Sample records for vivo reference standard

  1. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard. (United States)

    Kelly, Jason R; Rubin, Adam J; Davis, Joseph H; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Cumbers, John; Czar, Michael J; de Mora, Kim; Glieberman, Aaron L; Monie, Dileep D; Endy, Drew


    The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101) to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by approximately 50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU) in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement conditions and instruments. These improvements are

  2. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jason R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standardized in terms of how individual parts are physically assembled into multi-component systems, and most parts remain uncharacterized. Standardized tools, techniques, and units of measurement are needed to facilitate the characterization and reuse of parts by independent researchers across many laboratories. Results We found that the absolute activity of BioBrick promoters varies across experimental conditions and measurement instruments. We choose one promoter (BBa_J23101 to serve as an in vivo reference standard for promoter activity. We demonstrated that, by measuring the activity of promoters relative to BBa_J23101, we could reduce variation in reported promoter activity due to differences in test conditions and measurement instruments by ~50%. We defined a Relative Promoter Unit (RPU in order to report promoter characterization data in compatible units and developed a measurement kit so that researchers might more easily adopt RPU as a standard unit for reporting promoter activity. We distributed a set of test promoters to multiple labs and found good agreement in the reported relative activities of promoters so measured. We also characterized the relative activities of a reference collection of BioBrick promoters in order to further support adoption of RPU-based measurement standards. Conclusion Relative activity measurements based on an in vivoreference standard enables improved measurement of promoter activity given variation in measurement

  3. Standard Reference Tables - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  4. Measuring the activity of BioBrick promoters using an in vivo reference standard


    Kelly Jason R; Rubin Adam J; Davis Joseph H; Ajo-Franklin Caroline M; Cumbers John; Czar Michael J; de Mora Kim; Glieberman Aaron L; Monie Dileep D; Endy Drew


    Abstract Background The engineering of many-component, synthetic biological systems is being made easier by the development of collections of reusable, standard biological parts. However, the complexity of biology makes it difficult to predict the extent to which such efforts will succeed. As a first practical example, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts started at MIT now maintains and distributes thousands of BioBrick™ standard biological parts. However, BioBrick parts are only standa...

  5. Herbal reference standards. (United States)

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig


    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  6. Spectral transmittance reference standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, M.A.; Belyaeva, O.N.; Nikitin, M.V.


    This paper presents spectral transmittance reference standards for UV and IR spectrophotometers, developed, studied, and certified by a precision spectrophotometry laboratory (the RSP Complex). 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  8. A standard satellite control reference model (United States)

    Golden, Constance


    This paper describes a Satellite Control Reference Model that provides the basis for an approach to identify where standards would be beneficial in supporting space operations functions. The background and context for the development of the model and the approach are described. A process for using this reference model to trace top level interoperability directives to specific sets of engineering interface standards that must be implemented to meet these directives is discussed. Issues in developing a 'universal' reference model are also identified.

  9. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  10. Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiner, J.L.; Blaine, A.C.; Higgins, C.P.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.


    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) which have values assigned for legacy organic pollutants and toxic elements. Existing SRMs serve as homogenous materials that can be used for method development, method validation, and

  11. Standard reference radiographs for steel fusion welds

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This standard provides reference radiographs for steel fusion welds that contain typical discontinuities with varying severity levels in different thicknesses of material. The reference radiograph films are an adjunct to this standard and must be purchased separately from ASTM International if needed. 1.2 There are three volumes of reference radiographs based on seven nominal weld thicknesses as follows: Vol ISet of 16 plates (81/2 by 11 in.) covering base material up to and including ¼ in. (6.4 mm) in thickness. Vol IISet of 29 plates (8½ by 11 in.) covering base material over ¼ to and including 3 in. (6.4 to 76 mm) in thickness. Vol IIISet of 32 plates (8 ½ by 11 in.) covering base material over 3 to including 8 in. (76 to 203 mm) in thickness. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport t...

  12. Reference standards for next-generation sequencing. (United States)

    Hardwick, Simon A; Deveson, Ira W; Mercer, Tim R


    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides a broad investigation of the genome, and it is being readily applied for the diagnosis of disease-associated genetic features. However, the interpretation of NGS data remains challenging owing to the size and complexity of the genome and the technical errors that are introduced during sample preparation, sequencing and analysis. These errors can be understood and mitigated through the use of reference standards - well-characterized genetic materials or synthetic spike-in controls that help to calibrate NGS measurements and to evaluate diagnostic performance. The informed use of reference standards, and associated statistical principles, ensures rigorous analysis of NGS data and is essential for its future clinical use.

  13. Toward a reference standard for tissue phantoms (United States)

    Di Ninni, Paola; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zaccanti, Giovanni


    A reference standard for tissue-simulating phantoms, i.e., a phantom with well known and stable optical properties, reproducible, and easy to be found, would be very useful for many applications based on measurements of diffused light. Although many tissue-equivalent phantoms have been proposed, to our knowledge none of them has been characterized sufficiently well to be suggested as a reference standard. Based on the results of measurements of optical properties we carried out at visible and NIR wavelengths, the use of Intralipid 20% diluted in water as diffusive medium, and of India ink as absorber, is here suggested as a first step towards a diffusive reference standard for tissue-simulating phantoms. As for Intralipid 20%, measurements carried out on samples from nine different batches with expiry dates spreading over ten years showed surprisingly small batch-to-batch variations. For the reduced scattering coefficient the maximum deviation from the value averaged over the nine batches was of about 2%, and the results for the absorption coefficient were very close to those for pure water. As for India ink measurements on samples from different batches and from five different brands showed large inter-brand and inter-batch variations for both the absorption and the extinction coefficient. On the contrary, small variations have been observed for the ratio between the absorption and the extinction coefficient. Intralipid 20% and Indian ink can be therefore easily mixed to obtain liquid phantoms with well known optical properties. This phantom can be a first step towards a reference standard for optical tissue phantoms.

  14. Strategies for building reference standards for autoantibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eSheldon


    Full Text Available Producing robust, certified, traceable reference material for autoantibody testing is a vital element in maintaining the validity of results that are generated in the daily clinical laboratory routine. This is a huge challenge because of the high number of variables involved in the detection and measurement of the autoantibodies. The production of such materials is time consuming and needs rigorous attention to detail; this is best achieved by an overarching independent body who will oversee the process in a not for profit manner.Much effort has been made to build international standards for quantitative and qualitative assays based on monoclonal antibodies, obtained from affinity purification and plasmapheresis. The big challenge is to respect individual differences in immune response to the same antigen. A promising ongoing initiative is the construction of pools with monospecific samples from different individuals.

  15. Electrothermal frequency references in standard CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Kashmiri, S Mahdi


    This book describes an alternative method of accurate on-chip frequency generation in standard CMOS IC processes. This method exploits the thermal-diffusivity of silicon, the rate at which heat diffuses through a silicon substrate.  This is the first book describing thermal-diffusivity-based frequency references, including the complete theoretical methodology supported by practical realizations that prove the feasibility of the method.  Coverage also includes several circuit and system-level solutions for the analog electronic circuit design challenges faced.   ·         Surveys the state-of-the-art in all-silicon frequency references; ·         Examines the thermal properties of silicon as a solution for the challenge of on-chip accurate frequency generation; ·         Uses simplified modeling approaches that allow an electronics engineer easily to simulate the electrothermal elements; ·         Follows a top-down methodology in circuit design, in which system-level des...

  16. Standards for reference services in health sciences libraries: the reference product. (United States)

    Judkins, D Z; Hewison, N S; MacWilliams, S E; Olson-Urlie, C; Teich, S


    Standards for reference services were prepared by a committee of the Oregon Health Sciences Libraries Association (OHSLA). The standards are qualitative and address the following: quality control, appropriateness, accuracy, documentation, timeliness, accessibility, confidentiality, and evaluation. The standards are components of minimally competent reference service as reflected in the reference product. A discussion of concerns and prescriptive measures accompanies the statement of each standard. While prepared specifically for health sciences libraries, the standards are applicable to all types of libraries and may be used as guidelines in evaluating the reference product, in upgrading library service, and in writing policies and procedures.

  17. Characterization of the NIST seaweed Standard Reference Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Outola, I.; Filliben, J.; Inn, K.g.W.


    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM) for seaweed was developed through an interlaboratory comparison with 24 participants from 16 countries. After evaluating different techniques to calculate certified values for the radionuclides, the median...

  18. Reference Architecture Model Enabling Standards Interoperability. (United States)

    Blobel, Bernd


    Advanced health and social services paradigms are supported by a comprehensive set of domains managed by different scientific disciplines. Interoperability has to evolve beyond information and communication technology (ICT) concerns, including the real world business domains and their processes, but also the individual context of all actors involved. So, the system must properly reflect the environment in front and around the computer as essential and even defining part of the health system. This paper introduces an ICT-independent system-theoretical, ontology-driven reference architecture model allowing the representation and harmonization of all domains involved including the transformation into an appropriate ICT design and implementation. The entire process is completely formalized and can therefore be fully automated.

  19. Absolute Potentials of Standard Reference Electrodes at 25 C


    Raji Heyrovska


    Aqueous standard redox potentials are conventionally referred to that of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) as zero (IUPAC definition), in the absence of the knowledge of its absolute value. Recently, the author obtained its value (4.20 V) from a newly found linear dependence of redox potentials on ionization potentials. This has enabled now to express the potentials of standard reference electrodes in terms of the absolute values.

  20. Anticipating missing reference standard data when planning diagnostic accuracy studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; de Groot, Joris A H; Rutjes, Anne W S; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Reitsma, Johannes B; Moons, Karel G M


    Results obtained using a reference standard may be missing for some participants in diagnostic accuracy studies. This paper looks at methods for dealing with such missing data when designing or conducting a prospective diagnostic accuracy study.

  1. Thermal-Diffusivity-Based Frequency References in Standard CMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kashmiri, S.M.


    In recent years, a lot of research has been devoted to the realization of accurate integrated frequency references. A thermal-diffusivity-based (TD) frequency reference provides an alternative method of on-chip frequency generation in standard CMOS technology. A frequency-locked loop locks the

  2. Fabricating defensible reference standards for the NDA lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceo, R.N.; May, P.K. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)


    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) is performed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in support of the enriched uranium operations. Process materials are analyzed using gamma ray- and neutron-based instruments including segmented gamma scanners, solution assay systems, and an active well coincidence counter. Process wastes are also discarded based on results of these measurements. Good analytical practice, as well as applicable regulations, mandates that these analytical methods be calibrated using reference materials traceable to the national standards base. Reference standards for NDA instruments are not commercially available owing to the large quantities of special nuclear materials involved. Instead, representative materials are selected from each process stream, then thoroughly characterized by methods that are traceable to the national standards base. This paper discusses the process materials to be analyzed, reference materials selected for calibrating each NDA instrument, and details of their characterization and fabrication into working calibrations standards. Example calibration curves are also presented. 4 figs.

  3. Bibliographic Citations With Special Reference Indian Bibliographic Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Sarkar


    Full Text Available Bibliographic citation is playing an important role today to ensure the completeness of all research activities. They occupy an integral part as a reference in all types of resources need. The author while writing a paper takes the references from a number of documents and finally quotes them with its bibliographic details to recognize the work of earlier authors in the same field of study. With the virtually exponential growth in the research literatures throughout the 20th century it has become clear that the larger the literature the more difficult are the problems caused by poorly crafted bibliographic references. Scholarly societies like publishers of research journals have either produced their own or have endorsed common bibliographic style manuals or standards. In this study we have studied several style manuals and standards for bibliographic referencing and several editorial guidelines for this purpose to compare them. Indian bibliographic standard gets special attention.

  4. Newly developed standard reference materials for organic contaminant analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poster, D.; Kucklick, J.; Schantz, M.; Porter, B.; Wise, S. [National Inst. of Stand. and Technol., Gaithersburg, MD (USA). Center for Anal. Chem.


    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued a number of Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for specified analytes. The SRMs are biota and biological related materials, sediments and particle related SRMs. The certified compounds for analysis are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their nitro-analogues, chlorinated pesticides, methylmercury, organic tin compounds, fatty acids, polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDE). The authors report on origin of materials and analytic methods. (uke)

  5. Standard digital reference images for inspection of aluminum castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These digital reference images illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities that may be found in aluminum-alloy castings. The castings illustrated are in thicknesses of 1/ 4 in. [6.35 mm] and 3/4 in. [19.1mm]. 1.2 All areas of this standard may be open to agreement between the cognizant engineering organization and the supplier, or specific direction from the cognizant engineering organization. These items should be addressed in the purchase order or the contract. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. 1.4 These digital reference images are not intended to illustrate the types and degrees of discontinuities found in aluminum-alloy castings when performing film radiography. If performing film radiography of aluminum-alloy castings, refer to Reference Radiographs E 155. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and he...

  6. 15 CFR 200.105 - Standard reference data. (United States)


    ..., PROCEDURES, AND FEES § 200.105 Standard reference data. Data on the physical and chemical properties of the large variety of substances used in science and technology need to be compiled and evaluated for... user needs for data. The OSRD's present program is assembled under a series of tasks which include data...

  7. Certification of standard reference materials containing bitter orange. (United States)

    Sander, L C; Putzbach, K; Nelson, B C; Rimmer, C A; Bedner, M; Thomas, J Brown; Porter, B J; Wood, L J; Schantz, M M; Murphy, K E; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A; Yen, J H; Siitonen, P H; Evans, R L; Nguyen Pho, A; Roman, M C; Betz, J M


    A suite of three dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs) containing bitter orange has been developed, and the levels of five alkaloids and caffeine have been measured by multiple analytical methods. Synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, N-methyltyramine, hordenine, total alkaloids, and caffeine were determined by as many as six analytical methods, with measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at two collaborating laboratories. The methods offer substantial independence, with two types of extractions, two separation methods, and four detection methods. Excellent agreement was obtained among the measurements, with data reproducibility for most methods and analytes better than 5% relative standard deviation. The bitter-orange-containing dietary supplement SRMs are intended primarily for use as measurement controls and for use in the development and validation of analytical methods.

  8. ROC Curve Analysis in the Presence of Imperfect Reference Standards. (United States)

    Liao, Peizhou; Wu, Hao; Yu, Tianwei


    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is an important tool for the evaluation and comparison of predictive models when the outcome is binary. If the class membership of the outcomes are known, ROC can be constructed for a model, and the ROC with greater area under the curve (AUC) indicates better performance. However in practice, imperfect reference standards often exist, in which class membership of every data point are not fully determined. This situation is especially prevalent in high-throughput biomedical data because obtaining perfect reference standards for all data points is either too costly or technically impractical. To construct ROC curves for these data, the common practice is to either ignore the uncertainties in references, or remove data points with high uncertainties. Such approaches may cause bias to the ROC curves and generate misleading results in method evaluation. Here we present a framework to incorporate membership uncertainties into the construction of ROC curve, termed the expected ROC or "eROC" curve. We develop an efficient procedure for the estimation of eROC curve. The advantages of using eROC are demonstrated using simulated and real data.

  9. Improving the fidelity of two-photon absorption reference standards (United States)

    de Reguardati, S.; Pahapill, J.; Rammo, M.; Rebane, A.


    Reference standards with well-defined femtosecond two-photon absorption (2PA) properties facilitate accurate measurement of nonlinear-optical spectra by bypassing tedious characterization of the photon flux. The 2PA standards are increasingly used for developing advanced multi-photon fluorescent probes and, since recently, also for probing intra- and intermolecular electrostatic interactions. We have recently reported 2PA cross section values of a set of common organic dyes in different solvents in 680-1050 nm wavelength range with estimated accuracy of 8%. In the present work, we aim at further improving the accuracy and fidelity of the absolute 2PA cross section data by comparing in a pair-wise manner the relative 2PA efficiency of nine standards with partially overlapping absorption- and fluorescence emission spectra. We measure the relative 2PA-induced fluorescence for each pair under identical excitation conditions, which allows revealing inconsistencies potentially present in the previously published data due to errors in estimating the excitation laser beam spatial- and temporal profile, pulse energy and other critical parameters. Our current measurements confirmed and in some cases improved previously reported error margins thus improving the fidelity of the reference data. We also present refined 2PA cross section data on 9-Chloroanthracene in dichloromethane.

  10. Development of a southern oceanic air standard reference material. (United States)

    Rhoderick, George C; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Brailsford, Gordon; Possolo, Antonio


    In 2009, the United States Congress charged the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with supporting climate change research. As part of this effort, the Gas Sensing Metrology Group at NIST began developing new gas standard mixtures for greenhouse gas mixtures relevant to atmospheric measurements. Suites of gravimetrically prepared primary standard mixtures (PSMs) were prepared at ambient concentration levels for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-air balance. In parallel, 30 gas cylinders were filled, by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) in Wellington, New Zealand, to high pressure from pristine southern oceanic air at Baring Head, New Zealand, and shipped to NIST. Using spectroscopic instrumentation, NIST analyzed the 30 cylinder samples for mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O. Certified values were assigned to these mixtures by calibrating the instrumentation with the PSM suites that were recently developed at NIST. These mixtures became NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1721 Southern Oceanic Air and are certified for ambient mole fraction, the first of their kind for NIST. The relative expanded uncertainties corresponding to coverage intervals with 95% probability are no larger than 0.06% of the certified values, representing the smallest uncertainties to date ever assigned to an NIST gas SRM.

  11. Terrestrial reference standard sites for postlaunch sensor calibration (United States)

    Teillet, P.M.; Chander, G.


    In an era when the number of Earth observation satellites is rapidly growing and measurements from satellite sensors are used to address increasingly urgent global issues, often through synergistic and operational combinations of data from multiple sources, it is imperative that scientists and decision-makers are able to rely on the accuracy of Earth observation data products. The characterization and calibration of these sensors, particularly their relative biases, are vital to the success of the developing integrated Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth. This can only reliably be achieved in the postlaunch environment through the careful use of observations by multiple sensor systems over common, well-characterized terrestrial targets (i.e., on or near the Earth's surface). Through greater access to and understanding of these vital reference standard sites and their use, the validity and utility of information gained from Earth remote sensing will continue to improve. This paper provides a brief overview of the use of reference standard sites for postlaunch sensor radiometric calibration from historical, current, and future perspectives. Emphasis is placed on optical sensors operating in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared spectral regions.

  12. Proof of concept testing of a positive reference material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation testing. (United States)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Lee, Michelle; Fukui, Chie; Watanabe, Kayo; Olsen, Daniel; Turley, Audrey; Morishita, Yuki; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi; Yuba, Toshiyasu; Fujimaki, Hideo; Inoue, Kaoru; Yoshida, Midori; Ogawa, Kumiko; Haishima, Yuji


    In vivo and in vitro irritation testing is important for evaluating the biological safety of medical devices. Here, the performance of positive reference materials for skin irritation testing was evaluated. Four reference standards, referred to as Y-series materials, were analyzed: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet spiked with 0 (Y-1), 1.0 (Y-2), 1.5 (Y-3), or 10 (Y-4) parts of Genapol X-080 per 100 parts of PVC by weight. Y-1, Y-2, and Y-3 did not induce skin irritation responses in an in vitro reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissue model, as measured by tissue viability or interleukin-1α release, or in an in vivo intracutaneous response test using rabbits. In contrast, Y-4 extracts prepared with saline or sesame oil at 37°C and 50°C clearly elicited positive irritation responses, including reduced viability (< 50%) and significantly higher interleukin-1α release compared with the solvent alone group, in the RhE tissue model and an intracutaneous response test, where substantial necrosis was observed by histopathology. The positive skin irritation responses induced in vitro under various extraction conditions, as well as those elicited in vivo, indicate that Y-4 is an effective extractable positive control material for in vivo and in vitro skin irritation tests of medical devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms (United States)

    Di Ninni, Paola; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zaccanti, Giovanni


    Measurements of optical properties carried out at visible and NIR wavelengths on many samples of Intralipid 20% showed a high stability and surprisingly small batch-to-batch variations. Measurements have been carried out in a short time interval using samples from nine different batches with expiry dates spreading over ten years. For the specific reduced scattering coefficient, the values we have obtained, averaged over the nine batches, are 25.9, 21.2, and 18.4 mm-1 at λ = 632.8, 751, and 833 nm, respectively, and the corresponding maximum deviations from the average were 2.2%, 1.1%, and 1.4%. For the absorption coefficient, we obtained values slightly smaller with respect to the absorption coefficient of pure water at 751 and 833 nm, and slightly larger at 632.8 nm. These results suggest that Intralipid 20% can be the first step towards a diffusive reference standard for tissue-simulating phantoms.

  14. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) for Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment (United States)

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G.T.; Finger, L.W.; Evans, H.T.; Gabe, E.J.; Enright, G.D.; Armstrong, J.T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L.P.; Hubbard, C.R.


    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material?? for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ???3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0 420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals' the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 A?? ?? 0.0062 A??, and c=12.9979 A?? ?? 0.020 A?? (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Ha??gg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies_ are rhombohedral, with space group R3c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080 ?? 0.00029 A??, and c=12 99568 A?? ?? 0.00087 A?? (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Ha??gg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 A?? ?? 0

  15. 76 FR 8989 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References (United States)


    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... to amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to update references to authoritative accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's (FASB's) Accounting Standards Codification...

  16. Reference standard for serum bile acids in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Please cite this paper as: Egan N, Bartels A, Khashan A, Broadhurst D, Joyce C, O\\'Mullane J, O\\'Donoghue K. Reference standard for serum bile acids in pregnancy. BJOG 2012;00:000-000. DOI: 10.1111\\/j.1471-0528.2011.03245.x. Objective Obstetric cholestasis (OC) is a liver disorder characterised by pruritus and elevated serum bile acids (SBA) that affects one in 200 pregnant women. It is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes such as premature delivery and stillbirth. Mild OC is defined as SBA levels of 10-39 mumol\\/l, and severe OC is defined by levels >40 mumol\\/l. SBA levels in normal pregnancy have not been investigated. We aimed to establish reference values for SBA in healthy pregnant women across different trimesters of pregnancy. Design Cross-sectional analysis of SBA levels. Setting A large tertiary referral university teaching maternity hospital. Population Healthy pregnant women with a singleton pregnancy and a body mass index (BMI) < 40, excluding women with significant alcohol intake, history of liver disease, prior cholecystectomy and OC. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of SBA levels at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, and on days 1-3 postpartum. Main outcome measures SBA levels in mumol\\/l. Results A total of 219 women attending for antenatal care were recruited, and SBA levels were assayed at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks of gestation, and up to 72 hours postpartum (n = 44-49 cases at each stage). The majority were white European women, with a median age of 30 years (range 17-46 years) and median BMI of 25 (range 18-38). Values of SBA ranged from 0.3 to 9.8 mumol\\/l in 216 women, with only three measurements outside this range. There were no significant changes throughout pregnancy. Conclusions SBA values in uncomplicated pregnancies are consistent, regardless of gestation, and are not elevated in pregnancy. The current reference values for the diagnosis of OC appear to be appropriate.

  17. Toward a standard reference database for computer-aided mammography (United States)

    Oliveira, Júlia E. E.; Gueld, Mark O.; de A. Araújo, Arnaldo; Ott, Bastian; Deserno, Thomas M.


    Because of the lack of mammography databases with a large amount of codified images and identified characteristics like pathology, type of breast tissue, and abnormality, there is a problem for the development of robust systems for computer-aided diagnosis. Integrated to the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) project, we present an available mammography database developed from the union of: The Mammographic Image Analysis Society Digital Mammogram Database (MIAS), The Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM), the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and routine images from the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen. Using the IRMA code, standardized coding of tissue type, tumor staging, and lesion description was developed according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) tissue codes and the ACR breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS). The import was done automatically using scripts for image download, file format conversion, file name, web page and information file browsing. Disregarding the resolution, this resulted in a total of 10,509 reference images, and 6,767 images are associated with an IRMA contour information feature file. In accordance to the respective license agreements, the database will be made freely available for research purposes, and may be used for image based evaluation campaigns such as the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF). We have also shown that it can be extended easily with further cases imported from a picture archiving and communication system (PACS).

  18. Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Ninni, Paola; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zaccanti, Giovanni, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)


    Measurements of optical properties carried out at visible and NIR wavelengths on many samples of Intralipid 20% showed a high stability and surprisingly small batch-to-batch variations. Measurements have been carried out in a short time interval using samples from nine different batches with expiry dates spreading over ten years. For the specific reduced scattering coefficient, the values we have obtained, averaged over the nine batches, are 25.9, 21.2, and 18.4 mm{sup -1} at {lambda} = 632.8, 751, and 833 nm, respectively, and the corresponding maximum deviations from the average were 2.2%, 1.1%, and 1.4%. For the absorption coefficient, we obtained values slightly smaller with respect to the absorption coefficient of pure water at 751 and 833 nm, and slightly larger at 632.8 nm. These results suggest that Intralipid 20% can be the first step towards a diffusive reference standard for tissue-simulating phantoms. (note)

  19. Towards a standardized reference point indentation testing procedure. (United States)

    Setters, Alexander; Jasiuk, Iwona


    We study the reference point indentation (RPI) technique which has a potential to directly measure mechanical properties of bone in patients. More specifically, we tested 6 month swine femoral cortical bone at mid-diaphysis region to investigate the effect of several testing variables on the RPI outputs. They include the force magnitude, preconditioning, variation within a sample and between samples, number of cycles, indentation surface (transverse versus longitudinal, polished versus unpolished), and micro-computed tomography radiation exposure. The force magnitude variation test shows that all RPI parameters increase linearly with the increasing force magnitude except the indentation distance increase which shows a cubic trend with a plateau for force magnitudes between 4N and 8N. Preconditioning does not affect the trends for a force magnitude variation test. The cycle variation test shows that most RPI parameters reach either a maximum or minimum at 15-20 cycles. Transverse surface measurements are more consistent than the longitudinal surface measurements, but a rough surface and periosteum on the longitudinal surface could account for this difference. Exposure to the micro-computed tomography radiation in general does not have effect on the RPI measurements. For the 6 month swine femoral cortical bone, testing using 6N force and 20 cycles with preconditioning on an unpolished longitudinal surface is recommended. This study advances our knowledge on how the RPI testing variables influence the RPI outputs and provides guidance on the RPI measurements. It may also serve as a framework for developing a standardized testing procedure for the RPI technique. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Standard relativistic reference systems and the IAU framework (United States)

    Soffel, Michael


    The IAU framework for relativistic reference systems is based upon the work by Brumberg and Kopeikin and by Damour, Soffel and Xu (DSX). We begin with a brief introduction into the DSX-formalism. After that the various IAU Resolutions concerning relativistic astronomical reference systems are discussed. Finally, it is indicated how the expansion of the universe can be considered in the BCRS.

  1. Measuring enzyme activities under standardized in vivo-like conditions for systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eunen, Karen; Bouwman, Jildau; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Postmus, Jarne; Canelas, Andre B.; Mensonides, Femke I. C.; Orij, Rick; Tuzun, Isil; van den Brink, Joost; Smits, Gertien J.; van Gulik, Walter M.; Brul, Stanley; de Winde, Johannes H.; de Mattos, M. J. Teixeira; Kettner, Carsten; Nielsen, Jens; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    Realistic quantitative models require data from many laboratories. Therefore, standardization of experimental systems and assay conditions is crucial. Moreover, standards should be representative of the in vivo conditions. However, most often, enzyme-kinetic parameters are measured under assay

  2. Standard practice for characterization of coatings using conformable Eddy-Current sensors without coating reference standards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers the use of conformable eddy-current sensors for nondestructive characterization of coatings without standardization on coated reference parts. It includes the following: (1) thickness measurement of a conductive coating on a conductive substrate, (2) detection and characterization of local regions of increased porosity of a conductive coating, and (3) measurement of thickness for nonconductive coatings on a conductive substrate or on a conductive coating. This practice includes only nonmagnetic coatings on either magnetic (μ ≠ μ0) or nonmagnetic (μ = μ0) substrates. This practice can also be used to measure the effective thickness of a process-affected zone (for example, shot peened layer for aluminum alloys, alpha case for titanium alloys). For specific types of coated parts, the user may need a more specific procedure tailored to a specific application.

  3. ABoVE: Study Domain and Standard Reference Grids (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Arctic - Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) has developed two standardized spatial data products to expedite coordination of research activities and to...

  4. [Reference Intervals of Standard Test Items in Ningen Dock Examination]. (United States)

    Yamakado, Minoru


    Reference intervals (RIs) were derived from records of 1,499,288 individuals who underwent ningen dock examination in 188 institutes which belong to Japan Society of Ningen Dock in 2012. Targets were 27 basic laboratory tests, including the body mass index (BMI) and systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP). Individuals fulfilling strict criteria were chosen: SBP dock results will enable the appropriate interpretation of test results in health screening, and promote the effective application of CDLs for therapeutic intervention, taking into account the sex, age, and other health attributes.

  5. True Gold or Pyrite: A Review of Reference Point Indentation for Assessing Bone Mechanical Properties In Vivo. (United States)

    Allen, Matthew R; McNerny, Erin Mb; Organ, Jason M; Wallace, Joseph M


    Although the gold standard for determining bones' mechanical integrity is the direct measure of mechanical properties, clinical evaluation has long relied on surrogates of mechanical properties for assessment of fracture risk. Nearly a decade ago, reference point indentation (RPI) emerged as an innovative way to potentially assess mechanical properties of bone in vivo. Beginning with the BioDent device, and then followed by the newer generation OsteoProbe, this RPI technology has been utilized in several publications. In this review we present an overview of the technology and some important details about the two devices. We also highlight select key studies, focused specifically on the in vivo application of these devices, as a way of synthesizing where the technology stands in 2015. The BioDent machine has been shown, in two clinical reports, to be able to differentiate fracture versus nonfracture patient populations and in preclinical studies to detect treatment effects that are consistent with those quantified using traditional mechanical tests. The OsteoProbe appears able to separate clinical cohorts yet there exists a lack of clarity regarding details of testing, which suggests more rigorous work needs to be undertaken with this machine. Taken together, RPI technology has shown promising results, yet much more work is needed to determine if its theoretical potential to assess mechanical properties in vivo can be realized. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  6. Certification of elements in and use of standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets (United States)

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets was issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2009 and has certified and reference mass fraction values for 13 vitamins, 26 elements, and 2 carotenoids. Elements were measured using two or more ana...

  7. A comparison of four different standards of reference for the animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Often, therefore, it is not clear which standard of reference for the AU or which method of determining stocking rate has been used in the presentation of research results. A comparison is made of four different standards of reference for the AU, namely; 1. the individual animal, 2. animal biomass, 3. metabolic mass, and 4. the ...

  8. 78 FR 47319 - Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department... HHS/CDC has reviewed and updated its fee schedule for reference biological standards and biological...

  9. 78 FR 43817 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 7 RIN 0920-AA53 Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological... sections of its regulations titled ``Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological... section states that HHS/CDC may prepare any biological product described under section 351 of the Public...

  10. 78 FR 21850 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Matters Incorporated by Reference (United States)


    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL25 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... references to the many standards and practices that are incorporated by reference into the Federal motor... motor vehicle safety standards (FMVSSs) in 49 CFR Part 571 (Part 571).\\1\\ Although this part already...

  11. Physical Fitness Reference Standards in French Youth: The BOUGE Program. (United States)

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Labreuche, Julien; Béghin, Laurent; Drumez, Elodie; Fardy, Paul S; Chapelot, Didier; Mikulovic, Jacques; Ulmer, Zékya


    The aim of this study was to establish sex- and age-specific physical fitness percentiles in French youth. A sample of 11,186 children and adolescents (5,546 boys and 5,640 girls), aged between 10 and 15 years, was assessed in the French national BOUGE study. Participants were tested for their cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, speed, flexibility, and agility using the following tests: 20-m shuttle run tests, curl-ups test, 50-m sprint test, back-saver sit and reach test, and 10 × 5-m shuttle run test. Percentile values were estimated for French youth as a function of age stratified by sex using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). In general, physical fitness was better in boys than in girls, except for the back-saver sit and reach test, in which girls performed better. Except for the back-saver sit and reach test and 10 × 5-m shuttle run test, physical fitness performance was significantly associated with age. Sex- and age-specific normative values for physical fitness tests in French youth expressed as percentiles from the fifth to the 95th are provided. Reference values provide normative data for French youth. The data are useful in identifying special needs for appropriate intervention programs.

  12. Reference design for the standard mirror hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Fink, J.H.; Galloway, T.R.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Lee, J.D.; Devoto, R.S.; Neef, W.S. Jr.; Schultz, K.R.; Culver, D.W.; Rao, S.B.; Rao, S.R.


    This report describes the results of a two-year study by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory and General Atomic Co. to develop a conceptual design for the standard (minimum-B) mirror hybrid reactor. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing nuclear fuel (/sup 239/Pu) for consumption in fission power reactors (light water reactors). The deuterium-tritium plasma produces approximately 400 MW of fusion power with a plasma Q of 0.64. The fast-fission blanket, which is fueled with depleted uranium and lithium, generates sufficient tritium to run the reactor, has a blanket energy multiplication of M = 10.4, and has a net fissile breeding ratio of Pu/n = 1.51. The reactor has a net electrical output of 600 MWe, a fissile production of 2000 kg of plutonium per year (at a capacity factor of 0.74), and a net plant efficiency of 0.18. The plasma-containment field is generated by a Yin-Yang magnet using NbTi superconductor, and the neutral beam system uses positive-ion acceleration with beam direct conversion. The spherical blanket is based on gas-cooled fast reactor technology. The fusion components, blanket, and primary heat-transfer loop components are all contained within a prestressed-concrete reactor vessel, which provides magnet restraint and supports the primary heat-transfer loop and the blanket.

  13. Selection of reference standard during method development using the analytical hierarchy process. (United States)

    Sun, Wan-yang; Tong, Ling; Li, Dong-xiang; Huang, Jing-yi; Zhou, Shui-ping; Sun, Henry; Bi, Kai-shun


    Reference standard is critical for ensuring reliable and accurate method performance. One important issue is how to select the ideal one from the alternatives. Unlike the optimization of parameters, the criteria of the reference standard are always immeasurable. The aim of this paper is to recommend a quantitative approach for the selection of reference standard during method development based on the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) as a decision-making tool. Six alternative single reference standards were assessed in quantitative analysis of six phenolic acids from Salvia Miltiorrhiza and its preparations by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The AHP model simultaneously considered six criteria related to reference standard characteristics and method performance, containing feasibility to obtain, abundance in samples, chemical stability, accuracy, precision and robustness. The priority of each alternative was calculated using standard AHP analysis method. The results showed that protocatechuic aldehyde is the ideal reference standard, and rosmarinic acid is about 79.8% ability as the second choice. The determination results successfully verified the evaluation ability of this model. The AHP allowed us comprehensive considering the benefits and risks of the alternatives. It was an effective and practical tool for optimization of reference standards during method development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical trial for detection of dental caries using laser-induced fluorescence ratio reference standard (United States)

    Thomas, Shiny Sara; Mohanty, Soumyakant; Jayanthi, J. L.; Varughese, Jolly Mary; Balan, Anitha; Subhash, Narayanan


    We present the clinical applicability of fluorescence ratio reference standard (FRRS) to discriminate different stages of dental caries. Toward this, laser-induced autofluorescence emission spectra are recorded in vivo in the 400- to 800-nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from 65 patients, with a 404-nm diode laser as the excitation source. Autofluorescence spectra of sound teeth consist of a broad emission at 500 nm that is typical of natural enamel, whereas in caries teeth additional peaks are seen at 635 and 680 nm due to emission from porphyrin compounds in oral bacteria. Scatter plots are developed to differentiate sound teeth from enamel caries, sound teeth from dentinal caries, and enamel caries from dentinal caries using the mean fluorescence intensity (FI) and ratios F500/F635 and F500/F680 measured from 25 sites of sound teeth and 65 sites of carious teeth. The sensitivity and specificity of both the FI and FRRS are determined. It is observed that a diagnostic algorithm based on FRRS scatter plots is able to discriminate enamel caries from sound teeth, dentinal caries from sound teeth, and enamel from dentinal caries with overall sensitivities of 85, 100, and 88% and specificities of 90, 100, and 77%, respectively.

  15. Future needs and requirements for AMS C-14 standards and reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, EM; Boaretto, E; Bryant, C; Cook, GT; Gulliksen, S; Harkness, DD; Heinemeier, J; McGee, E; Naysmith, P; Possnert, G; van der Plicht, H; van Strydonck, M; Cook, Gordon T.

    C-14 measurement uses a number of standards and reference materials with different properties. Historically the absolute calibration of C-14 measurement was tied to 1890 wood, through the 'primary' standard of NBS-OxI (produced by the National Bureau of Standards, now NIST - National Institute of

  16. Designing image segmentation studies: Statistical power, sample size and reference standard quality. (United States)

    Gibson, Eli; Hu, Yipeng; Huisman, Henkjan J; Barratt, Dean C


    Segmentation algorithms are typically evaluated by comparison to an accepted reference standard. The cost of generating accurate reference standards for medical image segmentation can be substantial. Since the study cost and the likelihood of detecting a clinically meaningful difference in accuracy both depend on the size and on the quality of the study reference standard, balancing these trade-offs supports the efficient use of research resources. In this work, we derive a statistical power calculation that enables researchers to estimate the appropriate sample size to detect clinically meaningful differences in segmentation accuracy (i.e. the proportion of voxels matching the reference standard) between two algorithms. Furthermore, we derive a formula to relate reference standard errors to their effect on the sample sizes of studies using lower-quality (but potentially more affordable and practically available) reference standards. The accuracy of the derived sample size formula was estimated through Monte Carlo simulation, demonstrating, with 95% confidence, a predicted statistical power within 4% of simulated values across a range of model parameters. This corresponds to sample size errors of less than 4 subjects and errors in the detectable accuracy difference less than 0.6%. The applicability of the formula to real-world data was assessed using bootstrap resampling simulations for pairs of algorithms from the PROMISE12 prostate MR segmentation challenge data set. The model predicted the simulated power for the majority of algorithm pairs within 4% for simulated experiments using a high-quality reference standard and within 6% for simulated experiments using a low-quality reference standard. A case study, also based on the PROMISE12 data, illustrates using the formulae to evaluate whether to use a lower-quality reference standard in a prostate segmentation study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 7 CFR 1755.97 - Incorporation by reference of telecommunications standards and specifications. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Incorporation by reference of telecommunications... Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON... telecommunications standards and specifications. The following telecommunications bulletins have been approved for...

  18. 78 FR 13243 - Updates to Standards Incorporated by Reference; Reapproved ASTM Standards; Technical Amendment (United States)


    ... . If you have questions on viewing the docket, call Ms. Renee V. Wright, Program Manager, Docket.../A203M-97 46 54.01-1 Pressure Vessel Plates, Alloy (Reapproved Steel, Nickel. 2007) 1. Standard.... A 203/A 203M-97 (Reapproved Standard Specification for Pressure 2007) 1. Vessel Plates, Alloy Steel...

  19. A reference model of an instrument for quality measurement of semantic IS standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, E.J.A.; Oude Luttighuis, P.; Hillegersberg, J. van


    This study describes the design of a reference model for an instrument to measure quality of semantic Information System (IS) standards. This design satisfies requirements gathered among potential users, in a previous study. The reference model features three layers: concerned with quality, semantic

  20. Certification of elements in and use of standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets. (United States)

    Turk, Gregory C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Cleveland, Danielle; Jongsma, Candice; Mackey, Elizabeth A; Marlow, Anthony F; Oflaz, Rabia; Paul, Rick L; Sieber, John R; Thompson, Robert Q; Wood, Laura J; Yu, Lee L; Zeisler, Rolf; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; Christopher, Steven J; Day, Russell D; Long, Stephen E; Greene, Ella; Harnly, James; Ho, I-Pin; Betz, Joseph M


    Standard Reference Material 3280 Multivitamin/ Multielement Tablets was issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2009, and has certified and reference mass fraction values for 13 vitamins, 26 elements, and two carotenoids. Elements were measured using two or more analytical methods at NIST with additional data contributed by collaborating laboratories. This reference material is expected to serve a dual purpose: to provide quality assurance in support of a database of dietary supplement products and to provide a means for analysts, dietary supplement manufacturers, and researchers to assess the appropriateness and validity of their analytical methods and the accuracy of their results.

  1. Determination of perfluorinated alkyl acid concnetrations in biological standard reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reiner, J.L.; O'Connell, S.G.; Butt, C.M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.


    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned for legacy

  2. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing. (United States)

    Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S


    Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).

  3. MEASURES REFERENCES OF ABNT: Instrument for the standardization of clothing products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Douglas Livramento Nishimura


    Full Text Available In order to standardize the units of clothing measurements, ABNT (Brazilian Association of Technical Standards conducts research for the development of national measures reference in children, male and female segments. The standards of child and male measures are already in place, however, still works for the improvement of a female norm. Regarding the normalization of measures of Brazilian clothing, sought to identify the system methodology adopted for the development of standards of existing measures and to analyze how this information is absorbed by the fashion market. The research was based on bibliographic and documentary survey, considering mainly the standards of Brazilian measures benchmarks and projects these rules had little or no anthropometric study in its methodology. Consequently, it was noticed certain fragility of reference measures currently used, however, the accuracy in sight with the studies that are under development and the possible outcomes that will soon be available for analysis.

  4. Development and utilization of composite honeycomb and solid laminate reference standards for aircraft inspections.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Rackow, Kirk A.


    The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center, in conjunction with the Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee, developed a set of composite reference standards to be used in NDT equipment calibration for accomplishment of damage assessment and post-repair inspection of all commercial aircraft composites. In this program, a series of NDI tests on a matrix of composite aircraft structures and prototype reference standards were completed in order to minimize the number of standards needed to carry out composite inspections on aircraft. Two tasks, related to composite laminates and non-metallic composite honeycomb configurations, were addressed. A suite of 64 honeycomb panels, representing the bounding conditions of honeycomb construction on aircraft, was inspected using a wide array of NDI techniques. An analysis of the resulting data determined the variables that play a key role in setting up NDT equipment. This has resulted in a set of minimum honeycomb NDI reference standards that include these key variables. A sequence of subsequent tests determined that this minimum honeycomb reference standard set is able to fully support inspections over the full range of honeycomb construction scenarios found on commercial aircraft. In the solid composite laminate arena, G11 Phenolic was identified as a good generic solid laminate reference standard material. Testing determined matches in key velocity and acoustic impedance properties, as well as, low attenuation relative to carbon laminates. Furthermore, comparisons of resonance testing response curves from the G11 Phenolic NDI reference standard was very similar to the resonance response curves measured on the existing carbon and fiberglass laminates. NDI data shows that this material should work for both pulse-echo (velocity-based) and resonance (acoustic impedance-based) inspections.

  5. Standard digital reference images for investment steel castings for aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in thin-wall steel investment castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of thin-wall steel casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 Two illustration categories are covered as follows: 1.2.1 Graded—Six common discontinuity types each illustrated in eight degrees of progressively increasing severity. 1.2.2 Ungraded—Twelve single illustrations of additional discontinuity types and of patterns and imper...

  6. [Standard NF EN ISO 15189: comparative analysis with GBEA and implementation of the new reference support]. (United States)

    Rogowski, Julien; Annaix, Véronique


    Within reflexions of the healthcare system in France, Ballereau's report published in 2008 suggests modifications of medical biology supports by quality. The new reference system will be ISO 15189 which provides requirements for competence and quality. It differs from GBEA (Guidelines to Good Execution of Analysis) on the requirement of a quality system management. We accomplished a comparative study of these two standards of reference to identify differences, therefore elements to be worked or supported for accreditation process.

  7. Panel C report: Standards needed for the use of ISO Open Systems Interconnection - basic reference model (United States)


    The use of an International Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model and its relevance to interconnecting an Applications Data Service (ADS) pilot program for data sharing is discussed. A top level mapping between the conjectured ADS requirements and identified layers within the OSI Reference Model was performed. It was concluded that the OSI model represents an orderly architecture for the ADS networking planning and that the protocols being developed by the National Bureau of Standards offer the best available implementation approach.

  8. Implementing Adaptability in the Standard Reference Model for Intelligent Multimedia Presentation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rutledge (Lloyd); L. Hardman (Lynda); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick)


    textabstractThis paper discusses the implementation of adaptability in environments that are based on the Standard Reference Model for Intelligent Multimedia Presentation Systems. This adaptability is explored in the context of style sheets, which are represented in such formats as DSSSL. The use of

  9. 78 FR 57293 - Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 7 RIN 0920-AA52 Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (HHS/CDC), Department of Health and Human...

  10. The Real-Life-Referent as a Standard for News Perspective Bias. (United States)

    Barbatsis, Gretchen S.

    The concept of news perspective bias necessitates the creation of an empirical standard by which to judge that bias. A study defined and tested a real life referent applicable to planned, sustained news events that have identifiable and accessible participants. The study compared the television news coverage of court ordered busing to achieve…

  11. Air kerma and absorbed dose standards for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy (United States)


    This article reviews recent developments in primary standards for the calibration of brachytherapy sources, with an emphasis on the currently most common photon-emitting radionuclides. The introduction discusses the need for reference dosimetry in brachytherapy in general. The following section focuses on the three main quantities, i.e. reference air kerma rate, air kerma strength and absorbed dose rate to water, which are currently used for the specification of brachytherapy photon sources and which can be realized with primary standards from first principles. An overview of different air kerma and absorbed dose standards, which have been independently developed by various national metrology institutes over the past two decades, is given in the next two sections. Other dosimetry techniques for brachytherapy will also be discussed. The review closes with an outlook on a possible transition from air kerma to absorbed dose to water-based calibrations for brachytherapy sources in the future. PMID:24814696

  12. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Eley, Charles [Eley and Associates, Hobe Sound, FL (United States)


    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2016 (Standard 90.1-2016). The PRM can be used to demonstrate compliance with the standard and to rate the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. Use of the PRM for demonstrating compliance with Standard 90.1 is a new feature of the 2016 edition. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM.

  13. Motion compensation for ultrasound thermal imaging using motion-mapped reference model: an in vivo mouse study. (United States)

    Seo, Joonho; Kim, Sun Kwon; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Kiwan; Kong, Dong Geon; Bang, Won-Chul


    Ultrasound (US)-based thermal imaging is very sensitive to tissue motion, which is a major obstacle to apply US temperature monitoring to noninvasive thermal therapies of in vivo subjects. In this study, we aim to develop a motion compensation method for stable US thermal imaging in in vivo subjects. Based on the assumption that the major tissue motion is approximately periodic caused by respiration, we propose a motion compensation method for change in backscattered energy (CBE) with multiple reference frames. Among the reference frames, the most similar reference to the current frame is selected to subtract the respiratory-induced motions. Since exhaustive reference searching in all stored reference frames can impede real-time thermal imaging, we improve the reference searching by using a motion-mapped reference model. We tested our method in six tumor-bearing mice with high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) sonication in the tumor volume until the temperature had increased by 7°C. The proposed motion compensation was evaluated by root-mean-square-error (RMSE) analysis between the estimated temperature by CBE and the measured temperature by thermocouple. As a result, the mean ±SD RMSE in the heating range was 1.1±0.1°C with the proposed method, while the corresponding result without motion compensation was 4.3±2.6°C. In addition, with the idea of motion-mapped reference frame, total processing time to produce a frame of thermal image was reduced in comparison with the exhaustive reference searching, which enabled the motion-compensated thermal imaging in 15 frames per second with 150 reference frames under 50% HIFU duty ratio.

  14. Temperature measurement and optical path-length bias improvement modifications to National Institute of Standards and Technology ozone reference standards. (United States)

    Norris, James E; Choquette, Steven J; Viallon, Joele; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert; Guenther, Franklin R


    Ambient ozone measurements in the United States and many other countries are traceable to a National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Photometer (NIST SRP). The NIST SRP serves as the highest level ozone reference standard in the United States, with NIST SRPs located at NIST and at many U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) laboratories. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) maintains a NIST SRP as the reference standard for international measurement comparability through the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM). In total, there are currently NIST SRPs located in 20 countries for use as an ozone reference standard. A detailed examination of the NIST SRP by the BIPM and NIST has revealed a temperature gradient and optical path-length bias inherent in all NIST SRPs. A temperature gradient along the absorption cells causes incorrect temperature measurements by as much as 2 degrees C. Additionally, the temperature probe used for temperature measurements was found to inaccurately measure the temperature of the sample gas due to a self-heating effect. Multiple internal reflections within the absorption cells produce an actual path length longer than the measured fixed length used in the calculations for ozone mole fractions. Reflections from optical filters located at the exit of the absorption cells add to this effect. Because all NIST SRPs are essentially identical, the temperature and path-length biases exist on all units by varying amounts dependent upon instrument settings, laboratory conditions, and absorption cell window alignment. This paper will discuss the cause of and physical modifications for reducing these measurement biases in NIST SRPs. Results from actual NIST SRP bias upgrades quantifying the effects of these measurement biases on ozone measurements are summarized. NIST SRPs are maintained in laboratories around the world underpinning ozone measurement calibration and traceability within

  15. Reference standard and statistical model for intersite and temporal comparisons of CT attenuation in a multicenter quantitative lung study. (United States)

    Sieren, J P; Newell, J D; Judy, P F; Lynch, D A; Chan, K S; Guo, J; Hoffman, E A


    The purpose of this study was to detect and analyze anomalies between a large number of computed tomography (CT) scanners, tracked over time, utilized to collect human pulmonary CT data for a national multicenter study: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease genetic epidemiology study (COPDGene). A custom designed CT reference standard "Test Object" has been developed to evaluate the relevant differences in CT attenuation between CT scanners in COPDGene. The materials used in the Test Object to assess CT scanner accuracy and precision included lung equivalent foam (-856 HU), internal air (-1000 HU), water (0 HU), and acrylic (120 HU). Nineteen examples of the Test Object were manufactured. Initially, all Test Objects were scanned on the same CT scanner before the Test Objects were sent to the 20 specific sites and 42 individual CT scanners that were used in the study. The Test Objects were scanned over 17 months while the COPDGene study continued to recruit subjects. A mixed linear effect statistical analysis of the CT scans on the 19 Test Objects was performed. The statistical model reflected influence of reconstruction kernels, tube current, individual Test Objects, CT scanner models, and temporal consistency on CT attenuation. Depending on the Test Object material, there were significant differences between reconstruction kernels, tube current, individual Test Objects, CT scanner models, and temporal consistency. The two Test Object materials of most interest were lung equivalent foam and internal air. With lung equivalent foam, there were significant (p reference standard (-852.5 ± 1.4). Comparing lung equivalent foam attenuation there were also significant differences between CT scanner models (p reference scans of the 19 Test Objects. For internal air, significant (p reference standard. There were significant differences between CT models (p reference scans of the 19 Test Objects. Differences, across scanners, between external air and internal air measures in

  16. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010 Performance Rating Method Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Supriya [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This document is intended to be a reference manual for the Appendix G Performance Rating Method (PRM) of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1- 2010 (Standard 90.1-2010).The PRM is used for rating the energy efficiency of commercial and high-rise residential buildings with designs that exceed the requirements of Standard 90.1. The procedures and processes described in this manual are designed to provide consistency and accuracy by filling in gaps and providing additional details needed by users of the PRM. It should be noted that this document is created independently from ASHRAE and SSPC 90.1 and is not sanctioned nor approved by either of those entities . Potential users of this manual include energy modelers, software developers and implementers of “beyond code” energy programs. Energy modelers using ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010 for beyond code programs can use this document as a reference manual for interpreting requirements of the Performance Rating method. Software developers, developing tools for automated creation of the baseline model can use this reference manual as a guideline for developing the rules for the baseline model.

  17. A Digital Reference Object to Analyze Calculation Accuracy of PET Standardized Uptake Value. (United States)

    Pierce, Larry A; Elston, Brian F; Clunie, David A; Nelson, Dennis; Kinahan, Paul E


    To determine the extent of variations in computing standardized uptake value (SUV) by body weight (SUV(BW)) among different software packages and to propose a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) reference test object to ensure the standardization of SUV computation between medical image viewing workstations. Research ethics board approval was not necessary because this study only evaluated images of a phantom. A synthetic set of positron emission tomographic (PET)/computed tomographic (CT) image data, called a digital reference object (DRO), with known SUV was created. The DRO was sent to 16 sites and evaluated on 21 different PET/CT display software packages. Users were asked to draw various regions of interest (ROIs) on specific features and report the maximum, minimum, mean, and standard deviation of the SUVs for each ROI. Numerical tolerances were defined for each metric, and the fraction of reported values within the tolerance was recorded, as was the mean, standard deviation, and range of the metrics. The errors in reported maximum SUV ranged from -37.8% to 0% for an isolated voxel with 4.11:1 target-to-background activity level, and errors in the reported mean SUV ranged from -1.6% to 100% for a region with controlled noise. There was also a range of errors in the less commonly used metrics of minimum SUV and standard deviation SUV. The variability of computed SUV(BW) between different software packages is substantial enough to warrant the introduction of a reference standard for medical image viewing workstations. © RSNA, 2015

  18. The geometrical tolerancing desk reference creating and interpreting ISO standard technical drawings

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Paul


    Geometrical tolerancing is the standard technique that designers and engineers use to specify and control the form, location and orientation of the features of components and manufactured parts. This innovative book has been created to simplify and codify the use and understanding of geometrical tolerancing. It is a complete, self contained reference for daily use. An indispensable guide for anyone who creates or needs to understand technical drawings.

  19. Development of a Vero cell DNA reference standard for residual DNA measurement in China. (United States)

    Cao, Shouchun; Dong, Guanmu; Tang, Jianrong; Li, Jia; Liu, Jinghua; Shi, Leitai; Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi


    This collaborative study developed a Vero cell DNA reference for standardizing dot blot hybridization, an assay widely employed to measure residual DNA contents of viral vaccines prepared with Vero cells. High purity of Vero cell DNA was extracted and characterized by Hind III enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Then, with a cooperative calibration, the concentration of Vero cell DNA reference bulk solution was determined (64.0 ± 1.9 μg/mL, OD 260/OD 280 = 1.87) and diluted (40 ng/mL) with Tris-EDTA buffer containing bovine serum albumin as freeze-dried excipients. With industrial filling apparatus, the diluted bulk was loaded into ampoules (0.5 mL each) which were heat sealed after nitrogen filling. Finally, a collaborative study showed that the Vero cell DNA reference could reach a sensitivity of 1 to 5 pg/dot and maintained good stability after accelerated destruction test. The successful establishment of the Vero cell DNA quantitative reference will facilitate the standardization of dot blot hybridization for testing residual host cell DNA.

  20. A new large-volume metal reference standard for radioactive waste management. (United States)

    Tzika, F; Hult, M; Stroh, H; Marissens, G; Arnold, D; Burda, O; Kovář, P; Suran, J; Listkowska, A; Tyminski, Z


    A new large-volume metal reference standard has been developed. The intended use is for calibration of free-release radioactivity measurement systems and is made up of cast iron tubes placed inside a box of the size of a Euro-pallet (80 × 120 cm). The tubes contain certified activity concentrations of (60)Co (0.290 ± 0.006 Bq g(-1)) and (110m)Ag (3.05 ± 0.09 Bq g(-1)) (reference date: 30 September 2013). They were produced using centrifugal casting from a smelt into which (60)Co was first added and then one piece of neutron irradiated silver wire was progressively diluted. The iron castings were machined to the desirable dimensions. The final material consists of 12 iron tubes of 20 cm outer diameter, 17.6 cm inner diameter, 40 cm length/height and 245.9 kg total mass. This paper describes the reference standard and the process of determining the reference activity values. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Procedure and reference standard to determine the structural resolution in coordinate metrology (United States)

    Illemann, Jens; Bartscher, Markus; Jusko, Otto; Härtig, Frank; Neuschaefer-Rube, Ulrich; Wendt, Klaus


    A new procedure and reference standards for specifying the structural resolution in coordinate metrology traceable to the SI unit the metre are proposed. With the definition of the structural resolution, a significant gap will be closed to complete ‘acceptance and verification tests’ of the coordinate measuring systems (CMSs) which are specified in the ISO 10360 series dealing with tactile sensors, optical sensors, and x-ray computed tomography measurement systems (CTs). The proposed new procedure uses reference standards with circular rounded edges. The idea is to measure the radius of curvature on a calibrated round edge structure. From the deviation between the measured and the calibrated radius, an analogue Gaussian broadening of the measurement system is determined. This value is a well-defined and easy-to-apply measure to define the structural resolution for dimensional measurements. It is applicable to CMSs which are based on different sensing principles, e.g. tactile, optical and CT systems. On the other hand, it has a physical meaning similar to the classical optical point-spread function. It makes it possible to predict which smallest details the CMS is capable of measuring reliably for an arbitrary object shape. The theoretical background of the new procedure is given, an appropriate reference standard is described and comparative, quantitative measurement data of CMSs featuring different sensors are shown.

  2. Estimating the accuracy of anal cytology in the presence of an imperfect reference standard.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Mathews


    Full Text Available The study aim is to estimate sensitivity and specificity of anal cytology for histologic HSIL in analyses adjusted for the imperfect biopsy reference standard.Retrospective cohort study of an anal dysplasia screening program for HIV infected adults. We estimated the prevalence of histologic HSIL by concurrent cytology category and the associated cytology ROC area. Cytology operating characteristics for HSIL were estimated and adjusted for the imperfect reference standard by 3 methodologies. The study cohort included 261 patients with 3 available measures: (1 referral cytology; (2 HRA cytology; and (3 HRA directed biopsy. The prevalence of biopsy HSIL varied according to the concurrent HRA cytology result: 64.5% for HSIL or ASC-H, 12.6% for LSIL, 10.9% for ASCUS, and 6.3% for no abnormality. The cytology ROC area was 0.78. The observed prevalence of HSIL was 37% (referral cytology, 24% (HRA cytology, and 24% (HRA biopsy. Unadjusted estimates of sensitivity and specificity of cytology were 0.66 and 0.90, respectively. Adjusted estimates varied from 0.47-0.89 (sensitivity and 0.89-1.0 (specificity.Analysis of a single dataset yields widely different estimates of anal cytology operating characteristics that depend on difficult to verify assumptions regarding the accuracy of the imperfect reference standard.

  3. A canine ex vivo shunt for isotopic hemocompatibility evaluation of a NHLBI DTB primary reference material and of a IUPAC reference material. (United States)

    Caix, J; Janvier, G; Legault, B; Bordenave, L; Rouais, F; Basse-Cathalinat, B; Baquey, C


    Factors determining the thrombogenic response to particular artificial surfaces were investigated ex vivo in a canine shunt model. Methods using radioisotopic tracers made it possible to dynamically monitor the deposition of labelled blood cells and proteins on a NHLBI.DTB primary reference material polydimethylsiloxane (PRM.PDMS) and on a IUPAC reference material polyvinyl chloride (IUPAC.PVC). On the one hand, leukocyte affinity tau s(leu) (number of deposited leukocytes mm-2s-1) was not significantly different between IUPAC.PVC (tau s(leu) = 1.2-2.5) and PRM.PDMS (tau s(leu) = 1.5-3.4) and the fibrinogen adsorption rate varied from 33 to 48.10(-5) micrograms mm-2s-1 for both these materials. On the other hand, platelet affinity tau s(plat) (number of deposited platelets mm-2s-1) was significantly different (p IUPAC.PVC and PRM.PDMS (tau s(plat)PVC = 683 +/- 200 > tau s(plat)PDMS = 327 +/- 80). Scanning electron micrographs of adherent platelets, red cells and leukocytes after blood contact ex vivo were performed after each experiment. This preliminary work contributes not only to quantify the adsorption of different radiotracers, but also to evaluate the superficial distribution of the labelled biological species on the inner surface of the tested biomaterials.

  4. MATLAB Toolboxes for Reference Electrode Standardization Technique (REST) of Scalp EEG. (United States)

    Dong, Li; Li, Fali; Liu, Qiang; Wen, Xin; Lai, Yongxiu; Xu, Peng; Yao, Dezhong


    Reference electrode standardization technique (REST) has been increasingly acknowledged and applied as a re-reference technique to transform an actual multi-channels recordings to approximately zero reference ones in electroencephalography/event-related potentials (EEG/ERPs) community around the world in recent years. However, a more easy-to-use toolbox for re-referencing scalp EEG data to zero reference is still lacking. Here, we have therefore developed two open-source MATLAB toolboxes for REST of scalp EEG. One version of REST is closely integrated into EEGLAB, which is a popular MATLAB toolbox for processing the EEG data; and another is a batch version to make it more convenient and efficient for experienced users. Both of them are designed to provide an easy-to-use for novice researchers and flexibility for experienced researchers. All versions of the REST toolboxes can be freely downloaded at, and the detailed information including publications, comments and documents on REST can also be found from this website. An example of usage is given with comparative results of REST and average reference. We hope these user-friendly REST toolboxes could make the relatively novel technique of REST easier to study, especially for applications in various EEG studies.

  5. Reference Standardization for Mass Spectrometry and High-resolution Metabolomics Applications to Exposome Research. (United States)

    Go, Young-Mi; Walker, Douglas I; Liang, Yongliang; Uppal, Karan; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Tran, ViLinh; Strobel, Frederick; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Ziegler, Thomas R; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W; Jones, Dean P


    The exposome is the cumulative measure of environmental influences and associated biological responses throughout the lifespan, including exposures from the environment, diet, behavior, and endogenous processes. A major challenge for exposome research lies in the development of robust and affordable analytic procedures to measure the broad range of exposures and associated biologic impacts occurring over a lifetime. Biomonitoring is an established approach to evaluate internal body burden of environmental exposures, but use of biomonitoring for exposome research is often limited by the high costs associated with quantification of individual chemicals. High-resolution metabolomics (HRM) uses ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry with minimal sample preparation to support high-throughput relative quantification of thousands of environmental, dietary, and microbial chemicals. HRM also measures metabolites in most endogenous metabolic pathways, thereby providing simultaneous measurement of biologic responses to environmental exposures. The present research examined quantification strategies to enhance the usefulness of HRM data for cumulative exposome research. The results provide a simple reference standardization protocol in which individual chemical concentrations in unknown samples are estimated by comparison to a concurrently analyzed, pooled reference sample with known chemical concentrations. The approach was tested using blinded analyses of amino acids in human samples and was found to be comparable to independent laboratory results based on surrogate standardization or internal standardization. Quantification was reproducible over a 13-month period and extrapolated to thousands of chemicals. The results show that reference standardization protocol provides an effective strategy that will enhance data collection for cumulative exposome research. In principle, the approach can be extended to other types of mass spectrometry and other analytical methods. © The

  6. Standardization of Free Thyroxine Measurements Allows the Adoption of a More Uniform Reference Interval. (United States)

    De Grande, Linde A C; Van Uytfanghe, Katleen; Reynders, Dries; Das, Barnali; Faix, James D; MacKenzie, Finlay; Decallonne, Brigitte; Hishinuma, Akira; Lapauw, Bruno; Taelman, Paul; Van Crombrugge, Paul; Van den Bruel, Annick; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Williams, Paul; Thienpont, Linda M


    The IFCC Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests intended to standardize free thyroxine (FT4) immunoassays. We developed a Système International d'Unités traceable conventional reference measurement procedure (RMP) based on equilibrium dialysis and mass spectrometry. We describe here the latest studies intended to recalibrate against the RMP and supply a proof of concept, which should allow continued standardization efforts. We used the RMP to target the standardization and reference interval (RI) panels, which were also measured by 13 manufacturers. We validated the suitability of the recalibrated results to meet specifications for bias (3.3%) and total error (8.0%) determined from biological variation. However, because these specifications were stringent, we expanded them to 10% and 13%, respectively. The results for the RI panel were reported as if the assays were recalibrated. We estimated all but 1 RI using parametric statistical procedures and hypothesized that the RI determined by the RMP was suitable for use by the recalibrated assays. Twelve of 13 recalibrated assays had a bias, meeting the 10% specification with 95% confidence; for 7 assays, this applied even for the 3.3% specification. Only 1 assay met the 13% total error specification. Recalibration reduced the CV of the assay means for the standardization panel from 13% to 5%. The proof-of-concept study confirmed our hypothesis regarding the RI but within constraints. Recalibration to the RMP significantly reduced the FT4 immunoassays' bias, so that the RI determined by the RMP was suitable for common use within a margin of 12.5%. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Determination of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma and serum Standard Reference Materials using independent analytical methods. (United States)

    Reiner, Jessica L; Phinney, Karen W; Keller, Jennifer M


    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in three National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) (SRMs 1950 Metabolites in Human Plasma, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum) using two analytical approaches. The methods offer some independence, with two extraction types and two liquid chromatographic separation methods. The first extraction method investigated the acidification of the sample followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a weak anion exchange cartridge. The second method used an acetonitrile extraction followed by SPE using a graphitized non-porous carbon cartridge. The extracts were separated using a reversed-phase C(8) stationary phase and a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phase. Measured values from both methods for the two human serum SRMs, 1957 and 1958, agreed with reference values on the Certificates of Analysis. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) values were obtained for the first time in human plasma SRM 1950 with good reproducibility among the methods (below 5% relative standard deviation). The nominal mass interference from taurodeoxycholic acid, which has caused over estimation of the amount of PFOS in biological samples, was separated from PFOS using the PFP stationary phase. Other PFCs were also detected in SRM 1950 and are reported. SRM 1950 can be used as a control material for human biomonitoring studies and as an aid to develop new measurement methods.

  8. 12 CFR 336.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. (United States)


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 336.1 Section 336.1 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT... and Conduct § 336.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure...

  9. Use of Standard Reference Material 2242 (Relative Intensity Correction Standard for Raman Spectroscopy) for microarray scanner qualification. (United States)

    Satterfield, Mary B; Salit, Marc L; Choquette, Steven J


    As a critical component of any microarray experiment, scanner performance has the potential to contribute variability and bias, the magnitude of which is usually not quantified. Using Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2,242, which is certified for Raman spectral correction, for monitoring the microarray fluorescence at the two most commonly used wavelengths, our team at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed a method to establish scanner performance, qualifying signal measurement in microarray experiments. SRM 2,242 exhibits the necessary photostability at the excitation wavelengths of 635 nm and 532 nm, which allows scanner signal stability monitoring, although it is not certified for use in this capacity. In the current study, instrument response was tracked day to day, confirming that changes observed in experimental arrays scanned are not due to changes in the scanner response. Signal intensity and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were tracked over time on three different scanners, indicating the utility of the SRM for scanner qualification.

  10. The stability of uranium microspheres for future application as reference standard in analytical measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorp, R.; Duerr, M.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, IEK-6, 52428 Juelich (Germany)


    The monitoring of fuel-cycle facilities provides a tool to confirm the compliant operation, for example with respect to emissions into the environment or to supervise non-proliferation commitments. Hereby, anomalous situations can be detected in a timely manner and responsive action can be initiated to prevent an escalation into an event of severe consequence to society. In order to verify non-nuclear weapon states' compliance with the non-proliferation treaty (NPT), international authorities such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conduct inspections at facilities dealing with fissile or fertile nuclear materials. One measure consists of collection of swipe samples through inspectors for later analysis of collected nuclear material traces in the laboratory. Highly sensitive mass spectrometric methods provide a means to detect traces from nuclear material handling activities that provide indication of undeclared use of the facility. There are, however, no relevant (certified) reference materials available that can be used as calibration or quality control standards. Therefore, an aerosol-generation based process was established at Forschungszentrum Juelich for the production of spherical, mono-disperse uranium oxide micro-particles with accurately characterized isotopic compositions and amounts of uranium in the pico-gram range. The synthesized particles are studied with respect to their suitability as (certified) reference material in ultra-trace analysis. Several options for preparation and stabilization of the particles are available, where preparation of particles in suspension offers the possibility to produces specific particle mixtures. In order to assess the stability of particles, dissolution behavior and isotope exchange effects of particles in liquid suspension is studied on the bulk of suspended particles and also via micro-analytical methods applied for single particle characterization. The insights gained within these studies will

  11. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials. (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M


    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  12. A Framework for Establishing Standard Reference Scale of Texture by Multivariate Statistical Analysis Based on Instrumental Measurement and Sensory Evaluation. (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Zhao, Lei; Xie, Nan; Wang, Houyin; Shi, Bolin; Shi, Jingye


    A framework of establishing standard reference scale (texture) is proposed by multivariate statistical analysis according to instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation. Multivariate statistical analysis is conducted to rapidly select typical reference samples with characteristics of universality, representativeness, stability, substitutability, and traceability. The reasonableness of the framework method is verified by establishing standard reference scale of texture attribute (hardness) with Chinese well-known food. More than 100 food products in 16 categories were tested using instrumental measurement (TPA test), and the result was analyzed with clustering analysis, principal component analysis, relative standard deviation, and analysis of variance. As a result, nine kinds of foods were determined to construct the hardness standard reference scale. The results indicate that the regression coefficient between the estimated sensory value and the instrumentally measured value is significant (R(2) = 0.9765), which fits well with Stevens's theory. The research provides reliable a theoretical basis and practical guide for quantitative standard reference scale establishment on food texture characteristics.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.


    The purpose of this report is twofold. The first is to develop a set of behavioral parameters for a reference person specific for the Savannah River Site (SRS) such that the parameters can be used to determine dose to members of the public in compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1 “Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.” A reference person is a hypothetical, gender and age aggregation of human physical and physiological characteristics arrived at by international consensus for the purpose of standardizing radiation dose calculations. DOE O 458.1 states that compliance with the annual dose limit of 100 mrem (1 mSv) to a member of the public may be demonstrated by calculating the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) or to a representative person. Historically, for dose compliance, SRS has used the MEI concept, which uses adult dose coefficients and adult male usage parameters. Beginning with the 2012 annual site environmental report, SRS will be using the representative person concept for dose compliance. The dose to a representative person will be based on 1) the SRS-specific reference person usage parameters at the 95th percentile of appropriate national or regional data, which are documented in this report, 2) the reference person (gender and age averaged) ingestion and inhalation dose coefficients provided in DOE Derived Concentration Technical Standard (DOE-STD-1196-2011), and 3) the external dose coefficients provided in the DC_PAK3 toolbox. The second purpose of this report is to develop SRS-specific derived concentration standards (DCSs) for all applicable food ingestion pathways, ground shine, and water submersion. The DCS is the concentration of a particular radionuclide in water, in air, or on the ground that results in a member of the public receiving 100 mrem (1 mSv) effective dose following continuous exposure for one year. In DOE-STD-1196-2011, DCSs were developed for the ingestion of water, inhalation of

  14. Development of KRISS standard reference photometer (SRP) for ambient ozone measurement (United States)

    Lee, S.; Lee, J.


    Surface ozone has adverse impacts on human health and ecosystem. Accurate measurement of ambient ozone concentration is essential for developing effective mitigation strategies and understanding atmospheric chemistry. Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed new ozone standard reference photometers (SRPs) for the calibration of ambient ozone instruments. The basic principle of the KRISS ozone SRPs is to determine the absorption of ultraviolet radiation at a specific wavelength, 253.7 nm, by ozone in the atmosphere. Ozone concentration is calculated by converting UV transmittance through the Beer-Lambert Law. This study introduces the newly developed ozone SRPs and characterizes their performance through uncertainty analysis and comparison with BIPM (International Bureau of Weights and Measures) SRP.

  15. Validation of IRDFF in 252Cf Standard and IRDF-2002 Reference Neutron Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simakov Stanislav


    Full Text Available The results of validation of the latest release of International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File, IRDFF-1.03, in the standard 252Cf(s.f. and reference 235U(nth,f neutron benchmark fields are presented. The spectrum-averaged cross sections were shown to confirm IRDFF-1.03 in the 252Cf standard spontaneous fission spectrum; that was not the case for the current recommended spectra for 235U(nth,f. IRDFF was also validated in the spectra of the research reactor facilities ISNF, Sigma-Sigma and YAYOI, which are available in the IRDF-2002 collection. The ISNF facility was re-simulated to remove unphysical oscillations in the spectrum. IRDFF-1.03 was shown to reproduce reasonably well the spectrum-averaged data measured in these fields except for the case of YAYOI.

  16. Quantitative micro x-ray fluorescence analyses without reference standard material; Referenzprobenfreie quantitative Mikro-Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Timo


    X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is a standard method for non-destructive investigations. Due to the development of polycapillary optics and SDDdetectors requiring no cooling with liquid nitrogen, XRF becomes a suitable method for a large number of applications, e. g. for the analysis of objects in arts and archaeology. Spectrometers developed for those purposes allow investigations outside of laboratories und provide excitation areas with diameters of 10-70 {mu}m. In most applications, quantification of XRF data is realized by the usage of standard reference materials. Due to absorption processes in the samples the accuracy of the results depends strongly on the similarity of the sample and the reference standard. In cases where no suitable references are available, quantification can be done based on the ''fundamental parameter (fp) method''. This quantification procedure is based on a set of equations describing the fluorescence production and detection mathematical. The cross sections for the interaction of x-rays with matter can be taken from different databases. During an iteration process the element concentrations can be determined. Quantitative XRF based on fundamental parameters requires an accurate knowledge of the excitation spectrum. In case of a conventional setup this spectrum is given by the X-ray tube spectrum and can be calculated. The use of polycapillary optics in micro-XRF spectrometers changes the spectral distribution of the excitation radiation. For this reason it is necessary to access the transmission function of the used optic. The aim of this work is to find a procedure to describe this function for routine quantification based on fundamental parameters. Most of the measurements have been carried out using a commercial spectrometer developed for applications in arts and archaeology. On the one hand the parameters of the lens, used in the spectrometer, have been investigated by different experimental characterization

  17. Estimating A Reference Standard Segmentation With Spatially Varying Performance Parameters: Local MAP STAPLE (United States)

    Commowick, Olivier; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Warfield, Simon K.


    We present a new algorithm, called local MAP STAPLE, to estimate from a set of multi-label segmentations both a reference standard segmentation and spatially varying performance parameters. It is based on a sliding window technique to estimate the segmentation and the segmentation performance parameters for each input segmentation. In order to allow for optimal fusion from the small amount of data in each local region, and to account for the possibility of labels not being observed in a local region of some (or all) input segmentations, we introduce prior probabilities for the local performance parameters through a new Maximum A Posteriori formulation of STAPLE. Further, we propose an expression to compute confidence intervals in the estimated local performance parameters. We carried out several experiments with local MAP STAPLE to characterize its performance and value for local segmentation evaluation. First, with simulated segmentations with known reference standard segmentation and spatially varying performance, we show that local MAP STAPLE performs better than both STAPLE and majority voting. Then we present evaluations with data sets from clinical applications. These experiments demonstrate that spatial adaptivity in segmentation performance is an important property to capture. We compared the local MAP STAPLE segmentations to STAPLE, and to previously published fusion techniques and demonstrate the superiority of local MAP STAPLE over other state-of-the- art algorithms. PMID:22562727

  18. Comparison of photographic and visual assessment of occlusal caries with histology as the reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boye Uriana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare diagnostic performance for the detection of caries using photographs with an established visual examination method and histological sections as the reference standard. Methods 50 extracted permanent teeth were assessed for the presence of occlusal caries by 9 examiners using two methods; traditional visual examination developed by BASCD and photographs produced by an intra-oral camera. For both methods, diagnoses were made at “caries into dentine” level. The teeth were histologically sectioned and the diagnostic decisions using visual and photographic assessment were compared to the histological reference standard. Inter- and intra- examiner reliability for the methods was assessed and weighted kappa values were calculated. Results The visual examination method had a median sensitivity value of 65.6% and a median specificity value of 82.4%. The photographic assessments method had a median sensitivity of 81.3% and a median specificity of 82.4%. Conclusions The photographic assessments method had a higher sensitivity for caries detection than the visual examination. The two methods had comparable specificities and good intra- and inter- examiner reliability.

  19. Determination of the reference position in the near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement in vivo (United States)

    Han, Guang; Liu, Jin; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin


    Position-based reference measurement method is taken as one of the most promising method in non-invasive measurement of blood glucose based on spectroscopic methodology. Selecting an appropriate source-detector separation as the reference position is important for deducting the influence of background change and reducing the loss of useful signals. Our group proposed a special source-detector separation named floating-reference position where the signal contains only background change, that is to say, the signal at this source-detector separation is uncorrelated with glucose concentration. The existence of floating-reference position has been verified in a three layer skin by Monte Carlo simulation and in the in vitro experiment. But it is difficult to verify the existence of floating-reference position on the human body because the interference is more complex during in vivo experiment. Aiming at this situation, this paper studies the determination of the best reference position on human body by collecting signals at several source-detector separations on the palm and measuring the true blood glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) experiments of 3 volunteers. Partial least square (PLS) calibration model is established between the signals at every source-detector separation and its corresponding blood glucose levels. The results shows that the correlation coefficient (R) between 1.32 mm to 1.88 mm is lowest and they can be used as reference for background correction. The signal of this special position is important for improving the accuracy of near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  20. MRI screening for silicone breast implant rupture: accuracy, inter- and intraobserver variability using explantation results as reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maijers, M.C.; Ritt, M.J.P.F. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, F.B. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Hand Surgery, De Boelelaan 1117, PO Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jan van Goyen Clinic, Department of Plastic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, J.F.H. [MRI Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Manoliu, R.A. [MRI Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    The recall of Poly Implant Prothese (PIP) silicone breast implants in 2010 resulted in large numbers of asymptomatic women with implants who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening. This study's aim was to assess the accuracy and interobserver variability of MRI screening in the detection of rupture and extracapsular silicone leakage. A prospective study included 107 women with 214 PIP implants who underwent explantation preceded by MRI. In 2013, two radiologists blinded for previous MRI findings or outcome at surgery, independently re-evaluated all MRI examinations. A structured protocol described the MRI findings. The ex vivo findings served as reference standard. In 208 of the 214 explanted prostheses, radiologists agreed independently about the condition of the implants. In five of the six cases they disagreed (2.6 %), but subsequently reached consensus. A sensitivity of 93 %, specificity of 93 %, positive predictive value of 77 % and negative predictive value of 98 % was found. The interobserver agreement was excellent (kappa value of 0.92). MRI has a high accuracy in diagnosing rupture in silicone breast implants. Considering the high kappa value of interobserver agreement, MRI appears to be a consistent diagnostic test. A simple, uniform classification, may improve communication between radiologist and plastic surgeon. (orig.)

  1. Ballistocardiogram artifact removal with a reference layer and standard EEG cap. (United States)

    Luo, Qingfei; Huang, Xiaoshan; Glover, Gary H


    In simultaneous EEG-fMRI, the EEG recordings are severely contaminated by ballistocardiogram (BCG) artifacts, which are caused by cardiac pulsations. To reconstruct and remove the BCG artifacts, one promising method is to measure the artifacts in the absence of EEG signal by placing a group of electrodes (BCG electrodes) on a conductive layer (reference layer) insulated from the scalp. However, current BCG reference layer (BRL) methods either use a customized EEG cap composed of electrode pairs, or need to construct the custom reference layer through additional model-building experiments for each EEG-fMRI experiment. These requirements have limited the versatility and efficiency of BRL. The aim of this study is to propose a more practical and efficient BRL method and compare its performance with the most popular BCG removal method, the optimal basis sets (OBS) algorithm. By designing the reference layer as a permanent and reusable cap, the new BRL method is able to be used with a standard EEG cap, and no extra experiments and preparations are needed to use the BRL in an EEG-fMRI experiment. The BRL method effectively removed the BCG artifacts from both oscillatory and evoked potential scalp recordings and recovered the EEG signal. Compared to the OBS, this new BRL method improved the contrast-to-noise ratios of the alpha-wave, visual, and auditory evoked potential signals by 101%, 76%, and 75%, respectively, employing 160 BCG electrodes. Using only 20 BCG electrodes, the BRL improved the EEG signal by 74%/26%/41%, respectively. The proposed method can substantially improve the EEG signal quality compared with traditional methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi


    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of –20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year.

  3. Validity Study of a Jump Mat Compared to the Reference Standard Force Plate. (United States)

    Rogan, Slavko; Radlinger, Lorenz; Imhasly, Caroline; Kneubuehler, Andrea; Hilfiker, Roger


    In the field of vertical jump diagnostics, force plates (FP) are the reference standard. Recently, despite a lack of evidence, jump mats have been used increasingly. Important factors in favor of jumping mats are their low cost and portability. This validity study compared the Haynl-Elektronik jump mat (HE jump mat) with the reference standard force plate. Ten healthy volunteers participated and each participant completed three series of five drop jumps (DJ). The parameters ground contact time (GCT) and vertical jump height (VJH) from the HE jump mat and the FP were used to evaluate the concurrent validity. The following statistical calculations were performed: Pearson's correlation (r), Bland-Altman plots (standard and for adjusted trend), and regression equations. The Bland-Altman plots suggest that the HE jump mat measures shorter contact times and higher jump heights than the FP. The trend-adjusted Bland-Altman plot shows higher mean differences and wider wing-spreads of confidence limits during longer GCT. During the VJH the mean differences and the wing-spreads of the confidence limits throughout the range present as relatively constant. The following regression equations were created, as close as possible to the true value: GCT = 5.920385 + 1.072293 × [value HE jump mat] and VJH = -1.73777 + 1.011156 × [value HE jump mat]. The HE jump mat can be recommended in relation to the validity of constraints. In this study, only a part of the quality criteria were examined. For the final recommendation it is advised to examine the HE jump mat on the other quality criteria (test-retest reliability, sensitivity change).

  4. Present development concerning antimalarial activity of phospholipid metabolism inhibitors with special reference to in vivo activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Ancelin


    Full Text Available The systematic screening of more than 250 molecules against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro has previously shown that interfering with phospholipid metabolism is lethal to the malaria parasite. These compounds act by impairing choline transport in infected erythrocytes, resulting in phosphatidylcholine de novo biosynthesis inhibition. A thorough study was carried out with the leader compound G25, whose in vitro IC50 is 0.6 nM. It was very specific to mature parasites (trophozoïtes as determined in vitro with P. falciparum and in vivo with P. chabaudi -infected mice. This specificity corresponds to the most intense phase of phospholipid biosynthesis activity during the parasite cycle, thus corroborating the mechanism of action. The in vivo antimalarial activity (ED50 against P. chabaudi was 0.03 mg/kg, and a similar sensitivity was obtained with P. vinckei petteri, when the drug was intraperitoneally administered in a 4 day suppressive test. In contrast, P. berghei was revealed as less sensitive (3- to 20-fold, depending on the P. berghei-strain. This difference in activity could result either from the degree of synchronism of every strain, their invasion preference for mature or immature red blood cells or from an intrinsically lower sensitivity of the P. berghei strain to G25. Irrespective of the mode of administration, G25 had the same therapeutic index (lethal dose 50 (LD50/ED50 but the dose to obtain antimalarial activity after oral treatment was 100-fold higher than after intraperitoneal (or subcutaneous administration. This must be related to the low intestinal absorption of these kind of compounds. G25 succeeded to completely inhibiting parasitemia as high as 11.2% without any decrease in its therapeutic index when administered subcutaneously twice a day for at least 8 consecutive days to P. chabaudi -infected-rodent model. Transition to human preclinical investigations now requires a synthesis of molecules which would permit oral

  5. Developing qualitative LC-MS methods for characterization of Vaccinium berry Standard Reference Materials. (United States)

    Lowenthal, Mark S; Phillips, Melissa M; Rimmer, Catherine A; Rudnick, Paul A; Simón-Manso, Yamil; Stein, Stephen E; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii; Phinney, Karen W


    Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) offer the scientific community a stable and homogenous source of material that holds countless application possibilities. Traditionally, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has provided SRMs with associated quantitative information (certified values) for a select group of targeted analytes as measured in a solution or complex matrix. While the current needs of the SRM community are expanding to include non-quantitative data, NIST is attempting to broaden the scope of how and what information is offered to the SRM community by providing qualitative information about biomaterials, such as chromatographic fingerprints and profiles of untargeted identifications. In this work, metabolomic and proteomic profiling efforts were employed to characterize a suite of six Vaccinium berry SRMs. In the discovery phase, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) data was matched to mass spectral libraries; a subsequent validation phase based on multiple-reaction monitoring LC-MS/MS relied on both retention time matching of authentic standards along with fragmentation data for a qualitative overview of the most prominent organic compounds present. Definitive and putative identifications were determined for over 70 metabolites based on reporting guidelines set forth by the Metabolomics Standards Initiative (Metabolomics 3(3):211-221, 2007), and the capability of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to profile untargeted metabolites within a complex matrix using mass spectral matching is demonstrated. Bottom-up proteomic analyses were possible using peptide databases translated from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Homology searches provided identification of novel Vaccinium proteins based on homology to related genera. Chromatographic fingerprints of these berry materials were acquired for supplemental qualitative information to be provided to users of these SRMs. An unbounded set of qualitative

  6. Analysis of standard reference materials following digestion using a modified appliance grade microwave oven (United States)

    Schaumloffel, John C.; Siems, William F.


    Microwave digestion provides a rapid means of sample preparation in the analytical laboratory. The major disadvantage of this method is the high cost of commercial microwave digestion systems. Modifications to the magnetron timing circuits of an appliance grade oven to make it suitable for sealed vessel microwave digestion are reported. The oven was modified without alteration to the irradiation cavity, and all initial safety features remain intact. Following digestion with the modified oven, NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. The analytical data are similar to the certified concentrations in the SRMs, indicating that the modified oven provides a durable, rapid, cost-effective means of sample preparation.

  7. NOTE Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms (United States)

    Di Ninni, Paola; Martelli, Fabrizio; Zaccanti, Giovanni


    Measurements of optical properties carried out at visible and NIR wavelengths on many samples of Intralipid 20% showed a high stability and surprisingly small batch-to-batch variations. Measurements have been carried out in a short time interval using samples from nine different batches with expiry dates spreading over ten years. For the specific reduced scattering coefficient, the values we have obtained, averaged over the nine batches, are 25.9, 21.2, and 18.4 mm-1 at λ = 632.8, 751, and 833 nm, respectively, and the corresponding maximum deviations from the average were 2.2%, 1.1%, and 1.4%. For the absorption coefficient, we obtained values slightly smaller with respect to the absorption coefficient of pure water at 751 and 833 nm, and slightly larger at 632.8 nm. These results suggest that Intralipid 20% can be the first step towards a diffusive reference standard for tissue-simulating phantoms.

  8. Crystal structure of isopropyl 2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate: a pharmacopoeia reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Isaiev


    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H14O3, is used as a pharmacopoeia reference standard for determining impurities in the drug Pregabalin, used for the treatment of epilepsy and diabetic neuropathic pain. The molecule is far from being planar, with the dihedral angle between the planes of the aromatic ring and the carboxyl fragment (O—C=O being 76.1 (6°. The isopropyl substituent is located in a synperiplanar position relative to the C=O bond and is turned so that the C—O—C—H torsion angle is −43.7°. In the crystal, bifurcated O—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, enclosing R12(5 ring motifs, lead to the formation of chains propagating along the c-axis direction. Inversion-related chains are linked by the C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming undulating layers lying parallel to the bc plane.

  9. Validation of IRDFF in 252Cf standard and IRDF-2002 reference neutron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Stanislav; Capote Noy, Roberto; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Griffin, Patrick J.; Kahler, Albert; Pronyaev, Vladimir; Trkov, A.; Zolotarev, K. I.


    The results of validation of the latest release of International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File, IRDFF-1.03, in the standard 252Cf(s.f.) and reference 235U(nth,f) neutron benchmark fields are presented. The spectrum-averaged cross sections were shown to confirm the recommended spectrum for 252Cf spontaneous fission source; that was not the case for the current recommended spectra for 235U(nth,f). IRDFF was also validated in the spectra of the research reactor facilities ISNF, Sigma-Sigma and YAYOI, which are available in the IRDF- 2002 collection. Before this analysis, the ISFN spectrum was resimulated to remove unphysical oscillations in spectrum. IRDFF-1.03 was shown to reasonably reproduce the spectrum-averaged data measured in these fields except for the case of YAYOI.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of Four Anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix with Single Reference Standard by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang


    Full Text Available Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of four major anthraquinones in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR using single reference standard.

  11. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India (United States)


    Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The mean birthweights were 2089

  12. New reference charts for testicular volume in Dutch children and adolescents allow the calculation of standard deviation scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, S.D.; Plas, E.M. van der; Goede, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Hack, W.W.M.; Buuren, S. van; Wit, J.M.


    Aim Accurate calculations of testicular volume standard deviation (SD) scores are not currently available. We constructed LMS-smoothed age-reference charts for testicular volume in healthy boys. Methods The LMS method was used to calculate reference data, based on testicular volumes from

  13. [Classification of Colombian children with malnutrition according to NCHS reference or WHO standard]. (United States)

    Velásquez, Claudia; Bermúdez, Juliana; Echeverri, Claudia; Estrada, Alejandro


    A descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the concordance of National Center for Health Statistics reference (NCHS) used to classify undernourished children from Colombia with the WHO Child Growth Standards. We used data from children aged 6 to 59 months with acute malnutrition (Z statistical method used to compare means was T-student. Correlation coefficient intraclass (CCI) and Kappa index evaluated the concordance between NCHS and OMS; McNemar method evaluated the changes on the nutritional classification for children according to growth devices used. Of the total number of children classified as normal by NCHS, 10.4% were classified as stunted by WHO. 64% of the children admitted to the hospital presented acute malnutrition according to NCHS, of these 44,8% presented severe emaciation according to OMS, indeed severe emaciation increased of 36,0% to 63,3% using OMS. 5% of children leaving the hospital could need to stay more days if they had been evaluated with OMS. Growth devices shown high concordance in height-for-age (CCI = 0,988; k= 0,866) and weight for-height (CCI = 0,901; k = 0,578). Concluded that OMS growth standards classified more malnourished children and more severe states, in addition more malnourished children could be hospitalized and they could stay more days.

  14. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil (United States)

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.


    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  15. Value assignment of nutrient and aflatoxin concentrations in standard reference material 2387 peanut butter. (United States)

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Phinney, Curtis S; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Howell, Daniel W


    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2387 peanut butter was recently issued, and the process used for value assignment of nutrient and aflatoxin concentrations is reported herein. Values were assigned using data provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and collaborating laboratories. SRM 2387 is intended for use as a primary material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validation of analytical methods for measurements in peanut butter and similar high-fat matrixes. SRM 2387 lies in sector 3 of AOAC International's fat-protein-carbohydrate triangle. With the addition of SRM 2387, NIST now offers materials within-or on the borders between-all sectors of the triangle. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2387 provides assigned values for concentrations of fatty acids, proximates, elements, and total dietary fiber, for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, as well as several vitamins, amino acids, and aflatoxins, for which labeling is not required. (Aflatoxin levels in peanut butter are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration.)

  16. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples (United States)

    Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N. Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M.; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M.; Leigh, Stefan D.; Patterson, Donald G.; Pintar, Adam L.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Wise, Stephen A.


    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4′-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  17. New birth weight reference standards customised to birth order and sex of babies from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Velusamy Saravana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foetal growth standards for Indian children which are available today suffer due to methodological problems. These are, for example, not adhering to the WHO recommendation to base gestational age on the number of completed weeks and secondly, not excluding mothers with risk factors. This study has addressed both the above issues and in addition provides birthweight reference ranges with regard to sex of the baby and maternal parity. Methods Data from the labour room register from 1996 to 2010 was obtained. A rotational sampling scheme was used i.e. the 12 months of the year were divided into 4 quadrants. All deliveries in January were considered to represent the first quadrant. Similarly all deliveries in April, July and October were considered to represent 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants. In each successive year different months were included in each quadrant. Only those mothers aged 20–39 years and delivered between 24 to 42 weeks gestational age were considered. Those mothers with obstetric risk factors were excluded. The reference standards were fitted using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS method for Box – Cox t distribution with cubic spline smoothing. Results There were 41,055 deliveries considered. When women with risk factors were excluded 19,501 deliveries could be included in the final analysis. The male babies of term firstborn were found to be 45 g heavier than female babies. The mean birthweights were 2934 g and 2889.5 g respectively. Similarly, among the preterm babies, the first born male babies weighed 152 g more than the female babies. The mean birthweights were 1996 g and 1844 g respectively. In the case of later born babies, the term male babies weighed 116grams more than the females. The mean birth weights were 3085 grams and 2969 grams respectively. When considering later born preterm babies, the males outweighed the female babies by 111 grams. The

  18. In vitro and in vivo modulation of cartilage degradation by a standardized Centella asiatica fraction. (United States)

    Hartog, Anita; Smit, H Friso; van der Kraan, Peter M; Hoijer, Maarten A; Garssen, Johan


    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease in which focal cartilage destruction is one of the primary features. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of a Centella asiatica fraction on in vitro and in vivo cartilage degradation. Bovine cartilage explants and bovine chondrocytes cultured in alginate were stimulated with IL-1 beta in the presence or absence of different concentrations (2, 5 and 10 microg/ml) of a standardized Centella asiatica triterpenes (CAT) fraction. The CAT fraction inhibited the IL-1 beta-induced proteoglycan (PG) release and nitric oxide (NO) production by cartilage explants in a dose-dependent manner. The IL-1 beta-induced reduction in PG synthesis and proliferation of chondrocytes cultured in alginate were counteracted by the CAT fraction at a concentration of 10 microg/ml. In a zymosan-induced acute arthritis model, the CAT fraction inhibited PG depletion without modulating joint swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated for the first time that the tested Centella asiatica fraction was able to inhibit the zymosan-induced cartilage degradation in vivo without affecting the zymosan-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and joint swelling. The in vitro data indicate that the cartilage protective activity might at least partially be induced by the inhibition of NO production. The overall results indicate a possible disease modifying osteoarthritic activity of the Centella asiatica fraction.

  19. 77 FR 202 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting References (United States)


    ... 9000-AM00 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Financial Accounting Standards Board Accounting... accounting standards owing to the Financial Accounting Standards Board's Accounting Standards Codification of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  20. Characterization of Pharmacokinetics in the Göttingen Minipig with Reference Human Drugs: An In Vitro and In Vivo Approach. (United States)

    Lignet, Floriane; Sherbetjian, Eva; Kratochwil, Nicole; Jones, Russell; Suenderhauf, Claudia; Otteneder, Michael B; Singer, Thomas; Parrott, Neil


    This study aims to expand our understanding of the mechanisms of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in the Göttingen minipig to aid a knowledge-driven selection of the optimal species for preclinical pharmaceutical research. The pharmacokinetics of seven reference compounds (antipyrine, atenolol, cimetidine, diazepam, hydrochlorothiazide, midazolam and theophylline) was investigated after intravenous and oral dosing in minipigs. Supportive in vitro data were generated on hepatocellularity, metabolic clearance in hepatocytes, blood cell and plasma protein binding and metabolism routes. Systemic plasma clearance for the seven drugs ranged from low (1.1 ml/min/kg, theophylline) to close to liver blood flow (37.4 ml/min/kg, cimetidine). Volume of distribution in minipigs ranged from 0.7 L/kg for antipyrine to 3.2 L/kg for hydrochlorothiazide. A gender-related difference of in vivo metabolic clearance was observed for antipyrine. The hepatocellularity for minipig was determined as 124 Mcells/g liver, similar to the values reported for human. Based on these data a preliminary in vitro to in vivo correlation (IVIVC) for metabolic clearance measured in hepatocytes was investigated. Metabolite profiles of diazepam and midazolam compared well between minipig and human. The results of the present study support the use of in vitro metabolism data for the evaluation of minipig in preclinical research and safety testing.

  1. Reference standard of penile size and prevalence of buried penis in Japanese newborn male infants. (United States)

    Matsuo, Nobutake; Ishii, Tomohiro; Takayama, John I; Miwa, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Tomonobu


    The present study set forth the reference values for penile size and determined the prevalence of buried penis in Japanese full-term newborns. The stretched penile length was measured and the presence of buried penis was assessed at 1-7 days of age in 547 Japanese full-term newborn infants born between 2008 and 2012 in Tokyo. The stretched penile lengths were compared at 1-12 hours and 1-7 days of age in 63 infants and by two observers in 73 infants to estimate postnatal changes and interobserver variation, respectively. The mean stretched penile length was 3.06 cm (SD, 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.04-3.08) and the mean ratio of penile length to body length was 6.24 × 100(-1) (SD, 0.55 × 100(-1)), both of which were significantly smaller than those in Caucasian newborn infants. Buried penis was identified in 20 of 547 infants (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.2%). The first measurements of penile length at 1-12 hours were significantly smaller than the next measurements at 1-7 days (95% CI of the difference, 0.22-0.34). The 95% CI for the limits of agreement in the penile lengths measured by the two observers was -0.58 to -0.40 for the lower limit and 0.33 to 0.51 for the upper limit. These findings indicate that the penile length should be assessed after 24 hours of age by the reference standard of the same ethnicity for identifying micropenis and that buried penis is not uncommon in Japanese full-term newborns.

  2. Retrospective Analysis of NIST Standard Reference Material 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, for Thermal Insulation Measurements. (United States)

    Zarr, Robert R; Heckert, N Alan; Leigh, Stefan D


    Thermal conductivity data acquired previously for the establishment of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, as well as subsequent renewals 1450a, 1450b, 1450c, and 1450d, are re-analyzed collectively and as individual data sets. Additional data sets for proto-1450 material lots are also included in the analysis. The data cover 36 years of activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing and providing thermal insulation SRMs, specifically high-density molded fibrous-glass board, to the public. Collectively, the data sets cover two nominal thicknesses of 13 mm and 25 mm, bulk densities from 60 kg·m(-3) to 180 kg·m(-3), and mean temperatures from 100 K to 340 K. The analysis repetitively fits six models to the individual data sets. The most general form of the nested set of multilinear models used is given in the following equation: [Formula: see text]where λ(ρ,T) is the predicted thermal conductivity (W·m(-1)·K(-1)), ρ is the bulk density (kg·m(-3)), T is the mean temperature (K) and ai (for i = 1, 2, … 6) are the regression coefficients. The least squares fit results for each model across all data sets are analyzed using both graphical and analytic techniques. The prevailing generic model for the majority of data sets is the bilinear model in ρ and T. [Formula: see text] One data set supports the inclusion of a cubic temperature term and two data sets with low-temperature data support the inclusion of an exponential term in T to improve the model predictions. Physical interpretations of the model function terms are described. Recommendations for future renewals of SRM 1450 are provided. An Addendum provides historical background on the origin of this SRM and the influence of the SRM on external measurement programs.

  3. Standard test method for determination of reference temperature, to, for ferritic steels in the transition range

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of a reference temperature, To, which characterizes the fracture toughness of ferritic steels that experience onset of cleavage cracking at elastic, or elastic-plastic KJc instabilities, or both. The specific types of ferritic steels (3.2.1) covered are those with yield strengths ranging from 275 to 825 MPa (40 to 120 ksi) and weld metals, after stress-relief annealing, that have 10 % or less strength mismatch relative to that of the base metal. 1.2 The specimens covered are fatigue precracked single-edge notched bend bars, SE(B), and standard or disk-shaped compact tension specimens, C(T) or DC(T). A range of specimen sizes with proportional dimensions is recommended. The dimension on which the proportionality is based is specimen thickness. 1.3 Median KJc values tend to vary with the specimen type at a given test temperature, presumably due to constraint differences among the allowable test specimens in 1.2. The degree of KJc variability among specimen types i...

  4. Validity of standard gamble utilities in patients referred for aortic valve replacement. (United States)

    Hussain, Amjad I; Garratt, Andrew M; Beitnes, Jan Otto; Gullestad, Lars; Pettersen, Kjell I


    Standard gamble (SG) is the preferred method of assessing preferences in situations with uncertainty and risk, which makes it relevant to patients considered for aortic valve replacement (AVR). The present study assesses SG preferences in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). All patients >18 years old with severe AS referred for AVR to our institution were invited to enroll in the study. The SG was administered by a clinical research nurse. The SF-36, EQ-5D 3L, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and AS symptoms were administered by self-completed questionnaire. We hypothesized that SG utilities would have low-to-moderate correlations with physical and mental aspects of health based on our pathophysiological understanding of severe AS. No correlations were expected with echocardiographic measures of the aortic valve. The response rate for SG was 98 %. SG moderately correlated with physical aspects of SF-36 (PCS, role-physical, vitality), health transition, AS symptoms, and EQ-VAS (ρ S = 0.31-0.39, p validity. The inclusion of uncertainty lends the SG face validity in this population as a direct approach to assessing preferences and basis for QALY calculations.

  5. Latent class models in diagnostic studies when there is no reference standard--a systematic review. (United States)

    van Smeden, Maarten; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; Reitsma, Johannes B; Moons, Karel G M; de Groot, Joris A H


    Latent class models (LCMs) combine the results of multiple diagnostic tests through a statistical model to obtain estimates of disease prevalence and diagnostic test accuracy in situations where there is no single, accurate reference standard. We performed a systematic review of the methodology and reporting of LCMs in diagnostic accuracy studies. This review shows that the use of LCMs in such studies increased sharply in the past decade, notably in the domain of infectious diseases (overall contribution: 59%). The 64 reviewed studies used a range of differently specified parametric latent variable models, applying Bayesian and frequentist methods. The critical assumption underlying the majority of LCM applications (61%) is that the test observations must be independent within 2 classes. Because violations of this assumption can lead to biased estimates of accuracy and prevalence, performing and reporting checks of whether assumptions are met is essential. Unfortunately, our review shows that 28% of the included studies failed to report any information that enables verification of model assumptions or performance. Because of the lack of information on model fit and adequate evidence "external" to the LCMs, it is often difficult for readers to judge the validity of LCM-based inferences and conclusions reached.

  6. Development of the NIST bone ash standard reference material for environmental radioactivity measurement. (United States)

    Lin, Z; Inn, K G; Altzitzoglou, T; Arnold, D; Cavadore, D; Ham, G J; Korun, M; Wershofen, H; Takata, Y; Young, A


    The bone ash standard reference material (SRM), a blend of 4% contaminated human bone and 96% diluent bovine bone, has been developed for radiochemical method validation and quality control for radio-bone analysis. The massic activities of 90Sr, 226Ra, 230Th, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 238U, 238Pu, (239 + 240)Pu and (243 + 244)Cm were certified using a variety of radiochemical procedures and detection methods. Measurements confirmed undetectable radionuclide heterogeneity down to a sample size of 5 g. thereby implying adequate blending of particulate materials with dilution factors of up to 17,900. The results among most of the intercomparison laboratories and their methods were consistent. Disequilibrium was observed for decay chains: 234U(0.67 mBq/g)-230Th(0.47 mBq/g)-226Ra(15.1 mBq/g)-210Pb(23 mBq/g)-210Po(13 mBq/g) and 232Th(0.99 mBq/g)-228 Ra(6.1 mBq/g)-228Th(7.1 mBq/g). The disequilibria were the results of mixing occupationally contaminated human bone with natural bovine bone and the fractionation during internal biological processes. The massic activity of 210Pb, 228Th and 241Am were not certified because of insufficient 228Ra and 241Pu data and lack of knowledge in how 222Rn and its daughters will be fractionated in the SRM bottle over time.

  7. Measurement uncertainty of lesion and reference mediastinum standardized uptake value in lung cancer. (United States)

    Laffon, Eric; Milpied, Noel; Marthan, Roger


    To assess standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement uncertainty (MU) of lung cancer lesions with uptake greater than mediastinum but less than or equal to the liver and that of the mediastinum blood pool, and to compare lesion SUV with mediastinum SUV by assessing MU of their ratio. Dynamic PET data involving 10 frames were retrospectively analyzed in 10 patients, yielding maximal SUV of 25 lesions (Lesion-SUVmax), 10 mediastinum SUV, either maximal or mean (Med-SUVmax, Med-SUVmean), 25 Rmax ratios (=Lesion-SUVmax/Med-SUVmax), and 25 Rmean ratios (=Lesion-SUVmax/Med-SUVmean). A mean coefficient of variation was calculated for each parameter, leading to relative measurement uncertainty (MUr), respectively. MU of Rmax was found to involve both Lesion-SUVmax and Med-SUVmax MU: MUr=33.3-23.3-21.9%, respectively (95% confidence level). No significant difference in MUr was found between Med-SUVmax and Med-SUVmean and between Rmax and Rmean. Comparison between target lesion SUV and reference mediastinum SUV must take into account SUV MU of both. Therefore, no MU reduction can be expected from using the lesion/mediastinum SUVmax ratio instead of Lesion-SUVmax. Moreover, no MU reduction can be expected from using the mean mediastinum SUV instead of the maximal one.

  8. An international standard conceptual model for sharing references to hydrologic features (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert; Dornblut, Irina; Smith, Darren


    SummaryConcepts such as catchment, basin, watershed and river are commonly understood in many fields of discourse, but are described differently according to the focus on various aspects of the hydrology phenomenon. The effective exchange of hydrologic data containing references to hydrologic features requires standardised semantics of the concepts that allow identification of these features. Here, the scope of common approaches to information modelling of hydrologic features is examined, and is compared to the requirements for feature identification in multiple contexts. A conceptual model is presented that reconciles the underlying differences in representation of hydrologic features and levels of detail in typical datasets. By providing a stable and common referencing system for hydrologic features, the model will assist in the organization of observation and modelling of such features, and in the aggregation of generated data on a global, regional, national or basin scale. The model encompasses a number of approaches used in different contexts to identify and model hydrologic features and enforce the semantics of relationships between different levels of detail. Thus, it provides a semantic framework for common feature identifiers to be developed and embedded in individual data products, while providing the flexibility to model complex hydrological processes at fine detail. The common identifiers can be used in aggregating data generated using high-detail models of processes, and in partitioning large and complex hydrologic feature datasets into local study areas. Different local models can be applied according to the dominant hydrologic processes and the amount of hydrometric monitoring available for each region. The model is intended to form the basis for standard practices under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization Commission for Hydrology. It is presented here to invite further testing, feedback and engagement in the process of its

  9. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in equine in vivo and fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli Cesare


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is very well suited to reveal differences in gene expression between in vivo and in vitro produced embryos. Ultimately, this may lead to optimized equine assisted reproductive techniques. However, for a correct interpretation of the real-time PCR results, all data must be normalized, which is most reliably achieved by calculating the geometric mean of the most stable reference genes. In this study a set of reliable reference genes was identified for equine in vivo and fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro embryos. Findings The expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, H2A/I, HPRT1, RPL32, SDHA, TUBA4A, UBC was determined in 3 populations of equine blastocysts (fresh in vivo, fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro embryos. Application of geNorm indicated UBC, GAPDH, ACTB and HPRT1 as the most stable genes in the in vivo embryos and UBC, RPL32, GAPDH and ACTB in both in vitro populations. When in vivo and in vitro embryos were combined, UBC, ACTB, RPL32 and GAPDH were found to be the most stable. SDHA and H2A/I appeared to be highly regulated. Conclusions Based on these results, the geometric mean of UBC, ACTB, RPL32 and GAPDH is to be recommended for accurate normalization of quantitative real-time PCR data in equine in vivo and in vitro produced blastocysts.

  10. MRI of the normal appendix in children: data toward a new reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, David W. [Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Rhode Island Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Providence, RI (United States); Schooler, Gary R. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Stamoulis, Catherine; Lee, Edward Y. [Boston Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)


    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might prove useful in the diagnostic evaluation of pediatric appendicitis in the effort to avoid exposing children to the ionizing radiation of CT, yet there is a paucity of literature describing the normal range of appearances of the pediatric appendix on MRI. To investigate MRI characteristics of the normal appendix to aid in establishing a reference standard in the pediatric population. We conducted a retrospective study of children and young adults (≤18 years of age) who underwent lumbar spine or pelvis MRI between Jan. 1, 2013, and Dec. 31, 2013, for indications unrelated to appendicitis. Two board-certified radiologists independently reviewed all patients' MRI examinations for appendix visualization, diameter, intraluminal content signal, and presence of periappendiceal inflammation or free fluid. We used the Cohen kappa statistic and Spearman correlation coefficient to assess reader agreement on qualitative and quantitative data, respectively. Three hundred forty-six patients met inclusion criteria. Both readers visualized the appendix in 192/346 (55.5%) patients (kappa = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Estimated median appendix diameter was 5 mm for reader 1 and 6 mm for reader 2 ([25th, 75th] quartiles = [5, 6] mm; range, 2-11 mm; r = 0.81, P < 0.0001). Appendix intraluminal signal characteristics were variable. Periappendiceal inflammation was present in 0/192 (0%) and free fluid in 6/192 (3.1%) MRI examinations (kappa = 1.0). The normal appendix was seen on MRI in approximately half of pediatric patients, with a mean diameter of ∝5-6 mm, variable intraluminal signal characteristics, no adjacent inflammatory changes, and rare surrounding free fluid. (orig.)

  11. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images (United States)

    Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.


    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  12. A Reference Implementation of the OGC CSW EO Standard for the ESA HMA-T project (United States)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Vitale, Fabrizio


    This work was developed in the context of the ESA Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) project, whose main objective is to involve the stakeholders, namely National space agencies, satellite or mission owners and operators, in an harmonization and standardization process of their ground segment services and related interfaces. Among HMA objectives was the specification, conformance testing, and experimentation of two Extension Packages (EPs) of the ebRIM Application Profile (AP) of the OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) specification: the Earth Observation Products (EO) EP (OGC 06-131) and the Cataloguing of ISO Metadata (CIM) EP (OGC 07-038). Our contributions have included the development and deployment of Reference Implementations (RIs) for both the above specifications, and their integration with the ESA Service Support Environment (SSE). The RIs are based on the GI-cat framework, an implementation of a distributed catalog service, able to query disparate Earth and Space Science data sources (e.g. OGC Web Services, Unidata THREDDS) and to expose several standard interfaces for data discovery (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP). Following our initial planning, the GI-cat framework has been extended in order to expose the CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO interfaces, and to distribute queries to CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO data sources. We expected that a mapping strategy would suffice for accommodating CIM, but this proved to be unpractical during implementation. Hence, a model extension strategy was eventually implemented for both the CIM and EO EPs, and the GI-cat federal model was enhanced in order to support the underlying ebRIM AP. This work has provided us with new insights into the different data models for geospatial data, and the technologies for their implementation. The extension is used by suitable CIM and EO profilers (front-end mediator components) and accessors (back-end mediator components), that relate ISO 19115 concepts to EO and CIM ones. Moreover

  13. Measurement of susceptibility artifacts with histogram-based reference value on magnetic resonance images according to standard ASTM F2119. (United States)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Teichgräber, Ulf K; Güttler, Felix V


    The standard ASTM F2119 describes a test method for measuring the size of a susceptibility artifact based on the example of a passive implant. A pixel in an image is considered to be a part of an image artifact if the intensity is changed by at least 30% in the presence of a test object, compared to a reference image in which the test object is absent (reference value). The aim of this paper is to simplify and accelerate the test method using a histogram-based reference value. Four test objects were scanned parallel and perpendicular to the main magnetic field, and the largest susceptibility artifacts were measured using two methods of reference value determination (reference image-based and histogram-based reference value). The results between both methods were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The difference between both reference values was 42.35 ± 23.66. The difference of artifact size was 0.64 ± 0.69 mm. The artifact sizes of both methods did not show significant differences; the p-value of the Mann-Whitney U-test was between 0.710 and 0.521. A standard-conform method for a rapid, objective, and reproducible evaluation of susceptibility artifacts could be implemented. The result of the histogram-based method does not significantly differ from the ASTM-conform method.

  14. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 200 - Standards Incorporated by Reference in the Minimum Property Standards for Housing (HUD Handbook... (United States)


    ... Gas Code (ANSI Z223.1-1988) NFPA 70-93 National Electrical Code National Institute of Building....O. Box 6808, Falls Church, VA 22046, Telephone (703) 237-8100. National Standard Plumbing Code—1993... National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material...

  15. Quine's Double Standard: Undermining the Indispensability Argument via the Indeterminacy of Reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Bueno


    Full Text Available Quine has famously put forward the indispensability argument to force belief in the existence of mathematical objects (such as classes due to their indispensability to our best theories of the world (Quine 1960. Quine has also advocated the indeterminacy of reference argument, according to which reference is dramatically indeterminate: given a language, there’s no unique reference relation for that language (see Quine 1969a. In this paper, I argue that these two arguments are in conflict with each other. Whereas the indispensability argument supports realism about mathematics, the indeterminacy of reference argument, when applied to mathematics, provides a powerful strategy in support of mathematical anti-realism. I conclude the paper by indicating why the indeterminacy of reference phenomenon should be preferred over the considerations regarding indispensability. In the end, even the Quinean shouldn’t be a realist (platonist about mathematics.

  16. Vehicle occupancy detection camera position optimization using design of experiments and standard image references (United States)

    Paul, Peter; Hoover, Martin; Rabbani, Mojgan


    Camera positioning and orientation is important to applications in domains such as transportation since the objects to be imaged vary greatly in shape and size. In a typical transportation application that requires capturing still images, inductive loops buried in the ground or laser trigger sensors are used when a vehicle reaches the image capture zone to trigger the image capture system. The camera in such a system is in a fixed position pointed at the roadway and at a fixed orientation. Thus the problem is to determine the optimal location and orientation of the camera when capturing images from a wide variety of vehicles. Methods from Design for Six Sigma, including identifying important parameters and noise sources and performing systematically designed experiments (DOE) can be used to determine an effective set of parameter settings for the camera position and orientation under these conditions. In the transportation application of high occupancy vehicle lane enforcement, the number of passengers in the vehicle is to be counted. Past work has described front seat vehicle occupant counting using a camera mounted on an overhead gantry looking through the front windshield in order to capture images of vehicle occupants. However, viewing rear seat passengers is more problematic due to obstructions including the vehicle body frame structures and seats. One approach is to view the rear seats through the side window. In this situation the problem of optimally positioning and orienting the camera to adequately capture the rear seats through the side window can be addressed through a designed experiment. In any automated traffic enforcement system it is necessary for humans to be able to review any automatically captured digital imagery in order to verify detected infractions. Thus for defining an output to be optimized for the designed experiment, a human defined standard image reference (SIR) was used to quantify the quality of the line-of-sight to the rear seats of

  17. 76 FR 47436 - Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Incorporation by Reference of Successor Standard (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1450 Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act; Incorporation by Reference of... its regulations implementing the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act. DATES: The rule takes... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. What does the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act do? What standard is...


    Lemna minor (Duckweed) is commonly used in aquatic toxicity investigations. Methods for culturing and testing with reference toxicants, such as atrazine, are somewhat variable among researchers. Our goal was to develop standardized methods of culturing and testing for use with L....

  19. Characterization of human lymphoid cell lines GM9947 and GM9948 as intra- and interlaboratory reference standards for DNA typing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fregeau, C.J.; Elliott, J.C.; Fourney, R.M. [RCMP Central Forensic Laboratory, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [and others


    The incorporation of reference DNA is crucial to the validation of any DNA typing protocol. Currently, reference DNA standards are restricted to molecular size DNA ladders and/or tumor cell line DNA. Either of these, however, presents some limitations. We have rigorously characterized two Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-immortalized human lymphoid cell lines-GM9947 (female) and GM9948 (male)-to determine their suitability as alternative in-line standards for three widely employed allele profiling strategies. Twenty-one highly polymorphic VNTR-based allelic systems (7 RFLPs, 2 AmpFLPs, and 12 STRs) distributed over 12 chromosomes were scrutinized along with 3 gender-based discriminatory systems. The genetic stability of each locus was confirmed over a period of 225 in vitro population doublings. Allele size estimates and degree of informativeness for each of the 21 VNTR systems were compiled. The reproducibility of allele scoring by traditional RFLP analyses, using both cell lines as reference standards, was also verified by an interlaboratory validation study involving 13 analysts from two geographically distinct forensic laboratories. Taken together, our data indicate that GM9947 and GM9948 genomic DNAs could be adopted as reliable reference standards for DNA typing. 82 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Construction of a new growth references for China based on urban Chinese children: comparison with the WHO growth standards. (United States)

    Zong, Xin-Nan; Li, Hui


    Growth references for Chinese children should be updated due to the positive secular growth trends and the progress of the smoothing techniques. Human growth differs among the various ethnic groups, so comparison of the China references with the WHO standards helps to understand such differences. The China references, including weight, length/height, head circumference, weight-for-length/height and body mass index (BMI) aged 0-18 years, were constructed based on 69,760 urban infants and preschool children under 7 years and 24,542 urban school children aged 6-20 years derived from two cross-sectional national surveys. The Cole's LMS method is employed for smoothing the growth curves. The merged data sets resulted in a smooth transition at age 6-7 years and continuity of curves from 0 to 18 years. Varying differences were found on the empirical standard deviation (SD) curves in each indicator at nearly all ages between China and WHO. The most noticeable differences occurred in genders, final height and boundary centiles curves. Chinese boys' weight is strikingly heavier than that of the WHO at age 6-10 years. The height is taller than that of the WHO for boys below 15 years and for girls below 13, but is significantly lower when boys over 15 years and girls over 13. BMI is generally higher than that of the WHO for boys at age 6-16 years but appreciably lower for girls at 3-18 years. The differences between China and WHO are mainly caused by the reference populations of different ethnic backgrounds. For practitioners, the choices of the standards/references depend on the population to be assessed and the purpose of the study. The new China references could be applied to facilitate the standardization assessment of growth and nutrition for Chinese children and adolescents in clinical pediatric and public health.

  1. Enhanced Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo by Standardized Crude Extract of Poincianella pluviosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Giacomini Bueno

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex process that involves several biological events, and a delay in this process may cause economic and social problems for the patient. The search continues for new alternative treatments to aid healing, including the use of herbal medicines. Members of the genus Caesalpinia are used in traditional medicine to treat wounds. The related species Poincianella pluviosa (DC. L.P. Queiroz increases the cell viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts and stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro. The crude extract (CE from bark of P. pluviosa was evaluated in the wound-healing process in vivo, to validate the traditional use and the in vitro activity. Standardized CE was incorporated into a gel and applied on cutaneous wounds (TCEG and compared with the formulation without CE (Control for 4, 7, 10, or 14 days of treatment. The effects of the CE on wound re-epithelialization; cell proliferation; permeation, using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS; and proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2 and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 were evaluated. The TCEG stimulated the migration of keratinocytes at day 4 and proliferation on the following days, with a high concentration of cells in metaphase at 7 days. Type I collagen formed more rapidly in the TCEG. PAS showed that the CE had permeated through the skin. TCEG stimulated VEGF at day 4 and SOD-2 and COX-2 at day 7. The results suggest that the CE promoted the regulation of proteins and helped to accelerate the processes involved in healing, promoting early angiogenesis. This led to an increase in the re-epithelialized surface, with significant mitotic activity. Maturation of collagen fibers was also enhanced, which may affect the resistance of the extracellular matrix. PAS indicated a correlation between the rate of diffusion and biological events during the healing process. The CE from P. pluviosa appears promising as an aid in

  2. Evaluation of established and new reference lines for the standardization of transperineal ultrasound. (United States)

    Hennemann, J; Kennes, L N; Maass, N; Najjari, L


    To examine the performance of a new reference line for the assessment of pelvic organ descent by transperineal ultrasound. We compared our newly proposed reference line, between two hyperechoic contours of the symphysis pubis (Line 3), with the horizontal reference line proposed by Dietz and Wilson (Line 1) and the central pubic line proposed by Schaer et al. (Line 2). Ultrasound volumes of 94 women obtained in routine clinical practice were analyzed. The perpendicular distance from the reference lines to the internal sphincter and the most dependent part of the bladder base was measured for volumes obtained at rest, on pelvic floor muscle contraction, on Valsalva maneuver and during coughing. Measurements were repeated 4 months later by the same examiner. Rates of assessment were calculated, and intrarater reliability was evaluated using Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation coefficients. Line 2 had to be excluded from reliability analysis because of an assessment rate of only 12%, whereas Lines 1 and 3 could be assessed in 100% of volumes. The intrarater repeatability of Lines 1 and 3 was shown to be very similar. In this comparison of three potential reference lines for the assessment of pelvic organ descent by transperineal ultrasound, the central pubic line was shown to be inferior owing to poor visibility in our volumes. Inter-rater reliability analysis and validation studies are required to confirm our results. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. ABoVE: Study Domain and Standard Reference Grids, Version 2 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Arctic - Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) has developed two standardized spatial data products to expedite coordination of research activities and to...

  4. Comparison between the triglycerides standardization of routine methods used in Japan and the chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the CDC Lipid Standardization Programme. (United States)

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Noda, Hiroyuki; Kiyama, Masahiko; Sato, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Vesper, Hubert W; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro


    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ensured adequate performance of the routine triglycerides methods used in Japan by a chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme as a reference point. We examined standardized data to clarify the performance of routine triglycerides methods. Methods The two routine triglycerides methods were the fluorometric method of Kessler and Lederer and the enzymatic method. The methods were standardized using 495 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference pools with 98 different concentrations ranging between 0.37 and 5.15 mmol/L in 141 survey runs. The triglycerides criteria for laboratories which perform triglycerides analyses are used: accuracy, as bias ≤5% from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value and precision, as measured by CV, ≤5%. Results The correlation of the bias of both methods to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference method was: y (%bias) = 0.516 × (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value) -1.292 ( n = 495, R2 = 0.018). Triglycerides bias at medical decision points of 1.13, 1.69 and 2.26 mmol/L was -0.71%, -0.42% and -0.13%, respectively. For the combined precision, the equation y (CV) = -0.398 × (triglycerides value) + 1.797 ( n = 495, R2 = 0.081) was used. Precision was 1.35%, 1.12% and 0.90%, respectively. It was shown that triglycerides measurements at Osaka were stable for 36 years. Conclusions The epidemiologic laboratory in Japan met acceptable accuracy goals for 88.7% of all samples, and met acceptable precision goals for 97.8% of all samples measured through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme and demonstrated stable results for an extended period of time.

  5. In vivo full-field time-domain optical coherence tomography using a spatially coherent off-axis reference (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Sudkamp, Helge M.; Koch, Peter; Hillmann, Dierck; Spahr, Hendrik; Franke, Gesa L.; Münst, Michael; Mütel, Fabian; Hüttmann, Gereon M.


    Time domain OCT measures the interference between sample and reference radiation as a function of the reference arm length. In full-field-OCT (FF-OCT) a camera is used instead of a scanned beam for a parallel detection of the interference pattern and thus acquiring a complete en face image. Because multiple images have to be acquired to resolve the phase ambiguity, this method is prone to motion artifacts. We present a novel motion-insensitive approach to FF-OCT. Spatially coherent illumination and an off-axis reference beam is used to introduce path-length differences between reference and sample light in neighboring pixels. This spatial carrier frequency replaces the temporal carrier frequency in scanned TD-OCT. The setup is based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a super-luminescent diode and a CMOS area camera. The Sensitivity of the system was determined to be 75 dB. The field of view was 1.42 x 1.42 mm. Each frame had 237x237 lateral channels at an axial resolution of 9 µm in tissue. By step-wise changing the length of the reference arm between the en face scans, volumetric in vivo FF-OCT measurements of the human retina have been acquired within 1.3 s. OCT with a spatially coherent off-axis reference beam is suitable for in vivo imaging of human retina. The quality of the images is sufficient to discriminate the different tissue layers.

  6. Exploration and comparison of in vitro eye irritation tests with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit test for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of contact lenses. (United States)

    Yun, Jun-Won; Hailian, Quan; Na, Yirang; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Yoon, Jung-Hee; Cho, Eun-Young; Lee, Miri; Kim, Da-Eun; Bae, SeungJin; Seok, Seung Hyeok; Lim, Kyung-Min


    In an effort to explore the use of alternative methods to animal testing for the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of medical devices, we evaluated representative contact lenses with the bovine corneal opacity and permeability test (BCOP) and an in vitro eye irritation test using the three-dimensionally-reconstructed human corneal epithelium (RhCE) models, EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™. In addition, we compared the obtained results with the ISO standard in vivo rabbit eye irritation test (ISO10993-10). Along with the positive controls (benzalkonium chloride, BAK, 0.02, 0.2, and 1%), the extracts of 4 representative contact lenses (soft, disposable, hard, and colored lenses) and 2 reference lenses (dye-eluting and BAK-coated lenses) were tested. All the lenses, except for the BAK-coated lens, were determined non-irritants in all test methods, while the positive controls yielded relevant results. More importantly, BCOP, EpiOcular™, and MCTT HCE™ yielded a consistent decision for all the tested samples, with the exception of 0.2% BAK in BCOP, for which no prediction could be made. Overall, all the in vitro tests correlated well with the in vivo rabbit eye irritation test, and furthermore, the combination of in vitro tests as a tiered testing strategy was able to produce results similar to those seen in vivo. These observations suggest that such methods can be used as alternative assays to replace the conventional in vivo test method in the evaluation of the ocular irritancy of ophthalmic medical devices, although further study is necessary. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. NDE of additively manufactured components with embedded defects (reference standards) using conventional and advanced ultrasonic methods (United States)

    Koester, L.; Roberts, R. A.; Barnard, D. J.; Chakrapani, S.; Singh, S.; Hogan, R.; Bond, L. J.


    Additive manufacturing provides a unique opportunity to embed defects of known size and shape to produce reference samples for inspection and quality control purposes. This paper reports defect detectability studies with cylindrical additively manufactured cobalt-chromium alloy specimens which contain defects of known sizes and distributions. The specimens were characterized using immersion, synthetic aperture focusing (SAFT), phased array, and nonlinear ultrasonic techniques. Results include detectability, signal to noise ratios, and comparison of results between the methods and what is believed to be the first determination of a non-linearity (beta) parameter for an additively manufactured material. The results indicate that additive manufacturing provides a valuable method to produce reference samples, though additional work is required to validate the shape and morphology of the defects specified.

  8. Nickel replicas as calibration reference standards for industrial surface texture instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sammatini-Malberg, Maria-Pia

    The present report is a documentation of measurements carried out at DTU on Nickel replicas. The research is performed in the frame of the project with contract SMT4-CT97-2176 with title: Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Scale.......The present report is a documentation of measurements carried out at DTU on Nickel replicas. The research is performed in the frame of the project with contract SMT4-CT97-2176 with title: Calibration Standards for Surface Topography Measuring Systems down to Nanometric Scale....

  9. Crescimento infantil comparado com as referências NCHS e o padrão WHO/2006 Child growth compared with the NCHS reference and WHO/2006 standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Mouchrek Jaldin


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o crescimento de crianças em regime de aleitamento materno exclusivo até o sexto mês, bem como comparar seu peso e comprimento com a referência do National Center for Health Statistics 1978 e com o padrão da World Health Organization 2006. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo longitudinal realizado em um Banco de Leite Humano, na cidade de São Luís, Maranhão, entre outubro de 2007 e novembro de 2008. Foi feita amostragem não probabilística com 328 crianças nascidas a termo e submetidas a aleitamento materno exclusivo. Finalizaram o estudo 181 crianças. Avaliou-se o crescimento por meio de médias e desvio-padrão, comparando-se os resultados com aqueles dois parâmetros. RESULTADOS: Os meninos mostraram-se mais pesados que as meninas, do primeiro ao sexto mês (pOBJECTIVE: This study assessed the growth of exclusively breastfed infants until six months of age and compared their weight and length with those of the National Center for Health Statistics 1978 reference, and the World Health Organization standard 2006. METHODS: This was a longitudinal research done at the Human Milk Bank of São Luis, Maranhão, from October 2007 to November 2008. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 328 exclusively breastfed, full-term infants. A total of 181 infants concluded the study. Growth was assessed by means and standard deviation and the results were compared with those of the National Center for Health Statistics 1978 and World Health Organization 2006. RESULTS: Males weighed more than females from the first to the sixth month (p<0.05. The greatest weight gain occurred in the first two months of life for both sexes. The mean female weight was higher than that of the World Health Organization 2006 at birth and from the third to the sixth month (p<0.05; meanwhile, males were heavier from the fourth to the sixth month (p<0.05, but their weights were higher than those of the National Center for

  10. Standardization of allergen products: 2. Detailed characterization of GMP-produced recombinant Phl p 5.0109 as European Pharmacopoeia reference standard. (United States)

    Himly, M; Nandy, A; Kahlert, H; Thilker, M; Steiner, M; Briza, P; Neubauer, A; Klysner, S; van Ree, R; Buchheit, K-H; Vieths, S; Ferreira, F


    The Biological Standardization Programme of the European Directorate for Quality of Medicines and Healthcare (EDQM) aims at the establishment of well-characterized reference standards based on recombinant allergens and validated assays for the quantification of major allergen content. The objective of this study was to examine the detailed physicochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant Phl p 5.0109, the second available allergen reference standard. Recombinant Phl p 5.0109 PP5ar06007 was produced under GMP conditions and analyzed by an array of physicochemical and immunological methods for identity, quantity, homogeneity, and folding stability in bulk solution, as well as thermal denaturation, aggregation state, and biological activity when formulated for long-time storage. PP5ar06007 revealed as a highly homogeneous, monomeric, well-folded preparation of rPhl p 5.0109, as documented by mass spectrometry, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, size-exclusion chromatography with light scattering, circular dichroism, and infrared spectroscopy. Upon storage at +4°C, PP5ar06007 retained the monomeric state for at least 2 months. A protein quantity of 1.56 ± 0.03 mg/ml was determined by amino acid analysis in PP5ar06007, and its biological activity was shown to be comparable to natural Phl p 5 in terms of basophil activation and T-cell reactivity. Recombinant Phl p 5.0109 PP5ar06007 was characterized extensively at the physicochemical and immunological level. It revealed to be a highly stable, monomeric, and immunologically equivalent of its natural counterpart. PP5ar06007 is now available as European Pharmacopoeia allergen reference standard for grass pollen products. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 77 FR 71369 - Updates to Voluntary Consensus Standards Incorporated by Reference (United States)


    ...:// . At the top of that page, click the tab marked ``Regulatory.'' Then, in the line marked ``Incorporated By,'' use the drop-down menu to select ``Department of Homeland..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that...

  12. Standardized evaluation methodology and reference database for evaluating coronary artery centerline extraction algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schaap (Michiel); C.T. Metz (Coert); T.W. van Walsum (Theo); A.G. van der Giessen (Alina); A.C. Weustink (Annick); N.R.A. Mollet (Nico); C. Bauer (Christian); H. Bogunović (Hrvoje); C. Castro (Carlos); X. Deng (Xiang); E. Dikici (Engin); T. O'Donnell (Thomas); M. Frenay (Michel); O. Friman (Ola); M.H. Hoyos; P.H. Kitslaar (Pieter); K. Krissian (Karl); C. Kühnel (Caroline); M.A. Luengo-Oroz (Miguel); M. Orkisz (Maciej); O. Smedby; M. Styner (Martin); A. Szymczak (Andrzej); H. Tek (Hüseyin); C. Wang (Chunliang); S.K. Warfield (Simon); S. Zambal (Sebastian); Y. Zhang (Yong); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); W.J. Niessen (Wiro)


    textabstractEfficiently obtaining a reliable coronary artery centerline from computed tomography angiography data is relevant in clinical practice. Whereas numerous methods have been presented for this purpose, up to now no standardized evaluation methodology has been published to reliably evaluate

  13. Method development in quantitative NMR towards metrologically traceable organic certified reference materials used as (31)P qNMR standards. (United States)

    Weber, Michael; Hellriegel, Christine; Rueck, Alexander; Wuethrich, Juerg; Jenks, Peter; Obkircher, Markus


    Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy is employed by an increasing number of analytical and industrial laboratories for the assignment of content and quantitative determination of impurities. Within the last few years, it was demonstrated that (1)H qNMR can be performed with high accuracy leading to measurement uncertainties below 1 % relative. It was even demonstrated that the combination of (1)H qNMR with metrological weighing can lead to measurement uncertainties below 0.1 % when highly pure substances are used. Although qNMR reference standards are already available as certified reference materials (CRM) providing traceability on the basis of (1)H qNMR experiments, there is an increasing demand for purity assays on phosphorylated organic compounds and metabolites requiring CRM for quantification by (31)P qNMR. Unfortunately, the number of available primary phosphorus standards is limited to a few inorganic CRM which only can be used for the analysis of water-soluble analytes but fail when organic solvents must be employed. This paper presents the concept of value assignment by (31)P qNMR measurements for the development of CRM and describes different approaches to establish traceability to primary Standard Reference Material from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST SRM). Phosphonoacetic acid is analyzed as a water-soluble CRM candidate, whereas triphenyl phosphate is a good candidate for the use as qNMR reference material in organic solvents. These substances contain both nuclei, (1)H and (31)P, and the concept is to show that it is possible to indirectly quantify a potential phosphorus standard via its protons using (1)H qNMR. The same standard with its assigned purity can then be used for the quantification of an analyte via its phosphorus using (31)P qNMR. For the validation of the concept, triphenyl phosphate and phosphonoacetic acid have been used as (31)P qNMR standards to determine the purity of the analyte

  14. Standard guide for preparation of working reference materials for use in analysis of nuclear fuel cycle materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This guide covers the preparation and characterization of working reference materials (WRM) that are produced by a laboratory for its own use in the analysis of nuclear materials. Guidance is provided for establishing traceability of WRMs to certified reference materials by a defined characterization process. The guidance provided is generic; it is not specific for a given material. 1.2 The information provided by this guide is found in the following sections: Section Planning 6 Preparation 7 Packaging and Storage 8 Characterization 9 Statistical Analysis 10 Documentation 11 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  15. In vitro and in vivo modulation of cartilage degradation by a standardized Centella asiatica fraction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, A.; Smit, H.F.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Hoijer, M.A.; Garssen, J.


    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease in which focal cartilage destruction is one of the primary features. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of a Centella asiatica fraction on in vitro and in vivo cartilage degradation. Bovine cartilage explants and bovine chondrocytes

  16. Characterization of in vivo ablation zones following percutaneous microwave ablation of the liver with two commercially available devices: are manufacturer published reference values useful? (United States)

    Winokur, Ronald S; Du, Jerry Y; Pua, Bradley B; Talenfeld, Adam D; Sista, Akhilesh K; Schiffman, Marc A; Trost, David W; Madoff, David C


    To analyze in vivo ablation properties of microwave ablation antennae in tumor-bearing human livers by performing retrospective analysis of ablation zones following treatment with two microwave ablation systems. Percutaneous microwave ablations performed in the liver between February 2011 and February 2013 with use of the AMICA and Certus PR ablation antennae were included. Immediate postablation computed tomography images were evaluated retrospectively for ablation length, diameter, and volume. Ablation length, diameter, and volume indices were calculated and compared between in vivo results and references provided from each device manufacturer. The two microwave antenna models were then also compared versus each other. Twenty-five ablations were performed in 20 patients with the AMICA antenna, and 11 ablations were performed in eight patients with the Certus PR antenna. The AMICA and Certus PR antennae showed significant differences in ablation length (P = .013 and P = .009), diameter (P = .001 and P = .009), and volume (P = .003 and P = .009). The AMICA ablation indices were significantly higher than the Certus PR ablation indices in length (P = .026) and volume (P = .002), but there was no significant difference in ablation diameter indices (P = .110). In vivo ablation indices of human tumors are significantly smaller than reference ex vivo ablation indices, and there are significant differences in ablation indices and sphericity between devices. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Standard reference radiographs for steel castings up to 2 in. (50.8 mm) in thickness

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice describes accepted procedures for and factors that influence laboratory immersion corrosion tests, particularly mass loss tests. These factors include specimen preparation, apparatus, test conditions, methods of cleaning specimens, evaluation of results, and calculation and reporting of corrosion rates. This practice also emphasizes the importance of recording all pertinent data and provides a checklist for reporting test data. Other ASTM procedures for laboratory corrosion tests are tabulated in the Appendix. (Warning-In many cases the corrosion product on the reactive metals titanium and zirconium is a hard and tightly bonded oxide that defies removal by chemical or ordinary mechanical means. In many such cases, corrosion rates are established by mass gain rather than mass loss.) 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, assoc...

  18. Development of liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of phytosterols in Standard Reference Materials containing saw palmetto. (United States)

    Bedner, Mary; Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E


    Liquid chromatographic (LC) methods using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection were developed for the separation and analysis of the phytosterols campesterol, cycloartenol, lupenone, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Brassicasterol and cholesterol were also included for investigation as internal standards. The methods were used to identify and quantify the phytosterols in each of two Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Values obtained by LC-MS were compared to those obtained using the more traditional approach of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This is the first reported use of LC-MS to determine phytosterols in saw palmetto dietary supplement materials.

  19. In vivo persistent pigment darkening method: proposal of a new standard product for UVA protection factor determination. (United States)

    Moyal, D; Pissavini, M; Boyer, F; Perier, V; Frêlon, J H


    The European Commission (EC) has recommended assessing the level of ultraviolet A (UVA) protection afforded by sunscreen products using the in vivo persistent pigment darkening (PPD) method or other methods giving equivalent results. In this context, the reproducibility of the in vivo PPD method is of importance. To check the validity of the UVA protection factor (UVAPF) tests, the Japanese Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) recommends using a standard product (JCIA standard) with an expected UVAPF 3.75 (SD 1.01). However, considering the increase in UVA efficacy of the new sunscreen products available in the market, with UVAPF up to 30, it seemed useful to develop a new standard product to be used when testing products with expected UVAPF > or =10. The PPD method was used in six centres to determine the UVAPF of the two products. Reproducibility of results was also studied by testing two batches of the new product at two different times. There was no statistical difference between the six centres with regard to the JCIA standard. The ring study showed that the mean value of UVAPF (4.3) was higher than that given by JCIA (3.75). These data enable the proposal of a new acceptance range for the JCIA standard product (3.4-5.2) derived from actual results from European laboratories. Whereas this range is different from that proposed by JCIA (2.74-4.76), there is an overlapping of the values. Data on the new standard product show that reproducibility is not influenced by the batches of this product. The mean UVAPF value obtained is 12.1. An acceptance range (9.6-14.6) is proposed for the new standard. Data presented here demonstrate that if an identical protocol is used, reproducible results can be expected and that the PPD method is reproducible and reliable.

  20. The effect of standard and transepithelial ultraviolet collagen cross-linking on human corneal nerves: an ex vivo study. (United States)

    Al-Aqaba, Mouhamed; Calienno, Roberta; Fares, Usama; Otri, Ahmad Muneer; Mastropasqua, Leonardo; Nubile, Mario; Dua, Harminder S


    To evaluate the early effect of standard and transepithelial collagen cross-linking on human corneal nerves in donor eyes by ex vivo confocal microscopy and acetylcholinesterase staining. Experimental laboratory investigation. Eight human eye bank corneal buttons (mean age, 73.6 years) were included. Ultraviolet A collagen cross-linking was performed postmortem on 3 corneas with the standard protocol involving epithelial debridement and 4 corneas by the transepithelial approach. One cornea served as a control. Corneal nerves were evaluated using confocal microscopy and acetylcholinesterase histology. Confocal microscopy demonstrated the absence of subbasal nerves in corneas treated by the standard technique. These nerves were preserved in corneas treated by the transepithelial approach. Stromal nerves were visible in both groups. Histology of corneas treated by the standard technique revealed localized swellings of the stromal nerves with disruption of axonal membrane and loss of axonal continuity within the treatment zone. These changes were absent in corneas treated by the transepithelial approach. This study highlights the immediate effects of collagen cross-linking on the corneal nerves in an ex vivo model. The absence of subbasal nerves in the early phase of treatment appears to be attributable mainly to mechanical removal of epithelium, rather than ultraviolet light-induced damage. Localized swelling of the stromal nerves was the main difference between the 2 treatment protocols. Further research on laboratory animals would be necessary to verify these changes over a specified time course without the super-addition of postmortem changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal quantitative sensory testing in healthy Dutch children and adolescents standardized test paradigm and Dutch reference values. (United States)

    van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; van Dijk, Monique; Tibboel, Dick; Valkenburg, Abraham J


    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is often used to measure children's and adults' detection- and pain thresholds in a quantitative manner. In children especially the Thermal Sensory Analyzer (TSA-II) is often applied to determine thermal detection and pain thresholds. As comparisons between studies are hampered by the different testing protocols used, we aimed to present a standard protocol and reference values for thermal detection- and pain thresholds in children. Our standard testing protocol includes reaction time dependent and independent tests and takes about 14-18 min to complete. Reference values were obtained from a sample of 69 healthy term born children and adolescents with a median age of 11.2 years (range 8.2 to 17.9 years old). Seventy-one children were recruited and data of 28 males and 41 females was obtained correctly. We studied possible age and sex differences. This study provides Dutch reference values and presents a standard quantitative sensory testing protocol for children with an age from 8 years onwards. This protocol appeared to be feasible, since only two out of 71 participants were not able to correctly complete the protocol due to attention deficits and were therefore excluded. We found some significant age and sex differences: females were statistically significantly more sensitive for both cold and heat pain compared to males, and the youngest children (8-9 years old) were less sensitive to detect a warm stimulus. The youngest children tend to be more sensitive to heat pain in comparison to older participants, although the difference was not statistically significant. We present a feasible thermal quantitative sensory testing protocol for children and reference values that are easy to interpret and may serve as normative values for future studies.

  2. Development of a standard reference material containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbon gases at 1 μmol/mol in nitrogen. (United States)

    Li, Ning; Du, Jian; Yang, Jing; Fan, Qiang; Tian, Wen


    A gas standard mixture containing 22 chlorinated hydrocarbons in high purity nitrogen was prepared using a two-step weighing method and a gasifying apparatus developed in-house. The concentration of each component was determined using a gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection (GC/FID). Linear regression analysis of every component was performed using the gas standard mixture with concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 μmol/mol, showing the complete gasification of volatile organic compound (VOCs) species in a selected cylinder. Repeatability was also examined to ensure the reliability of the preparation method. In addition, no significant difference was observed between domestic treated and imported treated cylinders, which were conducive to reduction of the cost of raw materials. Moreover, the results of stability testing at different pressures and long-term stability tests indicated that the gas standard at 1 μmol/mol level with relative expanded uncertainties of 5% was stable above 2 MPa for a minimum of 12 months. Finally, a quantity comparison was conducted between the gas standard and a commercial gas standard from Scott Specialty Gases (now Air Liquide America Specialty Gases). The excellent agreement of every species suggested the favorable accuracy of our gas standard. Therefore, this reference material can be applied to routine observation of VOCs and for other purposes.

  3. Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis (United States)

    McMahon, T. A.; Peel, M. C.; Lowe, L.; Srikanthan, R.; McVicar, T. R.


    This guide to estimating daily and monthly actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation covers topics that are of interest to researchers, consulting hydrologists and practicing engineers. Topics include estimating actual evaporation from deep lakes and from farm dams and for catchment water balance studies, estimating potential evaporation as input to rainfall-runoff models, and reference crop evapotranspiration for small irrigation areas, and for irrigation within large irrigation districts. Inspiration for this guide arose in response to the authors' experiences in reviewing research papers and consulting reports where estimation of the actual evaporation component in catchment and water balance studies was often inadequately handled. Practical guides using consistent terminology that cover both theory and practice are not readily available. Here we provide such a guide, which is divided into three parts. The first part provides background theory and an outline of the conceptual models of potential evaporation of Penman, Penman-Monteith and Priestley-Taylor, as well as discussions of reference crop evapotranspiration and Class-A pan evaporation. The last two sub-sections in this first part include techniques to estimate actual evaporation from (i) open-surface water and (ii) landscapes and catchments (Morton and the advection-aridity models). The second part addresses topics confronting a practicing hydrologist, e.g. estimating actual evaporation for deep lakes, shallow lakes and farm dams, lakes covered with vegetation, catchments, irrigation areas and bare soil. The third part addresses six related issues: (i) automatic (hard wired) calculation of evaporation estimates in commercial weather stations, (ii) evaporation estimates without wind data, (iii) at-site meteorological data, (iv) dealing with evaporation in a climate change environment, (v) 24 h versus day-light hour estimation of meteorological variables, and (vi) uncertainty in evaporation

  4. Estimating actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation using standard meteorological data: a pragmatic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. McMahon


    Full Text Available This guide to estimating daily and monthly actual, potential, reference crop and pan evaporation covers topics that are of interest to researchers, consulting hydrologists and practicing engineers. Topics include estimating actual evaporation from deep lakes and from farm dams and for catchment water balance studies, estimating potential evaporation as input to rainfall-runoff models, and reference crop evapotranspiration for small irrigation areas, and for irrigation within large irrigation districts. Inspiration for this guide arose in response to the authors' experiences in reviewing research papers and consulting reports where estimation of the actual evaporation component in catchment and water balance studies was often inadequately handled. Practical guides using consistent terminology that cover both theory and practice are not readily available. Here we provide such a guide, which is divided into three parts. The first part provides background theory and an outline of the conceptual models of potential evaporation of Penman, Penman–Monteith and Priestley–Taylor, as well as discussions of reference crop evapotranspiration and Class-A pan evaporation. The last two sub-sections in this first part include techniques to estimate actual evaporation from (i open-surface water and (ii landscapes and catchments (Morton and the advection-aridity models. The second part addresses topics confronting a practicing hydrologist, e.g. estimating actual evaporation for deep lakes, shallow lakes and farm dams, lakes covered with vegetation, catchments, irrigation areas and bare soil. The third part addresses six related issues: (i automatic (hard wired calculation of evaporation estimates in commercial weather stations, (ii evaporation estimates without wind data, (iii at-site meteorological data, (iv dealing with evaporation in a climate change environment, (v 24 h versus day-light hour estimation of meteorological variables, and (vi uncertainty in

  5. A comparison between Geant4 PIXE simulations and experimental data for standard reference samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Z., E-mail: [Université Saint Joseph, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); The Open University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Sciences, Walton Hall, MK7 6AA Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); El Bast, M. [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon); El Haddad, R. [Université Saint Joseph, Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Beirut (Lebanon); Mantero, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Incerti, S. [Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CENBG, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Ivanchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, Moscow State University, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Geant4 Associates International Ltd., Hebden Bridge (United Kingdom); El Bitar, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS/IN2P3, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Champion, C. [Université Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, CENBG, Chemin du Solarium, 33175 Gradignan (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas-UNICAMP, SP 13083-859 (Brazil); Roumie, M. [Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, Beirut (Lebanon)


    The Geant4 PIXE de-excitation processes are used to simulate proton beam interactions with sample materials of known composition. Simulations involve four mono-elemental materials; Cu, Fe, Si and Al and three relatively complex materials: stainless steel, phosphor bronze and basal BE-N reference material composed of 25 different elements. The simulation results are compared to experimental spectra acquired for real samples analyzed using 3 MeV incident protons delivered by an ion tandem accelerator. Data acquisition was performed using a Si(Li) detector and an aluminum funny filter was added for the three last mentioned samples depending on the configuration to reduce the noise and obtain clear resulting spectrum. The results show a good agreement between simulations and measurements for the different samples.

  6. Evaluation of antiphospholipid antibody assays using latent class analysis to address the lack of a reference standard. (United States)

    Thaler, Markus A; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Yin, Meng-Xin; Steigerwald, Udo; Holmes, Andrew B; Lindhoff-Last, Edelgard; Luppa, Peter B


    Method evaluation of new assays for the detection of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) such as anti-cardiolipin (aCL) or anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2-GPI) is challenging, as no internationally accepted reference material is available yet. Besides a lack of standardization, unacceptable inter-laboratory comparability of established tests is regularly observed. Owing to the absence of a commonly accepted reference standard, the evaluation of two research surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor assays was performed using statistical methods from latent class analysis (LCA). aCL and aβ2-GPI IgG and IgM were measured in sera from 63 antiphospholipid syndrome patients, fulfilling the Sydney criteria, and in 34 healthy controls with four commercial assays. LCA was performed on the results and sera were assigned to the antibody-positive or antibody-negative group. Sera were subsequently evaluated in the SPR assays for aCL and aβ2-GPI. Optimal cutoffs and diagnostic performances of the research systems were established employing the LCA-derived gold standard. With area under the curve results of 0.96 and 0.89 for the detection of aCL and aβ2-GPI, the research SPR assays discriminated well between antibody-positive and antibody-negative sera. Their sensitivities and specificities were comparable to the investigated commercial immunoassays. SPR assays are a suitable tool for the detection of aCL and aβ2-GPI with diagnostic performances not different from currently available commercial tests. LCA enabled the calculation of sensitivities and specificities for aPL assays in absence of a reference standard.

  7. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kverneland, Anders H.; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward


    Flow cytometry is now accepted as an ideal technology to reveal changes in immune cell composition and function. However, it is also an error-prone and variable technology, which makes it difficult to reproduce findings across laboratories. We have recently developed a strategy to standardize whole...... and absolute numbers of >50 leucocyte subsets. Indeed, analysis of the first cohort revealed significant age-dependent changes in subsets e.g. increased activated and differentiated CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, acquisition of a memory phenotype for Tregs as well as decreased MDC2 and Marginal Zone B cells...

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Multiple Sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin Herbal Medicines and Related Products with One Single Reference Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Wang


    Full Text Available Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo, isozedoarondiol (Isoz, aerugidiol (Aeru, (4S,5S-(+-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox, curcumenone (Curc, neocurdione (Neoc, germacrone (Germ and furanodiene (Fura. Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131–1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S-(+-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available.

  9. Simultaneous determination of multiple sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products with one single reference standard. (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Jing; An, Yue-Wei; Hu, Guang; Yin, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min


    Some Curcuma species are widely used as herbal medicines. Sesquiterpenes are their important bioactive compounds and their quantitative analysis is generally accomplished by gas chromatography (GC) or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but the instability and high cost of some sesquiterpene reference standards have limited their application. It is necessary to find a practicable means to control the quality of herbal medicines. Using one stable component contained in Curcuma species to determine multiple analogues should be a practical option. In this study, a simple HPLC method for determination of sesquiterpenes using relative response factors (RRFs) has been developed. The easily available and stable active component curdione was selected as the reference compound for calculating the RRFs of the other eight sesquiterpenes, including zedoarondiol (Zedo), isozedoarondiol (Isoz), aerugidiol (Aeru), (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide (Epox), curcumenone (Curc), neocurdione (Neoc), germacrone (Germ) and furanodiene (Fura). Their RRFs against curdione were between 0.131-1.301, with a good reproducibility. By using the RRFs, the quantification of sesquiterpenes in Curcuma wenyujin herbal medicines and related products was carried out. The method is especially useful for the determination of (4S,5S)-(+)-germacrone-4,5-epoxide, curcumenone, germacrone and furanodiene, which often are regarded as the principle components in Curcuma species, but unstable when were purified. It is an ideal means to analyze the components for which reference standards are not readily available.

  10. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard (United States)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim


    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device.

  11. Reference control data obtained from an in vivo comet-micronucleus combination assay using Sprague Dawley rats. (United States)

    Kasamoto, Sawako; Masumori, Shoji; Tanaka, Jin; Ueda, Maya; Fukumuro, Masahito; Nagai, Miho; Yamate, Jyoji; Hayashi, Makoto


    According to the International Conference on Harmonization Guidance on Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for Pharmaceuticals Intended for Human Use (ICH S2(R1)), a positive response in any in vitro assay necessitates additional in vivo test(s) (other tissue/endpoint) in addition to the erythrocyte micronucleus test when Option 1 of the test battery is selected. When Option 2 of the test battery is selected, a bacterial gene mutation test and two in vivo tests with different tissues/endpoint are required. The in vivo alkaline comet assay is recommended as the second in vivo test because it can detect a broad spectrum of DNA damage in any tissue and can be combined with the erythrocyte micronucleus test. Considering animal welfare, a combination assay is preferable to an individual assay. Thus, we validated the protocol for the in vivo comet-micronucleus combination assay in rats with three daily administrations and determined the dose of the positive control (ethyl methanesulfonate; EMS, 200mg/kg/day). We also collected the negative control (vehicle) and positive control (EMS) data from the comet (liver, stomach, and kidney) and micronucleus (bone marrow) combination assay using male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The negative control data were comparable to our historical control data obtained from stand-alone assays. The positive control data showed clear and consistent positive responses in both endpoints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. An evaluation of the discriminating power of an Integrated Ballistics Identification System® Heritage™system with the NIST standard cartridge case (Standard Reference Material 2461). (United States)

    Morris, Keith B; Law, Eric F; Jefferys, Roger L; Dearth, Elizabeth C; Fabyanic, Emily B


    Through analysis and comparison of firing pin, breech face, and ejector impressions, where appropriate, firearm examiners may connect a cartridge case to a suspect firearm with a certain likelihood in a criminal investigation. When a firearm is not present, an examiner may use the Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS®), an automated search and retrieval system coupled with the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN), a database of images showing the markings on fired cartridge cases and bullets from crime scenes along with test fired firearms. For the purpose of measurement quality control of these IBIS® systems the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated the Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460/2461 standard bullets and cartridge cases project. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall performance of the IBIS® system by using NIST standard cartridge cases. By evaluating the resulting correlation scores, error rates, and percent recovery, both the variability between and within examiners when using IBIS®, in addition to any inter- and intra-variability between SRM cartridge cases was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of five genetically modified rice events using a single standard reference molecule. (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Park, Saet-Byul; Roh, Hyo-Jeong; Shin, Min-Ki; Moon, Gui-Im; Hong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Yeong


    One novel standard reference plasmid, namely pUC-RICE5, was constructed as a positive control and calibrator for event-specific qualitative and quantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) rice (Bt63, Kemingdao1, Kefeng6, Kefeng8, and LLRice62). pUC-RICE5 contained fragments of a rice-specific endogenous reference gene (sucrose phosphate synthase) as well as the five GM rice events. An existing qualitative PCR assay approach was modified using pUC-RICE5 to create a quantitative method with limits of detection correlating to approximately 1-10 copies of rice haploid genomes. In this quantitative PCR assay, the square regression coefficients ranged from 0.993 to 1.000. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation values for repeatability ranged from 0.02 to 0.22 and 0.10% to 0.67%, respectively. The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (Korea) validated the method and the results suggest it could be used routinely to identify five GM rice events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct Comparison of the Histidine-rich Protein-2 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and Malaria SYBR Green I Fluorescence (MSF) Drug Sensitivity Tests in Plasmodium falciparum Reference Clones and Fresh ex vivo Field Isolates from Cambodia (United States)


    fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia Suwanna...assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference... Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia Suwanna Chaorattanakawee 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. Development of a Reference Standard Library of Chloroplast Genome Sequences, GenomeTrakrCP. (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Ramachandran, Padmini; Wen, Jun; Duke, James A; Metzman, Helen; McLaughlin, William; Ottesen, Andrea R; Timme, Ruth E; Handy, Sara M


    Precise, species-level identification of plants in foods and dietary supplements is difficult. While the use of DNA barcoding regions (short regions of DNA with diagnostic utility) has been effective for many inquiries, it is not always a robust approach for closely related species, especially in highly processed products. The use of fully sequenced chloroplast genomes, as an alternative to short diagnostic barcoding regions, has demonstrated utility for closely related species. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also developed species-specific DNA-based assays targeting plant species of interest by utilizing chloroplast genome sequences. Here, we introduce a repository of complete chloroplast genome sequences called GenomeTrakrCP, which will be publicly available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Target species for inclusion are plants found in foods and dietary supplements, toxin producers, common contaminants and adulterants, and their close relatives. Publicly available data will include annotated assemblies, raw sequencing data, and voucher information with each NCBI accession associated with an authenticated reference herbarium specimen. To date, 40 complete chloroplast genomes have been deposited in GenomeTrakrCP (, and this will be expanded in the future. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Mercury Trapped Ion Frequency Standard for Ultra-Stable Reference Applications (United States)

    Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Hamell, Robert L. (Inventor); Tucker, Blake C. (Inventor); Larsen, Kameron (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor)


    An atomic clock including an ion trap assembly, a C-field coil positioned for generating a first magnetic field in the interrogation region of the ion trap assembly, a compensation coil positioned for generating a second magnetic field in the interrogation region, wherein the combination of the first and second magnetic fields produces an ion number-dependent second order Zeeman shift (Zeeman shift) in the resonance frequency that is opposite in sign to an ion number-dependent second order Doppler shift (Doppler shift) in the resonance frequency, the C-field coil has a radius selected using data indicating how changes in the radius affect an ion-number-dependent shift in the resonance frequency, such that a difference in magnitude between the Doppler shift and the Zeeman shift is controlled or reduced, and the resonance frequency, including the adjustment by the Zeeman shift, is used to obtain the frequency standard.

  17. Preparation and value assignment of standard reference material 968e fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum. (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanice B; Duewer, David L; Mugenya, Isaac O; Phinney, Karen W; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Tai, Susan S; Welch, Michael J; Yen, James H


    Standard Reference Material 968e Fat-Soluble Vitamins, Carotenoids, and Cholesterol in Human Serum provides certified values for total retinol, γ- and α-tocopherol, total lutein, total zeaxanthin, total β-cryptoxanthin, total β-carotene, 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3), and cholesterol. Reference and information values are also reported for nine additional compounds including total α-cryptoxanthin, trans- and total lycopene, total α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and coenzyme Q(10). The certified values for the fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in SRM 968e were based on the agreement of results from the means of two liquid chromatographic methods used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from the median of results of an interlaboratory comparison exercise among institutions that participate in the NIST Micronutrients Measurement Quality Assurance Program. The assigned values for cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the SRM are the means of results obtained using the NIST reference method based upon gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. SRM 968e is currently one of two available health-related NIST reference materials with concentration values assigned for selected fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum matrix. This SRM is used extensively by laboratories worldwide primarily to validate methods for determining these analytes in human serum and plasma and for assigning values to in-house control materials. The value assignment of the analytes in this SRM will help support measurement accuracy and traceability for laboratories performing health-related measurements in the clinical and nutritional communities.

  18. Occupational hazard: radiation exposure for the urologist: developing a reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Seth A.; Rangarajan, Sriram S.; Chen, Tony; Palazzi, Kerrin L.; Langford, J. Scott; Sur, Roger L., E-mail: [Department of Surgery and Division of Urology, U C San Diego Health Science System, San Diego, CA (United States)


    Introduction: to date, there is a paucity of literature offering practicing urologists a reference for the amount of radiation exposure received while surgically managing urolithiasis. This study examines the cumulative radiation exposure of an urologist over 9 months. Materials and methods: We present a case series of fluoroscopic exposures of an experienced stone surgeon operating at an academic comprehensive stone center between April and December 2011. Radiation exposure measurements were determined by a thermoluminescent dosimeter worn on the outside of the surgeon's thyroid shield. Estimations of radiation exposure (mrem) per month were charted with fluoroscopy times, using scatter plots to estimate Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results: the total 9-month radiation exposure was 87 mrems for deep dose equivalent (DDE), 293 mrem for lens dose equivalent (LDE), and 282 mrem for shallow dose equivalent (SDE). Total fluoroscopy time was 252.44 minutes for 64 ureteroscopies (URSs), 29 percutaneous nephrolithtomies (PNLs), 20 cystoscopies with ureteral stent placements, 9 shock wave ithotripsies (SWLs), 9 retrograde pyelograms (RPGs), 2 endoureterotomies, and 1 ureteral balloon dilation. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients examining the association between fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were not significant for DDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), LDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2), or SDE (p = 0.6, Spearman's rho = 0.2). Conclusions: Over a 9-month period, total radiation exposures were well below annual accepted limits (DDE 5000 mrem, LDE 15,000 mrem and SDE 50,000 mrem). Although fluoroscopy time did not correlate with radiation exposure, future prospective studies can account for co-variates such as patient obesity and urologist distance from radiation source. (author)

  19. [Personalizing the reference level: gold standard to evaluate the quality of service perceived]. (United States)

    Rodrigo-Rincón, I; Reyes-Pérez, M; Martínez-Lozano, M E


    To know the cutoff point at which in-house Nuclear Medicine Department (MND) customers consider that the quality of service is good (personalized cutoff). We conducted a survey of the professionals who had requested at least 5 tests to the Nuclear Medicine Department. A total of 71 doctors responded (response rate: 30%). A question was added to the questionnaire for the user to establish a cutoff point for which they would consider the quality of service as good. The quality non-conformities, areas of improvement and strong points of the six questions measuring the quality of service (Likert scale 0 to 10) were compared with two different thresholds: personalized cutoff and one proposed by the service itself a priori. Test statistics: binomial and Student's t-test for paired data. A cutoff value of 7 was proposed by the service as a reference while 68.1% of respondents suggested a cutoff above 7 points (mean 7.9 points). The 6 elements of perceived quality were considered strong points with the cutoff proposed by the MND, while there were 3 detected with the personalized threshold. Thirteen percent of the answers were nonconformities with the service cutoff versus 19.2% with the personalized one, the differences being statistically significant (difference 95% CI 6.44%:0,83-12.06). The final image of the perceived quality of an in-house customer is different when using the cutoff established by the Department versus the personalized cutoff given by the respondent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Bitter Orange alkaloids in dietary supplements standard reference materials by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sander, Lane C


    Four adrenergic amines [synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, and n-methyltyramine] were determined in a variety of Bitter Orange containing dietary supplements. Two extraction techniques were evaluated in detail: Soxhlet extraction and sonication extraction. A liquid chromatographic separation using a reversed-phase C(18) stationary phase and the ion-pairing reagent sodium dodecyl sulfate was developed to separate the Bitter Orange alkaloids. Ultraviolet absorbance detection at 220 nm and fluorescence detection with excitation at 273 nm and emission at 304 nm were used for the alkaloid detection. The method described was used for the assignment of the levels of the predominant alkaloids in three candidate standard reference materials containing Bitter Orange.

  1. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia. (United States)

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Tyner, Stuart D; Lon, Chanthap; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Ruttvisutinunt, Wiriya; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Sai-gnam, Piyaporn; Johnson, Jacob D; Walsh, Douglas S; Saunders, David L; Lanteri, Charlotte A


    Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of "immediate ex vivo" (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson's correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r = 0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the MSF assay, when evaluating ex

  2. The role of OIE aquatic standards and OIE Reference Laboratories in aquatic animal disease prevention and control. (United States)

    Bernoth, E M


    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) develops normative documents relating to rules that Member Countries and Territories can use to protect themselves from diseases without setting up unjustified sanitary barriers. For aquatic animal disease, the Aquatic Animal Health Code and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals are prepared by the Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission, with the assistance of internationally renowned experts, the other Specialist Commissions of the OIE, and in consultation with OIE Members. The role of these standards in aquatic animal disease prevention and control is described in detail. There are currently 27 OIE Reference Laboratories and one Collaborating Centre for aquatic animal diseases, providing a network of expertise in aquatic animal health. These laboratories play a key role in aquatic animal disease prevention and control through providing diagnostic services and expert advice that is particularly useful in emergency situations.

  3. In vivo synthesized 34S enriched amino acid standards for species specific isotope dilution of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Gerrit; Moller, Laura Hyrup; Gammelgaard, Bente


    in yeast fermentations provided species specific isotopically enriched standards for IDA quantification of cysteine and methionine in the oxidized forms, methionine sulfone and cysteic acid. Reverse isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) characterization by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry...

  4. Mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive for fetal membrane repair: a standardized ex vivo evaluation using elastomeric membranes. (United States)

    Haller, C M; Buerzle, W; Brubaker, C E; Messersmith, P B; Mazza, E; Ochsenbein-Koelble, N; Zimmermann, R; Ehrbar, M


    Iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes (iPPROM), the main complication of invasive interventions in the prenatal period, seriously limits the benefit of diagnostic or surgical prenatal procedures. This study aimed to evaluate preventive plugging of punctured fetal membranes in an ex vivo situation using a new mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive (mussel glue) to inhibit leakage. A novel biomechanical test device that tests the closure of injured membranes under near-physiological conditions was used. Mussel glue, a poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel, was used to seal membrane defects of up to 3 mm in mechanically well-defined elastomeric membranes with three different degrees of stiffness. Elastomeric test membranes were successfully employed for testing mussel glue under well-defined conditions. Mussel glue plugs were distended by up to 94%, which translated to an improved sealing efficiency on elastomeric membranes with high stiffness. For the stiffest membrane tested, a critical burst pressure of 48 mbar (36 mmHg) was accomplished in this ex vivo setting. Mussel glue appears to efficiently seal membrane defects under well-standardized ex vivo conditions. As repaired membranes resist pressures measured in amniotic cavities, mussel glue might represent a novel sealing method for iatrogenic membrane defects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Successful isolation and PCR amplification of DNA from National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) herbal dietary supplement standard reference material powders and extracts (United States)

    Cimino, Matthew T.


    Twenty-four herbal dietary supplement powder and extract reference standards provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were investigated using three different commercially available DNA extraction kits to evaluate DNA availability for downstream nucleotide-based applications. The material included samples of Camellia, Citrus, Ephedra, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Serenoa, and Vaccinium. Protocols from Qiagen, MoBio, and Phytopure were used to isolate and purify DNA from the NIST standards. The resulting DNA concentration was quantified using SYBR Green fluorometry. Each of the twenty-four samples yielded DNA, though the concentration of DNA from each approach was notably different. The Phytopure method consistently yielded more DNA. The average yield ratio was 22:3:1 (ng/μL; Phytopure:Qiagen:MoBio). Amplification of the Internal Transcribed Spacer II region using PCR was ultimately successful in twenty-two of the twenty-four samples. Direct sequencing chromatograms of the amplified material suggested most of the samples were comprised of mixtures. However, the sequencing chromatograms of twelve of the twenty-four samples were sufficient to confirm the identity of the target material. The successful extraction, amplification, and sequencing of DNA from these herbal dietary supplement extracts and powders supports a continued effort to explore nucleotide sequence-based tools for the authentication and identification of plants in dietary supplements. PMID:19844865

  6. Standard practice for fabrication and control of metal, other than aluminum, reference blocks used in ultrasonic testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for fabrication and control of metal alloy reference blocks used in ultrasonic examination that have a flat-surface sound entry, are cylindrical in shape, and contain flat-bottom holes (FBH) which may be used for checking the performance of ultrasonic examination instrumentation and search units and for standardization and control of ultrasonic examination of metal alloy products. The reference blocks described are suitable for use with either the direct-contact method or immersion pulse-echo ultrasonic methods. Note 1—Use of flat-surface reference blocks may not be suitable for cylindrical materials (3) . 1.2 While this procedure is basically designed for the fabrication and control of carbon and alloy steel blocks to be used in conjunction with the examination of these materials, the fabrication and control procedures may also be suitable for the preparation of blocks for other types of materials such as nickel-base alloys, certain types of aluminum alloys, and so fo...

  7. Standardization of skin cleansing in vivo: part I. Development of an Automated Cleansing Device (ACiD). (United States)

    Sonsmann, F K; Strunk, M; Gediga, K; John, C; Schliemann, S; Seyfarth, F; Elsner, P; Diepgen, T L; Kutz, G; John, S M


    To date, there are no legally binding requirements concerning product testing in cosmetics. This leads to various manufacturer-specific test methods and absent transparent information on skin cleansing products. A standardized in vivo test procedure for assessment of cleansing efficacy and corresponding barrier impairment by the cleaning process is needed, especially in the occupational context where repeated hand washing procedures may be performed at short intervals. For the standardization of the cleansing procedure, an Automated Cleansing Device (ACiD) was designed and evaluated. Different smooth washing surfaces of the equipment for ACiD (incl. goat hair, felt, felt covered with nitrile caps) were evaluated regarding their skin compatibility. ACiD allows an automated, fully standardized skin washing procedure. Felt covered with nitrile as washing surface of the rotating washing units leads to a homogenous cleansing result and does not cause detectable skin irritation, neither clinically nor as assessed by skin bioengineering methods (transepidermal water loss, chromametry). Automated Cleansing Device may be useful for standardized evaluation of the cleansing effectiveness and parallel assessment of the corresponding irritancy potential of industrial skin cleansers. This will allow objectifying efficacy and safety of industrial skin cleansers, thus enabling market transparency and facilitating rational choice of products. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A simple strategy for implementing standard reference terminologies in a distributed healthcare delivery system with minimal impact to existing applications. (United States)

    Bouhaddou, Omar; Lincoln, Michael J; Maulden, Sarah; Murphy, Holli; Warnekar, Pradnya; Nguyen, Viet; Lam, Siew; Brown, Steven H; Frankson, Ferdinand J; Crandall, Glen; Hughes, Carla; Sigley, Roger; Insley, Marcia; Graham, Gail


    The Veterans Administration (VA) has adopted an ambitious program to standardize its clinical terminology to comply with industry-wide standards. The VA is using commercially available tools and in-house software to create a high-quality reference terminology system. The terminology will be used by current and future applications with no planned disruption to operational systems. The first large customer of the group is the national VA Health Data Repository (HDR). Unique enterprise identifiers are assigned to each standard term, and a rich network of semantic relationships makes the resulting data not only recognizable, but highly computable and reusable in a variety of applications, including decision support and data sharing with partners such as the Department of Defense (DoD). This paper describes the specific methods and approaches that the VA has employed to develop and implement this innovative program in existing information system. The goal is to share with others our experience with key issues that face our industry as we move toward an electronic health record for every individual.

  9. Determination of non-certified levoglucosan, sugar polyols and ergosterol in NIST Standard Reference Material 1649a (United States)

    Pomata, Donatella; Di Filippo, Patrizia; Riccardi, Carmela; Buiarelli, Francesca; Gallo, Valentina


    Organic component of airborne particulate matter originates from both natural and anthropogenic sources whose contributions can be identified through the analysis of chemical markers. The validation of analytical methods for analysis of compounds used as chemical markers is of great importance especially if they must be determined in rather complex matrices. Currently, standard reference materials (SRM) with certified values for all those analytes are not available. In this paper, we report a method for the simultaneous determination of levoglucosan and xylitol as tracers for biomass burning emissions, and arabitol, mannitol and ergosterol as biomarkers for airborne fungi in SRM 1649a, by GC/MS. Their quantitative analysis in SRM 1649a was carried out using both internal standard calibration curves and standard addition method. A matrix effect was observed for all analytes, minor for levoglucosan and major for polyols and ergosterol. The results related to levoglucosan around 160 μg g-1 agreed with those reported by other authors, while no comparison was possible for xylitol (120 μg g-1), arabitol (15 μg g-1), mannitol (18 μg g-1), and ergosterol (0.5 μg g-1). The analytical method used for SRM 1649a was also applied to PM10 samples collected in Rome during four seasonal sampling campaigns. The ratios between annual analyte concentrations in PM10 samples and in SRM 1649a were of the same order of magnitude although particulate matter samples analyzed were collected in two different sites and periods.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the synthesis of neural network aiming and stabilization system for the special equipment of moving objects with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model and performance comparison of the neural network system with the neural network predictive control. Build a block diagram of the neural network aiming and stabilization system, based on the subject control principle with PD-regulator in the position loop and with neuro-controller on the basis of standard model in the in the velocity loop. The neuro-controller on the basis of standard model Model Reference Controller is synthesized in the MATLAB Neural Network Toolbox and system simulation is performed. The studies show that the transient state variables of the system are oscillatory. Therefore, the neuro-controller with the prediction NN Predictive Controller should be used for aiming and stabilizing system to provide high dynamic characteristics achieved at the cost of higher complexity and computational cost.

  11. Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E


    A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384.

  12. Development and characterization of a human antibody reference panel against erythropoietin suitable for the standardization of ESA immunogenicity testing. (United States)

    Mytych, Daniel T; Barger, Troy E; King, Chadwick; Grauer, Stephanie; Haldankar, Raj; Hsu, Eric; Wu, Michelle Min; Shiwalkar, Mukta; Sanchez, Sergio; Kuck, Andrew; Civoli, Francesca; Sun, Jilin; Swanson, Steven J


    Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) has been used therapeutically for more than two decades in the treatment of anemia. Although EPO is generally well tolerated, in rare cases, patients have developed anti-EPO antibodies that can negatively impact safety and efficacy. Therefore, the detection of antibodies against EPO is a regulatory requirement during clinical development and post-approval. Although it is a rare phenomenon, antibody-mediated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a serious complication than can result from antibodies that develop and neutralize EPO as well as endogenous erythropoietin. Currently, there are no universally accepted analytical methods to detect the full repertoire of binding and neutralizing anti-EPO antibodies. A number of different methods that differ in terms of antibodies detected and assay sensitivities are used by different manufacturers. There is also a lack of antibody reference reagents, and therefore no consistent basis for detecting and measuring anti-EPO antibodies. Reference reagents, with established ranges, are essential to monitor the safety and efficacy of all erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) structurally related to human erythropoietin. This is the first report of the development and characterization of a panel of fully human antibodies against EPO suitable as reference reagents. The characteristics of antibodies within the panel were selected based on the prevalence of non-neutralizing IgG and IgM antibodies in non-PRCA patients and neutralizing IgG antibodies, including IgG1 and IgG4, in antibody-mediated PRCA subjects. The reference panel includes antibodies of high- and low-affinity with binding specificity to neutralizing and non-neutralizing erythropoietin epitopes. The subclass of human antibodies in this reference panel includes an IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4, as well as an IgM isotype. This antibody panel could help select appropriate immunogenicity assays, guide validation, and monitor assay performance

  13. An open source, 3D printed preclinical MRI phantom for repeated measures of contrast agents and reference standards. (United States)

    Cox, B L; Ludwig, K D; Adamson, E B; Eliceiri, K W; Fain, S B


    In medical imaging, clinicians, researchers and technicians have begun to use 3D printing to create specialized phantoms to replace commercial ones due to their customizable and iterative nature. Presented here is the design of a 3D printed open source, reusable magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom, capable of flood-filling, with removable samples for measurements of contrast agent solutions and reference standards, and for use in evaluating acquisition techniques and image reconstruction performance. The phantom was designed using SolidWorks, a computer-aided design software package. The phantom consists of custom and off-the-shelf parts and incorporates an air hole and Luer Lock system to aid in flood filling, a marker for orientation of samples in the filled mode and bolt and tube holes for assembly. The cost of construction for all materials is under $90. All design files are open-source and available for download. To demonstrate utility, B 0 field mapping was performed using a series of gadolinium concentrations in both the unfilled and flood-filled mode. An excellent linear agreement (R 2 >0.998) was observed between measured relaxation rates (R 1 /R 2 ) and gadolinium concentration. The phantom provides a reliable setup to test data acquisition and reconstruction methods and verify physical alignment in alternative nuclei MRI techniques (e.g. carbon-13 and fluorine-19 MRI). A cost-effective, open-source MRI phantom design for repeated quantitative measurement of contrast agents and reference standards in preclinical research is presented. Specifically, the work is an example of how the emerging technology of 3D printing improves flexibility and access for custom phantom design.

  14. Reference News Release: U.S. Files Complaint, Announces Settlement to Address Alleged Renewable Fuel Standard Violations by NGL Crude Logistics and Western Dubuque Biodiesel (United States)

    Reference news release on the complaint against NGL Crude Logistics, LLC and Western Dubuque Biodiesel, LLC and a settlement with Western Dubuque to address alleged violations of the Renewable Fuel Standard.

  15. Comparison of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards and the National Center for Health Statistics/WHO international growth reference: implications for child health programmes


    Onis,Mercedes de; Onyango, Adelheid W; Borghi, Elaine; Garza, Cutberto; Yang, Hong


    Abstract Objectives To compare growth patterns and estimates of malnutrition based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards (‘the WHO standards') and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO international growth reference (‘the NCHS reference'), and discuss implications for child health programmes. Design Secondary analysis of longitudinal data to compare growth patterns (birth to 12 months) and data from two cross-sectional surveys to compare estimates of mal...

  16. Mainstream Smoke Chemistry and in Vitro and In Vivo Toxicity of the Reference Cigarettes 3R4F and 2R4F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roemer E


    Full Text Available A new reference cigarette, the 3R4F, has been developed to replace the depleting supply of the 2R4F cigarette. The present study was designed to compare mainstream smoke chemistry and toxicity of the two reference cigarettes under the International Organization for Standardization (ISO machine smoking conditions, and to further compare mainstream smoke chemistry and toxicological activity of the 3R4F cigarette by two different smoking regimens, i.e., the machine smoking conditions specified by ISO and the Health Canada intensive (HCI smoking conditions.

  17. A primary standard for the measurement of alpha and beta particle surface emission rate from large area reference sources. (United States)

    Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D B; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M S; Babu, D A R


    A large area windowless gas flow multi wire proportional counting system for the calibration of large area reference sources has been developed as a primary standard at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). The counting system consists of a multi wire proportional counter (MWPC), vacuum system, gas flow system and pulse processing units. The MWPC detector assembly consists of a vacuum tight aluminum enclosure, multi wire grid and sliding source tray. Various detector characteristics like operating characteristics curve, Fe-55 spectrum for beta discriminator threshold setting and dead time of the measurement system were studied and determined in order to achieve an optimized detection capability. The surface emission rates of different source strengths were measured and their relative combined standard uncertainties were determined. Large Area Sources Comparison Exercise (LASCE) was organized by International Committee on Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) working group and coordinated by National Institute for Ionising Radiation Metrology (ENEA), Italy, to demonstrate equivalence of surface emission rate measurements at the international platform. BARC participated in the programme and the results of LASCE are also discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of NIST human mitochondrial DNA SRM-2392 and SRM-2392-I standard reference materials by next generation sequencing. (United States)

    Riman, Sarah; Kiesler, Kevin M; Borsuk, Lisa A; Vallone, Peter M


    Standard Reference Materials SRM 2392 and 2392-I are intended to provide quality control when amplifying and sequencing human mitochondrial genome sequences. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) offers these SRMs to laboratories performing DNA-based forensic human identification, molecular diagnosis of mitochondrial diseases, mutation detection, evolutionary anthropology, and genetic genealogy. The entire mtGenome (∼16569bp) of SRM 2392 and 2392-I have previously been characterized at NIST by Sanger sequencing. Herein, we used the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy offered by next generation sequencing (NGS) to: (1) re-sequence the certified values of the SRM 2392 and 2392-I; (2) confirm Sanger data with a high coverage new sequencing technology; (3) detect lower level heteroplasmies (sequencing communities in the adoption of NGS methods. To obtain a consensus sequence for the SRMs as well as identify and control any bias, sequencing was performed using two NGS platforms and data was analyzed using different bioinformatics pipelines. Our results confirm five low level heteroplasmy sites that were not previously observed with Sanger sequencing: three sites in the GM09947A template in SRM 2392 and two sites in the HL-60 template in SRM 2392-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ex vivo susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Dakar, Senegal, to seven standard anti-malarial drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradines Bruno


    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of widespread chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT (which includes artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Senegal since 2006. Since then, there have been very few reports on the ex vivo susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. To examine whether parasite susceptibility has been affected by the widespread use of ACT, the ex vivo susceptibility of local isolates was assessed at the military hospital of Dakar. Methods The ex vivo susceptibility of 93 P. falciparum isolates from Dakar was successfully determined using the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH ELISA for the following drugs: chloroquine (CQ, quinine (QN, mefloquine (MQ, monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ, lumefantrine (LMF, dihydroartemisinin (DHA and doxycycline (DOX. Results After transformation of the isolate IC50 in ratio of IC50 according to the susceptibility of the 3D7 reference strain (isolate IC50/3D7 IC50, the prevalence of the in vitro resistant isolates with reduced susceptibility was 50% for MQ, 22% for CQ, 12% for DOX, 6% for both QN and MDAQ and 1% for the drugs LMF and DHA. The highest significant positive correlations were shown between responses to CQ and MDAQ (r = 0.569; P r = 0.511; P r = 0.428; P = 0.0001, LMF and MQ (r = 0.413; P = 0.0002, QN and DHA (r = 0.402; P = 0.0003 and QN and MQ (r = 0.421; P = 0.0001. Conclusions The introduction of ACT in 2002 has not induced a decrease in P. falciparum susceptibility to the drugs DHA, MDAQ and LMF, which are common ACT components. However, the prevalence of P. falciparum isolates with reduced susceptibility has increased for both MQ and DOX. Taken together, these data suggest that intensive surveillance of the P. falciparum in vitro susceptibility to anti-malarial drugs in Senegal is required.

  20. On pelvic reference lines and the MR evaluation of genital prolapse: a proposal for standardization using the Pelvic Inclination Correction System. (United States)

    Betschart, C; Chen, L; Ashton-Miller, J A; Delancey, J O L


    Five midsagittal pelvic reference lines have been employed to quantify prolapse using MRI. However, the lack of standardization makes study results difficult to compare. Using MRI scans from 149 women, we demonstrate how use of existing reference lines can systematically affect measurements in three distinct ways: in oblique line systems, distances measured to the reference line vary with antero-posterior location; soft issue-based reference lines can underestimate organ movement relative to the pelvic bones; and systems defined relative to the MR scanner are affected by intra- and interindividual differences in the pelvic inclination angle at rest and strain. Thus, we propose a standardized approach called the Pelvic Inclination Correction System (PICS). Based on bony structures and the body axis, the PICS system corrects for variation in pelvic inclination, at rest of straining, and allows for the standardized measurement of organ displacement in the direction of prolapse.

  1. Clinical Outcome of Patients Transplanted with Marginal Donor Lungs via Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion Compared to Standard Lung Transplantation. (United States)

    Fildes, James E; Archer, Louise D; Blaikley, John; Ball, Alexandra L; Stone, John P; Sjöberg, Trygve; Steen, Stig; Yonan, Nizar


    Lung transplantation is limited by a scarcity of suitable donors resulting in high waiting list mortality. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) allows the evaluation and reconditioning of marginal donor lungs for use in transplantation. This study aimed to compare clinical outcome of patients transplanted with marginal organs by means of EVLP with a standard lung transplant cohort through a multicenter open trial. Group 1 (n = 9) included patients transplanted using EVLP reconditioned marginal lungs. Group 2 (n = 46) consisted of date-matched patients transplanted using standard transplantation of acceptable lungs. The primary composite endpoint included acute rejection and infection at 12 months after transplantation. There was no significant difference in the overall incidence of acute rejection (P = 0.754) and the number of treated infection episodes (proven/probable pneumonia; P = 0.857/0.368 and proven/probable tracheobronchitis; P = 0.226/0.529) up to 12 months after transplantation, between group 1 and group 2. Additionally, there was no significant difference in early clinical outcome, including intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, and 1 year mortality between the two groups (P = 0.338, P = 0.112 and P = 0.372, respectively). This multicenter study demonstrates that EVLP is associated with no adverse effect on clinical outcome, including the incidence of acute rejection and infection after lung transplantation.

  2. Diagnostic performance of 18-F-FDG-PET-CT in adrenal lesions using histopathology as reference standard. (United States)

    Altinmakas, Emre; Hobbs, Brian P; Ye, Hui; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Perrier, Nancy D; Prieto, Victor G; Lee, Jeffrey E; Ng, Chaan S


    To determine the diagnostic performance of PET-CT in differentiating benign and malignant adrenal lesions when evaluating PET parameters individually as well as in combination with CT parameters, using histopathology as the reference standard. 18F-FDG-PET-CT scans of patients undertaken within 6 months prior to pathologic evaluation of their adrenal lesion(s) were evaluated. PET assessments consisted individually of maximum standardized uptake value of the adrenal lesion (A-SUVmax) and its ("normalized") ratio to the liver (R-SUVmax). The diagnostic performances of these two PET parameters were also assessed when combined with the Hounsfield density from the non-contrast CT component of the PET-CT (A-HU). Diagnostic performance was assessed by area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the individual and combined parameters. The study cohort consisted of 61 adrenal lesions (59 patients). Malignant lesions (n = 52) had significantly higher median PET and CT parameters than benign lesions: A-SUVmax (11.4 vs. 6.1), R-SUVmax (3.3 vs. 1.7), and A-HU (37 vs. 24) [all p PET parameters individually was almost identical: 0.75 for A-SUVmax and 0.74 for R-SUVmax. On univariate analysis, thresholds of A-SUVmax >3.47 and R-SUVmax >0.83 yielded maximum accuracy (both 87%). The combination of these PET parameters individually with A-HU improved both AUC and accuracy (0.81% and 93%, respectively). The individual PET parameters A-SUVmax and R-SUVmax have similar diagnostic performance for differentiating malignant and benign adrenal lesions; their performance and accuracy improve when combined with the CT component (A-HU).

  3. Digital tomosynthesis for aortic arch calcification evaluation: performance comparison with chest radiography with CT as the reference standard. (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Chung, Myung Jin; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Lee, Kyung Soo


    Recently developed digital tomosynthesis has shown improved detection of pulmonary lesions with a radiation dose comparable to conventional CR but with a much lower radiation dose than CT. To compare the diagnostic performance of digital tomosynthesis (DT) with that of chest radiography (CR) for the detection of aortic arch calcification (AAC). The study included 100 patients who underwent multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), DT, and CR (DT and CR were obtained within one week of CT examination). We evaluated and compared the diagnostic performances of DT and CR for the detection of AAC with MDCT as the reference standard. The extent (four grades 0-3) of AAC on DT and CR was also compared with CT calcium score. Inter-observer agreement was analyzed by using kappa statistics. On DT, overall accuracy for AAC was superior to that of CR (94% and 71%, respectively, P superior to that between CR and CT (0.90 and 0.60, respectively). DT is superior to CR for detection and extent evaluation of AAC.

  4. A conodont-based standard reference section in central Nevada for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series (United States)

    Sweet, W.C.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Harris, A.G.


    Ranges of conodonts in stratigraphic sections at five localities in the Monitor and Antelope ranges of central Nevada are used graphically to assemble a standard reference section for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series. The base of the series is officially 0.3 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in the stratotype in Whiterock Canyon (Monitor Range). The top is the level at which Baltoniodus gerdae makes a brief appearance in an exposure of the Copenhagen Formation on the flanks of Hill 8308 in the western Antelope Range. Graphic compilation of the sections considered in this report also indicates that a level correlative with the base of the Whiterockian Series in the stratotype section is 66 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in its de facto type section on Martin Ridge in the eastern part of the Monitor Range. Ranges, diversity, and the composition of the conodont faunas differ markedly in lithofacies adjacent to the basal boundary of the series; hence we are unable to identify a single conodont species, in a credible developmental sequence, to serve as biological marker of that boundary.

  5. Determination of reference intervals and comparison of venous blood gas parameters using standard and non-standard collection methods in 24 cats. (United States)

    Bachmann, Karin; Kutter, Annette Pn; Schefer, Rahel Jud; Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Sigrist, Nadja


    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine in-house reference intervals (RIs) for venous blood analysis with the RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas analyser using blood gas syringes (BGSs) and to determine whether immediate analysis of venous blood collected into lithium heparin (LH) tubes can replace anaerobic blood sampling into BGSs. Methods Venous blood was collected from 24 healthy cats and directly transferred into a BGS and an LH tube. The BGS was immediately analysed on the RAPIDPoint 500 followed by the LH tube. The BGSs and LH tubes were compared using paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, Bland-Altman and Passing-Bablok analysis. To assess clinical relevance, bias or percentage bias between BGSs and LH tubes was compared with the allowable total error (TEa) recommended for the respective parameter. Results Based on the values obtained from the BGSs, RIs were calculated for the evaluated parameters, including blood gases, electrolytes, glucose and lactate. Values derived from LH tubes showed no significant difference for standard bicarbonate, whole blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate, while pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, actual bicarbonate, extracellular base excess, ionised calcium and anion gap were significantly different to the samples collected in BGSs ( P blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate can be made based on blood collected in LH tubes and analysed within 5 mins. For pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, extracellular base excess, anion gap and ionised calcium the clinically relevant alterations have to be considered if analysed in LH tubes.

  6. Incremental value of arterial and equilibrium phase compared to hepatic venous phase CT in the preoperative staging of colorectal liver metastases: an evaluation with different reference standards. (United States)

    Wicherts, Dennis A; de Haas, Robbert J; van Kessel, Charlotte S; Bisschops, Robertus H C; Takahara, Taro; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Bipat, Shandra; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; van Leeuwen, Maarten S


    To evaluate the incremental value of arterial and equilibrium phase compared to hepatic venous phase multidetector row CT (MDCT) in the preoperative staging of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and to determine the influence of the reference standard. Fifty-three consecutive CLM patients underwent 16 detector row CT in hepatic arterial, venous, and equilibrium phase before surgery between March 2003 and January 2007. Detected lesions were characterized by three independent radiologists. The reference standard consisted of intraoperative palpation and ultrasound of the liver, and histopathological examination of the resected specimen. Additionally, data of follow-up CT was added. Statistical analysis was performed on a per-lesion basis. According to the reference standard 251 lesions were present, of which 203 (81%) were malignant (mean size: 29.4 ± 22.5 mm), and 41 (16%) were benign (mean size: 8.3 ± 7.7 mm). Sensitivity rates for CLM were comparable between triphasic and hepatic venous phase CT (P>0.05). Sensitivity for the detection of CLM lowered from 60-77% to 52-68% when follow-up CT was added to the reference standard. Arterial and equilibrium phase CT have no incremental value compared to hepatic venous phase MDCT in the detection of CLM. Sensitivity rates are, however, influenced by the type of reference standard used. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalogue of EDF`s technical specifications (HN reference). Centre of standardization; Catalogue des specifications techniques EDF (reference HN). Centre de normalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document edited by Electricite de France (EdF), is a catalogue of the French standard documents relative to any type of electrical material and equipment and which contain the technical specifications of these materials and equipments. A brief description of these specifications is given for each type of material or equipment listed. (J.S.)

  8. Standard Biocompatibility Studies Do Not Predict All Effects of PVA/CMC Anti-Adhesive Gel in vivo. (United States)

    Freytag, Christiane; Odermatt, Erich K


    PVA/CMC (polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose) hydrogel fulfills various physiochemical properties required for an adhesion barrier and has shown good anti-adhesion properties in previous in vivo studies. In this investigation, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of PVA/CMC gel and compared this to the functionality and promotion of wound healing for two surgical indications. Standardized ISO10993 in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility studies, comprising cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, acute systemic toxicity, delayed contact and maximization sensitization test, intracutaneous reactivity and local muscle implantation, were performed on PVA/CMC gel. In the functional studies, PVA/CMC gel was applied - on the one hand - to a rabbit abdominal wall model enforced with a polypropylene mesh for testing the anti-adhesion properties and - on the other hand - to an end- to-end anastomosis model that was selected for surveying potential influences of different dosages of PVA/CMC gel on anastomotic wound healing. The ISO10993 methods indicated generally good biocompatibility properties, such as the absence of cytotoxic and mutagenic effects as well as no signs of systemic toxicity and sensitization potentials. No irritation effects were observed after the intracutaneous injection of lipophilic PVA/CMC sesame oil extract. However, the injection of hydrophilic PVA/CMC physiologic saline extract induced slight irritation. Following rabbit muscle implantation of the PVA membrane for 2, 4, 12, 26 and 52 weeks, a slight irritant effect was observed at 12 weeks due to the peak of phagocytosis. In the functionality tests, PVA/CMC gel showed good anti-adhesive effects in the abdominal wall model enforced with the mesh, with significantly lower and less tense adhesions compared to the untreated control. However, moderate signs of inflammation, especially in the spleen were observed after the intra-abdominal implantation of 3.3 ml PVA/CMC gel per kg body weight. In

  9. Diffusion kurtosis imaging of the liver at 3 Tesla: in vivo comparison to standard diffusion-weighted imaging. (United States)

    Budjan, Johannes; Sauter, Elke A; Zoellner, Frank G; Lemke, Andreas; Wambsganss, Jens; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Attenberger, Ulrike I


    Background Functional techniques like diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are gaining more and more importance in liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced technique that might help to overcome current limitations of DWI. Purpose To evaluate DKI for the differentiation of hepatic lesions in comparison to conventional DWI at 3 Tesla. Material and Methods Fifty-six consecutive patients were examined using a routine abdominal MR protocol at 3 Tesla which included DWI with b-values of 50, 400, 800, and 1000 s/mm2. Apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated applying a standard mono-exponential fit, while a non-Gaussian kurtosis fit was used to obtain DKI maps. ADC as well as Kurtosis-corrected diffusion ( D) values were quantified by region of interest analysis and compared between lesions. Results Sixty-eight hepatic lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] [n = 25]; hepatic adenoma [n = 4], cysts [n = 18]; hepatic hemangioma [HH] [n = 18]; and focal nodular hyperplasia [n = 3]) were identified. Differentiation of malignant and benign lesions was possible based on both DWI ADC as well as DKI D-values ( P values were in the range of 0.04 to < 0.0001). Conclusion In vivo abdominal DKI calculated using standard b-values is feasible and enables quantitative differentiation between malignant and benign liver lesions. Assessment of conventional ADC values leads to similar results when using b-values below 1000 s/mm2 for DKI calculation.

  10. Adhesion in vitro and in vivo associated with an adhesive antigen (F41) produced by a K99 mutant of the reference strain Escherichia coli B41. (United States)

    Morris, J A; Thorns, C; Scott, A C; Sojka, W J; Wells, G A


    A K99-negative mutant of the K99 reference strain Escherichia coli B41 (O101:K99) was isolated (strain B41M). It did not react with OK antiserum to a K12 K99+ recombinant or with OK antiserum to K99-positive organisms from the O8, O20, or O64 serogroups, but it did react with OK antiserum to K99-positive organisms from the O101 and O9 serogroups. The mutant hemagglutinated sheep erythrocytes and attached in vitro to calf enterocytes when cultured at 37 degrees C but not when grown at 18 degrees C. Attachment was mannose resistant but susceptible to heating and formaldehyde. These properties were associated with the presence of fimbriae. The isolated hemagglutinin migrated to the anode in immunoelectrophoresis experiments, competitively inhibited attachment of strain B41M to calf enterocytes, and could be demonstrated adhering to these cells in vitro by indirect immunofluorescent staining. The anionic hemagglutinin is referred to provisionally as F41. Germfree piglets infected with strain B41M developed diarrhea within 16 h. Scanning electron microscopy showed groups of bacteria adherent to the microvilli of villous enterocytes. Indirect immunofluorescent staining demonstrated the presence of F41 antigen in vivo.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zyskin


    Full Text Available The results of developing of reference installation, based on a controlled-potential coulometry, in the frame of improving the State primary standard of the units of mass (molar fraction and mass (molar concentration of a component in the liquid and solid substances and materials GET 176 are presented. The physical principles of controlled-potential coulometry, content and metrological characteristics of the developed installation are considered. Measurement results of copper, iron and lead contents in the certified reference materials of metals' solutions and CRM of brass produced by BAM, Germany, obtained using reference installation are given.

  12. Algorithms for converting estimates of child malnutrition based on the NCHS reference into estimates based on the WHO Child Growth Standards


    de Onis Mercedes; Yang Hong


    Abstract Background The child growth standards released by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2006 have several technical advantages over the previous 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference and are recommended for international comparisons and secular trend analysis of child malnutrition. To obtain comparable data over time, earlier surveys should be reanalyzed using the WHO standards; however, reanalysis is impossible for older surveys since the raw data are not ...

  13. Establishment and validation of analytical reference panels for the standardization of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements on the international scale. (United States)

    White, Helen E; Hedges, John; Bendit, Israel; Branford, Susan; Colomer, Dolors; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hughes, Timothy; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Kim, Dong-Wook; Modur, Vijay; Müller, Martin C; Pagnano, Katia B; Pane, Fabrizio; Radich, Jerry; Cross, Nicholas C P; Labourier, Emmanuel


    Current guidelines for managing Philadelphia-positive chronic myeloid leukemia include monitoring the expression of the BCR-ABL1 (breakpoint cluster region/c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase) fusion gene by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Our goal was to establish and validate reference panels to mitigate the interlaboratory imprecision of quantitative BCR-ABL1 measurements and to facilitate global standardization on the international scale (IS). Four-level secondary reference panels were manufactured under controlled and validated processes with synthetic Armored RNA Quant molecules (Asuragen) calibrated to reference standards from the WHO and the NIST. Performance was evaluated in IS reference laboratories and with non-IS-standardized RT-qPCR methods. For most methods, percent ratios for BCR-ABL1 e13a2 and e14a2 relative to ABL1 or BCR were robust at 4 different levels and linear over 3 logarithms, from 10% to 0.01% on the IS. The intraassay and interassay imprecision was standardized methods. The synthetic calibrator panels are robust, reproducibly manufactured, analytically calibrated to the WHO primary standards, and compatible with most BCR-ABL1 RT-qPCR assay designs. The broad availability of secondary reference reagents will further facilitate interlaboratory comparative studies and independent quality assessment programs, which are of paramount importance for worldwide standardization of BCR-ABL1 monitoring results and the optimization of current and new therapeutic approaches for chronic myeloid leukemia. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  14. Toward standardization of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) measurements: II. Performance of a laboratory network running the HPLC candidate reference measurement procedure and evaluation of a candidate reference material. (United States)

    Helander, Anders; Wielders, Jos P M; Jeppsson, Jan-Olof; Weykamp, Cas; Siebelder, Carla; Anton, Raymond F; Schellenberg, François; Whitfield, John B


    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a descriptive term used for a temporary change in the transferrin glycosylation profile caused by alcohol, and used as a biomarker of chronic high alcohol consumption. The use of an array of methods for measurement of CDT in various absolute or relative amounts, and sometimes covering different transferrin glycoforms, has complicated the comparability of results and caused confusion among medical staff. This situation prompted initiation of an IFCC Working Group on CDT standardization. This second publication of the WG-CDT covers the establishment of a network of reference laboratories running a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) candidate reference measurement procedure, and evaluation of candidate secondary reference materials. The network laboratories demonstrated good and reproducible performance and thus can be used to assign target values for calibrators and controls. A candidate secondary reference material based on native human serum lyophilized with a cryo-/lyoprotectant to prevent protein denaturation was found to be commutable and stable during storage. A proposed strategy for calibration of different CDT methods is also presented. In an external quality assurance study involving 66 laboratories and covering the current routine CDT assays (HPLC, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay), recalculation of observed results based on the nominal values for the candidate calibrator reduced the overall coefficient of variation from 18.9% to 5.5%. The logistics for distribution of reference materials and review of results were found to be functional, indicating that a full reference system for CDT may soon be available.

  15. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Dataset for What We Eat in America, NHANES (Survey-SR) 2013-2014 (United States)

    USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Dataset for What We Eat In America, NHANES (Survey-SR) provides the nutrient data for assessing dietary intakes from the national survey What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA, NHANES). The current versi...

  16. [Studies on the identification of psychotropic substances. VIII. Preparation and various analytical data of reference standard of some stimulants, amfepramone, cathinone, N-ethylamphetamine, fenethylline, fenproporex and mefenorex]. (United States)

    Shimamine, M; Takahashi, K; Nakahara, Y


    The Reference Standards for amfepramone, cathinone, N-ethylamphetamine, fenethylline, fenproporex and mefenorex were prepared. Their purities determined by HPLC were more than 99.5%. For the identification and determination of these six drugs, their analytical data were measured and discussed by TLC, UV, IR, HPLC, GC/MS and NMR.

  17. Comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K8 of high dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy standards for reference air kerma rate of the VSL and the BIPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, J.T.; De Pooter, J.A.; Andersen, Claus E.


    An indirect comparison of the standards for reference air kerma rate for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy sources of the Dutch Metrology Institute (VSL), The Netherlands, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out at the VSL in November 2009. The comparison resu...

  18. Accuracy of Functional and Predictive Methods to Calculate the Hip Joint Center in Young Non-pathologic Asymptomatic Adults with Dual Fluoroscopy as a Reference Standard. (United States)

    Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Kutschke, Michael J; Atkins, Penny R; Foreman, K Bo; Kapron, Ashley L; Anderson, Andrew E


    Predictions from biomechanical models of gait may be sensitive to joint center locations. Most often, the hip joint center (HJC) is derived from locations of reflective markers adhered to the skin. Here, predictive techniques use regression equations of pelvic anatomy to estimate the HJC, whereas functional methods track motion of markers placed at the pelvis and femur during a coordinated motion. Skin motion artifact may introduce errors in the estimate of HJC for both techniques. Quantifying the accuracy of these methods is an area of open investigation. In this study, we used dual fluoroscopy (DF) (a dynamic X-ray imaging technique) and three-dimensional reconstructions from computed tomography images, to measure HJC locations in vivo. Using dual fluoroscopy as the reference standard, we then assessed the accuracy of three predictive and two functional methods. Eleven non-pathologic subjects were imaged with DF and reflective skin marker motion capture. Additionally, DF-based solutions generated virtual markers placed on bony landmarks, which were input to the predictive and functional methods to determine if estimates of the HJC improved. Using skin markers, functional methods had better mean agreement with the HJC measured by DF (11.0 ± 3.3 mm) than predictive methods (18.1 ± 9.5 mm); estimates from functional and predictive methods improved when using the DF-based solutions (1.3 ± 0.9 and 17.5 ± 8.6 mm, respectively). The Harrington method was the best predictive technique using both skin markers (13.2 ± 6.5 mm) and DF-based solutions (10.6 ± 2.5 mm). The two functional methods had similar accuracy using skin makers (11.1 ± 3.6 and 10.8 ± 3.2 mm) and DF-based solutions (1.2 ± 0.8 and 1.4 ± 1.0 mm). Overall, functional methods were superior to predictive methods for HJC estimation. However, the improvements observed when using the DF-based solutions suggest that skin motion artifact is a large source of error for the

  19. In Vivo Evaluation of Blood Based and Reference Tissue Based PET Quantifications of [11C]DASB in the Canine Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Van Laeken

    Full Text Available This first-in-dog study evaluates the use of the PET-radioligand [11C]DASB to image the density and availability of the serotonin transporter (SERT in the canine brain. Imaging the serotonergic system could improve diagnosis and therapy of multiple canine behavioural disorders. Furthermore, as many similarities are reported between several human neuropsychiatric conditions and naturally occurring canine behavioural disorders, making this tracer available for use in dogs also provide researchers an interesting non-primate animal model to investigate human disorders. Five adult beagles underwent a 90 minutes dynamic PET scan and arterial whole blood was sampled throughout the scan. For each ROI, the distribution volume (VT, obtained via the one- and two- tissue compartment model (1-TC, 2-TC and the Logan Plot, was calculated and the goodness-of-fit was evaluated by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. For the preferred compartmental model BPND values were estimated and compared with those derived by four reference tissue models: 4-parameter RTM, SRTM2, MRTM2 and the Logan reference tissue model. The 2-TC model indicated in 61% of the ROIs a better fit compared to the 1-TC model. The Logan plot produced almost identical VT values and can be used as an alternative. Compared with the 2-TC model, all investigated reference tissue models showed high correlations but small underestimations of the BPND-parameter. The highest correlation was achieved with the Logan reference tissue model (Y = 0.9266 x + 0.0257; R2 = 0.9722. Therefore, this model can be put forward as a non-invasive standard model for future PET-experiments with [11C]DASB in dogs.

  20. Washington School Board Standards, Benchmarks of Success and Indicators for Evaluation, with References: A Framework for Effective Governance (United States)

    Boeck, Debora


    The Washington School Board Standards are intended for use by local school boards and individual directors as a common framework for school board governance. Two sets of standards were developed to encourage school boards and individual school directors to subscribe to the highest levels of professional and personal conduct and performance. The…

  1. Use of D-T-produced fast neutrons for in vivo body composition analysis: a reference method for nutritional assessment in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehayias, J.J. [USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington St., Boston, 02111-1524 MA (United States)


    Body composition has become the main outcome of many nutritional intervention studies including osteoporosis, malnutrition, obesity, AIDS, and aging. Traditional indirect body composition methods developed with healthy young adults do not apply to the elderly or diseased. Fast neutron activation (for N and P) and neutron inelastic scattering (for C and O) are used to assess in vivo elements characteristic of specific body compartments. Non-bone phosphorus for muscle is measured by the {sup 31}P(n,{alpha}){sup 28}Al reaction, and nitrogen for protein via the {sup 14}N(n,2n){sup 13}N fast neutron reaction. Inelastic neutron scattering is used to measure total body carbon and oxygen. Body fat is derived from carbon after correcting for contributions from protein, bone, and glycogen. Carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) is used to measure the distribution of fat and lean tissue in the body and to monitor small changes of lean mass. A sealed, D-T neutron generator is used for the production of fast neutrons. Carbon and oxygen mass and their ratio are measured in vivo at a radiation exposure of less than 0.06 mSv. Gamma-ray spectra are collected using large BGO detectors and analyzed for the 4.43 MeV state of carbon and 6.13 MeV state of oxygen, simultaneously with the irradiation. P and N analysis by delayed fast neutron activation is performed by transferring the patient to a shielded room equipped with an array of NaI(Tl) detectors. A combination of measurements makes possible the assessment of the ''quality'' of fat-free mass. The neutron generator system is used to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments, to study mechanisms of lean tissue depletion with aging, and to investigate methods for preserving function and quality of life in the elderly. It is also used as a reference method for the validation of portable instruments of nutritional assessment. (orig.)

  2. Validity of standard reference values irrespective of rest and time of day prior to blood sampling-results from albumin and thyrotropin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I. B.; Brasen, C. L.; Christensen, H.


    electronically using Q-MATIC Suite. Impact of resting time and time of day on thyreotropin and albumin values was analyzed using a simple linear regression. The "maximum allowable bias" was used as quality indicator for the reference interval. Results: Using linear regression we found significant diurnal......Background: Preanalytical factors affects different biochemical parameters. Therefore reference intervals are recommended to apply to rules of standardization that state that blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 min rest. However, both hospital and patients have a wish to minimize...

  3. Ultrasonic calibration and certification of V1 and V2 type reference standard blocks for use in Non-Destructive Testing


    Maggi, Luís Eduardo; Silva, Cristiane Evelise Ribeiro da; Alvarenga, André Victor; Costa-Félix, Rodrigo Pereira Barretto da


    Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing (US-NDT) has many industrial applications,such as flaws detection, welding integrity evaluation and solid material thickness measurement.To evaluate the instrumentation conditions, before a measurement begins, a “calibration” should be carried out with the aid of a reference standard block (RSB). Types V1 (ISO 2400) and V2 (ISO 7963) are the most widely used in US-NDT. Due their characteristics, V1 and V2 RSB can be classified as Reference Material, so that ...

  4. Standardization of human IL-29 (IFN-λ1): establishment of a World Health Organization international reference reagent for IL-29 (IFN-λ1). (United States)

    Meager, Anthony; Heath, Alan; Dilger, Paula; Zoon, Kathryn; Wadhwa, Meenu


    Human interleukin-29 (IL-29), a helical cytokine with interferon-like activities, is currently being developed as a clinical biotherapeutic to treat chronic hepatitis C infection and some cancers. As such, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recognized a need for biological standardization of IL-29 and the establishment of an internationally available reference reagent of IL-29. In order to accomplish this, an international collaborative study that evaluates WHO candidate reference reagents of IL-29 was instigated by the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC) in 2010 and was carried out in the succeeding year. Two preparations of human sequence recombinant IL-29, one expressed in murine NS0 cells and the other in Escherichia coli, were formulated and lyophilized at NIBSC before evaluation in the collaborative study for their suitability to serve as a reference reagent. The preparations were tested by 6 laboratories from 4 countries using in vitro bioassays and also evaluated for thermal stability within the NIBSC laboratory. On the basis of the results of the collaborative study, both preparations, 07/212 (NS0-derived) and 10/176 (E. coli-derived) were judged sufficiently active and stable to serve as a reference reagent. However, since IL-29 produced in E. coli is in development for clinical applications, it was recommended that the preparation coded 10/176 be established as the WHO international reference reagent for human IL-29. This recommendation was accepted, and the IL-29 preparation coded 10/176 was formally established by the WHO ECBS at its meeting in October 2012 as the WHO international reference reagent for IL-29 with an assigned unitage of 5,000 reference units per ampoule.

  5. Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Female Adolescents in Jordan: A comparison between Two International Reference Standards. (United States)

    O Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Tayyem, Reema


    To find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity among female adolescents in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey on females aged 15-18 in Amman, Jordan, was carried out using a multistage stratified random sampling method. The total sample size was 475 girls. Weight and height were measured and body mass index for age was used to determine overweight and obesity using the IOTF and WHO international standards. The prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased with age. The highest prevalence of overweight and obesity was reported at age 15 (24.4% and 8.9%, respectively). The WHO standard showed a higher prevalence of obesity than the IOTF standard in all age groups. Overweight and obesity are serious public health problems among adolescents in Jordan, using both international standards. A program to combat obesity among schoolchildren, therefore, should be given a high priority in school health policy in Jordan.

  6. High-definition vs. standard-definition endoscopy with indigo carmine for the in vivo diagnosis of colonic polyps. (United States)

    Longcroft-Wheaton, Gaius; Brown, James; Cowlishaw, David; Higgins, Bernard; Bhandari, Pradeep


    There is growing evidence that indigo carmine chromoendoscopy is effective for the in vivo diagnosis of colonic polyps. However, the impact of colonoscope resolution on diagnostic accuracy has not been investigated. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of in vivo diagnosis of small colonic polyps using indigo carmine dye spray with standard-definition and high-definition colonoscopes. Procedures were performed using Fujinon colonoscopes and EPX 4400 processor. Fujinon standard-definition (SD) and high-definition (HD) colonoscopes were used, with the endoscopist blinded to colonoscope definition. Polyps indigo carmine dye spray, with the predicted diagnosis recorded. In each case the kind of colonoscope (SD or HD) was recorded. Polyps were removed and sent for histological analysis, with the pathologist blinded to the diagnosis made by the endoscopist. The predicted diagnosis was compared with the true histology to calculate the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of in vivo assessment using either SD or HD scopes. In total 237 polyps indigo carmine dye spray is excellent with standard-definition colonoscopes and is not improved with high-definition colonoscopes.

  7. [Reference the YY/T 0841-2011 standard to improve preventive maintenance of medical electrical equipment and experience]. (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Ge, Bin; Liu, Jinchu


    In this paper, we interpret the new YY/T 0841-2011 standard and contrast the difference between it and GB9706.1-2007 standard. Then, we improved the current preventive maintenance work. After the improvement, we not only have more effective detection of the electrical safety performance of all kinds of medical electrical equipment, but also reduce the workload of clinical engineers, improve efficiency, and reduce the risk of electrical shock.

  8. Reference standards for body fat measures using GE dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in Caucasian adults. (United States)

    Imboden, Mary T; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M; Montoye, Alexander H K; Finch, Holmes W; Harber, Matthew P; Kaminsky, Leonard A


    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an established technique for the measurement of body composition. Reference values for these variables, particularly those related to fat mass, are necessary for interpretation and accurate classification of those at risk for obesity-related health complications and in need of lifestyle modifications (diet, physical activity, etc.). Currently, there are no reference values available for GE-Healthcare DXA systems and it is known that whole-body and regional fat mass measures differ by DXA manufacturer. To develop reference values by age and sex for DXA-derived fat mass measurements with GE-Healthcare systems. A de-identified sample of 3,327 participants (2,076 women, 1,251 men) was obtained from Ball State University's Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's Physical Activity & Health Research Laboratory. All scans were completed using a GE Lunar Prodigy or iDXA and data reported included percent body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), and ratios of android-to-gynoid (A/G), trunk/limb, and trunk/leg fat measurements. Percentiles were calculated and a factorial ANOVA was used to determine differences in the mean values for each variable between age and sex. Normative reference values for fat mass variables from DXA measurements obtained from GE-Healthcare DXA systems are presented as percentiles for both women and men in 10-year age groups. Women had higher (p<0.01) mean %BF and FMI than men, whereas men had higher (p<0.01) mean ratios of A/G, trunk/limb, and trunk/leg fat measurements than women. These reference values provide clinicians and researchers with a resource for interpretation of DXA-derived fat mass measurements specific to use with GE-Healthcare DXA systems.

  9. In-vivo biological activity and glycosylation analysis of a biosimilar recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone product (Bemfola compared with its reference medicinal product (GONAL-f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Mastrangeli

    Full Text Available Recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone (r-hFSH is widely used in fertility treatment. Although biosimilar versions of r-hFSH (follitropin alfa are currently on the market, given their structural complexity and manufacturing process, it is important to thoroughly evaluate them in comparison with the reference product. This evaluation should focus on how they differ (e.g., active component molecular characteristics, impurities and potency, as this could be associated with clinical outcome. This study compared the site-specific glycosylation profile and batch-to-batch variability of the in-vivo bioactivity of Bemfola, a biosimilar follitropin alfa, with its reference medicinal product GONAL-f. The focus of this analysis was the site-specific glycosylation at asparagine (Asn 52 of the α-subunit of FSH, owing to the pivotal role of Asn52 glycosylation in FSH receptor (FSHR activation/signalling. Overall, Bemfola had bulkier glycan structures and greater sialylation than GONAL-f. The nominal specific activity for both Bemfola and GONAL-f is 13,636 IU/mg. Taking into account both the determined potency and the nominal amount the average specific activity of Bemfola was 14,522 IU/mg (105.6% of the nominal value, which was greater than the average specific activity observed for GONAL-f (13,159 IU/mg; 97.3% of the nominal value; p = 0.0048, although this was within the range stated in the product label. A higher batch-to-batch variability was also observed for Bemfola versus GONAL-f (coefficient of variation: 8.3% vs 5.8%. A different glycan profile was observed at Asn52 in Bemfola compared with GONAL-f (a lower proportion of bi-antennary structures [~53% vs ~77%], and a higher proportion of tri-antennary [~41% vs ~23%] and tetra-antennary structures [~5% vs <1%]. These differences in the Asn52 glycan profile might potentially lead to differences in FSHR activation. This, together with the greater bioactivity and higher batch-to-batch variability

  10. An administrative data validation study of the accuracy of algorithms for identifying rheumatoid arthritis: the influence of the reference standard on algorithm performance. (United States)

    Widdifield, Jessica; Bombardier, Claire; Bernatsky, Sasha; Paterson, J Michael; Green, Diane; Young, Jacqueline; Ivers, Noah; Butt, Debra A; Jaakkimainen, R Liisa; Thorne, J Carter; Tu, Karen


    We have previously validated administrative data algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using rheumatology clinic records as the reference standard. Here we reassessed the accuracy of the algorithms using primary care records as the reference standard. We performed a retrospective chart abstraction study using a random sample of 7500 adult patients under the care of 83 family physicians contributing to the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD) in Ontario, Canada. Using physician-reported diagnoses as the reference standard, we computed and compared the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for over 100 administrative data algorithms for RA case ascertainment. We identified 69 patients with RA for a lifetime RA prevalence of 0.9%. All algorithms had excellent specificity (>97%). However, sensitivity varied (75-90%) among physician billing algorithms. Despite the low prevalence of RA, most algorithms had adequate positive predictive value (PPV; 51-83%). The algorithm of "[1 hospitalization RA diagnosis code] or [3 physician RA diagnosis codes with ≥1 by a specialist over 2 years]" had a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI 69-88), specificity of 100% (95% CI 100-100), PPV of 78% (95% CI 69-88) and NPV of 100% (95% CI 100-100). Administrative data algorithms for detecting RA patients achieved a high degree of accuracy amongst the general population. However, results varied slightly from our previous report, which can be attributed to differences in the reference standards with respect to disease prevalence, spectrum of disease, and type of comparator group.

  11. Comparison of US Birth Weight References and the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Christian, Parul


    variance. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We examine neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days after birth) as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: The pooled SGA prevalence was 23.7% (95% CI, 16.5%-31.0%) using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard compared with 36.0% (95% CI, 27.0%-45.0%) with the US 2000...... and no significant change in the associated neonatal mortality risk, resulting in a decrease in the percentage of neonatal death attributable to SGA. Our study sheds light on how previously published studies on SGA status may be reinterpreted with the introduction of this new birth weight standard....

  12. Thermal desorption GC-MS as a tool to provide PAH certified standard reference material on particulate matter quartz filters. (United States)

    Grandesso, Emanuela; Pérez Ballesta, Pascual; Kowalewski, Konrad


    Reference materials for particulate matter (PM) on filter media are not available for the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. This is due to the difficulty of obtaining reference material that has a homogeneous distribution on a filter surface that is large enough for characterization and distribution. High volume sample filters from different locations and seasons were considered to validate the feasibility of the use of quartz filters as reference material for PAH concentrations. A rapid thermal desorption (TD) technique coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was applied to characterise the material for the content of fifteen different PAHs. TD technique allowed for rapid and accurate analysis of small sections of filter (5mm diameter), leaving enough material for the production of twenty sub-filter cuts (42 mm diameter) that could be used for distribution and control. Stability and homogeneity tests required for material certification were performed as indicated by the ISO guide 34:2009 and ISO 35:2006. The contribution of the heterogeneous distribution of PAHs on the filter surface resulted generally lower than 10% and higher for more volatile PAHs. One year of storage at -18°C indicated no significant variation in PAH concentrations. Nevertheless, a methodology for shipping and storing of the filter material at ambient temperature in especially designed plastic envelopes, was also shown to allow for stabile concentrations within twenty days. The method accuracy was confirmed by the analysis of NIST SRM 1649a (urban dust) and PAH concentrations were validated against the reference values obtained from an inter-laboratory exercise. In the case of benzo[a]pyrene for masses quantified between 100 pg and 10 ng the TD method provided expanded uncertainties of circa 10%, while the inter-laboratory reference value uncertainties ranged between 15 and 20%. The evaluation of these results supports the use of the presented

  13. Simultaneous determination of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in standard reference material baking chocolate 2384, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter. (United States)

    Risner, Charles H


    A reverse-phase liquid chromatography analysis is used to access the quantity of theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin in Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate, cocoa, cocoa beans, and cocoa butter using water or a portion of the mobile phase as the extract. The procedure requires minimal sample preparation. Theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin are detected by UV absorption at 273 nm after separation using a 0.3% acetic acid-methanol gradient (volume fractions) and quantified using external standards. The limit of detection for theobromine, (+)-catechin, caffeine, and (-)-epicatechin averages 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, and 0.06 microg/mL, respectively. The method when applied to Standard Reference Material 2384 Baking Chocolate; baking chocolate reference material yields results that compare to two different, separate procedures. Theobromine ranges from 26000 mg/kg in cocoa to 140 mg/kg in cocoa butter; (+)-catechin from 1800 mg/kg in cocoa to below detection limits of cocoa butter; caffeine from 2400 mg/kg in cocoa to 400 mg/kg in cocoa butter, and (-)-epicatechin from 3200 mg/kg in cocoa to BDL, cocoa butter. The mean recoveries from cocoa are 102.4 +/- 0.6% for theobromine, 100.0 +/- 0.6 for (+)-catechin, 96.2 +/- 2.1 for caffeine, and 106.2 +/- 1.7 for (-)-epicatechin.

  14. In vivo quantification of brain metabolites by 1H-MRS using water as an internal standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Henriksen, O; Stubgaard, M


    in quantification of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) concentration was about 1-2 mM (6-12%). Also in vivo a good linearity between water signal and selected voxel size was seen. The same was true for the studied metabolites, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cr/PCr), and choline (Cho). Calculated average...

  15. Expressed Sequence Reference Standards for Evaluating Stage-specific Gene Expression in Southern Green Lacewings, Chrysoperla rufilabris (United States)

    Five developmental stages of Chrysoperla rufilabris were tested using nine primer pairs. Three sequences were highly expressed at all life stages and six were differentially expressed. These primer pairs may be used as standards to quantitate functional gene expression associated with physiological ...

  16. Algorithms for converting estimates of child malnutrition based on the NCHS reference into estimates based on the WHO Child Growth Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Onis Mercedes


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The child growth standards released by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2006 have several technical advantages over the previous 1977 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS/WHO reference and are recommended for international comparisons and secular trend analysis of child malnutrition. To obtain comparable data over time, earlier surveys should be reanalyzed using the WHO standards; however, reanalysis is impossible for older surveys since the raw data are not available. This paper provides algorithms for converting estimates of child malnutrition based on the NCHS reference into estimates based on the WHO standards. Methods Sixty-eight surveys from the WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition were analyzed using the WHO standards to derive estimates of underweight, stunting, wasting and overweight. The prevalences based on the NCHS reference were taken directly from the database. National/regional estimates with a minimum sample size of 400 children were used to develop the algorithms. For each indicator, a simple linear regression model was fitted, using the logit of WHO and NCHS estimates as, respectively, dependent and independent variables. The resulting algorithms were validated using a different set of surveys, on the basis of which the point estimate and 95% confidence interval (CI of the predicted WHO prevalence were compared to the observed prevalence. Results In total, 271 data points were used to develop the algorithms. The correlation coefficients (R2 were all greater than 0.90, indicating that most of the variability of the dependent variable is explained by the fitted model. The average difference between the predicted WHO estimate and the observed value was Conclusion To obtain comparable data concerning child malnutrition, individual survey data should be analyzed using the WHO standards. When the raw data are not available, the algorithms presented here provide a highly accurate tool

  17. Accelerating the deployment of supply chain strategies through the adoption of standard operations reference model for supply chains producing capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toews, A. [Project Plato Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This PowerPoint presentation provided information on how to build a procurement organization in the energy sector with reference to aligning supply chain management with corporate objectives to enhance response time in transactions with suppliers and customers. The paper examined the degree to which procurement functions are centralized versus decentralized and which combinations work best. It also examined how e-commerce can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the procurement function and add value to an organization. The author emphasized the importance of a multi-functional team to create a successful sourcing strategy and develop strong purchasing capabilities within the organization. tabs., figs.

  18. Reference standards for lean mass measures using GE dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in Caucasian adults. (United States)

    Imboden, Mary T; Swartz, Ann M; Finch, Holmes W; Harber, Matthew P; Kaminsky, Leonard A


    To develop reference values by age and sex for LM measures using GE-Healthcare DXA systems. A de-identified sample was obtained from Ball State University's Clinical Exercise Physiology Laboratory and University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee's Physical Activity & Health Research Laboratory. DXA scans of 2,076 women and 1,251 men were completed using a GE Lunar Prodigy or iDXA. Percentiles (%ile) were calculated for all variables of interest (LM, LMI, %LM, and ALMI) and a factorial ANOVA was used to assess differences for each variable between 10-year age groups and sex, as well as the interaction between age and sex. Men had higher mean total LM, %LM, LMI, and ALMI than women (p<0.01), across all age groups. All LM variables decreased significantly over the 5 decades in men, however in women only total LM, %LM, and ALMI decreased from the youngest to oldest age groups (p<0.01). These reference values provide for a more accurate interpretation of GE-Healthcare DXA-derived LM measurements offering clinicians and researchers with an initial resource to aid in the early detection and assessment of LM deficits.

  19. Differences in serum thyroglobulin measurements by 3 commercial immunoradiometric assay kits and laboratory standardization using Certified Reference Material 457 (CRM-457). (United States)

    Lee, Ji In; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Hee Kyung; Jang, Hye Won; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook


    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is essential in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). However, interchangeability and standardization between Tg assays have not yet been achieved, even with the development of an international Tg standard (Certified Reference Material 457 [CRM-457]). Serum Tg from 30 DTC patients and serially diluted CRM-457 were measured using 3 different immunoradiometric assays (IRMA-1, IRMA-2, IRMA-3). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to describe the concordance of each IRMA to CRM-457. The serum Tg measured by 3 different IRMAs correlated well (r > .85, p CRM-457, showed the best ICC (p(1) = .98) for the CRM-457. Hospitals caring for patients with DTC should either set their own cutoffs for IRMAs for Tg based on their patient pools, or adopt IRMAs standardized to CRM-457 and calibrate their laboratory using CRM-457.

  20. A comparison of the International Standards Organisation reference method for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in water with a defined substrate procedure. (United States)

    Niemela, S I; Lee, J V; Fricker, C R


    This study investigated the use of the International Standards Organisation (ISO) procedure for the comparison of microbiological methods. Using this procedure the ISO reference procedure for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in water was compared with a defined substrate method (ColilertTM). A total of 20 laboratories from 13 European countries compared the use of Colilert/Quanti-TrayTM, a quantitative defined substrate test (DST) for the presence of coliforms and E. coli with the ISO reference procedure, which utilizes tergitol-TTC medium. Results of the study showed that DST detected significantly more coliforms and E. coli than did the reference procedure. In the case of E. coli the recoveries were also higher when using DST and the difference seen was statistically significant. The confirmation rate obtained when using the DST product suggested that no confirmation of wells positive for E. coli was necessary during routine use. Colilert is a suitable alternative to the ISO reference procedure for the detection of coliforms and E. coli in water. The methods used during the comparison study indicated that confirmation of all colonies/positive wells led to the most accurate information and it is recommended that for future comparison studies this should become standard practice. Confirmation of a small proportion of colonies led to misleading conclusions and should be avoided when comparing microbiological methods. It has been demonstrated that the ISO reference procedure fails to detect a significant proportion of coliforms and E. coli in drinking water. Colilert/QuantiTrayTM is a more suitable alternative.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Özen


    Full Text Available Earth surfaces, such as deserts, salt lakes, and playas, have been widely used in the vicarious radiometric calibration of optical earth observation satellites. In 2009, the Infrared and Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS sub-group of the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV designated eight LANDNET reference sites to focus international efforts, facilitate traceability and enable the establishment of measurement "best practices." With support from the European Space Agency (ESA, one of the LANDNET sites, the Tuz Gölü salt lake located in central Turkey, was selected to host a cross-comparison of measurement instrumentation and methodologies conducted by 11 different ground teams across the globe. This paper provides an overview of the preliminary results of the cross-comparison of the ground-based spectral measurements made during the CEOS Land Comparison 13-27 August, 2010 with the simultaneous satellite image data acquisitions of the same site.

  2. Multianalyte Conventional Reference Material (MacRM): A Useful Tool for Nationwide Standardization of Laboratory Measurements for Medical Care-A Model Study in Japan. (United States)

    Shinohara, Katsuyuki; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Takagi, Yasushi; Yatomi, Yutaka; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Hosogaya, Shigemi; Kawai, Yohko; Miyachi, Hayato; Kaneko, Kenji; Miyajima, Yoshifumi; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Iwagami, Miyuki; Osawa, Susumu; Umeda, Mamoru; Koide, Hirofumi; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Kato, Hideo


    The Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS) has developed a multianalyte conventional reference material (MacRM) for nationwide standardization of laboratory measurements. To prepare the MacRM, pooled sera were obtained from healthy Japanese individuals. Target values of the pooled sera for 30 analytes were assigned on the basis of the measurement results of 45 certified clinical laboratories whose calibration was verified by measuring certified reference materials (CRMs) provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, and JCCLS. Commutability of MacRM was assessed by comparison with results for 150 individual inpatients at Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital. Survey samples were prepared by essentially the same method for MacRM but without target values. The survey samples were used to assess agreement among 165 laboratories that used various assay kits and platforms calibrated with the MacRM. The commutability of MacRM was confirmed for 30 analytes with sera from 150 individual patients. The imprecision (CV) of measurements of survey samples (high and low concentrations) among the 165 laboratories was 0.4%-10.0%. Twenty-six of 30 analytes were within the goals for interinstitutional allowable bias. An aliquot of MacRM stored frozen at -80 °C remained stable for ≥4 years. The MacRM was successfully applied as a calibrator to achieve nationwide standardization for 30 analytes measured by 165 laboratories that used various methods from different manufacturers. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  3. Technical Note: Determination of Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D₃) in Standard Reference Material 3532 Calcium-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. (United States)

    Burdette, Carolyn Q


    Vitamin D is an important nutrient for many areas of human health and well-being, including improved bone strength, muscle movement, cognitive function, and immune health. The National Institute of Standards and Technology, in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements, has developed SRM 3532 Calcium-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form to help address the analytical challenges seen by the dietary supplement communities for the determination of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and elements. Described here is the process to assess the homogeneity and stability of the material, as well as the value assignment of the vitamin D3 levels.

  4. Fetal growth standards: the NICHD fetal growth study approach in context with INTERGROWTH-21st and the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study. (United States)

    Grantz, Katherine L; Hediger, Mary L; Liu, Danping; Buck Louis, Germaine M


    Three recently completed longitudinal cohort studies have developed intrauterine fetal growth charts, one in the United States and two international. This expert review compares and contrasts the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Fetal Growth Studies, INTERGROWTH-21st and World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study conclusions in light of differences in aims, sampling frames, and analytical approaches. An area of controversy is whether a single growth reference is representative of growth, regardless of ethnic or country origin. The INTERGROWTH and World Health Organization Fetal studies used a similar approach as the World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study for infants and children, the aim of which was to create a single international reference for the best physiological growth for children aged 0-5 years. INTERGROWTH made the same assumption (ie, that there would be no differences internationally among countries or racial/ethnic groups in fetal growth when conditions were optimal). INTERGROWTH found differences in crown-rump length and head circumference among countries but interpreted the differences as not meaningful and presented a pooled standard. The World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study was designed to create a pooled reference, although they evaluated for and presented country differences, along with discussion of the implications. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study was designed to assess whether racial/ethnic-specific fetal growth standards were needed, in recognition of the fact that fetal size is commonly estimated from dimensions (head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length) in which there are known differences in children and adults of differing racial/ethnic groups. A pooled standard would be derived if no racial/ethnic differences were found. Highly statistically

  5. Certification of a reference material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the International Standard ISO 11262:2011. (United States)

    Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram


    Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined referring to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the International Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil reference material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The reference material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114.

  6. Commercial reference shape standards use in the study of particle shape effect on laser diffraction particle size analysis. (United States)

    Kelly, Richard N; Kazanjian, Jacqueline


    The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of LGC Promochem AEA 1001 to AEA 1003 monosized fiber-analog shape standards in the study of the effect of particle shape on laser diffraction (LD) particle size analysis (psa). The psa of the AEA standards was conducted using LD psa systems from Beckman Coulter, Horiba, and Malvern Instruments. Flow speed settings, sample refractive index values, and sample cell types were varied to examine the extent to which the shape effect on LD psa results is modified by these variables. The volume and number probability plots resulting from these measurements were each characterized by a spread in the particle size distribution that roughly extended from the breadth to the longest dimension of the particles. For most of the selected sample refractive index values, the volume probability plots were characterized by apparent bimodal distributions. The results, therefore, provide experimental verification of the conclusions from theoretical studies of LD psa system response to monosized elliptical particles in which this apparent bimodality was the predicted result in the case of flow-oriented particles. The data support the findings from previous studies conducted over the past 10 years that have called into question the verity of the tenets of, and therefore the value of the application of, the equivalent spherical volume diameter theory and the random particle orientation model to the interpretation of LD psa results from measurements made on nonspherical particles.

  7. Standardization, chemical profiling, in vitro cytotoxic effects, in vivo anti-carcinogenic potential and biosafety profile of Indian propolis. (United States)

    Kapare, Harshad; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Sinnathambi, Arulmozhi; Mahadik, Kakasaheb


    Propolis from apiculture is known for wide range of medicinal properties owing to its vast chemical constituents including polyphenols, flavonoids and anticancer agent Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). The objective of the study was to extract and standardize Indian propolis (IP) with respect to selected markers by newly developed High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, to evaluate in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity and biosafety of Indian propolis. IP was extracted, optimized and standardized using a newly developed and validated HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of caffeic acid, apigenin, quercetin and CAPE. The standardised ethanolic extract of IP (EEIP) was screened for in vitro cytotoxicity using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay, in vivo anti-carcinogenic effect against Dalton's Lymphoma ascites (DLA) cells, hemolytic effect and pesticide analysis. The EEIP was found to contain more amount of total flavonoids (23.61+ 0.0452 mg equivalent of quercetin/g), total polyphenolics (34.82 + 0.0785 mg equivalent of gallic acid/g) and all selected markers except caffeic acid compared to all other extracts. EEIP showed better anti-cancer potential than CAPE on MCF-7 and HT-29 cell line and significant (p carcinogenic effects against DLA in comparison with 5-fluorouracil. EEIP was found to be non-hemolytic. From in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo anti-carcinogenicity and biosafety studies it can be concluded that the standardized EEIP is safe and can be considered for further development as a biomedicine. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reference Standards for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measured With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Using Cycle Ergometry: Data From the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND) Registry. (United States)

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Imboden, Mary T; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan


    The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is well established. This report provides newly developed standards for CRF reference values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) using cycle ergometry in the United States. Ten laboratories in the United States experienced in CPX administration with established quality control procedures contributed to the "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database" (FRIEND) Registry from April 2014 through May 2016. Data from 4494 maximal (respiratory exchange ratio, ≥1.1) cycle ergometer tests from men and women (20-79 years) from 27 states, without cardiovascular disease, were used to develop these references values. Percentiles of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from age 20 years through age 79 years. Comparisons of VO2max were made to reference data established with CPX data from treadmill data in the FRIEND Registry and previously published reports. As expected, there were significant differences between sex and age groups for VO2max (Pstandard differences from treadmill testing reference values. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds. (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Benner, Bruce A; Heckert, N Alan; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Vasquez, Y; Villegas, M; Wise, Stephen A; Alwis, K Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C; Calafat, Antonia M; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G; Sjödin, Andreas


    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers' Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers' Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants.

  10. Development of urine standard reference materials for metabolites of organic chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, phenols, parabens, and volatile organic compounds (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M.; Benner, Bruce A.; Heckert, N. Alan; Sander, Lane C.; Sharpless, Katherine E.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Vasquez, Y.; Villegas, M.; Wise, Stephen A.; Alwis, K. Udeni; Blount, Benjamin C.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Li, Zheng; Silva, Manori J.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Gaudreau, Éric; Patterson, Donald G.; Sjödin, Andreas


    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 3672 Organic Contaminants in Smokers’ Urine (Frozen) and SRM 3673 Organic Contaminants in Non-Smokers’ Urine (Frozen), have been developed in support of studies for assessment of human exposure to select organic environmental contaminants. Collaborations among three organizations resulted in certified values for 11 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and reference values for 11 phthalate metabolites, 8 environmental phenols and parabens, and 24 volatile organic compound (VOC) metabolites. Reference values are also available for creatinine and the free forms of caffeine, theobromine, ibuprofen, nicotine, cotinine, and 3-hydroxycotinine. These are the first urine Certified Reference Materials characterized for metabolites of organic environmental contaminants. Noteworthy, the mass fractions of the environmental organic contaminants in the two SRMs are within the ranges reported in population survey studies such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). These SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among population survey studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in studies monitoring human exposure to these organic environmental contaminants. PMID:25651899

  11. Using Florida Keys Reference Sites As a Standard for Restoration of Forest Structure in Everglades Tree Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Ross


    Full Text Available In south Florida, tropical hardwood forests (hammocks occur in Everglades tree islands and as more extensive forests in coastal settings in the nearby Florida Keys. Keys hammocks have been less disturbed by humans, and many qualify as “old-growth,” while Everglades hammocks have received much heavier use. With improvement of tree island condition an important element in Everglades restoration efforts, we examined stand structure in 23 Keys hammocks and 69 Everglades tree islands. Based on Stand Density Index and tree diameter distributions, many Everglades hammocks were characterized by low stocking and under-representation in the smaller size classes. In contrast, most Keys forests had the dense canopies and open understories usually associated with old-growth hardwood hammocks. Subject to the same caveats that apply to off-site references elsewhere, structural information from mature Keys hammocks can be helpful in planning and implementing forest restoration in Everglades tree islands. In many of these islands, such restoration might involve supplementing tree stocking by planting native trees to produce more complete site utilization and a more open understory.

  12. Development of two fine particulate matter standard reference materials (<4 μm and <10 μm) for the determination of organic and inorganic constituents. (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Cleveland, Danielle; Heckert, N Alan; Kucklick, John R; Leigh, Stefan D; Long, Stephen E; Lynch, Jennifer M; Murphy, Karen E; Olfaz, Rabia; Pintar, Adam L; Porter, Barbara J; Rabb, Savelas A; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A; Zeisler, Rolf


    Two new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter (Particulate Matter (particulate matter (PM). These materials have been characterized for the mass fractions of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs, brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) congeners, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) isomers, sugars, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners, and inorganic constituents, as well as particle-size characteristics. These materials are the first Certified Reference Materials available to support measurements of both organic and inorganic constituents in fine PM. In addition, values for PAHs are available for RM 8785 Air Particulate Matter on Filter Media. As such, these SRMs will be useful as quality control samples for ensuring compatibility of results among PM monitoring studies and will fill a void to assess the accuracy of analytical methods used in these studies. Graphical Abstract Removal of PM from filter for the preparation of SRM 2786 Fine Particulate Matter.

  13. Whole-body MRI for initial staging of paediatric lymphoma: prospective comparison to an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard

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    Littooij, Annemieke S. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Kwee, Thomas C.; Vermoolen, Malou A.; Keizer, Bart de; Beek, Frederik J.A.; Hobbelink, Monique G.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Barber, Ignasi; Enriquez, Goya [Hospital Materno-Infantil Vall d' Hebron, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Giannina Gaslini Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Zsiros, Jozsef [University of Amsterdam, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soh, Shui Yen [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Haematology and Oncology service, Department of Paediatric Subspecialities, Singapore (Singapore); Bierings, Marc B. [University Medical Centre Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Haematology-Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    To compare whole-body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (whole-body MRI-DWI), with FDG-PET/CT for staging newly diagnosed paediatric lymphoma. A total of 36 children with newly diagnosed lymphoma prospectively underwent both whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT. Whole-body MRI-DWI was successfully performed in 33 patients (mean age 13.9 years). Whole-body MRI-DWI was independently evaluated by two blinded observers. After consensus reading, an unblinded expert panel evaluated the discrepant findings between whole-body MRI-DWI and FDG-PET/CT and used bone marrow biopsy, other imaging data and clinical information to derive an FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard. Interobserver agreement of whole-body MRI-DWI was good [all nodal sites together (κ = 0.79); all extranodal sites together (κ = 0.69)]. There was very good agreement between the consensus whole-body MRI-DWI- and FDG-PET/CT-based reference standard for nodal (κ = 0.91) and extranodal (κ = 0.94) staging. The sensitivity and specificity of consensus whole-body MRI-DWI were 93 % and 98 % for nodal staging and 89 % and 100 % for extranodal staging, respectively. Following removal of MRI reader errors, the disease stage according to whole-body MRI-DWI agreed with the reference standard in 28 of 33 patients. Our results indicate that whole-body MRI-DWI is feasible for staging paediatric lymphoma and could potentially serve as a good radiation-free alternative to FDG-PET/CT. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Mannocchi


    Full Text Available The work makes a comparison between European and Switzerland legislation through an inspection in an artisan producing smoked salmon factory. The analysis of HACCP plan, technology and microbiological characteristic of finished product, as enshrined in Switzerland law, allow to categorize the business risk level respect the European reference. The criticalities detected are: Listeria monocytogenes and Anisakis spp.. A plain was developed for improving the hygienic characteristic of the production to ensure the alignment of structure to the standards specified by the European requirements and allow to the factory send his products inside the European market.

  15. The use of a standardized gray reference card in dental photography to correct the effects of five commonly used diffusers on the color of 40 extracted human teeth. (United States)

    Hein, Sascha; Zangl, Michael


    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the color changes of human teeth caused by five different diffuser materials commonly used in dental photography, as well as software influence, and to confirm whether the use of a standardized gray reference card is effective in correcting these color changes during digital postproduction. Forty extracted human teeth were obtained from a specialized oral surgery practice in Cham, Germany. Five commonly used diffuser materials were chosen to be investigated, which included: polyethylene (PET), White Frost photographic paper, LumiQuest polyamide (nylon) material, 80 gsm white printing paper, and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet used for cross polarization. A digital single-lens reflex camera (Canon EOS 5D MKII) was used, together with a twin flash suitable for macrophotography (Canon MT-24EX Macro Twin Lite). Images were tethered into Adobe Lightroom CC using the RAW format. A standardized gray reference card (WhiBal, Michael Tapes Design) was used for exposure calibration and white balancing. Classic Color Me- ter software (Ricci Adams, version 1.6 (122)) was used to obtain CIE L*a*b* values of the specimens before and after white balancing and exposure correction. All diffusers caused visually perceivable color changes on the extracted teeth: White Frost (ΔE* 1.24; sd 0.47), 80 gsm printing paper (ΔE* 2.94; sd 0.35), LumiQuest polyamide (ΔE* 3.68; sd 0.54), PET (ΔE* 6.55; sd 0.41), and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet (ΔE* 7.58; sd 1.00). The use of a standardized gray reference card (WhiBal) could correct these values below the visually perceivable threshold: White Frost (ΔE* 0.58; sd 0.36), 80 gsm printing paper (ΔE* 0.93; sd 0.54), LumiQuest polyamide (ΔE* 0.66; sd 0.58), PET (ΔE* 0.59; sd 0.33), and 3M linear polarizing filter sheet (ΔE* 0.53; sd 0.42). The use of a standardized gray reference card with specified CIE L*a*b* values should be considered when diffusers are used in dental photography in

  16. Determination of bitter orange alkaloids in dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials by liquid chromatography with atmospheric-pressure ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Sander, Lane C


    A liquid chromatographic atmospheric-pressure ionization electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-API-ES-MS) method has been developed for the determination of five bitter orange alkaloids (synephrine, octopamine, n-methyltyramine, tyramine, and hordenine) in bitter orange-containing dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs). The materials represent a variety of natural, extracted, and processed sample matrices. Two extraction techniques were evaluated: pressurized-fluid extraction (PFE) and sonication extraction. The influence of different solvents, extraction temperatures, and pH were investigated for a plant material and a processed sample. The LC method uses a new approach for the separation of highly polar alkaloids. A fluorinated, silica-based stationary phase separated the five alkaloids and the internal standard terbutaline in less than 20 min. This method enabled the determination of the dominant alkaloid synephrine and other minor alkaloids in a variety of dietary supplement SRMs.

  17. Development of a certified reference material for composition of high-purity copper as a transfer standard within GET 176-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veniamin M. Zyskin


    Full Text Available Introduction. The paper gives information on the development of a certified reference material (CRM for composition of high-purity copper (Cu CRM UNIIM. The CRM is included as the transfer standard into the State primary standard of the mass (molar fraction and mass (molar concentration of the component in liquid and solid substances and materials based on coulometry GET 176-2013.Materials and methods. The CRM represents pieces of oxygen-free copper wire rod, brand KMB, produced according to GOST R 53803-2010, weighing from 0.5 to 1g. The CRM is packed in plastic vials with the capacity of 30 or 50 cm3. The certified characteristic of the CRM is copper mass fraction in copper wire rod, expressed in percentages. The certified value for copper mass fraction was established by the primary method of controlled-potential coulometry using the State primary standard GET 176-2013.Results. The permitted interval of the certified value for copper mass fraction in the CRM is from 99,950 % to 100,000 %. The relative expanded uncertainty (k=2 of the certified value for copper mass fraction does not exceed 0,030 %; the relative standard uncertainty due to inhomogeneity does not exceed 0.010 %; the relative standard uncertainty due to instability does not exceed 0.010 %. The shelf life of the developed CRM is 10 years provided that standard storage conditions are ensured.Discussion and conclusions. The developed CRM is included into the State register of type approved RMs under the number GSO 10800-2016. The CRM of high-purity copper (Cu CRM UNIIM as a transfer standard is intended for reproduction, storage and transfer of the copper mass fraction unit to other reference materials and chemical reagents by the method of comparison using a comparator and by conducting direct measurements. This CRM may also be used:– for verification of measuring instruments (MIs according to the state verification schedule described in GOST R 8.735.0-2014,– for calibration

  18. Facilitating the use of non-standard in vivo studies in health risk assessment of chemicals: a proposal to improve evaluation criteria and reporting. (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Molander, Linda; Rudén, Christina; Hanberg, Annika


    To improve data availability in health risk assessment of chemicals and fill information gaps there is a need to facilitate the use of non-standard toxicity studies, i.e. studies not conducted according to any standardized toxicity test guidelines. The purpose of this work was to propose criteria and guidance for the evaluation of reliability and relevance of non-standard in vivo studies, which could be used to facilitate systematic and transparent evaluation of such studies for health risk assessment. Another aim was to propose user friendly guidance for reporting of non-standard studies intended to promote an improvement in reporting of studies that could be of use in risk assessment. Requirements and recommendations for the design and execution of in vivo toxicity studies were identified from The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guidelines, and served as basis for the data evaluation criteria and reporting guidelines. Feedback was also collected from experts within the field of toxicity testing and risk assessment and used to construct a two-tiered framework for study evaluation, as well as refine the reporting guidelines. The proposed framework emphasizes the importance of study relevance and an important aspect is to not completely dismiss studies from health risk assessment based on very strict criteria for reliability. The suggested reporting guidelines provide researchers with a tool to fulfill reporting requirements as stated by regulatory agencies. Together, these resources provide an approach to include all relevant data that may fill information gaps and reduce scientific uncertainty in health risk assessment conclusions, and subsequently also in chemical policy decisions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A novel strategy with standardized reference extract qualification and single compound quantitative evaluation for quality control of Panax notoginseng used as a functional food. (United States)

    Li, S P; Qiao, C F; Chen, Y W; Zhao, J; Cui, X M; Zhang, Q W; Liu, X M; Hu, D J


    Root of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen (Sanqi in Chinese) is one of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) based functional food. Saponins are the major bioactive components. The shortage of reference compounds or chemical standards is one of the main bottlenecks for quality control of TCMs. A novel strategy, i.e. standardized reference extract based qualification and single calibrated components directly quantitative estimation of multiple analytes, was proposed to easily and effectively control the quality of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. The feasibility and credibility of this methodology were also assessed with a developed fast HPLC method. Five saponins, including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd and notoginsenoside R1 were rapidly separated using a conventional HPLC in 20 min. The quantification method was also compared with individual calibration curve method. The strategy is feasible and credible, which is easily and effectively adapted for improving the quality control of natural functional foods such as Sanqi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Arterial input functions (AIFs) measured directly from arteries with low and standard doses of contrast agent, and AIFs derived from reference tissues. (United States)

    Wang, Shiyang; Fan, Xiaobing; Medved, Milica; Pineda, Federico D; Yousuf, Ambereen; Oto, Aytekin; Karczmar, Gregory S


    Measurements of arterial input function (AIF) can have large systematic errors at standard contrast agent doses in dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). We compared measured AIFs from low dose (AIFLD) and standard dose (AIFSD) contrast agent injections, as well as the AIF derived from a muscle reference tissue and artery (AIFref). Twenty-two prostate cancer patients underwent DCE-MRI. Data were acquired on a 3T scanner using an mDixon sequence. Gadobenate dimeglumine was injected twice, at doses of 0.015 and 0.085 mmol/kg. Directly measured AIFs were fitted with empirical mathematical models (EMMs) and compared to the AIF derived from a muscle reference tissue (AIFref). EMMs accurately fitted the AIFs. The 1st and 2nd pass peaks were visualized in AIFLD, but not in AIFSD, thus the peak and shape of AIFSD could not be accurately measured directly. The average scaling factor between AIFSD and AIFLD in the washout phase was only 56% of the contrast dose ratio (~6:1). The shape and magnitude of AIFref closely approximated that of AIFLD after empirically determined dose-dependent normalization. This suggests that AIFref may be a good approximation of the local AIF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Accuracy and reliability of tablet computer as an imaging console for detection of radiological signs of acute appendicitis using PACS workstation as reference standard. (United States)

    Awais, Muhammad; Khan, Dawar Burhan; Barakzai, Muhammad Danish; Rehman, Abdul; Baloch, Noor Ul-Ain; Nadeem, Naila


    To ascertain the accuracy and reliability of tablet as an imaging console for detection of radiological signs of acute appendicitis [on focused appendiceal computed tomography (FACT)] using Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) workstation as reference standard. From January, 2014 to June, 2015, 225 patients underwent FACT at our institution. These scans were blindly re-interpreted by an independent consultant radiologist, first on PACS workstation and, two weeks later, on tablet. Scans were interpreted for the presence of radiological signs of acute appendicitis. Accuracy of tablet was calculated using PACS as reference standard. Kappa (κ) statistics were calculated as a measure of reliability. Of 225 patients, 99 had radiological evidence of acute appendicitis on PACS workstation. Tablet was 100% accurate in detecting radiological signs of acute appendicitis. Appendicoliths, free fluid, lymphadenopathy, phlegmon/abscess, and perforation were identified on PACS in 90, 43, 39, 10, and 12 scans, respectively. There was excellent agreement between tablet and PACS for detection of appendicolith (к = 0.924), phlegmon/abscess (к = 0.904), free fluid (к = 0.863), lymphadenopathy (к = 0.879), and perforation (к = 0.904). Tablet computer, as an imaging console, was highly reliable and was as accurate as PACS workstation for the radiological diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

  2. Calibration-Free Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) with Standard Reference Line for the Analysis of Stainless Steel. (United States)

    Fu, Hongbo; Dong, Fengzhong; Wang, Huadong; Jia, Junwei; Ni, Zhibo


    In this work, calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) is used to analyze a certified stainless steel sample. Due to self-absorption of the spectral lines from the major element Fe and the sparse lines of trace elements, it is usually not easy to construct the Boltzmann plots of all species. A standard reference line method is proposed here to solve this difficulty under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium so that the same temperature value for all elements present into the plasma can be considered. Based on the concentration and rich spectral lines of Fe, the Stark broadening of Fe(I) 381.584 nm and Saha-Boltzmann plots of this element are used to calculate the electron density and the plasma temperature, respectively. In order to determine the plasma temperature accurately, which is seriously affected by self-absorption, a pre-selection procedure for eliminating those spectral lines with strong self-absorption is employed. Then, one spectral line of each element is selected to calculate its corresponding concentration. The results from the standard reference lines with and without self-absorption of Fe are compared. This method allows us to measure trace element content and effectively avoid the adverse effects due to self-absorption.

  3. Revision of the SNPforID 34-plex forensic ancestry test: Assay enhancements, standard reference sample genotypes and extended population studies. (United States)

    Fondevila, M; Phillips, C; Santos, C; Freire Aradas, A; Vallone, P M; Butler, J M; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, A


    A revision of an established 34 SNP forensic ancestry test has been made by swapping the under-performing rs727811 component SNP with the highly informative rs3827760 that shows a near-fixed East Asian specific allele. We collated SNP variability data for the revised SNP set in 66 reference populations from 1000 Genomes and HGDP-CEPH panels and used this as reference data to analyse four U.S. populations showing a range of admixture patterns. The U.S. Hispanics sample in particular displayed heterogeneous values of co-ancestry between European, Native American and African contributors, likely to reflect in part, the way this disparate group is defined using cultural as well as population genetic parameters. The genotyping of over 700 U.S. population samples also provided the opportunity to thoroughly gauge peak mobility variation and peak height ratios observed from routine use of the single base extension chemistry of the 34-plex test. Finally, the genotyping of the widely used DNA profiling Standard Reference Material samples plus other control DNAs completes the audit of the 34-plex assay to allow forensic practitioners to apply this test more readily in their own laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ultrasonic calibration and certification of V1 and V2 type reference standard blocks for use in Non-Destructive Testing (United States)

    Maggi, L. E.; Silva, C. E. R.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.


    Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing (US-NDT) has many industrial applications, such as flaws detection, welding integrity evaluation and solid material thickness measurement. To evaluate the instrumentation conditions, before a measurement begins, a "calibration" should be carried out with the aid of a reference standard block (RSB). Types V1 (ISO 2400) and V2 (ISO 7963) are the most widely used in US-NDT. Due their characteristics, V1 and V2 RSB can be classified as Reference Material, so that they can be certified, resulting in a Certified Reference Material (CRM). This paper describes technical aspects of a V1 and V2 RSB certification, based on ISO 2400, ISO 7963, EN 12223 and EN 27963. According the certification protocol established at Inmetro's Laboratory of Ultrasound, RSB relevant dimensions were determined through calibration. Ultrasound velocity was assessed by using a scope and a signal generator at 5 MHz. Uncertainties were determined including measurement accuracy under repeatability conditions. A complete uncertainty budget was determined for both parameters. Within the specimens used, velocities were in accordance with specifications 5920 ± 30 m/s.

  5. High-resolution global grids of revised Priestley–Taylor and Hargreaves–Samani coefficients for assessing ASCE-standardized reference crop evapotranspiration and solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Aschonitis


    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to provide global grids (0.5° of revised annual coefficients for the Priestley–Taylor (P-T and Hargreaves–Samani (H-S evapotranspiration methods after calibration based on the ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers-standardized Penman–Monteith method (the ASCE method includes two reference crops: short-clipped grass and tall alfalfa. The analysis also includes the development of a global grid of revised annual coefficients for solar radiation (Rs estimations using the respective Rs formula of H-S. The analysis was based on global gridded climatic data of the period 1950–2000. The method for deriving annual coefficients of the P-T and H-S methods was based on partial weighted averages (PWAs of their mean monthly values. This method estimates the annual values considering the amplitude of the parameter under investigation (ETo and Rs giving more weight to the monthly coefficients of the months with higher ETo values (or Rs values for the case of the H-S radiation formula. The method also eliminates the effect of unreasonably high or low monthly coefficients that may occur during periods where ETo and Rs fall below a specific threshold. The new coefficients were validated based on data from 140 stations located in various climatic zones of the USA and Australia with expanded observations up to 2016. The validation procedure for ETo estimations of the short reference crop showed that the P-T and H-S methods with the new revised coefficients outperformed the standard methods reducing the estimated root mean square error (RMSE in ETo values by 40 and 25 %, respectively. The estimations of Rs using the H-S formula with revised coefficients reduced the RMSE by 28 % in comparison to the standard H-S formula. Finally, a raster database was built consisting of (a global maps for the mean monthly ETo values estimated by ASCE-standardized method for both reference crops, (b global maps for the revised annual

  6. High-resolution global grids of revised Priestley-Taylor and Hargreaves-Samani coefficients for assessing ASCE-standardized reference crop evapotranspiration and solar radiation (United States)

    Aschonitis, Vassilis G.; Papamichail, Dimitris; Demertzi, Kleoniki; Colombani, Nicolo; Mastrocicco, Micol; Ghirardini, Andrea; Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Fano, Elisa-Anna


    The objective of the study is to provide global grids (0.5°) of revised annual coefficients for the Priestley-Taylor (P-T) and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) evapotranspiration methods after calibration based on the ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers)-standardized Penman-Monteith method (the ASCE method includes two reference crops: short-clipped grass and tall alfalfa). The analysis also includes the development of a global grid of revised annual coefficients for solar radiation (Rs) estimations using the respective Rs formula of H-S. The analysis was based on global gridded climatic data of the period 1950-2000. The method for deriving annual coefficients of the P-T and H-S methods was based on partial weighted averages (PWAs) of their mean monthly values. This method estimates the annual values considering the amplitude of the parameter under investigation (ETo and Rs) giving more weight to the monthly coefficients of the months with higher ETo values (or Rs values for the case of the H-S radiation formula). The method also eliminates the effect of unreasonably high or low monthly coefficients that may occur during periods where ETo and Rs fall below a specific threshold. The new coefficients were validated based on data from 140 stations located in various climatic zones of the USA and Australia with expanded observations up to 2016. The validation procedure for ETo estimations of the short reference crop showed that the P-T and H-S methods with the new revised coefficients outperformed the standard methods reducing the estimated root mean square error (RMSE) in ETo values by 40 and 25 %, respectively. The estimations of Rs using the H-S formula with revised coefficients reduced the RMSE by 28 % in comparison to the standard H-S formula. Finally, a raster database was built consisting of (a) global maps for the mean monthly ETo values estimated by ASCE-standardized method for both reference crops, (b) global maps for the revised annual coefficients of the P

  7. Comparing the role of standard references on the prevalence of Iranian children and adolescents' overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ghanbari


    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and has a role on high blood pressure, diabetes type II, etc., This review assesses the prevalence of Iranian children obesity and overweight for different age categories and compares the three standard definitions of obesity. Materials and Methods: To retrieve desirable studies concerning childhood anthropometric data from different area of Iran, the MEDLINE, Scopus, and different local databases such as Scientific Information database were used. The studies reported the prevalence of obesity or overweight of children < 6, 6–12, and 12–20 years old, despite differences between definitions of childhood obesity, were included in the study. We combined the reported prevalence of the overweight and obesity with regard to age and gender, and also by the different standard references which are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO definition, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF references. The analysis was carried out using STATA software. Results: Our review covered 75 articles reported the prevalence of overweight or obesity among children and adolescents for different age groups in Iran. Our meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of obesity and overweight did not vary significantly in gender and age categories, but different definitions provide different prevalence of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The effective factors on obesity and overweight included administration policy and organizational, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and social factors. CDC and WHO references intended in monitoring children's growth and the IOTF cutoffs would rather provide a common set of definitions that researchers and policymakers could use for descriptive and comparative purposes.

  8. Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction. (United States)

    Masala, Silvia; Ahmed, Trifa; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger


    The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 °C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the

  9. Detection of heart rate and rhythm with a smartphone-based electrocardiograph versus a reference standard electrocardiograph in dogs and cats. (United States)

    Kraus, Marc S; Gelzer, Anna R; Rishniw, Mark


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diagnostic utility of ECGs acquired with a smartphone-based device, compared with reference 6-lead ECGs, for identification of heart rate and rhythm in dogs and cats. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 51 client-owned dogs and 27 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES Patients examined by a small animal referral cardiology service between April 2012 and January 2013 were enrolled consecutively. In each patient, a 30-second ECG was simultaneously acquired with a smartphone-based device (a bipolar, single-lead recorder coupled to a smartphone with an ECG application) and a standard 6-lead ECG machine. Recordings were evaluated by 3 board-certified cardiologists, and intra- and interobserver agreement were evaluated for both rhythm diagnosis and QRS polarity identification. RESULTS Values for instantaneous and mean heart rates for the smartphone-acquired and reference ECGs were within 1 beat of each other when mean heart rates were calculated. Intraobserver agreement for rhythm assessment was very high, with maximum disagreement for any observer for only 2 of 51 dogs and only 4 of 27 cats. There was minimal disagreement in the polarity of depolarization between the smartphone-acquired and reference ECGs in dogs but frequent disagreement in cats. Interobserver agreement for smartphone-acquired ECGs was similar to that for reference ECGs. with all 3 observers agreeing on the rhythm analysis and minimal disagreement on polarity. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that ECGs acquired with the smartphone-based device accurately identified heart rate and rhythm in dogs and cats. Thus, the device may allow veterinarians to evaluate and manage cardiac arrhythmias relatively inexpensively at the cage side and could also allow clinicians to rapidly share information via email for further consultation, potentially enhancing patient care.

  10. Stereological Analysis of Liver Biopsy Histology Sections as a Reference Standard for Validating Non-Invasive Liver Fat Fraction Measurements by MRI (United States)

    St. Pierre, Tim G.; House, Michael J.; Bangma, Sander J.; Pang, Wenjie; Bathgate, Andrew; Gan, Eng K.; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T.; Bhathal, Prithi S.; Clouston, Andrew; Olynyk, John K.; Adams, Leon A.


    Background and Aims Validation of non-invasive methods of liver fat quantification requires a reference standard. However, using standard histopathology assessment of liver biopsies is problematical because of poor repeatability. We aimed to assess a stereological method of measuring volumetric liver fat fraction (VLFF) in liver biopsies and to use the method to validate a magnetic resonance imaging method for measurement of VLFF. Methods VLFFs were measured in 59 subjects (1) by three independent analysts using a stereological point counting technique combined with the Delesse principle on liver biopsy histological sections and (2) by three independent analysts using the HepaFat-Scan® technique on magnetic resonance images of the liver. Bland Altman statistics and intraclass correlation (IC) were used to assess the repeatability of each method and the bias between the methods of liver fat fraction measurement. Results Inter-analyst repeatability coefficients for the stereology and HepaFat-Scan® methods were 8.2 (95% CI 7.7–8.8)% and 2.4 (95% CI 2.2–2.5)% VLFF respectively. IC coefficients were 0.86 (95% CI 0.69–0.93) and 0.990 (95% CI 0.985–0.994) respectively. Small biases (≤3.4%) were observable between two pairs of analysts using stereology while no significant biases were observable between any of the three pairs of analysts using HepaFat-Scan®. A bias of 1.4±0.5% VLFF was observed between the HepaFat-Scan® method and the stereological method. Conclusions Repeatability of the stereological method is superior to the previously reported performance of assessment of hepatic steatosis by histopathologists and is a suitable reference standard for validating non-invasive methods of measurement of VLFF. PMID:27501242

  11. [Assessment of physical development of children and adolescents. Part I. Infants and children up to 5 years--national reference values or WHO standards?]. (United States)

    Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna; Palczewska, Iwona


    Growth and development assessment of infants and young children is a very important component of early prophylaxis in paediatric health care. In 2006 the World Health Organization published the new Child Growth Standards for children up to 5 years of age. They describe the optimal pattern of young children development. 1. To compare the cut-off points for selected anthropometric parameters in children up to 5 years between reference values for Polish children and WHO Child Growth Standards. 2. To attempt to answer the question whether the WHO Child Growth Standards can be implemented to assess health and development in children up to 5 years in Poland. The differences for mean (50th percentile) and extreme values (3rd and 97th percentile) for length/height for age and weight for age were calculated for boys and girls. The differences in BMI units for overweight (mean + 1 SD) and obesity (mean + 2 SD) were compared using the z-score method. Comparisons of the WHO and Polish length/height and weight for age showed no differences in children aged 1-60 months. Small differences were seen in the 3rd percentile (less than 2%) in children aged 3 and 6 years. BMI values for overweight and obesity were slightly lower for Polish children in the first 6 months of life than in WHO standards. These differences have positive values for boys and girls starting at 9th month and increasing in toddlers. WHO standards reflect the optimal growth pattern for children from birth up to 5 years. Therefore these instruments should be adopted for Polish children to assessing their growth.

  12. Establishment of a reference material for standardization of the anti-complementary activity test in intravenous immunoglobulin products used in Japan: A collaborative study. (United States)

    Nojima, Kiyoko; Okuma, Kazu; Ochiai, Masaki; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Tezuka, Kenta; Ishii, Mieko; Ueda, Sadao; Miyamoto, Takashi; Kamimura, Koichiro; Kou, Enki; Uchida, Sanae; Watanabe, Yoshiharu; Okada, Yoshiaki; Hamaguchi, Isao


    Aggregates of human plasma-derived intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) carries a risk of severe adverse events after nonspecific complement activation induced in humans administrated. Therefore, the anti-complementary activity (ACA) test is legally required in every batch of IVIGs in Japan. However, due to the intrinsic nature of this bioassay, there might be large differences in the results of ACA tests from laboratories, even when the same batch of IVIGs was measured. Our six laboratories evaluated whether there were such differences and argued for establishment of a reference material (RM) for standardization of the ACA test. Our results revealed inter-laboratory differences in ACA values, indicating a need to establish an RM. Therefore, after ACA values in candidate RMs were measured collaboratively, one RM was selected from two candidates and unit value-assigned. The RM in fact normalized the ACA test values for samples measured in parallel at almost all the laboratories, when the values were calculated relative to the assigned unit value of the RM. Thus, we established a first RM to standardize the ACA test in Japan, which enabled each laboratory to normalize ACA values constantly for IVIGs. This indicates that the establishment of an RM can contribute to quality control of IVIGs. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid chromatography-particle beam electron ionization mass spectrometry method for analysis of botanical extracts: evaluation of ephedrine alkaloids in standard reference materials. (United States)

    Castro, Joaudimir; Krishna, M V Balarama; Marcus, R Kenneth


    The preliminary validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography particle beam mass spectrometry method (HPLC-PB/MS) with electron impact ionization source for analysis of botanical extracts is presented. The LC-PB/MS system was evaluated for the analysis of ephedrine alkaloids using ephedra-containing National Institute of Standards and Technology dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs) 3241 Ephedra Sinica Stapf Native Extract and 3242 Ephedra Sinica Stapf Commercial Extract. The ephedrine alkaloids were separated by reversed-phase chromatography using a phenyl column at room temperature. A linear gradient method with a mobile phase composition varying from 5:95 [MeOH:0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water] to 20:80 (MeOH:0.1% TFA in water) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, with an analysis time of less than 20 min, was used. The source block temperature was evaluated to determine the optimal operating conditions by monitoring the intensities and fragmentation patterns of the ephedrine alkaloids. Ephedrine and N-methylephedrine were taken as a representative of the test alkaloids. The LODs on the sub-nanogram level were achieved, with ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and methylephedrine in the SRMs quantified by a standard addition method with recoveries of > or = 86% and RSDs of < or = 14% (n = 3).

  14. Mineralogy and instrumental neutron activation analysis of seven National Bureau of Standards and three Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas clay reference samples (United States)

    Hosterman, John W.; Flanagan, F.J.; Bragg, Anne; Doughten, M.W.; Filby, R.H.; Grimm, Catherine; Mee, J.S.; Potts, P.J.; Rogers, N.W.


    The concentrations of 3 oxides and 29 elements in 7 National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and 3 Instituto de Pesquisas Techno16gicas (IPT) reference clay samples were etermined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The analytical work was designed to test the homogeneity of constituents in three new NBS reference clays, NBS-97b, NBS-98b, and NBS-679. The analyses of variance of 276 sets of data for these three standards show that the constituents are distributed homogeneously among bottles of samples for 94 percent of the sets of data. Three of the reference samples (NBS-97, NBS-97a, and NBS-97b) are flint clays; four of the samples (NBS-98, NBS-98a, NBS-98b, and IPT-32) are plastic clays, and three of the samples (NBS-679, IPT-28, and IPT-42) are miscellaneous clays (both sedimentary and residual). Seven clays are predominantly kaolinite; the other three clays contain illite and kaolinite in the approximate ratio 3:2. Seven clays contain quartz as the major nonclay mineral. The mineralogy of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri (NBS-97a and NBS-98a) differs markedly from that of the flint and plastic clays from Pennsylvania (NBS-97, NBS-97b, NBS-98, and NBS-98b). The flint clay NBS-97 has higher average chromium, hafnium, lithium, and zirconium contents than its replacement, reference sample NBS-97b. The differences between the plastic clay NBS-98 and its replacement, NBS-98b, are not as pronounced. The trace element contents of the flint and plastic clays from Missouri, NBS-97a and NBS-98a, differ significantly from those of the clays from Pennsylvania, especially the average rare earth element (REE) contents. The trace element contents of clay sample IPT-32 differ from those of the other plastic clays. IPT-28 and IPT-42 have some average trace element contents that differ not only between these two samples but also from all the other clays. IPT-28 has the highest summation of the average REE contents of the 10 samples. The uranium content of NBS-98a, 46

  15. ['Gold standard', not 'golden standard'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, J.A.H.R.


    In medical literature, both 'gold standard' and 'golden standard' are employed to describe a reference test used for comparison with a novel method. The term 'gold standard' in its current sense in medical research was coined by Rudd in 1979, in reference to the monetary gold standard. In the same

  16. Stability of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode equipped with an ionic liquid salt bridge composed of 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)-amide in potentiometry of pH standard buffers. (United States)

    Shibata, Manabu; Yamanuki, Mikito; Iwamoto, Yasukazu; Nomura, Satoshi; Kakiuchi, Takashi


    The stability of a Ag/AgCl reference electrode equipped with a gelled ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-octylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide (C(8)mimC(1)C(1)N), as a salt bridge, was examined in the potentiometry of pH standard solutions. The variation in the liquid junction potential (LJP) of the ionic liquid (IL)-type reference electrode, measured with respect to a double junction-type KCl reference electrode, was within 1 mV when one standard solution was replaced by another, except for the phthalate standard. The time course of the potential of the IL-type reference electrode showed a standard deviation of ±0.3 mV in all buffer solutions. The reproducible deviation of the potential of the IL-type reference electrode in the phthalate pH standard amounted to 5 mV. The deviation is due to the partition of the hydrogen phthalate in the C(8)mimC(1)C(1)N, influencing the phase boundary potential (PBP) across the interface between C(8)mimC(1)C(1)N and the phthalate standard. If a citrate standard is used instead of the phthalate buffer, the IL salt bridge works satisfactorily as a salt bridge for a reference electrode suitable for potentiometoric pH measurements.

  17. Preclinical evaluation of an MR-compatible microwave ablation system and comparison with a standard microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Rüdiger; Kessler, David-Emanuel; Weiss, Jakob; Clasen, Stephan; Pereira, Philippe L; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Rempp, Hansjörg


    Evaluation of a newly developed MR-compatible microwave ablation system with focus on ablation performance and comparison with a corresponding standard microwave ablation system. A total of 52 ablations were performed with a non-cooled microwave ablation system in an ex vivo bovine liver model using the following settings: [A] 16G-standard antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [B] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, 2.4 m cable; [C] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 2 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable; and [D] MR-compatible 16G-antenna, 4 cm active tip, extended 6 m cable. Ablation durations were 3, 5 and 10 min, and additionally 15 min for [D]. Ablations zones were measured for short-axis diameter (SA) and long-axis diameter (LA). Settings [A]-[C] were compared regarding SA, volume (V) and generator energy output (E) with analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. Ablation performance of the MR-compatible settings [C] and [D] were compared regarding SA, V, E and sphericity index (SA/LA) with unpaired t-test. p standard system.

  18. Photo anthropometric variations in Japanese facial features: Establishment of large-sample standard reference data for personal identification using a three-dimensional capture system. (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Wada, B; Taniguchi, K; Miyasaka, S; Imaizumi, K


    This study clarifies the anthropometric variations of the Japanese face by presenting large-sample population data of photo anthropometric measurements. The measurements can be used as standard reference data for the personal identification of facial images in forensic practices. To this end, three-dimensional (3D) facial images of 1126 Japanese individuals (865 male and 261 female Japanese individuals, aged 19-60 years) were acquired as samples using an already validated 3D capture system, and normative anthropometric analysis was carried out. In this anthropometric analysis, first, anthropological landmarks (22 items, i.e., entocanthion (en), alare (al), cheilion (ch), zygion (zy), gonion (go), sellion (se), gnathion (gn), labrale superius (ls), stomion (sto), labrale inferius (li)) were positioned on each 3D facial image (the direction of which had been adjusted to the Frankfort horizontal plane as the standard position for appropriate anthropometry), and anthropometric absolute measurements (19 items, i.e., bientocanthion breadth (en-en), nose breadth (al-al), mouth breadth (ch-ch), bizygomatic breadth (zy-zy), bigonial breadth (go-go), morphologic face height (se-gn), upper-lip height (ls-sto), lower-lip height (sto-li)) were exported using computer software for the measurement of a 3D digital object. Second, anthropometric indices (21 items, i.e., (se-gn)/(zy-zy), (en-en)/(al-al), (ls-li)/(ch-ch), (ls-sto)/(sto-li)) were calculated from these exported measurements. As a result, basic statistics, such as the mean values, standard deviations, and quartiles, and details of the distributions of these anthropometric results were shown. All of the results except "upper/lower lip ratio (ls-sto)/(sto-li)" were normally distributed. They were acquired as carefully as possible employing a 3D capture system and 3D digital imaging technologies. The sample of images was much larger than any Japanese sample used before for the purpose of personal identification. The

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of MRI in adults with suspect brachial plexus lesions: A multicentre retrospective study with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto, E-mail: [Institute of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Genoa, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Succio, Giulia; Serafini, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, Santa Corona Hospital, Pietra Ligure, Italy via XXV Aprile, 38- Pietra Ligure, 17027 Savona (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [Radiology Department, DISC, Università di Genova, Largo Rosanna Benzi 8, 16138 Genova (Italy)


    Objective: To evaluate brachial plexus MRI accuracy with surgical findings and clinical follow-up as reference standard in a large multicentre study. Materials and methods: The research was approved by the Institutional Review Boards, and all patients provided their written informed consent. A multicentre retrospective trial that included three centres was performed between March 2006 and April 2011. A total of 157 patients (men/women: 81/76; age range, 18–84 years) were evaluated: surgical findings and clinical follow-up of at least 12 months were used as the reference standard. MR imaging was performed with different equipment at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. The patient group was divided in five subgroups: mass lesion, traumatic injury, entrapment syndromes, post-treatment evaluation, and other. Sensitivity, specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), positive predictive value (PPV), pre-test-probability (the prevalence), negative predictive value (NPV), pre- and post-test odds (OR), likelihood ratio for positive results (LH+), likelihood ratio for negative results (LH−), accuracy and post-test probability (post-P) were reported on a per-patient basis. Results: The overall sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs were: 0.810/0.914; (0.697–0.904). Overall PPV, pre-test probability, NPV, LH+, LH−, and accuracy: 0.823, 0.331, 0.905, 9.432, 0.210, 0.878. Conclusions: The overall diagnostic accuracy of brachial plexus MRI calculated on a per-patient base is relatively high. The specificity of brachial plexus MRI in patients suspected of having a space-occupying mass is very high. The sensitivity is also high, but there are false-positive interpretations as well.

  20. Comparative Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Serological Assays Using Clinically and Serologically Defined Reference Standards and Latent Class Analysis▿ (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Claudia; de Souza, Vanda Akico; Sumita, Laura Masami; Freire, Wilton; Munoz, Fernando; Kim, Joseph; Pannuti, Claudio S.; Mayaud, Philippe


    Accurate determination of infection with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been hindered by the lack of a “gold standard” for comparison of serological assays used to estimate KSHV prevalence in serosurveys conducted in different settings. We have evaluated the performance of five in-house (developed at University College London [UCL], United Kingdom, and at the virology laboratory of the Instituto de Medicine Tropical [IMT] in Sao Paulo, Brazil) and two commercial (ABI and DIAVIR) serological assays to detect antibodies to latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) and to lytic KSHV antigens. We used a variety of serum samples assembled to represent populations likely to be at high, intermediate, and low risk of KSHV infection in Brazil. Composite reference standard panels were prepared based on clinical and serological parameters, against which assay performances were assessed using conventional Bayesian statistics and latent class analysis (LCA). Against the clinical reference standard, in-house immunofluorescence assays to detect anti-LANA antibodies (IFA-LANA) produced at UCL and IMT had similar performances, with sensitivities of 61% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48% to 74%) and 72% (95% CI, 58% to 83%) and specificities of 99% (95% CI, 94% to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, 96% to 100%), respectively, and only the IMT IFA-LANA was included in LCA, together with the IMT IFA-lytic and four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The LCA indicated that the IMT whole-virus ELISA performed best (sensitivity, 87% [95% CI, 81% to 91%]; and specificity, 100% [95% CI, 98% to 100%]), confirming the results obtained with the conventional statistical approach. Commercially available ELISA-based tests yielded the lowest specificities using a spectrum of serum samples. The evaluation of KSHV serological assays is warranted before planning serosurveys in various settings. PMID:17182752

  1. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model. (United States)

    Atherton, Rachel R; Williams, Jane E; Wells, Jonathan C K; Fewtrell, Mary S


    Clinical application of body composition (BC) measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. (1) To compare fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) standard deviation scores (SDS) generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C) model; (2) To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy), BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT); and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2)/Z)) in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients). DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement) FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62); FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72)), and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2). BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  2. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2. (United States)

    Brunzendorf, Jens


    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time.

  3. Inter-laboratory comparison on the size and stability of monodisperse and bimodal synthetic reference particles for standardization of extracellular vesicle measurements (United States)

    Nicolet, Anaïs; Meli, Felix; van der Pol, Edwin; Yuana, Yuana; Gollwitzer, Christian; Krumrey, Michael; Cizmar, Petr; Buhr, Egbert; Pétry, Jasmine; Sebaihi, Noham; de Boeck, Bert; Fokkema, Vincent; Bergmans, Rob; Nieuwland, Rienk


    In future, measurements of extracellular vesicles in body fluids could become a standard diagnostic tool in medicine. For this purpose, reliable and traceable methods, which can be easily applied in hospitals, have to be established. Within the European Metrological Research Project (EMRP) ‘Metrological characterization of micro-vesicles from body fluids as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers’ (, various nanoparticle reference materials were developed and characterized. We present results of an international comparison among four national metrology institutes and a university hospital. The size distributions of five monodisperse and two bimodal spherical particle samples with diameters ranging from 50 nm to 315 nm made out of silica and polystyrene were compared. Furthermore, the stability of the samples was verified over a period of 18 months. While monodisperse reference particle samples above a certain size level lead to good agreements of the size measurements among the different methods, small and bimodal samples show the limitations of current ‘clinical’ methods. All samples proved to be stable within the uncertainty of the applied methods.

  4. Lateral resolution of nanoscaled images delivered by surface-analytical instruments: application of the BAM-L200 certified reference material and related ISO standards. (United States)

    Senoner, M; Maassdorf, A; Rooch, H; Österle, W; Malcher, M; Schmidt, M; Kollmer, F; Paul, D; Hodoroaba, V-D; Rades, S; Unger, W E S


    The certified reference material BAM-L200, a nanoscale stripe pattern for length calibration and specification of lateral resolution, is described. BAM-L200 is prepared from a cross-sectioned epitaxially grown layer stack of AlxGa1-xAs and InxGa1-xAs on a GaAs substrate. The surface of BAM-L200 provides a flat pattern with stripe widths ranging down to 1 nm. Calibration distances, grating periods and stripe widths have been certified by TEM with traceability to the length unit. The combination of gratings, isolated narrow stripes and sharp edges of wide stripes offers plenty of options for the determination of lateral resolution, sharpness and calibration of length scale at selected settings of imaging surface-analytical instruments. The feasibility of the reference material for an analysis of the lateral resolution is demonstrated in detail by evaluation of ToF-SIMS, AES and EDX images. Other applications developed in the community are summarized, too. BAM-L200 fully supports the implementation of the revised International Standard ISO 18516 (in preparation) which is based on knowledge outlined in the Technical Report ISO/TR 19319:2013.

  5. In vitro and in vivo comparison of optics and performance of a distal sensor ureteroscope versus a standard fiberoptic ureteroscope. (United States)

    Lusch, Achim; Abdelshehid, Corollos; Hidas, Guy; Osann, Kathryn E; Okhunov, Zhamshid; McDougall, Elspeth; Landman, Jaime


    Recent advances in distal sensor technologies have made distal sensor ureteroscopes both commercially and technically feasible. We evaluated performance characteristics and optics of a new generation distal sensor Flex-X(C) (X(C)) and a standard flexible fiberoptic ureteroscope Flex-X(2) (X(2)), both from Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany. The ureteroscopes were compared for active deflection, irrigation flow, and optical characteristics. Each ureteroscope was evaluated with an empty working channel and with various accessories. Optical characteristics (resolution, grayscale imaging, and color representation) were measured using United States Air Force test targets. We digitally recorded a renal porcine ureteroscopy and laser ablation of a stone with the X(2) and with the X(C). Edited footage of the recorded procedure was shown to different expert surgeons (n=8) on a high-definition monitor for evaluation by questionnaire for image quality and performance. The X(C) had a higher resolution than the X(2) at 20 and 10 mm 3.17 lines/mm vs 1.41 lines/mm, 10.1 vs 3.56, respectively (P=0.003, P=0.002). Color representation was better in the X(C). There was no difference in contrast quality between the two ureteroscopes. For each individual ureteroscope, the upward deflection was greater than the downward deflection both with and without accessories. When compared with the X(2), the X(C) manifested superior deflection and flow (Psuperior in visualization in clear and bloody fields, as well as for illumination (P=0.0005, P=0.002, P=0.0125). In this in vitro and porcine evaluation, the distal sensor ureteroscope provided significantly improved resolution, color representation, and visualization in the upper urinary tract compared with a standard fiberoptic ureteroscope. The overall deflection was also better in the X(C), and deflection as well as flow rate was less impaired by the various accessories.

  6. Antropometria de atletas culturistas em relação à referência populacional Anthropometry of body builders in relation to the population standard

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    Naílza MAESTÁ


    Full Text Available Atletas de culturismo têm como alvo de treinamento a hipertrofia muscular e a redução da adiposidade. A falta de referências antropométricas apropriadas pode levar esses indivíduos a serem erroneamente considerados em situação de sobrepeso ou desnutrição. Portanto, objetivamos comparar a composição corporal de atletas de culturismo com os padrões populacionais. Foram avaliados 36 atletas, de ambos os sexos, 26 do sexo masculino (27,2 ± 7,2 anos e 10 do sexo feminino (30,0 ± 6,1 anos, por ocasião da competição nacional, quanto aos indicadores antropométricos de peso, estatura, índice de massa corpórea, pregas cutâneas, adiposidade corpórea e circunferência muscular do braço. Os resultados foram referidos quanto à posição percentual ou de desvios-padrão (pelo escore Z tendo como referências padrões populacionais locais. Como resultado, encontramos que os indicadores com menor contraste com os padrões adotados foram peso e estatura e os maiores contrastes foram encontrados na circunferência muscular do braço para os homens, e pregas cutâneas tricipital para as mulheres. Pelo indicador muscular todos foram classificados como obesos ou sobrepeso, enquanto que pela prega cutânea tricipital e adiposidade corpórea, a desnutrição esteve presente em 100,0% das mulheres e 88,5% dos homens. Fica evidenciada a inadequação da utilização do padrão antropométrico populacional para a classificação nutricional de atletas de força, em particular culturistas, sendo assim necessário o estabelecimento de padrões próprios para esse tipo de treinamento (modalidade.Body builders have as their training goals the maximum muscle hypertrophy with minimum adiposity. However, the scarcity of specific standards implies often in framing wrongly those athletes either as overweight (by their BMI or energy malnourished (by their fat stores. The objective of this study was to compare the body composition of body builders with

  7. Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expression

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    Vesentini Nicoletta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression. Results In an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R rat model we evaluated gene expression of mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic superoxide dismutase (MnSod, Cu-ZnSod and thioredoxin reductase (trxr1 upon short (4 h and long (72 h reperfusion times in the right ventricle (RV, and in the ischemic/reperfused (IRR and the remote region (RR of the left ventricle. Gene expression was assessed by Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. In order to select most stable reference genes suitable for normalization purposes, in each myocardial region we tested nine putative reference genes by geNorm analysis. The genes investigated were: Actin beta (actb, Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (gapdh, Ribosomal protein L13A (rpl13a, Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (ywhaz, Beta-glucuronidase (gusb, Hypoxanthine guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt, TATA binding box protein (tbp, Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs, Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (papbn1. According to our findings, most stable reference genes in the RV and RR were hmbs/hprt and hmbs/tbp/hprt respectively. In the IRR, six reference genes were recommended for normalization purposes; however, in view of experimental feasibility limitations, target gene expression could be normalized against the three most stable reference genes (ywhaz/pabp/hmbs without loss of sensitivity. In all cases MnSod and Cu-ZnSod expression decreased upon long reperfusion, the former in all myocardial regions and the latter in IRR alone. trxr1 expression did not vary. Conclusions This study provides a validation of reference genes in the RV and in the anterior and posterior wall of the LV of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model and shows that gene expression should be assessed separately in

  8. Selection of reference genes in different myocardial regions of an in vivo ischemia/reperfusion rat model for normalization of antioxidant gene expression. (United States)

    Vesentini, Nicoletta; Barsanti, Cristina; Martino, Alessandro; Kusmic, Claudia; Ripoli, Andrea; Rossi, AnnaMaria; L'Abbate, Antonio


    Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression. In an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model we evaluated gene expression of mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic superoxide dismutase (MnSod, Cu-ZnSod) and thioredoxin reductase (trxr1) upon short (4 h) and long (72 h) reperfusion times in the right ventricle (RV), and in the ischemic/reperfused (IRR) and the remote region (RR) of the left ventricle. Gene expression was assessed by Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In order to select most stable reference genes suitable for normalization purposes, in each myocardial region we tested nine putative reference genes by geNorm analysis. The genes investigated were: Actin beta (actb), Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (gapdh), Ribosomal protein L13A (rpl13a), Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (ywhaz), Beta-glucuronidase (gusb), Hypoxanthine guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt), TATA binding box protein (tbp), Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs), Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (papbn1). According to our findings, most stable reference genes in the RV and RR were hmbs/hprt and hmbs/tbp/hprt respectively. In the IRR, six reference genes were recommended for normalization purposes; however, in view of experimental feasibility limitations, target gene expression could be normalized against the three most stable reference genes (ywhaz/pabp/hmbs) without loss of sensitivity. In all cases MnSod and Cu-ZnSod expression decreased upon long reperfusion, the former in all myocardial regions and the latter in IRR alone. trxr1 expression did not vary. This study provides a validation of reference genes in the RV and in the anterior and posterior wall of the LV of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model and shows that gene expression should be assessed separately in each region.

  9. Characterization of Individual Isopropylated and tert-Butylated Triarylphosphate (ITP and TBPP) Isomers in Several Commercial Flame Retardant Mixtures and House Dust Standard Reference Material SRM 2585. (United States)

    Phillips, Allison L; Hammel, Stephanie C; Konstantinov, Alex; Stapleton, Heather M


    Since the phase-out of pentaBDE in the early 2000s, replacement flame-retardant mixtures including Firemaster 550 (FM 550), Firemaster 600 (FM 600), and organophosphate aryl ester technical mixtures have been increasingly used to treat polyurethane foam in residential upholstered furniture. These mixtures contain isomers of isopropylated and tert-butylated triarylphosphate esters (ITPs and TBPPs), which have similar or greater neuro- and developmental toxicity compared to BDE 47 in high-throughput assays. Additionally, human exposure to ITPs and TBPPs has been demonstrated to be widespread in several recent studies; however, the relative composition of these mixtures has remained largely uncharacterized. Using available authentic standards, the present study quantified the contribution of individual ITP and TBPP isomers in four commercial flame retardant mixtures: FM 550, FM 600, an ITP mixture, and a TBPP mixture. Findings suggest similarities between FM 550 and the ITP mixture, with 2-isopropylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (2IPPDPP), 2,4-diisopropylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (24DIPPDPP), and bis(2-isopropylphenyl) phenyl phosphate (B2IPPPP) being the most prevalent ITP isomers in both mixtures. FM 600 differed from FM 550 in that it contained TBPP isomers instead of ITP isomers. These analytes were also detected and quantified in a house dust standard reference material, SRM 2585, demonstrating their environmental relevance.

  10. Simultaneous screening for osteoporosis at CT colonography: bone mineral density assessment using MDCT attenuation techniques compared with the DXA reference standard. (United States)

    Pickhardt, Perry J; Lee, Lawrence J; del Rio, Alejandro Muñoz; Lauder, Travis; Bruce, Richard J; Summers, Ron M; Pooler, B Dustin; Binkley, Neil


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of lumbar spine attenuation measurement for bone mineral density (BMD) assessment at screening computed tomographic colonography (CTC) using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference standard. Two-hundred and fifty-two adults (240 women and 12 men; mean age 58.9 years) underwent CTC screening and central DXA BMD measurement within 2 months (mean interval 25.0 days). The lowest DXA T-score between the spine and hip served as the reference standard, with low BMD defined per World Health Organization as osteoporosis (DXA T-score ≤ -2.5) or osteopenia (DXA T-score between -1.0 and -2.4). Both phantomless quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and simple nonangled region-of-interest (ROI) multi-detector CT (MDCT) attenuation measurements were applied to the T(12) -L(5) levels. The ability to predict osteoporosis and low BMD (osteoporosis or osteopenia) by DXA was assessed. A BMD cut-off of 90 mg/mL at phantomless QCT yielded 100% sensitivity for osteoporosis (29 of 29) and a specificity of 63.8% (143 of 224); 87.2% (96 of 110) below this threshold had low BMD and 49.6% (69 of 139) above this threshold had normal BMD at DXA. At L(1) , a trabecular ROI attenuation cut-off of 160 HU was 100% sensitive for osteoporosis (29 of 29), with a specificity of 46.4% (104 of 224); 83.9% (125 of 149) below this threshold had low BMD and 57.5% (59/103) above had normal BMD at DXA. ROI performance was similar at all individual T(12) -L(5) levels. At ROC analysis, AUC for osteoporosis was 0.888 for phantomless QCT [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.780-0.946] and ranged from 0.825 to 0.853 using trabecular ROIs at single lumbar levels (0.864; 95% CI 0.752-0.930 at multivariate analysis). Supine-prone reproducibility was better with the simple ROI method compared with QCT. It is concluded that both phantomless QCT and simple ROI attenuation measurements of the lumbar spine are effective for BMD screening at CTC

  11. In vitro and in vivo effects of standardized extract and fractions of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits pericarp on lead carbohydrate digesting enzymes. (United States)

    Ali, Rabyah B; Atangwho, Item J; Kuar, Navneet; Ahmad, Mariam; Mahmud, Roziahanim; Asmawi, Mohd Z


    One vital therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus is the use of agents that can decrease postprandial hyperglycaemia by inhibiting carbohydrate digesting enzymes. The present study investigated the effects of bioassay-guided extract and fractions of the dried fruit pericarp of Phaleria macrocarpa, a traditional anti-diabetic plant, on α-glucosidase and α-amylase, in a bid to understand their anti-diabetic mechanism, as well as their possible attenuation action on postprandial glucose increase. Methanol extract (ME), obtained by successive solvent extraction, its most effective liquid-liquid n-butanol fraction (NBF) and the flash column chromatographic sub-fraction (SFI), were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase (yeast) and α-amylase (porcine) activity inhibition. Furthermore, confirmatory in vivo tests were carried out in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (SDRs) using oral glucose, sucrose and starch tolerance tests. At the highest concentration employed (100 μg/ml), NBF showed highest inhibition against α-glucosidase (75%) and α-amylase (87%) in vitro (IC50 = 2.40 ± 0.23 μg/ml and 58.50 ± 0.13 μg/ml, respectively) in a dose-dependent fashion; an effect found to be about 20% higher than acarbose (55%), a standard α-glucosidase inhibitor (IC50 = 3.45 ± 0.19 μg/ml). The ME and SFI also inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 = 7.50 ± 0.15 μg/ml and 11.45 ± 0.28 μg/ml) and α-amylase (IC50 = 43.90 ± 0.19 μg/ml and 69.80 ± 0.25 μg/ml), but to a lesser extent. In in vivo studies with diabetic rats, NBF and SFI effectively reduced peak blood glucose (PBG) by 15.08% and 6.46%, and the area under the tolerance curve (AUC) by 14.23% and 12.46%, respectively, after an oral sucrose challenge (P < 0.05); thereby validating the observed in vitro action. These reduction effects on PBG and AUC were also demonstrated in glucose and starch tolerance tests, but to a lesser degree. These findings reveal that P. macrocarpa can attenuate

  12. [Studies on the identification of psychotropic substances. IX. Preparation and various analytical data of reference standard of new psychotropic substances, N-ethyl methylenedioxyamphetamine, N-hydroxy methylenedioxyamphetamine, mecloqualone, 4-methylaminorex, phendimetrazine and phenmetrazine]. (United States)

    Shimamine, M; Takahashi, K; Nakahara, Y


    The reference standards of N-Ethyl methylenedioxyamphetamine, N-Hydroxy methylenedioxy-amphetamine, Mecloqualone, 4-Methylaminorex. Phendimetrazine and Phenmetrazine were chemically prepared from commercial chemicals. Their purities determined by HPLC were more than 99.8%. The standard spectra and chromatograms of the standards such as TLC, UV, IR, HPLC, GC/MS and NMR were measured. For the identification of these six drugs in forensic laboratory, their mass fragmentation and NMR spectra were discussed.

  13. Is PCR the Next Reference Standard for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma in Stool? A Comparison with Microscopy in Senegal and Kenya (United States)

    Meurs, Lynn; Brienen, Eric; Mbow, Moustapha; Ochola, Elizabeth A.; Mboup, Souleymane; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Secor, W. Evan; Polman, Katja; van Lieshout, Lisette


    Background The current reference test for the detection of S. mansoni in endemic areas is stool microscopy based on one or more Kato-Katz stool smears. However, stool microscopy has several shortcomings that greatly affect the efficacy of current schistosomiasis control programs. A highly specific multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the Schistosoma internal transcriber-spacer-2 sequence (ITS2) was developed by our group a few years ago, but so far this PCR has been applied mostly on urine samples. Here, we performed more in-depth evaluation of the ITS2 PCR as an alternative method to standard microscopy for the detection and quantification of Schistosoma spp. in stool samples. Methodology/Principal findings Microscopy and PCR were performed in a Senegalese community (n = 197) in an area with high S. mansoni transmission and co-occurrence of S. haematobium, and in Kenyan schoolchildren (n = 760) from an area with comparatively low S. mansoni transmission. Despite the differences in Schistosoma endemicity the PCR performed very similarly in both areas; 13–15% more infections were detected by PCR when comparing to microscopy of a single stool sample. Even when 2–3 stool samples were used for microscopy, PCR on one stool sample detected more infections, especially in people with light-intensity infections and in children from low-risk schools. The low prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in both populations was confirmed by an additional multiplex PCR. Conclusions/Significance The ITS2-based PCR was more sensitive than standard microscopy in detecting Schistosoma spp. This would be particularly useful for S. mansoni detection in low transmission areas, and post-control settings, and as such improve schistosomiasis control programs, epidemiological research, and quality control of microscopy. Moreover, it can be complemented with other (multiplex real-time) PCRs to detect a wider range of helminths and thus enhance effectiveness of

  14. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and genotoxic effects of fractionated extract of standard reference diesel exhaust particle material in pulmonary, liver and prostate cells. (United States)

    Pálková, Lenka; Vondráček, Jan; Trilecová, Lenka; Ciganek, Miroslav; Pěnčíková, Kateřina; Neča, Jiří; Milcová, Alena; Topinka, Jan; Machala, Miroslav


    Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and the associated complex mixtures of organic pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or their derivatives, have been suggested to exert deleterious effects on human health. We used a set of defined cellular models representing liver, lung and prostate tissues, in order to compare non-genotoxic and genotoxic effects of crude and fractionated extract of a standard reference DEP material - SRM 1650b. We focused on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity, modulation of cell proliferation, formation of DNA adducts, oxidative DNA damage, and induction of DNA damage responses, including evaluation of apoptosis, and phosphorylation of p53 tumor suppressor and checkpoint kinases (Chk). Both PAHs and the polar aromatic compounds contributed to the AhR-mediated activity of DEP-associated organic pollutants. The principal identified AhR agonists included benzo[k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, chrysene and several non-priority PAHs, including benzochrysenes and methylated PAHs. In contrast to PAHs, polar compounds contributed more significantly to overall formation of DNA adducts associated with phosphorylation of p53, Chk1 or Chk2, and partly with apoptosis. Therefore, more attention should be paid to identification of DEP-associated polar organic compounds, contributing to the AhR activation and cytotoxic/genotoxic effects of complex airborne mixtures of organic contaminants produced by diesel engines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Simultaneous determination of four active components in Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. by HPLC–DAD using a single reference standard

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    Yao-Wen Zhang


    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and practical high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array detector (HPLC–DAD was developed to evaluate the quality of Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz. through a simultaneous determination of four major active triterpenes using a single standard to determine the multi-components (SSDMCs. Alisol B 23-acetate was selected as the reference compound for calculating the relative response factors. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.9998 within test ranges. RSDs for intra- and inter-day of four analytes were less than 3.6% and 2.3%; the overall recovery was 92.1–110.2% (SSDMC. The proposed method was successfully applied to quantify the four components in 20 samples from different localities in China. Moreover, significant variations were demonstrated in the content of these compounds. In addition, hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA and principal components analysis (PCA were performed to differentiate and classify the samples based on the contents of Alisol C 23-acetate, Alisol A, Alisol A 24-acetate and Alisol B 23-acetate. This simple, rapid, low-cost and reliable HPLC–DAD method using SSDMC is suitable for routine quantitative analysis and quality control of A. orientale (Sam. Juz. Keywords: SSDMC, Alisma orientale (Sam. Juz, Quality control, HCA, PCA

  16. Comparison of the permeability of metoprolol and labetalol in rat, mouse, and Caco-2 cells: use as a reference standard for BCS classification. (United States)

    Incecayir, Tuba; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L


    The purpose of this study was to investigate labetalol as a potential high permeability reference standard for the application of Biopharmaceutics Classification Systems (BCS). Permeabilities of labetalol and metoprolol were investigated in animal intestinal perfusion models and Caco-2 cell monolayers. After isolating specific intestinal segments, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusions (SPIP) were performed in rats and mice. The effective permeabilities (Peff) of labetalol and metoprolol, an FDA standard for the low/high Peff class boundary, were investigated in two different segments of rat intestine (proximal jejunum and distal ileum) and in the proximal jejunum of mouse. No significant difference was found between Peff of metoprolol and labetalol in the jejunum and ileum of rat (0.33 ± 0.11 × 10(-4) vs 0.38 ± 0.06 × 10(-4) and 0.57 ± 0.17 × 10(-4) vs 0.64 ± 0.30 × 10(-4) cm/s, respectively) and in the jejunum of mouse (0.55 ± 0.05 × 10(-4) vs 0.59 ± 0.13 × 10(-4) cm/s). However, Peff of metoprolol and labetalol were 1.7 and 1.6 times higher in the jejunum of mouse, compared to the jejunum of rat, respectively. Metoprolol and labetalol showed segmental-dependent permeability through the rat intestine, with increased Peff in the distal ileum in comparison to the proximal jejunum. Most significantly, Peff of labetalol was found to be concentration-dependent. Decreasing concentrations of labetalol in the perfusate resulted in decreased Peff compared to Peff of metoprolol. The intestinal epithelial permeability of labetalol was lower than that of metoprolol in Caco-2 cells at both apical pH 6.5 and 7.5 (5.96 ± 1.96 × 10(-6) vs 9.44 ± 3.44 × 10(-6) and 15.9 ± 2.2 × 10(-6) vs 23.2 ± 7.1 × 10(-6) cm/s, respectively). Labetalol exhibited higher permeability in basolateral to apical (BL-AP) compared to AP-BL direction in Caco-2 cells at 0.1 times the highest dose strength (HDS) (46.7 ± 6.5 × 10(-6) vs 14.2 ± 1.5 × 10(-6) cm/s). The P

  17. Hybrid M-mode-like OCT imaging of three-dimensional microvasculature in vivo using reference-free processing of complex valued B-scans (United States)

    Matveev, Lev A.; Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Ksenofontov, Sergey Yu.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Sirotkina, Marina A.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Demidov, Valentin; Vitkin, Alex


    We propose a novel OCT-based method for visualizing microvasculature in 3D using reference-free processing of individual complex-valued B-scans with highly overlapped A-scans. In the lateral direction of such a B-scan, the amplitude and phase of speckles corresponding to vessel regions exhibit faster variability, and thus can be detected without comparison with other B-scans recorded in the same plane. This method combines elements of several existing OCT angiographic approaches, and exhibits: (i) enhanced robustness with respect to bulk tissue motion with frequencies up to tens of Hz; (ii) resolution of microcirculation images equal to that of structural images and (iii) possibility of quantifying the vessels in terms of their decorrelation rates.

  18. Quantifying nanomolar levels of nitrite in biological samples by HPLC-Griess method: special reference to arterio-venous difference in vivo. (United States)

    Ishibashi, Takaharu; Miwa, Tomoko; Shinkawa, Ikumi; Nishizawa, Naoki; Nomura, Mihoko; Yoshida, Junko; Kawada, Tomie; Nishio, Matomo


    Nitrite (NO(2)(-)) is assumed to play an important role in regulation of vascular tone as a reservoir of nitric oxide (NO). To examine its physiological contribution, however, a sensitive method is required for determination of the true level of NO(2)(-) in biological samples. To this end, practical consideration to avoid NO(2)(-) contamination through the quantification procedure is important. We present here a highly sensitive and accurate method for determining NO(2)(-) in plasma by improving the HPLC-Griess system with minimal NO(2)(-) contamination in the samples. The system achieved high sensitivity (detection limit of 2 nM and sensitivity to 1 nM) and complete separation of the NO(2)(-) signal peak by modifying the system setup and mobile phase. Using this method, we achieved acceptable quantification of low NO(2)(-) levels in plasma. Deproteinization by ultrafiltration and exposure to atmosphere before measurement were identified as the major sources of NO(2)(-) contamination during sample processing. We addressed these issues by the use of methanol for deproteinization and gas-tight caps. These countermeasures allowed us to detect small arterio-venous NO(2)(-) differences in rabbit plasma that may indicate kinetic difference of NO(2)(-) in a small number of samples (n = 6). This difference became prominent when NO(2)(-) or a NO releasing agent, NOR1, was intravenously applied. Our results indicate that application of a sensitive method with careful handling is important for accurate determination of NO(2)(-) and that our method is applicable for further examination of the kinetic features of NO(2)(-) in vivo.

  19. Reference data on muscle volumes of healthy human pelvis and lower extremity muscles: an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging feasibility study. (United States)

    Lube, Juliane; Cotofana, Sebastian; Bechmann, Ingo; Milani, Thomas L; Özkurtul, Orkun; Sakai, Tatsuo; Steinke, Hanno; Hammer, Niels


    Muscle volumes are of crucial interest when attempting to analyze individual physical performance and disease- or age-related alterations in muscle morphology. However, very little reference data are available in the literature on pelvis and lower extremity muscle volumes originating from healthy and young individuals. Furthermore, it is of interest if representative muscle volumes, covering large anatomical regions, can be obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a setting similar to the clinical routine. Our objective was therefore to provide encompassing, bilateral, 3-T MRI-based datasets on muscle volumes of the pelvis and the lower limb muscles. T1-weighted 3-T MRI records were obtained bilaterally from six young and healthy participants. Three-dimensional volumes were compiled from 28 muscles and muscle groups of each participant before the muscle volumes were computed. Muscle volumes were obtained from 28 muscles and muscle groups of the pelvis and lower extremity. Volumes were larger in male than in female participants. Volumes of the dominant and non-dominant sides were similar in both genders. The obtained results were in line with volumetric data obtained from smaller anatomical areas, thus extending the available datasets. This study provides an encompassing and feasible approach to obtain data on the muscle volumes of pelvic and limb muscles of healthy, young, and physically active individuals. The respective data form a basis to determine effects of therapeutic approaches, progression of diseases, or technical applications like automated segmentation algorithms applied to different populations.

  20. Phenotypic characterization of an international Pseudomonas aeruginosa reference panel: strains of cystic fibrosis (CF) origin show less in vivo virulence than non-CF strains. (United States)

    Cullen, Louise; Weiser, Rebecca; Olszak, Tomasz; Maldonado, Rita F; Moreira, Ana S; Slachmuylders, Lisa; Brackman, Gilles; Paunova-Krasteva, Tsvetelina S; Zarnowiec, Paulina; Czerwonka, Grzegorz; Reilly, James; Drevinek, Pavel; Kaca, Wieslaw; Melter, Oto; De Soyza, Anthony; Perry, Audrey; Winstanley, Craig; Stoitsova, Stoyanka R; Lavigne, Rob; Mahenthiralingam, Eshwar; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Coenye, Tom; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna; Augustyniak, Daria; Valvano, Miguel A; McClean, Siobhán


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and acute opportunistic infections in people without CF. Forty-two P. aeruginosa strains from a range of clinical and environmental sources were collated into a single reference strain panel to harmonise research on this diverse opportunistic pathogen. To facilitate further harmonized and comparable research on P. aeruginosa, we characterized the panel strains for growth rates, motility, virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model, pyocyanin and alginate production, mucoid phenotype, LPS pattern, biofilm formation, urease activity, and antimicrobial and phage susceptibilities. Phenotypic diversity across the P. aeruginosa panel was apparent for all phenotypes examined, agreeing with the marked variability seen in this species. However, except for growth rate, the phenotypic diversity among strains from CF versus non-CF sources was comparable. CF strains were less virulent in the G. mellonella model than non-CF strains (P = 0.037). Transmissible CF strains generally lacked O-antigen, produced less pyocyanin and had low virulence in G. mellonella. Furthermore, in the three sets of sequential CF strains, virulence, O-antigen expression and pyocyanin production were higher in the earlier isolate compared to the isolate obtained later in infection. Overall, this full phenotypic characterization of the defined panel of P. aeruginosa strains increases our understanding of the virulence and pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa and may provide a valuable resource for the testing of novel therapies against this problematic pathogen.

  1. How accurately does the VIVO Harvester reflect actual Clinical and Translational Sciences Award-affiliated faculty member publications? (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan D; Kroth, Philip J; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Hantak, Chad M; Weagel, Edward F; Hannigan, Gale G


    The research tested the accuracy of the VIVO Harvester software in identifying publications authored by faculty members affiliated with a National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Sciences Award (CTSA) site. Health sciences librarians created "gold standard" lists of references for the years 2001 to 2011 from PubMed for twenty-five randomly selected investigators from one CTSA site. These gold standard lists were compared to the same twenty-five investigators' reference lists produced by VIVO Harvester. The authors subjected the discrepancies between the lists to sensitivity and specificity analyses. The VIVO Harvester correctly identified only about 65% of the total eligible PubMed references for the years 2001-2011 for the CTSA-affiliated investigators. The identified references produced by VIVO Harvester were precise yet incomplete. The sensitivity rate was 0.65, and the specificity rate was 1.00. While the references produced by VIVO Harvester could be confirmed in PubMed, the VIVO Harvester retrieved only two-thirds of the required references from PubMed. National Institutes of Health CTSA sites will need to supplement VIVO Harvester-produced references with the expert searching skills of health sciences librarians. Health sciences librarians with searching skills need to alert their CTSA sites about these deficiencies and offer their skills to advance their sites' missions.

  2. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges (United States)

    Woodall, George M.; Hoover, Mark D.; Williams, Ronald; Benedict, Kristen; Harper, Martin; Soo, Jhy-Charm; Jarabek, Annie M.; Stewart, Michael J.; Brown, James S.; Hulla, Janis E.; Caudill, Motria; Clements, Andrea L.; Kaufman, Amanda; Parker, Alison J.; Keating, Martha; Balshaw, David; Garrahan, Kevin; Burton, Laureen; Batka, Sheila; Limaye, Vijay S.; Hakkinen, Pertti J.; Thompson, Bob


    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes) readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days) associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM), ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG) was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement. PMID:29093969

  3. Interpreting Mobile and Handheld Air Sensor Readings in Relation to Air Quality Standards and Health Effect Reference Values: Tackling the Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George M. Woodall


    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and other federal agencies face a number of challenges in interpreting and reconciling short-duration (seconds to minutes readings from mobile and handheld air sensors with the longer duration averages (hours to days associated with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS for the criteria pollutants-particulate matter (PM, ozone, carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides. Similar issues are equally relevant to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs where chemical-specific health effect reference values are the best indicators of exposure limits; values which are often based on a lifetime of continuous exposure. A multi-agency, staff-level Air Sensors Health Group (ASHG was convened in 2013. ASHG represents a multi-institutional collaboration of Federal agencies devoted to discovery and discussion of sensor technologies, interpretation of sensor data, defining the state of sensor-related science across each institution, and provides consultation on how sensors might effectively be used to meet a wide range of research and decision support needs. ASHG focuses on several fronts: improving the understanding of what hand-held sensor technologies may be able to deliver; communicating what hand-held sensor readings can provide to a number of audiences; the challenges of how to integrate data generated by multiple entities using new and unproven technologies; and defining best practices in communicating health-related messages to various audiences. This review summarizes the challenges, successes, and promising tools of those initial ASHG efforts and Federal agency progress on crafting similar products for use with other NAAQS pollutants and the HAPs. NOTE: The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessary represent the opinions of their Federal Agencies or the US Government. Mention of product names does not constitute endorsement.

  4. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray


    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  5. Methodological standardization for a multi-institutional in vivo trial of localized 31P MR spectroscopy in human cancer research. In vitro and normal volunteer studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Mendoza, F.; Zakian, K.L.; Schwartz, A.; Howe, F.A.; Koutcher, J.A.; Leach, M.O.; Griffiths, J.R.; Heerschap, A.; Glickson, J.D.; Nelson, S.J.; Evelhoch, J.L.; Charles, H.C.; Brown, T.R.


    A multi-institutional group has been created to demonstrate the utility of in vivo 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) to study human cancers in vivo. This review is concerned with the novel problems concerning quality control in this large multinational trial of 31P MRS. Our results show

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the genes of mce1 and mce4 operons of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: analysis of clinical isolates and standard reference strains. (United States)

    Pasricha, Rashmi; Chandolia, Amita; Ponnan, Prija; Saini, Neeraj Kumar; Sharma, Sangeeta; Chopra, Madhu; Basil, Mandira Varma; Brahmachari, Vani; Bose, Mridula


    The presence of four mammalian cell entry (mce) operons in Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggests the essentiality of the functions of the genes in these operons. The differential expression of the four mce operons in different phases of in vitro growth and in infected animals reported earlier from our laboratory further justifies the apparent redundancy for these genes in the genome.Here we investigate the extent of polymorphism in eight genes in the mce1 and mce4 operons of M. tuberculosis from four standard reference strains (H37Rv, H37Ra, LVS (Low Virulent Strain) and BCG) and 112 clinical isolates varying in their drug susceptibility profile, analysed by direct sequencing and Sequenom MassARRAY platform. We discovered 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the two operons. The comparative analysis of the genes of mce1 and mce4 operons revealed that yrbE1A [Rv0167] was most polymorphic in mce1 operon while yrbE4A [Rv3501c] and lprN [Rv3495c] had the highest number of SNPs in the mce4 operon. Of 20 SNPs, 12 were found to be nonsynonymous and were further analysed for their pathological relevance to M. tuberculosis using web servers PolyPhen and PMut, which predicted five deleterious nonsynonymous SNPs. A mutation from proline to serine at position 359 of the native Mce1A protein was most deleterious as predicted by both PolyPhen and PMut servers. Energy minimization of the structure of native Mce1A protein and mutated protein was performed using InsightII. The mutated Mce1A protein showed structural changes that could account for the effects of this mutation. Our results show that SNPs in the coding sequences of mce1 and mce4 operons in clinical isolates can be significantly high. Moreover, mce4 operon is significantly more polymorphic than mce1 operon (p operon and synonymous substitutions are more in mce4 operon. In silico modeling predict that nonsynonymous SNP at mce1A [Rv0169], a virulence gene could play a pivotal role in causing functional changes in M

  7. 18 F-FDG PET standard uptake values of the normal pons in children: establishing a reference value for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. (United States)

    Jansen, Marc H A; Kloet, Reina W; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Sophie Em; Witte, Birgit I; Goldman, Serge; Vandertop, W Peter; Comans, Emile Fi; Hoekstra, Otto S; Boellaard, Ronald; Kaspers, Gert-Jan Jl


    Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning with [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) is a useful diagnostic and prediction tool in brain tumors, but its value in childhood diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is still unclear. For interpretation of 18 F-FDG PET results in DIPG, uptake values of the normal pons of children of increasing ages are mandatory. The aim of this study was to determine 18 F-FDG standard uptake value ratios (SUVr) of the normal pons and to compare these to those of DIPG. We studied 36 subjects with a normal, non-affected pons (aged 5 to 23 years) and 6 patients with DIPG (aged 4 to 17 years) who underwent 18 F-FDG PET scanning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was co-registered to define the regions of interest. SUVr and SUVrmax for the pons/cerebellum (SUVrp/c) and the pons/occipital lobe (SUVrp/o) were calculated. Independent-samples t tests and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the mean SUVr and Pearson's test for correlations. For the normal pons, mean SUVrp/c and SUVrp/o were 0.65 (±0.054) and 0.51 (±0.056), respectively. No significant correlations were found between the SUVr of the normal pons and sex, age, nor pontine volume. A modest but statistically significant correlation was found between SUVr and post-injection time acquisition timing. For DIPG, mean SUVrp/c and SUVrp/o were 0.74 (±0.20) and 0.65 (±0.30), respectively, while mean SUVrp(max)/c and SUVrp(max)/o were 1.95 (±0.48) and 1.81 (±0.20), respectively. The SUVr of the unaffected pons are strikingly constant between children, irrespective of sex and age, and can therefore be well used as a reference value for 18 F-FDG PET studies in DIPG.

  8. The case for the continuing use of the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) and the standardization of notation in human mitochondrial DNA studies. (United States)

    Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita; Richards, Martin B; Yao, Yong-Gang; Logan, Ian


    Since the determination in 1981 of the sequence of the human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome, the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS), has been used as the reference sequence to annotate mtDNA in molecular anthropology, forensic science and medical genetics. The CRS was eventually upgraded to the revised version (rCRS) in 1999. This reference sequence is a convenient device for recording mtDNA variation, although it has often been misunderstood as a wild-type (WT) or consensus sequence by medical geneticists. Recently, there has been a proposal to replace the rCRS with the so-called Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence (RSRS). Even if it had been estimated accurately, the RSRS would be a cumbersome substitute for the rCRS, as the new proposal fuses--and thus confuses--the two distinct concepts of ancestral lineage and reference point for human mtDNA. Instead, we prefer to maintain the rCRS and to report mtDNA profiles by employing the hitherto predominant circumfix style. Tree diagrams could display mutations by using either the profile notation (in conventional short forms where appropriate) or in a root-upwards way with two suffixes indicating ancestral and derived nucleotides. This would guard against misunderstandings about reporting mtDNA variation. It is therefore neither necessary nor sensible to change the present reference sequence, the rCRS, in any way. The proposed switch to RSRS would inevitably lead to notational chaos, mistakes and misinterpretations.

  9. Comparison of validity of DIAGNOdent with conventional methods for detection of occlusal caries in primary molars using the histological gold standard: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A


    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to compare the in vivo effectiveness of DIAGNOdent with other conventional methods (visual, tactile and bitewing radiographs for the detection of occlusal caries in primary molars. Another objective of the study was to calculate new cut-off limits for the detection of caries by DIAGNOdent in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four primary molars in 52 children (aged 8-12 years, which were indicated for extraction, were selected and evaluated for dental caries using DIAGNOdent, visual and tactile examination and bitewing radiographs. Histological examination of the sections, prepared subsequent to extraction of the teeth, served as the gold standard for comparison of the above-mentioned methods. Results: When considering enamel caries, values obtained for sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 48.15, 100 and 49.40% for visual examination, 48.15, 100.00 and 49.40% for tactile examination, 49.38, 50.00 and 49.40% for bitewing radiographs, 85.19, 50.00 and 84.34% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 81.48, 100.00 and 81.93% for DIAGNOdent scores interpreted according to newly formulated cut-off limits, respectively. At dentin caries cut-off levels, the values of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for visual examination were 52.78, 89.36 and 73.49%; 50.00, 91.49 and 73.49% for tactile examination; 30.56, 82.98 and 60.24% for bitewing radiographs; 72.22, 76.60 and 74.70% for DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to manufacturer′s cut-off limits and 77.48, 74.47 and 75.90%, respectively, for the DIAGNOdent scores when interpreted according to the newly formulated cut-off limits. Conclusions: DIAGNOdent showed higher sensitivity and accuracy as compared with other conventional methods for detection of enamel caries, whereas for detection of dentinal caries, even though the sensitivity was high, accuracy of the DIAGNOdent device was similar to other

  10. Technical review of the potential use of benthic macroinvertebrate biomonitoring, using the reference condition approach in the setting, monitoring and assessment of agri-environmental performance standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den P.J.; Baird, D.J.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.


    The Reference Condition Approach is increasingly used to assess the ecological status of inland waters. In this report the advantages and disadvantages of this approach are discussed and a new methodology is presented. The advantage of this new approach is that it is flexible, dynamic, allows the

  11. Development of Automated Procedures to Generate Reference Building Models for ASHRAE Standard 90.1 and India’s Building Energy Code and Implementation in OpenStudio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haves, Philip [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jegi, Subhash [International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (India); Garg, Vishal [International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (India); Ravache, Baptiste [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This paper describes a software system for automatically generating a reference (baseline) building energy model from the proposed (as-designed) building energy model. This system is built using the OpenStudio Software Development Kit (SDK) and is designed to operate on building energy models in the OpenStudio file format.

  12. Cross-sectional growth references and implications for the development of an international growth standard for school-aged children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C; Doak, Colleen M; de Munter, Jeroen S L; Kuijper, Lothar D J; Zonneveld, Cor


    Normative data are needed to create a reference that indicates optimal development of weight in relation to height and age, particularly in the face of the unfolding obesity epidemic. The body-mass index (BMI) has some serious limitations: it is a relatively poor predictor of current and future

  13. Standard Setting in Relation to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: The Case of the State Examination of Dutch as a Second Language (United States)

    Bechger, Timo M.; Kuijper, Henk; Maris, Gunter


    This article reports on two related studies carried out to link the State examination of Dutch as a second language to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages (CEFR). In the first study, key persons from institutions for higher education were asked to determine the minimally required language level of beginning students. In the…

  14. Part 2: Sensitivity comparisons of the insect Centroptilum triangulifer to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia magna using standard reference toxicants; NaCl, KCl and CuSO4 (United States)

    Criteria for establishing water quality standards that are protective of all native biota are generally based upon laboratory toxicity tests. These test utilize common model organisms that have established test methods. However, only a small portion of species have established ...

  15. Diagnostic performance of flat-panel CT arthrography for cartilage defect detection in the ankle joint: comparison with MDCT arthrography with gross anatomy as the reference standard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chemouni, David; Champsaur, Pierre; Guenoun, Daphné; Desrousseaux, Julie; Pauly, Vanessa; Le Corroller, Thomas


    The purpose of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance and radiation exposure of flat-panel CT arthrography for cartilage defect detection in the ankle joint to standard MDCT arthrography...

  16. Ten-year evaluation of homogeneous low-density lipoprotein cholesterol methods developed by Japanese manufacturers. Application of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network lipid standardization protocol. (United States)

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Koyama, Isao; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sato, Shinichi; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Kayamori, Yuzo; Kiyama, Masahiko; Kitamura, Akihiko; Shimamoto, Takashi; Ishikawa, Yoshinori


    The risk index for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases in the Japanese metabolic syndrome-focused health checkup program was changed from total cholesterol (TC) to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We discuss the validity of this change with respect to standardization. The beta-quantification procedure of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses the LDL-C reference value as a target. Clinical laboratories and commercial manufacturers use homogeneous LDL-C methods for standardization. (A) For clinical laboratories, LDL-C in 648 samples requested from 108 hospitals was analyzed. (B) Manufacturers participated in the CDC/Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network LDL-C standardization protocol. The standardization was conducted with a performance follow-up for the 10-year period from 1998 to 2008 at 2-year intervals, 6 times. (A) In clinical laboratories, acceptable LDL-C levels within ±4% of the CDC's criteria remained 70.4%, 456 of 648 subjects. Negative maximum bias deviating from the LDL-C target value was -35.8%, -52.5 mg/dL, and positive maximum bias was +24.5%, +32.3 mg/dL. (B) For manufacturers, the standardization achievement rate of the analytical reagent/instrument/calibrator system in the last four standardizations from 2002 to 2008 remained on average 66.6%, far lower than the level required. The standardization achievement rate of homogeneous LDL-C methods was much low-er than that of TC. TC should still be used as a risk index for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The standardization achievement rate of homogeneous LDL-C should be maintained at 100%, at least using samples with normal lipoprotein profiles. The accuracy and specificity of LDL-C should be further improved before practical and clinical use.

  17. Reference citation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brkić, Silvija


    .... This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors...

  18. Experience of Approbation and Target Reference Points of Introduction of the Professional Standard "Pedagogue-Psychologist (Educational psychologist" in Sverdlovsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyagina N.N.


    Full Text Available The experience of application of the professional standard "Pedagogue-psychologist (educational psychologist" in the Sverdlovsk region is described. A regional model for the application of the professional standard developed on the basis of the principles of unity of centralization and decentralization, interdepartmental and network interaction developed by the authors is presented. The main forms and methods of work on the application of a professional standard in the region are disclosed; the results of the Sverdlovsk region internship site are described, including mechanisms for identifying personnel shortages and development of personalized trajectories of the professional development of psychology teachers in the region. The following are highlighted as priority areas: the development of regional normative legal acts regulating the professional activity of pedagogue-psychologists, the application of the professional standard of the pedagogue-psychologist in the formation of the personnel policy in the field of education, and the modernization of the system of vocational training and additional vocational education of psychologists.

  19. Ex vivo biomechanical comparison of the 2.4 mm uniLOCK reconstruction plate using 2.4 mm locking versus standard screws for fixation of acetabular osteotomy in dogs. (United States)

    Amato, Nicole S; Richards, Andrew; Knight, Trevor A; Spector, Daniel; Boudrieau, Randy J; Belkoff, Stephen


    To compare the accuracy of reduction and the biomechanical characteristics of canine acetabular osteotomies stabilized with locking versus standard screws in a locking plate. Ex vivo biomechanical study. Cadaveric canine hemipelves and corresponding femurs (n=10 paired). Transverse acetabular osteotomies stabilized with 5-hole 2.4 mm uniLOCK reconstruction plates using either 2.4 mm locking monocortical or standard bicortical screw fixation (Synthes Maxillofacial). Fracture reduction was assessed directly (craniocaudal acetabular width measurements and gross observation) and indirectly (impression casts). All constructs were fatigue-tested, followed by acute destructive testing. All outcome measures (mean+/-SD) were evaluated for significance (Plocking -0.4+/-0.4 mm; standard -0.4+/-0.3 mm; P=.76). Grossly, there was no significant difference in the repairs and impression casts did not reveal a significant (P=.75) difference in congruency between the groups. No significant differences were found in fracture gap between groups either dorsally (locking 0.38+/-0.23 mm versus standard 0.22+/-0.05 mm; P=.30) or ventrally (locking 0.80+/-0.79 mm versus standard 0.35+/-0.13 mm; P=.23), and maximum change in amplitude dorsally (locking 0.96+/-2.15 mm versus standard 0.92+/-0.89 mm; P=.96) or ventrally (locking 2.02+/-2.93 mm versus standard 0.15+/-0.81 mm; P=.25). There were no significant differences in stiffness (locking 241+/-46 N/mm versus standard 283+/-209 N/mm; P=.64) or load to failure (locking 1077+/-950 N versus standard 811+/-248 N; P=.49). No significant differences were found between pelves stabilized with locking monocortical screw fixation or standard bicortical screw fixation with respect to joint congruity, displacement of fracture gap after cyclic loading, construct stiffness, or ultimate load to failure. There is no apparent advantage of locking plate fixation over standard plate fixation of 2-piece ex vivo acetabular fractures using the 2.4 mm uni

  20. Reference standards to assess physical fitness of children and adolescents of Brazil: an approach to the students of the Lake Itaipú region—Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Hobold


    Full Text Available Background The importance of assessing body fat variables and physical fitness tests plays an important role in monitoring the level of activity and physical fitness of the general population. The objective of this study was to develop reference norms to evaluate the physical fitness aptitudes of children and adolescents based on age and sex from the lake region of Itaipú, Brazil. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out with 5,962 students (2,938 males and 3,024 females with an age range of 6.0 and 17.9 years. Weight (kg, height (cm, and triceps (mm, and sub-scapular skinfolds (mm were measured. Body Mass Index (BMI kg/m2 was calculated. To evaluate the four physical fitness aptitude dimensions (morphological, muscular strength, flexibility, and cardio-respiratory, the following physical education tests were given to the students: sit-and-reach (cm, push-ups (rep, standing long jump (cm, and 20-m shuttle run (m. Results and Discussion Females showed greater flexibility in the sit-and-reach test and greater body fat than the males. No differences were found in BMI. Percentiles were created for the four components for the physical fitness aptitudes, BMI, and skinfolds by using the LMS method based on age and sex. The proposed reference values may be used for detecting talents and promoting health in children and adolescents.

  1. Characterization of a Standardized Ex-vivo Porcine Model to Assess Short Term Intraocular Pressure Changes and Trabecular Meshwork Vitality After Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Different Silicone Oil and BSS Tamponades. (United States)

    Ebner, Martina; Mariacher, Siegfried; Hurst, José; Szurman, Peter; Schnichels, Sven; Spitzer, Martin S; Januschowski, Kai


    The aim of this study was to characterize a standardized porcine ex-vivo testing system for intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring after vitrectomy with different endotamponades. Twenty-four pig eyes, six per endotamponade group were obtained immediately postmortem. After pars plana vitrectomy, vitreous substitutes (silicone oil 1000 mPas, 2000 mPas, 5000 mPas, and Balanced Salt Solution (BSS)) were instillated and IOP was observed over 24-hours. Infusion pumps with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) simulated a constant aqueous humor circulation. A histological examination of the trabecular meshwork with DAPI- and TUNEL-staining was performed to detect the amount of apoptotic cells. TUNEL-assay showed a mean cell death rate of 3.78% (SD ± 1.46%) for silicone oil endotamponades compared to 5.05% (SD ± 2.18%) in BSS group. One-way ANOVA (p = 0.425) showed no significant difference between both groups. Mean IOP in silicone oil endotamponades was 9.50 mmHg (SD ± 1.68 mmHg) at baseline, 13.23 mmHg (SD ± 0.79 mmHg) after 1 hour, 18.46 mmHg (SD ± 2.13 mmHg) after 12 hours and 15.51 mmHg (SD ± 2.82 mmHg) 24 hours after instillation. A comparison of all silicone oil groups (one-way ANOVA, Bonferroni post-hoc test, p = 0.269 to 1.000) didn't reveal significant differences in mean IOP. The standardized ex-vivo porcine model represents an effective alternative to the in-vivo testing in animals. Maintaining the trabecular and uveoscleral outflow pathway enables a pseudo in-vivo analysis.

  2. World Health Organization 2006 child growth standards and 2007 growth reference charts: A discussion paper by the committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. (United States)

    Turck, Dominique; Michaelsen, Kim F; Shamir, Raanan; Braegger, Christian; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamás; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Kolacek, Sanja; Mihatsch, Walter; Moreno, Luis A; van Goudoever, Johannes


    Growth charts are essential for evaluating children's health including their nutrition; however, the evaluation of child growth trajectories and consequently the decision to intervene are highly dependent on the growth charts used. The aim of this discussion paper of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition is to provide information on the background and rationale of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 child growth standards and WHO 2007 growth reference charts, describe their development, outline their main innovative aspects, discuss potential limitations, and make recommendations. WHO 2006 child growth standards (0-5 years) are based on prospectively collected data describing the growth of healthy infants who were breast-fed according to WHO recommendations, showing a pattern of linear growth, which is remarkably consistent between different countries and ethnic groups. WHO 2007 growth reference charts (5-19 years) are based mainly on a re-analysis of National Centre for Health Statistics data from 1977, without information on feeding. European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends that WHO child growth standards should be used to monitor growth in all children in the age range 0 to 2 years in Europe, whether breast- or formula-fed, and that they should be considered to be used in the age range 2 to 5 years. Implementation of the WHO child growth standards should be preceded by evaluation of the implication of their use on national healthcare policies. Health professionals should be guided on their use and interpretation and an adequate communication strategy should be available locally to ensure that parents receive clear and consistent advice. The decision on whether to implement the WHO growth references (5-19 years) should be made by national bodies because the growth pattern during the 5- to 19-year period differs between

  3. The in vivo biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Maria; Alhede, Morten


    Bacteria can grow and proliferate either as single, independent cells or organized in aggregates commonly referred to as biofilms. When bacteria succeed in forming a biofilm within the human host, the infection often becomes very resistant to treatment and can develop into a chronic state. Biofilms...... have been studied for decades using various in vitro models, but it remains debatable whether such in vitro biofilms actually resemble in vivo biofilms in chronic infections. In vivo biofilms share several structural characteristics that differ from most in vitro biofilms. Additionally, the in vivo...... experimental time span and presence of host defenses differ from chronic infections and the chemical microenvironment of both in vivo and in vitro biofilms is seldom taken into account. In this review, we discuss why the current in vitro models of biofilms might be limited for describing infectious biofilms...

  4. MRI of the temporo-mandibular joint: which sequence is best suited to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyle? A cadaveric study using micro-CT as the standard of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, Christoph A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Patcas, Raphael; Signorelli, Luca; Mueller, Lukas [University of Zurich, Clinic for Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Kau, Thomas; Watzal, Helmut; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Ullrich, Oliver [University of Zurich, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Luder, Hans-Ulrich [University of Zurich, Section of Orofacial Structures and Development, Center of Dental Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)


    To determine the best suited sagittal MRI sequence out of a standard temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) imaging protocol for the assessment of the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles of cadaveric specimens using micro-CT as the standard of reference. Sixteen TMJs in 8 human cadaveric heads (mean age, 81 years) were examined by MRI. Upon all sagittal sequences, two observers measured the cortical bone thickness (CBT) of the anterior, superior and posterior portions of the mandibular condyles (i.e. objective analysis), and assessed for the presence of cortical bone thinning, erosions or surface irregularities as well as subcortical bone cysts and anterior osteophytes (i.e. subjective analysis). Micro-CT of the condyles was performed to serve as the standard of reference for statistical analysis. Inter-observer agreements for objective (r = 0.83-0.99, P < 0.01) and subjective ({kappa} = 0.67-0.88) analyses were very good. Mean CBT measurements were most accurate, and cortical bone thinning, erosions, surface irregularities and subcortical bone cysts were best depicted on the 3D fast spoiled gradient echo recalled sequence (3D FSPGR). The most reliable MRI sequence to assess the cortical bone of the mandibular condyles on sagittal imaging planes is the 3D FSPGR sequence. (orig.)

  5. Optimization algorithm that generates the lowest ΔEab values to a reference standard based on spectral measurements of solid inks in offset lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Tapdrup


    ISO 12647-2 specifies CIELAB values for primary and secondary colors, but only tolerances for the primary solid colors. Press operators in lithography still favor density measurements for process control to assure quality and reproducibility during a production run. Since there is no direct...... relationship between density and CIELAB measurements, there is a gap between what the standard specifies and what the industry is actually doing. This research investigates the possibility of using the tolerances specified for the primary colors to achieve a better conformance of the secondary colors....... Combining Beer’s Law and Hamilton’s Trapping Equation into an algorithm provides a method to predict the outcome of resulting secondary colors if the ink layer thicknesses of one or more of the primaries are altered. The research goal was to provide the press operator with a set of rules and applications...

  6. IUVS echelle-mode observations of interplanetary hydrogen: Standard for calibration and reference for cavity variations between Earth and Mars during MAVEN cruise (United States)

    Mayyasi, Majd; Clarke, John; Quémerais, Eric; Katushkina, Olga; Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Holsclaw, Greg; Deighan, Justin; Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; Jakosky, Bruce


    The high-resolution echelle mode of the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission has been designed to measure D and H Lyman α emissions from the Martian atmosphere to obtain key information about the physical processes by which water escapes into space. Toward this goal, the absolute calibration of the instrument is critical for determining the D and H densities, the D/H ratio, and the escape flux of water. The instrument made observations of interplanetary hydrogen (IPH) along multiple look directions and conducted several postlaunch calibration campaigns during cruise as well as during orbit around Mars. The calibration efforts monitored instrument degradation and produced a consistent calibration factor at the hydrogen Lyman α wavelength (121.567 nm). The instrument was calibrated with the diffuse emission of interplanetary hydrogen (IPH) as a standard candle using measurements and model results from the Solar Wind Anisotropies (SWAN) instrument. Validation of the calibrated instrument was made by (1) comparisons to simultaneous observations of the IPH made with the lower resolution FUV mode of the IUVS instrument that were independently calibrated by using standard stars and by (2) comparisons to same-day observations of Mars at hydrogen Lyman α made with the Hubble Space Telescope that were calculated with a radiative transfer model. Adopted FUV mode values and Hubble Space Telescope-based model results agreed with the echelle SWAN calibrated values to within 6% and 4%, respectively. The calibrated IUVS instrument can be used to interpret emissions of atmospheric species at Mars for insights into water evolution at the planet, as well as observed IPH measurements made during cruise for further insights into dynamics of the inner heliosphere.

  7. About the need to use specific population references in estimating paediatric hypertension: Sardinian blood pressure standards (age 11-14 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassareo Pier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Italian paediatric blood pressure (BP tables overestimated the prevalence of hypertension in adolescents of specific geographic areas, such as Sardinia, an island in the Mediterranean Sea. This is probably due to a not very homogeneous distribution of the subjects studied, most from Middle and Northern Italy, and the long period from the survey. Methods BPs were repeatedly measured over a period of 3 years in 839 children (52.6% males. Age range: from 11 to 14 years during this period, using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. For each gender, the specific percentile curves of systolic and diastolic BP were constructed. Results (corrected by the 50th percentile of height Males (11-14 years mean systolic BP (50th centile: from 111 to 115 mmHg. Hypertensive systolic BP (> 95th percentile: from 127 to 135 mmHg. Mean diastolic BP (50th centile: from 65 to 69 mmHg. Hypertensive diastolic BP (> 95th percentile: from 78 to 82 mmHg. Females(11-14 years mean systolic BP (50th centile: from 110 to 112 mmHg. Hypertensive systolic BP (> 95th percentile: from 127 to 130 mmHg. Mean diastolic BP (50th centile: from 65 to 67. Hypertensive diastolic BP (> 95th percentile: from 78 to 80 mmHg. Conclusions Sardinian BP tables emphasizes the need to integrate the previous standards with more up-to-date and representative reports on Italian children, as periodically performed in the USA, in order to increase the number of subjects to be checked, and to obtain a national coverage better and more completely representative of every geographic area of our country.

  8. Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. (United States)

    Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang


    Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.

  9. Standardized flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract retards in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats. (United States)

    Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thouaojam, Menaka C; Sankhari, Jayantha M; Jain, Mahendra; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V


    The present inventory evaluates anti-atherogenic potential of flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract (EJSE) against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, foam cell formation, and atherogenic (ATH) diet-induced experimental atherosclerosis in rats. EJSE was able to prevent in vitro LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. Also, EJSE supplementation to ATH rats significantly minimized increment in serum markers of LDL oxidation. The ex vivo oxidation indices were also minimized in LDL of EJSE-treated animals. Microscopic evaluation of thoracic aorta of ATH + EJSE rats recorded minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, accumulation of lipid laden macrophages, calcium deposition, and expression of cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin). This is the first scientific report that demonstrates anti-atherogenic potential of EJSE and warrants further evaluation at clinical level.

  10. X Python reference manual


    Mullender, Sjoerd


    textabstractThis document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manual gives a more formal definition of the language. The Python Library Reference describes the built-in and standard modules of Python. This document can be seen as en extension to that ...

  11. Mejora de la calidad de las medidas de ozono mediante un fotómetro UV de referencia Improvement of the quality of the ozone measurements by means of a standard reference photometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernández Patier


    Full Text Available La Directiva 92/72/CE hace referencia al método de análisis descrito en la UNE 77-221:2000 y a que los analizadores de ozono se deben calibrar con un fotómetro UV de referencia o con un patrón transferido.De la necesidad de desarrollar un procedimiento que asegure la calidad y la trazabilidad de las mediciones en España, el Área de Contaminación Atmosférica ha decidido implantar un fotómetro UV de referencia NIST como patrón de ozono.Teniendo en cuenta los procedimientos empleados por EPA y NIST, se ha desarrollado un procedimiento de verificación consistente en la realización de 6 comparaciones del Patrón Transferido frente al Fotómetro UV de Referencia NIST, en días diferentes, analizándose, como mínimo, 5 concentraciones de ozono diferentes. Cada comparación se inicia y se finaliza siempre con una concentración de 0 ppb de O3. De cada comparación se obtiene una regresión lineal.Una vez realizadas las 6 comparaciones se obtiene la Recta de calibración y se calcula la incertidumbre asociada al patrón transferido.Se ha realizado la verificación de 17 patrones transferidos de los que 11 son fotómetros UV, 2 son generadores de ozono y 4 son generadores de ozono de bancos de dilución.De los resultados se concluye que las incertidumbres de los generadores de ozono, en general, son mayores que las de los fotómetros UV, recomendándose estos últimos como patrones transferidos.Destacar que mediante la utilización de los patrones transferidos para la calibración de analizadores de ozono se garantiza tanto la calidad como la trazabilidad de los datos generados.The Directive 92/72/CE makes reference to the analysis method described in the UNE 77-221:2000 and to the fact that the ozone analyzers shall be calibrated with a UV reference photometer or with a transfer standard.From the need of developing a procedure that assure the quality and the trazability of the measurements in Spain, the Atmospheric Pollution Area has decided

  12. Use of a standardized JaCVAM in vivo rat comet assay protocol to assess the genotoxicity of three coded test compounds; ampicillin trihydrate, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, and N-nitrosodimethylamine. (United States)

    McNamee, J P; Bellier, P V


    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay (comet assay), our laboratory examined ampicillin trihydrate (AMP), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH), and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDA) using a standard comet assay validation protocol (v14.2) developed by the JaCVAM validation management team (VMT). Coded samples were received by our laboratory along with basic MSDS information. Solubility analysis and range-finding experiments of the coded test compounds were conducted for dose selection. Animal dosing schedules, the comet assay processing and analysis, and statistical analysis were conducted in accordance with the standard protocol. Based upon our blinded evaluation, AMP was not found to exhibit evidence of genotoxicity in either the rat liver or stomach. However, both NDA and DMH were observed to cause a significant increase in % tail DNA in the rat liver at all dose levels tested. While acute hepatoxicity was observed for these compounds in the high dose group, in the investigators opinion there were a sufficient number of consistently damaged/measurable cells at the medium and low dose groups to judge these compounds as genotoxic. There was no evidence of genotoxicity from either NDA or DMH in the rat stomach. In conclusion, our laboratory observed increased DNA damage from two blinded test compounds in rat liver (later identified as genotoxic carcinogens), while no evidence of genotoxicity was observed for the third blinded test compound (later identified as a non-genotoxic, non-carcinogen). This data supports the use of a standardized protocol of the in vivo comet assay as a cost-effective alternative genotoxicity assay for regulatory testing purposes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Bone mineral density reference standards for Chinese children aged 3-18: cross-sectional results of the 2013-2015 China Child and Adolescent Cardiovascular Health (CCACH) Study. (United States)

    Liu, Junting; Wang, Liang; Sun, Jinghui; Liu, Gongshu; Yan, Weili; Xi, Bo; Xiong, Feng; Ding, Wenqing; Huang, Guimin; Heymsfield, Steven; Mi, Jie


    No nationwide paediatric reference standards for bone mineral density (BMD) are available in China. We aimed to provide sex-specific BMD reference values for Chinese children and adolescents (3-18 years). Data (10 818 participants aged 3-18 years) were obtained from cross-sectional surveys of the China Child and Adolescent Cardiovascular Health in 2015, which included four municipality cities and three provinces. BMD was measured using Hologic Discovery Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scanner. The DXA measures were modelled against age, with height as an independent variable. The LMS statistical method using a curve fitting procedure was used to construct reference smooth cross-sectional centile curves for dependent versus independent variables. Children residing in Northeast China had the highest total body less head (TBLH) BMD while children residing in Shandong Province had the lowest values. Among children, TBLH BMD was higher for boys as compared with girls; but, it increased with age and height in both sexes. Furthermore, TBLH BMD was higher among US children as compared with Chinese children. There was a large difference in BMD for height among children from these two countries. US children had a much higher BMD at each percentile (P) than Chinese children; the largest observed difference was at P50 and P3 and the smallest difference was at P97. This is the first study to present a sex-specific reference dataset for Chinese children aged 3-18 years. The data can help clinicians improve interpretation, assessment and monitoring of densitometry results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Right ventricular diastolic performance in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease: correlation of echocardiographic parameters with invasive reference standards by high-fidelity micromanometer catheter. (United States)

    Okumura, Kenichi; Slorach, Cameron; Mroczek, Dariusz; Dragulescu, Andreea; Mertens, Luc; Redington, Andrew N; Friedberg, Mark K


    Right ventricular diastolic dysfunction influences outcomes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but echocardiographic parameters have not been investigated in relation to invasive reference standards in pediatric PAH. We investigated echocardiographic parameters of right ventricular diastolic function in children with PAH in relation to simultaneously measured invasive reference measures. We prospectively recruited children undergoing a clinically indicated cardiac catheterization for evaluation of PAH and pulmonary vasoreactivity testing. Echocardiography was performed simultaneously with invasive reference measurements by high-fidelity micromanometer catheter. For analysis, patients were divided into shunt and nonshunt groups. Sixteen children were studied. In the group as a whole, significant correlations were found among τ and tricuspid deceleration time, E', E/E', TimeE-E', A wave velocity, and global early and late diastolic strain rate. dp/dt minimum correlated significantly with late diastolic tricuspid annular velocity (A'), tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio, and global late diastolic strain rate. End-diastolic pressure correlated significantly with tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio. On multivariate analysis, tricuspid deceleration time, TimeE-E', and global early diastolic strain rate were independent predictors of τ, whereas tissue Doppler imaging-derived systolic:diastolic duration ratio was an independent predictor of dp/dt minimum. In general, correlations between echocardiographic and invasive parameters were better in the shunt group than in the nonshunt group. Echocardiography correlates with invasive reference measures of right ventricular diastolic function in children with PAH, although it does not differentiate between early versus late diastolic abnormalities. Newer echocardiographic techniques may have added value to assess right ventricular diastolic dysfunction in this

  15. Reference Materials (United States)

    Merkus, Henk G.

    Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

  16. Standards for data acquisition and software-based analysis of in vivo electroencephalography recordings from animals. A TASK1-WG5 report of the AES/ILAE Translational Task Force of the ILAE. (United States)

    Moyer, Jason T; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Ono, Tomonori; Otáhal, Jakub; Wagenaar, Joost; Stacey, William C; Noebels, Jeffrey; Ikeda, Akio; Staley, Kevin; de Curtis, Marco; Litt, Brian; Galanopoulou, Aristea S


    Electroencephalography (EEG)-the direct recording of the electrical activity of populations of neurons-is a tremendously important tool for diagnosing, treating, and researching epilepsy. Although standard procedures for recording and analyzing human EEG exist and are broadly accepted, there are no such standards for research in animal models of seizures and epilepsy-recording montages, acquisition systems, and processing algorithms may differ substantially among investigators and laboratories. The lack of standard procedures for acquiring and analyzing EEG from animal models of epilepsy hinders the interpretation of experimental results and reduces the ability of the scientific community to efficiently translate new experimental findings into clinical practice. Accordingly, the intention of this report is twofold: (1) to review current techniques for the collection and software-based analysis of neural field recordings in animal models of epilepsy, and (2) to offer pertinent standards and reporting guidelines for this research. Specifically, we review current techniques for signal acquisition, signal conditioning, signal processing, data storage, and data sharing, and include applicable recommendations to standardize collection and reporting. We close with a discussion of challenges and future opportunities, and include a supplemental report of currently available acquisition systems and analysis tools. This work represents a collaboration on behalf of the American Epilepsy Society/International League Against Epilepsy (AES/ILAE) Translational Task Force (TASK1-Workgroup 5), and is part of a larger effort to harmonize video-EEG interpretation and analysis methods across studies using in vivo and in vitro seizure and epilepsy models. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. 10 CFR 420.6 - Reference standards. (United States)


    ...) The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1791 Tullie... Leesburg Pike, Suite 708, Falls Church, Virginia 22041, (703) 931-4533: (i) The Model Energy Code, 1993...

  18. NASREN: Standard reference model for telerobot control (United States)

    Albus, J. S.; Lumia, R.; Mccain, H.


    A hierarchical architecture is described which supports space station telerobots in a variety of modes. The system is divided into three hierarchies: task decomposition, world model, and sensory processing. Goals at each level of the task dedomposition heirarchy are divided both spatially and temporally into simpler commands for the next lower level. This decomposition is repreated until, at the lowest level, the drive signals to the robot actuators are generated. To accomplish its goals, task decomposition modules must often use information stored it the world model. The purpose of the sensory system is to update the world model as rapidly as possible to keep the model in registration with the physical world. The architecture of the entire control system hierarch is described and how it can be applied to space telerobot applications.

  19. Performance of the HerpeSelect (Focus) and Kalon Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Detection of Antibodies against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 by Use of Monoclonal Antibody-Blocking Enzyme Immunoassay and Clinicovirological Reference Standards in Brazil▿ (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Ferreira, Suzete; Sabino, Ester; Hamilton, Ingrid; Parry, John; Pannuti, Claudio S.; Mayaud, Philippe


    A total of 586 serum samples were used to evaluate the performance of type-specific herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) by using the monoclonal antibody-blocking enzyme immunoassay (MAb-EIA) and a clinicovirological panel as reference standards. The Kalon and HerpeSelect ELISAs had similar sensitivities (93.5% and 93.8% compared with the results obtained by MAb-EIA, respectively, and 100% for both ELISAs compared with the results obtained with a clinicovirological panel). The Kalon ELISA had a higher specificity (96.5% and 96.8% compared with the results obtained by MAb-EIA and with a clinicovirological panel, respectively) than the HerpeSelect ELISA (86.9% and 94% compared with the results obtained by MAb-EIA and with a clinicovirological panel, respectively). A higher cutoff significantly improved the specificity of the HerpeSelect ELISA. PMID:17507516

  20. Standards and reference materials for the anticardiolipin and anti-β2glycoprotein I assays: a report of recommendations from the APL Task Force at the 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies. (United States)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Lakos, Gabriella; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Tincani, Angela; Wong, Richard C W; Harris, E Nigel


    The confirmation of diagnosis of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) relies on laboratory tests. Current classification criteria for definite APS mandate the use of three "standardized" laboratory assays to detect antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) [viz: anticardiolipin (aCL) IgG and IgM, anti-β(2)glycoprotein I (anti-β(2)GPI) antibodies IgG and IgM and/or a lupus anticoagulant (LAC)], when at least one of the two major clinical manifestations (thrombosis or pregnancy losses) are present. Several attempts have been made to standardize the aCL and anti-β(2)GPI tests, though, a considerable degree of inconsistencies still exist, limiting the clinical and diagnostic value of aPL tests. Among the areas of concern are the type and source of calibrant material, the lack of proper validated reference material and of universal units of measurement, particularly for anti-β(2)GPI antibodies. A Task Force of scientists and leaders in the field from different countries - discussed and analyzed those critical questions in an evidence-based manner and further discussed and made recommendations at a workshop that was conducted during 13th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies (APLA 2010, April 13-16, 2010, Galveston, TX). This concise report summarizes the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the task force and preconference workshop. The group recommended to ensure the availability of properly prepared and validated polyclonal and monoclonal antibody reference materials for both assays, to continue reporting the aCL assay in GPL/MPL units and to establish consensus international units of measurement for anti-β(2)GPI antibodies. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Iodine Image of Dual-energy Computed Tomography at Rest: Comparison With 99mTc-Tetrofosmin Stress-rest Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging as the Reference Standard. (United States)

    Nakahara, Takehiro; Toyama, Takuji; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Seki, Ryotaro; Saito, Yuichiro; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Minoru; Arai, Masashi; Tsushima, Yoshito; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Kurabayashi, Masahiko


    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) can be used for visual determination of iodine distribution in the myocardium (iodine image); however, the accuracy and reproducibility of the process remains debatable. Because of the low contrast-to-noise ratio of CT, we hypothesized that quantitative measurement may be more accurate for detecting myocardial ischemia. In this study, we evaluated our quantitative method by comparing it with visual analysis using Tc-tetrofosmin (TF) stress-rest single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) as the reference standard. Forty-three patients who had a significant stenosis on cardiac rest DECT and had received Tc-TF stress-rest SPECT MPI within 1 month were retrospectively analyzed. The regions of interest were set on iodine images in accordance with the American Heart Association (AHA) 17-segment model (a total of 731 segments). The regions of interest values were divided by the amount of iodine (mg) per unit weight (kg) and defined as perfusion value (perfusion value analysis). All segments were also visually analyzed and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis performed to identify the superior analysis. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that perfusion value analysis is significantly superior to visual analysis [the area under the curve: 0.921 (95% confidence interval, 0.860-0.981) versus 0.685 (95% confidence interval, 0.580-0.791), respectively, P<0.05], with 93.8% sensitivity, 99.1% specificity, 98.9% accuracy, 83.3% positive predictive value, and 99.7% negative predictive value (P<0.01). Quantitative analysis of the iodine image of rest DECT, called perfusion value analysis, is more accurate than visual analysis when compared with Tc-TF SPECT MPI as the reference standard.

  2. The in vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activities of a standardized quassinoids composition from Eurycoma longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kind Leng Tong

    Full Text Available Quassinoids are a group of diterpenoids found in plants from the Simaroubaceae family. They are also the major bioactive compounds found in Eurycoma longifolia which is commonly used as traditional medicine in South East Asia to treat various ailments including sexual dysfunction and infertility. These uses are attributed to its ability to improve testosterone level in men. Chronic consumption of E. longifolia extracts has been reported to increase testosterone level in men and animal model but its effect on prostate growth remains unknown. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of a standardized total quassinoids composition (SQ40 containing 40% of the total quassinoids found in E. longifolia on LNCaP human prostate cancer cell line. SQ40 inhibited LNCaP cell growth at IC50 value of 5.97 μg/mL while the IC50 on RWPE-1 human prostate normal cells was 59.26 μg/mL. SQ40 also inhibited 5α-dihydrotestosterone-stimulated growth in LNCaP cells dose-dependently. The inhibitory effect of SQ40 in anchorage-independent growth of LNCaP cells was also demonstrated using soft agar assay. SQ40 suppressed LNCaP cell growth via G0/G1 phase arrest which was accompanied by the down-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin D3 and up-regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1 protein levels. SQ40 at higher concentrations or longer treatment duration can cause G2M growth arrest leading to apoptotic cell death as demonstrated by the detection of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage in LNCaP cells. Moreover, SQ40 also inhibited androgen receptor translocation to nucleus which is important for the transactivation of its target gene, prostate-specific antigen (PSA and resulted in a significant reduction of PSA secretion after the treatment. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of 5 and 10 mg/kg of SQ40 also significantly suppressed the LNCaP tumor growth on mouse xenograft model. Results from the present study suggest that the standardized total quassinoids

  3. A comparison of the BAX system method to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual and International Organization for Standardization reference methods for the detection of Salmonella in a variety of soy ingredients. (United States)

    Belete, Tamrat; Crowley, Erin; Bird, Patrick; Gensic, Joseph; Wallace, F Morgan


    The performances of two DuPont BAX System PCR assays for detecting Salmonella on a variety of low-moisture soy ingredients were evaluated against the U. S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA BAM) method or the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 6579 reference method. These evaluations were conducted as a single laboratory validation at an ISO 17025 accredited third-party laboratory. Validations were conducted on five soy ingredients: isolated soy protein (ISP), soy fiber, fluid soy lecithin, deoiled soy lecithin, and soy nuggets, using a paired-study design. The ISP was analyzed as both 25- and 375-g composite test portions, whereas all other sample matrices were analyzed as 375-g composite test portions. To evaluate 25-g test portions of ISP, the test material was inoculated using Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Mbandaka (Q Laboratories isolate 11031.1). Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Tennessee (Q Laboratories isolate 11031.3) was used for all other trials. For each trial of the method comparison, 25 samples were analyzed for each matrix: 5 uninoculated controls and 20 samples inoculated at low levels (0.2 to 2 CFU per test portion) that were targeted to achieve fractionally positive results (25 to 75%). Using McNemar's chi-square analysis, no significant difference at P ≥ 0.05 (χ(2) ≤ 3.84) was observed between the number of positives obtained by the BAX System and the reference methods for all five test matrices evaluated. These studies indicate that the BAX System PCR assays, in combination with the single buffered peptone water primary enrichment and subsequent brain heart infusion regrowth step, demonstrate equivalent sensitivity and robustness compared with the FDA BAM and ISO reference methods for both 25- and 375-g composite samples. Moreover, there was no observed reduction of sensitivity in the larger 375-g composite samples for all five matrices.

  4. In vivo safety evaluation of UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone aloesin formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet. (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi


    Safety profiles of the aloe chromone aloesin or Aloe vera inner leaf fillet (Qmatrix) as a well tolerated entity have been reported separately. UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf fillet, has shown a significant beneficial effect in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin resistance in human. Here we evaluate the safety of UP780 after a repeated 14 and 90-day oral administration in CD-1 mice. UP780 was given at doses of 100mg/kg/day, 500mg/kg/day and 1000mg/kg/day to groups of 10 male and 10 female for 90days or administered by oral gavage at a dose of 2g/kg/day to groups of 5 male and 5 female for 14days. Body weight, feed consumption, hematology, clinical chemistry and histopathologic evaluation were performed. UP780 at a dose of 1000mg/kg/day or at 2000mg/kg/day produced no treatment-related toxicity or mortality. Body weight gain or feed consumption was similar between groups. There was no test article-related microscopic change. Spontaneously occurring minor changes in clinical chemistry and hematology were observed. However, these changes were limited to one sex or were not dose correlated. UP780 was well tolerated in this strain. A dose of 2000mg/kg/day was identified as the NOAEL (no-observed-adverse-effect-level). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. HTML & XHTML Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Jennifer


    After years of using spacer GIFs, layers of nested tables, and other improvised solutions for building your web sites, getting used to the more stringent standards-compliant design can be intimidating. HTML and XHTML Pocket Reference is the perfect little book when you need answers immediately. Jennifer Niederst-Robbins, author Web Design in a Nutshell, has revised and updated the fourth edition of this pocket guide by taking the top 20% of vital reference information from her Nutshell book, augmenting it judiciously, cross-referencing everything, and organizing it according to the most com

  6. Ex vivo (United States)

    Matsuda, Kant M; Lopes-Calcas, Ana; Honke, Michael L; O'Brien-Moran, Zoe; Buist, Richard; West, Michael; Martin, Melanie


    To advance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies further for in vivo tissue characterization with histopathologic validation, we investigated the feasibility of ex vivo tissue imaging of a surgically removed human brain tumor as a comprehensive approach for radiology-pathology correlation in histoanatomically identical fashion in a rare case of pigmented ganglioglioma with complex paramagnetic properties. Pieces of surgically removed ganglioglioma, containing melanin and hemosiderin pigments, were imaged with a small bore 7-T MRI scanner to obtain T1-, T2-, and T2*-weighted image and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Corresponding histopathological slides were prepared for routine hematoxylin and eosin stain and special stains for melanin and iron/hemosiderin to correlate with MRI signal characteristics. Furthermore, mean diffusivity (MD) maps were generated from DTI data and correlated with cellularity using image analysis. While the presence of melanin was difficult to interpret in in vivo MRI with certainty due to concomitant hemosiderin pigments and calcium depositions, ex vivo tissue imaging clearly demonstrated pieces of tissue exhibiting the characteristic MR signal pattern for melanin with pathologic confirmation in a histoanatomically identical location. There was also concordant correlation between MD and cellularity. Although it is still in an initial phase of development, ex vivo tissue imaging is a promising approach, which offers radiology-pathology correlation in a straightforward and comprehensive manner.

  7. Reference Man anatomical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.


    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  8. Physical Education Research Reference Sources. (United States)

    Kissinger, Pat, Comp.

    This guide on physical education research reference resources was compiled for the use of physical education students and teachers. While it was written to be used by Northern Illinois University library users, much information may be useful to all physical education students who would be doing research using standard basic reference sources…

  9. Cosmetics Europe compilation of historical serious eye damage/eye irritation in vivo data analysed by drivers of classification to support the selection of chemicals for development and evaluation of alternative methods/strategies: the Draize eye test Reference Database (DRD). (United States)

    Barroso, João; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Adriaens, Els; Alépée, Nathalie; Cluzel, Magalie; De Smedt, Ann; Hibatallah, Jalila; Klaric, Martina; Mewes, Karsten R; Millet, Marion; Templier, Marie; McNamee, Pauline


    A thorough understanding of which of the effects assessed in the in vivo Draize eye test are responsible for driving UN GHS/EU CLP classification is critical for an adequate selection of chemicals to be used in the development and/or evaluation of alternative methods/strategies and for properly assessing their predictive capacity and limitations. For this reason, Cosmetics Europe has compiled a database of Draize data (Draize eye test Reference Database, DRD) from external lists that were created to support past validation activities. This database contains 681 independent in vivo studies on 634 individual chemicals representing a wide range of chemical classes. A description of all the ocular effects observed in vivo, i.e. degree of severity and persistence of corneal opacity (CO), iritis, and/or conjunctiva effects, was added for each individual study in the database, and the studies were categorised according to their UN GHS/EU CLP classification and the main effect driving the classification. An evaluation of the various in vivo drivers of classification compiled in the database was performed to establish which of these are most important from a regulatory point of view. These analyses established that the most important drivers for Cat 1 Classification are (1) CO mean ≥ 3 (days 1-3) (severity) and (2) CO persistence on day 21 in the absence of severity, and those for Cat 2 classification are (3) CO mean ≥ 1 and (4) conjunctival redness mean ≥ 2. Moreover, it is shown that all classifiable effects (including persistence and CO = 4) should be present in ≥60 % of the animals to drive a classification. As a consequence, our analyses suggest the need for a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the Cat 1 classification of chemicals. Finally, a number of key criteria are identified that should be taken into consideration when selecting reference chemicals for the development, evaluation and/or validation of alternative methods and

  10. Empirically-grounded Reference Architectures : A Proposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, Matthias; Avgeriou, Paris


    A reference architecture describes core elements of the software architecture for systems that stem from the same domain. A reference architecture ensures interoperability of systems through standardization. It also facilitates the instantiation of new concrete architectures. However, we currently

  11. In vivo (United States)

    Berkowitz, Bruce A; Lenning, Jacob; Khetarpal, Nikita; Tran, Catherine; Wu, Johnny Y; Berri, Ali M; Dernay, Kristin; Haacke, E Mark; Shafie-Khorassani, Fatema; Podolsky, Robert H; Gant, John C; Maimaiti, Shaniya; Thibault, Olivier; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Bennett, Brian M; Roberts, Robin


    Hippocampus oxidative stress is considered pathogenic in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), and in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Angelman syndrome (AS). Yet clinical benefits of antioxidant treatment for these diseases remain unclear because conventional imaging methods are unable to guide management of therapies in specific hippocampus subfields in vivo that underlie abnormal behavior. Excessive production of paramagnetic free radicals in nonhippocampus brain tissue can be measured in vivo as a greater-than-normal 1/ T 1 that is quenchable with antioxidant as measured by quench-assisted (Quest) MRI. Here, we further test this approach in phantoms, and we present proof-of-concept data in models of AD-like and AS hippocampus oxidative stress that also exhibit impaired spatial learning and memory. AD-like models showed an abnormal gradient along the CA1 dorsal-ventral axis of excessive free radical production as measured by Quest MRI, and redox-sensitive calcium dysregulation as measured by manganese-enhanced MRI and electrophysiology. In the AS model, abnormally high free radical levels were observed in dorsal and ventral CA1. Quest MRI is a promising in vivo paradigm for bridging brain subfield oxidative stress and behavior in animal models and in human patients to better manage antioxidant therapy in devastating neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases.-Berkowitz, B. A., Lenning, J., Khetarpal, N., Tran, C., Wu, J. Y., Berri, A. M., Dernay, K., Haacke, E. M., Shafie-Khorassani, F., Podolsky, R. H., Gant, J. C., Maimaiti, S., Thibault, O., Murphy, G. G., Bennett, B. M., Roberts, R. In vivo imaging of prodromal hippocampus CA1 subfield oxidative stress in models of Alzheimer disease and Angelman syndrome. © FASEB.

  12. Multi-test analysis and model-based estimation of the prevalence of Taenia saginata cysticercus infection in naturally infected dairy cows in the absence of a 'gold standard' reference test. (United States)

    Eichenberger, R M; Lewis, F; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P; Torgerson, P R; Deplazes, P


    The diagnostic values of seven serological tests (ELISAs) and of the obligatory European Union-approved routine visual meat inspection for the detection of Taenia saginata cysticercosis were investigated. A total of 793 slaughtered dairy cows were selected in three European Union approved abattoirs in Switzerland, an endemic area (apparent prevalence by enhanced meat inspection up to 4.5%) with typically low parasite burdens. ELISAs based on a somatic larval antigen, isoelectric focused somatic larval antigen, larval excretory/secretory antigens, peptide HP6-2, peptide Ts45S-10, pooled peptide solution and a monoclonal antibody antigen capture assay were initially screened. As there is no perfect diagnostic 'gold standard' reference test, the obligatory meat inspection and four selected serological tests were further analysed using Bayesian inference to estimate the "true" prevalence and the diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities. The ELISA for specific antibody detection based on excretory/secretory antigens showed highest sensitivity and specificity with 81.6% (95% credible interval: 70-92) and 96.3% (95% credible interval: 94-99), respectively. The Bayesian model estimated the specificity of the ELISA, based on the synthetic peptide Ts45S-10 as 55.2% (95% credible interval: 46-65) and sensitivity as 84.7% (95% credible interval: 82-88). The sensitivity of the ELISA based on mAbs, detecting circulating antigen, was 14.3% (95% credible interval: 9-23) with a specificity of 93.7% (95% credible interval: 92-96). The diagnostic sensitivity of the obligatory standard European Union meat inspection procedure for the detection of T. saginata cysticercus infection at the abattoir was estimated to be 15.6% (95% credible interval: 10-23). Based on these data, the modelled prevalence of cysticercosis in dairy cows presented at abattoirs in Switzerland was estimated to be 16.5% (95% credible interval: 13-21). These cattle also had a high prevalence of infection with

  13. Determination of high-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in high performance liquid chromatography fractions of coal tar standard reference material 1597a via solid-phase nanoextraction and laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Alfarhani, Bassam; Moore, Anthony F T; Bisson, Cristina; Wise, Stephen A; Campiglia, Andres D


    This article presents an alternative approach for the analysis of high molecular weight - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAHs) with molecular mass 302 Da in complex environmental samples. This is not a trivial task due to the large number of molecular mass 302 Da isomers with very similar chromatographic elution times and similar, possibly even virtually identical, mass fragmentation patterns. The method presented here is based on 4.2K laser-excited time-resolved Shpol'skii spectroscopy, a high resolution spectroscopic technique with the appropriate selectivity for the unambiguous determination of PAHs with the same molecular mass. The potential of this approach is demonstrated here with the analysis of a coal tar standard reference material (SRM) 1597a. Liquid chromatography fractions were submitted to the spectroscopic analysis of five targeted isomers, namely dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, naphtho[2,3-a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene. Prior to analyte determination, the liquid chromatographic fractions were pre-concentrated with gold nanoparticles. Complete analysis was possible with microliters of chromatographic fractions and organic solvents. The limits of detection varied from 0.05 (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene) to 0.24 µg L(-1) (dibenzo[a,e]pyrene). The excellent analytical figures of merit associated to its non-destructive nature, which provides ample opportunity for further analysis with other instrumental methods, makes this approach an attractive alternative for the determination of PAH isomers in complex environmental samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Testing equivalency of an alternative method based on portable FTIR to the European Standard Reference Methods for monitoring emissions to air of CO, NOx, SO₂, HCl, and H₂O. (United States)

    Coleman, Marc D; Render, Simon; Dimopoulos, Chris; Lilley, Adam; Robinson, Rod A; Smith, Thomas O M; Camm, Richard; Standring, Rupert


    We compare the performance of an alternative method based on portable Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy described in TGN M22, "Measuring Stack Gas Emissions Using FTIR Instruments," to the Standard Reference Methods (SRMs) for CO (EN 15058), NOx (EN 14792), SO₂(EN 14791), HCl (EN 1911), and H₂O (EN 14790). Testing was carried out using a Stack Simulator facility generating complex gas matrices of the measurands across concentration ranges of 0-75 mg m⁻³ and 0-100 mg m⁻³ CO, 0-200 mg m⁻³ and 0-300 mg m⁻³ NO, 0-75 mg m⁻³ and 0-200 mg m⁻³ SO₂, 0-15 mg m⁻³ and 0-60 mg m⁻³ HCl, and 0-14 vol% H₂O. The former values are the required monitoring range for each measurand as described in the European Union (EU) Industrial Emissions Directive (2010/75/EU) for waste incineration processes, and the latter are supplementary ranges representative of emissions from some large combustion plant processes. Test data were treated in accordance with CEN/TS 14793, and it was found that equivalency test criteria could be met across all concentration ranges with the exception of the NO supplementary range. The results demonstrated in principle where TGN M22/FTIR could be used in place of the existing SRMs to provide, as required under the Industrial Emissions Directive, annual validation/calibration of automated measuring systems (AMSs being permanently installed on industrial stacks to provide continuous monitoring of emissions to air). These data take a step toward the wider regulatory acceptance of portable FTIR providing the advantages of real-time calibration and quantification of all measurands on a single technique.

  15. Federal Standardization Manual (United States)


    syllabication , etc. b. Abbreviations. The applicable standard abbreviations listed in FPDs and military specifications and standards are used, except...regulations that automatically apply to everyone need not be referenced. c. Non-Government documents! Reference may be made to specifications, standards

  16. [Ophthalmology and standardization]. (United States)

    Heitz, R


    The standards are the references for quality and safety of materials, instruments and devices in ophtalmological use. The French standardisation association, "Association Française de Normalisation" (AFNOR), drafts his standards in connection with the concerned professionals. The ophthalmologists are concerned by standards of diagnostic and therapeutic instruments, intraocular and orbital implants, contact lenses, spectacle frames and glasses, and ocular protectors.

  17. Validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo; Criterios para la validacion de un laboratorio de dosimetria interna in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M. de las M., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    People working with radioactive materials, under certain circumstances (e.g. not using the proper protective equipment, an incident not covered, etc.) could be incorporated into the body. The radiation protection programs include direct measurement methods -in vivo- or indirect -in vitro- or both, to know that radioactive material is incorporated into the body. The monitoring measurements of internal contamination or (Radio-bioassay) are carried out with the purpose of determining the amount of radioactive material incorporated in the body; estimate the effective dose and committed dose; management administration of radiation protection; appropriate medical management; and to provide the data necessary for the legal requirements and the preservation of records. The measurement methods used in the monitoring of internal contamination must be validated by the combination of the following processes: calibration, using standards reference materials and/or simulators; execute systematic research, using control samples; and intercomparison between laboratories and performance tests. In this paper the validation criteria of an internal dosimetry laboratory in vivo are presented following the information provided by the standard ANSI N13-30-1996 and ISO/TEC 17025-2005 as are the criteria of facilities, staff training, interpretation of measurements, performance criteria for monitoring of internal contamination in vivo, results reporting and records retention. Thereby we achieve standardized quantitative performance criteria of truthfulness, accuracy and detection limit and a consensus on statistical definitions to establish the validation plan of a monitoring laboratory of internal contamination in vivo. (Author)

  18. Effects of some metals on beech ectomycorrhizae with special reference to Cenococcum geophilum (Fr. ). An in vivo and in vitro study. In vivo und in vitro Untersuchungen zur Schadwirkung einiger Metalle and Buchen-Ektomykorrhizen mit besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Cenococcum geophilum Fr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, H.P.


    This thesis tries to establish whether damage of the mycorrhiza could be one of the causes of the new type of forest decline. In vivo and in vitro examinations on beech mycorrhiza were carried out to investigate whether a hypothetically assumed disorder in the ectomycorrhiza symbiosis can be caused by substratum changes, for instance. It was presumed that such disorders would be structurally noticeable. For this purpose, the beech mycorrhiza of two long term observation sites near Karlsruhe were investigated as to vitality in forests affected by forest decline. Root samples taken at regular intervals during 1985 and 1986 from areas of severely damaged beeches and from areas of undamaged to lightly damaged beeches were prepared for cytological examinations. As the analysis of trace elements showed increased metal contents, particularly of copper, in the ground of damaged trees, experiments with artificial mycorrhizal formation and mycelium cultures were carried out to check the above mentioned hypothesis. Test fungus was Cenococcum geophilum. (orig.).

  19. In vivo (United States)

    Freudenblum, Julia; Iglesias, José A; Hermann, Martin; Walsen, Tanja; Wilfinger, Armin; Meyer, Dirk; Kimmel, Robin A


    The three-dimensional architecture of the pancreatic islet is integral to beta cell function, but the process of islet formation remains poorly understood due to the difficulties of imaging internal organs with cellular resolution. Within transparent zebrafish larvae, the developing pancreas is relatively superficial and thus amenable to live imaging approaches. We performed in vivo time-lapse and longitudinal imaging studies to follow islet development, visualizing both naturally occurring islet cells and cells arising with an accelerated timecourse following an induction approach. These studies revealed previously unappreciated fine dynamic protrusions projecting between neighboring and distant endocrine cells. Using pharmacological compound and toxin interference approaches, and single-cell analysis of morphology and cell dynamics, we determined that endocrine cell motility is regulated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Linking cell dynamics to islet formation, perturbation of protrusion formation disrupted endocrine cell coalescence, and correlated with decreased islet cell differentiation. These studies identified novel cell behaviors contributing to islet morphogenesis, and suggest a model in which dynamic exploratory filopodia establish cell-cell contacts that subsequently promote cell clustering. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. In Vivo (United States)

    Lau, Melissa; Li, Jianli; Cline, Hollis T


    The neurovascular niche is a specialized microenvironment formed by the interactions between neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and the vasculature. While it is thought to regulate adult neurogenesis by signaling through vascular-derived soluble cues or contacted-mediated cues, less is known about the neurovascular niche during development. In Xenopus laevis tadpole brain, NPCs line the ventricle and extend radial processes tipped with endfeet to the vascularized pial surface. Using in vivo labeling and time-lapse imaging in tadpoles, we find that intracardial injection of fluorescent tracers rapidly labels Sox2/3-expressing NPCs and that vascular-circulating molecules are endocytosed by NPC endfeet. Confocal imaging indicates that about half of the endfeet appear to appose the vasculature, and time-lapse analysis of NPC proliferation and endfeet-vascular interactions suggest that proliferative activity does not correlate with stable vascular apposition. Together, these findings characterize the neurovascular niche in the developing brain and suggest that, while signaling to NPCs may occur through vascular-derived soluble cues, stable contact between NPC endfeet and the vasculature is not required for developmental neurogenesis.

  1. IN VIVO (United States)

    Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Khan, Amir Atlas; Khan, Imran; Khan, Sadiq Noor; Zakaria, Zainal Amiruddin; Khairuddean, Melati; Osman, Hasnah; Kim, Kyong Su


    Garcinia hombroniana , known as "manggis hutan" (jungle mangosteen) in Malaysia, is distributed in tropical Asia, Borneo, Thailand, Andaman, Nicobar Islands, Vietnam and India. In Malaysia, its ripened crimson sour fruit rind is used as a seasoning agent in curries and culinary dishes. Its roots and leaves decoction is used against skin infections and after child birth. This study aimed to evaluate in vivo hepatoprotective and in vitro cytotoxic activities of 20% methanolic ethyl acetate (MEA) G. hombroniana bark extract. In hepatoprotective activity, liver damage was induced by treating rats with 1.0 mL carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )/kg and MEA extract was administered at a dose of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg 24 h before intoxication with CCl 4 . Cytotoxicity study was performed on MCF-7 (human breast cancer), DBTRG (human glioblastoma), PC-3 (human prostate cancer) and U2OS (human osteosarcoma) cell lines. 1 H, 13 C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), and IR (infrared) spectral analyses were also conducted for MEA extract. In hepatoprotective activity evaluation, MEA extract at a higher dose level of 500 mg/kg showed significant (pIR spectra exhibited bands, signals and J (coupling constant) values representing aromatic/phenolic constituents. From the results, it could be concluded that MEA extract has potency to inhibit hepatotoxicity and MCF-7 and DBTRG cancer cell lines which might be due to the phenolic compounds depicted from NMR and IR spectra.

  2. Sunscreen sun protection factor claim based on in vivo interlaboratory variability. (United States)

    Miksa, S; Lutz, D; Guy, C; Delamour, E


    The SPF (sun protection factor) is the best known reference in the world for expressing UVB protection. The SPF is used for labelling purposes for consumer guidance. The determination of the SPF is often accomplished using an in vivo method that has been standardized. Only one in vivo SPF value from one laboratory is required for claiming an SPF value. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of the in vivo SPF value in terms of interlaboratory variability for claiming purposes and to determine whether some minimum number of different in vivo SPF values from different laboratories would improve the reliability of the final SPF claimed. A large population of 44 different commercially available sunscreen formulations from the European market has been investigated, covering various product types. The majority of the SPF values claimed ranged from 15 to 50+. For each product, at least three different in vivo SPF values tested in different laboratories have been gathered, and a variety of statistical analyses have been performed. For each SPF category from the average of all samples, the minimum and maximum in vivo-measured SPF values from the different laboratories would lead to labels claiming different levels of SPF for the same product. Indeed, with coefficients of variation for in vivo SPF determinations that exceed 50% in some cases, as an example, the same product could in reality be claimed to be SPF 30, SPF 50 or SPF 50+. In this study, the authors demonstrated that using only one in vivo SPF value from one laboratory may actually challenge the reliability of the final SPF claim significantly. To reduce the consumer health risk by ensuring the reliability of the SPF claim, an average from at least 3 (ideally 4) different in vivo SPF values should be compulsory. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  3. Einmaliges studentisches standardisiertes Training der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion nach EN1500: Quantifizierung des Trainingseffektes, Nutzen der Methode und Vergleich mit klinischen Referenzgruppen [A single standardized practical training for surgical scrubbing according to EN1500: Effect Quantification, value of the standardized method and comparison with clinical reference groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wullenk, Katharina


    Full Text Available [english] The standardized training of practical competences in skills labs is relatively new among German Medical Faculties. The broad acceptance and outstanding evaluation results do not provide objective data on the efficiency and cost-efficiency of these trainings. This study aims on the quantification of the teaching effect of the surgical scrubbing technique EN1500 and its comparison with clinical references of OR personnel.Methods: 161 4 year medical students were randomized into intervention and control group. The intervention group received a 45 minute standardized peer-teaching training of practical competences necessary in the OR including the scrubbing according to EN1500. Fluorescence dye was mixed in the disinfectant solution. After hand disinfection, standardized fotographs and semi-automated digital processing resulted in quantification of the insufficiently covered hand area. These results were compared with the control group that received the training after the test. In order to provide information on the achieved clinical competence level, the results were compared with the two clinical reference groups.Results: The intervention group remained with 4,99% (SD 2,34 insufficiently covered hand area after the training compared to the control group 7,33% (SD 3,91, p[german] Die standardisierte Schulung klinisch-praktischer Fertigkeiten in sog. Skills Labs ist erst seit wenigen Jahren an deutschen Universitäten verbreitet. Den zumeist umfangreichen und sehr guten Evaluationsergebnissen stehen kaum Untersuchungen zur Effektquantifizierung und Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse gegenüber. In der vorliegenden Studie soll eine Methode zur digitalen Quantifizierung der Güte der chirurgischen Händedesinfektion vorgestellt werden sowie das Skills-Lab-Training der standardisierten Einreibemethode nach EN1500 auf seinen Effekt hin untersucht und mit OP-Pflegepersonal und Operateuren als klinische Referenzgruppen verglichen werden.Methode: 161

  4. In vivo determination of radiographic projection errors produced by a novel filmholder and an x-ray beam manipulator. (United States)

    Zappa, U; Simona, C; Graf, H; van Aken, J


    Subtraction radiography requires radiographs made with identical projection geometry. The purpose of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a new in vivo method to measure angular radiographic projection error. This included the development of a system for accurate control of the x-ray beam angulation relative to the intraoral film and the evaluation of the in vivo projection errors (equivalent to the "angular difference" between repeated exposures) produced by the new system. A filmholder, an x-ray beam manipulator, and an aiming device were newly constructed. Reference wires were attached for measuring the projection error on the filmholder and on the 22 bicuspids at the sites of investigation in 16 patients. Two exposures using standardized projection conditions were made of each site. The relative position of the reference wires on the duplicate radiographs was used to calculate the angular difference in the direction of the x-ray beam which occurred between the 2 exposures. Triplicate measurements allowed the determination of measurement error. The angular projection errors were measured in a horizontal and vertical direction. The reference wires allowed determination of the angular projection errors relative to the filmholder, relative to the dentition and the angular error due to the repositioning of the filmholder in the patient's mouth. The average projection errors deviated only slightly from zero. The largest deviation registered was -0.11 degrees. This applies to the horizontal and vertical direction and all relationships. The standard deviations varied between 0.403 degrees and 0.697 degrees. This applies to the standard deviation for all relationships in the horizontal, the vertical, and the oblique directions. The measuring error found from the triplicate measurements had a standard deviation of 0.08 degrees to 0.19 degrees depending on the distance between the reference wires. This new system for controlling in vivo projection errors

  5. Standards not that standard. (United States)

    Vilanova, Cristina; Tanner, Kristie; Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Villaescusa, Paula; Chugani, Divya; Frías, Alba; Segredo, Ernesto; Molero, Xavier; Fritschi, Marco; Morales, Lucas; Ramón, Daniel; Peña, Carlos; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel


    There is a general assent on the key role of standards in Synthetic Biology. In two consecutive letters to this journal, suggestions on the assembly methods for the Registry of standard biological parts have been described. We fully agree with those authors on the need of a more flexible building strategy and we highlight in the present work two major functional challenges standardization efforts have to deal with: the need of both universal and orthogonal behaviors. We provide experimental data that clearly indicate that such engineering requirements should not be taken for granted in Synthetic Biology.

  6. Linking English-Language Test Scores onto the Common European Framework of Reference: An Application of Standard-Setting Methodology. TOEFL iBT Research Report TOEFL iBt-06. ETS RR-08-34 (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline


    The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL® iBT test, the TOEIC® assessment, and the TOEIC "Bridge"™ test.…

  7. Identification of adulterants in a Chinese herbal medicine by LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR and comparative in vivo study with standards in a hypertensive rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Julie Regitze; Huang, JingQi; Sørensen, Dan


    investigation of the components of the preparation and eventual identification of three known anti-hypertensive drugs; amlodipine, indapamide and valsartan, which were not declared on the label. Compounds were rapidly identified using LC-HRMS and LC-MS-SPE/NMR, quantified by HPLC, and the in vivo activity...

  8. Spatial Standard Observer (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to devices and methods for the measurement and/or for the specification of the perceptual intensity of a visual image, or the perceptual distance between a pair of images. Grayscale test and reference images are processed to produce test and reference luminance images. A luminance filter function is convolved with the reference luminance image to produce a local mean luminance reference image. Test and reference contrast images are produced from the local mean luminance reference image and the test and reference luminance images respectively, followed by application of a contrast sensitivity filter. The resulting images are combined according to mathematical prescriptions to produce a Just Noticeable Difference, JND value, indicative of a Spatial Standard Observer, SSO. Some embodiments include masking functions, window functions, special treatment for images lying on or near borders and pre-processing of test images.

  9. In vivo histamine optical nanosensors. (United States)

    Cash, Kevin J; Clark, Heather A


    In this communication we discuss the development of ionophore based nanosensors for the detection and monitoring of histamine levels in vivo. This approach is based on the use of an amine-reactive, broad spectrum ionophore which is capable of recognizing and binding to histamine. We pair this ionophore with our already established nanosensor platform, and demonstrate in vitro and in vivo monitoring of histamine levels. This approach enables capturing rapid kinetics of histamine after injection, which are more difficult to measure with standard approaches such as blood sampling, especially on small research models. The coupling together of in vivo nanosensors with ionophores such as nonactin provide a way to generate nanosensors for novel targets without the difficult process of designing and synthesizing novel ionophores.

  10. A statistically robust EEG re-referencing procedure to mitigate reference effect. (United States)

    Lepage, Kyle Q; Kramer, Mark A; Chu, Catherine J


    The electroencephalogram (EEG) remains the primary tool for diagnosis of abnormal brain activity in clinical neurology and for in vivo recordings of human neurophysiology in neuroscience research. In EEG data acquisition, voltage is measured at positions on the scalp with respect to a reference electrode. When this reference electrode responds to electrical activity or artifact all electrodes are affected. Successful analysis of EEG data often involves re-referencing procedures that modify the recorded traces and seek to minimize the impact of reference electrode activity upon functions of the original EEG recordings. We provide a novel, statistically robust procedure that adapts a robust maximum-likelihood type estimator to the problem of reference estimation, reduces the influence of neural activity from the re-referencing operation, and maintains good performance in a wide variety of empirical scenarios. The performance of the proposed and existing re-referencing procedures are validated in simulation and with examples of EEG recordings. To facilitate this comparison, channel-to-channel correlations are investigated theoretically and in simulation. The proposed procedure avoids using data contaminated by neural signal and remains unbiased in recording scenarios where physical references, the common average reference (CAR) and the reference estimation standardization technique (REST) are not optimal. The proposed procedure is simple, fast, and avoids the potential for substantial bias when analyzing low-density EEG data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In-vivo (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C; Kim, Michele M; Liang, Xing; Finlay, Jarod C; Busch, Theresa M


    Dosimetry of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is of particular interest because it is the major cytotoxic agent causing biological effects for type-II photosensitizers during photodynamic therapy (PDT). An in-vivo model to determine the singlet oxygen threshold dose, [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh , for PDT was developed. An in-vivo radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumor mouse model was used to correlate the radius of necrosis to the calculation based on explicit PDT dosimetry of light fluence distribution, tissue optical properties, and photosensitizer concentrations. Inputs to the model include five photosensitizer-specific photochemical parameters along with [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh . Photosensitizer-specific model parameters were determined for benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) and compared with two other type-II photosensitizers, Photofrin ® and m-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) from the literature. The mean values (standard deviation) of the in-vivo [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh are approximately 0.56 (0.26) and 0.72 (0.21) mM (or 3.6×10 7 and 4.6×10 7 singlet oxygen per cell to reduce the cell survival to 1/e) for Photofrin ® and BPD, respectively, assuming that the fraction of generated singlet oxygen that interacts with the cell is 1. While the values for the photochemical parameters (ξ, σ, g , β) used for BPD were preliminary and may need further refinement, there is reasonable confidence for the values of the singlet oxygen threshold doses. In comparison, the [ 1 O 2 ] rx,sh value derived from in-vivo mouse study was reported to be 0.4 mM for mTHPC-PDT. However, the singlet oxygen required per cell is reported to be 9×10 8 per cell per 1/ e fractional kill in an in-vitro mTHPC-PDT study on a rat prostate cancer cell line (MLL cells) and is reported to be 7.9 mM for a multicell in-vitro EMT6/Ro spheroid model for mTHPC-PDT. A theoretical analysis is provided to relate the number of in-vitro singlet oxygen required per cell to reach cell killing of 1/ e to in-vivo singlet

  12. Standards, Standards, Standards: The Unintended Consequences of Widening Participation? (United States)

    Stuart, Mary


    Debate over widening access to higher education is narrowing to a focus on preservation of standards. Examination of the discourses of school policy, classroom environment, and peer culture shows how these competing cultures can work against efforts to increase participation. (Contains 17 references.) (SK)

  13. Ex Vivo ERG analysis of photoreceptors using an In Vivo ERG system (United States)

    Vinberg, Frans; Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.


    The Function of the retina and effects of drugs on it can be assessed by recording transretinal voltage across isolated retina that is perfused with physiological medium. However, building ex vivo ERG apparatus requires substantial amount of time, resources and expertise. Here we adapted a commercial in vivo ERG system for transretinal ERG recordings from rod and cone photoreceptors and compared rod and cone signalling between ex vivo and in vivo environments. We found that the rod and cone a- and b-waves recorded with the transretinal ERG adapter and a standard in vivo ERG system are comparable to those obtained from live anesthetized animals. However, ex vivo responses are somewhat slower and their oscillatory potentials are suppressed as compared to those recorded in vivo. We found that rod amplification constant (A) was comparable between ex vivo and in vivo conditions, ∼10 - 30 s-2 depending on the choice of response normalization. We estimate that the A in cones is between 3 and 6 s-2 in ex vivo conditions and by assuming equal A in vivo we arrive to light funnelling factor of 3 for cones in the mouse retina. The ex vivo ERG adapter provides a simple and affordable alternative to designing a custom-built transretinal recordings setup for the study of photoreceptors. Our results provide a roadmap to the rigorous quantitative analysis of rod and cone responses made possible with such a system. PMID:24959652

  14. A preliminary verification of the floating reference measurement method for non-invasive blood glucose sensing (United States)

    Min, Xiaolin; Liu, Rong; Fu, Bo; Xu, Kexin


    In the non-invasive sensing of blood glucose by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the spectrum is highly susceptible to the unstable and complicated background variations from the human body and the environment. In in vitro analyses, background variations are usually corrected by the spectrum of a standard reference sample that has similar optical properties to the analyte of interest. However, it is hard to find a standard sample for the in vivo measurement. Therefore, the floating reference measurement method is proposed to enable relative measurements in vivo, where the spectra under some special source-detector distance, defined as the floating reference position, are insensitive to the changes in glucose concentration due to the absorption effect and scattering effect. Because the diffuse reflectance signals at the floating reference positions only reflect the information on background variations during the measurement, they can be used as the internal reference. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the floating reference positions in a semi-infinite turbid medium was discussed based on the steady-state diffusion equation and its analytical solutions in a semi-infinite turbid medium (under the extrapolated boundary conditions). Then, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations and in vitro experiments based on a custom-built continuous-moving spatially resolving double-fiber NIR measurement system, configured with two types of light source, a super luminescent diode (SLD) and a super-continuum laser, were carried out to verify the existence of the floating reference position in 5%, 10% and 20% Intralipid solutions. The results showed that the simulation values of the floating reference positions are close to the theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of approximately 0.3 mm in 1100-1320 nm. Great differences can be observed in 1340-1400 nm because the optical properties of Intralipid in this region don not satisfy the conditions of the steady

  15. Standardization of hormone determinations. (United States)

    Stenman, Ulf-Håkan


    Standardization of hormone determinations is important because it simplifies interpretation of results and facilitates the use of common reference values for different assays. Progress in standardization has been achieved through the introduction of more homogeneous hormone standards for peptide and protein hormones. However, many automated methods for determinations of steroid hormones do not provide satisfactory result. Isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS) has been used to establish reference methods for steroid hormone determinations and is now increasingly used for routine determinations of steroids and other low molecular weight compounds. Reference methods for protein hormones based on MS are being developed and these promise to improve standardization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fundamentals of Reference (United States)

    Mulac, Carolyn M.


    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  17. Global Reference Tables for Management Information Systems (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database is a collection of reference tables that store common information used throughout SSA. These tables standardize code structures and code usage of SSA...

  18. Global Reference Tables for Production Systems (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database is a collection of reference tables that store common information used throughout SSA. These tables standardized code structures and code usage of SSA...

  19. Printed circuit board designer's reference basics

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Chris


    PCB design instruction and reference manual, all in one book, with in- depth explanation of the processes and tools used in modern PCB design Standards, formulas, definitions, and procedures, plus software to tie it all together.

  20. Standard Samples and Reference Standards Issued by the National Bureau of Standards (United States)


    refractory ------------- 60 3. 25 80 Glass , soda-lime ---------------- 45 3. 25 104 Burned magnesite -------------- 60 3. 25 89 Glass , lead-barium...Feldspar ------------------------- 21 Monoolefins_ ..---------------------- 9 Glass sands -------------------------- 21 S. Diolefinr"_’ -4 9 Glasses ... magnesite , and titanium dioxide-... 22 Alkyl benzes --------------------- 10 Silicon carbide --------------------- 22 * NaphthaleneA

  1. Employment references: defamation law in the clinical laboratory. (United States)

    Parks, D G


    The law of defamation and the risks involved in issuing employment references are discussed. A hypothetical scenario is used to illustrate the legal standards governing the tort of defamation and to apply those standards to employment references. Practical suggestions for a "controlled reference" policy are provided, with the objective of allowing for responsible exchange of employment information and avoiding a defamation lawsuit.

  2. Tv & video engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, K G


    TV & Video Engineer's Reference Book presents an extensive examination of the basic television standards and broadcasting spectrum. It discusses the fundamental concepts in analogue and digital circuit theory. It addresses studies in the engineering mathematics, formulas, and calculations. Some of the topics covered in the book are the conductors and insulators, passive components, alternating current circuits; broadcast transmission; radio frequency propagation; electron optics in cathode ray tube; color encoding and decoding systems; television transmitters; and remote supervision of unatten

  3. National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (United States)

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  4. Reflections on Malpractice of Reference Librarians. (United States)

    Wan, Ronglin


    Explores the legal ramifications of malpractice among librarians and the possible impact on services due to fear of being sued. Topics include identification of potential malpractice areas; cooperative electronic reference services; use of reference standards; insurance; contract; disclaimer; updating library collections; using Internet resources;…

  5. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  6. Matching references with MEDLINE via TCP/IP.


    Guidi, J. N.


    Bibliographic references are an important part of databases and information resources used by clinicians and biomedical researchers. In addition to the obvious clerical advantages of standard references, bibliographic references can also be used as links to related items in different data sets. This paper describes an effort that involved matching references from a variety of disparate databases to canonical MEDLINE references. The references matched were those involved in a database unificat...

  7. Comparison of in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with gold standard in vivo mouse neutralization test for the detection of low level antibodies. (United States)

    Sonmez, Cemile; Coplu, Nilay; Gozalan, Aysegul; Akin, Lutfu; Esen, Berrin


    Detection of anti-tetanus antibody levels is necessary for both determination of the immune status of individuals and also for planning preventive measures. ELISA is the preferred test among in vitro tests however it can be affected by the cross reacting antibodies. A previously developed in-house ELISA test was found not reliable for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A new method was developed to detect low antibody levels correctly. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test with the in vivo mouse neutralization test, for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A total of 54 serum samples with the antibody levels of three different levels, =0.01IU/ml, 0.01-0.1IU/ml, 0.1-1IU/ml, which were detected by in vivo mouse neutralization test were studied by the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test. Test was validated by using five different concentrations (0.01IU/ml, 0.06IU/ml, 0.2IU/ml, 0.5IU/ml, 1.0IU/ml). A statistically significant correlation (r(2)=0.9967 p=0,001) between in vivo mouse neutralization test and in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, was observed. For the tested concentrations intra-assay, inter-assay, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and coefficients of variations were determined as ≤15%. In-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test can be an alternative method to in vivo mouse neutralization method for the detection of levels ≤1.0IU/ml. By using in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, individuals with non protective levels, will be reliably detected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. EDQM biological reference preparation for rabies vaccine (inactivated) for veterinary use. (United States)

    Daas, A; Bruckner, L; Milne, C


    Rabies is a deadly zoonotic disease. Control of rabies in animals by vaccination is an important strategy to protect humans from infection and control the spread of the disease. Requirements for the quality control of rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use include an in vivo quantitative potency determination as outlined in the Ph. Eur. monograph 0451. Performance of this assay requires a reference preparation calibrated in International Units (IU). A European Pharmacopeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use, calibrated in IU, has been established for this purpose. Due to the dwindling stocks of the current batch (batch 4) of Ph. Eur. BRP for rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use, a collaborative study was run as part of the EDQM Biological Standardisation Programme to establish BRP batch 5. Ten laboratories, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories and manufacturers, participated. The candidate BRP5 was assayed against the 6(th) International Standard for rabies vaccine using the in vivo vaccination-challenge assay (monograph 0451) to assign a potency value. The candidate was also compared to BRP batch 4 to establish continuity. Taking into account the results from the comparisons a potency of 10 IU/vial was assigned and in March 2015 the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the material as Ph. Eur. BRP for rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use batch 5. In addition to the in vivo assay 3 laboratories tested the candidate material using their in-house in vitro assays for information.

  9. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  10. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference. (United States)


    ... incorporates by reference the following test procedures into Subpart G of Part 431. The Director of the Federal... given here for information and guidance. (2) List of References. (i) ASTM Standard Test Method C518-91... of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus.” (ii) ASTM Standard Test Method C177-97, “Standard Test Method for...

  11. E-learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available E-learning standards refer to a system of common rules for content, authoring software and Learning Management Systems (LMSs - rules that specify how courses can be created and delivered over multiple platforms so that they all operate seamlessly together. Accredited standards ensure that the investment in time and intellectual capital could move from one system to the next. Currently, e-learning standards are being developed by four main organizations: AICC, IEEE, IMS, and ADL. The article presents some aspects of these standards.

  12. Onic reference in discourse


    Shilikhina, K.


    the paper discusses the relation between ironic nomination and the real world. Starting with a brief overview of existing theories of reference the paper explores various ways of ironic reference indefinite pronouns and noun phrases for pseudo-indefinite and definite reference respectively. Metalinguistic assessment of ironic reference is used as yet another source of information. Ironic nomination fulfills several functions: referentive, evaluative and regulative. The evaluative function bec...

  13. The challenging issues of testing and standardization in education: modern references for restructuring the philosophy of thinking and integration of Ukraine into the system of international rating PISA-2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Megega


    Full Text Available The European vector in the foreign policy of our state brought up a number of serious challenges for the system of domestic education. They include not only the reorganization of the philosophy of thinking, but also the conscious, objective study of the essence of our system’s entering into the so-called European standards. It would be a mistake to think that the transfer of principles, approaches, forms and methods of work from the educational systems of different countries of the world will immediately produce a positive effect. Each system has its pros and cons. Practical experience of the use of different testing and standardization methods in different countries has already revealed a number of negative trends. Despite the fact that the testing industry is on the rise, the problems of the education quality still remain unsolved. In addition, politicians and officials are constantly tempted to give education assessments based on the results of rating and monitoring studies. Consequently, the objective picture of the essence and depth of the transformations, so necessary for the modern school, has disappeared from the analysis. Moreover, the competent evaluation of the activity of the main figure of the educational process – i.e. the teacher – has not been done. Testing, in a number of cases, turns a school into a training ground for testing tools, and it makes socialization, creativity, artwork and the formation of competencies to be a secondary task. Therefore, the critical view of the experience, which has been presented in the study, will tell practitioners how to enter the system of international standards and how to evaluate without repeating other people’s mistakes. The expediency of such analysis becomes especially urgent on the eve of Ukraine’s participation in 2018 PISA testing. At the same time, one cannot help paying attention to the undeniable conclusions about the direct connection between the results of testing the

  14. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wandelt

    Full Text Available The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1 the size of the factorization, 2 the time for factorization, and 3 the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%, factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s, and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB. Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  15. Metabolite profiling of a NIST Standard Reference Material for human plasma (SRM 1950): GC-MS, LC-MS, NMR, and clinical laboratory analyses, libraries, and web-based resources. (United States)

    Simón-Manso, Yamil; Lowenthal, Mark S; Kilpatrick, Lisa E; Sampson, Maureen L; Telu, Kelly H; Rudnick, Paul A; Mallard, W Gary; Bearden, Daniel W; Schock, Tracey B; Tchekhovskoi, Dmitrii V; Blonder, Niksa; Yan, Xinjian; Liang, Yuxue; Zheng, Yufang; Wallace, William E; Neta, Pedatsur; Phinney, Karen W; Remaley, Alan T; Stein, Stephen E


    Recent progress in metabolomics and the development of increasingly sensitive analytical techniques have renewed interest in global profiling, i.e., semiquantitative monitoring of all chemical constituents of biological fluids. In this work, we have performed global profiling of NIST SRM 1950, "Metabolites in Human Plasma", using GC-MS, LC-MS, and NMR. Metabolome coverage, difficulties, and reproducibility of the experiments on each platform are discussed. A total of 353 metabolites have been identified in this material. GC-MS provides 65 unique identifications, and most of the identifications from NMR overlap with the LC-MS identifications, except for some small sugars that are not directly found by LC-MS. Also, repeatability and intermediate precision analyses show that the SRM 1950 profiling is reproducible enough to consider this material as a good choice to distinguish between analytical and biological variability. Clinical laboratory data shows that most results are within the reference ranges for each assay. In-house computational tools have been developed or modified for MS data processing and interactive web display. All data and programs are freely available online at and .

  16. Estimation of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of two serologic tests for the detection of antibodies against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the absence of a reference test (gold standard)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enøe, Claes; Andersen, Søren; Sørensen, Vibeke


    Latent-class models were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a polyclonal blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a modified complement-fixation test (CFT) when there was no reference test. The tests were used for detection of antibodies against.......9-95.3%) and of the CFT were 90.6% (86.0-95.3%) and 98.7% (98.0-99.3%). The sensitivity and specificity of a combined test, where the CFT is subsequently applied to the pig sera that test positive in the ELISA, A ere estimated at 90.2% (85.6-95.0%) and 99.9% (99.8-100%), respectively. The cost of the combined test...... independence was assumed to models allowing for conditional dependence, given the true disease status. No strong evidence of conditional dependence in either test sensitivity or specificity was found. Assuming independence, maximum-likelihood estimates and 95% confidence intervals of the sensitivity...

  17. 40 CFR 761.19 - References. (United States)


    ... Electrical Insulating Liquids § 761.60(g)(1)(ii); (g)(2)(ii) ASTM D 923-89 Standard Methods of Sampling Electrical Insulating Liquids § 761.60(g)(1)(ii); (g)(2)(ii) ASTM D 1266-87 Standard Test Method for Sulfur... (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. References CFR Citation ASTM D 93 - 90...

  18. 77 FR 13969 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard (United States)


    ... the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of... date of its direct final rule that revises the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating the... that revised the Acetylene Standard for general industry by updating a reference to the Compressed Gas...

  19. 75 FR 5707 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard (United States)


    ... in the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... accompanied its direct-final rule revising the Acetylene Standard for general industry. DATES: As of February...- final rule to update the incorporated references in its Acetylene Standard for general industry at 29...

  20. 77 FR 13997 - Revising Standards Referenced in the Acetylene Standard (United States)


    ... in the Acetylene Standard AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... accompanied its direct-final rule revising the Acetylene Standard for general industry. DATES: Effective March...-final rule to update the incorporated references in its Acetylene Standard for general industry at 29...

  1. International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ITS reference DNA barcoding database--the quality controlled standard tool for routine identification of human and animal pathogenic fungi. (United States)

    Irinyi, Laszlo; Serena, Carolina; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Arabatzis, Michael; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Vu, Duong; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Arthur, Ian; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Giraldo, Alejandra; da Cunha, Keith Cassia; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Hendrickx, Marijke; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Merseguel, Karina Bellinghausen; Khan, Aziza; Parente Rocha, Juliana Alves; Sampaio, Paula; da Silva Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro; e Ferreira, Renata Carmona; de Medeiros Muniz, Mauro; Castañón-Olivares, Laura Rosio; Estrada-Barcenas, Daniel; Cassagne, Carole; Mary, Charles; Duan, Shu Yao; Kong, Fanrong; Sun, Annie Ying; Zeng, Xianyu; Zhao, Zuotao; Gantois, Nausicaa; Botterel, Françoise; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad; Gams, Walter; Ellis, David; Halliday, Catriona; Chen, Sharon; Sorrell, Tania C; Piarroux, Renaud; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pais, Célia; de Hoog, Sybren; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Toriello, Conchita; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Delhaes, Laurence; Stubbe, Dirk; Dromer, Françoise; Ranque, Stéphane; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, Jose F; Robert, Vincent; Velegraki, Aristea; Meyer, Wieland


    Human and animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide leading to emerging infections and creating new risks for established ones. There is a growing need for a rapid and accurate identification of pathogens to enable early diagnosis and targeted antifungal therapy. Morphological and biochemical identification methods are time-consuming and require trained experts. Alternatively, molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, a powerful and easy tool for rapid monophasic identification, offer a practical approach for species identification and less demanding in terms of taxonomical expertise. However, its wide-spread use is still limited by a lack of quality-controlled reference databases and the evolving recognition and definition of new fungal species/complexes. An international consortium of medical mycology laboratories was formed aiming to establish a quality controlled ITS database under the umbrella of the ISHAM working group on "DNA barcoding of human and animal pathogenic fungi." A new database, containing 2800 ITS sequences representing 421 fungal species, providing the medical community with a freely accessible tool at and to rapidly and reliably identify most agents of mycoses, was established. The generated sequences included in the new database were used to evaluate the variation and overall utility of the ITS region for the identification of pathogenic fungi at intra-and interspecies level. The average intraspecies variation ranged from 0 to 2.25%. This highlighted selected pathogenic fungal species, such as the dermatophytes and emerging yeast, for which additional molecular methods/genetic markers are required for their reliable identification from clinical and veterinary specimens. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  2. 33 CFR 155.140 - Incorporation by reference. (United States)


    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS General § 155..., Standard Practice for Reporting Visual Observations of Oil on Water, incorporation by reference approved...

  3. Space-Time Reference Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soffel, Michael


    The high accuracy of modern astronomical spatial-temporal reference systems has made them considerably complex. This book offers a comprehensive overview of such systems. It begins with a discussion of ‘The Problem of Time’, including recent developments in the art of clock making (e.g., optical clocks) and various time scales. The authors address  the definitions and realization of spatial coordinates by reference to remote celestial objects such as quasars. After an extensive treatment of classical equinox-based coordinates, new paradigms for setting up a celestial reference system are introduced that no longer refer to the translational and rotational motion of the Earth. The role of relativity in the definition and realization of such systems is clarified. The topics presented in this book are complemented by exercises (with solutions). The authors offer a series of files, written in Maple, a standard computer algebra system, to help readers get a feel for the various models and orders of magnitude. ...

  4. [Comparison of susceptibility artifacts generated by microchips with different geometry at 1.5 Tesla magnet resonance imaging. A phantom pilot study referring to the ASTM standard test method F2119-07]. (United States)

    Dengg, S; Kneissl, S


    Ferromagnetic material in microchips, used for animal identification, causes local signal increase, signal void or distortion (susceptibility artifact) on MR images. To measure the impact of microchip geometry on the artifact's size, an MRI phantom study was performed. Microchips of the labels Datamars®, Euro-I.D.® and Planet-ID® (n  =  15) were placed consecutively in a phantom and examined with respect to the ASTM Standard Test Method F2119-07 using spin echo (TR 500 ms, TE 20 ms), gradient echo (TR 300 ms, TE 15 ms, flip angel 30°) and otherwise constant imaging parameters (slice thickness 3 mm, field of view 250 x 250 mm, acquisition matrix 256 x 256 pixel, bandwidth 32 kHz) at 1.5 Tesla. Image acquisition was undertaken with a microchip positioned in the x- and z-direction and in each case with a phase-encoding direction in the y- and z-direction. The artifact size was determined with a) a measurement according to the test method F2119-07 using a homogeneous point operation, b) signal intensity measurement according to Matsuura et al. and c) pixel counts in the artifact according to Port and Pomper. There was a significant difference in artifact size between the three microchips tested (Wilcoxon p = 0.032). A two- to three-fold increase in microchip volume generated an up to 76% larger artifact, depending on the sequence type, phase-encoding direction and chip position to B0. The smaller the microchip geometry, the less is the susceptibility artifact. Spin echoes (SE) generated smaller artifacts than gradient echoes (GE). In relation to the spatial measurement of the artifact, the switch in phase-encoding direction had less influence on the artifact size in GE- than in SE-sequences. However, the artifact shape and direction of SE-sequences can be changed by altering the phase. The artifact size, caused by the microchip, plays a major clinical role in the evaluation of MRI from the head, shoulder and neck regions.

  5. Reference Dependent Altruism


    Breitmoser, Yves; Tan, Jonathan H.W.


    In view of behavioral patterns left unorganized by current social preference theories, we propose a theory of reference dependent altruism (RDA). With RDA, one's degree of altruism increases at reference points. It induces equity and efficiency effects that are conditional on whether or not payoffs meet reference points. We verify the theory first by experimentally analyzing majority bargaining, where observed behavior contradicts existing theories but confirms RDA. Using parameter estimates ...

  6. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur


    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  7. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide (United States)

    Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide 2 nd Edition A Publication of the Computer/Electronic Accommodations Program Real Solutions for Real ... Table of Contents.................................................................................................................................. ... Checklist ........................................................................................................................... 3 Ergonomic ...

  8. Standards for Library Automation and ISAD's Committee on Technical Standards for Library Automation (TESLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Committee on Technical Standards for Library Automation


    Full Text Available The role of ISAD's Committee on Technical Standards for Library Automation is examined and discussed. A procedure for the reaction to and initiation of standards is described, with reference to relevant standards organizations.

  9. Dynamic HTML The Definitive Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Danny


    Packed with information on the latest web specifications and browser features, this new edition is your ultimate one-stop resource for HTML, XHTML, CSS, Document Object Model (DOM), and JavaScript development. Here is the comprehensive reference for designers of Rich Internet Applications who need to operate in all modern browsers, including Internet Explorer 7, Firefox 2, Safari, and Opera. With this book, you can instantly see browser support for the latest standards-based technologies, including CSS Level 3, DOM Level 3, Web Forms 2.0, XMLHttpRequest for AJAX applications, JavaScript 1.7

  10. The Reference Interview (United States)

    King, Geraldine B.


    Good reference librarians need to be good interviewers. Unfortunately most librarians have not learned to use the technique of open questions to obtain information about the user and what he is looking for. Examples of open and closed questions with typical responses are given. (4 references) (DH)

  11. California's Reference Crisis. (United States)

    Childers, Thomas A.


    Social and economic issues affecting the vitality of public libraries in California are discussed. A 1993 study by the California State Library identified diminishing reference skills and reference collections, reduced funding which impacted staffing, increased demand, technology change, and language/culture issues as contributing factors to…

  12. The Reference Return Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe; Faber Frandsen, Tove


    The paper introduces a new journal impact measure called The Reference Return Ratio (3R). Unlike the traditional Journal Impact Factor (JIF), which is based on calculations of publications and citations, the new measure is based on calculations of bibliographic investments (references) and returns...

  13. Evaluation of the uncertainties associated to the in vivo monitoring of iodine-131 in the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The internal dose from the incorporation of radionuclides by humans can be estimated by in vivo direct measurements in the human body and in vitro analysis of biological indicators. In vivo techniques consist on the identification and quantification of radionuclides present in the whole body and in specific organs and tissues. The results obtained in measurements may present small uncertainties which are within pre-set limits in monitoring programs for occupationally exposed individuals. This study aims to evaluate the sources of uncertainty associated with the results of in vivo monitoring of iodine 131 in the thyroid. The benchmarks adopted in this study are based on the criteria suggested by the General Guide for Estimating Effective Doses from Monitoring Data (Project IDEAS/European Community). The reference values used were the ones for high-energy photons (>100 keV). Besides the parameters suggested by the IDEAS Guide, it has also been evaluated the fluctuation of the counting due to the phantom repositioning, which represents the reproducibility of the counting geometry. Measurements were performed at the Whole Body Counter Unit of the IRD using a scintillation detector NaI (Tl) 3'' x 3'' and a neck-thyroid phantom developed at the In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IRD. This phantom contains a standard source of barium-133 added to a piece of filter paper with the dimension and shape of a thyroid gland. Scattering factors were calculated and compared in different counting geometries. The results show that the technique studied presents reproducibility equivalent to the values suggested in the IDEAS Guide and measurement uncertainties compatible to international quality standards for this type of in vivo monitoring. (author)

  14. In vivo transcriptome of Plasmodium falciparum reveals overexpression of transcripts that encode surface proteins. (United States)

    Daily, Johanna P; Le Roch, Karine G; Sarr, Ousmane; Ndiaye, Daouda; Lukens, Amanda; Zhou, Yingyao; Ndir, Omar; Mboup, Soulyemane; Sultan, Ali; Winzeler, Elizabeth A; Wirth, Dyann F


    Infections with the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum continue to present a great challenge to global health. Fundamental questions regarding the molecular basis of virulence and immune evasion in P. falciparum have been only partially answered. Because of the parasite's intracellular location and complex life cycle, standard genetic approaches to the study of the pathogenesis of malaria have been limited. The present study presents a novel approach to the identification of the biological processes involved in host-pathogen interactions, one that is based on the analysis of in vivo P. falciparum transcripts. We demonstrate that a sufficient quantity of P. falciparum RNA transcripts can be derived from a small blood sample from infected patients for whole-genome microarray analysis. Overall, excellent correlation was observed between the transcriptomes derived from in vivo samples and in vitro samples with ring-stage P. falciparum 3D7 reference strain. However, gene families that encode surface proteins are overexpressed in vivo. Moreover, this analysis has identified a new family of hypothetical genes that may encode surface variant antigens. Comparative studies of the transcriptomes derived from in vivo samples and in vitro 3D7 samples may identify important strategies used by the pathogen for survival in the human host and highlight, for vaccine development, new candidate antigens that were not previously identified through the use of in vitro cultures.

  15. In vivo and ex vivo inflammatory markers of common metabolic phenotypes in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Frøkiær, Hanne; Stenbæk, Marie Grøntved


    BACKGROUND: Low-grade systemic inflammation (LGSI) is often characterized by elevated levels of interleukin (IL)6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Other serum proteins, ex vivo-stimulated cytokine production, and leukocyte count have, however, also been suggested LGSI-markers...... also correlated with leukocyte count. Ex vivo-produced cytokines were intercorrelated and correlated with leukocyte count, but did not correlate with the serum immune markers. MS score, body mass index, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were associated with 8%-16% higher inflammatory score per standard...... fasting serum markers of LGSI and leukocyte counts associated best with measures of MS-associated LGSI, whereas ex vivo cytokine production was only associated with prevailing glycemia and dyslipidemia. Taken together, this indicates that the relationship between in vivo and ex vivo inflammatory markers...

  16. Ex vivo lung perfusion review of a revolutionary technology. (United States)

    Makdisi, George; Makdisi, Tony; Jarmi, Tambi; Caldeira, Christiano C


    Donor lung shortage has been the main reason to the increasing number of patients waiting for lung transplant. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is widely expanding technology to assess and prepare the lungs who are considered marginal for transplantation. the outcomes are encouraging and comparable to the lungs transplanted according to the standard criteria. in this article, we will discuss the history of development, the techniques and protocols of ex vivo, and the logics and rationales for ex vivo use.


    Lopez, M A; Martin, R; Hernandez, C; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T; Perez, B; Sierra, I


    The accreditation of an Internal Dosimetry Service (IDS) according to ISO/IEC 17025 Standard is a challenge. The aim of this process is to guarantee the technical competence for the monitoring of radionuclides incorporated in the body and for the evaluation of the associated committed effective dose E(50). This publication describes the main accreditation issues addressed by CIEMAT IDS regarding all the procedures involving good practice in internal dosimetry, focussing in the difficulties to ensure the traceability in the whole process, the appropriate calculation of detection limit of measurement techniques, the validation of methods (monitoring and dose assessments), the description of all the uncertainty sources and the interpretation of monitoring data to evaluate the intake and the committed effective dose. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  18. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot


    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  19. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph


    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  20. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony


    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  1. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric


    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  2. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz


    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  3. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis


    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  4. Accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga, B.; Mügge, D.


    The European and global regulation of accounting standards have witnessed remarkable changes over the past twenty years. In the early 1990s, EU accounting practices were fragmented along national lines and US accounting standards were the de facto global standards. Since 2005, all EU listed

  5. Toxicity Reference Database (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: aceruloplasminemia (United States)

    ... an inherited neurodegenerative disease with impairment of iron homeostasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Mar;1012:299-305. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Crick, Watson, and Wilkins Awarded ...

  7. Dissolution processes. [224 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.


    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems. (DLC)

  8. Introduction to Reference Links (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Unlike most traditional metadata systems, the power of ServCat comes in relating a Reference to others. This module discusses the different types of links (aka...

  9. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590...

  10. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590 spectrophotometer

  11. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.


    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  12. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M


    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  13. Reference Climatological Stations (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  14. Development and evaluation of weight and height reference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While international reference standard exists, it has been suggested that locally generated norms would be more realistic and appropriate, especially in adults where great variations in stature among nations exist. This study was undertaken to develop a table of reference standard for weight and height for young adults in

  15. B1 and T1 mapping of the breast with a reference tissue method. (United States)

    Pineda, Federico D; Medved, Milica; Fan, Xiaobing; Karczmar, Gregory S


    To develop a method for mapping the B1 field using a reference signal from a tissue with known T1. Flip angle correction factors were calculated in a region with a known "gold standard" T1; by comparing T1 values from a variable flip angle (VFA) sequence to the "gold standard" and correcting the value of the Ernst angle. The resulting partial B1 map was interpolated for all other regions. In the breast, fat is an ideal reference tissue because its T1 is spatially homogeneous and interpatient variability is low. This method was tested with scans of phantoms and patients (n = 4) on a 3T magnet. The performance of the method was evaluated by comparing the results of VFA T1 mapping with and without B1 correction to inversion recovery (IR) T1 maps. Phantom data determined that a linear inverse distance weighted interpolation accurately recovered the full B1 map. Use of interpolated maps to correct the VFA data in vivo, reduced the average difference in the T1 of parenchyma between VFA and IR results from 58% to 8%. This proof-of-principle study showed that it is possible to recover a full and accurate map of the B1 field in the breast by using a reference tissue (fat) with an accurately measured T1. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Enterprise Reference Library (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary


    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  17. Frequency reference in VSAT (United States)

    Cheah, Jonathon Y. C.


    A low cost technique of frequency reference distribution within a VSAT network is discussed. This technique allows the use of a modestly frequency stable oscillator as the master frequency reference in the hub of a star-connected VSAT network. The need for extremely frequency stable OCXOs in VSATs is completely avoided. This technique was successfully incorporated in the early commercial VSAT networks. It contributes partially to the low cost nature of some of the VSAT networks available today.

  18. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W


    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  19. Design and Verification of MIMO 2x2 Reference Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szini, Istvan Janos; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Estrada, J.


    The development and initial discussion of a reference MIMO 2×2 antenna concept has been presented in [1]. The reference antenna concept has been created to eliminate the uncertainties linked to the unknown antenna performance of the few LTE MIMO 2×2 reference devices or golden standards currently...

  20. Technology Reference Model (TRM): Technology/Standard List (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The One VA Enterprise Architecture (OneVA EA) is a comprehensive picture of the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) operations, capabilities and services and the...

  1. Technology Reference Model (TRM) Reports: Technology/Standards Decisions Report (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The One VA Enterprise Architecture (OneVA EA) is a comprehensive picture of the Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) operations, capabilities and services and the...

  2. The establishment of sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents for BCG vaccine. (United States)

    Dagg, Belinda; Hockley, Jason; Rigsby, Peter; Ho, Mei M


    As the latest addition to the sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine, an international collaborative study was completed to evaluate the suitability of a candidate BCG Moreau-RJ sub-strain as a WHO Reference Reagent of BCG vaccine. This follows the recent replacement of the WHO 1st International Reference Preparation for BCG vaccine, by three sub-strain specific WHO Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine (Danish 1331, Tokyo 172-1 and Russian BCG-I) in order to complete the coverage of most predominant sub-strains used for BCG vaccine production and distribution for use worldwide. The study used cultural viable count and modified ATP assays to quantify the preparation and multiplex PCR to confirm the identity of the sub-strain. The establishment of this WHO Reference Reagent of BCG vaccine of Moreau-RJ sub-strain was approved by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization meeting in October 2012. This preparation is available for distribution by NIBSC-MHRA, UK. The data from real-time stability monitoring demonstrated that these Reference Reagents of BCG vaccine are very stable in storage condition at -20°C. They serve as the valuable source of BCG Reference Reagents for use as comparators (1) for viability assays (such as cultural viable count and modified ATP assays); (2) for in vivo assays (such as the absence of virulent mycobacteria, dermal reactivity and protection assays) in the evaluation of candidate TB vaccines in non-clinical models; (3) for identity assays using molecular biology techniques. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Transitioning from Standard Reference Material 2806a to Standard Reference Material 2806b for Light Obscuration Particle Countering (United States)


    TERMS fuel, JP-8, diesel , contamination, particulate , particle counting, ISO 11171 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT none...Shift in particulate distribution from SRM 2806a to SRM 2806b. ................................. 2 Figure 2. All particles ≥4µm counted by Parker...fuel injection systems, as fuel system component suppliers have stated that particulate size and distribution is more important than particulate mass

  4. The Emerging JBIG2 Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, P.; Kossentini, F.; Martins, Bo


    The Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group (JBIG), an international study group affiliated with ISO/IEC and ITU-T, is in the process of drafting a new standard for lossy and lossless compression of bi-level images. The new standard, informally referred to as JBIG2, will support model-based coding...

  5. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode (United States)

    Su, Di


    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  6. Reference Based Genome Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Bobbie; Manolakos, Alexandros; No, Albert; Venkat, Kartik; Weissman, Tsachy


    DNA sequencing technology has advanced to a point where storage is becoming the central bottleneck in the acquisition and mining of more data. Large amounts of data are vital for genomics research, and generic compression tools, while viable, cannot offer the same savings as approaches tuned to inherent biological properties. We propose an algorithm to compress a target genome given a known reference genome. The proposed algorithm first generates a mapping from the reference to the target genome, and then compresses this mapping with an entropy coder. As an illustration of the performance: applying our algorithm to James Watson's genome with hg18 as a reference, we are able to reduce the 2991 megabyte (MB) genome down to 6.99 MB, while Gzip compresses it to 834.8 MB.

  7. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.


    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  8. Communications standards

    CERN Document Server

    Stokes, A V


    Communications Standards deals with the standardization of computer communication networks. This book examines the types of local area networks (LANs) that have been developed and looks at some of the relevant protocols in more detail. The work of Project 802 is briefly discussed, along with a protocol which has developed from one of the LAN standards and is now a de facto standard in one particular area, namely the Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP). Factors that affect the usage of networks, such as network management and security, are also considered. This book is divided into three se

  9. Comparação entre o método de referência e a análise eletrônica na determinação da contagem de células somáticas do leite bovino Comparison between standard method and electronic analyses for measurement of the bovine milk somatic cell count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M.L. Silveira


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a metodologia eletrônica de determinação da contagem de células somáticas por citometria de fluxo, utilizando-se 48 amostras individuais de leite de vaca da raça Holandesa e cinco amostras de leite de conjunto. A contagem média de células somáticas das amostras individuais foi de 353.000 cel/ml (5,55log cel/ml usando-se metodologia de referência e 328.000 cel/ml (5,52log cel/ml usando-se o contador eletrônico. Para amostras de tanque, as médias foram 382.000 cel/ml (5,58log cel/ml e 329.000 cel/ml (5,52log cel/ml de CCS, respectivamente, para análise feita por microscopia direta e pelo equipamento eletrônico. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os valores obtidos nas análises realizadas pelo método de referência e pelo analisador eletrônico rápido. Foi avaliada a qualidade das amostras-padrão de origem americana e canadense, por meio da contagem de células somáticas, pelo método de microscopia direta. Os resultados foram comparados aos valores declarados no laudo de análise das amostras, emitidos pelo laboratório fornecedor das amostras-padrão.In order to evaluate the electronic counting of somatic cell count by flow citometry, 48 raw milk samples from Holstein cows and 5 bulk tank samples were analyzed for somatic cells counting. The mean of somatic cells counting (SCC for raw milk samples were 353,000 cells/ml (5.55log cells/ml using the standard methods and 328,000 cells/ml (5.52log cells/ml, using electronic equipment. For the bulk tank samples the SCC means were 382.000 cells/ml (5.58log cells/ml using the direct microscopic and 329.000 cells/ml (5.52log cells/ml using the electronic equipment. The differences between values obtained by both analytical methods were not significant (P>0.05. Additionally, the quality of the American and Canadian standard samples was evaluated by determination of the SCC, using the reference methods to compare to the results issued by the supplier laboratory.

  10. Perl Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Vromans, Johan


    If you have a Perl programming question, you'll find the answer quickly in this handy, easy-to-use quick reference. The Perl Pocket Reference condenses and organizes stacks of documentation down to the most essential facts, so you can find what you need in a heartbeat. Updated for Perl 5.14, the 5th edition provides a summary of Perl syntax rules and a complete list of operators, built-in functions, and other features. It's the perfect companion to O'Reilly's authoritative and in-depth Perl programming books, including Learning Perl, Programming Perl, and the Perl Cookbook..

  11. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G R


    A long established reference book: radical revision for the fifteenth edition includes complete rearrangement to take in chapters on new topics and regroup the subjects covered for easy access to information.The Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, first published in 1945, maintains its original aims: to reflect the state of the art in electrical science and technology and cater for the needs of practising engineers. Most chapters have been revised and many augmented so as to deal properly with both fundamental developments and new technology and applications that have come to the fore since

  12. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric A


    They say that good things come in small packages, and it's certainly true for this edition of CSS Pocket Reference. Completely revised and updated to reflect the latest Cascading Style Sheet specifications in CSS 2.1, this indispensable little book covers the most essential information that web designers and developers need to implement CSS effectively across all browsers. Inside, you'll find: A short introduction to the key concepts of CSS A complete alphabetical reference to all CSS 2.1 selectors and properties A chart displaying detailed information about CSS support for every style ele

  13. JDBC Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bales, Donald


    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  14. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...... projekterne er almindelige nationalt eller internationalt, er det muligt at etablere en reference-klasse af tilsvarende projekter og dermed alligevel opnå et pålideligt lokalt budget. Denne projekttype er relativt almindelig. RCF kan ikke anvendes på projekter som er reelt unikke, d.v.s. projekter for hvilke...

  15. bash Quick Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold


    In this quick reference, you'll find everything you need to know about the bash shell. Whether you print it out or read it on the screen, this PDF gives you the answers to the annoying questions that always come up when you're writing shell scripts: What characters do you need to quote? How do you get variable substitution to do exactly what you want? How do you use arrays? It's also helpful for interactive use. If you're a Unix user or programmer, or if you're using bash on Windows, you'll find this quick reference indispensable.

  16. Python pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Mark


    This is the book to reach for when you're coding on the fly and need an answer now. It's an easy-to-use reference to the core language, with descriptions of commonly used modules and toolkits, and a guide to recent changes, new features, and upgraded built-ins -- all updated to cover Python 3.X as well as version 2.6. You'll also quickly find exactly what you need with the handy index. Written by Mark Lutz -- widely recognized as the world's leading Python trainer -- Python Pocket Reference, Fourth Edition, is the perfect companion to O'Reilly's classic Python tutorials, also written by Mark

  17. 47 CFR 90.379 - ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard). (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard... Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.379 ASTM E2213-03 DSRC Standard (ASTM-DSRC Standard). Roadside Units... incorporated by reference: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E2213-03, “Standard Specification...

  18. Geographical origin: meaningful reference or marketing tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Liselotte


    constitutes a meaningful reference to a link between food and place that represents expectations of taste and quality. In Denmark, this link is not attributed similar meaning and, hence, the difference between meaningful references and images formed through the language of marketing is less discernible...... collected in France where geographical origin is perceived as indicator of quality. A possible explanation resides in the double standards rendered possible by the European labels as they refer to provenance as well as geographical origin. Provenance means to issue from a place in the sense that the place...... of production can be positioned on a map, but there is no precise standard for the rootedness of the product in this place. Origin means to be from a place in the sense that natural factors, cultural practices and historical links contribute to the understanding of the link between food and place...

  19. Multimedia Reference Tools. (United States)

    Holzberg, Carol S.


    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  20. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz


    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...... and updated data reporting formats are also required....

  1. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng


    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  2. Tracking referents in discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, M.J.A.; Spooren, W.P.M.S.


    This reading study registered eye movements to investigate the influence of different discourse constructional factors on anaphor resolution in written discourse. More specifically, the study focused on the influence of the possible interplay of proximity between a possible referent and the anaphor

  3. Reference-Dependent Sympathy (United States)

    Small, Deborah A.


    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  4. Python library reference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)


    textabstractPython is an extensible, interpreted, object-oriented programming language. It supports a wide range of applications, from simple text processing scripts to interactive WWW browsers. While the Python Reference Manual describes the exact syntax and semantics of the language, it does not

  5. Questions in Reference Interviews. (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas


    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  6. Genetics Home Reference: bradyopsia (United States)

    ... they often have trouble watching or participating in sports with a ball, such as soccer or tennis. ... IAE.0b013e31827e2306. Review. Citation on PubMed More from Genetics Home Reference Bulletins Rare Disease Day 2018 Darwin ...

  7. Generating Multimodal References

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, E.


    This paper presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions, based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer et al. (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing.

  8. Synthetic growth reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanussen, Michael; Stec, Karol; Aßmann, Christian; Meigen, Christof; Van Buuren, Stef|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074806777


    Objectives: To reanalyze the between-population variance in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), and to provide a globally applicable technique for generating synthetic growth reference charts. Methods: Using a baseline set of 196 female and 197 male growth studies published since 1831, common

  9. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41250085X; Donders, T.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290469872; Bijl, P.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314028110; Wagner, F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/173870783


    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging




  11. MIT Scheme Reference Manual (United States)


    their Butterfly Scheme Reference, and to Margaret O’Connell for translating it from BBN’s text-formatting language to ours. Special thanks to Richard ... Stallman , Bob Chassell, and Brian Fox, all of the Free Software Foundation, for creating and maintaining the Texinfo formatting language in which this

  12. Internet Issues in Reference. (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol


    Discusses the impact of Internet access on library reference services based on 1994 interviews with almost two dozen university librarians. Highlights include library policy, overcrowded workstations and methods of controlling use, recreational use of terminals that interferes with more formal library use, restriction as a form of censorship, and…

  13. Antimicrobial Blue Light Therapy for Infectious Keratitis: Ex Vivo and In Vivo Studies. (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Kochevar, Irene E; Behlau, Irmgard; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Fenghua; Wang, Yucheng; Sun, Xiaodong; Hamblin, Michael R; Dai, Tianhong


    To investigate the effectiveness of antimicrobial blue light (aBL) as an alternative or adjunctive therapeutic for infectious keratitis. We developed an ex vivo rabbit model and an in vivo mouse model of infectious keratitis. A bioluminescent strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was used as the causative pathogen, allowing noninvasive monitoring of the extent of infection in real time via bioluminescence imaging. Quantitation of bacterial luminescence was correlated to colony-forming units (CFU). Using the ex vivo and in vivo models, the effectiveness of aBL (415 nm) for the treatment of keratitis was evaluated as a function of radiant exposure when aBL was delivered at 6 or 24 hours after bacterial inoculation. The aBL exposures calculated to reach the retina were compared to the American National Standards Institute standards to estimate aBL retinal safety. Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis fully developed in both the ex vivo and in vivo models at 24 hours post inoculation. Bacterial luminescence in the infected corneas correlated linearly to CFU (R2 = 0.921). Bacterial burden in the infected corneas was rapidly and significantly reduced (>2-log10) both ex vivo and in vivo after a single exposure of aBL. Recurrence of infection was observed in the aBL-treated mice at 24 hours after aBL exposure. The aBL toxicity to the retina is largely dependent on the aBL transmission of the cornea. Antimicrobial blue light is a potential alternative or adjunctive therapeutic for infectious keratitis. Further studies of corneal and retinal safety using large animal models, in which the ocular anatomies are similar to that of humans, are warranted.

  14. 24 CFR 3280.4 - Incorporation by reference. (United States)


    ...—American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, New York 10018 APA—American Plywood... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS General § 3280.4 Incorporation by reference. (a) The specifications, standards and codes of the following organizations are incorporated by...

  15. Comparison of two in vivo and two ex vivo tests to assess the antibacterial activity of several antiseptics. (United States)

    Messager, S; Goddard, P A; Dettmar, P W; Maillard, J-Y


    An ex vivo test was adapted to mimic the in vivo conditions of testing antiseptic activity on human forearms and in the European Standard Hygienic Handwash Test (BSEN 1499). The study was to validate the ex vivo protocols using 4.8% (w/v) para-chloro-meta-xylenol (PCMX, neat Dettol), 0.5% (w/v) triclosan in 70% (v/v) isopropanol, and 2% (v/v) povidone-iodine against a high bacterial inoculum (>10(8) cfu/mL) of Escherichia coli NCTC 10538. Two ex vivo tests using human skin samples, including one introducing a mechanical rubbing effect, were compared with two corresponding in vivo tests (the forearm test and the BSEN handwashing test). All antiseptics assessed in vivo (forearm and handwash tests) produced reductions in bacterial counts that were significantly greater than those for the non-medicated soft soap control. When assessed ex vivo without rubbing, only PCMX and povidone-iodine achieved reductions significantly greater than soft soap. When assessed ex vivo with mechanical rubbing, only PCMX and triclosan achieved reductions significantly greater than soft soap. Overall, the antiseptics at the concentrations tested were more active when tested in vivo than ex vivo. The addition of a mechanical effect, either in vivo by the volunteers washing their hands or ex vivo by a drill rubbing two skin samples against each other, produced a significantly greater reduction in bacterial concentrations. The ex vivo tests were easily adapted to mimic in vivo protocols. The value of such tests, particularly the one that includes a rubbing effect, may be significant as they avoid the need for human volunteers.

  16. OSH technical reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In an evaluation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Occupational Safety and Health programs for government-owned contractor-operated (GOCO) activities, the Department of Labor`s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommended a technical information exchange program. The intent was to share written safety and health programs, plans, training manuals, and materials within the entire DOE community. The OSH Technical Reference (OTR) helps support the secretary`s response to the OSHA finding by providing a one-stop resource and referral for technical information that relates to safe operations and practice. It also serves as a technical information exchange tool to reference DOE-wide materials pertinent to specific safety topics and, with some modification, as a training aid. The OTR bridges the gap between general safety documents and very specific requirements documents. It is tailored to the DOE community and incorporates DOE field experience.

  17. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A


    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  18. Reference fallible endgame play


    Haworth, Guy McCrossan


    A reference model of fallible endgame play is defined in terms of a spectrum of endgame players whose play ranges in competence from the optimal to the anti-optimal choice of move. They may be used as suitably skilled practice partners, to assess a player, to differentiate between otherwise equi-optimal moves, to promote or expedite a game result, to run Monte-Carlo simulations, and to identify the difficulty of a position or a whole endgame.

  19. GDB Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Arnold


    The GNU debugger is valuable for testing, fixing, and retesting software because it allows you to see exactly what's going on inside of a program as it's executing. This new pocket reference shows you how to specify a target for debugging, perform a careful examination to find the cause of program failure, and make quick changes for further testing. The guide covers several popular programming languages.

  20. Grep pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Bambenek, John


    grep Pocket Reference is the first guide devoted to grep, the powerful Unix content-location utility. This handy book is ideal for system administrators, security professionals, developers, and others who want to learn more about grep and take new approaches with it -- for everything from mail filtering and system log management to malware analysis. The book includes useful information not contained in the current grep documentation

  1. Reference to Galery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri F. Katorin


    Full Text Available In the article it is told about some aspects of the application of military rowing vessels, composition and rules the formation of the command of rowers, special features of the organization of their work on bringing of ship into the motion, is analyzed the influence of the practice of use reference to gallery of the condemned criminals to entire legislation of this country.

  2. Electroacoustical reference data

    CERN Document Server

    Eargle, John M


    The need for a general collection of electroacoustical reference and design data in graphical form has been felt by acousticians and engineers for some time. This type of data can otherwise only be found in a collection of handbooks. Therefore, it is the author's intention that this book serve as a single source for many electroacoustical reference and system design requirements. In form, the volume closely resembles Frank Massa's Acoustic Design Charts, a handy book dating from 1942 that has long been out of print. The basic format of Massa's book has been followed here: For each entry, graphical data are presented on the right page, while text, examples, and refer­ ences appear on the left page. In this manner, the user can solve a given problem without thumbing from one page to the next. All graphs and charts have been scaled for ease in data entry and reading. The book is divided into the following sections: A. General Acoustical Relationships. This section covers the behavior of sound transmis­ sion in...

  3. (Terminology standardization)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strehlow, R.A.


    Terminological requirements in information management was but one of the principal themes of the 2nd Congress on Terminology and Knowledge Engineering. The traveler represented the American Society for Testing and Materials' Committee on Terminology, of which he is the Chair. The traveler's invited workshop emphasized terminology standardization requirements in databases of material properties as well as practical terminology standardizing methods. The congress included six workshops in addition to approximately 82 lectures and papers from terminologists, artificial intelligence practitioners, and subject specialists from 18 countries. There were approximately 292 registrants from 33 countries who participated in the congress. The congress topics were broad. Examples were the increasing use of International Standards Organization (ISO) Standards in legislated systems such as the USSR Automated Data Bank of Standardized Terminology, the enhanced Physics Training Program based on terminology standardization in Physics in the Chinese province of Inner Mongolia, and the technical concept dictionary being developed at the Japan Electronic Dictionary Research Institute, which is considered to be the key to advanced artificial intelligence applications. The more usual roles of terminology work in the areas of machine translation. indexing protocols, knowledge theory, and data transfer in several subject specialties were also addressed, along with numerous special language terminology areas.

  4. 47 CFR 90.548 - Interoperability Technical Standards. (United States)


    ... are incorporated by reference: Project 25 FDMA Common Air Interface—New Technology Standards Project... incorporated by reference: Project 25 Data Overview—New Technology Standards Project—Digital Radio Technical...; Project 25 Packet Data Specification—New Technology Standards Project—Digital Radio Technical Standards...

  5. Dynamic HTML: the definitive reference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Danny


    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Part I. Dynamic HTML Reference 1. HTML and XHTML Reference Attribute Value Types Shared HTML Element Attributes Shared Event Handler Attributes Alphabetical...

  6. ex vivo DNA assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam B Fisher


    Full Text Available Even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. Advances in cloning techniques have resulted in powerful in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA. However, monetary and time costs have limited these approaches. Here, we report an ex vivo DNA assembly method that uses cellular lysates derived from a commonly used laboratory strain of Escherichia coli for joining double-stranded DNA with short end homologies embedded within inexpensive primers. This method concurrently shortens the time and decreases costs associated with current DNA assembly methods.

  7. 78 FR 37696 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Updated Postretirement Benefit (PRB) References (United States)


    ... deleted in the Financial Accounting Standards Board's (FASB's) Accounting Standards Codification (ASC) of..., to replace the obsolete references to paragraphs 110, 112, and 113 of Financial Accounting Standard... standard that were deleted in the Financial Accounting Standards Board's (FASB's) Accounting Standards...

  8. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend


    The building code of Greenland from 1982 is to be revised in the coming years fulfilling the increased demand of more energy efficient buildings. To establish appropriate levels of energy consumption for heating the weather conditions have to be analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to describe...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...

  9. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt


    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  10. VBScript pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Paul; Petrusha, Ron


    Microsoft's Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript), a subset of Visual Basic for Applications, is a powerful language for Internet application development, where it can serve as a scripting language for server-side, client-side, and system scripting. Whether you're developing code for Active Server Pages, client-side scripts for Internet Explorer, code for Outlook forms, or scripts for Windows Script Host, VBScript Pocket Reference will be your constant companion. Don't let the pocket-friendly format fool you. Based on the bestsellingVBScript in a Nutshell, this small book details every V

  11. Optomechanical reference accelerometer

    CERN Document Server

    Gerberding, Oliver; Melcher, John; Pratt, Jon; Taylor, Jacob


    We present an optomechanical accelerometer with high dynamic range, high bandwidth and read-out noise levels below 8 {\\mu}g/$\\sqrt{\\mathrm{Hz}}$. The straightforward assembly and low cost of our device make it a prime candidate for on-site reference calibrations and autonomous navigation. We present experimental data taken with a vacuum sealed, portable prototype and deduce the achieved bias stability and scale factor accuracy. Additionally, we present a comprehensive model of the device physics that we use to analyze the fundamental noise sources and accuracy limitations of such devices.

  12. Mechanical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Parrish, A


    Mechanical Engineer's Reference Book: 11th Edition presents a comprehensive examination of the use of Systéme International d' Unités (SI) metrication. It discusses the effectiveness of such a system when used in the field of engineering. It addresses the basic concepts involved in thermodynamics and heat transfer. Some of the topics covered in the book are the metallurgy of iron and steel; screw threads and fasteners; hole basis and shaft basis fits; an introduction to geometrical tolerancing; mechanical working of steel; high strength alloy steels; advantages of making components as castings

  13. NUnit Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Bill


    The open source NUnit framework is an excellent way to test .NET code as it is written, saving hundreds of QA hours and headaches. Unfortunately, some of those hours saved can be wasted trying to master this popular but under-documented framework. Proof that good things come in small packages, the NUnit Pocket Reference is everything you need to get NUnit up and working for you. It's the only book you'll need on this popular and practical new open source framework.

  14. XSLT 10 Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Evan


    XSLT is an essential tool for converting XML into other kinds of documents: HTML, PDF file, and many others. It's a critical technology for XML-based platforms such as Microsoft .NET, Sun Microsystems' Sun One, as well as for most web browsers and authoring tools. As useful as XSLT is, however, most people have a difficult time getting used to its peculiar characteristics. The ability to use advanced techniques depends on a clear and exact understanding of how XSLT templates work and interact. The XSLT 1.0 Pocket Reference from O'Reilly wants to make sure you achieve that level of understan

  15. Xcode 5 developer reference

    CERN Document Server

    Wentk, Richard


    Design, code, and build amazing apps with Xcode 5 Thanks to Apple's awesome Xcode development environment, you can create the next big app for Macs, iPhones, iPads, or iPod touches. Xcode 5 contains gigabytes of great stuff to help you develop for both OS X and iOS devices - things like sample code, utilities, companion applications, documentation, and more. And with Xcode 5 Developer Reference, you now have the ultimate step-by-step guide to it all. Immerse yourself in the heady and lucrative world of Apple app development, see how to tame the latest features and functions, and find loads of

  16. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric


    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  17. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F


    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  18. Nuclear Science References Database (United States)

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.


    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center

  19. Roaming Reference: Reinvigorating Reference through Point of Need Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kealin M. McCabe


    Full Text Available Roaming reference service was pursued as a way to address declining reference statistics. The service was staffed by librarians armed with iPads over a period of six months during the 2010-2011 academic year. Transactional statistics were collected in relation to query type (Research, Facilitative or Technology, location and approach (librarian to patron, patron to librarian or via chat widget. Overall, roaming reference resulted in an additional 228 reference questions, 67% (n=153 of which were research related. Two iterations of the service were implemented, roaming reference as a standalone service (Fall 2010 and roaming reference integrated with traditional reference desk duties (Winter 2011. The results demonstrate that although the Weller Library’s reference transactions are declining annually, they are not disappearing. For a roaming reference service to succeed, it must be a standalone service provided in addition to traditional reference services. The integration of the two reference models (roaming reference and reference desk resulted in a 56% decline in the total number of roaming reference questions from the previous term. The simple act of roaming has the potential to reinvigorate reference services as a whole, forcing librarians outside their comfort zones, allowing them to reach patrons at their point of need.

  20. Comparing the identification of Clostridium spp. by two Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry platforms to 16S rRNA PCR sequencing as a reference standard: a detailed analysis of age of culture and sample preparation. (United States)

    Chean, Roy; Kotsanas, Despina; Francis, Michelle J; Palombo, Enzo A; Jadhav, Snehal R; Awad, Milena M; Lyras, Dena; Korman, Tony M; Jenkin, Grant A


    We compared the identification of Clostridium species using mass spectrometry by two different Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) platforms (Bruker MS and Vitek MS) against 16S rRNA sequencing as the reference standard. We then examined the impact of different sample preparations and (on one of those platforms) age of bacterial colonial growth on the performance of the MALDI-TOF MS systems. We identified 10 different species amongst the 52 isolates by 16S rRNA sequencing, with Clostridium perfringens the most prevalent (n=30). Spectrometric analysis using Vitek MS correctly speciated 47/52 (90.4%) isolates and was not affected by the sample preparation used. Performance of the Bruker MS was dependent on sample preparation with correct speciation obtained for 36 of 52 (69.2%) isolates tested using the Direct Transfer [DT] protocol, but all 52 (100%) isolates were correctly speciated using either an Extended Direct Transfer [EDT] or a Full Formic Extraction [EX] protocol. We then examined the effect of bacterial colonial growth age on the performance of Bruker MS and found substantial agreement in speciation using DT (Kappa=0.62, 95% CI: 0.46-0.75), almost perfect agreement for EDT (Kappa=0.94, 95% CI: 0.86-1.00) and exact agreement for EX (Kappa=1.00) between different days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.