, and span 65 were mixed at 1:1:1 molar ratio. The molar percentage of PEGylated glutathione varied from 0 mol% to 0.75 mol%. The cellular binding and the uptake of the targeted liposomes were both monitored by epifluorescent microscope and flow cytometry techniques. A biodistribution and a pharmacokinetic study of flucytosine and flucytosine-loaded glutathione–modulated liposomes was carried out to evaluate the in vivo brain-targeting efficiency. Results The size of glutathione-modulated nanoliposomes was glutathione increased to reach the maximum at 0.75 mol%. The uptake of the targeted liposomes by brain cells of the rats was three times greater than that of the nontargeted liposomes. An in vivo study showed that the relative efficiency was 2.632±0.089 and the concentration efficiency was 1.590±0.049, and also, the drug-targeting index was 3.670±0.824. Conclusion Overall, these results revealed that glutathione-PEGylated nanoliposomes enhance the effective delivery of flucytosine to brain and could become a promising new therapeutic option for the treatment of the brain infections. PMID:26229435

  4. Diagnostic accuracy of proximal caries by digital radiographs: an in vivo and in vitro comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Qu, Xin-min; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zu-yan; Ma, Xu-chen

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the diagnostic accuracy of proximal dental caries in digital radiographs was similar when obtained in in vivo and in vitro conditions. Thirty-nine noncavitated teeth were collected from 11 subjects who had part of upper or lower jaws excised owing to cyst or neoplasm. Before operation, radiographs of the teeth involved were taken with the digital imaging system Digora Optime (Soredex, Helsinki, Finland), and after operation, the same extracted teeth were mounted in plaster blocks and exposed with the same digital imaging system. The teeth were subsequently sectioned for histologic validation of the lesions. Six observers evaluated all of the radiographs according to a 5-category scale. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed. Repeated-measure analysis of variance was used for the statistical analysis. There were no significant differences between digital radiographs taken in in vivo and in vitro conditions for diagnosis of proximal dental caries (P = .286). Detection accuracy of proximal dental caries obtained from an in vitro study can be considered to be representative of diagnostic accuracy of proximal dental caries obtained in the real clinical situation. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface modification minimizes the toxicity of silver nanoparticles: an in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Balaram; Tripathy, Satyajit; Adhikary, Jaydeep; Chattopadhyay, Sourav; Mandal, Debasis; Dash, Sandeep Kumar; Das, Sabyasachi; Dey, Aditi; Dey, Sankar Kumar; Das, Debasis; Roy, Somenath

    2017-08-01

    Currently toxicological research in Silver nanoparticle is a leading issue in medical science. The surface chemistry and physical dimensions of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) play an important role in toxicity. The aim of this present study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicity of Ag-NPs as well as the alteration of toxicity profile due to surface functionalization (PEG and BSA) and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in nanoparticles mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo system. Ag-NPs released excess Ag+ ions leads to activation of NADPH oxidase and helps in generating the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Silver nanoparticles elicit the production of excess amount of ROS results activation of TNF-α. Ag-NPs activates caspase-3 and 9 which are the signature of mitochondrial pathway. Ag-NPs are responsible to decrease the antioxidant enzymes and imbalance the oxidative status into the cells but functionalization with BSA and PEG helps to protect the adverse effect of Ag-NPs on the cells. This study suggested that Ag-NPs are toxic to normal cells which directly lead with human health. Surface functionalization may open the gateway for further use of Ag-NPs in different area such as antimicrobial and anticancer therapy, industrial use or in biomedical sciences.

  6. Ultrasonographic Features of Hip Joints in Mucopolysaccharidoses Type I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuber, Zbigniew; Jurecka, Agnieszka; Różdżyńska-Świątkowska, Agnieszka; Migas-Majoch, Agata; Lembas, Agnieszka; Kieć-Wilk, Beata; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the ultrasonographic features of hip joints in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I and II in comparison with healthy population. The secondary aims were to correlate these features with clinical measures and to evaluate the utility of ultrasound in the diagnosis of MPS disease. Sixteen MPS I (n = 3) and II (n = 13) patients were enrolled in the present study and underwent clinical and radiological evaluation, and bilateral high-resolution ultrasonography (US) of hip joints. The distance from the femoral neck to joint capsule (synovial joint space, SJS), joint effusion, synovial hyperthrophy, and local pathological vascularization were evaluated. The results were compared to the healthy population and correlated with clinical and radiological measures. 1. There was a difference in US SJS between children with MPS disease and the normative value for healthy population (7mm). Mean values of SJS were 15.81 ± 4.08 cm (right hip joints) and 15.69 ± 4.19 cm (left joints). 2. No inflammatory joint abnormalities were detected in MPS patients. 3. There was a clear correlation between US SJS and patients' age and height, while no clear correlation was observed between SJS and disease severity. 1. Patients with MPS I and II present specific features in hip joint ultrasonography. 2. The data suggests that ultrasonography might be effective in the evaluation of hip joint involvement in patients with MPS and might present a valuable tool in facilitating the diagnosis and follow up of the disease.

  7. Evaluating the reliability of ultrasonographic parameters in differentiating benign from malignant superficial lymphadenopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarir Nazemi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of malignant lymphadenopathy is of particular importance for treatment planning, before treatment staging and also for prognosis determination. Currently various diagnostic procedures are used to differentiate benign and malignant lymphadenopathy which are invasive and costly. Ultrasonography as a noninvasive, low-cost and accessible method is proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of some ultrasonographic parameters in differentiating malignant from benign superficial lymphadenopathies. In this study ultrasonography was performed for lymph nodes of 100 patients who were eligible for pathological evaluation of superficial lymphadenopathy. The most accessible lymph nodes were marked and biopsied. Sonographic and pathologic results were compared. The sensitivity and specificity of the test and the appropriate cutoff point was determined based on the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve using SPSS Ver.17. From 100 evaluated lymph nodes 55 were benign and 45 were malignant. There was no significant difference between malignant and benign lymph nodes in terms of cortical and medullary thickness (p=0.055,but there was a significant difference between benign and malignant lymph nodes in terms of blood supply pattern and mean of Pulsatility Index (PI (P=.007 and Resistive Index (RI (P<0.001 . The cortex thickness of 7.95 mm with 62.2٪ sensitivity, 72.7٪ specificity and 70٪ accuracy was the appropriate cutoff point in differentiating malignant and benign lymphadenopathy. The color Doppler criteria in combination with gray scale ultrasonography could be helpful to select patients for biopsy or Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA, but cannot fully replace pathological evaluation.

  8. Reliability of rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ju Ri; Ko, Young Jun; Ha, Hyun Geun; Lee, Wan Hee

    2016-03-01

    This study was to establish inter-rater and intrarater reliability of the rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging (RUSI) technique for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major at rest and with the shoulder abducted to 90°. Twenty-four young adults (eight men, 16 women; right-handed; mean age [±SD], 24·4 years [±2·6]) with no history of neck, shoulder, or arm pain were recruited. Rhomboid major muscle images were obtained in the resting position and with shoulder in 90° abduction using an ultrasonography system with a 7·5-MHz linear transducer. In these two positions, the examiners found the site at which the transducer could be placed. Two examiners obtained the images of all participants in three test sessions at random. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate reliability. All ICCs (95% CI) were >0·75, ranging from 0·93 to 0·98, which indicates good reliability. The ICCs for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0·75 to 0·94. For the absolute value of the difference in the intra-examiner reliability between the right and left ratios, the ICCs ranged from 0·58 to 0·91. In this study, the intra- and interexaminer reliability of muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major were good. Therefore, we suggest that muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major obtained with the RUSI technique would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ultrasonographic and laparoscopic evaluation of the reproductive tract in older captive female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, M L; Kirberger, R M; Tordiffe, A S W; Marker, L L; Schmidt-Küntzel, A; Hartman, M J

    2015-12-01

    The study uniquely described the clinical value of transabdominal ultrasonography for monitoring features characterizing the estrous cycle in female cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The reproductive tracts of 21 female, nulliparous, and relatively aged (median: 11 and interquartile range: 9.25-14 years) captive cheetahs resident on two sites in Namibia were assessed by transabdominal ultrasound. Subsequently, the ovarian findings on ultrasound were compared with direct visualization while performing laparoscopic sterilization. A combination of these observations supported by concurrent sampling for vaginal cytology and serum progesterone concentrations defined the estrous status of individual animals. At one site, six cheetahs had been implanted with the GnRH agonist, deslorelin as a contraceptive at least once within the preceding 11 years. On ultrasound, 31 uterine horns and 35 ovaries with discernible structures on 28 (86%) were visualized in the 21 cheetahs. The uterine body was difficult to visualize because of its intrapelvic location. Eleven of 19 uteri (58%) visualized showed endometrial edema suggestive of estrogenization. The uteri of four cheetahs (19%) showed evidence of mild cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Paraovarian cysts were seen on ultrasound (n = 21) and laparoscopy (n = 26) in 16 (76.2%) and 18 (85.7%) cheetahs, respectively. Ovarian volumes obtained from ultrasonographically determined dimensions predicted cyclic activity. Laparoscopy showed that 19 ovaries had discernible follicular structures. In the study population, 10 (47.6%) cheetahs were in proestrus or estrus; none in the luteal phase; and 11 (52.4%) in anestrus. Transabdominal ultrasound, in combination with serum progesterone concentrations and vaginal cytology, was used with acceptable accuracy to assess cyclic ovarian activity in captive cheetahs. A considerable proportion of this aged population showed ovarian activity and the prevalence of paraovarian cysts was notable. A

  10. Methotrexate Dosage Reduction Upon Adalimumab Initiation: Clinical and Ultrasonographic Outcomes from the Randomized Noninferiority MUSICA Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeley, Gurjit S; Evangelisto, Amy M; Nishio, Midori J; Goss, Sandra L; Liu, Shufang; Kalabic, Jasmina; Kupper, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    To examine the clinical and ultrasonographic (US) outcomes of reducing methotrexate (MTX) dosage upon initiating adalimumab (ADA) in MTX-inadequate responders with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MUSICA (NCT01185288) was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-arm study of 309 patients with RA receiving MTX ≥ 15 mg/week for ≥ 12 weeks before screening. Patients were randomized to high dosage (20 mg/week) or low dosage (7.5 mg/week) MTX; all patients received 40 mg open-label ADA every other week for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was Week 24 mean 28-joint Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) to test for noninferiority of low-dosage MTX using a 15% margin. US images were scored using a 10-joint semiquantitative system incorporating OMERACT definitions for pathology, assessing synovial hypertrophy, vascularity, and bony erosions. Rapid improvement in clinical indices was observed in both groups after addition of ADA. The difference in mean DAS28-CRP (0.37, 95% CI 0.07-0.66) comparing low-dosage (4.12, 95% CI 3.88-4.34) versus high-dosage MTX (3.75, 95% CI 3.52-3.97) was statistically significant and non-inferiority was not met. Statistically significant differences were not detected for most clinical, functional, and US outcomes. Pharmacokinetic and safety profiles were similar. In MUSICA, Week 24 mean DAS28-CRP, the primary endpoint, did not meet non-inferiority for the low-dosage MTX group. Although the differences between the 2 MTX dosage groups were small, our study findings did not support routine MTX reduction in MTX inadequate responders initiating ADA.

  11. In vivo study of experimental pneumococcal meningitis using magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, C.T.; Simonsen, H.; Liptrot, Matthew George

    2008-01-01

    Background: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) methods were evaluated as a tool for the study of experimental meningitis. The identification and characterisation of pathophysiological parameters that vary during the course of the disease could be used as markers for future studies of new treatment......-vivo with MRI. Increasing BBB-breakdown and ventricle size was observed in rats with meningitis whereas changes in brain water distribution were heterogeneous. MRI will be a valuable technique for future studies aiming at evaluating or optimizing adjunctive treatments. © 2008 Brandt et al; licensee Bio......-rat variation as the disease progressed, but without overall differences compared to uninfected rats (P > 0.05). Areas of well-'perfused' muscle decreased with the progression of infection indicative of septicaemia (P = 0.05). Conclusion: The evolution of bacterial meningitis was successfully followed in...

  12. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance studies of hepatic methoxyflurane metabolism. I. Verification and quantitation of methoxydifluoroacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinsky, B S; Perlman, M E; London, R E

    1988-05-01

    The elimination and metabolism of the fluorinated inhalation anesthetic methoxyflurane (2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethyl methyl ether) in rats has been monitored using in vivo 19F nuclear magnetic resonance at 8.45 T. The elimination of methoxyflurane from rat liver as measured using a surface coil is a first order process when measured beginning 2-3 hr after the end of methoxyflurane anesthesia over a period of 12 hr. The rate constant for hepatic methoxyflurane elimination is dependent upon the duration of anesthesia, varying from 0.24 hr-1 for 15 min of anesthesia to 0.07 hr-1 for 1 hr of anesthesia. Methoxyflurane was shown to be metabolized in the liver to methoxydifluoroacetate using the surface coil method. No resonance for hepatic fluoride ion could be observed in vivo. Pure sodium methoxydifluoroacetate was synthesized in order to confirm the identity of the resonances in liver and urine. 19F NMR spectra of urine collected from anesthetized rats contain resonances for two methoxyflurane metabolites, methoxydifluoroacetate and inorganic fluoride. Studies with liver homogenates imply that fluoride is quickly cleared from the liver and eliminated from the body through the urine, explaining the inability to observe hepatic fluoride using a surface coil. The 19F NMR resonance for inorganic fluoride in urine was found to be broadened by interaction with metal ions, since the broadening could be eliminated by treatment with chelating resin.

  13. Acoustic hemostasis of porcine superficial femoral artery: Simulation and in-vivo experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaozheng; Mitchell, Stuart; Miller, Matthew; Barnes, Stephen; Hopple, Jerry; Kook, John; Moreau-Gobard, Romain; Hsu, Stephen; Ahiekpor-Dravi, Alexis; Crum, Lawrence A.; Eaton, John; Wong, Keith; Sekins, K. Michael

    2012-10-01

    In-vivo focused ultrasound studies were computationally simulated and conducted experimentally with the aim of occluding porcine superficial femoral arteries (SFA) via thermal coagulation. A multi-array HIFU applicator was used which electronically scanned multiple beam foci around the target point. The spatio-temporally averaged acoustic and temperature fields were simulated in a fluid dynamics and acousto-thermal finite element model with representative tissue fields, including muscle, vessel and blood. Simulations showed that with an acoustic power of 200W and a dose time of 60s, perivascular tissue reached 91°C; and yet blood reached a maximum 59°C, below the coagulation objective for this dose regime (75°C). Per simulations, acoustic-streaming induced velocity in blood reached 6.1cm/s. In in-vivo experiments, several arteries were treated. As simulated, thermal lesions were observed in muscle surrounding SFA in all cases. In dosing limited to 30 to 60 seconds, it required 257W to provide occlusion (one complete and one partial occlusion). Angiography and histology showed evidence of thrombogenesis and collagen shrinkage-based vessel constriction at these doses.

  14. [In vitro and in vivo study of electromagnetic compatibility of cellular phones and pacemakers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellér, L; Thuróczy, G; Merkely, B

    2001-09-09

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of cellular phones and pacemakers (PM) was examined in four different cellular phone system (NMT, GSM, RLL, DCS 1800 MHz) and in fifteen different PM type in-vitro and in-vivo in humans. After more than 1100 in-vitro and 130 in-vivo tests we concluded, that the electromagnetic immunity of the PMs which are implanted in Hungary is suitable with only few exceptions. The highest rate of EMC problems was observed with NMT 450 MHz cellular phones (10.5%-63%). There was no EMC disturbance observed with GSM and DCS 1800 MHz cellular phones. There was only one case when clinically significant symptom was noticed with only one PM type and with NMT system cellular phone when the distance of cellular phone was 3-4 cms, and the power was maximal. There was not any EMC disturbance observed with none of the cellular phone systems during normal talking and when the distance of the PM and cellular phone was more than 20 cms. Our study supports guidelines which suggest that PM patients should contact their physicians when using cellular phones and cellular phones and PMs should not get closer than 20 cms.

  15. In Vivo and Cadaver Studies of the Canalicular/Lacrimal Sac Mucosal Folds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng You

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to investigate canalicular/lacrimal sac mucosal folds (CLS-MFs in vivo and in cadavers in order to explore their functional roles in the lacrimal drainage system. Method. The observations of CLS-MFs in vivo were performed on 16 patients with chronic dacryocystitis after undergoing an endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (EE-DCR. The lacrimal sacs and common canaliculi of 19 adult cadavers were dissected. The opening/closing of an orifice and mucosal fold was recorded. All of the specimens were subjected to a histological examination. Results. The upper and lower lacrimal canaliculi in all of the samples united to form a common canaliculus that opened to the lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs were observed in 10 of the 16 patients (62.5% and 9 of the 19 cadavers (47.4%. The orifices or mucosal folds could be opened or closed when related muscles contracted or relaxed. Histological sections showed a mucosal fold at one side of an orifice. Conclusion. Common canaliculus is the most common type that the canaliculus opens to lacrimal sac. CLS-MFs exist in a certain ratio that can be opened/closed with the movement of the orifices. They may be involved in the drainage of tears or the pathogenesis of acute dacryocystitis or lacrimal sac mucocele.

  16. Scapholunate ligament injury adversely alters in vivo wrist joint mechanics: an MRI-based modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua E; Lee, Phil; McIff, Terence E; Toby, E Bruce; Fischer, Kenneth J

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of scapholunate ligament injury on in vivo radiocarpal joint mechanics using image-based surface contact modeling. Magnetic resonance images of 10 injured and contralateral normal wrists were acquired at high resolution (hand relaxed) and during functional grasp. Three-dimensional surface models of the radioscaphoid and radiolunate articulations were constructed from the relaxed images, and image registration between the relaxed and grasp images provided kinematics. The displacement driven models were implemented in contact modeling software. Contact parameters were determined from interpenetration of interacting bodies and a linear contact rule. Peak and mean contact pressures, contact forces and contact areas were compared between the normal and injured wrists. Also measured were effective (direct) contact areas and intercentroid distances from the grasp images. Means of the model contact areas were within 10 mm(2) of the direct contact areas for both articulations. With injury, all contact parameters significantly increased in the radioscaphoid articulation, while only peak contact pressure and contact force significantly increased in the radiolunate articulation. Intercentroid distances also increased significantly with injury. This study provides novel in vivo contact mechanics data from scapholunate ligament injury and confirms detrimental alterations as a result of injury. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Multigram Synthesis and in Vivo Efficacy Studies of a Novel Multitarget Anti-Alzheimer’s Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Sola

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the multigram synthesis and in vivo efficacy studies of a donepezil‒huprine hybrid that has been found to display a promising in vitro multitarget profile of interest for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Its synthesis features as the key step a novel multigram preparative chromatographic resolution of intermediate racemic huprine Y by chiral HPLC. Administration of this compound to transgenic CL4176 and CL2006 Caenorhabditis elegans strains expressing human Aβ42, here used as simplified animal models of AD, led to a significant protection from the toxicity induced by Aβ42. However, this protective effect was not accompanied, in CL2006 worms, by a reduction of amyloid deposits. Oral administration for 3 months to transgenic APPSL mice, a well-established animal model of AD, improved short-term memory, but did not alter brain levels of Aβ peptides nor cortical and hippocampal amyloid plaque load. Despite the clear protective and cognitive effects of AVCRI104P4, the lack of Aβ lowering effect in vivo might be related to its lower in vitro potency toward Aβ aggregation and formation as compared with its higher anticholinesterase activities. Further lead optimization in this series should thus focus on improving the anti-amyloid/anticholinesterase activity ratio.

  18. IN VIVO STUDY OF PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS ROLE ON ANTIHYPERCHOLESTEROL ACTIVITY OF VIRGIN COCONUT OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Joko Raharjo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of phenolic compounds on antihypercholeserol activity of Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO has been investigated. The in vivo studies ware carried out by treatment of two groups of Wistar white mouse (Ratus norvegicus using high phenolic VCO and low phenolic VCO respectively, followed by analysis of lipid profile in blood and liver serum of the mouse. In addition a group of hypercholesterol mouse was treated with low phenolic VCO and the blood serum lipid profile was compared with untreated hypercholesterol mouse. The results show that phenolic compound play an important role on antihypercholesterol of VCO. Group of mouse treated with high phenolic VCO have better lipid profile (blood serum: total cholesterol: 70 mg/dL, triglyceride: 76 mg/dL, HDL: 20 mg/dL, LDL: 35 mg/dL; liver serum: total cholesterol:7 mg/dL, triglyceride: 19 mg/dL compared with the group treated with low phenolic VCO (blood serum: total cholesterol: 82 mg/dL, triglyceride: 100 mg/dL, HDL: 21 mg/dL, LDL: 41 mg/dL; liver serum: total cholesterol: 9 mg/dL, triglyceride: 34 mg/dL. Hypercholesterol mouse tests shown that low phenolic VCO treatment result in decreasing of blood serum cholesterol level by 52.10% which was not significantly different compared to untreated mouses (decreasing of blood serum cholesterol level by 48.61%.   Keywords: antihypercholesterol, phenolic compound, VCO, in vivo

  19. Initial study on in vivo conductivity mapping of breast cancer using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaewook; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Joonsung; Nam, Yoonho; Kim, Min-Oh; Choi, Narae; Kim, Sooyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2015-08-01

    To develop and apply a method to measure in vivo electrical conductivity values using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects with breast cancer. A recently developed technique named MREPT (MR electrical properties tomography) together with a novel coil combination process was used to quantify the conductivity values. The overall technique was validated using a phantom study. In addition, 90 subjects were imaged (50 subjects with previously biopsy-confirmed breast tumor and 40 normal subjects), which was approved by our institutional review board (IRB). A routine clinical protocol, specifically a T2 -weighted FSE (fast spin echo) imaging data, was used for reconstruction of conductivity. By employing the coil combination, the relative error in the conductivity map was reduced from ~70% to 10%. The average conductivity values in breast cancers regions (0.89 ± 0.33S/m) was higher compared to parenchymal tissue (0.43 S/m, P conductivity compared to benign cases (0.56 S/m, n = 5) (P conductivity compared to in situ cancers (0.57 S/m) (P conductivity mapping of breast cancers is feasible using a noninvasive in vivo MREPT technique combined with a coil combination process. The method may provide a tool in the MR diagnosis of breast cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [X-ray bone densitometry. Study of in vitro and in vivo reproducibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetto, G; Zangari, M; Ridolfi, P; Tizian, L; Ziliotto, D

    1991-01-01

    We studied the reproducibility in vitro and in vivo of a new bone densitometer (HOLOGIC QDR-1000, software version 4.03) which uses an x-ray source at two different levels of energy. Short and long term coefficient of variation (c.v.) in vitro is less than 0.5%. In vivo c.v. is less than 1% in normal body weight subjects and less than 3% in obese subjects. The ingestion of 500 mg of calcium element did not modify bone mineral density (BMD), while 1000 mg determined an increase of BMD equal to 2.6% and 1.5% in the two subjects examined. The increase of water thickness on a three femoral heads phantom caused a progressive reduction of bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD until 12.1% less than basal value and an increase of c.v. from 0.1% to 1%. The addition of oil to water at different percentages determined a slight increase of both BMC and BMD, till 3.5% with 66% of oil in water, if compared with the values obtained with water alone. The reduction of soft tissue around the bone determined a progressive decrease of BMD reaching 3.4% less than basal value when the reduction was 30%.

  1. An ex vivo porcine nasal mucosa explants model to study MRSA colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Tulinski

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the upper respiratory tract and skin surfaces in mammals. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. However, the mechanism of successful pig colonization by MRSA ST398 is poorly understood. To study MRSA colonization in pigs, an ex vivo model consisting of porcine nasal mucosa explants cultured at an air-liquid interface was evaluated. In cultured mucosa explants from the surfaces of the ventral turbinates and septum of the pig nose no changes in cell morphology and viability were observed up to 72 h. MRSA colonization on the explants was evaluated followed for three MRSA ST398 isolates for 180 minutes. The explants were incubated with 3×10(8 CFU/ml in PBS for 2 h to allow bacteria to adhere to the explants surface. Next the explants were washed and in the first 30 minutes post adhering time, a decline in the number of CFU was observed for all MRSA. Subsequently, the isolates showed either: bacterial growth, no growth, or a further reduction in bacterial numbers. The MRSA were either localized as clusters between the cilia or as single bacteria on the cilia surface. No morphological changes in the epithelium layer were observed during the incubation with MRSA. We conclude that porcine nasal mucosa explants are a valuable ex vivo model to unravel the interaction of MRSA with nasal tissue.

  2. An ex vivo spinal cord injury model to study ependymal cells in adult mouse tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Zafra, Teresa; Codeluppi, Simone; Uhlén, Per

    2017-08-15

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is characterized by an initial cell loss that is followed by a concerted cellular response in an attempt to restore the damaged tissue. Nevertheless, little is known about the signaling mechanisms governing the cellular response to injury. Here, we have established an adult ex vivo system that exhibits multiple hallmarks of spinal cord injury and allows the study of complex processes that are difficult to address using animal models. We have characterized the ependymal cell response to injury in this model system and found that ependymal cells can become activated, proliferate, migrate out of the central canal lining and differentiate in a manner resembling the in vivo situation. Moreover, we show that these cells respond to external adenosine triphosphate and exhibit spontaneous Ca(2+) activity, processes that may play a significant role in the regulation of their response to spinal cord injury. This model provides an attractive tool to deepen our understanding of the ependymal cell response after spinal cord injury, which may contribute to the development of new treatment options for spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Botulinum neurotoxin serotype D is poorly effective in humans: an in vivo electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleopra, Roberto; Montecucco, Cesare; Devigili, Grazia; Lettieri, Christian; Rinaldo, Sara; Verriello, Lorenzo; Pirazzini, Marco; Caccin, Paola; Rossetto, Ornella

    2013-05-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins act on nerve endings and block neurotransmitter release. Their potency is due to their enzymatic activity and high affinity binding to neurons. Botulinum toxin type A is used in the treatment of human diseases characterized by hyperactivity of peripheral cholinergic nerve terminals, but some patients are or become resistant to it. This can be overcome by using other botulinum toxins, and studies have been performed with different toxin serotypes. Botulinum neurotoxin type D has never been tested in humans in vivo, and, therefore, we investigated the action of this toxin in mouse and human muscles. Botulinum toxin type D potency was determined on mouse hemidiaphragm and on rat neuronal cultures. From these experiments, doses to be injected in human volunteers were decided. The compound muscle action potential of toxin-injected Extensor Digitorum Brevis muscle was measured at different times points after injection in human volunteers. Botulinum toxin type D is poorly effective in inducing human skeletal muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type D is very potent in mice and almost ineffective in humans in vivo. The results shed new light on the mechanism of toxin type D binding to the neuronal surface receptors. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioequivalence study of paracetamol tablets: in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, A; Medina, R; Hurtado, M

    2000-08-01

    The bioequivalence of three chemically equivalent paracetamol generic Mexican products (500 mg tablets) was evaluated in 12 healthy volunteers using the American innovator product (Tylenol, McNeil, Fort Washington, PA), as the reference. Single oral doses of each product were administered at 1-week intervals using a 4 x 4 Latin square design balanced for the first residual effect. The total amount of paracetamol excreted in urine in 24 hr was taken as a measure of bioavailability. In addition, moment analysis was used to estimate in vitro mean dissolution time (MDT) from dissolution profiles obtained following the USP 23 dissolution test specified for paracetamol tablets and to estimate in vivo mean residence time (MRT) from urinary excretion data. Significant differences in the dissolution performance and in the cumulative amount of paracetamol excreted in urine up to 24 hr were observed when the data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p paracetamol products studied can be considered equivalent to the reference product Tylenol. A linear correlation between in vitro MDT and in vivo MRT was found.

  5. COMPARISON OF ULTRASONOGRAPHIC PLACENTA EXAMINATION WITH PATHOHISTOLOGIC VERIFICATION OF FETAL ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Loncar

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonographic diagnostics is a sovereign diagnostic method of discovering disorders in growth and development of embryo. The main aim of this research is The Comparison of Ultrasonographic Placenta Examination with Pathohistologic Treatment of Placenta considering those pregnancies previously verified to have embryo anomalies and which were ended by the procedure of feticide. During the period of 2001 – 2004, 15 pregnant women, with gestation between the 24th and 28th week, were hospitalized in our clinic. Ultrasonographic placenta examination was carried out during the expertise sonography immediately before deciding to commit feticide. The descriptive medical findings were divided into the clinical entities estimating the continuity of basal body, insertion, volume, and echo-structure of placenta substance. The procedure of feticide was carried out in regular treatments using intracardial application of 7,4 % KCl or transabdominal, intra-amnial instillation of 20 % NaCl under the control of ultrasound.The patients with the embryo anomalies were divided into three groups:I – the group with the diagnosis of embryo hydrocephalusII – the group with the diagnosis of other anomalies of growth of embryo's CNSIII – the group of patients with other embryo anomaliesPathohistologic placenta examinations were carried out in the Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine in CC Kragujevac.The ultrasonographic placenta finding of the patients with the different embryo anomalies was not statistically very different (x2 – test; p=0,073. However, besides the lack of significant difference, what is reasonable considering the size of the sample, we notice quite different ultrasonographic findings of the placenta examination of the patients having the embryo with hydrocephalus in comparison to those patients having the other embryo anomalies of CNS. The ultrasonographic placenta examination of the patients having the other embryo anomalies was

  6. Ultrasonographic measurement of the axillary recess thickness in an asymptomatic shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gi Young; Lee, Jin Hoon; Kwon, Dae Gil [Dept. of Rehabilitation Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to measure the axillary recess (AR) thickness in an asymptomatic shoulder by using ultrasonography (US) and to analyze the factors affecting it. We recruited 141 patients (52 males; 89 females; age, 57.7±9.9 years) with unilateral shoulder pain and performed US on the unaffected shoulder. Two physiatrists measured the AR thickness of the unaffected shoulder independently. All patients were examined in an upright sitting position with 90° shoulder abduction. The ultrasonographic transducer was placed longitudinally on the mid-axillary line and along the long axis of the humeral shaft. The factors affecting the AR thickness values were analyzed, and intra-class correlation coefficients were used for assessing the reproducibility of each measurement. The intrarater reliability values for the two physiatrists were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. The inter-rater reliability of the mean AR thickness measurements was 0.91. The mean AR thickness in all subjects, males, and females was 2.8±0.6 mm, 3.1±0.6 mm, and 2.6±0.5 mm (P<0.01), respectively. No difference between the left and the right sides (males, P=0.086; females, P=0.535) or between the dominant and the non-dominant sides (males, P=0.173; female, P=0.244) was found. The AR thickness correlated positively with the height (r=0.313, P<0.01) and the weight (r=0.319, P<0.01). However, it did not correlate with the body mass index (r=0.152, P=0.077) or the age (r=-0.056, P=0.515). US measurements of the AR thickness in asymptomatic shoulders demonstrated excellent intrarater and inter-rater reliabilities. The AR thickness showed anatomical variation with sex, height, and weight.

  7. Ultrasonographic findings of right-side colonic diverticulitis: Correlation with pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hoi Soo; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Joung Sook; Cho, Woo Ho; Lim, Sung Jig; Lee, Jin Ho; Kim, Young Duk [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Soon Joo [Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) findings of right-side colonic diverticulitis and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Twenty nine patients with surgically (n=7) and radiographically (n=8) proven diverticulitis in the cecum and ascending colon for the past five years were included in this study, and they all underwent US due to right lower quadrant abdominal pain. US findings were analyzed by two radiologists with a special emphasis on: (1) the presence, size, and internal echo of hypoechoic lesion bulging out from the colonic wall (thickened diverticulum), (2) changes in the adjacent cecum and ascending colon, (3) changes in the adjacent mesentery, (4) accompanying fluid collection, and (5) the presence of lymphadenopathy. US finding of 18 surgically proven patients were correlated with pathologic findings. On US, 25 of 29 patients (86.2%0 were found to have thicken diverticulum with the greater dimension of 8-20 mm (mean,, 12 mm). Wall thickening of the adjacent cecum and ascending colon was seen in 28 patients (96.5%), and 22 (75.9%) of them had eccentrically thickened wall. Comparing US findings with pathologic findings in 18 surgically proven patients, all revealed to have inflamed diverticulum on surgery, but only 15 showed thickened diverticulum on US. In 12 patients, fecalith, purulent exudates, and hemorrhage were found within diverticulum on surgery. In case of diverticulitis containing fecalith, all of their echogenecities were increased. All patients showed wall thickening of the adjacent colon and increased echogenecity of the adjacent mesentery on US. Pathologic findings of these thickened walls contained nonspecific inflammatory change and hemorrhage while the mesentery with an increased echogenecity contained purulent or hemorrhagic exudates. Ultrasonography can diagnose the right-side colonic diverticulitis when there is the presence of thickened diverticulum in the area with the thickened right side colonic wall in patients with right

  8. Ultrasonographic findings of Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in patients with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabban, Abdou S; Kamel, Shereen R; Abo Omar, Hanaa A S; El-Sherif, Ashraf M H; Abdel-Magied, Rasha A

    2012-04-01

    The aims of the study were to detect the frequency of involvement of the Achilles tendon and plantar fascia in patients with calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) by high-frequency gray-scale ultrasonography (US) and power Doppler sonography (PDS) and to correlate these findings with demographic and clinical data. Two groups of patients were enrolled: group I (38 patients with CPPD) and group II (22 patients with knee OA). US/PDS examination of the heels was performed to both groups. In the CPPD group, US/PDS examination of the Achilles tendon revealed: calcification in 57.9%, enthesophytosis in 57.9%, enthesopathy in 23.7%, vascular sign in 21%, bursitis in 13.2%, and cortical bone irregularity in 10.5%. US/PDS examination of plantar fascia in the CPPD group revealed: calcification in 15.8%, cortical bone irregularity in 78.9%, enthesophytosis in 60.5%, and planter fasciitis in 42.1%. In patients with CPPD, age was significantly correlated with enthesophytosis and deep retrocalcaneal bursitis (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively). Heel tenderness and posterior talalgia were significantly correlated with Achilles tendon enthesopathy, vascular sign, and deep retrocalcaneal bursitis (p = 0.0001 for each). Inferior talalgia was significantly correlated with plantar fasciitis (p = 0.0001). The sensitivity of ultrasonography for detection of calcifications in Achilles tendon and plantar fascia was 57.9% and 15.8%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for both. To conclude, ultrasonographic Achilles tendon and plantar fascia calcifications are frequent findings in patients with CPPD. These calcifications have a high specificity and can be used as a useful indirect sign of CPPD.

  9. Evaluation of retrobulbar blood flow in patients with age-related cataract; color Doppler ultrasonographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Afshin Mohammadi1, Nilofar Khorasani2, Farzad Moloudi2, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad31Department of Radiology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; 2Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; 3Genius and Talented Student Organization, Student Research Committee, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, IranObjectives: Cataracts are the most common cause of blindness worldwide, with cataract surgery being the most common ophthalmic procedure. To our best knowledge, this is the first case-control study with a large number of participants to evaluate ocular blood flow in patients with cataracts.Materials and methods: Color Doppler and duplex sonography of the orbital vessels was performed in 224 eyes of 112 patients with known bilateral age-related cataracts and in 76 eyes of 38 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers.Results: The mean ± (standard deviation [SD] of peak systolic velocity (PSV of the ophthalmic artery in patients with cataracts (34.59 ± 22.49 cm/second was significantly different to that in controls (52.11 ± 14.01 cm/second (P < 0.001. The mean ± SD PSV of the central retinal artery in patients with cataracts (15.31 ± 4.93 cm/second was significantly different to that in controls (9.61 ± 5.64 cm/second (P < 0.001.Conclusion: The mean PSV and resistive index (RI of the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries were lower in cataract patients when compared with normal subjects. This suggests that ocular hypoperfusion and changes in ocular hemodynamic may have a role in the formation of age-related cataracts.Keywords: retrobulbar blood flow, age-related, cataract, color Doppler ultrasonographic

  10. Electromyographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the masseter muscle individuals with unilateral peripheral facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individuals with peripheral Facial Paralysis (FP show conditions that lead to unilateral mastication, performed by the non-affected side, mainly due to the difficulty of action of the buccinator muscle. Objectives: characterize the motor control and morphology of the masseter muscle in individuals with unilateral peripheral FP through electromyographic and ultrasonographic evaluation. Method: 16 participants, of both sexes, with ages superior to 18 years old. The study group (SG consisted of 8 individuals who'd had idiopathic unilateral peripheral FP for more than 6 months; the control group (CG consisted of 8 normal individuals. All the subjects were submitted to the masseter muscle evaluation through surface electromyography (sEMG and ultrasonography (USG during the following tasks: rest, clenching with cotton roller between the teeth (CT and clenching with maximum intercuspation (MIC. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in comparisons within and between the groups concerning the hemifacial asymmetry, both for the sEMG and for the USG. Also there were no significant differences in the activation of the masticatory muscles (masseter and temporal in the sEMG. Conclusions: Both the motor control and the morphology of the masseter muscles in individuals with unilateral peripheral FP were similar to those of normal individuals. Although literature suggests that the demand of functional adaptations made by FP individuals could exceed the structural and functional tolerance of the temporomandibular joints, the results indicate that the length of analyzed patient's FP was not enough to generate anatomical and physiological differences in the masticatory muscles.

  11. Development of highly potent melanogenesis inhibitor by in vitro, in vivo and computational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Q

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Qamar Abbas,1 Zaman Ashraf,2 Mubashir Hassan,1 Humaira Nadeem,3 Muhammad Latif,4 Samina Afzal,5 Sung-Yum Seo1 1Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Kongju National University, Gongju, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Chemistry, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, 3Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Center for Genetics and Inherited Diseases, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Faculty of Pharmacy, Bahauddin Zakria University, Multan, Pakistan Abstract: The present work describes the synthesis of few hydroxylated amide derivatives as melanogenesis inhibitors. In vitro, in vivo and computational studies proved that compound 6d is a highly potent melanogenesis inhibitor compared to standard kojic acid. The title amides 4a–e and 6a–e were synthesized following simple reaction routes with excellent yields. Most of the synthesized compounds exhibited good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity, but compound 6d showed excellent activity (IC50 0.15 µM compared to standard kojic acid (IC50 16.69 µM. Lineweaver–Burk plots were used for the determination of kinetic mechanism, and it was found that compounds 4c and 6d showed non-competitive inhibition while 6a and 6b showed mixed-type inhibition. The kinetic mechanism further revealed that compound 6d formed irreversible complex with the target enzyme tyrosinase. The Ki values determined for compounds 4c, 6a, 6b and 6d are 0.188, 0.84, 2.20 and 0.217 µM respectively. Results of human tyrosinase inhibitory activity in A375 human melanoma cells showed that compound 6d exhibited 91.9% inhibitory activity at a concentration of 50 µg/mL. In vivo cytotoxicity evaluation of compound 6d in zebrafish embryos showed that it is non-toxic to zebrafish. Melanin depigmentation assay performed in zebrafish indicated that compound 6d possessed greater potential in decreasing melanin contents

  12. A new ex vivo method to evaluate the performance of candidate MRI contrast agents: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candiota, Ana Paula; Acosta, Milena; Simões, Rui Vasco; Delgado-Goñi, Teresa; Lope-Piedrafita, Silvia; Irure, Ainhoa; Marradi, Marco; Bomati-Miguel, Oscar; Miguel-Sancho, Nuria; Abasolo, Ibane; Schwartz, Simó; Santamaria, Jesús; Penadés, Soledad; Arús, Carles

    2014-04-05

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in tumor detection/diagnosis. The use of exogenous contrast agents (CAs) helps to improve the discrimination between lesion and neighbouring tissue, but most of the currently available CAs are non-specific. Assessing the performance of new, selective CAs requires exhaustive assays and large amounts of material. Accordingly, in a preliminary screening of new CAs, it is important to choose candidate compounds with good potential for in vivo efficiency. This screening method should reproduce as close as possible the in vivo environment. In this sense, a fast and reliable method to select the best candidate CAs for in vivo studies would minimize time and investment cost, and would benefit the development of better CAs. The post-mortem ex vivo relative contrast enhancement (RCE) was evaluated as a method to screen different types of CAs, including paramagnetic and superparamagnetic agents. In detail, sugar/gadolinium-loaded gold nanoparticles (Gd-GNPs) and iron nanoparticles (SPIONs) were tested. Our results indicate that the post-mortem ex vivo RCE of evaluated CAs, did not correlate well with their respective in vitro relaxivities. The results obtained with different Gd-GNPs suggest that the linker length of the sugar conjugate could modulate the interactions with cellular receptors and therefore the relaxivity value. A paramagnetic CA (GNP (E_2)), which performed best among a series of Gd-GNPs, was evaluated both ex vivo and in vivo. The ex vivo RCE was slightly worst than gadoterate meglumine (201.9 ± 9.3% versus 237 ± 14%, respectively), while the in vivo RCE, measured at the time-to-maximum enhancement for both compounds, pointed to GNP E_2 being a better CA in vivo than gadoterate meglumine. This is suggested to be related to the nanoparticule characteristics of the evaluated GNP. We have developed a simple, cost-effective relatively high-throughput method for selecting CAs for in vivo experiments

  13. Development of aceclofenac nanovesicular system using biomaterial for transdermal delivery: physical characterization, ex vivo, in vivo, and anti-inflammatory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Purohit, Suresh; Mishra, Shikha

    2013-01-01

    Aceclofenac is an important NSAID; however, it causes GI disturbances whereas employing transdermal route would require permeation enhancer for systemic application, thereby causing skin damage. Ceramide 2 is a natural lipid having an important role in the maintenance of skin. Aceclofenac-loaded nanovesicles of ceramide-2, cholesterol, palmitic acid, and cholesteryl sulfate were formulated and analyzed for physical and biological properties. Film hydration method was used to prepare the vesicles and physical parameters, in vitro drug release and stability were evaluated. Then, they were formulated into gel and evaluated against a commercial formulation (CF) and gel-containing plain drug (CPG) for ex vivo, in vivo drug permeation, and anti-inflammatory activity. The developed formulations showed best physical profile and ACV-1 gave 92.89% drug release in in vitro studies. Ex vivo studies showed drug permeation between 15.32-31.12 μg/cm(2), whereas CPG and CF released 0.47 and 2.81 μg/cm(2), respectively. ACVG-1 and CF showed Cmax of 8.1 and 1.2 μg/ml at 8 and 4 h, respectively. ACVG-1 showed 11.6 times AUC than CF. ACVG-1 inhibited edema by 44% in first hour itself. Ceramide 2 and palmitic acid played an important role in the formulation and promotes the drug permeation through stratum corneum and dermis. Ceramide content of the formulation also contributes towards stability and skin protection. The composition of the vesicle formulation performs an important role in physical properties and drug permeation, thereby producing an optimum formulation.

  14. Placental transport of large molecules –a study using human ex vivo placental perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line

    2011-01-01

    and extrapolation to the in vivo situation critical. In my PhD study I have focused on validation and studies with placental perfusion of substances with a high molecular weight, which require transport or carrier molecules to be transported from the maternal to the fetal side, and longer perfusion time demanding...... nutrients, gas and waste transport between the maternal blood and the developing fetus and maintaining pregnancy by producing hormones. The placenta consists of cells of both maternal and fetal origin and forms a complex barrier between the maternal and fetal blood that allows for passage of different...... within two hours of perfusion with a fetal flow rate of 3 mL/min. Negative controls are added to ensure that substance transfer is not due to leakage, e.g. high molecular weight substances that only pass the placental barrier with bulk flow through a leakage in the fetal system. Dextran (40kD) can...

  15. In vivo fluorescence studies of whole blood after chitosan bio-functionalized gold nanorods administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabagiu, Sorina [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Pestean, Cosmin [University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Stefan, Razvan, E-mail: rstefan@usamvcluj.ro [University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-15

    Gold nanorods (GNR) have been prepared by a seed mediated method and then functionalized with chitosan, in order to increase their biocompatibility. The interaction of GNR with whole blood has been assessed by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. The whole blood gives rise to a fluorescence emission peak with the maximum centered at 475 nm when a 410 nm excitation wavelength has been used. In vivo assessment of the existence of nanorods in the bloodstream is proven by the increase of the whole blood fluorescence due to metal enhanced fluorescence phenomenon, which leads to an increase of fluorescence emission in the close vicinity of noble metal anisotropic nanostructures. -- Highlights: • Gold nanorods have been synthesized and bio-functionalized with chitosan. • Chitosan–gold nanorods interaction was studied by UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy. • Bio-functionalized gold nanorods solution was injected to a rabbit. • Fluorescence studies of whole blood in the presence of gold nanorods were performed.

  16. In-vitro and in-vivo study of indomethacin loaded gelatin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Nagarwal, Ramesh C; Dhanawat, Meenakshi; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar

    2011-06-01

    The present research work deals with fabrication of indomethacin loaded gelatin nanoparticles prepared by double desolvation method for controlled drug delivery. Submicron polymeric particles with size 20% in 1 hr) followed by controlled release (> 75% in 12 hr). Among the kinetic models employed, the Higuchi model showed a better fit (R2 > 0.9) with n IDM) was studied by rat paw model and IGNP significantly (P IDM. Pharmacokinetic study showed significant enhancement (P IDM. Cmax of IGNP had higher value (110.81 +/- 8.53 microg/mL) compared to that of IDM (51.66 +/- 7.5 microg/mL). AUC0-12 was 1009.78 +/- 80.24 and 194.33 +/- 46.76/microg x h/mL in IGNP and IDM respectively (relative bioavailability 500%). Further, a good in vitro-in vivo correlation established the formulation for future trials.

  17. Preparation oral levofloxacin colon-specific microspheres delivery: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Ding, Yicun; Feng, Mingli; Cao, Qin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare levofloxacin-loaded chitosan microspheres and to evaluate their in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Glutaraldehyde-crosslinked microspheres were prepared using a spray-drying method, and characterized in terms of the morphological examination, particle size distribution, entrapment efficiency, drug loading and in vitro release. Pharmacokinetics and colon biodistribution studies were used to evaluate that microspheres have more advantage than the conventional formulations. The surface morphology of the freeze-dried microspheres were smooth, discrete with a regular spherical to near-spherical shape. Size of the microspheres after freeze-drying was 4.96 ± 0.76 μm and well-distributed. The zeta potential of microspheres was -29.3 ± 2.1 mV. An average drug loading of 9.3 ± 0.4% and encapsulation efficiency of 81.1 ± 4.7% of levofloxacin microspheres were obtained with the optimized preparation parameters. The cumulative release rate of levofloxacin microspheres was followed by a sustained release and fitted for classic Higuchi kinetic model. In vivo studies showed that chitosan microspheres are thought to have the potential to maintain levofloxacin concentration within target ranges for a long time, decreasing side effects caused by concentration fluctuation, ensuring the efficiency of treatment and improving patient compliance by reducing dosing frequency. It also does not cause any harmful or toxic effect in colon and rectum as evaluated by histopathologic studies.

  18. Minibeam radiotherapy with small animal irradiators; in vitro and in vivo feasibility studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyar, Soha; Inscoe, Christina R.; O’Brian, E. Timothy; Zhou, Otto; Lee, Yueh Z.

    2017-12-01

    Minibeam radiation therapy (MBRT) delivers an ultrahigh dose of x-ray (⩾100 Gy) in 200–1000 µm beams (peaks), separated by wider non-irradiated regions (valleys) usually as a single temporal fraction. Preclinical studies performed at synchrotron facilities revealed that MBRT is able to ablate tumors while maintaining normal tissue integrity. The main purpose of the present study was to develop an efficient and accessible method to perform MBRT using a conventional x-ray irradiator. We then tested this new method both in vitro and in vivo. Using commercially available lead ribbon and polyethylene sheets, we constructed a collimator that converted the cone beam of an industrial irradiator to 44 identical beams (collimator size  ≈  4  ×  10 cm). The dosimetry characteristics of the generated beams were evaluated using two different radiochromic films (beam FWHM  =  246  ±  32 µm center-to-center  =  926  ±  23 µm peak-to-valley dose ratio  =  24.35  ±  2.10 collimator relative output factor  =  0.84  ±  0.04). Clonogenic assays demonstrated the ability of our method to induce radiobiological cell death in two radioresistant murine tumor cell lines (TRP  =  glioblastoma B16-F10  =  melanoma). A radiobiological equivalent dose (RBE) was calculated by evaluating the acute skin response to graded doses of MBRT and conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Normal mouse skin demonstrated resistance to doses up to 150 Gy on peak. MBRT significantly extended the survival of mice with flank melanoma tumors compared to CRT when RBE were applied (overall p  <  0.001). Loss of spatial resolution deep in the tissue has been a major concern. The beams generated using our collimator maintained their resolution in vivo (mouse brain tissue) and up to 10 cm deep in the radiochromic f