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Sample records for vivo preliminary rat

  1. 68Ga and 188Re Starch-Based Microparticles as Theranostic Tool for the Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Radiolabeling and Preliminary In Vivo Rat Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Elise; Drion, Pierre; Meffre, Geneviève; Bernard, Claire; Duwez, Luc; Lepareur, Nicolas; Couturier, Olivier; Hindré, François; Hustinx, Roland; Lacoeuille, Franck

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to develop, validate and optimize the radiolabeling of Starch-Based Microparticles (SBMP) by 188Re and 68Ga in the form of ready-to-use radiolabeling kits, the ultimate goal being to obtain a unique theranostic vector for the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Optimal labeling conditions and composition of freeze-dried kits were defined by monitoring the radiochemical purity while varying several parameters. In vitro stability studies were carried out, as well as an in vivo biodistribution as a preliminary approach with the intra-arterial injection of 68Ga radiolabeled SBMP into the hepatic artery of DENA-induced rats followed by PET/CT imaging. Kits were optimized for 188Re and 68Ga with high and stable radiochemical purity (>95% and >98% respectively). The in vivo preliminary study was successful with more than 95% of activity found in the liver and mostly in the tumorous part. SBMP are a promising theranostic agent for the Selective Internal Radiation Therapy of Hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. 68Ga and 188Re Starch-Based Microparticles as Theranostic Tool for the Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Radiolabeling and Preliminary In Vivo Rat Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Verger

    Full Text Available This work aims to develop, validate and optimize the radiolabeling of Starch-Based Microparticles (SBMP by 188Re and 68Ga in the form of ready-to-use radiolabeling kits, the ultimate goal being to obtain a unique theranostic vector for the treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.Optimal labeling conditions and composition of freeze-dried kits were defined by monitoring the radiochemical purity while varying several parameters. In vitro stability studies were carried out, as well as an in vivo biodistribution as a preliminary approach with the intra-arterial injection of 68Ga radiolabeled SBMP into the hepatic artery of DENA-induced rats followed by PET/CT imaging.Kits were optimized for 188Re and 68Ga with high and stable radiochemical purity (>95% and >98% respectively. The in vivo preliminary study was successful with more than 95% of activity found in the liver and mostly in the tumorous part.SBMP are a promising theranostic agent for the Selective Internal Radiation Therapy of Hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. In vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" phenomenon in rat arterial bloodstream: a preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2014-07-01

    The "black hole," a hypo-echoic hole at the center of the bloodstream surrounded by a hyper-echoic zone in cross-sectional views, has been observed in ultrasound backscattering measurements of blood with red blood cell aggregation in in vitro studies. We investigated whether the phenomenon occurs in the in vivo arterial bloodstream of rats using a high-frequency ultrasound imaging system. Longitudinal and cross-sectional ultrasound images of the rat common carotid artery (CCA) and abdominal aorta were obtained using a 40-MHz ultrasound system. A high-frame-rate retrospective imaging mode was employed to precisely examine the dynamic changes in blood echogenicity in the arteries. When the imaging was performed with non-invasive scanning, blood echogenicity was very low in the CCA as compared with the surrounding tissues, exhibiting no hypo-echoic zone at the center of the vessel. Invasive imaging of the CCA by incising the skin and subcutaneous tissues at the imaging area provided clearer and brighter blood echo images, showing the "black hole" phenomenon near the center of the vessel in longitudinal view. The "black hole" was also observed in the abdominal aorta under direct imaging after laparotomy. The aortic "black hole" was clearly observed in both longitudinal and cross-sectional views. Although the "black hole" was always observed near the center of the arteries during the diastolic phase, it dissipated or was off-center along with the asymmetric arterial wall dilation at systole. In conclusion, we report the first in vivo observation of the hypo-echoic "black hole" caused by the radial variation of red blood cell aggregation in arterial bloodstream. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent-an ex vivo preliminary rat study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberland, David L [Rheumatology Associates, Medford, OR 97504 (United States); Agarwal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Fowlkes, J Brian; Carson, Paul L; Wang Xueding [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0553 (United States)], E-mail: xdwang@umich.edu

    2008-03-05

    Monitoring of anti-rheumatic drug delivery in experimental models and in human diseases would undoubtedly be very helpful for both basic research and clinical management of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we have investigated the potential of an emerging hybrid imaging technology-photoacoustic tomography-in noninvasive monitoring of anti-TNF drug delivery. After the contrast agent composed of gold nanorods conjugated with Etanercept molecules was produced, ELISA experiments were performed to prove the conjugation and to show that the conjugated anti-TNF-{alpha} drug was biologically active. PAT of ex vivo rat tail joints with the joint connective tissue enhanced by intra-articularly injected contrast agent was conducted to examine the performance of PAT in visualizing the distribution of the gold-nanorod-conjugated drug in articular tissues. By using the described system, gold nanorods with a concentration down to 1 pM in phantoms or 10 pM in biological tissues can be imaged with good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. This study demonstrates the feasibility of conjugating TNF antagonist pharmaceutical preparations with gold nanorods, preservation of the mechanism of action of TNF antagonist along with preliminary evaluation of novel PAT technology in imaging optical contrast agents conjugated with anti-rheumatic drugs. Further in vivo studies on animals are warranted to test the specific binding between such conjugates and targeted antigen in joint tissues affected by inflammation.

  5. Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberland, David L.; Agarwal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding

    2008-03-01

    Monitoring of anti-rheumatic drug delivery in experimental models and in human diseases would undoubtedly be very helpful for both basic research and clinical management of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we have investigated the potential of an emerging hybrid imaging technology—photoacoustic tomography—in noninvasive monitoring of anti-TNF drug delivery. After the contrast agent composed of gold nanorods conjugated with Etanercept molecules was produced, ELISA experiments were performed to prove the conjugation and to show that the conjugated anti-TNF-α drug was biologically active. PAT of ex vivo rat tail joints with the joint connective tissue enhanced by intra-articularly injected contrast agent was conducted to examine the performance of PAT in visualizing the distribution of the gold-nanorod-conjugated drug in articular tissues. By using the described system, gold nanorods with a concentration down to 1 pM in phantoms or 10 pM in biological tissues can be imaged with good signal-to-noise ratio and high spatial resolution. This study demonstrates the feasibility of conjugating TNF antagonist pharmaceutical preparations with gold nanorods, preservation of the mechanism of action of TNF antagonist along with preliminary evaluation of novel PAT technology in imaging optical contrast agents conjugated with anti-rheumatic drugs. Further in vivo studies on animals are warranted to test the specific binding between such conjugates and targeted antigen in joint tissues affected by inflammation.

  6. Optical coherence tomography based microangiography for quantitative monitoring of structural and vascular changes in a rat model of acute uveitis in vivo: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis models in rodents are important in the investigation of pathogenesis in human uveitis and the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies for treatment. Quantitative monitoring of ocular inflammation in small animal models provides an objective metric to assess uveitis progression and/or therapeutic effects. We present a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) to a rat model of acute anterior uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. OCT/OMAG is used to provide noninvasive three-dimensional imaging of the anterior segment of the eyes prior to injection (baseline) and two days post-injection (peak inflammation) in rats with and without steroid treatments. OCT imaging identifies characteristic structural and vascular changes in the anterior segment of the inflamed animals when compared to baseline images. Characteristics of inflammation identified include anterior chamber cells, corneal edema, pupillary membranes, and iris vasodilation. In contrast, no significant difference from the control is observed for the steroid-treated eye. These findings are compared with the histology assessment of the same eyes. In addition, quantitative measurements of central corneal thickness and iris vessel diameter are determined. This pilot study demonstrates that OCT-based microangiography promises to be a useful tool for the assessment and management of uveitis in vivo.

  7. Optical coherence tomography based microangiography for quantitative monitoring of structural and vascular changes in a rat model of acute uveitis in vivo: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis models in rodents are important in the investigation of pathogenesis in human uveitis and the development of appropriate therapeutic strategies for treatment. Quantitative monitoring of ocular inflammation in small animal models provides an objective metric to assess uveitis progression and/or therapeutic effects. We present a new application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT-based microangiography (OMAG) to a rat model of acute anterior uveitis induced by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. OCT/OMAG is used to provide noninvasive three-dimensional imaging of the anterior segment of the eyes prior to injection (baseline) and two days post-injection (peak inflammation) in rats with and without steroid treatments. OCT imaging identifies characteristic structural and vascular changes in the anterior segment of the inflamed animals when compared to baseline images. Characteristics of inflammation identified include anterior chamber cells, corneal edema, pupillary membranes, and iris vasodilation. In contrast, no significant difference from the control is observed for the steroid-treated eye. These findings are compared with the histology assessment of the same eyes. In addition, quantitative measurements of central corneal thickness and iris vessel diameter are determined. This pilot study demonstrates that OCT-based microangiography promises to be a useful tool for the assessment and management of uveitis in vivo.

  8. The survival identification of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. In vitro and in vivo effects of two dithizone preparations on staining of rat and human islets of Langerhans-preliminary study (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedor, P; Rowiński, W; Licińska, I; Mazurek, A P; Hardy, M A

    1995-01-01

    Dithizone (DTZ) which selectively stains islets of Langerhans in vitro has a diagnostic potential in the in vivo identification of viable transplanted pancreatic islets. In the present study, we compared the use of DTZ, and a synthetic iodo-derivative of DTZ (I-DTZ) as a potential radioactive marker for identification of viable transplanted pancreatic islet cells. Fresh islets isolated from Lewis rat donors were transplanted beneath the kidney capsule into each diabetic syngeneic (Lewis) recipient rat. DTZ(I-DTZ) solution was injected intravenously (i.v.) at a dose 10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) for macro and microscopic identification of surviving transplanted islets. The recipients were nephrectomized to confirm that the normoglycemic state was maintained by the islet grafts. In addition, we administered i.v. at the same time concentrations of DTZ (I-DTZ) to test for toxicity. The results show that following i.v. or intraductal (i.d.) injection of low concentrations does not damage pancreatic islet function as determined by insulin secretion or glucose levels. Angiogenesis and microvascularization were observed for 10-12 days after transplantation, and the histologic and biochemical studies showed no pathological changes in injected rats in organ examined. The human pancreatic islets harvested from multiorgan donors stain red ex vivo in the same way as DTZ or I-DTZ administered i.v. in rats. The results indicate that DTZ has a diagnostic potential in monitoring the survival of transplanted pancreatic islets and possibly in the early diagnosis by radioisotopic detection of pancreatic endocrine diseases.

  9. In situ forming chitosan hydrogels: Preliminary evaluation of the in vivo inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Maria José; Brochado, João; Gil, Maria Helena; Figueiredo, Maria Margarida

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to provide important preliminary in vivo data on the general biocompatibility and degradation of in situ forming chitosan hydrogels which differ in the type of cross-linking: physical cross-linking (with glycerol phosphate disodium salt) and physico/chemical co-cross-linking (with glycerol phosphate disodium salt and genipin). Additionally, in vitro degradation studies, using lysozyme, were conducted for comparison. The subcutaneous implantation of the liquid formulations of both hydrogels in animal model (Wistar rats) was performed to assess tissue response at the end of two time periods (8 and 30days). Although the properties of both hydrogels are different (namely, pore size and mechanical strength), leading to remarkably distinct in vitro degradation behaviors, the in vivo degradation is quite similar for both types. Regarding biocompatibility, the in vivo evaluation performed by histological analysis, showed a mild to moderate chronic inflammatory reaction with no foreign body reaction, demonstrating that both hydrogels show good results for in vivo biodegradation and biocompatibility, therefore are most adequate for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. In vivo and ex vivo effects of propofol on myocardial performance in rats with obstructive jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Hong-Mei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responsiveness of the "jaundiced heart" to propofol is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of propofol on myocardial performance in rats with obstructive jaundice. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40 were randomly allocated into two groups, twenty underwent bile duct ligation (BDL, and 20 underwent a sham operation. Seven days after the surgery, propofol was administered in vivo and ex vivo (Langendorff preparations. Heart rate, left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, and maximal rate for left ventricular pressure rise and decline (± dP/dtmax were measured to determine the influence of propofol on the cardiac function of rats. Results Impaired basal cardiac function was observed in the isolated BDL hearts, whereas in vivo indices of basal cardiac function (LVESP and ± dP/dt in vivo were significantly higher in rats that underwent BDL compared with controls. With low or intermediate concentrations of propofol, these indices of cardiac function were within the normal physiologic range in both groups, and responsiveness to propofol was unaffected by BDL. When the highest concentration of propofol was administrated, a significant decline in cardiac function was observed in the BDL group. Conclusions In rats that underwent BDL, basal cardiac performance was better in vivo and worse ex vivo compared with controls. Low and intermediate concentrations of propofol did not appear to impair cardiac function in rats with obstructive jaundice.

  11. Comparison of in vivo cardiac function with ex vivo cardiac performance of the rat heart after thoracic irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; Camps, J. A.; van Ravels, F. J.; van der Laarse, A.; Pauwels, E. K.; Wondergem, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare in vivo cardiac function with ex vivo cardiac performance after local heart irradiation in the same rat. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured in vivo by radionuclide ventriculography in Sprague-Dawley rats up to 16 months after a single dose of

  12. In vivo dermal absorption of pyrethroid pesticides in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for exposure to pyrethroid pesticides has risen recently because of their increased use. The objective of this study was to examine the in vivo dermal absorption of bifenthrin, deltamethrin and permethrin in the rat. Hair on the dorsal side of anesthetized adult m...

  13. Preliminary Investigation on In Vivo Trypanocidal Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of extracts of Calotropis procera and Parkinsonia aculeata in the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected rats was studied. The albino rats were treated for 7 days with 200mg of the plant extracts intraperitoneally (ip) after establishment of parasitaemia. No significant (p>0.05) changes in weights were ...

  14. Sleep deprivation decreases neuronal excitability and responsiveness in rats both in vivo and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély, Sándor; Világi, Ildikó; Haraszti, Zsófia; Szalontai, Örs; Hajnik, Tünde; Tóth, Attila; Détári, László

    2017-12-11

    Sleep deprivation has severe consequences for higher nervous functions. Its effects on neuronal excitability may be one of the most important factors underlying functional deterioration caused by sleep loss. In the present work, excitability changes were studied using two complementary in vivo and ex vivo models. Auditory evoked potentials were recorded from freely-moving animals in vivo. Amplitude of evoked responses showed a near-continuous decrease during deprivation. Prevention of sleep also reduced synaptic efficacy ex vivo, measured from brain slices derived from rats that underwent sleep deprivation. While seizure susceptibility was not affected significantly by sleep deprivation in these preparations, the pattern of spontaneous seizure activity was altered. If seizures developed, they lasted longer and tended to contain more spikes in slices obtained from sleep-deprived than from control rats. Current-source density analysis revealed that location and sequence of activation of local cortical networks recruited by seizures did not change by sleep deprivation. Moderate differences seen in the amplitude of individual sinks and sources might be explained by smaller net transmembrane currents as a consequence of decreased excitability. These findings contradict the widely accepted conception of synaptic homeostasis suggesting gradual increase of excitability during wakefulness. Our results also indicate that decreased neuronal excitability caused by sleep deprivation is preserved in slices prepared from rats immediately after deprivation. This observation might mean new opportunities to explore the effects of sleep deprivation in ex vivo preparations that allow a wider range of experimental manipulations and more sophisticated methods of analysis than in vivo preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo studies of biotin absorption in distal rat intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, B.B.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have extended their previous studies of biotin absorption in rat proximal jejunum (PJ) to examine biotin absorptive capacity of rat ileum (I) and proximal colon (PC) using in vivo intestinal loop technique. Intestinal loops (2.5 cm) were filled with 0.3 ml of solution containing (/sup 3/H)-biotin and (/sup 14/C)-inulin in phosphate buffer, pH 6.5. Biotin absorption was determined on the basis of luminal biotin disappearance after correction for inulin recovery and averaged (pmol/loop-10 min; X +/- SEM). In related experiments, 5-cm loops of PJ, distal I (DI), or PC were filled with 0.5 ml of solution of similar composition (1.0 ..mu..M biotin). The abdominal cavity was closed and the rats were allowed to recover from anesthesia, then sacrificed 3 hr after injection. Biotin absorption averaged 96.2% (PJ), 93.2% (DI), and 25.8% (PC) of the dose administered. These differences were reflected in the radioactive biotin content of plasma and intestinal loop, kidney, and liver. These data demonstrate significant biotin absorption in rat DI and PC, as required if the intestinal microflora are to be considered as a source of biotin for the host.

  16. Gonadotropins regulate rat testicular tight junctions in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Mark J; Tarulli, Gerard A; Meachem, Sarah J; Robertson, David M; Smooker, Peter M; Stanton, Peter G

    2010-06-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) are an essential component of the blood-testis barrier required for spermatogenesis; however, the role of gonadotropins in their maintenance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin suppression and short-term replacement on TJ function and TJ protein (occludin and claudin-11) expression and localization, in an adult rat model in vivo. Rats (n = 10/group) received the GnRH antagonist, acyline, for 7 wk to suppress gonadotropins. Three groups then received for 7 d: 1) human recombinant FSH, 2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and rat FSH antibody (to study testicular androgen stimulation alone), and 3) hCG alone (to study testicular androgen and pituitary FSH production). TJ proteins were assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, whereas TJ function was assessed with a biotin permeation tracer. Acyline treatment significantly reduced testis weights, serum androgens, LH and FSH, and adluminal germ cells (pachytene spermatocyte, round and elongating spermatids). In contrast to controls, acyline induced seminiferous tubule permeability to biotin, loss of tubule lumens, and loss of occludin, but redistribution of claudin-11, immunostaining. Short-term hormone replacement stimulated significant recoveries in adluminal germ cell numbers. In hCG +/- FSH antibody-treated rats, occludin and claudin-11 protein relocalized at the TJ, but such relocalization was minimal with FSH alone. Tubule lumens also reappeared, but most tubules remained permeable to biotin tracer, despite the presence of occludin. It is concluded that gonadotropins maintain Sertoli cell TJs in the adult rat via a mechanism that includes the localization of occludin and claudin-11 at functional TJs.

  17. Effect of metal fragments in brain on electrical monitoring: In vitro and in vivo rat studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A.; Bodo, M.; Armonda, R. A.

    2010-04-01

    Preliminary results showed, measurements by rheoencephalography (REG) very promising as a practical, noninvasive continuous monitoring modality of traumatic brain/blast injuries. As the impact of metal fragments on the REG signal is unknown, we report here results of our study .The in vitro study confirmed that impedance pulse amplitude waves do not change in the presence of metal (needles) placed between electrodes. In vivo studies: rats under anesthesia (10 rats, 101 trials) were measured after implantation of EEG and REG electrodes in the brain. Metal fragments were represented by 18 g needles inserted and removed between EEG and REG electrodes. Data were stored in a PC. EEG recording typically showed amplitude decrease; REG showed transitory amplitude increase after placement of a needle into either hemisphere. Removal of needles caused a decrease in REG amplitude after a transitory increase. The change in REG amplitude statistically was non-significant. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation(AR) persisted following placement of metal fragments in rat brain.

  18. Persistence of DNA studied in different ex vivo and in vivo rat models simulating the human gut situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcks, A.; Hoek, van A.H.A.M.; Joosten, R.G.; Jacobsen, B.B.L.; Aarts, H.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of DNA sequences from genetically modified plants to persist in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. PCR analysis and transformation assays were used to study DNA persistence and integrity in various ex vivo and in vivo systems using gnotobiotic rats. DNA

  19. Radiochemical synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurin, MichaL [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 30/34 CheLmska Street, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: mmaurin@il.waw.pl; Garnuszek, Piotr [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 30/34 CheLmska Street, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-02-15

    Application of cross-linking agents such as SATA and 2-iminothiolane (2-IT) for radiochemical synthesis of new radioactive Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes with carnosine was investigated. The mixed-ligand Pt(II)([{sup 125}I]Hist)(Carnosine) complex has been synthesized in a multi-step reaction. First, carnosine was modified by the attachment of SATA. After chromatographic purification, the conjugate was unprotected to form a reactive sulfhydryl functional group, and then the modified carnosine was substituted to PtCl{sub 2}[{sup 125}I]Hist complex. The Pt(II)(IT-[{sup 125}I]Carnosine) and Pt(IV)(IT-[{sup 131}I]Carnosine) complexes were synthesized in a three-step reaction. First, carnosine was labeled with iodine radionuclide ({sup 125}I or {sup 131}I), followed by conjugation with 2-IT. The modified IT-[*I]Carnosine was complexed with tetrachloroplatinate or hexachloroplatinate. Comparative biodistribution studies were performed in normal Wistar rats and in Lewis rats with implanted (s.c.) rat pancreatic tumor cells (AR42J). The HPLC analysis showed a relatively fast formation of the new mixed-ligand Pt([{sup 125}I]Hist)(Carnosine) complex (yield ca. 50% after 20 h). Reaction of K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 4} with [{sup 125}I]Carnosine modified by 2-IT proceeded rapidly and with a high yield (>95% after 2 h). The synthesis of the Pt(IV)IT-[*I]Carnosine complex was the slower reaction in comparison to the analogous synthesis of the Pt(II) complex (yield ca. 70% after 12 h), thus a purification step was necessary. The biodistribution study proved the in vivo stability of the newly synthesized complexes (a low accumulation in thyroid gland and in GIT) and showed that the conjugation of the modified carnosine changes significantly biodistribution scheme of the Pt complexes comparing to the reference Pt(II)[*I]Hist and Pt(IV)([*I]Hist){sub 2} complexes. The mixed-ligand complex was rapidly excreted in urine and revealed the highest accumulation in kidneys (>5%ID/g). A very high

  20. Comparison of ex vivo and in vivo micro-computed tomography of rat tibia at different scanning settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Amanda B; Salmon, Phil L; Ward, Wendy E

    2017-08-01

    The parameters of a micro-computed tomography (μCT) scan, including whether a bone is imaged in vivo or ex vivo, determine the quality of the resulting image. In turn, this impacts the accuracy of the trabecular and cortical outcomes. The absolute impact of μCT scanning at different voxel sizes and whether the sample is imaged in vivo or ex vivo on the morphological outcomes of the proximal tibia in the rat is unknown. The right proximal tibia of 6-month-old Sham-control and ovariectomized (OVX) rats (n = 8/group) was scanned using μCT (SkyScan 1176, Bruker, Kontich, Belgium) using three sets of parameters (9 μm ex vivo, 18 μm ex vivo, 18 μm in vivo) to compare the trabecular and cortical outcomes. Regardless of scan protocols, differences between Sham and OVX groups were observed as expected. At a voxel size of 18 μm, scanning in vivo or ex vivo had no effect on any of the outcomes measured. However, compared to a 9 μm voxel size scan, imaging at 18 μm resulted in significant underestimation of the connectivity density (p vivo scanning. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1690-1698, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fluorometry of ischemia reperfusion injury in rat lungs in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehr, R.; Staniszewski, K.; Jacobs, E. R.; Audi, S.; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-02-01

    Previously we demonstrated the utility of optical fluorometry to evaluate lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in isolated perfused rats lungs under various chemically-induced respiratory states. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute ischemia on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in vivo using optical fluorometry. Under ischemic conditions, insufficient oxygen supply to the mitochondrial chain should reduce the mitochondrial redox state calculated from the ratio of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavoprotein Adenine Dinucleotide). The chest of anesthetized, and mechanically ventilated Sprague-Dawley rat was opened to induce acute ischemia by clamping the left hilum to block both blood flow and ventilation to one lung for approximately 10 minutes. NADH and FAD fluorescent signals were recorded continuously in a dark room via a fluorometer probe placed on the pleural surface of the left lung. Acute ischemia caused a decrease in FAD and an increase in NADH, which resulted in an increase in the mitochondrial redox ratio (RR=NADH/FAD). Restoration of blood flow and ventilation by unclamping the left hilum returned the RR back to its baseline. These results (increase in RR under ischemia) show promise for the fluorometer to be used in a clinical setting for evaluating the effect of pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in real time.

  2. Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg [Drug Safety Evaluation, Allergan Inc., 2525 Dupont Dr, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States); Fisher, Robyn L. [Vitron Inc., Tucson, AZ (United States); Vickers, Alison E.M., E-mail: vickers_alison@allergan.com [Drug Safety Evaluation, Allergan Inc., 2525 Dupont Dr, Irvine, CA 92612 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: • Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. • Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. • Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. • Human and rat respond to isoproterenol

  3. Persistence of DNA studied in different ex vivo and in vivo rat models simulating the human gut situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcks, Andrea; van Hoek, A.H.A.M.; Joosten, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of DNA sequences from genetically modified plants to persist in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. PCR analysis and transformation assays were used to study DNA persistence and integrity in various ex vivo and in vivo systems using gnotobiotic rats. DNA...... studied was either plasmid DNA, naked plant DNA or plant DNA embedded in maize flour. Ex vivo experiments performed by incubating plant DNA in intestinal samples, showed that DNA is rapidly degraded in the upper part of the GI tract whereas degradation is less severe in the lower part. In contrast...

  4. The in vivo rat skin photomicronucleus assay: Phototoxicity and photogenotoxicity evaluation of six fluoroquinolones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, A.A.; Usta, M.; Kenny, J.D.; Clements, P.J.; Pruimboom-Brees, I.; Aylott, M.; Lynch, A.M.; Krul, C.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    An in vivo photomicronucleus test (MNT) using rat skin, the target organ for photoirritancy and carcinogenicity, was recently described. The assay was evaluated using fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics with varying degrees of phototoxic potency (i.e. sparflocacin [SPFX], lomefloxacin [LOFX],

  5. Influence of allylisopropylacetamide and phenobarbital treatment on in vivo antipyrine metabolite formation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, M W; van Graft, M.; Vermeulen, N P; Breimer, D D

    The influence of pretreatment with allylisopropylacetamide (AIA) and phenobarbital (PB) on the pharmacokinetics and metabolite profile of antipyrine was studied in rats in vivo. Antipyrine concentrations were measured in blood and urine, and four metabolites (4-hydroxyantipyrine, norantipyrine,

  6. Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Sarah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h after exposure. Vascular function was tested by administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh and the endothelium-independent vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP in vivo and ex vivo in isolated rings of thoracic aorta, femoral and mesenteric artery from DEP exposed rats. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and blood plasma were collected to assess pulmonary (cell differentials, protein levels & interleukin-6 (IL-6 and systemic (IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and C-reactive protein (CRP inflammation, respectively. Results DEP instillation increased cell counts, total protein and IL-6 in BALF 6 h after exposure, while levels of IL-6 and TNFα were only raised in blood 24 h after DEP exposure. DEP had no effect on the increased hind-limb blood flow induced by ACh in vivo at 6 or 24 h. However, responses to SNP were impaired at both time points. In contrast, ex vivo responses to ACh and SNP were unaltered in arteries isolated from rats exposed to DEP. Conclusions Exposure of rats to DEP induces both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, but does not modify endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Other mechanisms in vivo limit dilator responses to SNP and these require further investigation.

  7. Preliminary study of a novel transfection modality for in vivo siRNA delivery to vocal fold fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraja, Iv; Bing, Renjie; Hiwatashi, Nao; Rousseau, Bernard; Nalband, Danielle; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Branski, Ryan C

    2017-07-01

    An obstacle to clinical use of RNA-based gene suppression is instability and inefficiency of current delivery modalities. Nanoparticle delivery likely holds great promise, but the kinetics and transfection conditions must be optimized prior to in vivo utility. We investigated a RNA nanoparticle complex incorporating a lipitoid transfection reagent in comparison to a commercially available reagent. In vitro. We investigated which variables influence transfection efficiency of lipitoid oligomers and a commercially available reagent across species, in vitro. These variables included duration, dose, and number of administrations, as well as serum and media conditions. The target gene was Smad3, a signaling protein in the transforming growth factor-β cascade implicated in fibroplasia in the vocal folds and other tissues. The two reagents suppressed Smad3 mRNA for up to 96 hours; lipitoid performed favorably and comparably. Both compounds yielded 60% to 80% mRNA knockdown in rat, rabbit, and human vocal fold fibroblasts (P transfection conditions. These preliminary data are encouraging, and lipitoid warrants further investigation with the goal of clinical utility. NA. Laryngoscope, 127:E231-E237, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Antifertility effects of Oldenlandia affinis in male rats - a preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract was administered intraperitoneally in sexually mature male rats at a dose of 24 mg/rat (n=8) for a total of eight injections over a 4 week period. There was a decrease in testis weights but all other accessory sex organs and vital organ weights were not affected by treatment with O. affinis extract. Testis histology ...

  9. Synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of new radioiodinated MMP inhibitors for imaging MMP activity in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopka, Klaus E-mail: kopka@uni-muenster.de; Breyholz, Hans-Joerg; Wagner, Stefan; Law, Marilyn P.; Riemann, Burkhard; Schroeer, Sandra; Trub, Monika; Guilbert, Benedicte; Levkau, Bodo; Schober, Otmar; Schaefers, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Non-invasive measurement of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity in vivo is a clinical challenge in many disease processes such as inflammation, tumor metastasis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, radioiodinated analogues of the non-peptidyl broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (MMPI) CGS 27023A 1a were synthesized for non-invasive detection of MMP activity in vivo using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The compounds Br-CGS 27023A 1b and HO-CGS 27023A 1d were synthesized from the amino acid D-valine and used as precursors for radioiodinated derivatives of CGS 27023A and their non-radioactive references I-CGS 27023A 1c and HO-I-CGS 27023A 1e. Radioiodination of the precursors with [{sup 123}I]NaI or [{sup 125}I]NaI produced the no-carrier-added MMP inhibitors [{sup 123}I]I-CGS 27023A 1f, [{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1g, HO-[{sup 123}I]I-CGS27023A 1h, and HO-[{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1i. In vitro studies showed that the non-radioactive analogues of the MMP inhibitors exhibited affinities against gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) in the nanomolar range, comparable to the parent compound CGS 27023A. In vivo biodistribution using HO-[{sup 125}I]I-CGS 27023A 1i in CL57 Bl6 mice showed rapid blood and plasma clearance and low retention in normal tissues. The preliminary biological evaluation warrant further studies of these radioiodinated MMP inhibitors as potential new radiotracers for imaging MMP activity in vivo.

  10. Synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of well-dispersed biomimetic nanocrystalline apatites labeled with positron emission tomographic imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhöfer, Benedikt; Meckel, Marian; Delgado-López, José Manuel; Patrício, Tatiana; Tampieri, Anna; Rösch, Frank; Iafisco, Michele

    2015-05-20

    In recent years, biomimetic synthetic apatite nanoparticles (AP-NPs), having chemical similarity with the mineral phase of bone, have attracted a great interest in nanomedicine as potential drug carriers. To evaluate the therapeutic perspectives of AP-NPs through the mechanisms of action and organs they interact with, the noninvasive monitoring of their in vivo behavior is of paramount importance. To this aim, here the feasibility to radiolabel AP-NPs ("naked" and surface-modified with citrate to reduce their aggregation) with two positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging agents ([(18)F]NaF and (68)Ga-NO2AP(BP)) was investigated. [(18)F]NaF was used for the direct incorporation of the radioisotope into the crystal lattice, while the labeling by surface functionalization was accomplished by using (68)Ga-NO2AP(BP) (a new radio-metal chelating agent). The labeling results with both tracers were fast, straightforward, and reproducible. AP-NPs demonstrated excellent ability to bind relevant quantities of both radiotracers and good in vitro stability in clinically relevant media after the labeling. In vivo PET studies in healthy Wistar rats established that the radiolabeled AP-NPs gave significant PET signals and they were stable over the investigated time (90 min) since any tracer desorption was detected. These preliminary in vivo studies furthermore showed a clear ability of citrated versus naked AP-NPs to accumulate in different organs. Interestingly, contrary to naked AP-NPs, citrated ones, which unveiled higher colloidal stability in aqueous suspensions, were able to escape the first physiological filter, i.e., the lungs, being then accumulated in the liver and, to a lesser extent, in the spleen. The results of this work, along with the fact that AP-NPs can be also functionalized with targeting ligands, with therapeutic agents, and also with metals for a combination of different imaging modalities, make AP-NPs very encouraging materials for further investigations

  11. 2-Nitropropane induces DNA repair synthesis in rat hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, U; Homfeldt, H; Vogl, L; Lichtmannegger, J; Summer, K H

    1988-05-01

    The genotoxicity of 2-nitropropane (2-NP) and 1-nitropropane (1-NP) was investigated by measuring the induction of DNA repair synthesis in rat liver cells in vitro and in vivo. 2-NP strongly induced DNA repair synthesis in both cases. When applied in vivo, 2-NP was considerably more effective in hepatocytes from males than in those from females. 1-NP was not active in vitro or in vivo. 2-NP and 1-NP did not induce repair in cell lines of extrahepatic origin derived from rat, mouse, hamster and man. The results are consistent with the reported carcinogenicity of 2-NP in rat liver and suggest that the formation of hepatocarcinomas by 2-NP is due to the generation of a genotoxic metabolite from 2-NP by liver-specific metabolism.

  12. Creation and preliminary characterization of a Tp53 knockout rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Aaron; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L.; Franklin, Craig L.; Weinstein, Edward J.; Cui, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The tumor suppressor TP53 plays a crucial role in cancer biology, and the TP53 gene is the most mutated gene in human cancer. Trp53 knockout mouse models have been widely used in cancer etiology studies and in search for a cure of cancer with some limitations that other model organisms might help overcome. Via pronuclear microinjection of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), we created a Tp53 knockout rat that contains an 11-bp deletion in exon 3, resulting in a frameshift and premature terminations in the open reading frame. In cohorts of 25 homozygous (Tp53Δ11/Δ11), 37 heterozygous (Tp53Δ11/+) and 30 wild-type rats, the Tp53Δ11/Δ11 rats lived an average of 126 days before death or removal from study because of clinical signs of abnormality or formation of tumors. Half of Tp53Δ11/+ were removed from study by 1 year of age because of tumor formation. Both Tp53Δ11/+ and Tp53Δ11/Δ11 rats developed a wide spectrum of tumors, most commonly sarcomas. Interestingly, there was a strikingly high incidence of brain lesions, especially in Tp53Δ11/Δ11 animals. We believe that this mutant rat line will be useful in studying cancer types rarely observed in mice and in carcinogenicity assays for drug development. PMID:22917926

  13. Thrombolytic effects in vivo of nattokinase in a carrageenan-induced rat model of thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Du, Ming; Yang, Xiulin; Chen, Qingquan; Chen, Hong; Lin, Dong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Nattokinase is a serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis during the fermentation of the soybean product natto. The fibrinolytic activity and thrombolytic effects of nattokinase have been observed in vitro, but the effect in vivo has still to be researched. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the activity of nattokinase in vivo. To establish a rat model of thrombosis, κ-carrageenan was injected subcutaneously into the toes of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Histological examination confirmed thrombosis. The rats were then treated with varying doses of nattokinase and the resulting thrombolysis was histologically assessed. ELISA was used to determine the levels of the fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDPs) and D-dimer, which are sensitive indices of fibrinolytic activity. Vermis kinase, a known thrombolytic agent, was used as a positive control. Biopsy results revealed partial thrombolysis in the tail vessels of the rats treated with nattokinase or vermis kinase. FDP and D-dimer levels were higher in rats treated with high-dose nattokinase than in those treated with saline. No difference in FDP or D-dimer levels was observed between rats treated with high-dose nattokinase and those treated with vermis kinase. Both the histological and physiological evidence from this study indicate that nattokinase exerts thrombolytic effects in vivo.

  14. In vivo body composition studies in rats: assessment of total body protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, S; Stamatelatos, I E; Boozer, C N; Moore, R; Ma, R

    1998-01-01

    The precision and accuracy of a prompt-gamma neutron activation facility developed to assess total body protein in rats is estimated. The coefficient of variation of nitrogen measurement, as estimated by repeated measurements on 15 rats, was 5.5% for an equivalent dose of 60 mSv (Q = 20). Good agreement was observed in comparing the results of in vivo neutron activation analysis and chemical carcass analysis performed by the Kjeldahl method. The application of the technique in comparing the effect of a low-fat and a high-fat diet on body protein in rats is demonstrated.

  15. In vivo comet assay of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate and ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Toyoizumi, Tomoyasu; Sui, Hajime; Ohta, Ryo; Kumagai, Fumiaki; Usumi, Kenji; Saito, Yoshiaki; Yamakage, Kohji

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined the ability of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate (9-AA), and ethanol to induce DNA damage in the liver and glandular stomach of male rats. Acrylonitrile is a genotoxic carcinogen, 9-AA is a genotoxic non-carcinogen, and ethanol is a non-genotoxic carcinogen. Positive results were obtained in the liver cells of male rats treated with known genotoxic compounds, acrylonitrile and 9-AA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo micro-CT analysis of bone remodeling in a rat calvarial defect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umoh, Joseph U; Holdsworth, David W [Pre-Clinical Imaging Research Centre, Robarts Research Institute, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, PO Box 5015, 100 Perth Drive, London, ON N6A 5K8 (Canada); Sampaio, Arthur V; Underhill, T Michael [Laboratory of Molecular Skeletogenesis, Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Welch, Ian [Animal Care and Veterinary Services, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Pitelka, Vasek; Goldberg, Harvey A [CIHR Group in Skeletal Development and Remodelling, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)], E-mail: jumoh@imaging.robarts.ca, E-mail: asampaio@interchange.ubc.ca, E-mail: tunderhi@interchange.ubc.ca, E-mail: iwelch@uwo.ca, E-mail: vasek.pitelka@schulich.uwo.ca, E-mail: hagoldbe@uwo.ca, E-mail: david.holdsworth@imaging.robarts.ca

    2009-04-07

    The rodent calvarial defect model is commonly used to investigate bone regeneration and wound healing. This study presents a micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) methodology for measuring the bone mineral content (BMC) in a rat calvarial defect and validates it by estimating its precision error. Two defect models were implemented. A single 6 mm diameter defect was created in 20 rats, which were imaged in vivo for longitudinal experiments. Three 5 mm diameter defects were created in three additional rats, which were repeatedly imaged ex vivo to determine precision. Four control rats and four rats treated with bone morphogenetic protein were imaged at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks post-surgery. Scan parameters were 80 kVp, 0.45 mA and 180 mAs. Images were reconstructed with an isotropic resolution of 45 {mu}m. At 6 weeks, the BMC in control animals (4.37 {+-} 0.66 mg) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in treated rats (11.29 {+-} 1.01 mg). Linear regression between the BMC and bone fractional area, from 20 rats, showed a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.70, p < 0.0001), indicating that the BMC can be used, in place of previous destructive analysis techniques, to characterize bone growth. The high precision (2.5%) of the micro-CT methodology indicates its utility in detecting small BMC changes in animals.

  17. Methyglyoxal administration induces modification of hemoglobin in experimental rats: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal, a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs) following Maillard-like reaction. In the present study, the effect of methylglyoxal on experimental rat hemoglobin in vivo has been investigated with respect to structural alterations and amino acid modifications, after external administration of the α-dicarbonyl compound in animals. Different techniques, mostly biophysical, were used to characterize and compare methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin with that of control, untreated rat hemoglobin. In comparison with methylglyoxal-untreated, control rat hemoglobin, hemoglobin of methylglyoxal-treated rats (32mg/kgbodywt.dose) exhibited slightly decreased absorbance around 280nm, reduced intrinsic fluorescence and lower surface hydrophobicity. The secondary structures of hemoglobin of control and methylglyoxal-treated rats were more or less identical with the latter exhibiting slightly increased α-helicity compared to the former. Compared to control rat hemoglobin, methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin showed higher stability. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis revealed modifications of Arg-31α, Arg-92α and Arg-104β of methylglyoxal-treated rat hemoglobin to hydroimidazolone adducts. The modifications thus appear to be associated with the observed structural alterations of the heme protein. Considering the increased level of methylglyoxal in diabetes mellitus as well as its high reactivity, AGE-induced modifications may have physiological significance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of angiotensin II in dietary modulation of rat late distal tubule bicarbonate flux in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Buckman, S; Burns, K D

    1996-01-01

    We have reported that overnight fasting stimulates bicarbonate reabsorption (JtCo2) in rat distal tubules. The present in vivo microperfusion studies evaluated the hypothesis that endogenous angiotensin II (AII) mediates this response. Rat late distal (LD) tubules were perfused at 8 nl/min in vivo with a hypotonic solution containing 28 mM bicarbonate. In overnight-fasted rats, LD JtCO2 was significantly higher than in normally fed rats (50 +/- 4 vs. 16 +/- 6 pmol/min.mm, P < 0.05). When overnight-fasted rats were salt-loaded, JtCO2 fell significantly (38 +/- 3 pmol/min.mm, P < 0.05). Conversely, in fed rats ingesting a zero-salt diet, JtCO2 increased three-fold (45 +/- 5 pmol/min.mm, P < 0.05). Enalaprilat infusion (0.25 micrograms/kg body wt, intravenously), in these zero-salt and overnight-fasted rats, reduced LD JtCO2 values to normal. Further, infusion of losartan (5 mg/kg body wt, intravenously), the specific AII AT1 receptor blocker, reduced JtCO2 in overnight-fasted rats by two-thirds (16 +/- 4 pmol/min.mm, P < 0.05). Finally, we perfused 10(-11) M AII intraluminally with and without 10(-6) M losartan: AII increased JtCO2 to 45 +/- 6 pmol/min.mm, equal to the zero-salt flux. This was completely abrogated by simultaneous losartan perfusion. Therefore, these results suggest that AII is an in vivo stimulator of late distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption.

  19. Microdialysis as a tool for in vivo investigation of glutamate transport capacity in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1995-01-01

    technique, we present a method that is suitable for the in vivo investigation of the capacity of cellular uptake of glutamate. Using 14C-mannitol as reference, we measured the cellular extraction and the cell membrane permeability of the test substance 3H-D-aspartate in the corpus striatum of the rat brain...

  20. In vivo turnover of the basement membrane and other heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat glomerulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beavan, L A; Davies, M; Couchman, J R

    1989-01-01

    The metabolic turnover of rat glomerular proteoglycans in vivo was investigated. Newly synthesized proteoglycans were labeled during a 7-h period after injecting sodium [35S]sulfate intraperitoneally. At the end of the labeling period a chase dose of sodium sulfate was given. Subsequently at defi...

  1. The in vivo phosphorylation sites of rat brain dynamin I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark E; Anggono, Victor; Bache, Nicolai

    2007-01-01

    -824). To resolve the discrepancy and to better understand the biological roles of dynI phosphorylation, we undertook a systematic identification of all phosphorylation sites in rat brain nerve terminal dynI. Using phosphoamino acid analysis, exclusively phospho-serine residues were found. Thr(780) phosphorylation...

  2. Ex vivo and in vivo investigations of picroliv from Picrorhiza kurroa in an alcohol intoxication model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, B; Visen, P K; Patnaik, G K; Dhawan, B N

    1999-09-01

    Picroliv, the active constituent isolated from the plant Picrorhiza kurroa, was evaluated as a hepatoprotective agent against ethanol-induced hepatic injury in rats. Alcohol feeding (3.75 g/kg x45 days) produced 20-114% alteration in selected serum (AST, ALT and ALP) and liver markers (lipid, glycogen and protein). Further, it reduced the viability (44-48%) of isolated hepatocytes (ex vivo) as assessed by Trypan blue exclusion and rate of oxygen uptake. Its effect was also seen on specific alcohol-metabolizing enzymes (aldehyde dehydrogenase, 41%; acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, 52%) in rat hepatocytes. The levels of these enzymes were found to be reduced in the cells following alcohol intoxication. Ethyl alcohol also produced cholestasis (41-53%), as indicated by reduction in bile volume, bile salts and bile acids. Picroliv treatment (3-12 mg/kg p.o. x45 days) restored the altered parameters in a dose-dependent manner (36-100%).

  3. The role of chloride channels in rat corpus cavernosum: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Hsieh, Ju-Ton

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have identified the existence of outward, depolarizing chloride currents in isolated rat, rabbit, and human corpus cavernosum muscle cells. However, few articles have demonstrated the functional role of chloride channels in vivo in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Aim. To investigate the role of calcium-dependent chloride channels in erectile function of rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Adult male Wistar rats were used to perform an in vivo study in a rat model of erection. Both crura of the rats were isolated to in order to record intracavernosal pressure (ICP) during basal conditions and electrical stimulation of erection, with and without intracorporeal injection of norepinephrine, chloride transport inhibitors, and chloride channel blockers. ICP. ICP increased as the amplitude of electrical stimulation increased, and decreased in a dose-dependent manner (during electrical stimulation) as norepinephrine injection strength increased. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel blockers, niflumic acid, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene-disulfonic acid increased ICP. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, and HCO(3)-free 4-(2-hydroxyethyl )-1-1- piperazine ethanesulphonic acid buffer, and also increase the ICP. The effects of both Cl(-) channel blockers and Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors on ICP were concentration-dependent. Our findings suggest that chloride channels play an important role in the regulation of corpus cavernous smooth muscle tone in vivo.

  4. Effects by silodosin on the partially obstructed rat ureter in vivo and on human and rat isolated ureters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L; Buono, R; Fossati, N; Rigatti, P; Montorsi, F; Benigni, F; Hedlund, P

    2013-05-01

    α1 -adrenoceptor (-AR) antagonists may facilitate ureter stone passage in humans. We aimed to study effects by the α1 A -AR selective antagonist silodosin (compared to tamsulosin and prazosin) on ureter pressures in a rat model of ureter obstruction, and on contractions of human and rat isolated ureters. After ethical approval, ureters of male rats were cannulated beneath the kidney pelvis for in vivo ureteral intraluminal recording of autonomous peristaltic pressure waves. A partial ureter obstruction was applied to the distal ureter. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was recorded. Approximate clinical and triple clinical doses of the α1 -AR antagonists were given intravenously. Effects by the α1 -AR antagonists on isolated human and rat ureters were studied in organ baths. Intravenous silodosin (0.1-0.3 mg kg(-1) ) or prazosin (0.03-0.1 mg kg(-1) ) reduced obstruction-induced increases in intraluminal ureter pressures by 21-37% or 18-40% respectively. Corresponding effects by tamsulosin (0.01 or 0.03 mg kg(-1) ) were 9-20%. Silodosin, prazosin and tamsulosin reduced MAP by 10-12%, 25-26% (P ureter pressures were expressed as a function of MAP, silodosin had six- to eightfold and 2.5- to eightfold better efficacy than tamsulosin or prazosin respectively. Silodosin effectively reduced contractions of both human and rat isolated ureters. Silodosin inhibits contractions of the rat and human isolated ureters and has excellent functional selectivity in vivo to relieve pressure-load of the rat obstructed ureter. Silodosin as pharmacological ureter stone expulsive therapy should be clinically further explored. © 2013 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

  6. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides promotes in vivo proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lycium barbarum is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine prescription for protection of optic nerve. However, it remains unclear regarding the effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides, the main component of Lycium barbarum, on in vivo proliferation of adult ciliary body cells. In this study, adult rats were intragastrically administered low- and high-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (1 and 10 mg/kg for 35 days and those intragastrically administered phosphate buffered saline served as controls. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in rat ciliary body in the Lycium barbarum polysaccharides groups, in particular low-dose Lycium barbarum polysaccharides group, was significantly greater than that in the phosphate buffered saline group. Ki-67-positive rat ciliary body cells expressed nestin but they did not express glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings suggest that Lycium barbarum polysaccharides can promote the proliferation of adult rat retinal progenitor cells and the proliferated cells present with neuronal phenotype.

  7. In vivo determination of muscle-derived stem cells in rat corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L J; Xue, B X; Shan, Y X; Chen, D; Gao, J; Yang, D R; Sun, C Y; Cui, Y

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this in vivo study was to determine the existence of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) in rat corpus cavernosum. Immunohistochemical and RT-PCR analyses were performed to determine the expression of the stem cell markers (Sca-1, Oct4, and desmin) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in different age groups (10 rats in each group). Sca-1 was mainly expressed in blood vessels and cavernous sinus and demonstrated primarily cytoplasmic staining. Desmin was expressed mainly in muscle tissues and staining occurred mainly in the cytoplasm but also partially in the nucleus. An extremely small amount of double-positive stained cells (Sca-1/desmin) were detected near the cavernous sinus. Expression of the markers was significantly and negatively correlated with the age of the rats (P corpus cavernosum. MDSCs may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of organic erectile dysfunction.

  8. Monitoring of radio frequency tissue ablation in an interventional magnetic resonance environment. Preliminary ex vivo and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, P; Botnar, R; Goldberg, S N; Gazelle, G S; Debatin, J F

    1997-11-01

    The authors evaluate the feasibility of monitoring radio frequency (RF) ablation in an interventional, open-configuration, 0.5-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) environment. Ex vivo and in vivo RF coagulation necrosis were induced in porcine paraspinal muscle tissue using a 300 kHz monopolar RF generator applying 5 to 20 W over 3 to 9 minutes. Images were acquired simultaneous to RF application, after RF application, and in an intermittent mode (60 seconds of RF followed by 15 seconds of MR imaging). Temperature changes were monitored based on amplitude (ex vivo) and phase alterations (in vivo) of a T1-weighted graded refocused echo (GRE) sequence enabling an update every 2.5 seconds. A standardized color-coded subtraction technique enhanced signal changes. Additionally, T2- and T1-weighted spin echo (SE) images were acquired with and without intravenous contrast. Macroscopic coagulation size was compared with lesion size seen on MR images. Although lesion diameters were related directly to applied RF power, the application mode had no significant impact on coagulation size (P > 0.05). As could be expected, MR imaging during RF ablation resulted in major image distortion. Radio frequency effects were seen on images acquired in the continuous and intermittent modes. Coagulation size seen on GRE images correlated well with macroscopy both ex vivo (r = 0.89) and in vivo (r = 0.92). Poorer correlation was found with postinterventional SE sequences (r = 0.78-0.84). Magnetic resonance monitoring of RF effects is feasible both ex vivo as well as in vivo using temperature-sensitive sequences in an open-configuration MR environment.

  9. In vivo selectivity of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and gastrointestinal ulcers in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudanno, O M; Cesolari, J A; Esnarriaga, J; San Miguel, P; Bedini, O A

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to study in vivo COX-2-COX-1 selectivity of 16 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in equipotent ulcerogenic doses in two in vivo experimental models. Indomethacin, ibuprofen, nimesulide, aceclofenac, aspirin, sodium diclofenac, meloxicam, naproxene, paracetamol, piroxicam, tenoxicam, nabumetone, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, etodolac, and ketorolac were administered to female Wistar rats (N = 10 each group). In experiment I, solid food plus subcutaneous NSAIDs were given. In experiment II, NSAIDs were given by oral gavage and in bolus. Macroscopic gastric antral ulcer area (30%) and intestinal erosiva area (295 mm2) in experiment I and necrotic gastric fundus area (65%) and erosive intestinal area (182 mm2), "in vivo" the NSAIDs COX-1 was showed. Neutrofilia assessed in gastric intestinal mucosa where also ibuprofen and paracetamol not given neotrophilic infiltration. In conclusion, COX-2-COX-1 selectivity was demonstrated in vivo with the drugs aceclofenac, nabumetone, meloxicam, nimesulide, and paracetamol.

  10. Rat model of cancer-induced bone pain: changes in nonnociceptive sensory neurons in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong Fang; Ungard, Robert; Zacal, Natalie; Huizinga, Jan D; Henry, James L; Singh, Gurmit

    2017-07-01

    Clinical data on cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) suggest extensive changes in sensory function. In a previous investigation of an animal model of CIBP, we have observed that changes in intrinsic membrane properties and excitability of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) nociceptive neurons correspond to mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia. To investigate the mechanisms underlying changes in nonnociceptive sensory neurons in this model, we have compared the electrophysiological properties of primary nonnociceptive sensory neurons at 2 weeks after CIBP model induction with properties in sham control animals. Copenhagen rats were injected with 10 6 MAT-LyLu rat prostate cancer cells into the distal femur epiphysis to generate a model of CIBP. After von Frey tactile measurement of mechanical withdrawal thresholds, the animals were prepared for acute electrophysiological recordings of mechanically sensitive neurons in the DRG in vivo. The mechanical withdrawal threshold progressively decreased in CIBP model rats. At neurons between CIBP model rats and sham rats. However, at >2 weeks, the Aβ-fiber low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMs) in CIBP model rats exhibited a slowing of the dynamics of action potential (AP) genesis, including wider AP duration and lower AP amplitude compared with sham rats. Furthermore, enhanced excitability of Aβ-fiber LTM neurons was observed as an excitatory discharge in response to intracellular injection of depolarizing current into the soma. After induction of the CIBP model, Aβ-fiber LTMs at >2 weeks but not sensory neurons might be involved in the peripheral sensitization and tumor-induced tactile hypersensitivity in CIBP.

  11. Luminal chloride modulates rat distal tubule bidirectional bicarbonate flux in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Vandorpe, D; Iacovitti, M

    1990-06-01

    The effects of replacing luminal chloride with gluconate on distal tubule bicarbonate transport were studied in vivo in normally fed rats, overnight-fasted rats, and rats made mildly alkalotic by administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA). In paired microperfusions of the same tubule with 0 or 55 mM Cl at 25 nl/min, net secretion of bicarbonate by distal tubules of fed rats was inhibited by chloride replacement. Zero chloride perfusion in DOCA rats also resulted in an inhibition of net bicarbonate secretion at 25 nl/min. In contrast, replacement of 45 mM chloride also perfused at 25 nl/min in fasted rats caused an increase in net bicarbonate reabsorption. To further characterize the effects of changes in luminal chloride, experiments were undertaken in fasted rats with 0, 45, and 100 mM chloride-containing solutions perfused at 8 and 25 nl/min. Perfusion with zero Cl resulted in net bicarbonate reabsorption at 8 nl/min that increased markedly with high flow, whereas bicarbonate reabsorption did not change significantly during perfusion at high flow with a 45-mM Cl perfusate. In marked contrast, perfusion with a 100-mM Cl solution resulted in only minimal bicarbonate reabsorption at 8 nl/min with significant secretion observed at high flow. Thus, chloride-free perfusates inhibit bicarbonate secretion and enhance bicarbonate reabsorption, while high chloride perfusates elicit net bicarbonate secretion in usually reabsorbing distal tubules.

  12. Vivo dosimetry using TLD detectors in prostate seed implants of I-125: preliminary results; Dosimetria in vivo mediante detectores de TLD en implantes de prostata con semillas de I-125: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Reyes, A.; Pedro, A.; Bassas, P.; Duch, M. A.; Cros, M.; Mane, S.

    2011-07-01

    We present preliminary results of a new in vivo dosimetry technique that could allow to know immediately after implantation of the prostate if the dose distribution determined by the scheduler is similar to the actual dose measured with TLD detectors.

  13. Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fontes-Pereira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB, frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB, time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB, integrated reflection coefficient (IRC, and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans.

  14. [Effects of myxoma virus on gliomas of rats models in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Liang, Shi-Jie; Lin, Heng-Zhou; Ji, Tao; Li, Wei-Ping

    2012-04-01

    To explore the in vivo effects of myxoma virus (MV) on gliomas of rat model. Methods C6 glioma cells were implanted into the frontal lobe of SD rats using stereotactic methods to establish animal models of glioma. C6 glioma cells were implanted into the frontal lobe of SD rats using stereotactic methods to establish animal models of glioma. Models were divided into 4 groups randomly after tumor growth was affirmed, and MV, 5-FU, MV + 5-FU, and denatured myxoma virus (DV) were implanted into the tumors using stereotactic methods, bodyweight, tumor size, expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Akt of each model were observed. The gliomas in all SD rats were established successfully. And tumor growth in MV, 5-FU, MV + 5-FU were significantly decreased as compared with DV group after injection, sizes of some tumors were lessened, and GFAP expression decreased in MV, 5-FU and MV +5-FU groups. The expression of PI3k, Akt and mTOR were decreased in MV and MV +5-FU groups. C6 glioma SD rat models could be established successfully using stereotactic methods. MV may enhance biological activity of chemotherapeutic drugs on tumor cells of animal models in vivo by regulating some genes of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal pathway.

  15. Infrared laser thermal fusion of blood vessels: preliminary ex vivo tissue studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2013-05-01

    Suture ligation of blood vessels during surgery can be time-consuming and skill-intensive. Energy-based, electrosurgical, and ultrasonic devices have recently replaced the use of sutures and mechanical clips (which leave foreign objects in the body) for many surgical procedures, providing rapid hemostasis during surgery. However, these devices have the potential to create an undesirably large collateral zone of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. We explore an alternative energy-based technology, infrared lasers, for rapid and precise thermal coagulation and fusion of the blood vessel walls. Seven near-infrared lasers (808, 980, 1075, 1470, 1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were tested during preliminary tissue studies. Studies were performed using fresh porcine renal vessels, ex vivo, with native diameters of 1 to 6 mm, and vessel walls flattened to a total thickness of 0.4 mm. A linear beam profile was applied normal to the vessel for narrow, full-width thermal coagulation. The laser irradiation time was 5 s. Vessel burst pressure measurements were used to determine seal strength. The 1470 nm laser wavelength demonstrated the capability of sealing a wide range of blood vessels from 1 to 6 mm diameter with burst strengths of 578±154, 530±171, and 426±174 mmHg for small, medium, and large vessel diameters, respectively. Lateral thermal coagulation zones (including the seal) measured 1.0±0.4 mm on vessels sealed at this wavelength. Other laser wavelengths (1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were also capable of sealing vessels, but were limited by lower vessel seal pressures, excessive charring, and/or limited power output preventing treatment of large vessels (>4 mm outer diameter).

  16. Influence of melatonin or its antagonism on alcohol consumption in ethanol drinking rats: a behavioral and in vivo voltammetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Francesco

    2012-05-03

    Melatonin, an indoleamine hormone synthesized in the pinealocytes, has been implicated as influencing the intake of alcohol in rats. It has been shown that this hormone is voltammetrically electroactive at the surface of pretreated carbon fiber microelectrodes in vitro and in vivo, in rat cerebral melatonergic regions such the pineal gland. The aim of this work consisted in the study of the influence of melatonin on spontaneously ethanol drinking or ethanol avoiding rats selected throughout a free choice two bottle test. It appeared that only the water preferring rats were affected by treatment with the hormone and that in vivo voltammetric related levels of melatonin were higher in the pineal gland of ethanol drinking rats versus water preferring rats. In addition, when treated with the melatonin antagonist GR128107 ethanol drinking rats significantly reduced the spontaneous consumption of alcohol. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. 3-Hydroxykynurenine toxicity on the rat striatum in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Y; Saito, H; Katsuki, H

    1996-06-01

    3-Hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) is a tryptophan metabolite whose level in the brain is elevated under several pathological states including Huntington's disease. In the present study, we examined the possible toxicity of 3-HK by injection of this substance into rat brain. Intrastriatal injection of 3-HK (50 nmol) induced tissue damage around the injected site. Quinolinic acid (QA) at 200 nmol also induced tissue damage, which was comparable in size to that induced by 50 nmol 3-HK. Co-administration of MK-801 significantly reduced QA-induced lesion, but failed to prevent 3-HK-induced lesion. On the other hand, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (10 nmol) reduced 3-HK-induced damage. Thus, 3-HK may be involved in brain pathogenesis by providing oxygen radicals.

  18. Expression of plasminogen activators in preimplantation rat embryos developed in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har-Vardi Iris

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo implantation plays a major role in embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. Plasminogen activators (PAs have been implicated in mammalian fertilization, early stages of development and embryo implantation. The invasion of trophoblast cells into the endometrium during the implantation process can be blocked by inhibitors of serine proteases, illustrating the role of these enzymes in the invasion process. As in vitro developing embryos resulted in lower implantation rate than those developed in vivo we assume that a reduced PAs activity may lead to it. There is hardly any information regarding qualitative or quantitative differences in expression of PAs in preimplantation embryos, or comparisons between in vivo and in vitro developed embryos. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression of urokinase type (uPA and tissue type (tPA plasminogen activators in in vivo and in vitro preimplantation development in rat embryos using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and computerized image analysis. Methods Zygotes, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula and blastocyst stages of development were flushed from the reproductive tract (control groups of Wistar rats. Zygotes were flushed and grown in vitro to the above mentioned developmental stages and comprised the experimental groups. Immunofluorescence microscopy and computerized image analysis were used to evaluate both qualitative (localization and quantitative expression of plasminogen activators. Results uPA and tPA were found to be expressed in rat embryos throughout their preimplantation development, both in vivo and in vitro. While uPA was localized mainly in the cell cytoplasm, the tPA was detected mainly on cell surface and in the perivitelline space. In blastocysts, both in vivo and in vitro, uPA and tPA were localized in the trophectoderm cells. Total uPA content per embryo was higher in the in vivo as compared with the in vitro developed embryos at all stages

  19. In vivo biodistribution of amino-functionalized ceria nanoparticles in rats using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Santiago; Gispert, Juan Domingo; Abad, Sergio; Buaki-Sogo, Mireia; Victor, Victor M; Garcia, Hermenegildo; Herance, Jose Raúl

    2012-12-03

    A variety of nanoparticles have been proposed for several biomedical applications. To gauge the therapeutic potential of these nanoparticles, in vivo biodistribution is essential and mandatory. In the present study, ceria nanoparticles (5 nm average particle size) were labeled with (18)F to study their in vivo biodistribution in rats by positron emission tomography (PET). The (18)F isotope was anchored by reaction of N-succinimidyl 4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ((18)F-SFB) with a modified nanoparticle surface obtained by silylation with 3-aminopropylsilyl. Radiolabeled ceria nanoparticles accumulated mainly in lungs, spleen, and liver. Metabolic products of the radiolabeled nanoparticulate material were excreted into the urinary tract.

  20. Effect of exercise training on in vivo lipolysis in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and physical training has been suggested to alleviate these conditions. We compared epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs: retroperitoneal......, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in subcutaneous AT, and we also studied the effect of physical training. Moreover, we studied the effect of physical training on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in muscle in vivo. Female rats were either swim trained (15 wk, n = 8) or sedentary (n = 7). Under anesthesia......: 73 +/- 12 (trained) vs. 14 +/- 4 (sedentary) ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1), P

  1. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) decreases male rat fertility in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtamouni, Lubna H; Alqurna, Noor M; Al-Hudhud, Mariam Y; Al-Hajj, Hameed A

    2011-04-26

    Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber ex F.H. Wigg. is commonly used in Jordan folk medicine for the treatment of panophthalmitis, chronic constipation, and diabetes. In addition, herbalists prescribe the aqueous extract of Taraxacum officinale to enhance male's fertility. The current work was undertaken to investigate the validity and/or invalidity of the aqueous extract of Taraxacum officinale on enhancing the reproductive activity in male rat. Thirty three adult male rats were divided into three groups. Experimental groups received the aqueous extract of Taraxacum officinale orally for 60 days in two different sublethal doses; 1/10 LD(50) as high dose and 1/20 LD(50) as low dose, whereas the control group received distilled water. The administration of the aqueous extract of Taraxacum officinale resulted in a significant decrease in testis weight in the two experimental groups in comparison to the control group but had no effect on body or organ weight. The extract of this plant caused a decrease of the following in the two experimental groups, compared to the control group: sperm count, motility and normal morphology, pregnancy rate and diameter and wall thickness of seminiferous tubules. Also, distortion of morphology of the seminiferous tubules and arrest in spermatogenesis was observed in the experimental groups. In addition, the percentage of sperm with damaged chromatin integrity was significantly higher in the two experimental groups. From the present study, we can conclude that the aqueous extract of Taraxacum officinale acts as an anti-fertility agent rather than a fertility booster as prescribed by Jordanian herbalists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Linan; Gu, Yuan; Si, Duanyun; Liu, Changxiao

    2014-06-01

    Aildenafil, 1-{[3-(6, 7-dihydro-1-methyl-7-oxo-3-propyl-1H-pyrazolo [4, 3-d] primidin-5-yl)-4-ethoxyphenyl] sulfonyl}-cis-3, 5-dimethylpiperazine, a phosphodiesterase type V enzyme inhibitor (PDE5I), is under development for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The purpose of this study was to elucidate metabolism of aildenafil in vivo in rats and in vitro in mouse, rat, dog, and human liver microsomes. Thirty-one phase I metabolites have been found by LTQ/Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometry in rat urine, faeces, and bile after oral administration. Major biotransformation pathways of aildenafil included N-dealkylation of the piperazine ring, hydroxylation and dehydrogenation, aliphatic hydroxylation and loss of alkyl group of piperazine ring. Minor pathways involved hydroxylation on the phenyl ring, pyrazole N-demethylation, O-deethylation, loss of piperazine ring (cleavage of N-S bond) and dehydrogenation on the piperazine ring. Similar metabolic pathways of aildenafil were observed in the incubations of liver microsomes from mouse, rat, and dog as well as from human. The depletion rate of parent drug in mouse and rat liver microsomes was significantly different from that in human liver microsomes. The cytochrome P450 reaction phenotyping analysis was conducted using isozyme-specific inhibitors. The results indicated that CYP3A was the main isoenzyme involved in oxidative metabolism of aildenafil. Overall, these in vitro and in vivo findings should provide valuable information on possible metabolic behaviours of aildenafil in humans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effect of chronic treatment with Rosiglitazone on Leydig cell steroidogenesis in rats: In vivo and ex vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Maria C

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was designed to examine the effect of chronic treatment with rosiglitazone - thiazolidinedione used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus for its insulin sensitizing effects - on the Leydig cell steroidogenic capacity and expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc in normal adult rats. Methods Twelve adult male Wistar rats were treated with rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg administered by gavage for 15 days. Twelve control animals were treated with the vehicle. The ability of rosiglitazone to directly affect the production of testosterone by Leydig cells ex vivo was evaluated using isolated Leydig cells from rosiglitazone-treated rats. Testosterone production was induced either by activators of the cAMP/PKA pathway (hCG and dbcAMP or substrates of steroidogenesis [22(R-hydroxy-cholesterol (22(R-OH-C, which is a substrate for the P450scc enzyme, and pregnenolone, which is the product of the P450scc-catalyzed step]. Testosterone in plasma and in incubation medium was measured by radioimmunoassay. The StAR and P450scc expression was detected by immunocytochemistry. Results The levels of total circulating testosterone were not altered by rosiglitazone treatment. A decrease in basal or induced testosterone production occurred in the Leydig cells of rosiglitazone-treated rats. The ultrastructural and immunocytochemical analysis of Leydig cells from rosiglitazone-treated rats revealed cells with characteristics of increased activity as well as increased StAR and P450scc expression, which are key proteins in androgen biosynthesis. However, a number of rosiglitazone-treated cells exhibited significant mitochondrial damage. Conclusion The results revealed that the Leydig cells from rosiglitazone-treated rats showed significant reduction in testosterone production under basal, hCG/dbcAMP- or 22 (R-OH-C/pregnenolone-induced conditions, although

  4. Chemopreventive Effects of Morindia Citrifolia Juice (noni on Experimental Breast Cancer in Rats: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Milena Serrano Contreras

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the effect of Morindia citrifolia juice (Tahitian Noni® in the development of breast cancer induced by carcinogen agent 7.12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA in rats. For this purpose, the breast cancer induction model 1.7-DMBA was used on Spraguey Dawley nulliparous rats of 35 days of age, randomly divided into three groups: group 1 control, which received no treatment, and groups 2 and 3, induced with DMBA at a dose of 55 mg/kg. The latter received a dose of noni juice of 4 ml/kg per day for 90 days. The results showed that a significant percentage (83.33% of the rats from the group induced with DMBA not treated with noni juice developed palpable breast tumors ( ≤ 2 cm of the ductal carcinoma in situ type and atypical ductal hyperplasia, compared to the other groups that did not develop any kind of tumors. In addition, it was found that rats that developed breast cancer had a lower weight gain and significantly increased water consumption (p < 0.05 compared to the other two groups. The results of the hematological and biochemical parameters showed no significant changes between groups. Histopathological changes compatible with liver toxicity were found in rats treated with noni juice. In conclusion, it was found in this preliminary study that noni juice has positive effects in modulating the development of breast cancer induced by DMBA.

  5. Measuring rat kidney glomerular number and size in vivo with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldelomar, Edwin J; Charlton, Jennifer R; Beeman, Scott C; Bennett, Kevin M

    2017-11-01

    Nephron number is highly variable in humans and is thought to play an important role in renal health. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the result of too few nephrons to maintain homeostasis. Currently, nephron number estimates can only be determined invasively or as a terminal assessment. Due to a lack of tools to measure and track nephron number in the living, the early stages of CKD often go unrecognized, preventing early intervention that might halt the progression of CKD. In this work, we present a technique to directly measure glomerular number (Nglom) and volume in vivo in the rat kidney (n=8) using MRI enhanced with the novel contrast agent cationized ferritin (CFE-MRI). Adult male rats were administered intravenous cationized ferritin (CF) and imaged in vivo with MRI. Glomerular number was measured and each glomerulus was spatially mapped in 3D in the image. Mean apparent glomerular volume (aVglom) and intra-renal distribution of the individual glomerular volume (IGV) were also measured. These metrics were compared between images of the same kidneys scanned in vivo and ex vivo with CFE-MRI. In vivo Nglom and aVglom correlated to ex vivo metrics within the same kidneys and were within 10% of Nglom and aVglom previously validated by stereologic methods. This is the first description of direct in vivo measurements of Nglom and aVglom, introducing an opportunity to investigate mechanisms of renal disease progression and therapeutic response over time. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology.

  6. In vivo incorporation of tritium from 3H2O into pulmonary lipids of meal-fed and starved rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todhunter, D.A.; Scholz, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    In vivo fatty acid synthesis, as measured by tritium incorporation from 3H2O into fatty acids, was examined in the lungs of meal-fed and starved rats. In meal-fed animals, 74% of the radioactivity isolated from pulmonary lipids was found in the phospholipid fraction. Starving rats for 72 h markedly reduced in vivo 3H2O incorporation into pulmonary lipids. These studies demonstrated net in vivo synthesis of fatty acids in pulmonary tissue of rats using a method that is not complicated by potential differences in metabolic pool sizes or peculiarities of specific carbon substrate sources. Synthesis of fatty acids in vivo was affected by the nutritional state of the animal and citrate appears to be a significant source of cytoplasmic acetyl-CoA for de novo pulmonary lipogenesis in the fed rat.

  7. Histological study of subcutaneous fat at NIR laser treatment of the rat skin in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanina, I. Y.; Svenskaya, Yu. I.; Navolokin, N. A.; Matveeva, O. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Gorin, D. A.; Sukhorukov, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this work is to quantify impact of in vivo photochemical treatment using indocyanine green (ICG) or encapsulated ICG and NIR laser irradiation through skin of rat with obesity by the follow up tissue sampling and histochemistry. After 1 hour elapsed since 1-min light exposure samples of rat skin with subcutaneous tissue of thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm were taken by surgery from rats within marked 4-zones of the skin site. For hematoxylin-eosin histological examination of excised tissue samples, fixation was carried out by 10%-formaldehyde solution. For ICG and encapsulated ICG subcutaneous injection and subsequent 1-min diode laser irradiation with power density of 8 W/cm2, different necrotic regions with lipolysis of subcutaneous fat were observed. The obtained data can be used for safe layer-by-layer laser treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  8. Hairpin Ribozyme Genes Curtail Alcohol Drinking: from Rational Design to in vivo Effects in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Sapag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribozyme genes were designed to reduce voluntary alcohol drinking in a rat model of alcohol dependence. Acetaldehyde generated from alcohol in the liver is metabolized by the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2 such that diminishing ALDH2 activity leads to the aversive effects of blood acetaldehyde upon alcohol intake. A stepwise approach was followed to design genes encoding ribozymes targeted to the rat ALDH2 mRNA. In vitro studies of accessibility to oligonucleotides identified suitable target sites in the mRNA, one of which fulfilled hammerhead and hairpin ribozyme requirements (CGGUC. Ribozyme genes delivered in plasmid constructs were tested in rat cells in culture. While the hairpin ribozyme reduced ALDH2 activity 56% by cleavage and blockade (P < 0.0001, the hammerhead ribozyme elicited minor effects by blockade. The hairpin ribozyme was tested in vivo by adenoviral gene delivery to UChB alcohol drinker rats. Ethanol intake was curtailed 47% for 34 days (P < 0.0001, while blood acetaldehyde more than doubled upon ethanol administration and ALDH2 activity dropped 25% in liver homogenates, not affecting other ALDH isoforms. Thus, hairpin ribozymes targeted to 16 nt in the ALDH2 mRNA provide durable and specific effects in vivo, representing an improvement on previous work and encouraging development of gene therapy for alcoholism.

  9. Secretion of bicarbonate by rat distal tubules in vivo. Modulation by overnight fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Nash, L; Vandorpe, D

    1988-06-01

    We have performed microperfusion studies on distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption (JtCO2) of fed and fasted rats to extend our previous observations of in vivo bicarbonate secretion and to resolve certain discrepancies between free-flow and microperfusion data. When rats are fasted overnight, as in previous free-flow studies, distal tubule microperfusion with a 28-mM tCO2 solution results in significant JtCO2 (53 +/- 6 pmol.min-1.mm-1) at normal flow and increases briskly (91 +/- 16 pmol.min-1.mm-1) with bicarbonate load. This response is not influenced by the addition of other normal tubular fluid constituents. However, when normally fed rats are used, as in our previous microperfusion studies, distal tubule JtCO2 is not different from zero when a 28-mM tCO2 solution is perfused at normal flow rates but becomes negative (-54 +/- 13 pmol.min-1.mm-1) at high flow rates, which indicates the existence of bicarbonate secretion against a concentration gradient. Alkali loading of fasted rats also elicits bicarbonate secretion at high flow. These results demonstrate for the first time that normal feeding or alkali loading can induce bicarbonate secretion in a mammalian nephron segment in vivo, and resolves previous discrepancies between free-flow and microperfusion data.

  10. Characterization and toxicological effects of three-dimensional graphene foams in rats in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Yingying [University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Key laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases and School of Life Sciences (China); Chai, Renjie [Southeast University, Key Laboratory for Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education, Institute of Life Sciences (China); Song, Qin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics (China); Chen, Lin; Wang, Xinxing [University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Key laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases and School of Life Sciences (China); Cheng, Guosheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics (China); Tang, Mingliang, E-mail: mingliangtang@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, Key Laboratory for Developmental Genes and Human Disease, Ministry of Education, Institute of Life Sciences (China); Wang, Ming, E-mail: wming@ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, CAS Key laboratory of Brain Function and Diseases and School of Life Sciences (China)

    2016-05-15

    Current studies have demonstrated the advantage of graphene-based materials, which suggests their potential usage for biomedical applications. However, the in vivo toxicity and performance of three-dimensional (3D) graphene foams (GFs) remain largely unclear. In the present study, we identified the short-term and long-term tissue responses to GFs or graphene oxide foams (GOFs) in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation. Results from blood biochemistry, hematological analysis, histological examination, and behavioral test all indicated nearly no noticeable in vivo toxicity in either GF- or GOF-implanted rats during the first 2 weeks post-implantation. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained images showed GFs or GOFs remained in the subcutaneous implantation site for at least 7 months without significant degradation after implantation. Our study demonstrates the non-biodegradable feature of GFs and GOFs as implanted scaffolds, while they exhibit good biocompatibility in vivo. It adds new evidence for the in vivo toxicological study of GFs and GOFs, which may provide reference for their biomedical applications.

  11. A Novel Rat Model of Polymicrobial Peri-Implantitis: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutouzis, Theofilos; Eastman, Christie; Chukkapalli, Sasanka; Larjava, Hannu; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2017-02-01

    Peri-implantitis is a complex polymicrobial biofilm-induced inflammatory osteolytic gingival infection that results in orofacial implant failures. To the best knowledge of the authors, there are no preclinical in vivo studies in implant dentistry that have investigated the inflammatory response to known microbial biofilms observed in humans. The aim of this study is to develop a novel peri-implant rat model using an established model of polymicrobial periodontitis. Wistar rats were used for the study of experimental peri-implantitis. One month after extraction of maxillary first molars, a titanium mini-implant was inserted. Two months after implant healing, implants were uncovered, and abutment fixing was done using cyanoacrylate to prevent abutment loosening. Rats were separated into two groups (group A: polymicrobial-infected and group B: sham-infected). One week after healing of abutments, rats were infected with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia for 12 weeks. Bacterial colonization, bone resorption, and implant inflammation were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microcomputed tomography, and histology, respectively. Three rats with four implants in the infection group and two rats with three implants in the sham-infection group were analyzed. PCR analysis revealed presence of bacterial genomic DNA, and infection elicited significant immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM antibody responses, indicating bacterial colonization/infection around implants. Infection induced an enhanced mean distance from implant platform to the first bone-to-implant contact, extensive peri-implantitis with advanced bone resorption, and extensive inflammation with granulation tissue and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first study to develop a novel rat model of polymicrobial peri-implantitis. With modifications to improve implant retention it could offer significant advantages for studies of

  12. Preliminary in vivo atherosclerotic carotid plaque characterization using the accumulated axial strain and relative lateral shift strain indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hairong; Mitchell, Carol C.; McCormick, Matthew; Kliewer, Mark A.; Dempsey, Robert J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, we explore two parameters or strain indices related to plaque deformation during the cardiac cycle, namely, the maximum accumulated axial strain in plaque and the relative lateral shifts between plaque and vessel wall under in vivo clinical ultrasound imaging conditions for possible identification of vulnerable plaque. These strain indices enable differentiation between calcified and lipidic plaque tissue utilizing a new perspective based on the stiffness and mobility of the plaque. In addition, they also provide the ability to distinguish between softer plaques that undergo large deformations during the cardiac cycle when compared to stiffer plaque tissue. Soft plaques that undergo large deformations over the cardiac cycle are more prone to rupture and to release micro-emboli into the cerebral bloodstream. The ability to identify vulnerable plaque, prone to rupture, would significantly enhance the clinical utility of this method for screening patients. We present preliminary in vivo results obtained from ultrasound radio frequency data collected over 16 atherosclerotic plaque patients before these patients undergo a carotid endarterectomy procedure. Our preliminary in vivo results indicate that the maximum accumulated axial strain over a cardiac cycle and the maximum relative lateral shift or displacement of the plaque are useful strain indices that provide differentiation between soft and calcified plaques.

  13. Macroscopic in vivo imaging of facial nerve regeneration in Thy1-GFP rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placheta, Eva; Wood, Matthew D; Lafontaine, Christine; Frey, Manfred; Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2015-01-01

    Facial nerve injury leads to severe functional and aesthetic deficits. The transgenic Thy1-GFP rat is a new model for facial nerve injury and reconstruction research that will help improve clinical outcomes through translational facial nerve injury research. To determine whether serial in vivo imaging of nerve regeneration in the transgenic rat model is possible, facial nerve regeneration was imaged under the main paradigms of facial nerve injury and reconstruction. Fifteen male Thy1-GFP rats, which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in their neural structures, were divided into 3 groups in the laboratory: crush-injury, direct repair, and cross-face nerve grafting (30-mm graft length). The distal nerve stump or nerve graft was predegenerated for 2 weeks. The facial nerve of the transgenic rats was serially imaged at the time of operation and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of regeneration. The imaging was performed under a GFP-MDS-96/BN excitation stand (BLS Ltd). Facial nerve injury. Optical fluorescence of regenerating facial nerve axons. Serial in vivo imaging of the regeneration of GFP-positive axons in the Thy1-GFP rat model is possible. All animals survived the short imaging procedures well, and nerve regeneration was followed over clinically relevant distances. The predegeneration of the distal nerve stump or the cross-face nerve graft was, however, necessary to image the regeneration front at early time points. Crush injury was not suitable to sufficiently predegenerate the nerve (and to allow for degradation of the GFP through Wallerian degeneration). After direct repair, axons regenerated over the coaptation site in between 2 and 4 weeks. The GFP-positive nerve fibers reached the distal end of the 30-mm-long cross-face nervegrafts after 4 to 8 weeks of regeneration. The time course of facial nerve regeneration was studied by serial in vivo imaging in the transgenic rat model. Nerve regeneration was followed over clinically relevant distances in a small

  14. In vivo 1H spectroscopy of the human brain at 1.5 tesla. Preliminary experience at a clinical installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H; Jensen, K M

    1990-01-01

    technique. Our preliminary results indicate that it is possible to detect a number of metabolites in the brain within a total measurement time of one hour. The dominant peaks in the spectra from healthy volunteers are N-acetyl aspartate, choline and creatine/phosphocreatine. The spectra obtained from......In vivo localized water suppressed proton spectroscopy of human brain was carried out on 15 healthy volunteers and 2 patients suffering from a brain tumour and an infarction, respectively. The measurements were performed on a whole body MR system, operating at 1.5 tesla using the stimulated echo...... the brain tumour and the infarct, respectively, differed very much from those obtained in healthy brain tissue. Our preliminary results indicate that localized proton spectroscopy may contribute to non-invasive brain tumour classification and possibly also to the differentiation between tumours and infarcts...

  15. The ability of human periodontium-derived stem cells to regenerate periodontal tissues: a preliminary in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Wolf-Dieter; Dannan, Aous; Becher, Sebastian; Gassmann, Georg; Arnold, Wolfgang; Varga, Gabor; Dittmar, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Periodontium-derived stem cells (pdSCs) can be cultured as dentospheres and differentiated into various cells of the neuronal lineage such as glial cells, thereby demonstrating their stem cell state. This study investigated whether pdSCs could be differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and, if so, whether these cells are able to regenerate periodontal tissue in vivo in an athymic rat model. Human adult pdSCs were isolated during minimally invasive periodontal surgery and expanded in vitro. To induce osteogenic differentiation, expanded pdSCs were cultured for 3 weeks in osteogenic differentiation media. Staining for alkaline phosphatase expression was positive, suggesting osteogenic differentiation. For in vivo studies, pdSCs were delivered onto suitable collagen sponges and implanted into periodontal defects on the right buccal cortex of the mandible in 16 immunodeficient nude rats. Histologic analysis of samples from the test side revealed reformation of periodontal ligament-like tissue, collagen fibers, and elements of bone, but no functional periodontal tissue regeneration. The data show that human adult pdSCs are capable of regenerating elements of bone and collagen fibers in an in vivo animal model.

  16. In vivo Candida glabrata biofilm development on foreign bodies in a rat subcutaneous model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharíková, Soňa; Neirinck, Bram; Sharma, Nidhi; Vleugels, Jef; Lagrou, Katrien; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Biofilm studies have been mostly dedicated to the major human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, whereas much less is known about this virulence factor in Candida glabrata, certainly under in vivo conditions. This study provides a deeper understanding of the biofilm development of C. glabrata, its architecture and susceptibility profile to fluconazole and echinocandins. In vitro and in vivo C. glabrata biofilms were developed inside serum-coated triple-lumen catheters placed in 24-well polystyrene plates or implanted subcutaneously in the back of a rat, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy were used to visualize the biofilm architecture. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to demonstrate the expression profile of EPA1, EPA3, EPA6 and AWP1-AWP7 during in vivo biofilm formation. Mature biofilms were observed within the first 48 h and the amount of biofilm reached its maximum by 6 days. Architecturally, mature C. glabrata biofilms consisted of a thick network of yeast cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Moreover, in vivo biofilms were susceptible to echinocandin drugs, whereas fluconazole remained ineffective. Gene expression profiling revealed that EPA3, EPA6, AWP2, AWP3 and AWP5 were up-regulated in in vivo biofilms compared with in vitro biofilms. C. glabrata is a unique microorganism, which, despite the lack of transition to the hyphal form, formed thick biofilms inside foreign bodies in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has described in vivo C. glabrata biofilm development and its architectural changes in detail and provides an insight into the susceptibility profile, as well as the gene expression machinery, of biofilm-associated infections. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. In vivo somatostatin, vasopressin, and oxytocin synthesis in diabetic rat hypothalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernstrom, J.D.; Fernstrom, M.H.; Kwok, R.P. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The in vivo labeling of somatostatin-14, somatostatin-28, arginine vasopressin, and oxytocin was studied in rat hypothalamus after third ventricular administration of (35S)cysteine to streptozotocin-diabetic and normal rats. Immunoreactive somatostatin levels in hypothalamus were unaffected by diabetes, as was the incorporation of (35S)cysteine into hypothalamic somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28. In contrast, immunoreactive vasopressin levels in hypothalamus and posterior pituitary (and oxytocin levels in posterior pituitary) were below normal in diabetic rats. Moreover, (35S)cysteine incorporation into hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin (probably mainly in the paraventricular nucleus because of its proximity to the third ventricular site of label injection) was significantly above normal. The increments in vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were reversed by insulin administration. In vivo cysteine specific activity and the labeling of acid-precipitable protein did not differ between normal and diabetic animals; effects of diabetes on vasopressin and oxytocin labeling were therefore not caused by simple differences in cysteine specific activity. These results suggest that diabetes (1) does not influence the production of somatostatin peptides in hypothalamus but (2) stimulates the synthesis of vasopressin and oxytocin. For vasopressin at least, the increase in synthesis may be a compensatory response to the known increase in its secretion that occurs in uncontrolled diabetes.

  18. In vivo effects of adenosine 5´-triphosphate on rat preneoplastic liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Frontini

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of adenosine 5´-triphosphate (ATP infusions to inhibit the growth of some human and animals tumors was based on the anticancer activity observed in in vitro and in vivo experiments, but contradictory results make the use of ATP in clinical practice rather controversial. Moreover, there is no literature regarding the use of ATP infusions to treat hepatocarcinomas. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ATP prevents in vivo oncogenesis in very-early-stage cancer cells in a well characterized two-stage model of hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. As we could not preclude the possible effect due to the intrinsic properties of adenosine, a known tumorigenic product of ATP hydrolysis, the effect of the administration of adenosine was also studied. Animals were divided in groups: rats submitted to the two stage preneoplasia initiation/promotion model of hepatocarcinogenesis, rats treated with intraperitoneal ATP or adenosine during the two phases of the model and appropriate control groups. The number and volume of preneoplastic foci per liver identified by the expression of glutathione S-transferase placental type and the number of proliferating nuclear antigen positive cells significantly increased in ATP and adenosine treated groups. Taken together, these results indicate that in this preneoplastic liver model, ATP as well as adenosine disturb the balance between apoptosis and proliferation contributing to malignant transformation.

  19. Uptake of Gold Nanoparticles in Several Rat Organs after Intraperitoneal Administration In Vivo: A Fluorescence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Anwar K. Abdelhalim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The gold nanoparticles (GNPs have potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In an attempt to characterise the potential toxicity or hazards of GNPs as a therapeutic or diagnostic tool, the fluorescence spectra in several rat organs in vivo were measured after intraperitoneal administration of GNPs. Methods. The experimental rats were divided into control and six groups (G1A, G1B, G2A, G2B, G3A, and G3B; G1: 20 nm; G2: 10 nm; G3: 50 nm; A: infusion of GNPs for 3 days; B: infusion of GNPs for 7 days. The fluorescence measurements were investigated in the liver, kidney, heart, and lung organs of rats after intraperitoneal administration of GNPs for periods of 3 and 7 days in vivo. Results. The 10 and 20 nm GNPs exhibited spherical morphology shape, while the 50 nm GNPs exhibited hexagonal shape. A sharp decrease in the fluorescence intensity induced with the larger 50 nm GNPs in the liver, kidney, heart, and lung organs of rats at the exposure duration of 3 and 7 days in vivo compared with the smaller 10 and 20 nm GNPs was observed. Conclusions. The decrease in fluorescence intensity may be attributed to occurrence of strong quenching, decrease in number and surface area of GNPs, and high clearance of GNPs via urine and bile. Moreover, decreasing size may lead to an exponential increase in surface area relative to volume, thus making GNPs surface more reactive on aggregation and to its surrounding biological components. The size, shape, surface area, number, and clearance of GNPs play a key role in toxicity and accumulation in the different rat organs. This study demonstrates that fluorescence peak intensity is particle size and exposure duration dependent. This study suggests that fluorescence intensity can be used as a useful tool for pointing to bioaccumulation and toxicity induced by GNPs in the different rat organs.

  20. In Vivo MicroCT Monitoring of Osteomyelitis in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Potapova, Inga; Camenisch, Karin; Nehrbass, Dirk; Richards, R Geoff; Moriarty, T Fintan

    2015-01-01

    Infection associated with orthopedic implants often results in bone loss and requires surgical removal of the implant. The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological changes of bone adjacent to a bacteria-colonized implant, with the aim of identifying temporal patterns that are characteristic of infection. In an in vivo study with rats, bone changes were assessed using in vivo microCT at 7 time points during a one-month postoperative period. The rats received either a sterile or Staphylococcus aureus-colonized polyetheretherketone screw in the tibia. Bone-implant contact, bone fraction, and bone changes (quiescent, resorbed, and new bone) were calculated from consecutive scans and validated against histomorphometry. The screw pullout strength was estimated from FE models and the results were validated against mechanical testing. In the sterile group, bone-implant contact, bone fraction, and mechanical fixation increased steadily until day 14 and then plateaued. In the infected group, they decreased rapidly. Bone formation was reduced while resorption was increased, with maximum effects observed within 6 days. In summary, the model presented is capable of evaluating the patterns of bone changes due to implant-related infections. The combined use of longitudinal in vivo microCT imaging and image-based finite element analysis provides characteristic signs of infection within 6 days.

  1. In Vivo MicroCT Monitoring of Osteomyelitis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A. Stadelmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection associated with orthopedic implants often results in bone loss and requires surgical removal of the implant. The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological changes of bone adjacent to a bacteria-colonized implant, with the aim of identifying temporal patterns that are characteristic of infection. In an in vivo study with rats, bone changes were assessed using in vivo microCT at 7 time points during a one-month postoperative period. The rats received either a sterile or Staphylococcus aureus-colonized polyetheretherketone screw in the tibia. Bone-implant contact, bone fraction, and bone changes (quiescent, resorbed, and new bone were calculated from consecutive scans and validated against histomorphometry. The screw pullout strength was estimated from FE models and the results were validated against mechanical testing. In the sterile group, bone-implant contact, bone fraction, and mechanical fixation increased steadily until day 14 and then plateaued. In the infected group, they decreased rapidly. Bone formation was reduced while resorption was increased, with maximum effects observed within 6 days. In summary, the model presented is capable of evaluating the patterns of bone changes due to implant-related infections. The combined use of longitudinal in vivo microCT imaging and image-based finite element analysis provides characteristic signs of infection within 6 days.

  2. Linomide increases plasma corticosterone in normal rats, but does not prevent the inhibitory action of IL-1 on beta-cells in vivo or ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, U B; Mauricio, D; Reimers, J I

    1996-01-01

    -cells leading to IDDM. This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of Linomide on IL-1beta induced diabetogenic and hormonal changes in the rat in vivo, and on IL-1beta mediated synthesis of NO and inhibition of insulin secretion in isolated islets of Langerhans ex vivo. Normal male Wistar Kyoto rats...... received 4.0 microg/kg of recombinant human IL-1beta (rhIL-1beta) i.p. daily for 5 days with or without Linomide (8-9 mg/kg/day) in the drinking water. Litters of neonatal Wistar rats were pretreated for 3 days with injections of 10 mg/kg of Linomide i.p., and pancreatic islets of Langerhans were isolated...

  3. In vivo genotoxicity of furan in F344 rats at cancer bioassay doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Wei, E-mail: Wei.Ding@fda.hhs.gov [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Petibone, Dayton M. [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Latendresse, John R. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Pearce, Mason G. [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Muskhelishvili, Levan; White, Gene A. [Toxicologic Pathology Associates, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Chang, Ching-Wei [Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Mittelstaedt, Roberta A.; Shaddock, Joseph G.; McDaniel, Lea P. [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Doerge, Daniel R. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Morris, Suzanne M.; Bishop, Michelle E.; Manjanatha, Mugimane G.; Aidoo, Anane; Heflich, Robert H. [Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, US FDA/National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Furan, a potent rodent liver carcinogen, is found in many cooked food items and thus represents a human cancer risk. Mechanisms for furan carcinogenicity were investigated in male F344 rats using the in vivo Comet and micronucleus assays, combined with analysis of histopathological and gene expression changes. In addition, formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) and endonuclease III (EndoIII)-sensitive DNA damage was monitored as a measure of oxidative DNA damage. Rats were treated by gavage on four consecutive days with 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg bw furan, doses that were tumorigenic in 2-year cancer bioassays, and with two higher doses, 12 and 16 mg/kg. Rats were killed 3 h after the last dose, a time established as producing maximum levels of DNA damage in livers of furan-treated rats. Liver Comet assays indicated that both DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines increased in a near-linear dose-responsive fashion, with statistically significant increases detected at cancer bioassay doses. No DNA damage was detected in bone marrow, a non-target tissue for cancer, and peripheral blood micronucleus assays were negative. Histopathological evaluation of liver from furan-exposed animals produced evidence of inflammation, single-cell necrosis, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. In addition, genes related to apoptosis, cell-cycle checkpoints, and DNA-repair were expressed at a slightly lower level in the furan-treated livers. Although a mixed mode of action involving direct DNA binding cannot be ruled out, the data suggest that furan induces cancer in rat livers mainly through a secondary genotoxic mechanism involving oxidative stress, accompanied by inflammation, cell proliferation, and toxicity. -- Highlights: ► Furan is a potent rodent liver carcinogen and represents a human cancer risk. ► Furan induces DNA damage in rat liver at cancer bioassay doses. ► Furan induces oxidative stress, inflammation and cell proliferation in rat liver. ► Expression of

  4. Study of in vivo catheter biofilm infections using pediatric central venous catheter implanted in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ashwini; Ghigo, Jean-Marc; Beloin, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Venous access catheters used in clinics are prone to biofilm contamination, contributing to chronic and nosocomial infections. Although several animal models for studying device-associated biofilms were previously described, only a few detailed protocols are currently available. Here we provide a protocol using totally implantable venous access ports (TIVAPs) implanted in rats. This model recapitulates all phenomena observed in the clinic, and it allows bacterial biofilm development and physiology to be studied. After TIVAP implantation and inoculation with luminescent pathogens, in vivo biofilm formation can be monitored in situ, and biofilm biomass can be recovered from contaminated TIVAP and organs. We used this protocol to study host responses to biofilm infection, to evaluate preventive and curative antibiofilm strategies and to study fundamental biofilm properties. For this procedure, one should expect ∼3 h of hands-on time, including the implantation in one rat followed by in situ luminescence monitoring and bacterial load estimation.

  5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry underestimates in vivo lumbar spine bone mineral density in overweight rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, Rim; Vico, Laurence; Laroche, Norbert; Sakly, Mohsen; Attia, Nebil; Lavet, Cedric

    2018-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely used technique for measuring areal bone mineral density (BMD). However, several studies have shown inaccuracy, with either overestimation or underestimation of DXA BMD measurements in the case of overweight or obese individuals. We have designed an overweight rat model based on junk food to compare the effect of obesity on in vivo and ex vivo BMD and bone mineral content measurements. Thirty-eight 6-month old male rats were given a chow diet (n = 13) or a high fat and sucrose diet (n = 25), with the calorie amount being kept the same in the two groups, for 19 weeks. L1 BMD, L1 bone mineral content, amount of abdominal fat, and amount of abdominal lean were obtained from in vivo DXA scan. Ex vivo L1 BMD was also measured. A difference between in vivo and ex vivo DXA BMD measurements (P vivo BMD by (8.47 ± 10.54)%. This difference was found for the chow and high fat, high sucrose diets (P = 0.008), and a significant interaction between in vivo measurements, ex vivo measurements, and diet was observed (P = 0.030). Also, the data show a positive significant correlation of ex vivo BMD with body weight, perirenal fat, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean. Multiple linear regression analysis shows that body weight, abdominal fat, and abdominal lean were independently related to ex vivo BMD. DXA underestimated lumbar in vivo BMD in overweight rats, and this measurement error is related to body weight and abdominal fat. Therefore, caution must be used when one is interpreting BMD among overweight and obese individuals.

  6. Persistent gene expression in rat liver in vivo by repetitive transfections using HVJ-liposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, T; Fujimoto, J; Ueki, T; Yamamoto, H; Iwasaki, T; Morisita, R; Sawa, Y; Kaneda, Y; Takahashi, H; Okamoto, E

    1998-04-01

    Most viral vectors are highly immunogenic and are of limited use for somatic gene therapy that requires repetitive administrations. We have developed a highly efficient gene transduction procedure useful for repetitive transfections using liposome containing hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ-liposome). The Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) gene was embodied in HVJ-liposome, and introduced directly into the caudal lobe of rat liver that was transiently isolated from a systemic circulation. A 116 kDa beta-gal protein was detected in transfected rat liver tissues by Western blot analysis and it was expressed in more than two-thirds of the liver by histological staining. It was found that the transfection efficiency was not affected by repetitive transfections. In support of these findings, antibody response to HVJ-liposome detected in the rat sera was weak and transient. Furthermore, cytotoxic T lymphocytes were not elicited against autologous rat hepatocytes that were transfected in vivo using HVJ-liposome. Thus, our results demonstrate that the isolation of a target liver from systemic circulation and the direct administration of foreign genes using HVJ-liposomes are useful for high gene transduction and persistent gene expression in the liver.

  7. K depletion stimulates in vivo HCO3 reabsorption in surviving rat distal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Buckman, S; Luck, B; Hincke, M T; Burns, K D; Fryer, J N

    1998-04-01

    To evaluate whether K depletion enhances in vivo bicarbonate reabsorption (JtCO2) in surviving distal tubules (DT), we compared DT JtCO2 in five-sixths nephrectomized rats (Nx) with and without dietary K depletion (Nx-K). Furthermore, to identify possible mechanisms of increased JtCO2, we perfused inhibitors of proton secretion in both Nx and Nx-K rats. JtCO2 (102 +/- 8 pmol.min-1.mm-1) was significantly increased in Nx-K vs. Nx rats (65 +/- 7 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P < 0.05) but unaffected by 10(-6) M losartan perfusion (94 +/- 6 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P = not significant). Although 10(-5) M Sch-28080 also had no significant effect, 5 x 10(-9) M concanamycin A perfusion significantly decreased JtCO2 in Nx-K rats to 65 +/- 8 pmol.min-1. mm-1 (P < 0.05). Morphometric evaluation and H(+)-ATPase immunogold labeling of Nx-K A-type intercalated cells revealed cellular hypertrophy, elaborated apical microplicae, and enhanced H(+)-ATPase apical polarization. Accordingly, these combined studies confirm that K depletion enhances JtCO2 in surviving DT by stimulating H(+)-ATPase activity, independent of the AT1 receptor.

  8. In vivo monitoring of distributional transport kinetics and extravasation of quantum dots in living rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Cheng-Kuan; Sun, Yuh-Chang

    2013-04-01

    Although the unique optical properties of surface-modified quantum dots (QDs) have attracted wide interest in molecular biology and bioengineering, there are very few reports of their in vivo biodistribution, due to a lack of analytical techniques for characterizing the dynamic variation of QDs in living animals. In this study, we used an in vivo online monitoring system and a batch-wise elemental analytical method to investigate the biodistribution/extravasation of various surface-modified CdTeSe/ZnS (QDs) in rat liver. It is found that the surface modification dictated not only the blood retention profile but also the degree of extravasation and the clearance of extracellular QDs, making it an important variable for regulating the transfer and exchange process of QDs among three physiological compartments—bloodstream, extracellular space and Kupffer cells/hepatocytes.

  9. In vivo chlorine and sodium MRI of rat brain at 21.1 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elumalai, Malathy; Kitchen, Jason A.; Qian, Chunqi; Gor’kov, Peter L.; Brey, William W.

    2017-01-01

    Object MR imaging of low-gamma nuclei at the ultrahigh magnetic field of 21.1 T provides a new opportunity for understanding a variety of biological processes. Among these, chlorine and sodium are attracting attention for their involvement in brain function and cancer development. Materials and methods MRI of 35Cl and 23Na were performed and relaxation times were measured in vivo in normal rat (n = 3) and in rat with glioma (n = 3) at 21.1 T. The concentrations of both nuclei were evaluated using the center-out back-projection method. Results T1 relaxation curve of chlorine in normal rat head was fitted by bi-exponential function (T1a = 4.8 ms (0.7) T1b = 24.4 ± 7 ms (0.3) and compared with sodium (T1 = 41.4 ms). Free induction decays (FID) of chlorine and sodium in vivo were bi-exponential with similar rapidly decaying components of T2a∗=0.4 ms and T2a∗=0.53 ms, respectively. Effects of small acquisition matrix and bi-exponential FIDs were assessed for quantification of chlorine (33.2 mM) and sodium (44.4 mM) in rat brain. Conclusion The study modeled a dramatic effect of the bi-exponential decay on MRI results. The revealed increased chlorine concentration in glioma (~1.5 times) relative to a normal brain correlates with the hypothesis asserting the importance of chlorine for tumor progression. PMID:23748497

  10. Novel instrumentation to determine peel force in vivo and preliminary studies with adhesive skin barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Evan M; Cullum, Malford E; Nichols, Thom R; Taylor, Michael G; Sexton, William L; Murahata, Richard I

    2013-11-01

    Adhesive barriers secure medical devices to skin. Laboratory adhesion models are not predictive of in vivo performance. The objectives of these studies were to validate a novel peel force device, and to investigate relationships between barrier formulations, barrier width, subjective discomfort during barrier removal, and substrates. Three hydrocolloid barrier formulations in three widths were adhered to ethylene/methyl acrylate film (EMA), VITRO-SKIN(®) and human abdominal skin. Peel force was measured using a MTS Insight™ and a cyberDERM Inc. Mini Peel Tester (CMPT). Subjects reported their discomfort. Peel forces were highly correlated between devices and highly dependent on substrate. Data suggested a weak direct association between peel force in vivo and discomfort. The 0.5″-wide barriers had the most precise peel forces measurements in vivo. A weak negative relationship between normalized peel force and barrier width on human skin was found. There was a strong positive relationship between peel force in vivo and on EMA, whereas no correlation was observed with VITRO-SKIN(®). The CMPT correlates with a standard instrument and can advantageously investigate adhesion in vivo. Barrier width and substrate impact the reliability and predictability of peel force measurements. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sorbitol increases muscle glucose uptake ex vivo and inhibits intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo and in normal and type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that sorbitol, a known polyol sweetener, possesses glycemic control potentials. However, the effect of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake still remains elusive. The present study investigated the effects of sorbitol on intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake as possible anti-hyperglycemic or glycemic control potentials using ex vivo and in vivo experimental models. Sorbitol (2.5% to 20%) inhibited glucose absorption in isolated rat jejuna (IC50 = 14.6% ± 4.6%) and increased glucose uptake in isolated rat psoas muscle with (GU50 = 3.5% ± 1.6%) or without insulin (GU50 = 7.0% ± 0.5%) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, sorbitol significantly delayed gastric emptying, accelerated digesta transit, inhibited intestinal glucose absorption, and reduced blood glucose increase in both normoglycemic and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of coingestion with glucose. Data of this study suggest that sorbitol exhibited anti-hyperglycemic potentials, possibly via increasing muscle glucose uptake ex vivo and reducing intestinal glucose absorption in normal and type 2 diabetic rats. Hence, sorbitol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycemic sweetener.

  12. Closure of multiple types of K+ channels is necessar to induce changes in renal vascular resistance in vivo in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Giese, Isaiah; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig

    2011-01-01

    reduction. The effect of the cocktail of K(+) channel blockers was confirmed in mice using the isolated blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. A cocktail of K(+) channel openers (K(+), NS309, NS1619 and pinacidil) had only a minor effect on baseline RBF in vivo in rats, but reduced......Inhibition of K(+) channels might mediate renal vasoconstriction. As inhibition of a single type of K(+) channel caused minor or no renal vasoconstriction in vivo in rats, we hypothesized that several classes of K(+) channels must be blocked to elicit renal vasoconstriction. We measured renal blood...... flow (RBF) in vivo in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Test agents were infused directly into the renal artery to avoid systemic effects. Inhibition of BK(Ca) and K(ir) channels (with TEA and Ba(2+), respectively) caused small and transient reductions in RBF (to 93¿±¿2% and 95¿±¿1% of baseline...

  13. Endogenous dopamine (DA) modulates (3H)spiperone binding in vivo in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, S.; Krauss, J.; Grunenwald, C.; Gunst, F.; Heinrich, M.; Schaub, M.; Stoecklin, K.V.; Vassout, A.; Waldmeier, P.; Maitre, L. (Research Department, CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basel (Switzerland))

    1991-01-01

    (3H)spiperone (SPI) binding in vivo, biochemical parameters and behavior were measured after modulating DA levels by various drug treatments. DA releasers and uptake inhibitors increased SPI binding in rat striatum. In other brain areas, the effects were variable, but only the pituitary remained unaffected. Surprisingly, nomifensine decreased SPI binding in frontal cortex. The effects of these drugs were monitored by measuring DA, serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the same rats. The increased SPI binding in striatum was parallel to the locomotor stimulation with the following rank order: amfonelic acid greater than nomifensine greater than D-amphetamine greater than or equal to methylphenidate greater than amineptine greater than bupropion. Decreasing DA levels with reserpine or alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine reduced SPI binding by 45% in striatum only when both drugs were combined. In contrast, reserpine enhanced SPI binding in pituitary. Thus, the amount of releasable DA seems to modulate SPI binding characteristics. It is suggested that in vivo, DA receptors are submitted to dynamic regulation in response to changes in intrasynaptic concentrations of DA.

  14. In vivo measurement of hemodynamic information in stenosed rat blood vessels using X-ray PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Park, Jun Hong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the hemodynamic information of blood flows, especially wall shear stress (WSS), in animal models with circulatory vascular diseases (CVDs) are important to understand the pathological mechanism of CVDs. In this study, X-ray particle image velocimetry (PIV) with high spatial resolution was applied to obtain velocity field information in stenosed blood vessels with high WSS. 3D clips fabricated with a 3D printer were applied to the abdominal aorta of a rat cadaver to induce artificial stenosis in the real blood vessel of an animal model. The velocity and WSS information of blood flows in the stenosed vessel were obtained and compared at various stenosis severities. In vivo measurement was also conducted by fastening a stenotic clip on a live rat model through surgical intervention to reduce the flow rate to match the limited temporal resolution of the present X-ray PIV system. Further improvement of the temporal resolution of the system might be able to provide in vivo measurements of hemodynamic information from animal disease models under physiological conditions. The present results would be helpful for understanding the relation between hemodynamic characteristics and the pathological mechanism in animal CVD models.

  15. Esomeprazole immediate release tablets: Gastric mucosa ex vivo permeation, absorption and antisecretory activity in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Camillo; Flammini, Lisa; Vivo, Valentina; Colombo, Paolo; Colombo, Gaia; Elviri, Lisa; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Buttini, Francesca; Bettini, Ruggero; Barocelli, Elisabetta; Rossi, Alessandra

    2016-10-10

    The aim of this work was to study the esomeprazole activity on the control of gastric secretion after administration of a novel immediate release tablet. The ex vivo permeation of esomeprazole across porcine gastric mucosa from immediate release tablets, containing sodium carbonate or magnesium oxide as alkalinizing agents, was firstly assessed. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics studies in conscious rats following the administration of immediate release tablets with sodium carbonate, in comparison with delayed-release tablets having the same formula, were also conducted. The results showed an important effect of sodium carbonate and magnesium oxide on the drug release, on the ex vivo trans-mucosal transport and the stability in acid environment. In particular, the presence of sodium carbonate in esomeprazole tablet formulation provided the maximum increase of the drug in vitro transport across the mucosa. Then, the absorption and the antisecretory activity of this proton pump inhibitor orally administered in rats as immediate release tablets containing Na2CO3, was superior but not significantly different compared to delayed-release tablets having the same formula. In the adopted animal model, an activity of esomeprazole from immediate release alkaline formulation was seen also in presence of partial gastric absorption allowing inhibition of proton pumps reached via systemic circulation. This esomeprazole immediate release formulation could be used for the on-demand treatment of acid-related disorders such as gastro-esophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 5-Nitro-2-furyl derivative actives against Trypanosoma cruzi: preliminary in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Eliana; Murguiondo, Mariana González; Arias, Marelina González; Arredondo, Carolina; Pintos, Cristina; Aguirre, Gabriela; Fernández, Marcelo; Basmadjián, Yester; Rosa, Raquel; Pacheco, José Pedro; Raymondo, Stella; Di Maio, Rossanna; González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2009-10-01

    Ten 5-nitro-2-furyl derivatives, with good to excellent in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity, and nifurtimox were tested oral and intraperitoneally on healthy animals for its acute toxicity on murine models. According to animals' survival percentage, organ histological results, biochemical and haematological findings, three new derivatives, with toxicity like nifurtimox, were selected to test in vivo as antichagasic agents. Clearly, dependences between chemical structure and both acute toxicity and in vivo anti-T. cruzi activity were observed. 4-Hexyl-1-[3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-propenylidene]semicarbazide displayed good profile as anti-T. cruzi agent and better acute toxicity profile than nifurtimox.

  17. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim Hee; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Sloth Madsen, Signe

    2013-01-01

    that was implemented on the UltraView system acquires both SASB-THI and DRF-THI simultaneously. Twenty-four simultaneously acquired video sequences of in-vivo abdominal SASB-THI and DRF-THI scans on 3 volunteers of 4 different sections of liver and kidney tissues were created. Videos of the in-vivo scans were......-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imaging (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence...

  18. In vivo evaluation method of the effect of nattokinase on carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Seitaro; Hagimori, Masayori; Ogasawara, Masayoshi; Arakawa, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Thrombosis is characterized by congenital and acquired procatarxis. Nattokinase inhibits thrombus formation in vitro. However, in vivo evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis remains to be conducted. Subcutaneous nattokinase injections of 1 or 2 mg/ml were administered to the tails of rats. Subsequently, κ-carrageenan was intravenously administered to the tails at 12 h after nattokinase injections. The mean length of the infarcted regions in the tails of rats was significantly shorter in rats administered 2 mg/ml of nattokinase than those in control rats. Nattokinase exhibited significant prophylactic antithrombotic effects. Previously, the in vitro efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis had been reported; now our study has revealed the in vivo efficacy of nattokinase against thrombosis. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Preliminary In-vivo Results For Spatially Coded Synthetic Transmit Aperture Ultrasound Based On Frequency Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gran, Fredrik; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using spatial coding based on frequency division for in-vivo synthetic transmit aperture (STA) ultrasound imaging. When using spatial encoding for STA, it is possible to use several transmitters simultaneously and separate the signals at the receiver. Th...

  20. The tolerability of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles during in vivo observation of the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina L; Prodan, Alina M; Ciobanu, Carmen S; Predoi, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have attracted a lot of interest due to their widespread biomedical and diagnostic applications. Coating the SPIONs with various surface layers can provide an interface between the core and the surrounding environment. The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo behaviour of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (D-IONPs) in aqueous suspensions. The SPIONs stabilized with dextran (D-IONPs) were synthesized in aqueous solutions by co-precipitation method. The average grain size deduced from transmission electron microscopy is 7.5 nm. The hematological parameters registered for the rats exposed to D-IONPs at 1 ml/kg have had values approximately equal to those examined for the control specimen. The architecture of liver and kidneys was not affected after one day of intraperitoneal injection of D-IONPs compared to the reference group. After 21 and 28 days respectively from the administration of the D-IONPs solution, the liver and kidneys from the injected rats showed a normal aspect without abnormalities compared to the rats uninjected. Our findings suggest that the administration of 1 ml/kg D-IONPs did not cause any toxicological effect since the parameters of renal and liver function were in the normal range as reported to the control group.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the normal and chronically injured adult rat spinal cord in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guizar-Sahagun, G. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, Inst. Mexicano del Seguro Social, Mexico City (Mexico)); Rivera, F. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Babinski, E. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico)); Berlanga, E. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Madrazo, M. (Dept. of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Hospital Angeles del Pedregal, Mexico City (Mexico)); Franco-Bourland, R. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Biochemistry, Inst. Nacional de la Nutricion, Mexico City (Mexico)); Grijalva, I. (Centro de Investigacion del Proyecto Camina, Mexico City (Mexico) Dept. of Clinical Research in Neurology and Neurosurgery, Hospital de Especialidades, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo

    1994-08-01

    We assessed the capacity of MRI to show and characterise the spinal cord (SC) in vivo in normal and chronically injured adult rats. In the chronically injured animals the SC was studied by MRI and histological examination. MRI was performed at 1.5 T, using gradient-echo and spin-echo (SE) sequences, the latter with and without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). Several positions were tried for good alignment and to diminish interference by respiratory movements. Images of the SC were obtained in sagittal, coronal, and axial planes. Normal SC was observed as a continuous intensity in both sequences, although contrast resolution was better using SE; it was not possible to differentiate the grey and white matter. Low signal was seen in the damaged area in chronically injured rats, which corresponded to cysts, trabeculae, mononuclear infiltrate, and fibroglial wall on histological examination. Gd-DTPA failed to enhance the SC in normal or chronically injured rats. It did, however, cause enhancement of the lesion after acute SC injury. (orig.)

  2. In vivo genotoxicity study of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using comet assay following intratracheal instillation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, Masato; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Ema, Makoto; Kasamoto, Sawako; Fukumuro, Masahito; Takami, Shigeaki; Nakajima, Madoka; Hayashi, Makoto; Nakanishi, Junko

    2012-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is widely used as a white pigment in paints, plastics, inks, paper, creams, cosmetics, drugs and foods. In the present study, the genotoxicity of anatase TiO₂ nanoparticles was evaluated in vivo using the comet assay after a single or repeated intratracheal instillation in rats. The nanoparticles were instilled intratracheally at a dosage of 1.0 or 5.0 mg/kg body weight (single instillation group) and 0.2 or 1.0 mg/kg body weight once a week for 5 weeks (repeated instillation group) into male Sprague-Dawley rats. A positive control, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) at 500 mg/kg, was administered orally 3 h prior to dissection. Histopathologically, macrophages and neutrophils were detected in the alveolus of the lung in the 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg TiO₂ groups. In the comet assay, there was no increase in % tail DNA in any of the TiO₂ groups. In the EMS group, there was a significant increase in % tail DNA compared with the negative control group. TiO₂ nanoparticles in the anatase crystal phase are not genotoxic following intratracheal instillation in rats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo determination of muscle-derived stem cells in the rat corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Xue, Boxin; Shan, Yuxi; Chen, Dong; Gao, Jie; Yang, Dongrong; Sun, Chuanyang; Cui, Yong

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present in vivo study was to determine the presence of muscle-derived stem cells (MDSCs) in the corpus cavernosum of rats. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed to detect the expression of the stem cell markers stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1), Oct4 and Desmin in Sprague-Dawley rats aged 2, 5 and 20 months. Sca-1 was mainly expressed in the blood vessels and cavernous sinus and staining revealed that Sca-1 was predominantly expressed in the cytoplasm. Desmin was primarily expressed in muscular tissues and staining demonstrated that it was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm, however, Desmin was also partially expressed in the nuclei. A small number of double positive cells, expressing Sca-1 and Desmin, were also detected near the cavernous sinus. It was found that the expression of the markers was negatively correlated with the age of the rats (Pcorpus cavernosum. MDSCs may be a potential therapeutic treatment for organic erectile dysfunction.

  4. In vivo incorporation of lauric acid into rat adipose tissue triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaut, M

    1989-03-01

    An in vivo approach was taken to examine fatty acid esterification in adipose tissue using a coconut oil-enriched diet. Rats were fed a diet containing coconut oil (50% lauric acid) for six weeks. Triacylglycerols from perirenal adipose tissue were fractionated by silver nitrate-thin layer chromatography and, then, preparative gas chromatography. The distribution of 169 triacylglycerol types accounting for 97% of total triacylglycerols was determined. There was evidence for a very high content of mixed triacylglycerols composed of intermediate (12:0 and 14:0) and long acyl moieties. No significant differences were observed between the experimental distribution of triacylglycerol types and the random distribution, calculated from the total fatty acid composition. This indicated that most long chain triacylglycerols stored before coconut oil feeding would have been rearranged after the six weeks of coconut oil feeding. The experimental proportion of trilauroylglycerol reached 2%, as expected from its random proportion, and the proportions of dilauroylacylglycerols were slightly higher than the random values. Present results were compared with those previously obtained from triacylglycerols of adipose tissue of rats fed a low-fat standard diet. From our results and those of other authors, it is suggested that lauric acid is a good substrate for sn-glycero-3-phosphate acyltransferase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase in rat adipose tissue.

  5. In vivo adaptation of bicarbonate reabsorption by rat distal tubules during acid loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Buckman, S; Vandorpe, D; Harrison, V; Boisvert, D M; Nadler, S P

    1994-11-01

    We carried out in vivo microperfusion experiments in acid-loaded rats to characterize the adaptive response of the unidirectional components secretory flux (Jsec) and reabsorptive flux (Jreab)] of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption and to test the hypothesis that Jreab is dependent on bafilomycin A1-sensitive H(+)-adenosinetriphosphatase activity. During 18 h of severe acidosis there was a significant decrease in Jsec (-15 +/- 3 vs. -38 +/- 5 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P < 0.05) and a significant increase in Jreab (37 +/- 6 vs. 0 +/- 5 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P < 0.05), which was insensitive to 10(-5) M bafilomycin A1, 10(-5) M Sch-28080, and 3 mM amiloride. After 3 days of acid loading, these same inhibitors reduced Jreab by approximately 60%. However, when water flux was completely inhibited by isosmotic perfusion, a significant Jreab (15 +/- 2 pmol.min-1.mm-1) resistant to 10(-5) M bafilomycin A1 persisted, as in severe acidosis. In reabsorbing distal tubules of overnight-fasted rats, Sch-28080 elicited no inhibition, whereas bafilomycin A1 and amiloride had significant effects (28 +/- 5, 24 +/- 4, respectively, vs. 50 +/- 4 pmol.min-1.mm-1 for fasted rats, P < 0.05). Thus, although Jsec is reduced in the transition from mild to severe metabolic acidosis of 18-h duration, the predominant effect is a stimulation of bafilomycin A1-resistant Jreab.

  6. 7-Ketocholesterol induces inflammation and angiogenesis in vivo: a novel rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Amaral

    Full Text Available Accumulation of 7-Ketocholesterol (7KCh in lipid deposits has been implicated in a variety of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and age-related macular degeneration. 7KCh is known to be pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic to various types of cultured cells but little is known about its effects in vivo. In this study we have investigated the effects of 7KCh in vivo by implanting biodegradable wafers into the anterior chamber of the rat eye. The wafers were prepared using a mixture of two biodegradable polymers with different amounts of 7KCh. The 7KCh-containing implants induced massive angiogenesis and inflammation. By contrast, no angiogenesis and very little inflammation were observed with cholesterol-containing implants. The neovessel growth was monitored by fluorescein angiography. Neovessels were observed 4 days post implantation and peaked between 7 to 10 days. The angiography and isolectin IB(4 labeling demonstrated that the neovessels originated from the limbus and grew through the cornea. Immunolabeling with anti-CD68 suggested that the 7KCh-containing implants had extensive macrophage infiltration as well as other cell types. A significant increase in VEGF was also observed in 7KCh-containing implants by fluorescent immunolabeling and by immunoblot of the aqueous humor (AH. Direct measurement of VEGF, IL-1β and GRO/KC demonstrated a marked elevation of these factors in the AH of the 7KCh-implants. In summary this study demonstrates two important things: 1 7KCh is pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory in vivo and 2 implants containing 7KCh may be used to create a novel angiogenesis model in rats.

  7. Anesthesia effect on single local field potentials variability in rat barrel cortex: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Claudia; Mahmud, Mufti; Vassanelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The rat barrel cortex is a widely used model of information processing in the somatosensory area, thanks to its precise and easily recognizable organization. However, evoked Local Field Potentials (LFPs) generated in the barrel cortex by repetitive deflections of rat whiskers show large variability in shapes and timings. Moreover, anesthetics can deeply affect the profile of evoked responses. This paper presents preliminary report on the variability and the effect of commonly used anesthetics on these signals. We studied representative signal shape characteristics (e.g., latency and amplitude of events) extracted from evoked responses acquired by means of standard Ag/AgCl electrodes from different cortical layers. As an early result, we found significant difference in the latency of the first principal peak of the responses. Under Tiletamine-Xylazine anesthetic, the responses or events of the evoked LFPs occurred later than the ones recorded while urethane was administered. Furthermore, the distributions of the peak latencies in all cortical layers were narrower in case of Urethane. This behavior should be attributed to the different effects of these two anesthetics on specific synaptic receptors and thus on the processing of neural information and the encoding of sensory input along the cortical pathway.

  8. Preliminary toxicity and phytochemical studies of the stem bark aqueous extract of Musanga cecropioides in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeneye, A A; Ajagbonna, O P; Adeleke, T I; Bello, S O

    2006-05-24

    These studies were designed to determine the preliminary oral toxicity profile of the crude aqueous stem bark extract of Musanga cecropioides (MCW) in adult Sprague-Dawley rats and its active chemical constituents by way of phytochemistry. The acute oral toxicity study was conducted using limit dose test of Up and Down Procedure according to the OECD/OCDE Test Guidelines on Acute Oral Toxicity (AOT425statPgm, version: 1.0) at a limit dose of 3,000 mg/kg body weight/oral route. Repeat dose oral toxicity studies were conducted by daily oral dosing of 750 mg/kg body weight of MCW dissolved in 1 ml of 0.9% saline and 1 ml of 0.9% saline to rats in the test and control groups, respectively, for 28 days. On day 29, blood samples for bioassays were collected by cardiac puncture under diethyl ether anesthesia. The phytochemical analysis was conducted using standard procedures. The LD(50) estimate of the extract was calculated to be greater than 3,000 mg/kg body weight/oral route. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05) decrease in weight gain, differential eosinophil count and increase in serum creatinine but did not affect the organ weights, other serum electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), HCO(3)(-)), liver enzymes and other hematological indices in test rats. Its phytochemical analysis showed it contains saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phlobatannins, glycosides, reducing sugars and anthraquinones. These results show that the aqueous extract of Musanga cecropioides is relatively safe toxicologically when administered orally. Thus, its use in folkloric medicine as an oral antihypertensive is relatively safe when used over the tested period.

  9. Doxorubicin dose for congestive heart failure modeling and the use of general ultrasound equipment for evaluation in rats. Longitudinal in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Mykola; Bubnov, Rostyslav; Yemets, Ilya; Lazarenko, Liudmyla; Timoshok, Natalia; Vorobieva, Anna; Mohnatyy, Sergii; Ulberg, Zoia; Reznichenko, Liudmyla; Grusina, Tamara; Zhovnir, Volodymyr; Zholobak, Nadia

    2013-03-01

    For the evaluation of the congestive heart failure (CHF) in rat models, the use of special equipment for echocardiography for dynamic evaluation is suggested. The optimal doxorubicin dose for CHF induction has still not been established. The aims of our study was to find a reliable doxorubicin CHF rat model using a general ultrasound (US) equipment for in vivo ultrasound examination of the systemic circulation, to establish the optimal doxorubicin dose, and to assess the feasibility of US guided administration of the drug. Sixty Wistar rats, weighing 180-200 g were assigned to 3 groups (n=20 in each): group A - 4 time intraperitoneal doxorubicin "Sigma"administration, cumulative dose 2.49 mg/animal or 12.45 mg/kg; group B and 5 time doxorubicin administration, cumulative dose 3.03 mg/animal or 15.15 mg/kg; and group C- controls (injected same volume of saline). Dynamic US using linear 12 MHz transducer was used to establish the CHF modifications. Two rats with CHF were injected under US guidance in the pleural cavity with 0.06 ml cardiotropic drug levosimendan and two rats in the pericardial cavity. We established the optimal cumulative doxorubicin dose for CHF induction at 12.45 mg/kg. At a higher dose, more than 40% of animals died. A lower dose did not induce significant clinical and US CHF criteria. Congestion (followed by weight gain) led to lower animal mortality. Preliminary results indicate a similar positive cardioprotective effect of drug injection into pericardial and pleural cavities under US guidance, demonstrating that this technique is useful for drug administration. US is an effective modality for in vivo monitoring of the rat organs for the study of cardiovascular function or for drug administration under US guidance. Suggested model (optimal dose of doxorubicin for simulation of CHF of 2.5 mg/animal, a cumulative dose of 12.45 mg/kg in 4 injections every 3 days) can be used for research purposes.

  10. In vivo genotoxic effects of dietary heme iron on rat colon mucosa and ex vivo effects on colon cells monitored by an optimized alkaline comet assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Océane, C Martin

    2015-04-01

    In conclusion, our results offer a suitable protocol to evaluate genotoxicity on in vivo cryopreserved colon mucosa and on in vitro murine colonic cells, with a middle throughput capacity. This protocol confirms the increase of genotoxicity in rat colon mucosa after an heme-iron diet. Moreover, this protocol enables the demonstration that aldehydes from heme-induced lipoperoxidation are responsible for this increase of genotoxicity.

  11. In-vivo imaging characteristics of two fluorinated flumazenil radiotracers in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedeurwaerdere, Stefanie [University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine (RMH), Parkville, VIC (Australia); ANSTO, Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Sydney (Australia); Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Fookes, Christopher; Greguric, Ivan; Pham, Tien; Loc' h, Christian; Katsifis, Andrew [ANSTO, Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Sydney (Australia); Vivash, Lucy; O' Brien, Terence J.; Myers, Damian E. [University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine (RMH), Parkville, VIC (Australia); Roselt, Peter; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Centre for Molecular Imaging, Melbourne (Australia)

    2009-06-15

    [{sup 11}C]Flumazenil shows promise as a clinical and research PET radiotracer to image changes in GABA{sub A} central benzodiazepine receptor (cBZR), but its widespread use has been limited by practical limitations of [{sup 11}C]. This study evaluated the imaging characteristics of two fluorinated PET radiotracers in rats in vivo: [{sup 18}F]fluoroflumazenil ([{sup 18}F]FFMZ) and [{sup 18}F]flumazenil ([{sup 18}F]FMZ). PET acquisitions were performed on a small-animal scanner following injection of [{sup 18}F]FFMZ in nine rats and [{sup 18}F]FMZ in eight rats. The following treatments were investigated: (1) injection of the tracer dose, (2) presaturation then injection of the tracer dose, and (3) injection of the tracer dose followed by a displacement injection. Unchanged tracer was measured in plasma and brain structures in four animals 10 and 30 min after injection, and ex-vivo autoradiography was also performed. For both [{sup 18}F]FFMZ and [{sup 18}F]FMZ maximal brain activity peaked rapidly, and was highest in the hippocampus (1.12{+-}0.06 SUV, 1.24{+-}0.10 SUV, respectively), and lowest in the pons (1.00{+-}0.07 SUV, 1.03{+-}0.09 SUV, respectively). By 50 min after injection, maximal uptake for [{sup 18}F]FFMZ and [{sup 18}F]FMZ had decreased in the hippocampus to 18{+-}3% and 80{+-}1% (p<0.01), respectively. The presaturation and displacement studies showed a higher nonspecific component for [{sup 18}F]FFMZ than for [{sup 18}F]FMZ. Metabolite studies showed that at 30 min only 10% of the signal was from [{sup 18}F]FFMZ in the brain. This nonspecific binding was apparent on autoradiography. In contrast, [{sup 18}F]FMZ accounted for >70% of the signal in the brain, which resulted in well-defined regional binding on autoradiography. These results demonstrate that [{sup 18}F]FMZ is a superior radiotracer to [{sup 18}F]FFMZ for in-vivo PET imaging of the GABA{sub A}/cBZR, having slower metabolism and leading to lower concentrations of metabolites in the brain

  12. In vivo biocompatibility evaluation of some Bidens tripartita extracts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, R B; Tarţău, L; Miron, A; Zagnat, M; Ghiciuc, C M; Lupuşoru, C E

    2013-01-01

    Adaptogens represent a class of herbs frequently used as a unique and natural alternative medicine and herbal remedy for treating the many forms of stress and different other pathological conditions. Bidens tripartite, a flowering plant from the genus Bidens, family Compositae, subfamily Asteroideae was widely used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, astringent, diuretic, febrifuge, narcotic and sedative effects. Phytochemical analysis of this plant has revealed the presence of flavonoids, xanthophylls, volatile oil, acetylene and polyacetylene, sterols, aurones, chalcones, caffeine and tannins. The in vivo biocompatibility evaluation of two extracts from Bidens tripartita plant in rats. The vegetable product used for the study was obtained after maceration and extraction in alcohol. Flower powder was dissolved in absolute chloroform, re-extracted and filtered. After a complete dryness the product was extracted by the addition of ethanol then evaporated. The chemical composition of the extracts was determined. The administered dose of Bidens tripartita retained was 1/20 of lethal dose 50 (LD50). The experiment was carried out on white male Wistar rats (200-250g) divided into 3 groups of 7 animals each treated intraperitoneally as follows: Group I (Control): distilled water 0.1ml/10g weight; Group II (coded BT-alcoholic): 200mg/kbw alcoholic Bidens tripartita extract; Group III (coded BT-aqueous): 250mg/kbw aqueous Bidens tripartita extract. The biocompatibility properties of alcoholic and aqueous extracts from Bidens tritartita were studied by assessing their effects on blood count and serum biochemical tests. The following immune parameters: phagocytic capacity of peripheral neutrophils (NBT test) and serum complement activity were also evaluated. The data were presented as +/- SD and significance was tested by SPSS for Windows version 13.0 and ANOVA method. Experimental protocol was implemented according to the

  13. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease in which all joint-related elements, articular cartilage in particular, are affected. The poor regeneration capacity of this tissue together with the lack of pharmacological treatment has led to the development of regenerative medicine methodologies including microfracture and autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI. The effectiveness of ACI has been shown in vitro and in vivo, but the use of other cell types, including bone marrow and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, is necessary because of the poor proliferation rate of isolated articular chondrocytes. In this investigation, we assessed the chondrogenic ability of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs to regenerate cartilage in vitro and in vivo. hDPSCs and primary isolated rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic culture medium and found to express collagen II and aggrecan. Both cell types were cultured in 3% alginate hydrogels and implanted in a rabbit model of cartilage damage. Three months after surgery, significant cartilage regeneration was observed, particularly in the animals implanted with hDPSCs. Although the results presented here are preliminary, they suggest that hDPSCs may be useful for regeneration of articular cartilage.

  14. Methacrylate micro/nano particles prepared by spray drying: a preliminary in vitro/in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Ortega, Begoña; Sallam, Marwa Ahmed; Marín Boscá, M Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Delivery systems controlling drug release only in the colon holds great promises since they improve utilization of drug and decrease the dosing times comparison with conventional forms. The aim of the present study was to prepare polymeric microparticles on the basis of Ciprofloxacin via oral route for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Ciprofloxacin was selected because of its extensive coverage for intestinal flora, relatively favorable side-effect profile and preliminary data suggesting its efficacy in the treatment of active Crohn's Disease. Microparticles were prepared using different acrylic compounds, namely Eudragit® RL (PO) and RS (PO) and a mixture of both. Spray-drying was used as a preparation method of Ciprofloxacin/Eudragit® microparticles using a Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (Büchi, Postfach, Switzerland). In vitro dissolution studies were performed to choose the best formulation and selected microparticles were characterized by size and morphology by environmental scanning electron microscopy. Yield and encapsulation efficiency were calculated and in vivo/ex vivo experiments were investigated both of which suggest that selected microparticles can be used for colon targeting of drugs increasing residence time of the drug in the affected area.

  15. Sex differences in Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolism and in vivo pharmacology following acute and repeated dosing in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jenny L; Burston, James J

    2014-07-25

    Mechanisms that may underlie age and sex differences in the pharmacological effects of cannabinoids are relatively unexplored. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether sex differences in metabolism of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), similar to those observed previously in adult rats, also occurred in adolescent rats and might contribute to age and sex differences in its in vivo pharmacology. Male and female adolescent rats were exposed to THC acutely or repeatedly for 10 days. Subsequently, some of the rats were sacrificed and blood and brain levels of THC and one of its metabolites, 11-hydroxy-Δ(9)-THC (11-OH-THC), were measured. Other rats were evaluated in a battery of in vivo tests that are sensitive to cannabinoids. Concentrations of 11-OH-THC in the brains of female adult and adolescent rats exceeded those observed in male conspecifics, particularly after repeated THC administration. In contrast, brain levels of THC did not differ between the sexes. In vivo, acute THC produced dose-related hypothermia, catalepsy and suppression of locomotion in adolescent rats of both sexes, with tolerance developing after repeated administration. With a minor exception, sex differences in THC's effects in the in vivo assays were not apparent. Together with previous findings, the present results suggest that sex differences in pharmacokinetics cannot fully explain the patterns of sex differences (and lack of sex differences) in cannabinoid effects across behaviors. Hormonal and/or pharmacodynamic factors are also likely to play a role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of implanted brachytherapy seeds on optical fluence distribution: preliminary ex vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Fred W.; Chen, Qun; Ding, Meisong; Newman, Francis; Dole, Kenneth C.; Huang, Zheng; Blanc, Dominique

    2007-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gradually found its place in the treatment of malignant and non-malignant human diseases. Currently, interstitial PDT is being explored as an alternative modality for newly diagnosed and recurrent organ-confined prostate cancer. The interstitial PDT for the treatment of prostate cancer might be considered to treat prostates with permanent radioactive seeds implantation. However, the effect of implanted brachytherapy seeds on the optical fluence distribution of PDT light has not been studied before. This study investigated, for the first time, the effect of brachytherapy seed on the optical fluence distribution of 760 nm light in ex vivo models (meat and canine prostate).

  17. In vivo photo-detection of chemically induced premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma of the rat palatal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, JM; Speelman, OC; vanLeengoed, HLLM; Nikkels, PGJ; Roodenburg, JLN; Witjes, MJH; Vermey, A

    Photo-detection using in vivo fluorescence was studied for different stages of chemically induced premalignant lesions and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the Wistar rat palatal mucosa. It was found that the epithelial dysplasia (numerically expressed in the epithelial atypia index (EAI)) of the

  18. In vivo three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging of rat knee osteoarthritis model induced using meniscal transection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiang J. Wang

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: MRI offers in vivo information on the pathogenesis change of rat knee OA induced with menisectomy. It can serve as a supplement technique to histology, as it is particularly useful for longitudinal follow-up of OA model development.

  19. Ex vivo evaluation of the serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist [³H]CUMI-101 in awake rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Underwood, Mark D; Kumar, Dileep J S

    2011-01-01

    [³H]CUMI-101 is a 5-HT(1A) partial agonist, which has been evaluated for use as a positron emission tracer in baboon and humans. We sought to evaluate the properties of [³H]CUMI-101 ex vivo in awake rats and determine if [³H]CUMI-101 can measure changes in synaptic levels of serotonin after...

  20. Norepinephrine release in the rat pineal gland : The input from the biological clock measured by in vivo microdialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, W.J; van der Linde, A.G; Kooi, S.E; Grol, Cor; Westerink, B.H.C.

    The sympathetic innervation of the rat pineal gland was investigated, measuring the norepinephrine (NE) release by on-line in vivo microdialysis, NE was assayed using an HPLC method with precolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection. Its high sensitivity and reliability made it very suitable

  1. Manganese-induced hydroxyl radical formation in rat striatum is not attenuated by dopamine depletion or iron chelation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.N. Sloot (W.); J. Korf (Jakob); J.F. Koster (Johan); L.E.A. de Wit (Elly); J.-B.P. Gramsbergen (J. B P)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe present studies were aimed at investigating the possible roles of dopamine (DA) and iron in production of hydroxyl radicals (.OH) in rat striatum after Mn2+ intoxication. For this purpose, DA depletions were assessed concomitant with in vivo 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA)

  2. Manganese-induced hydroxyl radical formation in rat striatum is not attenuated by dopamine depletion or iron chelation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, WN; Korf, J; Koster, JF; DeWit, LEA; Gramsbergen, JBP

    The present studies were aimed at investigating the possible roles of dopamine (DA) and iron in production of hydroxyl radicals ((OH)-O-.) in rat striatum after Mn2+ intoxication. For this purpose, DA depletions were assessed concomitant with in vivo 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA)

  3. In vivo 31P NMR studies of rat salivary glands at 6.3 tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerschap, A; van Vaals, J J; Bergman, A H; den Boef, J H; van Gerwen, P H; Gravenmade, E J

    1988-10-01

    In vivo 31P NMR spectra of rat submandibular glands were obtained. The glands were exposed, leaving the neurovascular system intact, and placed in a solenoidal coil. Resonances of nine phosphate metabolites were identified in the spectra and metabolite concentrations were estimated from the corresponding integrals ([ATP] = 3.4 +/- 0.7 mM). Tissue pH, as deduced from the chemical shift of the inorganic phosphate resonance, was 7.26 (+/- 0.07). T1 relaxation times of ATP, phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate, and phosphomonoester 31P spin systems were examined. The effect of hypoxia was followed as a function of time. 31P NMR spectra of the glands have also been obtained noninvasively by the use of a surface coil, adapted to the dimensions of the glands, and depth pulses.

  4. Analysis of the intestinal absorption of essential fatty acids in vivo in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punchard, N A; Green, A T; Mullins, J G; Thompson, R P

    2000-01-01

    The absorption and competition kinetics of the essential fatty acids (EFAs), linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (alphaLnA) and arachidonic acid (AA) in vivo were studied in the perfused rat jejunum. Uptake of each EFA on its own followed saturable kinetics at low luminal concentrations, suggesting a facilitative transport process, the affinity of which increased with chain length and degree of unsaturation. Absorption of one EFA was enhanced by low, whilst competitively inhibited by high, concentrations of a second EFA. Whereas LA and alphaLnA each interfered with the absorption of one another, both had little effect on AA. There was a strong inverse correlation between the relative unsaturation of an EFA and the change in Km of its absorption observed upon inhibition with another EFA. Overall, the results indicated a specific absorptive mechanism, probably involving a transport protein, the affinity of which increased with the degree of unsaturation of the EFA.

  5. Displacement from protein binding of sulphormethoxine by phenylbutazone using in vivo dialysis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, E. G.

    1969-01-01

    1. Displacement of the ultra-long-acting sulphonamide sulphormethoxine from binding to serum proteins by phenylbutazone has been demonstrated by in vivo dialysis in rats. The technique used involved the introduction of dialysis sacs into the peritoneal cavity. The regression line relating free to total sulphormethoxine was significantly displaced after addition of phenylbutazone to the regime although the mean level of free drug was not significantly raised. No significant effect was observed on the proportion of phenylbutazone in the free form. The range of concentrations employed corresponded to that encountered clinically. 2. In vitro experiments with comparable concentrations of both drugs confirmed displacement of sulphormethoxine by phenylbutazone. Insignificant displacement of phenylbutazone from binding occurred. These experiments indicated the relationships between the relative affinities of sulphormethoxine and phenylbutazone for serum proteins and the extent to which mutual displacement from binding occurred. PMID:5768126

  6. Preliminary comparison between real-time in-vivo spectral and transverse oscillation velocity estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    2011-01-01

    Spectral velocity estimation is considered the gold standard in medical ultrasound. Peak systole (PS), end diastole (ED), and resistive index (RI) are used clinically. Angle correction is performed using a flow angle set manually. With Transverse Oscillation (TO) velocity estimates the flow angle.......87±0.05 ; 0.79±0.21 ; 0.79±0.06 }, and spectral RI { 0.77 ; 0.88 ; 0.73 }. Vector angles are within ±two std of the spectral angle. TO velocity estimates are within ±three std of the spectral estimates. RITO are within ±two std of the spectral estimates. Preliminary data indicates that the TO and spectral...

  7. Preliminary study of synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging on in-vivo data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Joachim H.; Hemmsen, Martin C.; Madsen, Signe S.; Hansen, Peter M.; Nielsen, Michael B.; Jensen, Jørgen A.

    2013-03-01

    A method for synthetic aperture tissue harmonic imaging is investigated. It combines synthetic aperture sequen- tial beamforming (SASB) with tissue harmonic imaging (THI) to produce an increased and more uniform spatial resolution and improved side lobe reduction compared to conventional B-mode imaging. Synthetic aperture sequential beamforming tissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) was implemented on a commercially available BK 2202 Pro Focus UltraView ultrasound system and compared to dynamic receive focused tissue harmonic imag- ing (DRF-THI) in clinical scans. The scan sequence that was implemented on the UltraView system acquires both SASB-THI and DRF-THI simultaneously. Twenty-four simultaneously acquired video sequences of in-vivo abdominal SASB-THI and DRF-THI scans on 3 volunteers of 4 different sections of liver and kidney tissues were created. Videos of the in-vivo scans were presented in double blinded studies to two radiologists for image quality performance scoring. Limitations to the systems transmit stage prevented user defined transmit apodization to be applied. Field II simulations showed that side lobes in SASB could be improved by using Hanning transmit apodization. Results from the image quality study show, that in the current configuration on the UltraView system, where no transmit apodization was applied, SASB-THI and DRF-THI produced equally good images. It is expected that given the use of transmit apodization, SASB-THI could be further improved.

  8. Expression of non-neuronal cholinergic system in maxilla of rat in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Wang, Lue; Xu, Haihua; Che, Xiaoxia

    2014-12-17

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is known to be a key neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems, which is also produced in a variety of non-neuronal tissues and cell. The existence of ACh in maxilla in vivo and potential regulation role for osteogenesis need further study. Components of the cholinergic system (ACh, esterase, choline acetyltransferase, high-affinity choline uptake, n- and mAChRs) were determined in maxilla of rat in vivo, by means of Real-Time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results showed RNA for CarAT, carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase member 20 (Slc25a20), VAChT, OCTN2, OCT1, OCT3, organic cation transporter member 4 (Slc22a4), AChE, BChE, nAChR subunits α1, α2, α3, α5, α7, α10, β1, β2, β4, γ and mAChR subunits M1, M2, M3, M4, M5 were detected in rat's maxilla. RNA of VAChT, AChE, nAChR subunits α2, β1, β4 and mAChR subunits M4 had abundant expression (2(-ΔCt) > 0.03). Immunohistochemical staining was conducted for ACh, VAChT, nAChRα7 and AChE. ACh was expressed in mesenchymal cells, chondroblast, bone and cartilage matrix and bone marrow cells, The VAChT expression was very extensively while ACh receptor α7 was strongly expressed in newly formed bone matrix of endochondral and bone marrow ossification, AchE was found only in mesenchymal stem cells, cartilage and bone marrow cells. ACh might exert its effect on the endochondral and bone marrow ossification, and bone matrix mineralization in maxilla.

  9. Inhibition of Chondrosarcoma Growth by mTOR Inhibitor in an In Vivo Syngeneic Rat Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jennifer; Decouvelaere, Anne Valérie; Pointecouteau, Thomas; Pissaloux, Daniel; Michot, Jean Philippe; Besse, Anthony; Blay, Jean Yves; Dutour, Aurélie

    2012-01-01

    Background Chondrosarcomas are the second most frequent primary malignant type of bone tumor. No effective systemic treatment has been identified in advanced or adjuvant phases for chondrosarcoma. The aim of the present study was to determine the antitumor effects of doxorubicin and everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor on chondrosarcoma progression. Methods and Findings Doxorubin and/or everolimus were tested in vivo as single agent or in combination in the rat orthotopic Schwarm chondrosarcoma model, in macroscopic phase, as well as with microscopic residual disease. Response to everolimus and/or doxorubicin was evaluated using chondrosarcoma volume evolution (MRI). Histological response was evaluated with % of tumor necrosis, tumor proliferation index, metabolism quantification analysis between the treated and control groups. Statistical analyses were performed using chi square, Fishers exact test. Doxorubicin single agent has no effect of tumor growth as compared to no treatment; conversely, everolimus single agent significantly inhibited tumor progression in macroscopic tumors with no synergistic additive effect with doxorubicin. Everolimus inhibited chondrosarcoma proliferation as evaluated by Ki67 expression did not induce the apoptosis of tumor cells; everolimus reduced Glut1 and 4EBP1 expression. Importantly when given in rats with microscopic residual diseases, in a pseudo neoadjuvant setting, following R1 resection of the implanted tumor, everolimus significantly delayed or prevented tumor recurrence. Conclusions MTOR inhibitor everolimus blocks cell proliferation, Glut1 expression and HIF1a expression, and prevents in vivo chondrosarcoma tumor progression in both macroscopic and in adjuvant phase post R1 resection. Taken together, our preclinical data indicate that mTOR inhibitor may be effective as a single agent in treating chondrosarcoma patients. A clinical trial evaluating mTOr inhibitor as neo-adjuvant and adjuvant therapy in chondrosarcoma patients is

  10. Effects of the neonicotinoids thiametoxam and clothianidin on in vivo dopamine release in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Iris Machado; Nunes, Brenda Viviane Ferreira; Barbosa, Durán Rafael; Pallares, Alfonso Miguel; Faro, Lilian Rosana Ferreira

    2010-02-15

    Thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLO) are neonicotinoids insecticides. The main characteristic of these pesticides is their agonist action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In the present work it was studied and characterized the effects of TMX and CLO, in different concentrations, on dopaminergic system of rat striatum using in vivo brain microdialysis coupled to HPLC-EC. Intrastriatal administration of 1mM or 5mM TMX has not produced significant increases on dopamine (DA) levels, nonetheless the infusion of 10mM TMX increases the DA output to 841+/-132%, when compared to basal levels. Infusion of 1mM CLO has not induced a significant increase in DA levels, even so 2, 3.5 and 5mM CLO have produced an increase of 438+/-8%, 2778+/-598% and 4604+/-516%, respectively, every compared to basal levels. Mecamylamine (MEC), a non-competitive nAChRs antagonist, was used to investigate the role of nAChRs on DA release induced by TMX and CLO. The increases in extracellular DA levels induced by TMX and CLO when associated to MEC are 80% and 68% lower than the effect produced by CLO and TMX isolated. These results confirm that TMX and CLO appear to induce in vivo DA increased release in striatum of rats and it seems to be concentration dependent. Moreover, these results indicate that this effect might be related to nAChRs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maternal separation affects dopamine transporter function in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat: An in vivo electrochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Womersley Jacqueline S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder characterised by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR is a well-characterised model of this disorder and has been shown to exhibit dopamine dysregulation, one of the hypothesised causes of ADHD. Since stress experienced in the early stages of life can have long-lasting effects on behaviour, it was considered that early life stress may alter development of the dopaminergic system and thereby contribute to the behavioural characteristics of SHR. It was hypothesized that maternal separation would alter dopamine regulation by the transporter (DAT in ways that distinguish SHR from control rat strains. Methods SHR and control Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were subjected to maternal separation for 3 hours per day from postnatal day 2 to 14. Rats were tested for separation-induced anxiety-like behaviour followed by in vivo chronoamperometry to determine whether changes had occurred in striatal clearance of dopamine by DAT. The rate of disappearance of ejected dopamine was used as a measure of DAT function. Results Consistent with a model for ADHD, SHR were more active than WKY in the open field. SHR entered the inner zone more frequently and covered a significantly greater distance than WKY. Maternal separation increased the time that WKY spent in the closed arms and latency to enter the open arms of the elevated plus maze, consistent with other rat strains. Of note is that, maternal separation failed to produce anxiety-like behaviour in SHR. Analysis of the chronoamperometric data revealed that there was no difference in DAT function in the striatum of non-separated SHR and WKY. Maternal separation decreased the rate of dopamine clearance (k-1 in SHR striatum. Consistent with this observation, the dopamine clearance time (T100 was increased in SHR. These results suggest that the chronic mild stress of

  12. In vivo toxicology of excipients commonly employed in drug discovery in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Suma; O'Neill, Emily; Rodriguez, Lawrence A; Champ, Rose; Phillips, Megan; Nouraldeen, Amr; Wendt, Mary; Wilson, Alan G E; Kramer, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Toxicology and pharmacology studies conducted in the early stages of drug discovery often require formulation strategies involving the use of excipients with limited knowledge regarding their preclinical safety liabilities. The use of excipients is vital to efforts to solubilize and deliver small molecules in drug discovery. Whilst excipients can have a significant impact on pharmacology and toxicology studies by enabling solubility to maximize systemic exposure, they also have the potential to obscure clinical pathology endpoints. In this article, we report on the in vivo safety in rats for 18 excipients commonly employed in formulations for preclinical pharmacology and toxicology studies. The test articles were administered once daily for five days, by oral gavage to male Sprague Dawley rats, and the animals monitored for visible clinical signs. At the end of the study, routine necropsy and clinical pathology endpoints were investigated. None of the excipients tested were acutely toxic. However, there were effects on parameters commonly evaluated as indicators of health and/or toxicological response in regulated preclinical safety studies. While the excipients tested were generally well tolerated, several were found to affect common clinical pathology endpoints in a manner that might confound or conceivably mask the interpretation of compound mediated adverse/pharmacological effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Enalapril maleate orally disintegrating tablets: tableting and in vivo evaluation in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeek, Hesham M; Faisal, Waleed; Soliman, Ghareb M

    2017-05-29

    The aim of this study was to develop orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) for enalapril maleate (EnM) to facilitate its administration to the elderly or other patients having dysphagia. Compatibility between EnM and various excipients was studied using differential scanning calorimetry. ODTs of EnM were prepared by direct compression of EnM mixtures with various superdisintegrants. The tablets were evaluated for physical properties including drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time, wetting time, and drug release. The antihypertensive effect of the optimum EnM ODTs was evaluated in vivo in hypertensive rats and compared with commercial EnM formulation. EnM ODTs had satisfactory results in terms of drug content and friability. Tablet wetting and disintegration were fast and dependent on the used superdisintegrant where croscarmellose showed the fastest wetting and disintegration time of ∼7 s. EnM release from the tablets was rapid where complete release was obtained in 10-15 min. Selected EnM ODTs rapidly and efficiently reduced the rat's blood pressure to its normal value within 1 h, compared with 4 h for EnM commercial formulation. These results confirm that EnM ODTs could find application in the management of hypertension in the elderly or other patients having dysphagia.

  14. Evaluation of In Vivo Wound Healing Activity of Bacopa monniera on Different Wound Model in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried whole plant of Bacopa monniera (BME was studied on wound models in rats. BME (25 mg/kg was administered orally, once daily for 10 days (incision and dead space wound models or for 21 days or more (excision wound model in rats. BME was studied for its in vitro antimicrobial and in vivo wound breaking strength, WBS (incision model, rate of contraction, period of epithelization, histology of skin (excision model, granulation tissue free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione, acute inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase, connective tissue markers (hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and hexuronic acid, and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound. BME showed antimicrobial activity against skin pathogens, enhanced WBS, rate of contraction, skin collagen tissue formation, and early epithelization period with low scar area indicating enhanced healing. Healing effect was further substantiated by decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase and enhanced antioxidants and connective tissue markers with histological evidence of more collagen formation in skin and deeper connective tissues. BME decreased myeloperoxidase and free radical generated tissue damage, promoting antioxidant status, faster collagen deposition, other connective tissue constituent formation, and antibacterial activity.

  15. Impact of post-dialysis calcium level on ex vivo rat aortic wall calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azpiazu, Daniel; González-Parra, Emilio; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Vascular calcification is a frequent complication in chronic haemodialysis patients and is associated with adverse outcomes. Serum calcium and phosphate levels and imbalances in calcification regulators are thought to contribute to the process. In this regard, the dialysate calcium concentration is a modifiable tool for modulating the risk of vascular calcification. We explored pre- and post-dialysis phosphate and calcium concentrations in stable chronic haemodialysis patients treated by dialysis with the KDIGO-suggested 1.5 mmol/L calcium dialysate to investigate the effects on ex vivo calcification of rat aortic rings. At the end of haemodialysis, mean serum calcium levels were increased in 88% of paired pre-/post-dialysis samples, while mean serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone levels were decreased. Rat aortic ring cultures grown at the same calcium and phosphate concentrations revealed that pre- and post-dialysis resulted in a similar degree of calcification. By contrast, haemodialysis with unchanged serum calcium resulted in a 5-fold reduction in calcium deposition. Dialysis with the widely prescribed 1.5 mmol/L calcium dose results in persistent high serum calcification potential in a sizable proportion of patients, driven by increased post-dialysis calcium concentration. This could potentially be mitigated by individualising dialysate calcium dosage based on pre-dialysis serum calcium levels.

  16. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of an Australasian box jellyfish (Chiropsalmus sp.) venom in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2005-03-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts of jellyfish, the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chiropsalmus sp. venom were investigated in anaesthetized rats. Chiropsalmus sp. venom (150 microg/kg, i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response (44+/-4 mmHg; n=6) followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse. Concurrent artificial respiration or pretreatment with Chironex fleckeri antivenom (AV, 3000 U/kg, i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced hypertensive response nor the subsequent cardiovascular collapse. The cardiovascular response of animals receiving venom after the infusion of MgSO4 (50-70 mM @ 0.25 ml/min, i.v.; n=5) alone, or in combination with AV (n=5), was not significantly different from rats receiving venom alone. Prior administration of prazosin (50 microg/kg, i.v.; n=4) or ketanserin (1 mg/kg, i.v.; n=4) did not significantly attenuate the hypertensive response nor prevent the cardiovascular collapse induced by venom (50 microg/kg, i.v.). In contrast to previous work examining C. fleckeri venom, administration of AV alone, or in combination with MgSO4, was not effective in preventing cardiovascular collapse following the administration of Chiropsalmus sp. venom. This indicates that the venom of the two related box jellyfish contain different lethal components and highlights the importance of species identification prior to initiating treatment regimes following jellyfish envenoming.

  17. Novel antidiabetic nutrients identified by in vivo screening for gastric secretion and emptying regulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordi, Josua; Herzog, Brigitte; Lutz, Thomas A; Verrey, François

    2014-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and represents a worldwide health issue. Postprandial hyperglycemia is considered a major predictor of diabetic complications, and its reduction represents a specific treatment target in Type 1 and 2 diabetes. Since postprandial glucose excursions depend to a large extent on gastric secretion and emptying, amylin and glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs are prescribed to reduce them. Although gastric function is considered mainly sensitive to ingested calories, its chemospecificity is not well understood. To identify ingestible nutrients reducing postprandial hyperglycemia, we applied intragastrically more than 40 individual nutrients at an isomolar dose to rats and quantified their impact on gastric secretion and emptying using a novel in vivo computed tomography imaging method. We identified l-tryptophan, l-arginine, l-cysteine, and l-lysine as the most potent modulators with effective strength comparable to a supraphysiological dose of amylin. Importantly, all identified candidates reduced postprandial glucose excursion within an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy and diabetic rats. This clinical beneficial effect originated predominantly from their impact on gastric function, as none of the candidates altered plasma glucose concentrations induced by intraperitoneal or intraduodenal glucose tolerance tests. Overall, these data demonstrate a remarkable chemospecificity of stomach function, unveil a strong role of the stomach for glycemic control and identifies nutrients with antidiabetic potential. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Structural layers of ex vivo rat hippocampus at 7T MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Manuella Kamsu

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI applied to the hippocampus is challenging in studies of the neurophysiology of memory and the physiopathology of numerous diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, ischemia, and depression. The hippocampus is a well-delineated cerebral structure with a multi-layered organization. Imaging of hippocampus layers is limited to a few studies and requires high magnetic field and gradient strength. We performed one conventional MRI sequence on a 7T MRI in order to visualize and to delineate the multi-layered hippocampal structure ex vivo in rat brains. We optimized a volumic three-dimensional T2 Rapid Acquisition Relaxation Enhancement (RARE sequence and quantified the volume of the hippocampus and one of its thinnest layers, the stratum granulare of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, we tested passive staining by gadolinium with the aim of decreasing the acquisition time and increasing image contrast. Using appropriated settings, six discrete layers were differentiated within the hippocampus in rats. In the hippocampus proper or Ammon's Horn (AH: the stratum oriens, the stratum pyramidale of, the stratum radiatum, and the stratum lacunosum moleculare of the CA1 were differentiated. In the dentate gyrus: the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulare layer were seen distinctly. Passive staining of one brain with gadolinium decreased the acquisition time by four and improved the differentiation between the layers. A conventional sequence optimized on a 7T MRI with a standard receiver surface coil will allow us to study structural layers (signal and volume of hippocampus in various rat models of neuropathology (anxiety, epilepsia, neurodegeneration.

  19. Evaluation of psoralen ethosomes for topical delivery in rats by using in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Tai; Shen, Li-Na; Zhao, Ji-Hui; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to improve skin permeation and deposition of psoralen by using ethosomes and to investigate real-time drug release in the deep skin in rats. We used a uniform design method to evaluate the effects of different ethosome formulations on entrapment efficiency and drug skin deposition. Using in vitro and in vivo methods, we investigated skin penetration and release from psoralen-loaded ethosomes in comparison with an ethanol tincture. In in vitro studies, the use of ethosomes was associated with a 6.56-fold greater skin deposition of psoralen than that achieved with the use of the tincture. In vivo skin microdialysis showed that the peak concentration and area under the curve of psoralen from ethosomes were approximately 3.37 and 2.34 times higher, respectively, than those of psoralen from the tincture. Moreover, it revealed that the percutaneous permeability of ethosomes was greater when applied to the abdomen than when applied to the chest or scapulas. Enhanced permeation and skin deposition of psoralen delivered by ethosomes may help reduce toxicity and improve the efficacy of long-term psoralen treatment.

  20. In vivo non-thermal irreversible electroporation impact on rat liver galvanic apparent internal resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golberg, A; Laufer, S [Center for Bioengineering in the Service of Humanity and Society, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Rabinowitch, H D [Robert H Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Robert H Smith Institute of Plant Science and Genetics in Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76 100 (Israel); Rubinsky, B, E-mail: Rabin@agri.huji.ac.il [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate Program in Biophysics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 84720 (United States)

    2011-02-21

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a biophysical phenomenon which involves application of electric field pulses to cells or tissues, causing certain rearrangements in the membrane structure leading to cell death. The treated tissue ac impedance changes induced by electroporation were shown to be the indicators for NTIRE efficiency. In a previous study we characterized in vitro tissue galvanic apparent internal resistance (GAIR) changes due to NTIRE. Here we describe an in vivo study in which we monitored the GAIR changes of a rat liver treated by NTIRE. Electrical pulses were delivered through the same Zn/Cu electrodes by which GAIR was measured. GAIR was measured before and for 3 h after the treatment at 15 min intervals. The results were compared to the established ac bioimpedance measurement method. A decrease of 33% was measured immediately after the NTIRE treatment and a 40% decrease was measured after 3 h in GAIR values; in the same time 40% and 47% decrease respectively were measured by ac bioimpedance analyses. The temperature increase due to the NTIRE was only 0.5 deg. C. The results open the way for an inexpensive, self-powered in vivo real-time NTIRE effectiveness measurement.

  1. In vivo non-thermal irreversible electroporation impact on rat liver galvanic apparent internal resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, A.; Laufer, S.; Rabinowitch, H. D.; Rubinsky, B.

    2011-02-01

    Non-thermal irreversible electroporation (NTIRE) is a biophysical phenomenon which involves application of electric field pulses to cells or tissues, causing certain rearrangements in the membrane structure leading to cell death. The treated tissue ac impedance changes induced by electroporation were shown to be the indicators for NTIRE efficiency. In a previous study we characterized in vitro tissue galvanic apparent internal resistance (GAIR) changes due to NTIRE. Here we describe an in vivo study in which we monitored the GAIR changes of a rat liver treated by NTIRE. Electrical pulses were delivered through the same Zn/Cu electrodes by which GAIR was measured. GAIR was measured before and for 3 h after the treatment at 15 min intervals. The results were compared to the established ac bioimpedance measurement method. A decrease of 33% was measured immediately after the NTIRE treatment and a 40% decrease was measured after 3 h in GAIR values; in the same time 40% and 47% decrease respectively were measured by ac bioimpedance analyses. The temperature increase due to the NTIRE was only 0.5 °C. The results open the way for an inexpensive, self-powered in vivo real-time NTIRE effectiveness measurement.

  2. Capreomycin oleate microparticles for intramuscular administration: Preparation, in vitro release and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero-Rojas, Adrián; Torres-Vergara, Pablo; Godoy, Ricardo; von Plessing, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Jacqueline; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2015-07-10

    Capreomycin sulfate (CS) is a second-line drug used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The adverse effects profile and uncomfortable administration scheme of CS has led to the development of formulations based on liposomes and polymeric microparticles. However, as CS is a water-soluble peptide that does not encapsulate properly into hydrophobic particulate matrices, it was necessary to reduce its aqueous solubility by forming the pharmacologically active capreomycin oleate (CO) ion pair. The aim of this research was to develop a new formulation of CO for intramuscular injection, based on biodegradable microparticles that encapsulate CO in order to provide a controlled release of the drug with reduced local and systemic adverse effects. The CO-loaded microparticles prepared by spray drying or solvent emulsion-evaporation were characterized in their morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro/in vivo kinetics and tissue tolerance. Through scanning electron microscopy it was confirmed that the microparticles were monodisperse and spherical, with an optimal size for intramuscular administration. The interaction between CO and the components of the microparticle matrix was confirmed on both formulations by X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The encapsulation efficiencies for the spray-dried and emulsion-evaporation microparticles were 92% and 56%, respectively. The in vitro kinetics performed on both formulations demonstrated a controlled and continuous release of CO from the microparticles, which was successfully reproduced on an in vivo rodent model. The results of the histological analysis demonstrated that none of the formulations produced significant tissue damage on the site of injection. Therefore, the results suggest that injectable CO microparticles obtained by spray drying and solvent emulsion-evaporation could represent an interesting therapeutic alternative for the treatment of MDR

  3. Interleukin-1 beta inhibits rat thyroid cell function in vivo and in vitro by an NO-independent mechanism and induces hypothyroidism and accelerated thyroiditis in diabetes-prone BB rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, J I; Rasmussen, A K; Karlsen, A E

    1996-01-01

    hypothyroidism in non-diabetic diabetes-prone BB rats. The data suggest that NO does not mediate interleukin-1 beta-induced inhibition of rat thyroid function in vivo or in vitro in FRTL-5 cells, and the induction of hypothyroidism by interleukin-1 beta in diabetes-prone BB rats is speculated to be due...

  4. In Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, subclinical diabetic neuropathy increases in vivo lidocaine block duration but not in vitro neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirk, Philipp; Flatz, Magdalena; Haller, Ingrid; Hausott, Barbara; Blumenthal, Stephan; Stevens, Markus F.; Suzuki, Suzuko; Klimaschewski, Lars; Gerner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Application of local anesthetics may lead to nerve damage. Increasing evidence suggests that risk of neurotoxicity is higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Additionally, block duration may be prolonged in neuropathy. We sought to investigate neurotoxicity in vitro and block duration in vivo in a genetic animal model of diabetes mellitus type II. Methods In the first experiments, neurons harvested from control Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats were exposed to acute (24 hours) or chronic (72 hours) hyperglycemia, followed by incubation with lidocaine 40 mM (approximately 1%). In a second experiment, neurons harvested from control ZDF rats, or diabetic ZDF rats, were incubated with lidocaine, with or without SB203580, an inhibitor of the p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase. Finally, we performed sciatic nerve block (lidocaine 2%, 0.2 mL) in control or diabetic ZDF rats, and measured motor and nociceptive block duration. Results In vitro, neither acute nor chronic hyperglycemia altered neurotoxic properties of lidocaine. In vitro, incubation of neurons with lidocaine resulted in a slightly decreased survival ratio when neurons were harvested from diabetic (57 ± 19) as compared to control (64 ± 9 %) rats. The addition of SB203580 partly reversed this enhanced neurotoxic effect and raised survival to 71 ± 12 in diabetic and 66 ± 9 % in control rats, respectively. In vivo, even though no difference was detected at baseline testing, motor block was significantly prolonged in diabetic as compared to control rats (137 ± 16 min versus 86 ± 17 min). Conclusions In vitro, local anesthetic neurotoxicity was more pronounced on neurons from diabetic animals, but the survival difference was small. In vivo, subclinical neuropathy leads to substantial prolongation of block duration. We conclude that early diabetic neuropathy increases block duration, while the observed increase in toxicity was small. PMID:23011115

  5. In Vivo Cannabidiol Treatment Improves Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxation in Mesenteric Arteries of Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Wheal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: We have shown that in vitro treatment with cannabidiol (CBD, 2 h enhances endothelial function in arteries from Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats, partly due to a cyclooxygenase (COX-mediated mechanism. The aim of the present study was to determine whether treatment with CBD in vivo would also enhance endothelial function.Experimental approach: Male ZDF rats, or ZDF Lean rats, were treated for 7 days (daily i.p. injection with either 10mg/kg CBD or vehicle (n = 6 per group. Sections of mesenteric resistance arteries, femoral arteries and thoracic aortae were mounted on a wire myograph, and cumulative concentration-response curves to endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine, ACh, 1 nM–100 μM or endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside, SNP, 1 nM–100 μM agents were constructed. Multiplex analysis was used to measure serum metabolic and cardiovascular biomarkers.Key results: Vasorelaxation to ACh was significantly enhanced in mesenteric arteries from CBD-treated ZDF rats, but not ZDF Lean rats. The enhanced vasorelaxation in ZDF mesenteric arteries was no longer observed after COX inhibition using indomethacin or nitric oxide (NO inhibition using L-NAME. Increased levels of serum c-peptide, insulin and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 observed in the ZDF compared to ZDF Lean rats were no longer significant after 7 days CBD treatment.Conclusion and implications: Short-term in vivo treatment with CBD improves ex vivo endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in mesenteric arteries from ZDF rats due to COX- or NO-mediated mechanisms, and leads to improvements in serum biomarkers.

  6. The identification of lobeglitazone metabolites in rat liver microsomes and the kinetics of the in vivo formation of the major metabolite M1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hwa; Ahn, Sung Hoon; Maeng, Han-Joo; Lee, Wooin; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chung, Suk-Jae

    2015-11-10

    The objective of this study was to elucidate the chemical structure of the metabolites derived from lobeglitazone (LB) during its incubation with rat liver microsomes and to characterize the kinetics of formation of the major metabolite M1 in vivo. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole linear ion trap, the metabolites were derived from LB during its incubation with rat liver microsomes. From various fragmentation patterns obtained from the metabolites, LB was biotransformed into 5 metabolites in the incubation, in which demethylation and hydroxylation appeared to be the principle metabolic pathways in vitro; Amongst the five primary metabolites, M1, a demethylated derivative of LB, appeared to be the major metabolite of LB, based on a comparison on the peak intensities in the ion chromatogram. In a study of the in vivo kinetics of formation of M1 in rats, the rate of formation of M1 from LB was determined to be 0.252 and 0.216mL/min/kg at doses of 0.5mg/kg and 2mg/kg of LB, respectively, suggesting that the kinetics of M1 formation were linear in the dose range tested. Considering the fact that LB is primarily eliminated by hepatic metabolism in rats, the formation of M1 accounts for approximately 7.50-9.76% of the overall elimination of LB in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary Study of In Vivo Formed Dental Plaque Using Confocal Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KA. Al-Salihi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM is relatively a new light microscopical imaging technique with a wide range of applications in biological sciences. The primary value of CLSM for the biologist is its ability to provide optical sections from athree-dimensional specimen. The present study was designed to assess the thickness and content of in vivo accumulated dental plaque using CLSM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Materials and Methods: Acroflat lower arch splints (acrylic appliance were worn by five participants for three days without any disturbance. The formed plaques were assessed using CLSM combined with vital fluorescence technique and SEM.Results: In this study accumulated dental plaque revealed varied plaque microflora vitality and thickness according to participant’s oral hygiene. The thickness of plaque smears ranged from 40.32 to 140.72 μm and 65.00 to 128.88 μm for live (vital and dead accumulated microorganisms, respectively. Meanwhile, the thickness of plaque on the appliance ranged from 101 μm to 653 μm. CLSM revealed both dead and vital bacteria on the surface of the dental plaque. In addition, SEM revealed layers of various bacterial aggregations in all dental plaques.Conclusion: This study offers a potent non-invasive tool to evaluate and assess the dental plaque biofilm, which is a very important factor in the development of dental caries.

  8. Transfer of Silver Nanoparticles through the Placenta and Breast Milk during in vivo Experiments on Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, E A; Buzulukov, Yu P; Demin, V F; Demin, V A; Gmoshinski, I V; Tyshko, N V; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs), widely used in the manufacture of various types of consumer products and for medical applications, belong to novel types of materials that pose potential risks to human health. The potential negative effects of the influence of these NPs on reproduction are insufficiently researched. A quantitative assessment of the transfer of metallic silver nanoparticles through the placenta and breast milk was carried out during an in vivo experiment. We used 34.9 ± 14.8 nm in size silver NPs that were stabilized by low-molecularweight polyvinylpyrrolidone and labeled with the (110m)Ag radioactive isotope using thermal neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor. [(110m)Ag]-labeled NPs preparations were administered intragastrically via a gavage needle to pregnant (20(th) day of gestation) or lactating (14-16th day of lactation) female rats at a dose of 1.69-2.21 mg/kg of body weight upon conversion into silver. The accumulation of NPs in rat fetuses and infant rats consuming their mother's breast milk was evaluated using a low-background semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer 24 and 48 hours following labeling, respectively. In all cases, we observed a penetration of the [(110m)Ag]-labeled NPs through the placenta and ther entry into the mother's milk in amounts exceeding by 100-1,000 times the sensitivity of the utilized analytical method. The average level of accumulation of NPs in fetuses was 0.085-0.147% of the administered dose, which was comparable to the accumulation of the label in the liver, blood, and muscle carcass of adult animals and exceeded the penetration of NPs across the hematoencephalic barrier into the brain of females by a factor of 10-100. In lactating females, the total accumulation of [(110m)Ag]-labeled NPs into the milk exceeded 1.94 ± 0.29% of the administered dose over a 48 h period of lactation; not less than 25% of this amount was absorbed into the gastrointestinal tract of infant rats. Thus, this was the first time

  9. Physical limits to autofluorescence signals in vivo recordings in the rat olfactory bulb: a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, B.; Gurden, H.; Pinot, L.; Mastrippolito, R.; Lefebvre, F.; Lanièce, P.; Pain, F.

    2007-07-01

    Understanding the cellular mechanisms of energy supply to neurons following physiological activation is still challenging and has strong implications to the interpretation of clinical functional images based on metabolic signals such as Blood Oxygen Level Dependent Magnetic Resonance Imaging or 18F-Fluorodexoy-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography. Intrinsic Optical Signal Imaging provides with high spatio temporal resolution in vivo imaging in the anaesthetized rat. In that context, intrinsic signals are mainly related to changes in the optical absorption of haemoglobin depending on its oxygenation state. This technique has been validated for imaging of the rat olfactory bulb, providing with maps of the actived olfactory glomeruli, the functional modules involved in the first step of olfactory coding. A complementary approach would be autofluorescence imaging relying on the fluorescence properties of endogenous Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide (FAD) or Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NADH) both involved in intracellular metabolic pathways. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of in vivo autofluorescence imaging in the rat olfactory bulb. We performed standard Monte Carlo simulations of photons scattering and absorption at the excitation and emission wavelengths of FAD and NADH fluorescence. Characterization of the fluorescence distribution in the glomerulus, effect of hemoglobin absorption at the excitation and absorption wavelengths as well as the effect of the blurring due to photon scattering and the depth of focus of the optical apparatus have been studied. Finally, optimal experimental parameters are proposed to achieve in vivo validation of the technique in the rat olfactory bulb.

  10. Diesel exhaust particulate induces pulmonary and systemic inflammation in rats without impairing endothelial function ex vivo or in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson Sarah; Gray Gillian A; Duffin Rodger; McLean Steven G; Shaw Catherine A; Hadoke Patrick WF; Newby David E; Miller Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Inhalation of diesel exhaust impairs vascular function in man, by a mechanism that has yet to be fully established. We hypothesised that pulmonary exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would cause endothelial dysfunction in rats as a consequence of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Methods Wistar rats were exposed to DEP (0.5 mg) or saline vehicle by intratracheal instillation and hind-limb blood flow, blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in situ 6 or 24 h ...

  11. Preliminary evaluation of an in vivo fluorometer to quantify algal periphyton biomass and community composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Theodore D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    The bbe-Moldaenke BenthoTorch (BT) is an in vivo fluorometer designed to quantify algal biomass and community composition in benthic environments. The BT quantifies total algal biomass via chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration and may differentiate among cyanobacteria, green algae, and diatoms based on pigment fluorescence. To evaluate how BT measurements of periphytic algal biomass (as Chl-a) compared with an ethanol extraction laboratory analysis, we collected BT- and laboratory-measured Chl-a data from 6 stream sites in the Indian Creek basin, Johnson County, Kansas, during August and September 2012. BT-measured Chl-a concentrations were positively related to laboratory-measured concentrations (R2 = 0.47); sites with abundant filamentous algae had weaker relations (R2 = 0.27). Additionally, on a single sample date, we used the BT to determine periphyton biomass and community composition upstream and downstream from 2 wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) that discharge into Indian Creek. We found that algal biomass increased immediately downstream from the WWTF discharge then slowly decreased as distance from the WWTF increased. Changes in periphyton community structure also occurred; however, there were discrepancies between BT- and laboratory-measured community composition data. Most notably, cyanobacteria were present at all sites based on BT measurements but were present at only one site based on laboratory-analyzed samples. Overall, we found that the BT compared reasonably well with laboratory methods for relative patterns in Chl-a but not as well with absolute Chl-aconcentrations. Future studies need to test the BT over a wider range of Chl-aconcentrations, in colored waters, and across various periphyton assemblages.

  12. Preliminary in vivo evaluation of a novel intrasaccular cerebral aneurysm occlusion device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moftakhar, Roham; Xu, Fangmin; Aagaard-Kienitz, Beverly; Consigny, Daniel W; Grinde, Julie R; Hart, Kevin; Flanagan, Claire E; Crone, Wendy C; Masters, Kristyn S

    2015-08-01

    Current endovascular technology does not offer a perfect solution for all cerebral aneurysms. Our group has built two versions of a novel aneurysm intrasaccular occlusion device (AIOD) to address the drawbacks associated with current occlusion devices. The objective of the present study was to perform pilot proof of concept in vivo testing of this new AIOD in swine and canines. Two configurations of the AIOD, termed 'coil-in-shell' and 'gel-in-shell', were implanted in surgically created sidewall aneurysms (n=4) in swine for acute occlusion studies, as well as sidewall (n=8) and bifurcation aneurysms (n=3) in canines to assess long term occlusion efficacy. Occlusion at all time points (immediate, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks) was evaluated by angiography. Neointimal healing at 12 weeks post-implantation in canines was examined histologically. Angiographic analysis showed that both the coil-in-shell and gel-in-shell devices achieved complete aneurysm occlusion immediately following device delivery in sidewall aneurysms in swine. In longer term canine studies, initial occlusion ranged from 71.3% to 100%, which was stable with no recurrence in any of the sidewall aneurysms at 6 or 12 weeks. Histological analysis at 12 weeks showed mature fibromuscular tissue at the neck of all aneurysms and no significant inflammatory response. The AIOD tested in this study showed promise in terms of acute and chronic occlusion of aneurysms. Our findings suggest that these devices have the potential to promote robust tissue healing at the aneurysm neck, which may minimize aneurysm recurrence. Although proof of principle has been shown, further work is needed to deliver this device through an endovascular route. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Losartan Inhibits Vascular Calcification by Suppressing the BMP2 and Runx2 Expression in Rats In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mincai; Wu, Panfeng; Shao, Juan; Ke, Zhiqiang; Li, Dan; Wu, Jiliang

    2016-04-01

    The blockade of renin-angiotensin II system has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Since vascular calcification (VC) is commonly found in these diseases, the aim of this study was to examine whether or not losartan, a widely used angiotensin II receptor blockers, inhibits VC in rats in vivo. A rat model of VC was generated by treating rats with a combination of warfarin and vitamin K1. Two weeks after the treatments, the rats were treated with vehicle or without losartan (100 ng/kg/day) for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiments, aortic arteries were isolated for the examination of calcification morphology, mRNA and protein expression of BMP2 and Runx2, and osteoblast differentiation. Warfarin and vitamin K instigated vascular remodeling with calcified plaques in the aortic arteries in rats. Losartan significantly attenuated warfarin- and vitamin K-induced vascular injury and calcification. Consistently, losartan suppressed the levels of mRNA and protein expression of BMP2 and Runx2, two key factors for VC. Further, vascular calcified lesion areas expressed angiotensin II 1 receptor (AT1R). Finally, losartan treatment significantly inhibited apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) in rat arteries. We conclude that losartan suppresses VC by lowering the expression of AT1R, Runx2 and BMP2, and by inhibiting the apoptosis of VSMC in rat aortic arteries.

  14. In-vivo generation of bone via endochondral ossification by in-vitro chondrogenic priming of adult human and rat mesenchymal stem cells

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farrell, Eric

    2011-01-31

    Abstract Background Bone grafts are required to repair large bone defects after tumour resection or large trauma. The availability of patients\\' own bone tissue that can be used for these procedures is limited. Thus far bone tissue engineering has not lead to an implant which could be used as alternative in bone replacement surgery. This is mainly due to problems of vascularisation of the implanted tissues leading to core necrosis and implant failure. Recently it was discovered that embryonic stem cells can form bone via the endochondral pathway, thereby turning in-vitro created cartilage into bone in-vivo. In this study we investigated the potential of human adult mesenchymal stem cells to form bone via the endochondral pathway. Methods MSCs were cultured for 28 days in chondrogenic, osteogenic or control medium prior to implantation. To further optimise this process we induced mineralisation in the chondrogenic constructs before implantation by changing to osteogenic medium during the last 7 days of culture. Results After 8 weeks of subcutaneous implantation in mice, bone and bone marrow formation was observed in 8 of 9 constructs cultured in chondrogenic medium. No bone was observed in any samples cultured in osteogenic medium. Switch to osteogenic medium for 7 days prevented formation of bone in-vivo. Addition of β-glycerophosphate to chondrogenic medium during the last 7 days in culture induced mineralisation of the matrix and still enabled formation of bone and marrow in both human and rat MSC cultures. To determine whether bone was formed by the host or by the implanted tissue we used an immunocompetent transgenic rat model. Thereby we found that osteoblasts in the bone were almost entirely of host origin but the osteocytes are of both host and donor origin. Conclusions The preliminary data presented in this manuscript demonstrates that chondrogenic priming of MSCs leads to bone formation in vivo using both human and rat cells. Furthermore, addition of

  15. Preliminary In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity of Ducrosia anethifolia Boiss. and Its Linear Furanocoumarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa M. M. Shalaby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ducrosia anethifolia is used as flavoring additive. There have been little detailed phytochemical reports on this genus and the antidiabetic activity of this plant is not yet evaluated. Method. Structure of compounds was deduced by spectroscopic analyses. Preliminary in vitro evaluation of the antidiabetic activity of crude extract and its furanocoumarins was carried out (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase. The in vivo activity was investigated by measuring some oxidative stress markers. Biomarkers of liver injury and kidney were also determined. Results. Eight linear furanocoumarins, psoralen, 5-methoxypsoralen, 8-methoxypsoralen, imperatorin, isooxypeucedanin, pabulenol, oxypeucedanin methanolate, oxypeucedanin hydrate, and 3-O-glucopyranosyl-β-sitosterol, were isolated. All compounds were reported for the first time from the genus Ducrosia except pabulenol. The blood glucose level, liver function enzymes, total protein, lipid, and cholesterol levels were significantly normalized by extract treatment. The antioxidant markers, glucolytic, and gluconeogenic enzymes were significantly ameliorated and the elevated level of kidney biomarkers in the diabetic groups was restored. The compounds showed inhibitory activity in a concentration dependant manner. Imperatorin and 5-methoxypsoralen showed the most potent inhibiting power. Conclusion. D. anethifolia extract showed hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effect as well as ameliorating kidney function. This extract and some linear furanocoumarins exhibited carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes inhibitory effect.

  16. Accumulation of bone strontium measured by in vivo XRF in rats supplemented with strontium citrate and strontium ranelate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Gregory R; Chettle, David R; Pejović-Milić, Ana; Druchok, Cheryl; Webber, Colin E; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is an approved pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in Europe and Australia, but not in Canada or the United States. Strontium citrate, an alternative strontium salt, however, is available for purchase over-the-counter as a nutritional supplement. The effects of strontium citrate on bone are largely unknown. The study's objectives were 1) to quantify bone strontium accumulation in female Sprague Dawley rats administered strontium citrate (N=7) and compare these levels to rats administered strontium ranelate (N=6) and vehicle (N=6) over 8 weeks, and 2) to verify an in vivo X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) system for measurement of bone strontium in the rat. Daily doses of strontium citrate and strontium ranelate were determined with the intention to achieve equivalent amounts of elemental strontium. However, post-hoc analyses of each strontium compound conducted using energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis revealed a higher elemental strontium concentration in strontium citrate than strontium ranelate. Bone strontium levels were measured at baseline and 8 weeks follow-up using a unique in vivo XRF technique previously used in humans. XRF measurements were validated against ex vivo measurements of bone strontium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight gain in rats in all three groups was equivalent over the study duration. A two-way ANOVA was conducted to compare bone strontium levels amongst the three groups. Bone strontium levels in rats administered strontium citrate were significantly greater (p<0.05) than rats administered strontium ranelate and vehicle. ANCOVA analyses were performed with Sr dose as a covariate to account for differences in strontium dosing. The ANCOVA revealed differences in bone strontium levels between the strontium groups were not significant, but that bone strontium levels were still very significantly greater than vehicle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Panax ginseng-containing herbal plasters on compressed intervertebral discs in an in vivo rat tail model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chow Daniel H K

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tienchi (Panax notoginseng has been used in conservative treatments for back pain as a major ingredient of many herbal medicines. This study aims to investigate the effects of a herbal medicine containing tienchi on compressed intervertebral discs in rats. Methods Using an in vivo rat tail model, intervertebral disc compression was simulated in the caudal 8–9 discs of 25 rats by continuous static compression (11 N for 2 weeks. An herbal medicine plaster (in which the major ingredient was tienchi was externally applied to the compressed disc (n=9 for three weeks, and held in place by an adhesive bandage, in animals in the Chinese Medicine (CM group. The effect of the bandage was evaluated in a separate placebo group (n=9, while no intervention with unrestricted motion was provided to rats in an additional control group (n=7. Disc structural properties were quantified by in vivo disc height measurement and in vitro morphological analysis. Results Disc height decreased after the application of compression (P P = 0.006 and placebo (P = 0.003 groups, but was maintained in the CM group (P = 0.494. No obvious differences in disc morphology were observed among the three groups (P = 0.896. Conclusion The tienchi-containing herbal plaster had no significant effect on the morphology of compressed discs, but maintained disc height in rats.

  18. In vivo modulation of rat distal tubule net HCO3 flux by VIP, isoproterenol, angiotensin II, and ADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Buckman, S; Harrison, V

    1994-06-01

    To examine the in vivo effects of agonists reported to influence bicarbonate flux (JtCO2), microperfusion experiments were carried out on distal tubules of normally fed or overnight-fasted rats. As we previously reported, distal tubules from fed rats reabsorbed no bicarbonate, whereas overnight-fasted rats consistently reabsorbed bicarbonate (JtCO2 10 +/- 3 pmol.min-1.mm-1; P < 0.01). Vasoactive intestinal peptide and isoproterenol infused intravenously (7.3 and 4.0 micrograms.kg-1.h-1, respectively) in fasted rats suppressed JtCO2 and, in the case of vasoactive intestinal peptide, elicited net bicarbonate secretion (JtCO2 -10 +/- 2 and -4 +/- 4 pmol.min-1.mm-1, respectively). In fed rats, angiotensin II infused at a rate of 1.2 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 stimulated bicarbonate reabsorption (JtCO2 16 +/- 3 pmol.min-1.mm-1), while antidiuretic hormone infused at 0.024 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 elicited a similar response (17 +/- 4 pmol.min-1.mm-1), both values being significantly different from control. These results, therefore, demonstrate for the first time that these agonists can modulate JtCO2 at the distal tubule site in vivo and therefore may be potential regulators of systemic acid-base balance.

  19. Correlation of intrinsic in vitro and in vivo clearance for drugs metabolized by hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Naritomi, Yoichi; Furutani, Masako; Takamura, Fujiko; Miura, Hiroya; Murai, Hidetsugu; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Teramura, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    A method for quantitatively predicting the hepatic clearance of drugs by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) from in vitro data has not yet been established. We examined the relationship between in vitro and in vivo intrinsic clearance by rat hepatic UGTs using 10 drugs. For these 10 drugs, the in vitro intrinsic clearance by UGTs (CL(int, in vitro)) measured using alamethicin-activated rat liver microsomes was in the range 0.10-4500 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding (f(u, mic)) was determined to be in the range 0.29-0.95 and the unbound intrinsic clearance (CL(uint, in vitro)) to be in the range 0.11-9600 ml/min/kg. The contribution of rat hepatic glucuronidation to drug elimination was 12.0%-76.6% and in vivo intrinsic clearance by UGTs was 5.7-9000 ml/min/kg. To evaluate the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo values, a scaling factor was calculated (CL(int, in vivo)/CL(int, in vitro)); the values were found to be in the range 0.89-110. The average fold error of the scaling factor values incorporating f(u, mic) was closer to unity than that without f(u, mic). The scaling factor values incorporating f(u, mic) were drugs and drugs, indicating a small discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo values. Thus, using alamethicin-activated liver microsomes, incorporating f(u, mic) into CL(int, in vitro), and considering the contribution of glucuronidation may enable us to quantitatively predict in vivo hepatic glucuronidation from in vitro data.

  20. In vivo morphometry of menisci of the knee in South Indians: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V.N. Dhananjaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the in vivo morphometric data on the menisci of the knee joint of Indian subjects are scarce, we hereby studied the width and thickness of the menisci using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI to establish standard dimensions of the normal medial and lateral meniscus as an aid to orthopaedic surgery. Methods: Eighty menisci from 40 knee joints were analysed in each of three regions, the anterior horn, the mid body and the posterior horn. The thickness and width of the menisci were measured in sagittal and coronal T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI images and analysed statistically. Results: The mean thickness of medial meniscus at the anterior horn, mid body, and posterior horn were 6.3 ± 1.1 mm, 5.2 ± 1.3 mm, and 6.9 ± 1.1 mm, respectively. The respective values for the lateral meniscus were 4.8 ± 0.7 mm, 6.4 ± 1.1 mm, and 7.0 ± 0.9 mm. The mean width of medial meniscus at the anterior horn, mid body, and posterior horn were 10.5 ± 1.2 mm, 7.8 ± 1 mm and 13.9 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The widths of lateral meniscus at the same regions were 11.8 ± 1.4 mm, 8.6 ± 1.2 mm, and 12.0 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The lateral meniscus was significantly wider than medial at the anterior horn and mid body (p = 0.00. In contrast, the posterior horn of medial meniscus was significantly wider than lateral meniscus. Both menisci were significantly wider at their posterior horn, followed by the anterior horn and were significantly narrower at their mid body. Conclusion: The present study provides new information on the meniscal thickness and width in South Indians that can be used in planning of orthopaedic and arthroscopic surgeries of the knee joint. However, the study needs to be analyzed with a large sample size for the better interpretation.

  1. Reference control data obtained from an in vivo comet-micronucleus combination assay using Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamoto, Sawako; Masumori, Shoji; Tanaka, Jin; Ueda, Maya; Fukumuro, Masahito; Nagai, Miho; Yamate, Jyoji; Hayashi, Makoto

    2017-04-04

    According to the International Conference on Harmonization Guidance on Genotoxicity Testing and Data Interpretation for Pharmaceuticals Intended for Human Use (ICH S2(R1)), a positive response in any in vitro assay necessitates additional in vivo test(s) (other tissue/endpoint) in addition to the erythrocyte micronucleus test when Option 1 of the test battery is selected. When Option 2 of the test battery is selected, a bacterial gene mutation test and two in vivo tests with different tissues/endpoint are required. The in vivo alkaline comet assay is recommended as the second in vivo test because it can detect a broad spectrum of DNA damage in any tissue and can be combined with the erythrocyte micronucleus test. Considering animal welfare, a combination assay is preferable to an individual assay. Thus, we validated the protocol for the in vivo comet-micronucleus combination assay in rats with three daily administrations and determined the dose of the positive control (ethyl methanesulfonate; EMS, 200mg/kg/day). We also collected the negative control (vehicle) and positive control (EMS) data from the comet (liver, stomach, and kidney) and micronucleus (bone marrow) combination assay using male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The negative control data were comparable to our historical control data obtained from stand-alone assays. The positive control data showed clear and consistent positive responses in both endpoints. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase attenuates endotoxin-induced release of cytokines in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofovic, S P; Zacharia, L; Carcillo, J A; Jackson, E K

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo the effects of modulating the adenosine system on endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and changes in heart performance and neurohumoral status in early, profound endotoxemia in rats. Time/pressure variables of heart performance and blood pressure were recorded continuously, and plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin 1-beta (IL-1beta), plasma renin activity (PRA), and catecholamines were determined before and 90 min after administration of endotoxin (30 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide, i.v.). Erythro-9[2-hydroxyl-3-nonyl] adenine (EHNA; an adenosine deaminase inhibitor) had no effects on measured time-pressure variables of heart performance under baseline conditions and during endotoxemia, yet significantly attenuated endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and PRA. Pretreatment with the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist DPSPX not only prevented the effects of EHNA but also increased the basal release of cytokines and augmented PRA. At baseline, caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) increased HR, +dP/dtmax, heart rate x ventricular pressure product (HR x VPSP) and +dP/dtmax normalized by pressure (+dP/dtmax/VPSP), and these changes persisted during endotoxemia. Caffeine attenuated endotoxin-induced release of cytokines and augmented endotoxin-induced increases in plasma catecholamines and PRA. Pretreatment with propranolol abolished the effects of caffeine on heart performance and neurohumoral activation during the early phase of endotoxemia. 6N-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; selective A1 adenosine receptor agonist) induced bradicardia and negative inotropic effects, reduced work load (i.e., decreased HR, VPSP, +dP/dtmax, +dP/dtmax/VPSP and HR x VPSP) and inhibited endotoxin-induced tachycardia and renin release. CGS 21680 (selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist) decreased blood pressure under basal condition but did not potentiate decreases in blood pressure

  3. High doses of caffeine reduce in vivo osteogenic activity in prepubertal rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jiwon; Choi, Yuri; Kim, Jisook; Yu, A-Ram; Shin, Ji-Soo; Choi, Yun-Young; Roh, Jaesook

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine adversely affects endochondral ossification during fetal skeletal growth, and results in increased incidence of delayed and abnormal fetal skeletal development. Chronic caffeine intake also decreases growth hormone secretion. Thus, it is conceivable that caffeine may disrupt bone growth during the peripubertal period. This study aimed to investigate the impact of high-caffeine consumption on bone growth throughout puberty. A total of 51 male rats (21 days old) were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and two groups fed caffeine via gavage with 120 and 180 mg kg−1 day−1 for 4 weeks. After death, the final length and weight of leg bones were measured, and the tibia processed for histomorphometric analysis. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body mass gain. This was accompanied with proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. In addition, bone mass and osteogenic activity in vivo were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and 18F-NaF positron emission tomography. The results showed significant decreases of bone mass and in vivo osteogenic activity in the caffeine-fed groups. Rats fed with caffeine showed a significantly shorter and lighter tibia and femur and the vertebral column compared with controls. In addition, caffeine does not increase the width of the growth plates (GPs), it slows the rate at which the GP closes due to a slower rate of growth. These results demonstrated that caffeine altered osteogenic activity, leading to delayed peripubertal longitudinal bone growth and maturation. Given that osteogenic cells undergo dynamic changes in metabolic activity and that the pubertal growth spurt is mainly stimulated by growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 and sex steroids during pubertal development, caffeine could suppress ossification by interfering with both physiological changes in hormonal secretion and osteogenic activity during this critical period. Further study will be needed to

  4. High doses of caffeine reduce in vivo osteogenic activity in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jiwon; Choi, Yuri; Kim, Jisook; Yu, A-Ram; Shin, Ji-Soo; Choi, Yun-Young; Roh, Jaesook

    2015-07-01

    Caffeine adversely affects endochondral ossification during fetal skeletal growth, and results in increased incidence of delayed and abnormal fetal skeletal development. Chronic caffeine intake also decreases growth hormone secretion. Thus, it is conceivable that caffeine may disrupt bone growth during the peripubertal period. This study aimed to investigate the impact of high-caffeine consumption on bone growth throughout puberty. A total of 51 male rats (21 days old) were divided randomly into three groups: a control group and two groups fed caffeine via gavage with 120 and 180 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) for 4 weeks. After death, the final length and weight of leg bones were measured, and the tibia processed for histomorphometric analysis. Caffeine caused a significant decrease in body mass gain. This was accompanied with proportional decreases in lean body mass and body fat. In addition, bone mass and osteogenic activity in vivo were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and (18) F-NaF positron emission tomography. The results showed significant decreases of bone mass and in vivo osteogenic activity in the caffeine-fed groups. Rats fed with caffeine showed a significantly shorter and lighter tibia and femur and the vertebral column compared with controls. In addition, caffeine does not increase the width of the growth plates (GPs), it slows the rate at which the GP closes due to a slower rate of growth. These results demonstrated that caffeine altered osteogenic activity, leading to delayed peripubertal longitudinal bone growth and maturation. Given that osteogenic cells undergo dynamic changes in metabolic activity and that the pubertal growth spurt is mainly stimulated by growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 and sex steroids during pubertal development, caffeine could suppress ossification by interfering with both physiological changes in hormonal secretion and osteogenic activity during this critical period. Further study will be needed to

  5. Optimization of wavelengths sets for multispectral reflectance imaging of rat olfactory bulb activation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Rémi; Bendahmane, Mounir; Chery, Romain; Martin, Claire; Gurden, Hirac; Pain, Frederic

    2012-06-01

    Wide field multispectral imaging of light backscattered by brain tissues provides maps of hemodynamics changes (total blood volume and oxygenation) following activation. This technique relies on the fit of the reflectance images obtain at two or more wavelengths using a modified Beer-Lambert law1,2. It has been successfully applied to study the activation of several sensory cortices in the anesthetized rodent using visible light1-5. We have carried out recently the first multispectral imaging in the olfactory bulb6 (OB) of anesthetized rats. However, the optimization of wavelengths choice has not been discussed in terms of cross talk and uniqueness of the estimated parameters (blood volume and saturation maps) although this point was shown to be crucial for similar studies in Diffuse Optical Imaging in humans7-10. We have studied theoretically and experimentally the optimal sets of wavelength for multispectral imaging of rodent brain activation in the visible. Sets of optimal wavelengths have been identified and validated in vivo for multispectral imaging of the OB of rats following odor stimulus. We studied the influence of the wavelengths sets on the magnitude and time courses of the oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration variations as well as on the spatial extent of activated brain areas following stimulation. Beyond the estimation of hemodynamic parameters from multispectral reflectance data, we observed repeatedly and for all wavelengths a decrease of light reflectance. For wavelengths longer than 590 nm, these observations differ from those observed in the somatosensory and barrel cortex and question the basis of the reflectance changes during activation in the OB. To solve this issue, Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) have been carried out to assess the relative contribution of absorption, scattering and anisotropy changes to the intrinsic optical imaging signals in somatosensory cortex (SsC) and OB model.

  6. In vivo transcranial measurement of light scattering in rat brains during hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2009-02-01

    Measurement of intrinsic optical signals (IOSs) is attractive for noninvasive, real-time monitoring of tissue viability in brains. We previously performed measurement of IOSs for a rat global ischemic brain model that was made by rapidly removing blood by saline infusion, and observed that after an induction of ischemia, a unique triphasic change in light scattering occurred. This scattering change preceded the reduction of CuA in cytochrome c oxidase which has been shown to correlate with cerebral ATP decrease. In the present study, we examined whether such triphasic scattering change can be observed in the presence of blood in vivo. Transcranial measurement of diffuse reflectance was performed using a broadband tungsten lamp for a rat brain during hypoxia that was induced by N2 inhalation. The reflectance spectral changes in the visible (500-600 nm) and near-infrared (NIR) (650-850 nm) regions were analyzed to monitor changes in hemodynamics and light scattering, respectively. After starting N2 inhalation, reflectance signals in the visible region showed an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin concentration, and about 80 s after full deoxygenation of hemoglobins, reflectance signals in the NIR region showed a similar triphasic change, which was attributable to change in light scattering. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral EEG showed that neuronal activity ceased about 50 s before this triphasic scattering change. These results show that light scattering will become an important indicator of loss of tissue viability in brain; brain tissue can probably be saved if reoxygenation is achieved before starting this scattering change.

  7. Toluene metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes: effects of in vivo pretreatment with acetone and phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Kielland, A; Ripel, A

    1993-01-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from control, acetone- and phenobarbital-pretreated rats were used to study the metabolic conversion of toluene to benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid and hippuric acid at low (toluene concentrations. The baseline formation rates of toluene metabolites (benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid and hippuric acid) were 2.9 +/- 1.7 and 10.0 +/- 2.3 nmol/mg cell protein/60 min at low and high toluene concentrations, respectively. In vivo pretreatment of rats with acetone and phenobarbital increased the formation of metabolites: at low toluene concentrations 3- and 5-fold, respectively; at high toluene concentrations no significant increase (acetone) and 8-fold increase (phenobarbital). Apparent inhibition by ethanol, 7 and 60 mM, was most prominent at low toluene concentrations: 63% and 69%, respectively, in control cells; 84% and 91% in acetone-pretreated cells, and 32% (not significant) and 51% in phenobarbital-pretreated cells. Ethanol also caused accumulation of benzyl alcohol. The apparent inhibition by isoniazid was similar to that of ethanol at low toluene concentrations. Control and acetone-pretreated cells were apparently resistant towards metyrapone; the decrease was 49% and 64% in phenobarbital-pretreated cells at low and high toluene concentrations, respectively. In these cells, the decrease in presence of combined ethanol and metyrapone was 95% (low toluene concentrations). 4-Methyl-pyrazole decreased metabolite formation extensively in all groups. Benzaldehyde was only found in the presence of an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor. Increased ratio benzoic/hippuric acid was observed at high toluene concentrations. These results demonstrate that toluene oxidation may be studied by product formation in isolated hepatocytes. However, the influence of various enzymes in the overall metabolism could not be ascertained due to lack of inhibitor specificity.

  8. Toluene metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes: effects of in vivo pretreatment with acetone and phenobarbital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Kielland, A.; Ripel, A. (National Inst. of Forensic Toxicology, Oslo (Norway))

    1993-02-01

    Hepatocytes isolated from control, acetone- and phenobarbital-pretreated rats were used to study the metabolic conversion of toluene to benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, benzoic acid and hippuric acid at low (<100 [mu]M) and high (100-500 [mu]M) toluene concentrations. The baseline formation rates of toluene metabolites (benzyl alcohol, benzoic acid and hippuric acid) were 2.9[+-]1.7 and 10.0[+-]2.3 nmol/mg cell protein/60 min at low and high toluene concentrations, respectively. In vivo pretreatment of rats with acetone and phenobarbital increased the formation of metabolites: at low toluene concentrations 3- and 5-fold, respectively; at high toluene concentrations no significant increase (acetone) and 8-fold increase (phenobarbital). Apparent inhibition by ethanol, 7 and 60 mM, was most prominent at low toluene concentrations: 63% and 69%, respectively, in control cells; 84% and 91% in acetone-pretreated cells, and 32% (not significant) and 51% in phenobarbital-pretreated cells. Ethanol also caused accumulation of benzyl alcohol. The apparent inhibition by isoniazid was similar to that of ethanol at low toluene concentrations. Control and acetone-pretreated cells were apparently resistant towards metyrapone; the decrease was 49% and 64% in phenobarbital-pretreated cells at low and high toluene concentrations, respectively. In these cells, the decrease in presence of combined ethanol and metyrapone was 95% (low toluene concentrations). 4-Methylpyrazole decreased metabolite formation extensively in all groups. Benzaldehyde was only found in the presence of an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor. Increased ratio benzoic/hippuric acid was observed at high toluene concentrations. These results demonstrate that toluene oxidation may be studied by product formation in isolated hepatocytes. However, the influence of various enzymes in the overall metabolism could not be ascertained due to lack of inhibitor specificity. (orig.).

  9. Cyclothiazide induces robust epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jinshun; Wang, Yun; Jiang, Min; Warren, Philippa; Chen, Gong

    2006-03-15

    Cyclothiazide (CTZ) is a potent blocker of AMPA receptor desensitization. We have recently demonstrated that CTZ also inhibits GABA(A) receptors. Here we report that CTZ induces robust epileptiform activity in hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo. We first found that chronic treatment of hippocampal cultures with CTZ (5 microM, 48 h) results in epileptiform activity in the majority of neurons (80%). The epileptiform activity lasts more than 48 h after washing off CTZ, suggesting a permanent change of the neural network properties after CTZ treatment. We then demonstrated in in vivo recordings that injection of CTZ (5 micromol in 5 microl) into the lateral ventricles of anaesthetized rats also induces spontaneous epileptiform activity in the hippocampal CA1 region. The epileptogenic effect of CTZ is probably due to its enhancing glutamatergic neurotransmission as shown by increasing the frequency and decay time of mEPSCs, and simultaneously inhibiting GABAergic neurotransmission by reducing the frequency of mIPSCs. Comparing to a well-known epileptogenic agent kainic acid (KA), CTZ affects neuronal activity mainly through modulating synaptic transmission without significant change of the intrinsic membrane excitability. Unlike KA, which induces significant cell death in hippocampal cultures, CTZ treatment does not result in any apparent neuronal death. Therefore, the CTZ-induced epilepsy model may provide a novel research tool to elucidate the molecular and cellular mechanisms of epileptogenesis without any complication from drug-induced cell death. The long-lasting epileptiform activity after CTZ washout may also make it a very useful model in screening antiepileptic drugs.

  10. Apoptosis in Rat Cornea After In Vivo Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation at 300 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronschläger, Martin; Talebizadeh, Nooshin; Yu, Zhaohua; Meyer, Linda Maren; Löfgren, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Peak toxicity for in vivo ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure to the lens is in the 300-nm wavelength region. However, little is known about corneal cell damage at 300 nm. The purpose of the study was to determine the time evolution of apoptosis in the cornea after in vivo exposure to 300-nm UVR. Altogether, 16 Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups and unilaterally exposed to 5 kJ/m UVR (λmax: 300 nm; λ0.5: 10 nm) for 15 minutes. After a predetermined latency period of 1, 5, 24, and 120 hours, depending on the group, the animals were killed and eyes were enucleated. Eye globes were further cryosectioned in 10-μm thick midsagittal sections. For the detection of apoptosis, the TUNEL method was applied. TUNEL-positive signals were observed in the superficial epithelial cells in the exposed and control eyes at all latency periods. At 5 hours, TUNEL staining was detected in the exposed corneas in epithelial cells, keratocytes, and endothelial cells with a maximum signal at 24 hours. At 120 hours, no TUNEL staining was found in endothelial cells and only occasionally in keratocytes in exposed corneas. Signs of ulceration and stromal thinning were observed at 120 hours. UVR in the 300-nm wavelength region induces TUNEL staining in all 3 corneal layers. TUNEL staining of all 3 corneal layers is an early postexposure event observed after a 5-hour latency period. Corneal sterile keratolysis occurs in the time window of 24 to 120 hours probably induced by neutrophils.

  11. Atrial fibrillation in rats induced by rapid transesophageal atrial pacing during brief episodes of asphyxia: A new in vivo model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, K.; Lam, Henrik Rye; Knudsen, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. AF was reproducibly induced in 81% of the rats. The presence of AF was associated with an increased heart rate, and a decreased blood pressure. Treatment with amiodarone, D,L-sotalol, flecainide, and propranolol all reduced duration of AF, whereas verapamil treatment...... of verapamil. Relative to existing models of AF in larger animals, this model offers rapid, predictive, and inexpensive testing of antiarrhythmic/profibrillatory effects of new drugs.......Non-pharmacological in vivo models of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been developed in large animals only. We aimed to develop and characterize a new small animal non-pharmacological in vivo model of AF. AF was induced by transesophageal atrial burst pacing during 35 seconds periods of asphyxia...

  12. In vivo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat brain via the phospholipid methylation pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakher, Michael; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The in vivo synthesis of brain phosphatidylcholine (PC) by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was examined. (H-3)methyl)methionine was infused i.c.v., by indwelling cannula, and brain samples were taken 0.5-18 h thereafter and assayed for (H-3)PC, as well as for its biosynthetic intermediates (H-3)phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine ((H-3)PMME) and (H-3)phosphatidyl dimethylethanolamine ((H-3)PDME), and for (H-3)lysophosphatidylcholine ((H-3)LPC) and S-(H-3)adenosylmethionine ((H-3)SAM). Most of the (H-3)PC (79-94 percent) was present ipsilateral to the infusion site; indicating that the radioactivity in the (H-3)PC was primarily of intracerebral origin, and not taken up from the blood. Moreover, only very low levels of (H-3)PC were attained in brains of animals receiving (H-3)methionine i.p. and these levels were symmetrically distributed. (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME turned over with apparent half-lives of 2.2 h and 2.4 h. In contrast, the accumulation of brain (H-3)PC was biphasic, suggesting the existence of two pools, the more labile of which turned over rapidly (t(sub 1/2) = 5 h) and was formed for as long as (H-3)PMME and (H-3)PDME are present in the brain, and another, which was distinguishable only at 18 h after the (H-3)methionine infusion. (The latter pool may have been synthesized from (H-3)choline that was released via the hydrolysis of some of the brain (H-3)PC previously formed by the methylation of PE.) Subcellular fractionation of brain tissue obtained after in vivo labelling with (H-3)methionine revealed that mitochondrial PC had the highest specific radioactivity (dpm per micromol total lipid phosphorus), and myelin the least. These observations affirm that rat brain does synthesize PC in vivo by methylating PE, and the technique provides an experimental system which may be useful for examining the physiological regulation of this process.

  13. Biocompatibility Assessment of Poly(lactic acid) Films after Sterilization with Ethylene Oxide in Histological Study In Vivo with Wistar Rats and Cellular Adhesion of Fibroblasts In Vitro

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michele Savaris; Gustavo L. Braga; Venina dos Santos; Glaucio A. Carvalho; Asdrubal Falavigna; Denise C. Machado; Christian Viezzer; Rosmary N. Brandalise

    2017-01-01

    .... The biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) films, shaped by compression, was evaluated after sterilization by ethylene oxide by a histological in vivo test with Wistar rats and cytotoxicity in cell adhesion in vitro...

  14. Uptake and metabolism of fructose by rat neocortical cells in vivo and by isolated nerve terminals in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Elsais, Ahmed; Frøland, Anne Sofie; Taubøll, Erik; Gjerstad, Leif; Quan, Yi; Dingledine, Ray; Rise, Frode

    2015-01-01

    Fructose reacts spontaneously with proteins in the brain to form advanced glycation end products (AGE) that may elicit neuroinflammation and cause brain pathology, including Alzheimer’s disease. We investigated whether fructose is eliminated by oxidative metabolism in neocortex. Injection of [14C]fructose or its AGE-prone metabolite [14C]glyceraldehyde into rat neocortex in vivo led to formation of 14C-labeled alanine, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and glutamine. In isolated neocortical nerve t...

  15. Identification, localization and functional in vitro and in vivo activity of oxytocin receptor in the rat penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X H; Filippi, S; Vignozzi, L; Morelli, A; Mancina, R; Luconi, M; Donati, S; Marini, M; Vannelli, G B; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2005-03-01

    We recently found that the oxytocin receptor (OTR) is expressed in the human and rabbit corpus cavernosum and mediates contractility in vitro. The present study extended our investigations to the rat, and explored whether OTR regulates penile detumescence in vivo. Real-time RT-PCR quantitatively characterized the distribution of OTR mRNA in the male genital tract. Specific transcripts for OTR were expressed in all the tissues investigated. Penile expression of OTR was comparable to that observed in testis and prostate. Western blot analysis detected a single band of the expected molecular mass for OTR in all tissues examined, including rat penis. Expression of OTR protein in rat penile extracts was further confirmed by binding studies, using the OTR selective radiolabeled ligand 125I-OTA (K(d) = 17 +/- 6.5 pM, B(max)=15.7 +/- 5 fmoles/mg protein). OTR was immunolocalized to the endothelial and smooth muscle compartments of cavernous spaces and blood vessels. In rat corpus cavernosum strips, oxytocin (OT) and an OTR selective agonist ([Thr4,Gly7]OT) induced identical increases in tension, while different vasopressin agonists were less active. In vivo, OT intra-cavernous injection (ICI) dose-dependently inhibited intracavernous pressure (ICP) increase elicited by either electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve or ICI of papaverine with similar IC(50)s (117.7 +/- 37 mU). The OTR antagonist, atosiban, counteracted the contractile effect of OT both in vitro and in vivo. Atosiban alone significantly increased ICP at lower stimulation frequencies (2 Hz = Ppenis and mediates contractility both in vitro and in vivo, therefore suggesting a role for OT in maintaining penile detumescence.

  16. In vivo detection of Hirschsprung's disease by optical coherence tomography in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, H. L.; Guo, Z. Y.; Li, S. X.; Li, N.; Liu, S. H.; Ji, Y. H.

    2013-03-01

    Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a developmental intestinal obstruction, which is often diagnosed with a repeated biopsy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive, real-time imaging modality. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of diagnosis of HSCR, the targeted biopsies of suspicious tissues and the location of operative treatment using OCT. An HSCR Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model (benzalkonium chloride-treated (BAC-treated)) was used. Colon tissues with BAC-treated and without BAC-treated were imaged using OCT. To establish OCT criteria for identification of HSCR, OCT images were compared with corresponding histology images and muscle layer thickness was measured. Furthermore, attenuation coefficients of OCT signals were calculated to illustrate the differences between tissues with BAC-treated and without BAC-treated. Our results show that OCT images of colon tissues with HSCR are well correlated with histology images. In comparison with a muscle layer without HSCR, the thickness of muscle layer with HSCR is increased significantly. The muscle layer in colon tissues with HSCR for 6 weeks had a higher attenuation coefficient than those without HSCR. However, the attenuation coefficient of those with HSCR for 3 weeks had no obvious change. In conclusion, the study demonstrates for the first time that OCT has the potential for diagnosis, biopsy and location of HSCR in vivo.

  17. Metabolic profile of visual cortex in diabetic rats measured with in vivo proton MRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Wang, Xinghua; Yang, Junjie; Lei, Hao; Wang, Xuxia; Xiang, Yi

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the metabolic profile of the visual cortex in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 diabetic rats by means of in vivo proton MRS. Several metabolite concentration ratios in the visual cortex were calculated. In addition, postmortem histologic analyses for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve injury and visual cortex alterations were monitored. The results showed that diabetes induced several changes in visual cortex metabolites, such as reduced N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, taurine and choline-containing compound levels. Nevertheless, myo-inositol levels increased significantly as compared with controls. Remarkable RGC loss and optic nerve degeneration were observed by morphological analysis. Moreover, the results showed significant neuronal loss and glial activation in the visual cortex. These findings indicated that, besides vascular abnormalities, neuronal loss and degeneration in the visual pathway were induced due to disrupted glucose homeostasis in diabetes. Metabolic or functional abnormalities were induced in cerebral neurons of the visual cortex by diabetes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. First in vivo magnetic particle imaging of lung perfusion in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyi Y.; Jeffris, Kenneth E.; Yu, Elaine Y.; Zheng, Bo; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Nahid, Payam; Conolly, Steven M.

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE), along with the closely related condition of deep vein thrombosis, affect an estimated 600 000 patients in the US per year. Untreated, PE carries a mortality rate of 30%. Because many patients experience mild or non-specific symptoms, imaging studies are necessary for definitive diagnosis of PE. Iodinated CT pulmonary angiography is recommended for most patients, while nuclear medicine-based ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scans are reserved for patients in whom the use of iodine is contraindicated. Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is an emerging tracer imaging modality with high image contrast (no tissue background signal) and sensitivity to superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) tracer. Importantly, unlike CT or nuclear medicine, MPI uses no ionizing radiation. Further, MPI is not derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); MPI directly images SPIO tracers via their strong electronic magnetization, enabling deep imaging of anatomy including within the lungs, which is very challenging with MRI. Here, the first high-contrast in vivo MPI lung perfusion images of rats are shown using a novel lung perfusion agent, MAA-SPIOs.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of in vivo SD-OCT measurement of rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yijing; Harsan, Laura-Adela; Bienert, Thomas; Kirch, Robert D; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2017-02-01

    OCT has been demonstrated as an efficient imaging modality in various biomedical and clinical applications. However, there is a missing link with respect to the source of contrast between OCT and other modern imaging modalities, no quantitative comparison has been demonstrated between them, yet. We evaluated, to our knowledge, for the first time in vivo OCT measurement of rat brain with our previously proposed forward imaging method by both qualitatively and quantitatively correlating OCT with the corresponding T1-weighted and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, fiber density map (FDM), and two types of histology staining (cresyl violet and acetylcholinesterase AchE), respectively. Brain anatomical structures were identified and compared across OCT, MRI and histology imaging modalities. Noticeable resemblances corresponding to certain anatomical structures were found between OCT and other image profiles. Correlation was quantitatively assessed by estimating correlation coefficient (R) and mutual information (MI). Results show that the 1-D OCT measurements in regards to the intensity profile and estimated attenuation factor, do not have profound linear correlation with the other image modalities suggested from correlation coefficient estimation. However, findings in mutual information analysis demonstrate that there are markedly high MI values in OCT-MRI signals.

  20. In vivo rat deep brain imaging using photoacoustic computed tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Li, Lei; Zhu, Liren; Hu, Peng; Wang, Lihong V.

    2017-03-01

    The brain has been likened to a great stretch of unknown territory consisting of a number of unexplored continents. Small animal brain imaging plays an important role charting that territory. By using 1064 nm illumination from the side, we imaged the full coronal depth of rat brains in vivo. The experiment was performed using a real-time full-ring-array photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) imaging system, which achieved an imaging depth of 11 mm and a 100 μm radial resolution. Because of the fast imaging speed of the full-ring-array PACT system, no animal motion artifact was induced. The frame rate of the system was limited by the laser repetition rate (50 Hz). In addition to anatomical imaging of the blood vessels in the brain, we continuously monitored correlations between the two brain hemispheres in one of the coronal planes. The resting states in the coronal plane were measured before and after stroke ligation surgery at a neck artery.

  1. Neurokinetics of lidocaine in the infraorbital nerve of the rat in vivo: Relation to sensory block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B R; Aasheim, G; Kish, S J; Croley, T S

    1975-06-01

    The kinetics of neural uptake and efflux of lidocaine hydrochloride were studies by means of a standardized technique for blocking the intraorbital nerve of the rat, using a palatal jig. Following injection of 14-C-labeled local anesthetic, groups of ten animals were saccraficed at incipient recovery from sensory block or at othertimes. The nerves were weighed and assayed for radioactivity. The lengths of nerve containing high levels of lidocaine varied inversely with the times elapsed since onset of block. In experiments where a fixed quantity (2 mg) drug was injected, the incidence of block 2 hours later was concentrated-dependent, occuring in 80 per cent of animals after 2 per cent, in 40 per cent after 1 per cent, and in none after 0.5 per cent lidocaine. Epinephrine, 1:200,000, prolonged by 80 per cent the block effected with 0.2 ml of 1 per cent lidocaine. At the onset of recovery the neural contents of lidocaine at the sites of injection were 484 plus or minus 404 ng/mg of nerve in epinephrine-treated nerves, and 274 plus or minus 218 ng/mg in nonepinephrine-treated nerved (N.S., P greater than 0.05). Quantitative comparisons of in-vivo effectiveness of local anesthetic solutions can be made with this technique.

  2. Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Sanaz; Aitken, Karen J.; Shröder, Annette; Bagli, Darius J.; Alex Vitkin, I.

    2012-08-01

    Microstructural remodelling in epithelial layers of various hollow organs, including changes in tissue anisotropy, are known to occur under mechanical distension and during disease processes. In this paper, we analyze how bladder distension alters wall anisotropy using polarized light imaging (followed by Mueller matrix decomposition). Optical retardance values of different regions of normal rat bladders under different distension pressures are derived. Then optical coherence tomography is used to measure local bladder wall thicknesses, enabling the calculation of the tissue birefringence maps as a measure of the tissue anisotropy. Selected two-photon microscopy is also performed to better understand the compositional origins of the obtained anisotropy results. The dome region of the bladder shows maximum birefringence when the bladder is distended to high pressures, whereas the ventral remains roughly isotropic during distension. In addition, the average anisotropy direction is longitudinal, along the urethra to dome. The derived wall anisotropy trends are based on birefringence as an intrinsic property of the tissue organization independent of its thickness, to aid in understanding the structure-functions relation in healthy bladders. These new insights into the wall microstructure of ex vivo distending bladders may help improve the functionality of the artificially engineered bladder tissues.

  3. In Vivo siRNA Delivery Using JC Virus-like Particles Decreases the Expression of RANKL in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Hoffmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between formation and resorption. This complex process involves numerous factors that orchestrate a multitude of biochemical events. Among these factors are hormones, growth factors, vitamins, cytokines, and, most notably, osteoprotegerin (OPG and the receptor activator for nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL. Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in shifting the RANKL/OPG balance toward excessive RANKL, resulting in osteoclastogenesis, which in turn initiates bone resorption, which is frequently associated with osteoporosis. Rebalancing RANKL/OPG levels may be achieved through either upregulation of OPG or through transient silencing of RANKL by means of RNA interference. Here, we describe the utilization of a viral capsid-based delivery system for in vivo and in vitro RNAi using synthetic small interfering RNA (siRNA molecules in rat osteoblasts. Polyoma JC virus-derived virus-like particles are capable of delivering siRNAs to target RANKL in osteoblast cells both in vitro and in a rat in vivo system. Expression levels were monitored using quantitative real-time polymerase reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after single and repeated injections over a 14-day period. Our data indicate that this is an efficient and safe route for in vivo delivery of gene modulatory tools to study important molecular factors in a rat osteoporosis model.

  4. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of AMG 232, a novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of the MDM2-p53 interaction, in rats, dogs and monkeys: in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qiuping; Jiang, Min; Huang, Wotang T; Ling, Yun; Olson, Steven H; Sun, Daqing; Xu, Guifen; Yan, Xuelei; Wong, Bradley K; Jin, Lixia

    2015-01-01

    1. AMG 232 is a novel inhibitor of the p53-MDM2 protein-protein interaction currently in Phase I clinical trials for multiple tumor indications. The objectives of the investigations reported in this article were to characterize the pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism properties of AMG 232 in pre-clinical species in vivo and in vitro, and in humans in vitro, and to predict its pharmacokinetics in humans through integrating PKDM data. 2. AMG 232 exhibited low clearance (42%), but high clearance (0.74 × Qh) and low oral exposure in dogs (18%). 3. Biotransformation was the major route of elimination of AMG 232 in rats, with only 7% of intravenously administered (14)C-labeled AMG 232 recovered as parent molecule in bile. The major metabolite was an acyl glucuronide as measured by in vivo rat studies and in vitro hepatocyte incubations in multiple species. 4. The in vitro-in vivo correlation of AMG 232 clearance was within 2-fold in pre-clinical species using hepatocytes. AMG 232 was predicted to exhibit low clearance, high volume distribution and long half-life in humans. The predictions are consistent with the preliminary human pharmacokinetic parameters of AMG 232 in clinical trials.

  5. In vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory potential of Pedicularis longiflora and Allium carolinianum in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatoo, Mohd Iqbal; Dimri, Umesh; Gopalakrishnan, Arumugam; Saxena, Archana; Wani, Sarfaraz Ahmad; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2017-10-27

    Pedicularis longiflora Rudolph (Orobanchaceae) and Allium carolinianum Linn (Alliaceae) are two important medicinal plants found in trans-Himalayan Changthang. The immunomodulatory potential of these plants has not been explored. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory potential of P. longiflora and A. carolinianum in alloxan-induced diabetes in Wistar rats. The ethanol extracts of the aerial parts of P. longiflora and whole plant parts of A. carolinianum were used for studying the in vitro immunomodulatory activity using lymphocyte stimulation and cytokine release assays. For the in vivo study, 5 groups of 6 rats per group, including alloxan-induced diabetic and plant extract-treated rats, were evaluated for cell-mediated immune (CMI) and humoral immune (HMI) responses in a 42-day experimental trial using doses of 500mg/kg b.wt. for P. longiflora and 250mg/kgbwt. for A. carolinianum. For P. longiflora, the median effective dose was found to be 500mg/kg. The in vitro lymphocyte stimulation index for P. longiflora was significantly higher (1.73±0.04, pimmunomodulatory activities than A. carolinianum, especially in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. However, further research is needed to identify the different molecular mechanisms involved in mediating this immunomodulatory response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective effect of probiotic bacteria against cadmium-induced genotoxicity in rat hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurašević Siniša F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of probiotic bacteria against cadmium (Cd-induced genotoxicity was studied in rat hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro. Male Wistar rats, Rattus norvegicus, were treated for five weeks with (i CdCl2 (70 ppm in the drinking water, (ii a mixture of lyophilized probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus and Bifido-bacterium longum (5×108 cfu/g of food, or (iii CdCl2 and probiotic bacteria. In addition, single cells obtained from the untreated rat liver were exposed to CdCl2 (70 ppm, probiotic bacteria (1.28 mg/ml, or CdCl2 and probiotic bacteria, for 15 min at 22°C in the dark. The level of Cd-induced DNA damage in hepatocytes was determined by the comet assay. The obtained results show that probiotic bacteria significantly reduced Cd-induced genotoxicity, both in vivo and in vitro (20% and 48%, respectively. Moreover, the toxicity of Cd to lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats was significantly decreased in the probiotic-treated animals. The binding of Cd2+ to probiotic bacteria was proposed as the most probable protection mechanism. [Acknowledgments. This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Government of Serbia, projects No 172058 and 173023

  7. Integrated backscatter for the in vivo quantification of supraphysiological vitamin D(3)-induced cardiovascular calcifications in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosens, Bram; Droogmans, Steven; Hostens, Jeroen; Somja, Joan; Delvenne, Eléonore; Hernot, Sophie; Bala, Gezim; Degaillier, Céline; Caveliers, Vicky; Delvenne, Philippe; Lahoutte, Tony; Van Camp, Guy; Cosyns, Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular calcifications are frequently found in the aging population and are independent predictors of future cardiovascular events. Integrated backscatter (IB) of ultrasound reflectivity can easily quantify calcifications. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar rats received 25,000 IU/kg/day of vitamin D(3) (group 1, n = 8), 18,800 IU/kg/day (group 2, n = 8), or injections with the vehicle only (group 3, n = 14), for 10 weeks. Echocardiographic calibrated IB (cIB) was measured and calculated at baseline and after 10 weeks, followed by ex vivo micro-CT and histopathology of the aortic valve, ascending aorta, and myocardium. After 10 weeks, the mean cIB value of the aortic valve was significantly higher for vitamin D(3)-dosed animals compared to controls. The mean cIB value of the ascending aorta and the myocardium was also significantly higher in group 1 compared to group 3. In vivo IB results were confirmed by ex vivo micro-CT and histopathology. In conclusion, IB is a non-ionizing, feasible, and reproducible tool to quantify cardiovascular calcifications in an in vivo rat model. The integration of IB in the standard echocardiographic examination for the quantification of cardiovascular calcifications could be useful for serial evaluation of treatment efficacy and for prognosis assessment.

  8. Real-time molecular profiling of photochemically induced rat thrombosis in vivo through quantitative Raman analysis of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. M.; Shen, A. G.; Yao, H. L.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Hu, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    A device of an animal thrombosis model in vivo coupled with a Raman system for near-surface blood vessels is proposed in this letter. The dual-function set up is capable of simultaneously establishing a photochemically induced artificial thrombus model and collecting in vivo Raman data of both arterial and venous blood, and it provides the first observation of rat thrombosis under the physiological conditions from the beginning to the final form. The real-time and quantitative molecular profiling of flowing blood and the spectra of blood cells in the process of thrombosis provides an insight into the occurring mechanism of thrombosis and a promising method for the in vivo screening of new antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs.

  9. A collagen-based sealant to prevent in vivo reformation of epidural scar adhesions in an adult rat laminectomy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Boutrand, Jean Pierre; Bittoun, Jacques; Tadie, Marc

    2002-07-01

    The authors investigated the effect of a collagen-based sealant, Gel Amidon Oxydé (GAO), in preventing the reformation of epidural scar adhesions in an adult rat model of laminectomy. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a complete L5-6 laminectomy, after which the dura mater was exposed and the left adjacent L-4 and L-5 nerve roots were exposed. The surgical wound was then closed; 1 month later it was reopened. The epidural scar adhesions that developed were observed and carefully removed, leaving clean dura and nerve roots reexposed. In 16 experimental rats, GAO was placed onto the reexposed dura and around the nerve roots before it polymerized. No treatment was performed in 16 control rats. Postoperatively, all rats were healthy and without neurological deficit. The incisions healed within 1 week regardless of the treatment with the GAO. Three months after reoperation, magnetic resonance imaging revealed that important epidural adhesions were present in the control rats but not in the experimental rats. These findings were then confirmed by gross anatomical examination in which a white tissue layer was found over the dura without adhesions in the experimental animals, whereas significant epidural scar adhesions were demonstrated in the controls. Histological evaluation of the laminectomy site also showed that the peridural space in the experimental rats was larger than that in the controls. The authors found that GAO may be a safe and effective antiscarring adhesion biomaterial in vivo. When placed into the laminectomy site, GAO may prove beneficial in preventing the formation and reformation of epidural scar adhesions in humans.

  10. An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Sharon; Ciapaite, Jolita; Wolters, Justina C.; van Riel, Natal A.; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or

  11. In vivo human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell tracking after intra-articular delivery in a rat osteoarthritis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (haMSCs have shown efficacy in treating osteoarthritis (OA both preclinically and clinically via intra-articular (IA injection. However, understanding the mode of action of the cell therapy has been limited by cell tracking capability and correlation between the pharmacokinetics of the injected cells and the intended pharmacodynamics effect. This study aims to explore methodology and to understand in vivo biodistribution of clinical-grade haMSCs labeled with fluorescent dye and injected into an immunocompetent OA rat model. Methods haMSCs labeled with fluorescent dye were investigated for their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. Labeled cells were used to establish detection threshold of a noninvasive biofluorescent imaging system before the cells (2.5 × 106 were injected into a conventional rat OA model induced by medial meniscectomy for 8 weeks. We attempted to reveal the existence of labeled cells in vivo by imaging and a molecular biomarker approach, and to correlate with the in vivo efficacy and physical presence over a follow-up period up to 10 weeks. Results In vitro proliferation and differentiation of haMSCs were not affected by the labeling of DiD dye. Detection thresholds of the labeled cells in vitro and in vivo were determined to be 104 and 105 cells, respectively. When 2.5 × 106 haMSCs were injected into the joints of a rat OA model, fluorescent signals (or >105 cells lasted for about 10 weeks in the surgical knee joint at the same time as efficacy was observed. Signals in nonsurgical rats only lasted for 4 weeks. The human MSCs were shown to engraft to the rat joint tissues and were proliferative. Human FOXP2 gene was only detected in the knee joint tissue, suggesting limited biodistribution locally to the joints. Conclusions The current study represents the first attempt to correlate cell therapy efficacy on OA with the physical presence

  12. In vivo human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell tracking after intra-articular delivery in a rat osteoarthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Luo, Xuan; Lv, Xiaoteng; Liu, Victor; Zhao, Guangyu; Zhang, Xue; Cao, Wei; Wang, Richard; Wang, Wen

    2016-11-10

    Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (haMSCs) have shown efficacy in treating osteoarthritis (OA) both preclinically and clinically via intra-articular (IA) injection. However, understanding the mode of action of the cell therapy has been limited by cell tracking capability and correlation between the pharmacokinetics of the injected cells and the intended pharmacodynamics effect. This study aims to explore methodology and to understand in vivo biodistribution of clinical-grade haMSCs labeled with fluorescent dye and injected into an immunocompetent OA rat model. haMSCs labeled with fluorescent dye were investigated for their proliferation and differentiation capabilities. Labeled cells were used to establish detection threshold of a noninvasive biofluorescent imaging system before the cells (2.5 × 10 6 ) were injected into a conventional rat OA model induced by medial meniscectomy for 8 weeks. We attempted to reveal the existence of labeled cells in vivo by imaging and a molecular biomarker approach, and to correlate with the in vivo efficacy and physical presence over a follow-up period up to 10 weeks. In vitro proliferation and differentiation of haMSCs were not affected by the labeling of DiD dye. Detection thresholds of the labeled cells in vitro and in vivo were determined to be 10 4 and 10 5 cells, respectively. When 2.5 × 10 6 haMSCs were injected into the joints of a rat OA model, fluorescent signals (or >10 5 cells) lasted for about 10 weeks in the surgical knee joint at the same time as efficacy was observed. Signals in nonsurgical rats only lasted for 4 weeks. The human MSCs were shown to engraft to the rat joint tissues and were proliferative. Human FOXP2 gene was only detected in the knee joint tissue, suggesting limited biodistribution locally to the joints. The current study represents the first attempt to correlate cell therapy efficacy on OA with the physical presence of the injected haMSCs in the OA model, and demonstrates

  13. Effect of in vivo nicotine exposure on chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soo Kwang; Poet, Torka S.; Smith, Jordan N.; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-03-30

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most studied and widely used broad spectrum organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. The neurotoxicity of CPF results from inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) by its metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon), which subsequently leads to cholinergic hyperstimulation. The routine consumption of alcoholic beverages and tobacco products will modify a number of metabolic and physiological processes which may impact the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of other xenobiotics including pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of repeated ethanol and nicotine co-exposure on in vivo CPF pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The major CPF metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in blood and urine along with changes in plasma and brain AChE activities were measured in male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats. Animals were repeatedly treated with either saline or ethanol (1 g/kg/day, po) and nicotine (1 mg/kg/day, sc) in addition to CPF (1 or 5 mg/kg/day, po) for 7 days. Rats were sacrificed at times from 1 to 24 hr post-last dosing of CPF. There were apparent differences in blood TCPy pharmacokinetics following ethanol and nicotine pretreatments in both CPF dose groups, which showed higher TCPy peak concentrations and increased blood TCPy AUC in ethanol and nicotine groups over CPF-only (~1.8- and 3.8-fold at 1 and 5 mg CPF doses, respectively). Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities from both ethanol and nicotine-treated groups showed substantially less inhibition following repeated 5 mg CPF/kg dosing compared to CPF-only controls (96 ± 13 and 66 ± 7% of naïve at 4 hr post-last CPF dosing, respectively). Inhibition of brain AChE activities was minimal in both 1 mg CPF/kg/day dosing groups, but a similar trend indicating less inhibition following ethanol/nicotine pretreatment was apparent. No differences were observed in plasma ChE activities due to the combined alcohol and nicotine treatments. In vitro, CPF

  14. In vivo and in vitro proton NMR spectroscopic studies of thiamine‐deficient rat brains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Haakil; Holburn, George E; Price, Ronald R

    2001-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) in rats produces lesions similar to those found in humans with Wernicke's encephalopathy, an organic mental disorder associated with alcoholism. Male Sprague–Dawley rats ( n = 24...

  15. Stevioside induces antihyperglycaemic, insulinotropic and glucagonostatic effects in vivo: studies in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, P B; Gregersen, S; Alstrup, K K; Hermansen, K

    2002-01-01

    Extracts of leaves from the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni have been used in the traditional treatment of diabetes in Paraguay and Brazil. Recently, we demonstrated a direct insulinotropic effect in isolated mouse islets and the clonal beta cell line INS-1 of the glycoside stevioside that is present in large quantity in these leaves. Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that results from defects in both insulin and glucagon secretion as well as insulin action. In the present study we wanted to unravel if stevioside in vivo exerts an antihyperglycaemic effect in a nonobese animal model of type 2 diabetes. An i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGT) was carried out with and without stevioside in the type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, as well as in the normal Wistar rat. Stevioside (0.2 g/kg BW) and D-glucose (2.0 g/kg BW) were administered as i.v. bolus injections in anaesthetized rats. Stevioside significantly suppressed the glucose response to the IVGT in GK rats (incremental area under the curve (IAUC): 648 +/- 50 (stevioside) vs 958 +/- 85 mM x 120 min (control); P diabetic GK rat, and may have the potential of becoming a new antidiabetic drug for use in type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effect of Physical Exercise and Acute Escitalopram on the Excitability of Brain Monoamine Neurons: In Vivo Electrophysiological Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Csatlósová, Kristína; Durišová, Barbora; Moravcíková, Lucia; Lacinová, Lubica; Ježováv, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    The antidepressant effect of physical exercise has been reported in several clinical and animal studies. Since serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine play a central role in depression, it is possible that the beneficial effects of physical exercise are mediated via monoamine pathways. This study investigates the effects of voluntary wheel running on the excitability of monoamine neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. Voluntary wheel running (VWR) rats were housed in individual cages with free access to a running wheel, while control animals were housed in standard laboratory cages. After three weeks, the rats were anesthetized, and in vivo electrophysiological recordings were taken from dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons, locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons, and ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. VWR stimulated activity in serotonin, but not in norepinephrine or dopamine neurons. Subsequently, acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram in control rats led to complete suppression of serotonin neurons; this suppression was reversed by subsequent administration of selective antagonist of serotonin-1A receptors, WAY100135. Escitalopram induced only partial inhibition of serotonin neurons in the VWR rats while WAY100135 increased the firing activity of serotonin neurons above the baseline value. The beneficial effect of physical exercise on mood is mediated, at least in part, via activation of serotonin neurons. Physical exercise can potentiate the response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors by increasing the basal firing activity and diminishing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced inhibition of serotonin neurons.

  17. Transmural changes in mast cell density in rat heart after infarct induction in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.; Reiters, P. H.; Daemen, M. J.; Smits, J. F.; van der Vusse, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    The cardiac distribution of mast cells was investigated after the induction of acute myocardial infarction in the rat. The left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was occluded by ligation in the infarct group, whereas in sham rats only a superficial ligature was placed beside the LAD. Rats of

  18. Intracellular responses and morphology of rat ventral complex of the lateral lemniscus neurons in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayagam, David A X; Clarey, Janine C; Paolini, Antonio G

    2006-09-10

    The function of the ventral and intermediate nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL and INLL), collectively termed ventral complex of the lateral lemniscus (VCLL), is unclear. Several studies have suggested that it plays a role in coding the temporal aspects of sound. In our study, a sample (n = 161) of intracellular responses to dichotically presented noise or tone bursts was collected from the VCLL of urethane-anesthetized rats in vivo. Intracellular recordings revealed six distinct response types to tones, distinguished by their synaptic and membrane characteristics as well as firing pattern. Three of these response types were correlated with distinct cellular morphologies revealed by intracellular injection of neurobiotin. 3D reconstructions of recorded neurons within the VCLL showed the spatial distribution of various response properties, including response type, laterality, characteristic frequency (CF), and binaural influences. Cells that responded to monaural (55%) or binaural (45%) stimulation were distributed throughout the VCLL. Almost all VCLL units were responsive to contralateral stimulation (97%). Most neurons were excited by contralateral stimulation (83%), many exclusively (43%), and some in conjunction with ipsilateral inhibition (28%) or excitation (12%). The INLL contained mostly binaural neurons (65%), typically with ipsilateral inhibition and contralateral excitation. These results indicate that the VCLL is not a monaural structure and there is a dorsal-ventral segregation of binaural and monaural cells. 3D reconstructions of intracellular CFs did not reveal the presence of any tonotopic arrangement within the VCLL. Presumably, the proposed timing role of this structure does not require a systematic representation of tonal frequency. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Popcorn flavoring effects on reactivity of rat airways in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Eric J; Thompson, Janet A; Ponnoth, Dovenia S; Cumpston, Amy M; Goldsmith, W Travis; Jackson, Mark C; Kashon, Michael L; Frazer, David G; Hubbs, Ann F; Shimko, Michael J; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    "Popcorn workers' lung" is an obstructive pulmonary disease produced by inhalation of volatile artificial butter flavorings. In rats, inhalation of diacetyl, a major component of butter flavoring, and inhalation of a diacetyl substitute, 2,3-pentanedione, produce similar damage to airway epithelium. The effects of diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione and mixtures of diacetyl, acetic acid, and acetoin, all components of butter flavoring, on pulmonary function and airway reactivity to methacholine (MCh) were investigated. Lung resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) were negligibly changed 18 h after a 6-h inhalation exposure to diacetyl or 2,3-pentanedione (100-360 ppm). Reactivity to MCh was not markedly changed after diacetyl, but was modestly decreased after 2,3-pentanedione inhalation. Inhaled diacetyl exerted essentially no effect on reactivity to mucosally applied MCh, but 2,3-pentanedione (320 and 360 ppm) increased reactivity to MCh in the isolated, perfused trachea preparation (IPT). In IPT, diacetyl and 2,3-pentanedione (≥3 mM) applied to the serosal and mucosal surfaces of intact and epithelium-denuded tracheas initiated transient contractions followed by relaxations. Inhaled acetoin (150 ppm) exerted no effect on pulmonary function and airway reactivity in vivo; acetic acid (27 ppm) produced hyperreactivity to MCh; and exposure to diacetyl + acetoin + acetic acid (250 + 150 + 27 ppm) led to a diacetyl-like reduction in reactivity. Data suggest that the effects of 2,3-pentanedione on airway reactivity are greater than those of diacetyl, and that flavorings are airway smooth muscle relaxants and constrictors, thus indicating a complex mechanism.

  20. Effect of In Vivo Nicotine Exposure on Chlorpyrifos Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S.; Smith, Jordan N.; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-03-30

    Routine use of tobacco products may modify physiological and metabolic functions, including drug metabolizing enzymes, which may impact the pharmacokinetics of environmental contaminants. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is bioactivated to chlorpyrifos-oxon, and manifests its neurotoxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of repeated nicotine exposure on the pharmacokinetics of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in blood and urine and also to determine the impact on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma and brain. Animals were exposed to 7-daily doses of either 1 mg nicotine/kg or saline (sc), and to either a single oral dose of 35 mg CPF/kg or a repeated dose of 5 mg CPF/kg/day for 7 days. Groups of rats were then sacrificed at multiple time-points after receiving the last dose of CPF. Repeated nicotine and CPF exposures resulted in enhanced metabolism of CPF to TCPy, as evidenced by increases in the measured TCPy concentration and AUC in blood. However, there was no significant difference in the amount of TCPy (free or total) excreted in the urine. The extent of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was reduced due to nicotine co-exposure consistent with an increase in CYP450-mediated dearylation (detoxification) versus desulfuration. It was of interest to note that the impact of nicotine co-exposure was experimentally observed only after repeated CPF doses. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model simulations of CPF-oxon concentrations in blood and brain were predicted to be lower in nicotine treated groups, which were simulated by increasing the dearylation Vmax based upon previously conducted in vitro metabolism studies. These results were consistent with the experimental data. The current study demonstrated that repeated nicotine exposure could alter CPF metabolism in vivo, further modulating brain AChE inhibition.

  1. Graptopetalum paraguayense ameliorates chemical-induced rat hepatic fibrosis in vivo and inactivates stellate cells and Kupffer cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jen Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Graptopetalum paraguayense (GP is a folk herbal medicine with hepatoprotective effects that is used in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antifibrotic effects of GP on experimental hepatic fibrosis in both dimethylnitrosamine (DMN- and carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4-induced liver injury rats. METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis-induced rats were fed with the methanolic extract of GP (MGP by oral administration every day. Immunohistochemistry, biochemical assays, and Western blot analysis were performed. The effects of MGP on the expression of fibrotic markers and cytokines in the primary cultured hepatic stellate cells (HSCs and Kupffer cells, respectively, were evaluated. RESULTS: Oral administration of MGP significantly alleviated DMN- or CCl(4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis. High levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, bilirubin, prothrombin activity and mortality rates also decreased in rats treated with MGP. There were significantly decreased hydroxyproline levels in therapeutic rats compared with those of the liver-damaged rats. Collagen I and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA expression were all reduced by incubation with MGP in primary cultured rat HSCs. Furthermore, MGP induced apoptotic cell death in activated HSCs. MGP also suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat Kupffer cell activation by decreasing nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production, and increasing interleukin-10 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the administration of MGP attenuated toxin-induced hepatic damage and fibrosis in vivo and inhibited HSC and Kupffer cell activation in vitro, suggesting that MGP might be a promising complementary or alternative therapeutic agent for liver inflammation and fibrosis.

  2. In vivo image of radioiodinated IVDU and IVFRU in HSV-TK gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tae Sup; Choi, T. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, S. J.; Choi, C. W. [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    The extent of gene delivery and expression in gene therapy with suicide genes such as herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) is assessed with measurement of selective localization of radioiodinated HSV-tk substrates in HSV-tk expressing tumor. We compared n vitro uptake of {sup 125}I-IVDU, IVFRU and in vivo image of HSV-tk gene tranduced hepatocellular carcinoma model. Using H{sub 2}O{sub 2}(hydrogen peroxide), IVDU and IVFRU was radiolabeled as carrier free form. The uptake of {sup 125}I-IVDU IVFRU was determined with increasing incubation periods in MCA-tk and MCA cell line (1X10{sup 6}cell/flask). The cell harvested and counted after incubation of 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480 minutes. For estimating accumulation of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing tumor, MCA-tk cells (1 X 10{sup 6}/100 {mu}l) injected intramuscularly into right thigh of buffalo rats. To determine selective localization of radiolabelled IVDU, IVFRU in HSV-tk expressing hepatocellular carcinoma bearing buffalo rats, MCA-tk cells (1X 10{sup 7} cell/100 {mu}l) were injected subcutaneously into both shoulders of buffalo rats. Established tumor mass implanted into liver of buffalo rats using intra-hepatic tumor injection. Two weeks later, {sup 123}I labelled IVDU, IVFRU(7.4 X 10{sup 7}Bq/200 {mu}l) injected intravenously into tail veins of each buffalo rats. Gamma camera used as revealing localization of {sup 123}I-IVDU, IVFRU in MCA-tk cells grafts rats and in vivo image was taken 2 hrs, 24 hrs after injection. radioiodinated IVDU, IVFRU were radiolabeled with {sup 123}I as labeling yield 70%, {sup 125}I as 84%. Two compounds showed minimal uptake in MCA cell line, but in MCA-tk cell line, increased uptake was observed. The ratio of MCA-tk to MCA was up to 116-fold in {sup 125}I-IVDU, up to 37-fold in {sup 125}I-IVFRU at 480 min. The uptake of IVDU was 4 times higher than IVFRU in MCA-tk cells. Gamma camera images of HSV-tk gene tranduced MCA tumor showed accumulation of {sup 123}I

  3. Effect of irradiation on gene expression of rat liver adhesion molecules. In vivo and in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriconi, Federico; Malik, Ihtzaz; Ahmad, Ghayyor; Dudas, Joszef; Ramadori, Giuliano [Dept. of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Goettingen Univ. (Germany); Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Goettingen Univ. (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Background and purpose: Migration of leukocytes into tissue is a key element of innate and adaptive immunity. An animal study showed that liver irradiation, in spite of induction of chemokine gene expression, does not lead to recruitment of leukocytes into the parenchyma. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression of adhesion molecules, which mediate leukocyte recruitment into organs, in irradiated rat liver in vivo and rat hepatocytes in vitro. Material and methods: Rat livers in vivo were irradiated selectively at 25 Gy. Isolated hepatocytes in vitro were irradiated at 8 Gy. RNA extracted within 48 h after irradiation in vivo and in vitro was analyzed by real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and Northern blot. Adhesion molecule concentration in serum was measured by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Cryostat sections of livers were used for immunohistology. Results: Significant radiation-induced increase of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), JAM-1 (junctional adhesion molecule-1), {beta}{sub 1}-integrin, {beta}{sub 2}-integrin, E-cadherin, and P-selectin gene expression could be detected in vivo, while PECAM-1 (platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) gene expression remained unchanged. In vitro, {beta}{sub 1}-integrin, JAM-1, and ICAM-2 showed a radiation-induced increased expression, whereas the levels of P-selectin, ICAM-1, PECAM-1, VCAM-1, Madcam-1 (mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1), {beta}{sub 2}-integrin, and E-cadherin were downregulated. However, incubation of irradiated hepatocytes with either tumor necrosis factor-(TNF-){alpha}, interleukin-(IL-)1{beta}, or IL-6 plus TNF-{alpha} led to an upregulation of P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Conclusion: The findings suggest that liver irradiation modulates gene expression of the main adhesion molecules in vivo and in cytokine-activated hepatocytes, with the exception of PECAM-1. This may be one reason for the lack of

  4. In Vivo Detection of c-MET Expression in a Rat Hepatocarcinogenesis Model Using Molecularly Targeted Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rheal A. Towner

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The multifunctional growth factor scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor and its tyrosine kinase receptor, c-MET, have been implicated in the genesis and malignant progression of numerous human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinomas. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in the United States has increased noticeably over the past two decades and is listed as the fifth major cancer in men worldwide. In this study, we used a choline-deficient l-amino acid (CDAA-defined rat hepatocarcinogenesis model to visualize increased in vivo expression of the c-MET antigen in neoplastic lesion formation with the use of a super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO–anti-c-MET molecularly targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agent. SPIO–anti-c-MET was used for the first time to detect overexpression of c-MET in neoplastic nodules and tumors within the livers of CDAA-treated rats, as determined by a decrease in MRI signal intensity and a decrease in regional T2 values. Specificity for the binding of the molecularly targeted anti-c-MET contrast agent was determined using rat hepatoma (H4-II-E-C3 cell cultures and immunofluorescence microscopic imaging of the targeting agents within neoplastic liver tissue 1 to 2 hours following intravenous administration of SPIO–anti-c-MET and MRI investigation. This method has the ability to visualize in vivo the overexpression of c-MET at early developmental stages of tumor formation.

  5. Effect of exercise training on in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in subcuta......Intra-abdominal obesity may be crucial in the pathogenesis of the insulin-resistance syndrome, and training may alleviate this condition. We compared insulin-mediated glucose uptake in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs; retroperitoneal, parametrial, and mesenteric......) and in subcutaneous AT and also studied the effect of training. Rats were either swim trained (15 wk, n = 9) or sedentary (n = 16). While the rats were under anesthesia, a hyperinsulinemic ( approximately 900 pM), euglycemic clamp was carried out and local glucose uptake was measured by both the 2-deoxy-D-[(3)H...... hyperinsulinemia, in part, reflecting an effect in muscle. During hyperinsulinemia, interstitial glucose concentrations were lower, glucose uptake per 100 g of tissue was higher in AT in trained compared with sedentary rats, and training influenced glucose uptake identically in all ATs. In conclusion, differences...

  6. Preparation of matrine ethosome, its percutaneous permeation in vitro and anti-inflammatory activity in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaowu, Zeng; Xiaoli, Wang; Yangde, Zhang; Nianfeng, Li

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the preparation of matrine ethosome and the percutaneous permeation in vitro and the anti-inflammatory activity in vivo in the rat skin. The matrine ethosomes were prepared by the ethanol injection-sonication method. The particle size of the ethosomes was measured by a laser particle-size analyzer, and the entrapment efficiency was detected by ultracentrifugation. The anti-inflammatory activity in vivo of the matrine formulations was determined by a reflection spectrophotometer. In this study, we found that the average particle size of matrine ethosomes was in the range of 50-200 nm with a narrow distribution, and the entrapment efficiency was in the range of 40-90%. Compared with other formulations, matrine ethosomes had the largest 24-hour accumulative permeation quantity (60.5%) and with no permeation lag time. Matrine ethosomes were able to make the induced erythema disappear more rapidly than the nonethosomes formulations of matrine. This study reveals that the average particle size of matrine ethosomes decreases with the increase of ethanol concentration and increases with the increase of phospholipid concentration, while the entrapment efficiency increases with the increase of the concentration of both ethanol and phospholipid. Matrine ethosomes can increase the percutaneous permeation of matrine in the experiment in vitro and improve the anti-inflammatory activity of matrine in vivo in rat skin.

  7. Engineered myocardial tissues constructed in vivo using cardiomyocyte-like cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Yujie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the feasibility of constructing engineered myocardial tissues (EMTs in vivo, using polylactic acid -co-glycolic acid (PLGA for scaffold and cardiomyocyte-like cells derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs for seeded cells. Methods BMMSCs were isolated from femur and tibia of Sprague-Dawley (SD rats by density-gradient centrifugation. The third passage cells were treated with 10 μmol/L 5-azacytidine (5-aza and 0.1 μmol/L angiotensin II (Ang II for 24 h, followed by culturing in complete medium for 3 weeks to differentiated into cardiomyocyte-like cells. The cardiomyocyte-like cells were seeded into PLGA scaffolds to form the grafts. The grafts were cultured in the incubator for three days and then implanted into the peritoneal cavity of SD rats. Four weeks later, routine hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining, immunohistochemical staining for myocardium-specific cardiac troponin I (cTnI, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to analyze the morphology and microconstruction of the EMTs in host rats. Results HE staining showed that the cardiomyocyte-like cells distributed equally in the PLGA scaffold, and the nuclei arranged in the spindle shape. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that majority of engrafted cells in the PLGA -Cardiomyocyte-like cells group were positive for cTnI. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the inoculated cells well attached to PLGA and grew in 3 dimensions in construct. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the EMTs contained well arranged myofilaments paralleled to the longitudinal cell axis, the cells were rich in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, while desmosomes, gap junction and Z line-like substances were also can be observed as well within the engrafted cells. Conclusion We have developed an in vivo method to construct engineered myocardial tissue. The in vivo microenvironment helped engrafted cells/tissue survive and

  8. The orally active renin inhibitor A-74273. In vivo and in vitro morpholine ring metabolism in rats, dogs, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denissen, J F; Grabowski, B A; Johnson, M K; Boyd, S A; Uchic, J T; Stein, H; Cepa, S; Hill, P

    1994-01-01

    The metabolism and disposition of [14C]A-74273--a potent, orally active renin inhibitor--were investigated in beagle dogs and Sprague-Dawley rats. Two male and two female dogs received a single 10 mg/kg oral or 1 mg/kg intravenous dose in a cross-over experiment and urine and feces were collected for 5 days. After both intravenous and oral dosing, > 92% of the dose was recovered in the feces and < 3% was recovered in the urine. The predominance of hepatobiliary elimination in the clearance of A-74273 was verified in a bile-exteriorized dog, where 79.8% of a 1 mg/kg intravenous dose was excreted in the bile within 6 hr after administration. Similarly, administration of a 1 mg/kg intravenous dose to a bile-exteriorized rat resulted in biliary excretion of 60.5% of the dose within 6 hr. Radio-HPLC analysis of bile and feces from both species indicated extensive metabolism of A-74273 to three major morpholine ring-opened metabolites; the ethanolamine A-78242, the amine A-78030, and the carboxylic acid A-81307. These three metabolites each contributed 12.0-20.2% of the biliary radioactivity after intravenous dosing, while unchanged A-74273 contributed 5-17%. Incubation of [14C]A-74273 with rat, dog, and human liver microsomes afforded nearly equal amounts of the three in vivo metabolites for all three species, suggesting that the in vitro system was representative of A-74273 in vivo metabolism and that humans should also convert A-74273 to the morpholine ring-opened metabolites in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Metabolism of myricetin and related compounds in the rat. Metabolite formation in vivo and by the intestinal microflora in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, L A; Smith, G E

    1972-11-01

    1. The metabolism of a group of polyphenols related in structure to myricetin (3,5,7,3',4',5'-hexahydroxyflavone), including myricetin, myricitrin, 3,4,5-trihydroxyphenylacetic acid, delphinidin, robinetin, tricetin, tricin, malvin and 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavone, has been studied both in vivo after oral administration to the rat and in vitro in cultures of micro-organisms derived from the intestine of the rat. 2. It was shown that the rat intestinal microflora are able to degrade compounds of this group to the ring-fission products observed in urine after oral administration of the specific flavonoid. 3. All flavones and flavonols possessing free 5- and 7-hydroxyl groups in the A ring and a free 4'-hydroxyl group in the B ring gave rise to ring-fission products that included 3',5'-dihydroxyphenylacyl derivatives. 4. The metabolites 3,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3,5-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were isolated and identified by chromatographic and spectral methods. 5. On anaerobic incubation in a thioglycollate medium it was shown that intestinal micro-organisms can effect cleavage of glycosidic bonds, ring fission of certain flavonoid molecules showing 3',4',5'-trihydroxyphenyl substitution and dehydroxylation of certain flavonoid metabolites. 6. The urinary excretion of the metabolites 3,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was completely abolished when neomycin-treated rats were used.

  10. In vivo total body water assessment by total body electrical conductivity in rats suffering perturbations of water compartment equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistini, N; Virgili, F; Bedogni, G; Gambella, G R; Bini, A

    1993-09-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) is a simple and non-invasive method for the assessment of body composition in vivo. Information regarding the applicability of TOBEC in the condition of abnormal fluid balance is scarce. In the present paper we give the results of the comparison between TOBEC and total body water (TBW; assessed by the tritium dilution technique) in three groups of animals: (1) healthy (n 17), (2) expanded fluid volume by secondary biliary cirrhosis (SBC; n 9) and (3) Furosemide-treated rats (n 9). The TOBEC score and TBW by tritium dilution were found to be highly correlated in the pooled sample (r 0.90) and in normal (r 0.87), SBC (r 0.73) and Furosemide-treated (r 0.89) rats. However, the relationship between TOBEC and TBW, described by least-squares regression analysis, was found to be similar for SBC and normal rats but was significantly different for Furosemide-treated and normal rats. These findings suggest that TOBEC is unable to track TBW accurately when the ratio between intracellular and extracellular water is chronically or acutely altered.

  11. Regulation of Hepatic Glutathione Turnover in Rats In Vivo and Evidence for Kinetic Homogeneity of the Hepatic Glutathione Pool

    OpenAIRE

    Lauterburg, Bernhard H.; Mitchell, Jerry R.

    1981-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of glutathione into kinetically distinct pools and the determinants of glutathione turnover were examined in vivo. Glutathione turnover was measured in individual, restrained rats with a biliary fistula by administration of acetaminophen to trap the previously labeled hepatic glutathione as an excretable acetaminophen adduct. Fasting for 48 h resulted in a decrease of hepatic glutathione from 4.7±0.9 to 3.6±0.8 μmol/g liver and a marked increase in the fractiona...

  12. Swarm Rat Chondrosarcoma Cells as an in vivo model: Lung Colonization and Effects of Tissue Environment on Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcuende, Jose A.; Stevens, Jeff W.; Scheetz, Todd E.; de Fatima Bonaldoc, Maria; Casavant, Thomas L.; Otero, Jesse E.; Soares, Marcelo B.

    2012-01-01

    Swarm rat chondrosarcoma cells have been used extensively for biochemical studies of extra-cellular matrix metabolism in cartilage. However, these cells also possess tumor-like behavior in vivo and are useful in investigation of chondrosarcoma biology. the current study was designed to develop a metastatic model using swarm rat chondrosarcoma cells, and to assess the effect of tissue-environment on tumor behavior in vivo. Tumors were implanted subcutaneously or into bone, and animals were assessed radiographically and microscopically for tumor growth and metastasis. The subcutaneous tumor grew to an average mass of 35 g, while tumor implanted into bone grew 75 mg. Transplantation of the cells into the bone led to extensive bone remodeling with invasion of the medullary cavity and destruction of the bone cortex. Light microscopy demonstrated no significant differences in the number of mitoses, cellular atypia or extracellular matrix staining between the two sites of tumor implantation. Interestingly, lung colonization was observed in none of the animals in the subcutaneous tumor injection group, while tumors colonized the lungs in 95% of the rats with tumor injected into bone. Analysis of cDNA libraries from subcutaneous and bone-transplanted tumors demonstrated a complex and diverse array of expressed transcripts, and there were significant differences in gene expression between tumors at different sites. The results of this study suggest swarm rat chondrosarcoma is a model that resembles human chondrosarcoma mimicking its ability to infiltrate and remodel local bone and to colonize the lungs. Furthermore, the interaction between host-tissue and tumor cells plays a major role in the tumor behavior in this model. Identifying these interactions will lead to further understanding of chondrosarcoma and contribute to therapeutic targets in the future. PMID:23576921

  13. In vivo investigations of genetically modified microorganisms using germ-free rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund jacobsen, Bodil

    of gnotobiotic rats. The plasmid pLMP1 containing a selectable marker of a I!,. lactis strain was not transferred. The use of germ-free rats has led to a reduction in the number of laboratory animals needed for obtaining information regarding the fate and effect of GMMO in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract....

  14. Characterization and in vivo regulation of V sub 1 -type vasopressin receptors in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shewey, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Specific, high affinity binding sites for ({sup 3}H)-arginine{sup 8}-vasopressin (AVP) have been characterized in Long-Evans rat septal membranes. Binding displacement studies with peptide analogs of AVP indicate that this binding site is similar to the V{sub 1} (pressor)-type receptor for AVP. When added to rat brain septal slices that had been pre-labeled with ({sup 3}H)-myoinositol, AVP stimulated the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1-phosphate (IP{sub 1}) in the presence of lithium in a dose-dependent manner. This stimulation was completely inhibited by the specific V{sub 1} antagonists, d(CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP, indicating that AVP stimulates hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in rat brain septum through an interaction with V{sub 1}-type AVP receptors. Binding studies of AVP receptors in the septum of heterozygous (HE) and homozygous, Brattleboro (BB) rats revealed an increased number of receptors with a lower affinity for AVP in the HO-BB rat when compared to the HE-BB rat. AVP-stimulated accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} was significantly greater in the septum of the HO-BB rat than in the HE-BB rat. AVP receptor binding capacity correlated with release of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} for all three groups studied.

  15. A reproducible in-vivo model of lymphatic malformation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y; Jia, J; Zhang, W; Liu, B; Zhang, Z; Zhao, Y

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a reproducible rat model of lymphatic malformation. Different types of adjuvant, with and without vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, was injected into the neck and floor of the mouth of rats. The rats were killed 2 months after the injection. Injected rats developed cystic lesions in the neck and floor of the mouth. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the cysts were lined by endothelium, which expressed the lymphatic endothelial markers LYVE-1 and VEGF receptor-3. Raman spectra of the liquid contents of the cysts were similar in all injected rats. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the endothelial cells had no basement membrane or surrounding pericytes. The cystic lesions were consistent with human lymphatic malformation. This animal model could be used to investigate pathogenesis of lymphatic malformation and its responses to candidate therapies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Comparative characteristics of in vivo models of hyperlipidemia in Wistar rats and C57Bl/6 mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apryatin, S A; Mzhelskaya, K V; Trusov, N V; Balakina, A S; Kulakova, S N; Soto, S Kh; Makarenko, M A; Riger, N A; Tutelyan, V A

    2016-01-01

    In vivo simulation of lipid disorders (hyperlipidemia, obesity, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis) is of considerable interest to search for genomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic markers that allow for differential diagnosis, prognosis and selection of personalized diet therapy in patients with such pathology. The aim of the study was the development and characterization of basic biochemical parameters of in vivo models of alimentary hyperlipidemia in outbred rats and inbred mice. The experiment was con­ducted on 48 growing female Wistar rats, and 48 growing female mice of line C57Black/6, which were divided into 12 groups of 8 animals per group. Within 63 days the rats and mice of first (control) group received a balanced semi synthetic diet (BD), the animals of the second groups - high-fat diet (HFD) with 30% of the total fat by weight of dry feed, third groups - BD and fructose solution (Fr) instead of water, the fourth groups -HFD + Fr, fifth groups - BD supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol (Cho) by weight of dry feed, sixth groups - BD with Cho and Fr. The amount and composition of diets consumed were corrected during the experiment for their closest approach in calories. After removal of animals from the experiment there were determined the mass of internal organs, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose in blood plasma, total lipids and their fatty acid composition in liver, ghrelin, GIP, GLP-1, glucagon, leptin, PAI-1, resistin levels in blood plasma. It was found that in both species the liver is the most sensitive to nutritional imbalance, nutrient exerting the greatest impact on this was Fr. In rats, as compared to mice, there was significantly more pronounced shifts in lipoprotein spectrum in response to nutritional imbalances, especially to the consumption of additional Cho, which was manifested in an increase of LDL, decrease of HDL and magnification of atherogenic index. In the liver of rats fed diets with Cho, marked steatosis

  17. Cosmos caudatus enhances fracture healing in ovariectomised rats: A preliminary biomechanical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Godspower Rufus; Norazlina Mohamed; Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

    2015-01-01

    Summary. Osteoporotic fractures occur in osteoporotic states and affect patients’ quality of life. Cosmos caudatus (ulam raja) is a local plant known for its high calcium content and anti-oxidant properties. The present study aimed to investigate the fracture healing properties of C. caudatus water extract in ovariectomised rats by studying the biomechanical properties of tibia. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: (i) sham operated (ii) ovariectomised control (i...

  18. Antidiarrheal effect of sodium hydrosulfide in diabetic rats: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh-Dezfuli, M; Fanaei, H; Gharib-Naseri, M K; Nasri, S; Mard, S A

    2017-12-29

    The inhibitory effects of H 2 S on spontaneous contractions of smooth muscles of small, and large intestines well-established but its role in the pathophysiology of diarrhea has not been identified. Therefore, this study evaluated the role of exogenous H 2 S (NaHS) on diabetic-induced diarrhea and determined mRNA expression of cystathionine β-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine γ-synthase (CBS) in diabetic rats. In order to evaluate antidiarrheal effect of H 2 S, normal and diabetic rats received NaHS and L-Cysteine and the total number of fecal pellets (FP) determined. The effect of NaHS on intestinal transit ratio (ITR) was also evaluated in diabetic rats. The level of mRNA expressions of CBS and CSE determined in smooth muscles of jejunum, ileum, and colon in normal, and diabetic rats. The effect of NaHS on frequency and tension of spontaneous contractions of smooth muscle strips of colon, ileum, and jejunum were investigated. NaHS decreased ITR, total number of FP, frequency and tension of spontaneous contractions of colon, ileum, and jejunum muscle strips in diabetic rats. The level of mRNA expression of CSE and CBS in diabetic rats were lower than in normal rats. NaHS, and L-Cysteine decreased the number of FP in normal rats. These findings showed NaHS effectively controlled diarrhea in diabetic rats through decreasing the frequency, and tension of spontaneous contraction of smooth muscles of large, and small intestines. The increased frequency and tension of spontaneous contractions of smooth muscles in diabetic rats may be due to down-regulation of H 2 S biosynthesis enzymes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. In vivo dosimetry of high-dose fractionated irradiation in an experimental set-up with rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortan, L.; Van Hecke, H.; Van Duyse, B.; De Neve, W.; De Meerleer, B. [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Kliniek voor Radiotherapie en Kerngeneeskunde; Pattyn, P.; Van Renthergem, K. [Ghent University (Belgium). Dept. of Surgery

    1995-12-01

    The feasibility to irradiate a limited section of a rat abdomen with well-defined edges was assessed. Because of the relative small volume involved, in vivo dosimetry with TLDs was necessary in providing us information about the accuracy of the irradiation method. Three to five days prior to the start of the radiotherapy treatment, two plastic strips - each containing a TLD-dosimeter (Harshaw TLD10 LiF rods, 1 mm dia x 6 mm) sealed in polyethylene tubing, and a lead bean - were implanted in the rat abdomen. The plastic strips made a closed loop around the bowel, through the mesenterium, and were fixed with a single stitch on the inner abdominal wall. One loop was made in the hepatic area; another was made in the lower abdomen, around the rectosigmoid. Conscious animals were irradiated using a purpose-build plexi-holder, with rear legs immobilised to avoid longitudinal movements. The implanted lead beans enabled us to simulate the rat prior to each radiation session. This way, the radiation field could be set up individually for each rat, in such way that the rectosigmoid area received full dose and the hepatic area received no irradiation dose at all. Irradiation was carried out, using 5 MV photons of a linear accelerator. Fifteen animals per group were irradiated according a conventional (2.0 Gy / fraction; 5 fractions / week) or a hyperfractionated (1.6 Gy / fraction; 2 daily fractions; 5 days / week) schedule, with different total doses. Prior to implantation, TLDs were individually calibrated and checked for stability. After removal from the abdomen . TLDs were tested again for accuracy. TLDs with an unacceptable read-out curve were rejected (about 2 to 4 TLDs per group of 15). The obtained accumulated doses - as determined by TLD read-outs-were comparable to the theoretical doses, indicating that fractionated radiation of small fields, with well defined mark off, in rats is feasible.

  20. Parallelogram approach using rat-human In vitro and rat in vivo toxicogenomics predicts acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienhuis, A.S.; Poll, M.C.G. van de; Wortelboer, H.; Herwijnen, M. van; Gottschalk, R.; Jong, C.H.C. de; Boorsma, A.; Paules, R.S.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Stierum, R.H.; Delft, J.H.M. van

    2009-01-01

    The frequent use of rodent hepatic in vitro systems in pharmacological and toxicological investigations challenges extrapolation of in vitro results to the situation in vivo and interspecies extrapolation from rodents to humans. The toxicogenomics approach may aid in evaluating relevance of these

  1. Intermittent fasting modulation of the diabetic syndrome in sand rats. II. In vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2010-11-01

    This study deals with the effects of daily intermittent fasting for 15 h upon the development of diabetes in sand rats exposed to a hypercaloric diet. The same pattern of daily intermittent fasting was imposed on sand rats maintained on a purely vegetal diet (control animals). Over the last 30 days of the present experiments, non-fasting animals gained weight, whilst intermittently fasting sand rats lost weight. In this respect, there was no significant difference between control animals and either diabetic or non-diabetic sand rats exposed to the hypercaloric diet. The postprandial glycemia remained fairly stable in the control animals. During a 3-week transition period from a purely vegetal to a hypercaloric diet, the post-prandial glycemia increased by 5.95 ± 1.26 mM (n=6) in diabetic sand rats, as distinct from an increase of only 0.45 ± 0.56 mM (n=6) in the non-diabetic animals. During the intermittent fasting period, the postprandial glycemia decreased significantly in the diabetic animals, but not so in the non-diabetic sand rats. Before the switch in food intake, the peak glycemia at the 30th min of an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was already higher in the diabetic than non-diabetic rats. In both the non-diabetic and diabetic sand rats, intermittent fasting prevented the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise observed in non-fasting animals. These findings reveal that, at least in sand rats, intermittent daily fasting prevents the progressive deterioration of glucose tolerance otherwise taking place when these animals are exposed to a hypercaloric diet.

  2. Acute and Subacute Toxicity In Vivo of Thermal-Sprayed Silver Containing Hydroxyapatite Coating in Rat Tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatsugu Tsukamoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA containing silver (Ag. This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2–4 days after treatment and subacute phase (4–12 weeks after treatment. Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation.

  3. Acute and subacute toxicity in vivo of thermal-sprayed silver containing hydroxyapatite coating in rat tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Ando, Yoshiki; Noda, Iwao; Eto, Shuichi; Akiyama, Takayuki; Yonekura, Yutaka; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To reduce the incidence of implant-associated infection, we previously developed a novel coating technology using hydroxyapatite (HA) containing silver (Ag). This study examined in vivo acute and subacute toxicity associated with the Ag-HA coating in rat tibiae. Ten-week-old rats received implantation of HA-, 2% Ag-HA-, or 50% Ag-HA-coated titanium rods. Concentrations of silver in serum, brain, liver, kidneys, and spleen were measured in the acute phase (2-4 days after treatment) and subacute phase (4-12 weeks after treatment). Biochemical and histological examinations of those organs were also performed. Mean serum silver concentration peaked in the acute phase and then gradually decreased. Mean silver concentrations in all examined organs from the 2% Ag-HA coating groups showed no significant differences compared with the HA coating group. No significant differences in mean levels of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, or blood urea nitrogen were seen between the three groups and controls. Histological examinations of all organs revealed no abnormal pathologic findings. No acute or subacute toxicity was seen in vivo for 2% Ag-HA coating or HA coating. Ag-HA coatings on implants may represent biologically safe antibacterial biomaterials and may be of value for reducing surgical-site infections related to implantation.

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of a Novel Ferrocyanide Functionalized Nanopourous Silica Decorporation Agent for Cesium in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Charles; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Wiacek, Robert J.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2010-09-01

    Novel decorporation agents are being developed to protect against radiological terrorist attacks. These sorbents, known as the self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous supports (SAMMS™), are hybrid materials where differing organic moieties are grafted onto mesoporous silica (SiO2). In vitro experiments focused on the evaluation, and optimization of SAMMS for capturing radiocesium (137Cs); based on these studies, a ferrocyanide copper (FC-Cu-EDA)-SAMMS was advanced for in vivo evaluation. In vivo experiments were conducted comparing the performance of the SAMMS vs. insoluble Prussian blue. Groups of jugular cannulated rats (4/treatment) were evaluated. Group I was administered 137Cs (~40 μgeq/kg) by intravenous (iv) injection and oral gavage; Group II was administered pre-bound 137Cs-SAMMS and sequential 137Cs + SAMMS (~61 ngeq/kg) by oral gavage; and Group III evaluated orally administered 137Cs (~0.06 μgeq/kg) followed by 0.1 g of either SAMMS or Prussian blue. Following dosing the rats were maintained in metabolism cages for 72 hour and blood, urine and fecal samples were collected for 137Cs analysis (gamma counting). Rats were then humanely euthanized, and selected tissues analyzed. Orally administered 137Cs was rapidly and well absorbed (~100% relative to iv dose), and the pharmacokinetics (blood, urine, feces & tissues) were very comparable to the iv dose group. For both exposures the urine and feces accounted for 20 and 3% of the dose, respectively. The prebound 137Cs-SAMMS was retained primarily within the feces (72% of the dose), with ~1.4% detected in the urine, suggesting that the 137Cs remained tightly bound to SAMMS. SAMMS & Prussian blue both effectively captured available 137Cs in the gut with feces accounting for 80-88% of the administered dose, while less than 2% was detected in the urine. This study suggests that the functionalized SAMMS out performs Prussian blue in vitro at low pH, but demonstrates comparable in vivo sequestration efficacy at

  5. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in man induce aberrant crypt foci in rats: Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kai; Fard, Sara; Furrer, Rudolf; Archer, Michael C; Bruce, W Robert; Lip, HoYin; Mehta, Rhea; O'Brien, Peter J; Giacca, Adria; Ward, Wendy E; Femia, A Pietro; Caderni, Giovanna; Medline, Alan; Banks, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated clear associations between specific dietary and environmental risk factors and incidence of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms responsible for these associations are not known. An animal model could facilitate such an understanding. Both genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens induce aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colons of F344 rats. F344 rats were provided with diets that contained putative risk factors for CRC: low calcium and low vitamin D, high iron, high fructose, and decreased light (UV) exposure or a control diet for 14 wk. The rats were then assessed with biochemical measures and by topological examination for evidence of colon abnormalities. Circulating ionized calcium was decreased from 2.85 to 1.69 mmol/L, and ACF were increased from 0.7 to 13.6 lesions/colon (both P < 0.001). Rats exposed to the multiple environmental conditions associated with colon cancer, developed ACF similar to the heterogeneous or ill-defined ACF in the human colon. Heterogeneous ACF are the most frequently seen in humans and are also seen in rats shortly after exposure to the non-genotoxic colon carcinogen, dextransulfate sodium. The rodent model could be used to assess the pathways from diet and environment to colon cancer and to provide guidance for clinical studies.

  6. Linking Binge Alcohol-Induced Neurodamage to Brain Edema and Potential Aquaporin-4 Upregulation: Evidence in Rat Organotypic Brain Slice Cultures and In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Sripathirathan, Kumar; Brown, James; Neafsey, Edward J.; Collins, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Brain edema and derived oxidative stress potentially are critical events in the hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) neurodegeneration caused by binge alcohol (ethanol) intoxication and withdrawal in adult rats. Edema's role is based on findings that furosemide diuretic antagonizes binge alcohol–dependent brain overhydration and neurodamage in vivo and in rat organotypic HEC slice cultures. However, evidence that furosemide has significant antioxidant potential and knowledge that alcohol can...

  7. Effect of endotoxin on lipid peroxidation in vivo in selenium and vitamin E deficient rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sword, J.T.; Pope, A.L.; Hoekstra, W.G.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have used respiratory ethane production by selenium (Se) and vitamin E (E) deficient rats, an index of lipid peroxidation, to identify oxidant stressors which might precipitate sudden tissue degeneration in deficient animals. Other studies have suggested that endotoxin (gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide-LPS) might be such an oxidant stressor, especially in the lungs. Male weanling rats were fed a Se and E deficient diet for about 80 days. Rats were injected ip with Salmonella typhimurium LPS (.25, .5, or 1.0 mg/kg) or saline, and respiratory ethane was collected for 16 hr. In a representative experiment, mean rate of ethane production (nm/100g/hr) was increased (p < .01) by LPS: saline, .48 +/- .04 (SEM); .25 mg LPS/kg, 1.30 +/- .17; .5, 1.47 +/- .18 and 1.0, 1.68 +/- .18. E. coli and S. minnesota LPS gave similar results. Rats fed a supplemented diet (.2 ppm Se and 200 IU E/kg diet) produced less (p < .01) ethane: saline, .068 +/- .009 and .5 mg LPS/kg, .114 +/- .01. Over all experiments LPS produced a small yet significant increase in ethane in rats receiving Se or E supplementation but produced a marked increase in unsupplemented rats. In further studies with LPS treated rats, Se supplementation alone was 73%, and E supplementation alone 99% as effective as Se + E. These results showed that LPS stimulates lipid peroxidation in Se and E deficient rats and that infections may initiate oxidative cell damage in deficient animals. E was more protective than Se against LPS-induced peroxidation.

  8. Preliminary EEG study of protective effects of Tebonin in transient global cerebral ischemia in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zagrean, L; Vatasescu, R; Munteanu, A M

    2000-01-01

    and metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of preventive treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761--Tebonin) in cerebral global ischemia and reperfusion in rats using computerized EEG analysis. Ginkgo biloba extract, known to be, in vitro, a free radicals scavanger and a PAF......--antagonist, was administrated in dose of 100 mg/kg over 24 hours, for 5 days before and 5 days after cerebral ischemia--reperfusion. The apparition of isoelectric EEG (flat-line) following 4-vessel occlusion was observed after a mean time of 25 sec. in Ginkgo biloba treated rats and after 18 sec. in control rats (p ....0015). Computerized spectral analysis of EEG has shown that the percentage of slow waves at 10 minutes after reperfusion was 117% higher in control group than in Ginkgo biloba group (p Ginkgo...

  9. Effects of a Tricaprylin Emulsion on Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis in Rats: In Vivo and in Silico Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Shi, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Yasue, Misato; Takei, Yoshinori; Sanefuji, Hayato; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Hirasawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a set of pathological conditions that result in the destruction of glomeruli and loss of renal function, commonly leading to the development of end-stage renal disease. Current pharmacotherapy is limited to immunosuppressive therapy. In the present study, we found a novel antinephritic effect of a tricaprylin emulsion in the anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) GN rat model. We evaluated the treatment in vivo by comparing administration of the emulsion with administration of a casein kinase II (CK2) inhibitor in this rat model, and performed a gene ontology-based microarray analysis to reveal in silico the detailed mechanism of action. Our results showed that administration of the tricaprylin emulsion, or even tricaprylin alone, significantly ameliorated the anti-GBM antibody-induced renal dysfunction in these rats. We believe that tricaprylin is the key active antinephritic component of the emulsion and might be a promising drug for the effective treatment of nephritis. Moreover, with respect to microarray analysis, we developed a generally applicable and rapid method to compare gene expression profile data for multiple models of nephritis and clinical samples from a public domain microarray database.

  10. Study on the small intestine absorptive kinetics characters of tanshinol and protocatechualdehyde of Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts in rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kai; Zhai, Shuiting; Zhang, Zhidong; Wang, Guoquan; Fu, Xiaoyang; Li, Tianxiao

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide scientific basis for clinical selection of drugs, to compare and analyze the effective constitutes and the intestinal absorption in vivo in rats of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills (taken as the representatives). Determine the contents of tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B and tanshinone II A, cryptotanshinone, ginseng saponin Rg1 and Rb1 in the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The intestinal absorption condition of the tanshinol, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid B of the compound salvia tablets and compound salvia dropping pills in rats were detected by intestinal perfusion experiment. Only the intake of protocatechuic aldehyde in the compound salvia tablets was higher than in the compound dropping pills, the intake of the other 6 effective constitutes were all lower than in the compound dropping pills. The intestinal absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was rather complete, while the intestinal absorption of tanshinol and salvianolic acid B were not significant. The duodenum was the main absorption region of these three components. The absorption of protocatechuic aldehyde was different in different regions of the intestines. Each intake of the effective constitutes in the tablets and dropping pills were significantly different, and the rat intestinal absorption of part of the components were different.

  11. Rat model of influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE): studies of electroencephalogram (EEG) in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cissé, Y; Wang, S; Inoue, I; Kido, H

    2010-02-17

    Influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is characterized by severe neurological complications during high-grade fever with high morbidity and mortality in children. The major neurological complications during high-grade fever include convulsive seizures, loss of consciousness, neuropsychiatric behavior (hallucination, meaningless speech, disorientation, laughing alone); high voltage amplitude slow waves and the occurrence of theta oscillation are depicted on the electroencephalogram (EEG) in the IAE patients. At the early phase of the disease, the cytokines levels increase in severe cases. To understand the neuronal properties in the CNS leading to these neurological complications in IAE patients, we recorded EEG signals from the hippocampus and cortex of rats infected with influenza A/WSN/33 H1N1 virus (IAV) strain. Abnormal EEG activities were observed in all infected rats under anesthesia, including high voltage EEG burst amplitude and increased EEG spikes in the early phase (8 h-day 2) of infection, and these increases at the early phase were in parallel with a significant increase level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the serum. When the infected rats were heat-stressed by elevating the rat body core temperature to 39-41 degrees C, these abnormal EEG activities were enhanced, and the oscillation pattern shifted in most of rats from slow bursting waves (EEG activities in IAE patients could be well reproduced in anesthetized IAV infected rats under hyperthermia, hence this animal model will be useful for further understandings the mechanism of neuronal complications in IAE patient during high-grade fever.

  12. A rapid and sensitive HPLC-MS/MS analysis and preliminary pharmacokinetic characterization of sibiricaxanthone F in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Guanshen; Zou, Pingping; Ning, Ying; Zan, Ke; Tu, Pengfei; Jiang, Yong

    2011-09-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for quantifying sibiricaxanthone F (SF) in rat plasma following oral and intravenous dosings. After addition of the internal standard (IS) kaempferol and the antioxidant, 20% ascorbic acid, plasma samples were precipitated with acetonitrile and separated on an Aglient Zorbax XDB-C(18) column (50 mm × 4.6mm I.D., 2.1 μm) with gradient acetonitrile and water (both containing 0.01% formic acid) as the mobile phase. The detection was performed on a Sciex API 4000 LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) inlet in the negative multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Good linearity was achieved over the concentration range of 0.5-500.0ng/mL (r>0.996). Intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 7.60%, and accuracy ranged from 97.18% to 99.84%. The lower limit of quantification for SF was 0.5 ng/mL, and analytes were stable under various conditions (during freeze-thaw, at room temperature and under deep-freeze conditions). This validated method was successfully applied to the preliminary pharmacokinetic study of SF in rats for the first time, and the absolute bioavailability of SF was found to be only 0.22 ± 0.15%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tissue optical properties from spatially resolved reflectance: calibration and in vivo application on rat kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladytz, Thomas; Hoppe, Alexander; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Pohlmann, Andreas; Niendorf, Thoralf; Seeliger, Erdmann; Grosenick, Dirk

    2017-07-01

    Spatially resolved reflectance was measured on various phantoms and in vivo to evaluate its performance in determining their optical properties. To obtain reliable results it was necessary to use the absolute values of the reflectance.

  14. Evidence for diffuse central retinal edema in vivo in diabetic male Sprague Dawley rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkowitz, Bruce A; Bissig, David; Ye, Yongquan; Valsadia, Puja; Kern, Timothy S; Roberts, Robin

    2012-01-01

    .... In this study we test the hypothesis that a previously reported supernormal central retinal thickness on MRI measured in experimental diabetic retinopathy in vivo represents a persistent and diffuse edema...

  15. Vapor Inhalation Exposure to Soman in Conscious Untreated Rats: Preliminary Assessment of Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-22

    2010). Spontaneous recurrent seizures after status epilepticus induced by soman in Sprague-Dawley rats. Epilepsia 51:1503–10. Franz DR, Hilaski R...its treatment with new antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 49:63–73. Wong B, Perkins MW, Santos MD, et al. (2013). Development of a model for nerve agent

  16. Further assessment of Monkeypox Virus infection in Gambian pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falendysz, Elizabeth; Lopera, Juan G.; Faye Lorenzsonn,; Salzer, Johanna S.; Hutson, Christina L.; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003,Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  17. In Vivo Assessment of Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidant Activity from Oil of Seeds of Brassica Nigra in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was made to investigate the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of oil of seeds of Brassica nigra (BNO in streptozotocin -nicotinamide (STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats. Methods: BNO was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic study. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results: Administration of BNO at a dose 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight p.o. to STZ diabetic rats showed reduction in blood glucose level from 335 mg/dl to 280 mg/dl at 4th h and from 330 mg/dl to 265 mg/dl respectively which was found significant (p<0.01 as compared with diabetic control. BNO (500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in glycosylated hemoglobin in test groups as compared to control group. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rat’s revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and increased reduced glutathione (GSH. Conclusion: Thus the results showed that the oil of seeds of Brassica nigra has significant antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity.

  18. In vivo treatment with diphenyl ditelluride induces neurodegeneration in striatum of young rats: Implications of MAPK and Akt pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimfarth, Luana; Loureiro, Samanta Oliveira; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Andrade, Cláudia; Pettenuzzo, Letícia; Guma, Fátima T. Costa Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto Saraiva [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Batista Teixeira da Rocha, João [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS Brazil (Brazil); Pessoa-Pureur, Regina, E-mail: rpureur@ufrgs.br [Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    In the present report 15 day-old Wistar rats were injected with 0.3 μmol of diphenyl ditelluride (PhTe){sub 2}/kg body weight and parameters of neurodegeneration were analyzed in slices from striatum 6 days afterwards. We found hyperphosphorylation of intermediate filament (IF) proteins from astrocyte (glial fibrillary acidic protein—GFAP and vimentin) and from neuron (low-, medium- and high molecular weight neurofilament subunits: NF-L, NF-M and NF-H, respectively) and increased MAPK (Erk, JNK and p38MAPK) as well as PKA activities. The treatment induced reactive astrogliosis in the striatum, evidenced by increased GFAP and vimentin immunocontent as well as their mRNA overexpression. Also, (PhTe){sub 2} significantly increased the propidium iodide (PI) positive cells in NeuN positive population without altering PI incorporation into GFAP positive cells, indicating that in vivo exposure to (PhTe){sub 2} provoked neuronal damage. Immunohistochemistry showed a dramatic increase of GFAP staining characteristic of reactive astrogliosis. Moreover, increased caspase 3 in (PhTe){sub 2} treated striatal slices suggested apoptotic cell death. (PhTe){sub 2} exposure decreased Akt immunoreactivity, however phospho-GSK-3-β (Ser9) was unaltered, suggesting that this kinase is not directly implicated in the neurotoxicity of this compound. Therefore, the present results shed light into the mechanisms of (PhTe){sub 2}-induced neurodegeneration in rat striatum, evidencing a critical role for the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways and disruption of cytoskeletal homeostasis, which could be related with apoptotic neuronal death and astrogliosis. -- Highlights: ► Diphenyl ditelluride causes apoptotic neuronal death in the striatum of young rats. ► Diphenyl ditelluride causes reactive astrogliosis in the striatum of rats. ► Diphenyl ditelluride disrupts the homeostasis of the cytoskeleton of the striatum. ► The actions of diphenyl ditelluride are mediated by MAPK and Akt

  19. Water extracts of cabbage and kale inhibit ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA damage but not rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Horst

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemopreventive potential of water extracts of the Brassica vegetables cabbage and kale was evaluated by administering their aqueous extracts in drinking water ad libitum to Wistar rats submitted to Ito’s hepatocarcinogenesis model (CB group and K group, respectively - 14 rats per group. Animals submitted to this same model and treated with water were used as controls (W group - 15 rats. Treatment with the vegetable extracts did not inhibit (P > 0.05 placental glutathione S-transferase-positive preneoplastic lesions (PNL. The number of apoptotic bodies did not differ (P > 0.05 among the experimental groups. Ex vivo hydrogen peroxide treatment of rat livers resulted in lower (P < 0.05 DNA strand breakage in cabbage- (107.6 ± 7.8 µm and kale- (110.8 ± 10.0 µm treated animals compared with control (120.9 ± 12.7 µm, as evaluated by the single cell gel (comet assay. Treatment with cabbage (2 ± 0.3 µg/g or kale (4 ± 0.2 µg/g resulted in increased (P < 0.05 hepatic lutein concentration compared with control (0.5 ± 0.07 µg/g. Despite the absence of inhibitory effects of cabbage and kale aqueous extracts on PNL, these Brassica vegetables presented protection against DNA damage, an effect possibly related to increased hepatic lutein concentrations. However, it must be pointed out that the cause-effect relationship between lutein levels and protection is hypothetical and remains to be demonstrated.

  20. Sympathoadrenal-dependent sexually dimorphic effect of nonhabituating stress on in vivo neutrophil recruitment in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Laura A; Dazin, Paul F; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G

    2005-01-01

    Since stress both activates the sympathoadrenal axis and profoundly affects inflammation and inflammatory diseases, many of which are sexually dimorphic, we tested whether the effect of stress on neutrophil recruitment, a primary component of the acute inflammatory response, is sexually dimorphic. The effect of intermittent sound (over 4 days), a nonhabituating stress, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced recruitment of neutrophils was evaluated in vivo in the rat air pouch model. At 24 h following the last stress exposure, LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment was enhanced in male rats, but not in females. When gonadectomized prepubertally and tested as adults, stress significantly inhibited the magnitude of LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment in males, while it still had no effect in gonadectomized females. In males, following adrenal denervation, the increase in LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment produced by stress was prevented. Since these data suggest that the effect of stress is dependent on the sympathoadrenal axis, we tested the hypothesis that catecholamines mediate the stress effects. In male rats, the effect of stress on LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment was significantly attenuated by continuous administration of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol (4 mg kg−1 day−1), during sound stress exposure, and administration of isoproterenol (10 nmoles, i.v.) significantly increased neutrophil recruitment in males, an effect that was qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the effect of stress. Propranolol significantly increased neutrophil recruitment in nonstressed female rats, but did not significantly affect neutrophil recruitment in stressed females. These findings indicate a marked male sex hormone-dependent sexual dimorphism in the sympathoadrenal-dependent effect of stress on neutrophil migration, a primary component of the inflammatory response, and suggest that the sympathoadrenal axis contributes to this effect via release

  1. Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falendysz, Elizabeth A; Lopera, Juan G; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Salzer, Johanna S; Hutson, Christina L; Doty, Jeffrey; Gallardo-Romero, Nadia; Carroll, Darin S; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI) was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture) were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  2. Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Falendysz

    Full Text Available Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus. Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three animals by the intradermal route and three animals by the intranasal route, with one mock-infected control for each route. Bioluminescent imaging (BLI was used to track replicating virus in infected animals and virological assays (e.g. real time PCR, cell culture were used to determine viral load in blood, urine, ocular, nasal, oral, and rectal swabs. Intradermal inoculation resulted in clinical signs of monkeypox infection in two of three animals. One severely ill animal was euthanized and the other affected animal recovered. In contrast, intranasal inoculation resulted in subclinical infection in all three animals. All animals, regardless of apparent or inapparent infection, shed virus in oral and nasal secretions. Additionally, BLI identified viral replication in the skin without grossly visible lesions. These results suggest that Gambian pouched rats may play an important role in transmission of the virus to humans, as they are hunted for consumption and it is possible for MPXV-infected pouched rats to shed infectious virus without displaying overt clinical signs.

  3. Use of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of osteomalacia: preliminary results on experimental osteomalacia in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetto, G; Camozzi, V; De Terlizzi, F; Moschini, G; Ballanti, P

    1999-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the ability of ultrasonographic technique to distinguish osteomalacia from normal bone with the same mineral content. Ten rats with experimentally induced osteomalacia (group A) and 12 control rats having similar body size and weight (group B) were studied. Histomorphometric analysis confirmed the presence of osteomalacia in two rats from group A and showed normally mineralized bone in two rats from group B. Whole body bone mineral density, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, was similar in the two groups (86 +/- 6 mg/cm2 in group A and 89 +/- 4 mg/cm2 in group B). The velocity of the ultrasound beam in bone was measured by densitometer at the first caudal vertebra of each rat. The velocity was measured when the first peak of the waveform reached a predetermined minimum amplitude value (amplitude-dependent speed of sound) as well as at the lowest point of this curve before it reaches the predetermined minimum amplitude (first minimum speed of sound). Although the amplitude-dependent speed of sound was similar in the two groups (1381.9 +/- 11.8 m/s in group A and 1390.9 +/- 17.8 m/s in group B), the first minimum speed of sound was clearly different (1446.1 +/- 8.9 m/s in group A and 1503.3 +/- 10.9 m/s in group B; P < 0.001). This study shows that ultrasonography could be used to identify alterations in bone quality, such as osteomalacia, but further studies need to be carried out before this method can be introduced into clinical practice.

  4. The inductive effects of Centella asiatica on rat spermatogenic cell apoptosis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mahnaz; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-04-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban has been traditionally used for the treatment of various disease and as a food for thousands of years in various parts of the world including eastern Asia, China and India. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Centella asiatica aqueous leaf extract on the induction of spermatogenic cell apoptosis in male rats. After lethal dose (LD(50)) assessment of plant extract, rats were divided in five groups. The experimental groups received orally 10, 50, 80 and 100 mg/kg aqueous leaf extract daily for 60 days and the control group received just water. After 60 days, body and testis weight were measured and blood samples were taken from the heart. To evaluate apoptosis and histological changes, tissue samples obtained from rat testes were stained by TUNEL assay and hematoxylin and eosin stain. Results showed that the sperm count, motility, and viability and the number of spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules were significantly decreased compared with the control group. The number of apoptotic germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross-section was significantly increased in the experimental group (18.11 ± 3.5) compared with the control group (8.7 ± 0.81) (P Centella asiatica has toxicological effects on the reproductive system in male rats and, therefore, it is suggested that leaf extracts of Centella asiatica possess antifertility effects in the male rat.

  5. The in vivo assessment of safety and gastrointestinal survival of an orally administered novel probiotic, Propionibacterium jensenii 702, in a male Wistar rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Kotula, Lidija; Adams, Michelle C

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate in vivo gastrointestinal survival and safety of orally administered probiotic bacterium, Propionibacterium jensenii 702, using a male Wistar rat model. A high dose of 10(10) cfu/rat/day of P. jensenii 702 was fed to each rat for 81 days. The repeated dose toxicity and translocation of P. jensenii 702 into rat tissues were evaluated, along with the rat faecal beta-glucuronidase activities and dairy propionibacteria counts. Results showed that P. jensenii 702 had no adverse effect on general health status, body weight gain, visceral organs and faecal beta-glucuronidase activities. No viable cells of P. jensenii 702 were recovered from blood and tissue samples (mesenteric lymph nodes, liver and spleen) of rats, and no treatment-associated illness or death was observed. Faecal dairy propionibacteria counts reached 10(8) cfu/g after 36 days treatment and remained between 10(8)-10(9) cfu/g till the end of 81 days treatment. The results indicate that P. jensenii 702 was able to survive the in vivo gastrointestinal tract transit of rats, with no adverse affects on the animals. However, further human clinical trials are required before strain P. jensenii 702 could be incorporated into food for human consumption as probiotics.

  6. β1 -Adrenoceptor, but not β2 -adrenoceptor, subtype regulates heart rate in type 2 diabetic rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rosalind F; Bussey, Carol T; Mellor, Kimberley M; Cragg, Patricia A; Lamberts, Regis R

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of the study? The sympathetic system regulates heart rate via β-adrenoceptors; this is impaired during diabetes. However, the specific β-adrenoceptor subtype contributions in heart rate regulation in diabetes in vivo are unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Telemetric recordings in conscious non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic rats demonstrated that the β1 -adrenoceptor subtype, and not the β2 -adrenoceptor, regulated the lower resting heart rate and increased β-adrenoceptor responsiveness in diabetes in vivo. This provides new physiological insight into the dysregulation of heart rate in type 2 diabetes, which is important for improving therapeutic strategies targeting the diabetic chronotropic incompetence. β-Adrenoceptor blockers are widely used to reduce heart rate, the strongest predictor of mortality in cardiac patients, but are less effective in diabetic patients. This study aimed to determine the specific contributions of β1 - and β2 -adrenoceptor subtypes to chronotropic responses in type 2 diabetes in vivo, which are currently unknown. Type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic rats were implanted with radiotelemeters to measure arterial blood pressure and derive heart rate in conscious conditions. Vascular access ports were implanted to inject isoprenaline (β1 - and β2 -adrenoceptor agonist, 0.1-300 μg kg(-1) ) in the presence of atenolol (β1 -adrenoceptor antagonist, 2000 μg kg(-1) ) or nadolol (β1 - and β2 -adrenoceptor agonist, 4000 μg kg(-1) ) to determine the chronotropic contributions of the β-adrenoceptor subtypes. Resting heart rate was reduced in diabetic rats (388 ± 62 versus 290 ± 37 beats min(-1) non-diabetic versus diabetic, P heart rate at highest dose of isoprenaline: 135 ± 66 versus 205 ± 28 beats min(-1) , non-diabetic versus diabetic, P heart rate at highest dose of isoprenaline: 205 ± 37 versus 195 ± 22 beats min(-1) , non-diabetic versus diabetic, P

  7. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) inhibits in vivo iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in rat thyroid glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, S.M.; Alexander, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    Decreased serum concentrations of T3 and T4 occur in patients treated with the anticonvulsant drug carbamazepine (CBZ), but with rare exception, these patients remain euthyroid. The mechanism that accounts for diminished hormone levels is unknown, and our objective was to study the direct effect of CBZ on iodide uptake and hormone synthesis in thyroid glands of CBZ-treated and pair-fed control rats. Chronic ingestion (per os) of CBZ in male rats reduced the four hour thyroid 131I-iodide uptake by approximately 60%. This inhibition occurred after the animals had received sufficient CBZ to attain plasma CBZ concentrations of 0.8 microgram/ml. Continued treatment with CBZ ranging from 560 to 800 mg/kg/day for 14 days did not result in further inhibition of iodide uptake even though the plasma CBZ concentrations had increased 6-20 fold. No inhibition of iodide uptake was apparent when the animals initially received CBZ ranging from 40 to 152 mg/kg body weight for 22 days when there were no detectable levels of plasma CBZ. Overall growth rates of CBZ-treated rats were slightly (6-10%) less than the pair-fed control animals. Plasma T4 concentrations were reduced by 18% (p less than 0.05) in the CBZ-fed animals, while T3 concentrations were diminished by 53% (p less than 0.01). CBZ appeared to alter thyroidal iodide transport because the thyroid:plasma iodide ratios were decreased by 26% in the drug-treated rats. The distribution of radioiodine in thyroidal iodoamino acids was essentially the same in both groups of rats but the absolute quantities of radioiodine were more than 2.5 times greater in the control rats. CBZ failed to inhibit peroxidase-catalyzed iodide and guaiacol oxidation in vitro.

  8. Effects in vitro and in vivo by apomorphine in the rat corpus cavernosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenshi; Yoshida, Masaki; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Hedlund, Petter

    2005-01-01

    The study was performed to clarify if apomorphine at the level of the rat corpus cavernosum can produce erectile responses or interfere with nerve-induced penile erection. Apomorphine (10−9–10−4 M) exhibited a 10-fold higher potency to relax phenylephrine (Phe)- than endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced contractions. Relaxant effects of apomorphine in Phe-activated corpus cavernosum did not change tissue levels of cyclic nucleotides, and were unaffected by inhibition of the synthesis of nitric oxide, or by inhibition of the soluble guanylate cyclase. Relaxations by apomorphine of ET-1-contracted rat corpus cavernosum were not influenced by α2-adrenoceptor blockade (yohimbine, 10−7 M), or by the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (10−6 M). Clozapine (10−6 M), a proposed dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, partly reduced apomorphine-induced relaxations, and significantly altered the −log IC50 value for apomorphine. Nerve-induced contractions of the rat corpus cavernosum were attenuated by apomorphine in a concentration-dependent and biphasic manner. Yohimbine (10−7 M) abolished the biphasic concentration–response pattern. SCH 23390 (10−6 M) attenuated the inhibitory effects of apomorphine on contractions, and significantly altered the −log IC50 value for the compound. In anesthetized rats (50 mg kg−1 pentobarbital sodium, 10 mg kg−1 ketamine), intracavernous apomorphine (100, 300, or 1000 nmol) did not have effects on basal cavernous pressure under resting conditions, and did not affect filling or emptying rates, or peak pressures of the rat corpus cavernosum during submaximal activation of the cavernous nerve. In awake rats, apomorphine produced a maximal number of erections at 300 nmol kg−1. In the rat isolated corpus cavernosum, pre- and postjunctional effects of apomorphine appear to involve dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors, as well as α-adrenoceptors. At relevant systemic doses of apomorphine

  9. Specific Schistosoma mansoni rat T cell clones. I. Generation and functional analysis in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, J; Dissous, C; Dessaint, J P; Louis, J; Engers, H; Capron, A

    1985-06-01

    In an attempt to determine the role of schistosome-specific T cells in the immune mechanisms developed during schistosomiasis, Schistosoma mansoni-specific T cells and clones were generated in vitro and some of their functions analyzed in vitro and in vivo in the fischer rat model. The data presented here can be summarized as follows: a) Lymph node cells (LNC) from rats primed with the excretory/secretory antigens-incubation products (IPSm) of adult worms proliferate in vitro only in response to the homologous schistosome antigens and not to unrelated antigens (Ag) such as ovalbumin (OVA) or Dipetalonema viteae and Fasciola hepatica parasite extracts. b) After in vitro restimulation of the primed LNC population with IPSm in the presence of antigen-presenting cells (APC) and maintenance in IL 2-containing medium, the frequency of IPSm-specific T cells is increased and the T cells can be restimulated only in the presence of APC possessing the same major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens. c) Following appropriate limiting dilution assays (LDA) (1 cell/well), 10 IPSm-specific T cell clones were obtained, and two of four maintained in culture were tested for their helper activity because they expressed only the W3/13+ W3/25+ surface phenotypes. d) The two highly proliferating IPSm-specific T cell clones (G5 and E23) exhibit an IPSm-dependent helper activity, as shown by the increase in IgG production by IPSm-primed B cells. e) IPSm-T cell clone (G5) as well as IPSm-T cell lines when injected in S. mansoni-infested rats can exert an in vivo helper activity, which is characterized by an accelerated production of IgG antibodies specific for the previously identified 30 to 40 kilodaltons (kd) schistosomula surface antigens (Ag). As recent studies have demonstrated that rat monoclonal antibodies recognize some incubation products of adult S. mansoni as well as one of the 30 to 40 kd schistosomula surface antigens, and taking into account the fact that the T cell

  10. In vivo 1H spectroscopy of the human brain at 1.5 tesla. Preliminary experience at a clinical installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H; Jensen, K M

    1990-01-01

    In vivo localized water suppressed proton spectroscopy of human brain was carried out on 15 healthy volunteers and 2 patients suffering from a brain tumour and an infarction, respectively. The measurements were performed on a whole body MR system, operating at 1.5 tesla using the stimulated echo...

  11. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  12. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS – A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivelan, R.; Elango, K.; Suresh, B.; Ramesh, B. R.

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier. PMID:22557209

  13. Preliminary assessment of Rosmarinus officinalis toxicity on male Wistar rats' organs and reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. - Lamiaceae is a shrub used in the treatment of hepatic, intestinal, renal and respiratory affections. Its toxicity was assessed in female rats and an anti-implantation effect was reported after treatment with this plant. This work analyzes the effect of the short-term administration of R. officinalis extract on vital organs, on the organs of the reproductive system and sperm production of mature male Wistar rats. Adult Wistar rats were treated with 1 mL of R. officinalis aqueous extract at a dose level of 291.2 mg and 582.4 mg/kg of body weight for five days. Body and organs weights, sperm production and food consumption were evaluated. The results showed that the lower dose administration of R. officinalis extract did not significantly alter body and organs weight nor did it interfere with gamete production. However, animals treated with the higher dose showed significant weight increase of the seminal vesicle but no significant alteration of the other variables. Food intake was not affected by the treatments.

  14. Dose-dependent influence of short-term intermittent ethanol intoxication on cerebral neurochemical changes in rats detected by ex vivo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Wan; Nam, Yoon-Ki; Kim, Tai-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Hwa; Kim, Sang-Young; Min, Jung-Whan; Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Hwi-Yool; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-03-14

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the effects of short-term intermittent ethanol intoxication on cerebral metabolite changes among sham controls (CNTL), low-dose ethanol (LDE)-exposed, and high-dose ethanol (HDE)-exposed rats, which were determined with ex vivo high-resolution spectra. Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Twenty rats in the LDE (n=10) and the HDE (n=10) groups received ethanol doses of 1.5 and 2.5 g/kg, respectively, through oral gavage every 8h for 4days. At the end of the 4-day intermittent ethanol exposure, one-dimensional ex vivo 500-MHz ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from 30 samples of the frontal cortex region (from the three groups). Normalized total N-acetylaspartate (tNAA: NAA+NAAG [N-acetylaspartyl-glutamate]), GABA, and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower in the frontal cortex of the HDE-exposed rats than that of the LDE-exposed rats. Moreover, compared to the CNTL group, the LDE rats exhibited significantly higher normalized GABA levels. The six pairs of normalized metabolite levels were positively (+) or negatively (-) correlated in the rat frontal cortex as follows: tNAA and GABA (+), tNAA and aspartate (Asp) (+), myo-Inositol (mIns) and Asp (-), mIns and alanine (+), mIns and taurine (+), and mIns and tNAA (-). Our results suggested that short-term intermittent ethanol intoxication might result in neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, changes in the rate of GABA synthesis, and oxidative stress in the rat frontal cortex. Our ex vivo(1)H high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results suggested some novel metabolic markers for the dose-dependent influence of short-term intermittent ethanol intoxication in the frontal cortex. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Elastase, but not proteinase 3 (PR3), induces proteinuria associated with loss of glomerular basement membrane heparan sulphate after in vivo renal perfusion in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, P; VanDenBorn, J; Brouwer, E; Dolman, KM; Klok, PA; Huitema, MG; Limburg, PC; Bakker, MAH; Berden, JHM; Daha, MR; Kallenberg, CGM

    Elastase, but not PR3, induces proteinuria associated with loss of glomerular basement membrane (GEM) heparan sulphate after in vivo renal perfusion in rats. PR3 and elastase are cationic neutral serine proteinases present in the azurophilic granules of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Release of these

  16. In vivo binding of spiperone and N-methylspirerone to dopaminergic and serotonergic sites in the rat brain: Multiple modeling and implications for PET scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, J.A.A.; Van der Werf, J.F.; Wiegman, T.; Paans, A.M.J.; Vaalburg, W.; Korf, J.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium models are derived and applied to in vivo binding of spiperone in the rat brain. The models express the concentration of the ligand in the striatum and frontal cortex as a function of the accumulation in the cerebellum. The models differ with respect to the description of specific

  17. Involvement of Histone Lysine Methylation in p21 Gene Expression in Rat Kidney In Vivo and Rat Mesangial Cells In Vitro under Diabetic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjun Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN, a common complication associated with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM, characterized by glomerular mesangial expansion, inflammation, accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM protein, and hypertrophy, is the major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Increasing evidence suggested that p21-dependent glomerular and mesangial cell (MC hypertrophy play key roles in the pathogenesis of DN. Recently, posttranscriptional modifications (PTMs have uncovered novel molecular mechanisms involved in DN. However, precise regulatory mechanism of histone lysine methylation (HKme mediating p21 related hypertrophy associated with DN is not clear. We evaluated the roles of HKme and histone methyltransferase (HMT SET7/9 in p21 gene expression in glomeruli of diabetic rats and in high glucose- (HG- treated rat mesangial cells (RMCs. p21 gene expression was upregulated in diabetic rats glomeruli; chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays showed decreased histone H3-lysine9-dimethylation (H3K9me2 accompanied with enhanced histone H3-lysine4-methylation (H3K4me1/3 and SET7/9 occupancies at the p21 promoter. HG-treated RMCs exhibited increased p21 mRNA, H3K4me level, SET7/9 recruitment, and inverse H3K9me, which were reversed by TGF-β1 antibody. These data uncovered key roles of H3Kme and SET7/9 responsible for p21 gene expression in vivo and in vitro under diabetic conditions and confirmed preventive effect of TGF-β1 antibody on DN.

  18. Hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp stem cells in vivo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Walboomers, X.F.; Beucken, J.J.J.P. van den; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine hard tissue formation of STRO-1-selected rat dental pulp-derived stem cells, seeded into a calcium phosphate ceramic scaffold, and implanted subcutaneously in mice. Previously, STRO-1 selection was used to obtain a mesenchymal stem cell progenitor

  19. Correlation between the metabolism of hexobarbital and aminopyrine in vivo in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaff, M; Vermeulen, N P; Heij, P; van Bree, Rob J H; Breimer, D D

    1986-01-01

    Two model substrates for oxidative hepatic enzyme activity, namely hexobarbital and aminopyrine, were simultaneously orally administered to rats, and blood concentrations of the substrates measured by g.l.c. The apparent intrinsic clearances of hexobarbital (Cl*int.HB) and of aminopyrine (Cl*int,AM)

  20. Secretory phospholipase A2 potentiates glutamate-induced rat striatal neuronal cell death in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, M; Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) OS2 (10, 20 and 50 pmol) or OS1, (50 pmol) purified from taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus venom, and the excitatory amino acid glutamate (Glu) (2.5 and 5.0 micromol) were injected into the right striatum of male Wistar rats. Injection of 10 an...

  1. Silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating has in vivo antibacterial activity in the rat tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takayuki; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Yonekura, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Ando, Yoshiki; Noda, Iwao; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2013-08-01

    Bacterial infection is a serious postoperative complication of joint replacement. To prevent infections related to implantation, we have developed a novel antibacterial coating with Ag-containing hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA). In the present study, we examined the antibacterial activity of Ag-HA implant coatings in the medullary cavity of rat tibiae. Forty 10-week-old rats received implantation of Ag-HA- or HA-coated titanium rods, then were inoculated with ∼1.0 × 10(2) colony-forming units of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial counts were calculated for rats euthanized at 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively. Serum levels of Ag (in the Ag-HA group only) were calculated for rats euthanized at 24, 48, 72 h and 4 weeks. Radiographic evaluations of bone infection were also performed at 4 weeks. Tibiae from both groups showing infection were evaluated histologically. Significant differences in bacterial counts were seen at 24, 48, and 72 h. Mean concentrations of Ag in serum peaked about 48 h after implantation, then gradually decreased. Mean radiographic scores for infection were significantly lower with Ag-HA implants than with HA implants. Histological examination showed better results for abscesses, bone resorption, and destruction of cortical bone around Ag-HA-coated implants. These results indicate that Ag-HA coatings may help prevent surgical-site infections associated with joint replacement. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  2. An improved model for studies on transdermal drug absorption in-vivo in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollmer, U.; Muller, B.W.; Wilffert, B.; Peters, Thies

    1993-01-01

    In rats, transdermal drug absorption can be studied under physiological conditions cannulating the peripheral skin vein, draining the area of the skin which is used for drug application, and collecting the blood. This method leads to decreased blood volume, which causes a reduction in skin blood

  3. The neuroprotective agent CNTF decreases neuronal metabolites in the rat striatum: an in vivo multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-de Sauvage, Maria-Angeles; Flament, Julien; Bramoulle, Yann; Ben Haim, Lucile; Guillermier, Martine; Berniard, Aurélie; Aurégan, Gwennaëlle; Houitte, Diane; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Bonvento, Gilles; Hantraye, Philippe; Valette, Julien; Escartin, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is neuroprotective against multiple pathologic conditions including metabolic impairment, but the mechanisms are still unclear. To delineate CNTF effects on brain energy homeostasis, we performed a multimodal imaging study, combining in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, and in situ glutamate imaging by chemical exchange saturation transfer. Unexpectedly, we found that CNTF expression through lentiviral gene transfer in the rat striatum significantly decreased the levels of neuronal metabolites (N-acetyl-aspartate, N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate, and glutamate). This preclinical study shows that CNTF remodels brain metabolism, and suggests that decreased levels of neuronal metabolites may occur in the absence of neuronal dysfunction. PMID:25833344

  4. Ex vivo evaluation of the serotonin 1A receptor partial agonist [³H]CUMI-101 in awake rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Underwood, Mark D; Kumar, Dileep J S

    2011-01-01

    different challenge paradigms. [³H]CUMI-101 shows good uptake and good specific binding ratio (SBR) in frontal cortex 5.18 and in hippocampus 3.18. Binding was inhibited in a one-binding-site fashion by WAY100635 and unlabeled CUMI-101. The ex vivo B(max) of [³H]CUMI-101 in frontal cortex (98.7 fmol......-DL-phenylalanine, a serotonin synthesis inhibitor, did not show any effect on the standardized uptake values (SUVs) in any region. Citalopram did alter SBR, but this was due to changes in cerebellar SUVs. Our results indicate that [³H]CUMI-101 is a good radioligand for imaging 5-HT(1A) high-density regions in rats; however...

  5. In vivo labelling in several rat tissues of 'peripheral type' benzodiazepine binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benavides, J.; Guilloux, F.; Rufat, P.; Uzan, A.; Renault, C.; Dubroeucq, M.C.; Gueremy, C.; Le Fur, G. (Pharmuka Laboratoires, 92 - Gennevilliers (France))

    1984-03-16

    'Peripheral type' benzodiazepine binding sites in several rat tissues were labelled by intravenous injection of (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 and (/sup 3/H)RO5-4864. Binding was saturable in all tissues studied and regional distribution paralleled the in vitro binding. A similar potency order of displacing compounds was found in vivo and in vitro PK 11195 > PK 11211 > RO5-4864 > diazepam > dipyridamole > clonazepam. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this technique to examine the effects of pharmacological manipulation on the binding sites in their native state. However, some properties (broader maximum during time course, higher percentage of particulate binding in the brain and independence of temperature) make (/sup 3/H)PK 11195 the most suitable ligand for this kind of studies.

  6. A preliminary experimental study on the cardiac toxicity of glutamate and the role of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zhou, Lan; Xu, Hai-Fei; Yan, Li; Ding, Fan; Hao, Wei; Cao, Ji-Min; Gao, Xue

    2013-04-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is a food flavour enhancer and its potential harmfulness to the heart remains controversial. We investigated whether MSG could induce cardiac arrhythmias and apoptosis via the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor. Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligating the coronary artery and ventricular arrhythmias were monitored by electrocardiogram in the rat in vivo. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured. Cell viability was estimated by 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-yl)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT) assay. Calcium mobilization was monitored by confocal microscopy. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was evaluated by acridine orange staining, flow cytometry, DNA laddering, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. MSG (i.v.) decreased the heart rate at 0.5 g/kg and serious bradycardia at 1.5 g/kg, but could not induce ventricular tachyarrhythmias in normal rats in vivo. In rats with acute MI in vivo, however, MSG (1.5 g/kg, i.v.) induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias and these arrhythmias could be prevented by blocking the AMPA and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Selectively activating the AMPA or NMDA receptor induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias in MI rats. At the cellular level, AMPA induced calcium mobilization, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes, especially when the AMPA receptor desensitization were blocked by cyclothiazide. The above toxic cellular effects of AMPA were abolished by AMPA receptor blockade or by H2O2 scavengers. MSG induces bradycardia in normal rats, but triggers lethal tachyarrhythmias in myocardial infarcted rats probably by hindering AMPA receptors. AMPA receptor overstimulation also induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis, which may facilitate arrhythmia.

  7. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCsin vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr and DG (approximately 10 Torr were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr. Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  8. Reduced Cerebral Oxygen Content in the DG and SVZ In Situ Promotes Neurogenesis in the Adult Rat Brain In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kuan; Zhou, Yanzhao; Zhao, Tong; Wu, Liying; Huang, Xin; Wu, Kuiwu; Xu, Lun; Li, Dahu; Liu, Shuhong; Zhao, Yongqi; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain occurs mainly within two neurogenic structures, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain. It has been reported that mild hypoxia promoted the proliferation of Neural Stem Cells (NSCs)in vitro. Our previous study further demonstrated that an external hypoxic environment stimulated neurogenesis in the adult rat brain in vivo. However, it remains unknown how external hypoxic environments affect the oxygen content in the brain and result in neurogenesis. Here we use an optical fiber luminescent oxygen sensor to detect the oxygen content in the adult rat brain in situ under normoxia and hypoxia. We found that the distribution of oxygen in cerebral regions is spatiotemporally heterogeneous. The Po2 values in the ventricles (45∼50 Torr) and DG (approximately 10 Torr) were much higher than those of other parts of the brain, such as the cortex and thalamus (approximately 2 Torr). Interestingly, our in vivo studies showed that an external hypoxic environment could change the intrinsic oxygen content in brain tissues, notably reducing oxygen levels in both the DG and SVZ, the major sites of adult neurogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment also increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, two factors that have been reported to regulate neurogenesis, within the DG and SVZ. Thus, we have demonstrated that reducing the oxygen content of the external environment decreased Po2 levels in the DG and SVZ. This reduced oxygen level in the DG and SVZ might be the main mechanism triggering neurogenesis in the adult brain. More importantly, we speculate that varying oxygen levels may be the physiological basis of the regionally restricted neurogenesis in the adult brain.

  9. Uptake and metabolism of fructose by rat neocortical cells in vivo and by isolated nerve terminals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Elsais, Ahmed; Frøland, Anne-Sofie; Taubøll, Erik; Gjerstad, Leif; Quan, Yi; Dingledine, Raymond; Rise, Frode

    2015-05-01

    Fructose reacts spontaneously with proteins in the brain to form advanced glycation end products (AGE) that may elicit neuroinflammation and cause brain pathology, including Alzheimer's disease. We investigated whether fructose is eliminated by oxidative metabolism in neocortex. Injection of [(14) C]fructose or its AGE-prone metabolite [(14) C]glyceraldehyde into rat neocortex in vivo led to formation of (14) C-labeled alanine, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and glutamine. In isolated neocortical nerve terminals, [(14) C]fructose-labeled glutamate, GABA, and aspartate, indicating uptake of fructose into nerve terminals and oxidative fructose metabolism in these structures. This was supported by high expression of hexokinase 1, which channels fructose into glycolysis, and whose activity was similar with fructose or glucose as substrates. By contrast, the fructose-specific ketohexokinase was weakly expressed. The fructose transporter Glut5 was expressed at only 4% of the level of neuronal glucose transporter Glut3, suggesting transport across plasma membranes of brain cells as the limiting factor in removal of extracellular fructose. The genes encoding aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, enzymes of the polyol pathway that forms glucose from fructose, were expressed in rat neocortex. These results point to fructose being transported into neocortical cells, including nerve terminals, and that it is metabolized and thereby detoxified primarily through hexokinase activity. We asked how the brain handles fructose, which may react spontaneously with proteins to form 'advanced glycation end products' and trigger inflammation. Neocortical cells took up and metabolized extracellular fructose oxidatively in vivo, and isolated nerve terminals did so in vitro. The low expression of fructose transporter Glut5 limited uptake of extracellular fructose. Hexokinase was a main pathway for fructose metabolism, but ketohexokinase (which leads to glyceraldehyde formation) was

  10. In-vivo imaging of the morphology and blood perfusion of brain tumours in rats with UHR-OCT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizheva, Kostadinka; Tan, Bingyao; Fisher, Carl J.; Mason, Erik; Lilge, Lothar D.

    2017-02-01

    Brain tumors are characterized with morphological changes at cellular level such as enlarged, non-spherical nuclei, microcalcifications, cysts, etc., and are highly vascularized. In this study, two research-grade optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems operating at 800 nm and 1060 nm with axial resolution of 0.95 µm and 3.5 µm in biological tissue respectively, were used to image in vivo and ex vivo the structure of brain tumours in rats. Female Fischer 344 rats were used for this study, which has received ethics clearance by the Animal Research Ethics Committees of the University of Waterloo and the University Health Network, Toronto. Brain tumours were induced by injection of rat brain cancer cell line (RG2 glioma) through a small craniotomy. Presence of brain tumours was verified by MRI imaging on day 7 post tumour cells injection. The in vivo OCT imaging session was conducted on day 14 of the study with the 1060 nm OCT system and both morphological OCT, Doppler OCT and OMAG images were acquired from the brain tumour and the surrounding healthy brain tissue. After completion of the imaging procedure, the brains were harvested, fixed in formalin and reimaged after 2 weeks with the 800 nm OCT system. The in vivo and ex vivo OCT morphological images were correlated with H and E histology. Results from this study demonstrate that UHR-OCT can distinguish between healthy and cancerous brain tissue based on differences in structural and vascular pattern.

  11. Exogenous anandamide protects rat brain against acute neuronal injury in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Stelt, M. van der; Veldhuis, W.B.; Haaften, G.W. van; Fezza, F.; Bisogno, T.; Bär, P.R; Veldink, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide [N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA)] is thought to function as an endogenous protective factor of the brain against acute neuronal damage. However, this has never been tested in an in vivo model of acute brain injury. Here, we show in a longitudinal pharmacological

  12. Disulfiram generates a stable N,N-diethylcarbamoyl adduct on Cys-125 of rat hemoglobin beta-chains in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erve, J C; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Valentine, H S

    2000-01-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) is a drug used in aversion therapy to treat alcoholics and acts by inhibiting mitochondrial low-K(m) aldehyde dehydrogenase. Investigations into the mechanisms for in vivo inactivation suggest that the DSF metabolite S-methyl-N, N-diethylthiocarbamate sulfoxide reacts irreversibly...... with an active site Cys. This work aimed to determine if DSF generates monothiocarbamate adducts on cysteine residues in vivo by examining hemoglobin. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with DSF po for 2, 4, and 6 weeks. Rats have four different globin beta-chains, of which three (beta-1-3) contain two cysteine...... residues each. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of two new globin species from DSF-treated rats collected by HPLC revealed increments of 99 Da above the mass of the unmodified chains (beta-2 and beta-3). In a separate experiment, the globin mixture was digested for 2 h with Glu-C and reanalyzed by MALDI-TOF MS...

  13. Elucidation of Arctigenin Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution after Intravenous, Oral, Hypodermic and Sublingual Administration in Rats and Beagle Dogs: Integration of In Vitro and In Vivo Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Xin; Ren, Yu-Shan; Lv, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Jun-Sheng; Xu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xian-Zhen; Yao, Jing-Chun; Zhang, Gui-Min; Liu, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Although arctigenin (AG) has diverse bioactivities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activities, its pharmacokinetics have not been systematically evaluated. The purpose of this work was to identify the pharmacokinetic properties of AG via various experiments in vivo and in vitro. In this research, rats and beagle dogs were used to investigate the PK (pharmacokinetics, PK) profiles of AG with different drug-delivery manners, including intravenous (i.v), hypodermic injection (i.h), and sublingual (s.l) administration. The data shows that AG exhibited a strong absorption capacity in both rats and beagle dogs (absorption rate 100%), and a strong elimination ability (t1/2 beagle dog (25.9 ± 3.24%) > rat (15.7 ± 9%) > monkey (3.69 ± 0.12%). This systematic investigation of pharmacokinetic profiles of arctigenin (AG) in vivo and in vitro is worthy of further exploration.

  14. In vivo and continuous measurement of bisulfide in the hippocampus of rat's brain by an on-line integrated microdialysis/droplet-based microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feidan; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xiaocui; Zhao, Meiping; Hao, Jie; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-06-07

    An on-line and continuous approach was demonstrated for in vivo measurement of bisulfide in rat's brain. A modified droplet-based microfluidic system was constructed, which allowed on-line qualification of the fluorescence responses of the gold nanoparticle-glutathione-fluorescein isothiocyanate probe to the variation of bisulfide in the presence of the cerebral microdialysate background. The on-line method achieved a dynamic working range from 5.0 μM to 40 μM and a detection limit of 2.5 μM. The in vivo bisulfide concentration in the hippocampus of rat's brain was measured under different physiological conditions. The on-line method may facilitate the study of H2S biology by providing a previously unattainable continuous record of H2S variation in living animals. It also provides a practical platform for in vivo and continuous monitoring of other important species in cerebral systems.

  15. Helium-induced cardioprotection of healthy and hypertensive rat myocardium in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Gezina T M L; Huhn, Ragnar; Heinen, Andre; Hollmann, Markus W; Schlack, Wolfgang S; Preckel, Benedikt; Weber, Nina C

    2012-06-05

    Helium protects healthy myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury by early and late preconditioning (EPC, LPC) and postconditioning (PostC). We investigated helium-induced PostC of the hypertensive heart and enhancement by addition of LPC and EPC. We also investigated involvement of signaling kinases glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β) and protein kinase C-epsilon (PKC-ε). To assess myocardial cell damage, we performed infarct size measurements in healthy Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, n=8-9) and Spontaneous Hypertensive rats (SHR, n=8-9) subjected to 25 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Rats inhaled 70% helium for 15 min after index ischemia (PostC), combined with 15 min helium 24h prior to index ischemia (LPC+PostC), a triple intervention with additional 3 short cycles of 5 min helium inhalation shortly before ischemia (EPC+LPC+PostC), or no further treatment. In WKY rats, PostC reduced infarct size from 46 ± 2% (mean ± S.E.M) in the control group to 29 ± 2%. LPC+PostC or EPC+LPC+PostC reduced infarct sizes to a similar extent (30 ± 3% and 32 ± 2% respectively). In SHR, EPC+LPC+PostC reduced infarct size from 53 ± 3% in control to 39 ± 3%, while PostC or LPC+PostC alone were not protective; infarct size 48 ± 4% and 44 ± 4%, respectively. Neither PostC in WKY rats nor EPC+LPC+PostC in SHR was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of GSK-3β and PKC-ε after 15 min of reperfusion. Concluding, a triple intervention of helium conditioning results in cardioprotection in SHR, whereas a single intervention does not. In WKY rats, the triple intervention does not further augment protection. Helium conditioning is not associated with a mechanism involving GSK-3β and PKC-ε. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Retinal Function and Morphology of the Pink-Eyed Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) Rat: A Comparative Study of in Vivo and in Vitro Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösch, Sarah; Aretzweiler, Christoph; Müller, Frank; Walter, Peter

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the course of retinal degeneration in the pink-eyed RCS rat in vivo and in vitro. Retinal function of RCS rats at the age of 2 to 100 weeks was determined in vivo using full-field electroretinography (ERG). Retinal morphology was evaluated in vivo using spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (sd-OCT) and Fluorescence angiography (FA) as well as postmortem using immunohistochemistry (IH). As a control, retinal function and morphology of non-dystrophic Wistar rats were analyzed. RCS rats showed an extinction of the ERG beginning with the age of 4 weeks. In the OCT, the outer part of the retina (OPR) could be clearly distinguished from the inner part of the retina (IPR) until the age of 8 weeks. However, at this age, it was impossible to determine from OCT images whether the OPR was formed by the outer nuclear layer (ONL) or by cellular debris built in the course of retinal degeneration. In contrast, immunohistochemistry always enabled to differentiate between ONL and debris (RCS 4 weeks of age: OPR mainly formed by ONL; RCS 8 weeks of age: OPR consisted mainly of cell debris, only 1-2 cell rows of photoreceptor somata were left). In general, data obtained in vivo were confirmed by data obtained post mortem. Apart from the problem to differentiate between debris and ONL at the age of 8 weeks in the RCS rat, ERG and OCT are useful methods to evaluate retinal function and structure in vivo and to complement immunohistochemical analysis of the degeneration process.

  17. Topical formulations containing finasteride. Part I: in vitro permeation/penetration study and in vivo pharmacokinetics in hairless rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Burgalassi, Susi; Chetoni, Patrizia; Lenzi, Carla; Pirone, Andrea; Mailland, Federico

    2014-08-01

    In hair follicle (Hf) cells, the type-2 5-α-reductase enzyme, implicated in androgenetic alopecia, is selectively inhibited by finasteride (FNS). Because an effective topical formulation to deliver FNS to Hf is currently unavailable, this investigation aimed at evaluating in vitro FNS skin permeation and retention through and into hairless rat and human abdominal skin. Four hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based formulations (P-08-012, P-08-016, P-08-063, and P-08-064) and one anhydrous formulation without HPCH (P-10-008) were tested. The pharmacokinetics in plasma and skin after application of P-08-016 or P-10-008 on dorsal rat skin with single and repeated doses was investigated. P-08-016 performed the best in driving FNS to the reticular dermis without producing a high transdermal flux. Neither the in vivo single nor the repeated dose experiments produced plasma levels of FNS and no differences were found between formulations concerning skin retention. No increase in the amount of drug retained in the skin was obtained with the repeated dose experiment. In conclusion, the HPCH-based formulation P-08-016 might represent an alternative to systemic therapy for its ability to promote a cutaneous depot of FNS in the region of hair bulbs, minimizing systemic absorption even after repeated treatments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Uptake and metabolism of fructose by rat neocortical cells in vivo and by isolated nerve terminals in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Bjørnar; Elsais, Ahmed; Frøland, Anne Sofie; Taubøll, Erik; Gjerstad, Leif; Quan, Yi; Dingledine, Ray; Rise, Frode

    2015-01-01

    Fructose reacts spontaneously with proteins in the brain to form advanced glycation end products (AGE) that may elicit neuroinflammation and cause brain pathology, including Alzheimer’s disease. We investigated whether fructose is eliminated by oxidative metabolism in neocortex. Injection of [14C]fructose or its AGE-prone metabolite [14C]glyceraldehyde into rat neocortex in vivo led to formation of 14C-labeled alanine, glutamate, aspartate, GABA, and glutamine. In isolated neocortical nerve terminals, [14C]fructose labeled glutamate, GABA, and aspartate, indicating uptake of fructose into nerve terminals and oxidative fructose metabolism in these structures. Hexokinase 1, which channels fructose into glycolysis, was highly expressed, and enzyme activity was similar with fructose or glucose as substrates, whereas the fructose-specific ketohexokinase was weakly expressed. The fructose transporter Glut5 was expressed at only ~4% of the level of neuronal glucose transporter Glut3, suggesting transport across plasma membranes of brain cells as the limiting factor in removal of extracellular fructose. Fructose may be formed from glucose through the polyol pathway. The genes encoding enzymes of this pathway, aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase, were expressed in rat neocortex. We conclude that fructose is transported into neocortical cells, including nerve terminals, and that it is metabolized and thereby detoxified primarily through hexokinase activity. PMID:25708447

  19. Resistance to DNA Damaging Agents Produced Invasive Phenotype of Rat Glioma Cells—Characterization of a New in Vivo Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stojković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemoresistance and invasion properties are severe limitations to efficient glioma therapy. Therefore, development of glioma in vivo models that more accurately resemble the situation observed in patients emerges. Previously, we established RC6 rat glioma cell line resistant to DNA damaging agents including antiglioma approved therapies such as 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU and temozolomide (TMZ. Herein, we evaluated the invasiveness of RC6 cells in vitro and in a new orthotopic animal model. For comparison, we used C6 cells from which RC6 cells originated. Differences in cell growth properties were assessed by real-time cell analyzer. Cells’ invasive potential in vitro was studied in fluorescently labeled gelatin and by formation of multicellular spheroids in hydrogel. For animal studies, fluorescently labeled cells were inoculated into adult male Wistar rat brains. Consecutive coronal and sagittal brain sections were analyzed 10 and 25 days post-inoculation, while rats’ behavior was recorded during three days in the open field test starting from 25th day post-inoculation. We demonstrated that development of chemoresistance induced invasive phenotype of RC6 cells with significant behavioral impediments implying usefulness of orthotopic RC6 glioma allograft in preclinical studies for the examination of new approaches to counteract both chemoresistance and invasion of glioma cells.

  20. Influence of Sorghum Kafirin on Serum Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats (In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Ortíz Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the antioxidant potential of sorghum kafirin and sorghum flour and their influence on lipids and antioxidant capacity in rats. The antioxidant activity in sorghum kafirin extract measured by the DPPH and TEAC methods was increased 30 and 65 times, respectively, compared to that of its counterpart, sorghum flour. According to electrophoresis assay, the kafirins tert-butanol extract showed a high proportion of α-kafirin monomers, and its amino acid composition revealed higher hydrophobic amino acid content such as alanine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine than sorghum flour extract. Diets supplemented with sorghum kafirin extract have improved lipid metabolism and increased the serum antioxidant potential (67% especially in rats fed with added cholesterol. The bioactive peptides generated from kafirin in vivo hydrolysis appear to be associated with the positive effect on serum lipids and antioxidant activity. According to these results, sorghum kafirin extract at the levels used in this study apparently could be used for prevention of atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases.

  1. The Antinociceptive Effects of Tualang Honey in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Badariah Abd Aziz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tualang honey (蜂蜜 Fēng Mì is known to have anti-inflammatory property, but its antinociceptive property has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we examined the preemptive effects on administering different doses of Tualang honey and prednisolone on the nociceptive response in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n=7 and each group received either distilled water, Tualang honey (0.2, 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg or prednisolone (10 mg/kg for 10 days. The response to noxious thermal stimulus was assessed using tail flick test on Day 10. The well-being of the rats was also assessed by monitoring their food intake and body weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with post-hoc Scheffe's test and P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In tail flick test, the tail flick latency time was significantly higher in the groups that received 1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg of Tualang honey and 10 mg/kg of prednisolone, compared to the control group (P<0.05. There was significant reduction in the total food pellet intake in the groups receiving prednisolone and Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg compared to controls; however, the body weight gain was only significantly reduced in the prednisolone group. All the parameters were not significantly affected in the group receiving 0.2 g/kg of Tualang honey. In conclusion, preemptive administration of Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg and prednisolone (10 mg/kg had reduced the pain responses. The reduced weight gain in the prednisolone group is an unwanted effect due to its metabolic and central actions. Further studies are required to confirm the antinociceptive effects and elucidate the mechanism of antinociceptive action of Tualang honey in the rats.

  2. Haloperidol and metabolite concentrations in the rat after concurrent isotretinoin administration: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, G; Kirch, D; Freed, W J

    1988-05-01

    Blood and tissue haloperidol concentrations can be altered by the concurrent administration of a number of other drugs. Here we describe effects of concurrent administration of the vitamin A metabolite, isotretinoin, on haloperidol and reduced haloperidol concentrations in the rat. Isotretinoin increased the concentrations of both haloperidol and reduced haloperidol in serum, red blood cells, and brain. However, the dose dependence and degree of the effect varied significantly across tissues. Further study is called for to elucidate the interaction of neuroleptics such as haloperidol with the vitamin A acids such as isotretinoin.

  3. Measurement of Hydroxyl-Radical Formation in the Rat Striatum by In Vivo Microdialysis and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, V; Bonds, D V; Prokai, L

    2008-10-01

    A GC-MS method was developed for measuring hydroxyl-radical capture products of salicylic acid, a common trapping agent for this reactive oxygen species, in samples obtained by in vivo cerebral microdialysis experiments. The assay employed liquid-liquid extraction followed by derivatization of 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, along with 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid added as an internal standard. Due to their simple electron ionization mass spectra featuring [M - 57](+) ions through the loss of tertiary alkyl group from the corresponding molecular ions, tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) derivatives afforded straightforward method development based on selected-ion monitoring. In addition, tandem mass spectrometry probing collision-induced dissociation of [M - 57](+) ions obtained from the isomeric tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives revealed characteristic differences in the resultant product-ion spectra. Our work has demonstrated the applicability of GC-MS for the assay of microdialysates for 2,3- and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid by confirming that local administration of the excitotoxic glutamate into the rat striatum significantly increased in vivo hydroxyl-radical production in this brain region and that subsequent systemic administration of α-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone reversed glutamate-induced oxidative stress.

  4. Bromobenzene 3,4-oxide alkylates histidine and lysine side chains of rat liver proteins in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambal, R B; Hanzlik, R P

    1995-01-01

    The hepatotoxic effects of bromobenzene (BB) are correlated with and generally ascribed to the covalent modification of cellular proteins by chemically reactive metabolites, particularly BB-3,4-oxide. Previous studies revealed that quinone as well as epoxide metabolites of BB form adducts to protein sulfur nucleophiles, that the quinone-derived adducts are more abundant by a factor of ca. 7, and that collectively these sulfur adducts account for only about 10% of the total protein covalent binding [Slaughter, D. E., and Hanzlik, R. P. (1991) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 4, 349-359]. To examine the possibility that metabolically-formed BB-3,4-oxide alkylates nitrogen nucleophiles on proteins under toxicologically relevant conditions in vivo, we synthesized standards of N tau-(p-bromophenyl)histidine (7) and N epsilon-(p-bromophenyl)lysine (8) as anticipated adduct structures and used them to guide a chromatographic search for their presence in hydrolysates of liver protein from BB-treated rats. While radio-LC chromatography and GC/MS provide unequivocal evidence for their presence, the amounts of 7 and 8 observed are very low ( covalent binding). The apparently small net contribution of epoxide metabolites to covalent binding of BB in vivo suggests the majority of binding may arise via quinone metabolites, but this should not be construed to imply that quinone adducts are necessarily more important toxicologically than epoxide adducts; in this context the identity of the protein targets is probably at least as important as the type of electrophilic metabolite involved.

  5. Bicarbonate secretion in vivo by rat distal tubules during alkalosis induced by dietary chloride restriction and alkali loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Harrison, V

    1991-05-01

    To examine in vivo the separate effects on distal tubule JtCO2, of dietary chloride restriction, bicarbonate loading, and changes in luminal chloride concentration, we microperfused distal tubules at a physiologic flow rate (8 nl/min) with solutions containing either 45 or 0 mM chloride (after gluconate substitution). Rats were fed a diet containing zero, minimal, or normal amounts of chloride, while drinking either water or a solution of 0.15 M sodium bicarbonate. Neither extracellular fluid volume contraction nor negative chloride balance ensued. Analysis of covariance with repeated measures demonstrated that dietary chloride, drinking sodium bicarbonate, and perfusion with either 45 mM or zero chloride, each have separate and significant modulating effects on distal tubule bicarbonate secretion. During mild alkalemia, there is modest bicarbonate secretion which is significantly different from zero (-9.9 +/- 3.2 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P less than 0.01), and which is suppressed after perfusion with zero chloride. In contrast, during more pronounced metabolic alkalosis after supplemental bicarbonate drinking, the bicarbonate secretory flux is brisk (-26 +/- 3 pmol.min-1.mm-1) and significantly different from zero and persists (-11 +/- 3 pmol.min-1.mm-1) even during perfusion with zero luminal chloride. Accordingly, in this two-day model of alkalosis induced by dietary chloride restriction, there is regulatory secretion of bicarbonate by distal tubules in vivo which is modulated by luminal chloride concentration.

  6. In vivo total body electrical conductivity following perturbations of body fluid compartments in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, J J; Molnar, J A; Meara, P A; Bode, H H

    1986-06-01

    Total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) provides a rapid and safe noninvasive technique for the assessment of total body water in animals and man. An instrument employing this principle has been shown to measure body water in healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. With the exception of adult obesity in humans, alterations in body fluid compartments that could theoretically affect the utility of conductivity measurements have not been studied. We, therefore, applied the total body electrical conductivity measurement in rats following perturbations of body fluid/electrolyte spaces including obesity, furosemide diuresis, severe burn, and low protein diet. Our findings confirm that total body water can be accurately measured by TOBEC in conditions of abnormal body fluid distribution. However, when the ratio of intracellular to extracellular fluid is significantly reduced, such as the severe burn or low protein intake, TOBEC does not reflect the intracellular (potassium) space but does predict total water and extracellular (sodium) space.

  7. Chain length of dietary alkylresorcinols affects their in vivo elimination kinetics in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Matti; Strömberg, Eric A; Hooker, Andrew C; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Aman, Per; Landberg, Rikard; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    2013-10-01

    Two phenolic acids, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)- propanoic acid (DHPPA), are the major metabolites of cereal alkylresorcinols (ARs). Like their precursors, AR metabolites have been suggested as biomarkers for intake of whole-grain wheat and rye and as such could aid the understanding of diet-disease associations. This study estimated and compared pharmacokinetic parameters of ARs and their metabolites in rats and investigated differences in metabolite formation after ingestion of different AR homologs. Rats were i.v. infused for 30 min with 2, 12, or 23 μmol/kg DHBA or DHPPA or orally given the same amounts of the AR homologs, C17:0 and C25:0. Repeated plasma samples, obtained from rats for 6 h (i.v.) or 36 h (oral), were simultaneously analyzed for ARs and their metabolites by GC-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by population-based compartmental modeling and noncompartmental calculation. A 1-compartment model best described C25:0 pharmacokinetics, whereas C17:0 and AR metabolites best fitted 2-compartment models. Combined models for simultaneous prediction of AR and metabolite concentration were more complex, with less reliable estimates of pharmacokinetic parameters. Although the AUC of C17:0 was lower than that of C25:0 (P C25:0. The elimination half-life of ARs and their metabolites increased with length of the side chain (P-trend C25:0). The formation of AR metabolites was slower than their elimination, indicating that the rate of AR metabolism and not excretion of DHBA and DHPPA determines their plasma concentrations in rats.

  8. In vivo effect of chronic hypoxia on the neurochemical profile of the developing rat hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, Lakshmi; Tkac, Ivan; Ennis, Kathleen; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gruetter, Rolf; Rao, Raghavendra

    2005-01-01

    The cognitive deficits observed in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease suggest involvement of the developing hippocampus. Chronic postnatal hypoxia present during infancy in these children may play a role in these impairments. To understand the biochemical mechanisms of hippocampal injury in chronic hypoxia, a neurochemical profile consisting of 15 metabolite concentrations and 2 metabolite ratios in the hippocampus was evaluated in a rat model of chronic postnatal hypoxia using i...

  9. Comparison of diglycolic acid exposure to human proximal tubule cells in vitro and rat kidneys in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Mossoba

    Full Text Available Diglycolic acid (DGA is present in trace amounts in our food supply and is classified as an indirect food additive linked with the primary GRAS food additive carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC. Carboxymethyl starches are used as a filler/binder excipient in dietary supplement tablets and a thickening ingredient in many other processed foods. We sought to utilize the human proximal tubule HK-2 cell line as an in vitro cellular model system to evaluate its acute nephrotoxicity of DGA. We found that DGA was indeed toxic to HK-2 cells in all in vitro assays in our study, including a highly sensitive Luminex assay that measures levels of an in vitro biomarker of kidney-specific toxicity, Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1. Interestingly, in vitro KIM-1 levels also correlated with in vivo KIM-1 levels in urine collected from rats treated with DGA by daily oral gavage. The use of in vitro and in vivo models towards understanding the effectiveness of an established in vitro system to predict in vivo outcomes would be particularly useful in rapidly screening compounds that are suspected to be unsafe to consumers. The merit of the HK-2 cell model in predicting human toxicity and accelerating the process of food toxicant screening would be especially important for regulatory purposes. Overall, our study not only revealed the value of HK-2 in vitro cell model for nephrotoxicity evaluation, but also uncovered some of the mechanistic aspects of the human proximal tubule injury that DGA may cause. Keywords: Kidney proximal tubule, HK-2 cells, Diglycolic acid, Nephrotoxicity

  10. Does hypericin boost the efficacy of high-power laser? A preliminary experimental study on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Murat; Goktas, Serdar; Yildirim, Ibrahim; Zorba, Unal Orhan; Basal, Seref; Alp, Bilal Firat; Kaya, Engin; Erogul, Osman

    2014-12-01

    Lasers are widely used in treating symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. In current practice, potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) lasers are the most common type of laser systems used. The aim here was to evaluate the rapid effect of high-power laser systems after application of hypericin. Experimental animal study conducted in the Department of Urology, Gülhane Military Medical Academy, Ankara, Turkey, in 2012. Sixteen rats were randomized into four groups: 120 W KTP laser + hypericin; 120 W KTP laser alone; 80 W KTP laser + hypericin; and 80 W KTP laser alone. Hypericin was given intraperitoneally two hours prior to laser applications. The laser incisions were made through the quadriceps muscle of the rats. The depth and the width of the laser incisions were evaluated histologically and recorded. To standardize the effects of the laser, we used the ratio of depth to width. These new values showed us the depth of the laser application per unit width. The new values acquired were evaluated statistically. Mean depth/width values were 231.6, 173.6, 214.1 and 178.9 in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The most notable result was that higher degrees of tissue penetration were achieved in the groups with hypericin (P laser applications.

  11. Superoxide anion production in the rat penis impairs erectile function in diabetes: influence of in vivo extracellular superoxide dismutase gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Usta, Mustafa F; Kendirci, Muammer; Pradhan, Leena; Alvarez, Xavier; Champion, Hunter C; Kadowitz, Philip J; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2005-03-01

    Superoxide anion may contribute to erectile dysfunction (ED) in diabetes mellitus by reducing cavernosal nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to determine if gene transfer of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) can reduce superoxide anion formation and determine if this reactive oxygen species may contribute to diabetes-related ED in an experimental model of diabetes. Three groups of animals were utilized: (1) control; (2) streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats [60 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip)] intracavernosally injected with AdCMVbetagal (negative control); and (3) STZ-rats intracavernosally injected with AdCMVEC-SOD. Two months after ip injection of STZ, groups 2 and 3 were transfected with the adenoviruses and 2 days after transfection, all animals underwent cavernosal nerve stimulation (CNS) to assess erectile function. Confocal microscopy for superoxide anion and von Willebrand Factor (vWF) was performed in the STZ-diabetic rat. Superoxide anion production, total SOD activity, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were measured in each experimental group of rats. Confocal microscopy demonstrated superoxide in smooth muscle and endothelial cells of the STZ-rat cavernosum and colocalized with vWF in the endothelium. Higher superoxide anion levels and decreased cGMP levels were found in the penis of STZ-rats at a time when erectile function was reduced. Two days after administration of AdCMVEC-SOD, superoxide anion levels were significantly lower in the penis of STZ-rats. Total SOD activity and cavernosal cGMP was increased in the penis of EC-SOD-transfected rats. STZ-rats transfected with AdCMVEC-SOD had a peak intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and total ICP to CNS that was similar to control rats. These data demonstrate that in vivo adenoviral gene transfer of EC-SOD can reduce corporal superoxide anion levels and raise cavernosal cGMP levels by increasing NO bioavailability thus restoring erectile function in the STZ

  12. Comparative effects of pesticides on in vivo dopamine release in freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, Lilian R F; Alfonso, Miguel; Cervantes, Rosa; Durán, Rafael

    2009-12-01

    The effects of different types of pesticides on the in vivo striatal dopamine release were investigated by using in vivo brain microdialysis technique. MPTP, paraquat, maneb, dicofol, DDT, lindane and flutriafol (1 mM) were administered directly into the striatum, and levels of dopamine and its metabolites dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovallinic acid (HVA) were measured using HPLC-EC. Intrastriatal administration of pesticides induced the following maximal effects on the dopamine levels: maneb 791 +/- 87%, dicofol 101 +/- 1%, DDT 779 +/- 32%, paraquat 956 +/- 80%, lindane 281 +/- 28% and flutriafol 218 +/- 51% with respect to basal levels. Infusion of pesticides also produced alterations in extracellular DOPAC and HVA levels. A comparative scale of potency was developed to estimate the relative potency of pesticides to induce striatal dopamine release in vivo, using the same concentration and experimental conditions. According to this comparative scale of potency, paraquat is 10 times more potent (in a scale of 10) than dicofol, which did not induce any effect on dopamine release. The second more potent pesticide is maneb, followed by DDT, the organochlorine which has the highest potential to produce alterations on dopaminergic neurotransmission; flutriafol and the organochlorine lindane produced moderate increases in dopamine levels. These results suggest that different classes of pesticides, with different structures and biochemical activities, may affect the striatal dopaminergic system differently, inducing neurotoxicity.

  13. Cranberry flavonoids prevent toxic rat liver mitochondrial damage in vivo and scavenge free radicals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena A; Zamaraeva, Maria; Cheshchevik, Vitali T; Olchowik-Grabarek, Ewa; Sekowski, Szymon; Zukowska, Izabela; Golovach, Nina G; Burd, Vasili N; Zavodnik, Ilya B

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken for further elucidation of the mechanisms of flavonoid biological activity, focusing on the antioxidative and protective effects of cranberry flavonoids in free radical-generating systems and those on mitochondrial ultrastructure during carbon tetrachloride-induced rat intoxication. Treatment of rats with cranberry flavonoids (7 mg/kg) during chronic carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication led to prevention of mitochondrial damage, including fragmentation, rupture and local loss of the outer mitochondrial membrane. In radical-generating systems, cranberry flavonoids effectively scavenged nitric oxide (IC50  = 4.4 ± 0.4 µg/ml), superoxide anion radicals (IC50  = 2.8 ± 0.3 µg/ml) and hydroxyl radicals (IC50  = 53 ± 4 µg/ml). The IC50 for reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/ml. Flavonoids prevented to some extent lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes and glutathione oxidation in erythrocytes treated with UV irradiation or organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased the rigidity of the outer leaflet of the liposomal membranes. The hepatoprotective potential of cranberry flavonoids could be due to specific prevention of rat liver mitochondrial damage. The mitochondria-addressed effects of flavonoids might be related both to radical-scavenging properties and modulation of various mitochondrial events. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Combined Impact of Gamma and Laser Radiation on Peripheral Blood of Rats in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Batay, L. E.; Koshlan, I. V.; Nasek, V. M.; Zilberman, R. D.; Milevich, T. I.; Govorun, R. D.; Koshlan, N. A.; Blaga, P.

    2017-11-01

    The impact of γ radiation of 137Cs (doses of 1 and 3 Gy), low-intensity laser radiation (λ = 670 nm, 5.3 or 10.6 J/cm2) as well as the influence of consecutive laser and γ radiation on peripheral blood and blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, granulocytes) were studied by analyzing the number of blood cells, blood absorption spectra, and activity of antioxidant defense enzymes. Two series of experiments were performed on four groups of rats. The rats of the control group (group 1) were not exposed to γ or laser radiation. In the experimental groups, single irradiation of the whole body of rats with γ radiation (group 2), three- or four-day over-vein irradiation of blood in the tail vein by low-intensity laser radiation (group 3), and successive three- or four-day irradiation of blood by laser and then a single irradiation of the whole body with γ radiation (group 4) were performed. It was shown that changes of the blood cell content in the experimental groups are accompanied by changes in the spectral characteristics of the blood and the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes. The radioprotective effect of low-intensity laser radiation is manifested as an increase in the average number of leukocytes and lymphocytes in the group as compared with the postradiation, as well as an increase in the activity of antioxidant protection enzymes. The possibility of using low-intensity optical radiation for correction of hematological disorders caused by ionizing radiation is discussed.

  15. Regulation of cytochrome P-450j in rat hepatocytes in vivo and in primry monolayer culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C.M.; Molowa, D.T.; Thomas, P.E.; Levin, W.; Guzelian, P.S.; Wrighton, S.A.

    1987-05-01

    Cytochrome P-450j is of importance because it metabolically activates carcinogens and cytotoxic agents. They treated groups of 4 rats with 10% ethanol (EtOH) or 0.1% isoniazid (INH) and found that the amount of liver microsomal P-450j protein was increased 1.5- and 2.4 fold, respectively, over untreated control levels. When liver RNA samples were subjected to Northern and slot blot analyses, a 1.8 kb RNA species that hybridized with a cDNA probe which encodes for HLj (the human ortholog of P-450j) was increased 1.6- and 1.7-fold, respectively, in EtOH- and INH-treated rats as compared to controls. To investigate the P-450j induction mechanism, they isolated hepatocytes from untreated rats and found that when the cells were incubated on an extracellular biomatrix in serum free medium, the amount of P-450j immunoreactive protein decrease to < 50% of the level at time 0 after 72 h in culture and < 25% after 120h. Additions to the culture medium of pyrazole, hydrazine, or INH for 72 h increased P-450j immunoreactive protein up to 4.5-fold, 2.4-fold, and 1.6-fold, respectively, over control values. Moreover, P-450j mRNA decreased becoming undetectable within 24-48 h in culture. Additions of pyrazole but not other inducers increased P-450j mRNA to detectable levels. They conclude that at least some inducers of P-450j act directly on the hepatocyte by a mechanism(s) that involves both increases in P-450j mRNA and, apparently, other post-transcriptional events.

  16. Feasibility of the runt cow for in vivo testing of a spinal interbody prosthesis with preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttermann, Glenn R; Mendenhall, H Vincent

    2012-04-01

    The optimal lumbar spinal disc prosthesis has yet to be developed. Failures of clinical device studies may be minimized by appropriate large animal preclinical studies. The lumbar spine of the mature "runt" cow, Corrientes breed, has been shown to have a number of desirable characteristics to the human. This study assessed the feasibility of the "runt" cow for in vivo testing of human-sized lumbar interbody implants and the ability to perform common analyses of explants. Eight cows (four experimental and four controls) were compared. The experimental animals had transosseous implantation of the disc prosthesis at L4-L5, and their spines were harvested at four or six months. They were evaluated for the ease of surgical access and healing, motion segment mobility, ability to remove the implant nondestructively, and microradiography and histomorphology. All animals had successful implantation. All explantations were performed without alteration to the devices. All animals had surgical healing and intended device motion, and histology found device stability by demonstrating bone ingrowth into the device's porous plates. There was a significant 46% increase in the amount of trabecular bone adjacent to the implants. The mature runt cow allows for implantation of human-sized interbody and intrabody spinal prostheses. This animal model allowed for macro- and histological analysis of the implant and surrounding tissues. In vivo stability was demonstrated for the disc prosthesis while also allowing for evaluation of intended mobility. Additionally, this is the first study to suggest increased bone density supporting an interbody prosthesis.

  17. In vivo processing and release into the circulation of GFP fusion protein in arginine vasopressin enhanced GFP transgenic rats: response to osmotic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Keita; Oti, Takumi; Katoh, Akiko; Ueta, Yoichi; Morris, John F; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2015-07-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a neurohypophysial hormone synthesized as a part of a prepropeptide precursor containing the signal peptide, AVP hormone, AVP-associated neurophysin II and copeptin in the hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons. A transgenic (Tg) rat line expressing the AVP-eGFP fusion gene has been generated. To establish the AVP-eGFP Tg rat as a unique model for an analysis of AVP dynamics in vivo, we first examined the in vivo molecular dynamics of the AVP-eGFP fusion gene, and then the release of GFP in response to physiological stimuli. Double immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that GFP was specifically localized in neurosecretory vesicles of AVP neurons in this Tg rat. After stimulation of the posterior pituitary with high potassium we demonstrated the exocytosis of AVP neurosecretory vesicles containing GFP at the ultrastructural level. Biochemical analyses indicated that the AVP-eGFP fusion gene is subjected to in vivo post-translational modifications like the native AVP gene, and is packaged into neurosecretory vesicles as a fusion protein: copeptin1-14 -GFP. Moreover, GFP release into the circulating blood appeared to be augmented after osmotic stimulation, like native AVP. Thus, here we show for the first time the in vivo molecular processing of the AVP-eGFP fusion gene and stimulated secretion after osmotic stimulation in rats. Because GFP behaved like native AVP in the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, and in particular was released into the circulation in response to a physiological stimulus, the AVP-eGFP Tg rat model appears to be a powerful tool for analyzing neuroendocrine systems at the organismal level. © 2015 FEBS.

  18. The in vivo phosphorylation sites in multiple isoforms of amphiphysin I from rat brain nerve terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craft, George E; Graham, Mark E; Bache, Nicolai

    2008-01-01

    Amphiphysin I (amphI) is dephosphorylated by calcineurin during nerve terminal depolarization and synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE). Some amphI phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) have been identified with in vitro studies or phosphoproteomics screens. We used a multifaceted strategy including 32......P tracking to identify all in vivo amphI phosphosites and determine their relative abundance and potential relevance to SVE. AmphI was extracted from 32P-labeled synaptosomes, phosphopeptides were isolated from proteolytic digests using TiO2 chromatography, and mass spectrometry revealed 13 sites...

  19. An in vivo and in vitro comparison of CYP induction in rat liver and intestine using slices and quantitative RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignoni, Marcella; de Kanter, Ruben; Grossi, Pietro; Mahnke, Axel; Saturno, Grazia; Monshouwer, Mario

    2004-12-30

    Xenobiotics, including drugs, can influence cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by upregulating the transcription of CYP genes. To minimize potential drug interactions, it is important to ascertain whether a compound will be an inducer of CYP enzymes early in the development of new therapeutic agents. In vivo and in vitro studies are reported that demonstrate the use of liver and intestinal slices as an in vitro model to predict potential CYP induction in vivo. Rat liver slices and intestinal slices were incubated, for 24 h and 6 h, respectively, with beta-naphthoflavone (betaNF), phenobarbital (PB) or dexamethasone (DEX). In an in vivo study, rats were treated with the same compounds for 3 days. In vivo and in vitro CYP mRNA levels were measured by using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, CYP enzyme activities were determined in rat liver slices after 48 h incubation. In both rat liver and intestinal slices, betaNF significantly induced CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B1 mRNA levels. PB significantly induced CYP2B1. In liver slices a minor induction of CYP1A1 and CYP3A1 by PB was observed, whereas DEX significantly induced CYP3A1, CYP2B1 and CYP1A2 mRNA levels. The induction profiles (qualitative and quantitative) observed in vivo and in vitro are quite similar. All together, these data demonstrate that liver and intestinal slices are a useful and predictive tool to study CYP induction.

  20. In Vivo Therapeutic Effect of Vaccinium Meridionale Swartz in Ischemia-Reperfusion Induced Male Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mingge; Li, Ketian; Jing, Hongying; Zheng, Linyi

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective and antioxidant effect of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz in ischemia-induced male albino Wistar strain rats. Rats were grouped into 5 of 6 numbers each. Group I served as a sham, group II served as control and group III, IV, and V served for 1, 10, and 25 mg/kg/d of an extract of Vaccinium meridionale Swartz for 15 consecutive days of treatment. Serum marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and myeloperoxidase were increased, whereas antioxidant enzymes were reduced in control due to injury. Increased phenol and anthocyanin contents and increased free radical scavenging activity was noted following treatment. Serum marker enzymes, necrosis, and lipid peroxidation, were reduced, whereas antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione were increased. Nitric oxide synthase and Akt expression were also increased following treatment. Taking all these data together, it is suggested that Vaccinium meridionale Swartz may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic injury. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Effect of paroxetine on left ventricular remodeling in an in vivo rat model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Thomas Ravn; Nielsen, Jan Møller; Johnsen, Jacob; Ringgaard, Steffen; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Kristiansen, Steen Buus

    2017-05-01

    Left ventricular (LV) remodeling following a myocardial infarction (MI) involves formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has an antioxidant effect in the vascular wall. We investigated whether paroxetine reduces myocardial ROS formation and LV remodeling following a MI. In a total of 32 Wistar rats, MI was induced by a 30-min ligation of the left anterior descending artery followed by 7- or 28-day reperfusion. During the 28 days of reperfusion, LV remodeling was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography (n = 20). After 28 days of reperfusion, the susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia was evaluated prior to sacrifice and histological assessment of myocyte cross-sectional area, fibrosis, and presence of myofibroblasts. Myocardial ROS formation was measured with dihydroethidium after 7 days of reperfusion in separate groups (n = 12). Diastolic LV volume, evaluated by MRI (417 ± 60 vs. 511 ± 64 µL, p paroxetine group than in controls. Furthermore, myocyte cross-sectional area was reduced in the paroxetine group compared with controls (277 ± 26 vs. 354 ± 23 mm(3), p paroxetine reduced the susceptibility to ventricular tachycardia (induced in 2/11 vs. 6/8 rats, p Paroxetine treatment following MI decreases LV remodeling and susceptibility to arrhythmias, probably by reducing ROS formation.

  2. The effect of aqueous preparation of Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) on erythrocyte osmotic fragility in Wistar rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, H A; John, A I; Ekanem, A U

    2012-06-07

    Allium cepa (onion) and Allium sativa (garlic) are bulbous herbs used as food item, spice and medicine in different parts of the world. The effects of onion and garlic on the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats were assessed in vivo and in vitro. In the in vivo studies, five albino rats weighing between 150 - 200g composed each of three study groups. Group A were administered 150mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion preparation; Group B 75mg/Kg body weight aqueous onion and 75mg/Kg body weight garlic preparations; and Group C served as the control and were administered distilled water. The treatment regimens were orally administered thrice a week, for a period of four weeks by gavages. The in vitro erythrocyte osmotic fragility was also evaluated in 12 Wistar rats that were not pre-treated with either onion alone or onion and garlic. The animals were divided into three groups. Blood samples from group A rats were treated with 150mg onion while blood from group B rats was treated with 75mg onion and 75mg garlic extracts. Group C served as the control and were treated with normal saline and osmotic fragility assays were carried out. The degree of haemolysis was greater in the treatment group compared to control and the percentage haemolysis was greater in blood samples with onion and garlic compared to the onion group. The same observation was made in the in vitro study, but the degree of haemolysis was significantly higher in in vitro than the in vivo experiments. It is concluded that onion and garlic increase the osmotic fragility of red blood cells in albino rats.

  3. K-ATP channel expression and pharmacological in vivo and in vitro studies of the K-ATP channel blocker PNU-37883A in rat middle meningeal arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, K.B.; Boni, L.J.; Baun, M.

    2008-01-01

    intracranial arteries, including the middle meningeal artery (MMA). We studied the K-ATP channel expression profile in rat MMA and examined the potential inhibitory effects of the K-ATP channel blocker PNU-37883A on K-ATP channel opener-induced relaxation of the rat MMA, using the three K-ATP channel openers...... levcromakalim, pinacidil and P-1075. Experimental approach: mRNA and protein expression of K-ATP channel subunits in the rat MMA were studied by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The in vivo and in vitro effects of the K-ATP channel drugs on rat MMA were studied in the genuine...... closed cranial window model and in myograph baths, respectively. Key results: Expression studies indicate that inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir)6.1/sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) 2B is the major K-ATP channel complex in rat MMA. PNU-37883A (0.5 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited the in vivo dilatory effect...

  4. Blood concentrations of acrylonitrile in humans after oral administration extrapolated from in vivo rat pharmacokinetics, in vitro human metabolism, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Ryohji; Murayama, Norie; Horiuchi, Kana; Kitajima, Masato; Kumamoto, Masatoshi; Shono, Fumiaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for acrylonitrile in humans based on in vitro metabolic parameters determined using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and a prior previously developed PBPK model in rats. The model basically consists of a chemical absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for acrylonitrile. Evaluation of a previous rat model was performed by comparisons with experimental pharmacokinetic values from blood and urine obtained from rats in vivo after oral treatment with acrylonitrile (30 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level) for 14 days. Elimination rates of acrylonitrile in vitro were established using data from rat liver microsomes and from pooled human liver microsomes. Acrylonitrile was expected to be absorbed and cleared rapidly from the body in silico, as was the case for rats confirmed experimentally in vivo with repeated low-dose treatments. These results indicate that the simplified PBPK model for acrylonitrile is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans. This model may also be useful for simulating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-voltage and high-voltage TEM observations on MWCNTs of rat in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Norihito; Watari, Fumio; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Ichinose, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the optimal conditions for observation of morphology and atomic structure of carbon nanotube (CNT) in vivo by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Either low-voltage or high-voltage TEMs was chosen for the high-contrast or high-resolution imaging of subcutaneous tissue and the multi-wall CNT (MWCNT). The morphology and structure of each cell organelle were well recognized using the low-voltage TEM at 75 kV. Individual MWCNTs forming the cluster were also visible by the low-voltage TEM. On the contrary, the high-voltage TEM image at 1250 kV shows poor contrast on both the cell organelles and MWCNTs. However, graphene layers of MWCNT were clearly visible in the HRTEM image using the high-voltage TEM. The influence of the surrounding biological tissue can be disregarded by the high-energy electrons due to their weak scattering/absorption effect in the tissue. It was indicated that the usage of the high-voltage TEM is quite effective to the atomic structure analysis of nano-crystalline materials in vivo.

  6. GABA Uptake Inhibition Reduces In Vivo Extraction Fraction in the Ventral Tegmental Area of Long Evans Rats Measured by Quantitative Microdialysis Under Transient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandy, Shannon L; Gonzales, Rueben A

    2018-02-01

    Inhibitory signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is involved in the mechanism of action for many drugs of abuse. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to alter extracellular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the VTA, knowledge on how uptake mechanisms are regulated in vivo is limited. Quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis is commonly used to examine the extracellular concentration and clearance of monoamine neurotransmitters, however it is unclear whether this method is sensitive to changes in clearance for amino acid neurotransmitters such as GABA. The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in GABA uptake are reflected by in vivo extraction fraction within the VTA. Using quantitative (no-net-flux) microdialysis adapted for transient conditions, we examined the effects of local perfusion with the GABA uptake inhibitor, nipecotic acid, in the VTA of Long Evans rats. Basal extracellular GABA concentration and in vivo extraction fraction were 44.4 ± 1.9 nM (x-intercepts from 4 baseline regressions using a total of 24 rats) and 0.19 ± 0.01 (slopes from 4 baseline regressions using a total of 24 rats), respectively. Nipecotic acid (50 μM) significantly increased extracellular GABA concentration to 170 ± 4 nM and reduced in vivo extraction fraction to 0.112 ± 0.003. Extraction fraction returned to baseline following removal of nipecotic acid from the perfusate. Conventional microdialysis substantially underestimated the increase of extracellular GABA concentration due to nipecotic acid perfusion compared with that obtained from the quantitative analysis. Together, these results show that inhibiting GABA uptake mechanisms within the VTA alters in vivo extraction fraction measured using microdialysis and that in vivo extraction fraction may be an indirect measure of GABA clearance.

  7. Design of (99m) Tc-DTPA-CLP and preliminary evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıparmak, Burcu; Lambrecht, Fatma Y; Er, Ozge

    2014-03-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are localized in (malignant) tumor tissues by different mechanisms. One of these mechanisms, gelatinase enzyme activity, is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients and potential targets for tumor imaging. There are some gelatinases to be associated with metastatic potential for tumor imaging to possibly predict metastases. In this study, a cyclic decapeptide conjugate, DTPA-CLP (DTPA-Cys-Leu-Pro-Gly-His-Trp-Gly-Phe-Pro-Ser-Cys), was selected as a peptide conjugate because of its selective inhibitory activity toward gelatinases. Peptide-conjugated DTPA-CLP was labeled with (99m) Tc with a radiolabeling efficiency of 97.0 ± 2.8%. After determining optimization conditions for radiolabeling, a biodistribution study of radiolabeled peptide in albino Wistar rats was performed. According to biodistribution data, (99m) Tc-DTPA-CLP showed high uptake in the lung, liver, uterus, and spleen. These results show that (99m) Tc-DTPA-CLP may be used for the imaging of gelatinase activity in metastatic tumors. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and aging on auditory function in the rat: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, M W; Abel, E L; Kaltenbach, J A; Overbeck, G W

    1996-02-01

    This study investigated select aspects of peripheral and central auditory dysfunction, as well as the pathological effects of aging, In an animal model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Pregnant rats consumed liquid alcohol diets containing 0, 17.5, or 35% ethanol-derived calories, from gestation day 7 to parturition. A fourth group was untreated. Offspring of these mothers were tested for auditory and neurological function, using the auditory brainstem response at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. Some animals in the alcohol-exposed groups showed a peripheral auditory disorder in the form of congenital sensorineural hearing loss. This was correlated with punctate lesions and malformed stereocilia on the auditory sensory receptor cells of the inner ear. Alcohol-exposed animals also showed a central auditory processing disorder characterized by prolonged transmission of neural potentials along the brainstem portion of the auditory pathway. Animals in the highest dose group also showed an augmentation in the age-related deterioration of auditory acuity. Thus, increased peripheral and central auditory dysfunctions and pathological deterioration of auditory function in old age may be sequelae of FAS. Such morbidities have important implications for the long-term clinical assessment and management of FAS patients.

  9. Preliminary study on sarcoglycan sub-complex in rat cerebral and cerebellar cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermiglio, Giovanna; Runci, Michele; Scibilia, Antonino; Biasini, Fiammetta; Cutroneo, Giuseppina

    2012-01-01

    The sarcoglycan sub-complex is a protein system which plays a key role in sarcolemma stabilization during muscle activity. Although numerous studies have been conducted on this system, there are few data about its localization in non-muscular tissues. On this basis we carried out an indirect immunofluorescence study on normal rat cerebral and cerebellar cortex. In particular, we carried out single localization reactions to analyze if these proteins are present in brain and double localization reactions between sarcoglycans and either SMI-32 or GFAP to verify if they are expressed both in neurons and glial cells. We found that all tested sarcoglycans are present both in cerebral and cerebellar cortex and that they are expressed both in neurons and glial cells. The typical staining pattern of all sarcoglycans is represented by "spot-like" fluorescence, with spots of 0.5-2 microm average diameter laid out mainly around the soma of the cells. The main difference about sarcoglycans expression between cerebral and cerebellar cortex is that in the cerebellar cortex the sarcoglycans positivity is detectable only in an area which is likely to correspond to Purkinje cells layer. The presence of sarcoglycans in cerebral and cerebellar cortex and their disposition mainly around the soma of the cells suggest a role of these proteins in cellular signalling and in regulating postsynaptic receptor assembly mainly in axo-somatic synapses.

  10. Effects of unilateral 6-OHDA lesions on [3H]-N-propylnorapomorphine binding in striatum ex vivo and vulnerability to amphetamine-evoked dopamine release in rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palner, Mikael; Kjaerby, Celia; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    in a preferential increase in agonist binding, and a lesser competition from residual dopamine to the agonist binding. To test this hypothesis we used autoradiography to measure [(3)H]NPA and [(3)H]raclopride binding sites in hemi-parkinsonian rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions, with and without amphetamine...... challenge. Unilateral lesions were associated with a more distinct increase in [(3)H]NPA binding ex vivo than was seen for [(3)H]raclopride binding in vitro. Furthermore, this preferential asymmetry in [(3)H]NPA binding was more pronounced in amphetamine treated rats. We consequently predict that agonist...

  11. Standardizing therapeutic parameters of acupuncture for pain suppression in rats: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sujung; Lim, Hyungtaeck; Choe, Ilwhan; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2014-01-15

    Despite acupuncture's wide and successful use, it is still considered as lacking scientifically rigorous evidence, especially with respect to its effectiveness. To address this problem, it is necessary to re-examine the practice of acupuncture using scientific methodology. The standardization of acupuncture practices may offer a solution. As a preliminary step towards the standardization of acupuncture stimulation in animal experiments, this study attempted to clarify the various therapeutic parameters that contribute to acupuncture's efficacy. This study identified specific acupoints, temporal point of needling, rotation of the needle, duration of acupuncture, and diameter of the needle as the parameters, through formalin test. In this test, acupuncture was performed on either the ST36 or LR2 point immediately after pain induction and 5 minutes after pain induction. The formalin test yielded no significant suppression of pain in the case of ST36 and LR2 acupuncture stimulation immediately following pain induction. When acupuncture was applied 5 minutes after pain induction, however, the ST36 stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in pain, while the LR2 stimulation produced no change. The duration of acupuncture, but not the diameter of the needle, was also significant. As for the rotation of the needle, there was no significant difference in the pain reduction achieved in the rotation and non-rotation groups. We determined that specific acupoint, temporal point of needling, and duration of treatment are important factors in the inhibition of pain. These finding strongly suggest that in animal experiments, the application of a set of appropriate therapeutic parameters can significantly influence the outcome.

  12. Standardizing therapeutic parameters of acupuncture for pain suppression in rats: preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite acupuncture’s wide and successful use, it is still considered as lacking scientifically rigorous evidence, especially with respect to its effectiveness. To address this problem, it is necessary to re-examine the practice of acupuncture using scientific methodology. The standardization of acupuncture practices may offer a solution. As a preliminary step towards the standardization of acupuncture stimulation in animal experiments, this study attempted to clarify the various therapeutic parameters that contribute to acupuncture’s efficacy. Methods This study identified specific acupoints, temporal point of needling, rotation of the needle, duration of acupuncture, and diameter of the needle as the parameters, through formalin test. In this test, acupuncture was performed on either the ST36 or LR2 point immediately after pain induction and 5 minutes after pain induction. Results The formalin test yielded no significant suppression of pain in the case of ST36 and LR2 acupuncture stimulation immediately following pain induction. When acupuncture was applied 5 minutes after pain induction, however, the ST36 stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in pain, while the LR2 stimulation produced no change. The duration of acupuncture, but not the diameter of the needle, was also significant. As for the rotation of the needle, there was no significant difference in the pain reduction achieved in the rotation and non-rotation groups. Conclusions We determined that specific acupoint, temporal point of needling, and duration of treatment are important factors in the inhibition of pain. These finding strongly suggest that in animal experiments, the application of a set of appropriate therapeutic parameters can significantly influence the outcome. PMID:24422783

  13. Toxicity Sub chronic Water Extract Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus In Vivo on Sprague dawley Rats

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    Azwin Apriandi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Meretrix meretrix is one of the shells of sea water are widely utilized by people as food. This clamalso has many properties and benefits, so in this study tested the effect of the water extract of Meretrixmeretrix against blood chemistry profile Sprague Dawley rats with the method (OECD 413: 2009. Based onobservations obtained growth, feed intake, weight of liver and kidney in normal conditions. Levels of urea,creatinine, cholesterol between the control mice treated with A/0.1 and A/1 were not significantly different(p> 0.05 while the levels of bilirubin and albumin between control mice treated with A/0.1 and A/1 resultssignificantly different (p<0.05, but all blood chemistry parameters tested is still in the normal category.

  14. In-vivo NIR autofluorescence of rat mammary tumors discriminates pathological malignancy

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    Fournier, Laure S.; Lucidi, Vincenzo; Rosenau, Werner; Demos, Stavros G.; Brasch, Robert C.

    2003-10-01

    Benign and malignant mammary tumors were induced in rats using a potent carcinogen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (ENU). Induced tumors were examined under near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging (excitation wavelength 670 to 730 nm, detection wavelength 750 and 800 nm) to search for a difference in the photophysical properties of the tumors reflecting their pathologic status. Three benign and eight malignant tumors were examined optically and pathologically. The non-enhanced optical images showed a significantly lower (P<0.05) spontaneous fluorescent signal in the benign tumors than in their malignant counterparts. The precise chemical origin for the observed differences in tumor autofluorescence remains undetermined. It can be hypothesized that the reported high concentration of porphyrins, NIR-fluorescing compounds, in the malignant lesions, could account for the observed increased autofluorescence.

  15. In vivo photodynamic inactivation of Psuedomonas aeruginosa in burned skin in rats

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    Hirao, Akihiro; Sato, Shunichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2010-02-01

    Control of infection in wounds is critically important to avoid transition to sepsis; however, recent rise of drug-resistant bacteria makes it difficult. Thus, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has recently received considerable attention. In this study, we examined methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic inactivation of Psuedomonas aeruginosa in rat burned skin. Two days after infection, the wound surface was contacted with a MB solution at different concentrations, and thereafter the wound was irradiated with cw 665-nm light at a constant power density of 250 mW/cm2 for different time durations. We obtained a two orders of magnitude decrease in the number of bacteria by PDT with a 2-h contact of 0.5-mM MB solution and a illumination of 480 J/cm2, demonstrating the efficacy of PDT against infection with Ps. aeruginosa in burns.

  16. Rutin protects against neuronal damage in vitro and ameliorates doxorubicin-induced memory deficits in vivo in Wistar rats

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    Ramalingayya GV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Grandhi Venkata Ramalingayya, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Pawan G Nayak, Anoop Kishore, Rekha Shenoy, Chamallamudi Mallikarjuna Rao, Nandakumar Krishnadas Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India Abstract: Doxorubicin (DOX is the most widely used broad-spectrum anticancer agent, either alone or in combination, for most cancers including breast cancer. Long-term use of chemotherapeutic agents to treat breast cancer patients results in cognitive complications with a negative impact on survivors’ quality of life. The study objective was to evaluate rutin (RUT for its neuroprotective effect against DOX in human neuroblastoma (IMR32 cells in vitro and study its potential to ameliorate DOX-induced cognitive dysfunction in Wistar rats. Cell viability assay (3-[4,5 dimethyl thiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, neurite growth assay, detection of apoptosis by (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS assay, and flowcytometric analysis were carried out to assess neuroprotective potential against DOX. An in vivo study was conducted for assessing protective effect of RUT against memory deficit associated with DOX-induced chemobrain using object recognition task (ORT. Locomotion was assessed using open field test. Serum biochemistry, acetylcholinesterase, oxidative stress markers in hippocampus, and frontal cortex were assessed. Histopathological analysis of major organ systems was also carried out. Prior exposure to RUT at 100 µM protected IMR32 cells from DOX (1 µM neurotoxicity. DOX exposure resulted in increased cellular death, apoptosis, and intracellular ROS generation with inhibition of neurite growth in differentiated IMR32 cells, which was significantly ameliorated by RUT. Cognitive dysfunction was induced in Wistar rats by administering ten cycles of DOX (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, once in 5 days, as we observed

  17. Transcriptional response of rat frontal cortex following acute In Vivo exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and deltamethrin

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    Tornero-Velez Rogelio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroids are neurotoxic pesticides that interact with membrane bound ion channels in neurons and disrupt nerve function. The purpose of this study was to characterize and explore changes in gene expression that occur in the rat frontal cortex, an area of CNS affected by pyrethroids, following an acute low-dose exposure. Results Rats were acutely exposed to either deltamethrin (0.3 – 3 mg/kg or permethrin (1 – 100 mg/kg followed by collection of cortical tissue at 6 hours. The doses used range from those that cause minimal signs of intoxication at the behavioral level to doses well below apparent no effect levels in the whole animal. A statistical framework based on parallel linear (SAM and isotonic regression (PIR methods identified 95 and 53 probe sets as dose-responsive. The PIR analysis was most sensitive for detecting transcripts with changes in expression at the NOAEL dose. A sub-set of genes (Camk1g, Ddc, Gpd3, c-fos and Egr1 was then confirmed by qRT-PCR and examined in a time course study. Changes in mRNA levels were typically less than 3-fold in magnitude across all components of the study. The responses observed are consistent with pyrethroids producing increased neuronal excitation in the cortex following a low-dose in vivo exposure. In addition, Significance Analysis of Function and Expression (SAFE identified significantly enriched gene categories common for both pyrethroids, including some relating to branching morphogenesis. Exposure of primary cortical cell cultures to both compounds resulted in an increase (~25% in the number of neurite branch points, supporting the results of the SAFE analysis. Conclusion In the present study, pyrethroids induced changes in gene expression in the frontal cortex near the threshold for decreases in ambulatory motor activity in vivo. The penalized regression methods performed similarly in detecting dose-dependent changes in gene transcription. Finally, SAFE analysis of

  18. Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw exhibitsin vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities andin vivo hypolipidemic effect in rats

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    J. ESPINOSA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The Casearia sylvestris Sw (Flacourtiaceae is a shrub that occurs in forests of Southern Brazil; its leaves are widely used in folk medicine as a depurative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic agent. The objective of this study was to perform the phytochemical description and to evaluate the pharmacological activities (antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and toxicity of the ethanolic extract (EE of C. sylvestris Sw. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of the EE ofC. sylvestris Sw on the glucose levels and lipid profile in blood serum of rats submitted to a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and Methods: In vitro assay: the detection of chemical groups was done through chemical reactions with the development of color or precipitate and by chromatographic profile; the antioxidant activity was measured by the method of reduction of DPPH free radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was evaluated by the broth microdilution method, and the Minimum Bactericide Concentration and the Minimum Fungicide Concentration were performed in Petri dishes; the cytotoxic activity was measured by the Artemia salina test. In vivo assay: diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated with EE of C. sylvestris Sw (300 mg/kg for 45 days, and the glycaemia and lipid profile were analyzed. Results: The EE showed a Lethal Dose50 of 724.76 μg.mL-1 and important antioxidant, fungicide and fungistatic activities. The EE showed better antimicrobial activity regarding the microorganismsStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andSalmonella setubal. Conclusion: The EE of C. sylvestris Sw produces a significant decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL levels without any significant alteration in the glycaemia. The EE of C. sylvestris Sw presents antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and it exhibits a potent hypolipidemic effect.

  19. The application of micro-CT in monitoring bone alterations in tail-suspended rats in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Hui-Qin; Sun, Lian-Wen; Huang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Ying; McClean, Colin J.; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-06-01

    Osteopenia is a pathological process that affects human skeletal health not only on earth but also in long-time spaceflight. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a nondestructive method for assessing both bone quantity and bone quality. To investigate the characteristics of micro-CT on evaluating the microgravity-induced osteopenia (e.g. early detection time and the sensitive parameters), the bone loss process of tail-suspended rats was monitored by micro-CT in this study. 8-Week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: tail suspension (TS) and control (CON). Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microstructure of the femur and tibia were evaluated in vivo by micro-CT at 0, 7, 14, 22 days. Biomechanical properties of the femur and tibia were determined by three-point bending test. The ash weight of bone was also investigated. The results showed that (1) bone loss in the proximal tibia appeared earlier than in the distal femur. (2) On day 7, the percent bone volume (BV/TV) of the tibia 15.44% decreased significantly, and the trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) 30.29% increased significantly in TS group, both of which were detected earlier than other parameters. (3) Biomechanical properties (e.g. femur, -22.4% maximum load and -23.75% Young’s modulus vs. CON) and ash weight of the femur and tibia decreased significantly in the TS group in comparison to CON group. (4) vBMD of the femur and tibia were clearly related to bone ash and dry weight (r = 0.75-0.87, p bone loss induced by tail suspension, moreover, trabecular vBMD and other parameters might be used to evaluate bone strength. Therefore, micro-CT is a reliable and sensitive method for predicting unloading-induced bone loss in small animals.

  20. Biomechanical characteristics of bone in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: An in-vivo randomized controlled experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korres, Nektarios; Tsiridis, Eleftherios; Pavlou, George; Mitsoudis, Athanasios; Perrea, Despina N; Zoumbos, Aristedes B

    2013-07-18

    To investigate the in vivo effects of type I diabetes on the mechanical strength of tibial bone in a rodent model. The biomechanical effect of diabetes on the structural integrity of the tibia in streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats was analysed. Induction of diabetes was achieved by an intra-peritoneal injection and confirmed by measuring serial blood glucose levels (> 150 mg/dL). After 8 wk the tibiae were harvested and compared to a control group. Biomechanical analysis of harvested tibiae was performed using a three-point bending technique on a servo hydraulic MTS 858 MiniBionix frame. Maximum force applied to failure (N), stiffness (N × mm) and energy absorbed (N/mm) were recorded and plotted on load displacement curves. A displacement control loading mode of 1 mm/min was selected to simulate quasi-static loading conditions. Measurements from load-displacement curves were directly compared between groups. Fourteen streptozotocin induced diabetic Wistar rats were compared against nineteen non-diabetic controls. An average increase of 155.2 g in body weight was observed in the control group compared with only 5 g in the diabetic group during the experimental study period. Levels of blood glucose increased to 440.25 mg/dL in the diabetic group compared to 116.62 mg/dL in the control group.The biomechanical results demonstrate a highly significant reduction in the maximum load to failure from 69.5 N to 58 N in diabetic group compared to control (P = 0.011). Energy absorption to fracture was reduced from 28.2 N in the control group to 23.5 N in the diabetic group (P = 0.082). No significant differences were observed between the groups for bending stiffness. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rodents reduces the maximum force and energy absorption to failure of bone, suggesting a predisposition for fracture risk.

  1. Magnolol Ameliorates Ligature-Induced Periodontitis in Rats and Osteoclastogenesis: In Vivo and In Vitro Study

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    Sheng-Hua Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease characterized by alveolar bone resorption and bacterial pathogen-evoked inflammatory response has been believed to have an important impact on human oral health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether magnolol, a main constituent of Magnolia officinalis, could inhibit the pathological features in ligature-induced periodontitis in rats and osteoclastogenesis. The sterile, 3–0 (diameter; 0.2 mm black braided silk thread, was placed around the cervix of the upper second molars bilaterally and knotted medially to induce periodontitis. The morphological changes around the ligated molars and alveolar bone were examined by micro-CT. The distances between the amelocemental junction and the alveolar crest of the upper second molars bilaterally were measured to evaluate the alveolar bone loss. Administration of magnolol (100 mg/kg, p.o. significantly inhibited alveolar bone resorption, the number of osteoclasts on bony surface, and protein expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, a key mediator promoting osteoclast differentiation, in ligated rats. Moreover, the ligature-induced neutrophil infiltration, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1 and MMP-9, superoxide formation, and nuclear factor-κB activation in inflamed gingival tissues were all attenuated by magnolol. In the in vitro study, magnolol also inhibited the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans that are key pathogens initiating periodontal disease. Furthermore, magnolol dose dependently reduced RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from RAW264.7 macrophages, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity of differentiated cells accompanied by a significant attenuation of resorption pit area caused by osteoclasts. Collectively, we demonstrated for the first time that magnolol significantly ameliorates the alveolar bone loss in

  2. Tapentadol increases levels of noradrenaline in the rat spinal cord as measured by in vivo microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzschentke, Thomas M; Folgering, Joost H A; Flik, Gunnar; De Vry, Jean

    2012-01-24

    Spinal noradrenaline is thought to play an important role in descending pain inhibitory pathways and the modulation of nociceptive information at the spinal level. Tapentadol is a μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonist and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI). We showed previously that tapentadol, in contrast to morphine, elevates levels of noradrenaline, but not serotonin, in the ventral hippocampus of rats. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of tapentadol, morphine and venlafaxine on spinal monoamine levels. Rats were implanted with spinal microdialysis probes. Drugs were administered intraperitoneally, and samples were collected for 3h in isoflurane-anesthetized animals and analysed for monoamine content using HPLC-MS/MS. In terms of area-under-curve (AUC, 0-180 min), tapentadol (4.64-21.5mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent, significant increase in extracellular spinal noradrenaline levels (9275±4346 min% at the highest dose versus -1047±889 min% for vehicle). A maximum increase of 182±32% of baseline was reached 60 min after administration of 10mg/kg tapentadol. Venlafaxine (10mg/kg) produced an effect of similar magnitude. In contrast, tapentadol decreased extracellular spinal serotonin levels (non-significantly compared to vehicle), while venlafaxine increased spinal serotonin to 267±74% of baseline. In contrast to tapentadol and venlafaxine, morphine slightly decreased levels of noradrenaline and serotonin. This study demonstrates that analgesic doses of tapentadol (and venlafaxine), but not morphine, increase spinal noradrenaline levels and that tapentadol is devoid of a relevant serotonergic effect. It supports the suggestion that the NRI component of tapentadol is functionally relevant and contributes to its mechanism of action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relaxin modulates human and rat hepatic myofibroblast function and ameliorates portal hypertension in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Jonathan A; Hayden, Annette L; Snowdon, Victoria K; Aucott, Rebecca L; Stutchfield, Ben M; Mole, Damian J; Pellicoro, Antonella; Gordon-Walker, Timothy T; Henke, Alexander; Schrader, Joerg; Trivedi, Palak J; Princivalle, Marc; Forbes, Stuart J; Collins, Jane E; Iredale, John P

    2014-04-01

    Active myofibroblast (MF) contraction contributes significantly to the increased intrahepatic vascular resistance that is the primary cause of portal hypertension (PHT) in cirrhosis. We sought proof of concept for direct therapeutic targeting of the dynamic component of PHT and markers of MF activation using short-term administration of the peptide hormone relaxin (RLN). We defined the portal hypotensive effect in rat models of sinusoidal PHT and the expression, activity, and function of the RLN-receptor signaling axis in human liver MFs. The effects of RLN were studied after 8 and 16 weeks carbon tetrachloride intoxication, following bile duct ligation, and in tissue culture models. Hemodynamic changes were analyzed by direct cannulation, perivascular flowprobe, indocyanine green imaging, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Serum and hepatic nitric oxide (NO) levels were determined by immunoassay. Hepatic inflammation was assessed by histology and serum markers and fibrosis by collagen proportionate area. Gene expression was analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting and hepatic stellate cell (HSC)-MF contractility by gel contraction assay. Increased expression of RLN receptor (RXFP1) was shown in HSC-MFs and fibrotic liver diseases in both rats and humans. RLN induced a selective and significant reduction in portal pressure in pathologically distinct PHT models, through augmentation of intrahepatic NO signaling and a dramatic reduction in contractile filament expression in HSC-MFs. Critical for translation, RLN did not induce systemic hypotension even in advanced cirrhosis models. Portal blood flow and hepatic oxygenation were increased by RLN in early cirrhosis. Treatment of human HSC-MFs with RLN inhibited contractility and induced an antifibrogenic phenotype in an RXFP1-dependent manner. We identified RXFP1 as a potential new therapeutic target for PHT and MF activation status. Copyright

  4. Intraperitoneal instillation of polihexanide produces hypotension and vasodilation: in vivo and in vitro study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieling, Helge; Gründling, Matthias; Lauer, Kai-Steffen; Wendt, Michael; Hachenberg, Thomas; Hackenberg, Thomas; Lehmann, Christian; Pavlovic, Dragan

    2006-05-01

    Treatment of peritonitis may include abdominal lavage with a local disinfectant polihexanide, available as 0.04% solution, which is often accompanied by hypotension. We examined the effects of peritoneal installation of polihexanide or NaCl 0.9% (10 ml each, for 10 min; polihexanide n=5, NaCl n=5) on mean arterial pressure in healthy rats and, using intravital microscopy, measured in seven other animals the diameter of terminal ileum submucosal arterioles and venules before and after local superfusion with polihexanide. Furthermore, in an in vitro isometric preparation of rat thoracic aortal rings, with and without endothelium, we tested the effects of cumulative concentrations of polihexanide on vascular basic tension and on tension elicited by phenylephrine and KCl. It was found that polihexanide peritoneal instillation produced a decrease in mean arterial pressure, while superfusion with polihexanide caused local vasodilation of intestinal wall blood vessels. In vitro, polihexanide produced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the preparations pre-contracted with phenylephrine (EC(50), polihexanide 0.04% solution 2.53+/-0.16 vs. 1.36+/-0.16, n=4, P<0.05; polihexanide 4.02+/-0.12 vs. 3.21+/-0.10, n=12, P<0.001;+ vs. - endothelium, respectively; -log g%) which (in aortae +endothelium) could be attenuated by either N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide generation inhibitor, or 1H-(1,2,4)oxodiazolo-(4,3-a)quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase. The relaxing effect of polihexanide (aortae -endothelium) was not affected by K(+)-channel blocking agents charybdotoxin, tetraethylammoniumchloride, glibenclamide or 4-aminopyridine, while polihexanide had no effects on 40-mM KCl contractions. This implies that polihexanide may promote nitric oxide liberation, potassium channel activation and vasodilation that may result in hypotension.

  5. In vivo regulation of the serotonin-2 receptor in rat brain

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    Stockmeier, C.A.; Kellar, K.J.

    1986-01-13

    Serotonin-2 (5-HT-2) receptors in brain were measured using (/sup 3/H)ketanserin. The authors examined the effects of amitriptyline, an anti-depressant drug, of electroconvulsive shock (ECS) and of drug-induced alterations in presynaptic 5-HT function on (/sup 3/H)ketanserin binding to 5-HT-2 receptors in rat brain. The importance of intact 5-HT axons to the up-regulation of 5-HT-2 receptors by ECS was also investigated, and an attempt was made to relate the ECS-induced increase in this receptor to changes in 5-HT presynaptic mechanisms. Twelve days of ECS increased the number of 5-HT-2 receptors in frontal cortex. Neither the IC/sub 50/ nor the Hill coefficient of 5-HT in competing for (/sup 3/H)ketanserin binding sites was altered by ECS. Repeated injections of amitriptyline reduced the number of 5-HT-2 receptors in frontal cortex. Reserpine, administered daily for 12 days, caused a significant increase in 5-HT-2 receptors, but neither daily injections of p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) nor lesions of 5-HT axons with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) affected 5-HT-2 receptors. However, regulation of 5-HT-2 receptors by ECS was dependent on intact 5-HT axons since ECS could not increase the number of 5-HT-2 receptors in rats previously lesioned with 5,7-DHT. Repeated ECS, however, does not appear to affect either the high-affinity uptake of (/sup 3/H)5-HT or (/sup 3/H)imipramine binding, two presynaptic markers of 5-HT neuronal function. 5-HT-2 receptors appear to be under complex control. ECS or drug treatments such as reserpine or amitriptyline, which affect several monoamine neurotransmission systems including 5-HT, can alter 5-HT-2 receptors. 28 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  6. Effects of ethylenediamine--a putative GABA-releasing agent--on rat hippocampal slices and neocortical activity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Trevor W; Lui, Caleb; Addae, Jonas I

    2011-01-15

    The simple diamine diaminoethane (ethylenediamine, EDA) has been shown to activate GABA receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems, partly by a direct action and partly by releasing endogenous GABA. These effects have been shown to be produced by the complexation of EDA with bicarbonate to form a carbamate. The present work has compared EDA, GABA and β-alanine responses in rat CA1 neurons using extracellular and intracellular recordings, as well as neocortical evoked potentials in vivo. Superfusion of GABA onto hippocampal slices produced depolarisation and a decrease of field epsps, both effects fading rapidly, but showing sensitivity to blockade by bicuculline. EDA produced an initial hyperpolarisation and increase of extracellular field epsp size with no fade and only partial sensitivity to bicuculline, with subsequent depolarisation, while β-alanine produces a much larger underlying hyperpolarisation and increase in fepsps, followed by depolarisation and inhibition of fepsps. The responses to β-alanine, but not GABA or EDA, were blocked by strychnine. In vivo experiments, recording somatosensory evoked potentials, confirmed that EDA produced an initial increase followed by depression, and that this effect was not fully blocked by bicuculline. Overall the results indicate that EDA has actions in addition to the activation of GABA receptors. These actions are not attributable to activation of β-alanine-sensitive glycine receptors, but may involve the activation of sites sensitive to adipic acid, which is structurally equivalent to the dicarbamate of EDA. The results emphasise the complex pharmacology of simple amines in bicarbonate-containing solutions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. In vivo effects of nickel and cadmium in rats on lipid peroxidation and ceruloplasmin activity

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    Sole, J.; Huguet, J.; Arola, L.; Romeu, A. (Univ. of Barcelona, Tarragona (Spain))

    1990-05-01

    Before Ni(II) and Cd(II), or any other metallic ion, can interact intracellulary, it must penetrate the cell membrane. The latter, therefore, is a primary target for toxic metals. Damage to cell membranes may allow a greater uptake of metal and thus injury may extend to more critical targets, although loss of plasmatic membrane functionality may be a crucial factor to explain the interactions of these metals with cellular components. In this sense the present study has been carried out. Factors that have been investigated in order to prove the membrane response of nickel and cadmium toxicity include lipid peroxidation, since divalent ions of transition metals can promote lipid peroxidation and this evidently contributes to the toxicity of certain metals and to metal interaction with ceruloplasmin, as its ferroxidase and scavenger of superoxide radicals activities are important protective mechanisms in vivo against peroxidative damage.

  8. Preliminary Dosimetry Study of 67Ga-AATS for Human Based on Biodistribution Data in Rats

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    Hassan Yousefnia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Gallium-67 (67Ga has been used as a radionuclide for imaging a variety of solid tumors since 1969. Since then use of various gallium-based radiotracers has been reported. Recently, 67Ga-labeled acetylacetate bis(thiosemicarbazones (67Ga-AATS complex with significant tumor accumulation and fast blood clearance has been employed. Materials and Methods In this study, the absorbed dose of 67Ga-AATS in each human organ was evaluated and compared with 67Ga-citrate as the most commonly used form of 67Ga in nuclear medicine. 67Ga was produced via 68Zn(p,2n67Ga reaction at 30 MeV cyclotron. Moreover, 67Ga-AATS was produced by adding 50 µl of AATS to absolute ethanol (1 mg/ml in a gallium-containing vial at 80-90 °C. The absorbed dose of each human organ was calculated, using RADAR method, based on biodistribution data in Wistar rats. Results According to the results, 67Ga-AATS was produced with radionuclidic and radiochemical purity higher than 99% and 93%, respectively. The highest absorbed dose was reported in the bone surface (0.401 mGy/MBq, whereas the whole-body absorbed dose was 0.092 mGy/MBq. Conclusion The absorbed dose of each human organ was comparable with the absorbed dose received by each organ after 67Ga-citrate injection. Considering this interesting finding and the significant tumor uptake, it seems that 67Ga-AATS can be used as an appropriate SPECT tracer.

  9. Cisplatin treatment of C6 rat glioma in vivo did not influence copy number alterations and growth pattern of tumor-derived resistant cells

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    Stepanenko A. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether the cisplatin treatment of C6 rat glioma in vivo impacts the copy number alterations (CNAs, proliferation and colony formation efficiency (CFE of tumor-derived cisplatin-resistant cells. Methods. The glioma modeling was performed by means of intracerebral stereotactic implantation of rat glioma C6 cells into the striatum region of rats. The rats received 20 % dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO (C6R1 or cisplatin (C6R4CIS and C6R5CIS injected intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg three times per week. After 10 injections, gliomas were resected and the cells were cultured for in vitro analysis. CNAs were analyzed by array comparative genome hybridization, proliferation by direct cell counting in hemocytometer, CFE by soft agar assay. Results. No significant changes in the CNAs and CFE of cisplatin-treated rat glioma C6R4CIS and C6R5CIS cell lines were observed compared to the vehicle-treated control C6R1 cells. However, C6R5CIS but not C6R4CIS had a reduced proliferation. Interestingly, both cisplatin- and vehicle-treated brain-grown cells had a reduced proliferation and CFE in comparison to the parental C6 cells. Conclusions. Despite numerous reports on the destabilizing effects of cisplatin on genome and phenotype, the cisplatin treatment of C6 cells in vivo did not affect genome stability, CFE, and had an inconsistent effect on the proliferation in vitro. The rat brain microenvironment may potentially impact the growth characteristics of rat glioma cells.

  10. Effects of Autoclaving Soy-Free and Soy-Containing Diets for Laboratory Rats on Protein and Energy Values Determined In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taciak, Marcin; Tuśnio, Anna; Święch, Ewa; Barszcz, Marcin; Staśkiewicz, Łukasz; Skomiał, Jacek; Paradziej-Łukowicz, Jolanta; Pastuszewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Autoclaving diminishes the nutritional value of rat diets, depending on the duration and temperature of the process and the type of dietary protein. We evaluated in vivo and in vitro the effects of autoclaving on the protein and energy values of soy-free and soy-containing rat diets. The true digestibility and biological value of the dietary protein were determined in a 10-d experiment involving 28-d-old Wistar Crl:WI(Han) male rats fed casein- or soy-containing diet that was autoclaved for 20 min at 121 °C (T1), 10 min at 134 °C (T2), or not autoclaved (T0). The apparent protein digestibility and metabolizable energy concentration of experimental diets were assayed during an 18-d trial involving 6-wk-old Wistar-Crl:WI(Han) male rats and compared with a commercial diet. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content, amount of protein bound to NDF, protein solubility, and in vitro ileal protein digestibility were determined. Autoclaving decreased protein solubility, with the T2 condition having a greater effect than that of T1, and decreased the protein parameters determined in vivo, except for the apparent digestibility of the standard rat diet. Autoclaving decreased metabolizable energy slightly. The Atwater formula yielded higher values than those determined in rats, in vitro, and calculated according to the pig equation. We conclude that autoclaving diets according to the T1 program was less detrimental to dietary protein than was T2 and that the NDF content and protein solubility may be helpful in assessing the effect of autoclaving. The pig formula and in vitro method appear to be valid for estimating the metabolizable energy of rat diets. PMID:26424248

  11. Hemocyte responses of Dreissena polymorpha following a short-term in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Preliminary investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couleau, Nicolas; Techer, Didier [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Pagnout, Christophe [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); International Consortium for the Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, iCEINT, http://www.i-ceint.org (France); Jomini, Stephane [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), UMR 7146, Campus Bridoux, rue du General Delestraint, Metz, F-57070 (France); Foucaud, Laurent; Laval-Gilly, Philippe; Falla, Jairo [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France); Bennasroune, Amar, E-mail: amar.bennasroune@univ-metz.fr [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire des Interactions Ecotoxicologie, Biodiversite, Ecosystemes (LIEBE), CNRS UMR 7146, IUT Thionville-Yutz, Espace Cormontaigne, Yutz, F-57970 (France)

    2012-11-01

    The widespread use of titanium-based nanoparticles and their environmental release may pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms within freshwater ecosystems. Suspension-feeder invertebrates like bivalve molluscs represent a unique target group for nanoparticle toxicology. The aim of this work was to investigate the short-term responses of Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes after in vivo exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO{sub 2} NP). For this purpose, freshwater mussels were exposed to P25 TiO{sub 2} NP at the concentrations of 0.1, 1, 5 and 25 mg/L during 24 h. Viability, phagocytosis activity and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation level of ERK 1/2 and p38 in hemocytes extracted from exposed mussels were compared to those from control specimens. Results demonstrated an inhibition of the phagocytosis activity after exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP at 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Similar trends, albeit less pronounced, were reported for higher concentrations of NP. Transmission electron microscopy showed for the first time the internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP into Dreissena polymorpha hemocytes. Besides, exposure to NP increased the ERK 1/2 phosphorylation levels in all treatments. Concerning the phosphorylation level of p38, only exposures to 5 and 25 mg/L of NP induced significant p38 activation in comparison to that of the control. Finally, these short-term effects observed at environmentally relevant concentrations highlighted the need for further studies concerning ecotoxicological evaluation of nanoparticle release into an aquatic environment. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phagocytosis inhibition at TiO{sub 2} NP exposure concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/L. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internalization of TiO{sub 2} NP in freshwater mussel hemocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased phosphorylation level of p38 and ERK 1/2 after in vivo exposure to TiO{sub 2} NP.

  12. Synthesis of fluorescent analogues of relaxin family peptides and their preliminary in vitro and in vivo characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Linda; Smith, Craig; Chua, Berenice; Lin, Feng; Bathgate, Ross; Separovic, Frances; Gundlach, Andrew; Hossain, M. Akhter; Wade, John

    2013-12-01

    Relaxin, a heterodimeric polypeptide hormone, is a key regulator of collagen metabolism and multiple vascular control pathways in humans and rodents. Its actions are mediated via its cognate G-protein-coupled receptor, RXFP1 although it also ‘pharmacologically’ activates RXFP2, the receptor for the related, insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3), which has specific actions on reproduction and bone metabolism. Therefore, experimental tools to facilitate insights into the distinct biological actions of relaxin and INSL3 are required, particularly for studies of tissues containing both RXFP1 and RXFP2. Here, we chemically functionalized human (H2) relaxin, the RXFP1-selective relaxin analogue H2:A(4-24)(F23A), and INSL3 to accommodate a fluorophore without marked reduction in binding or activation propensity. Chemical synthesis of the two chains for each peptide was followed by sequential regioselective formation of their three disulfide bonds. Click chemistry conjugation of Cy5.5 at the B-chain N-terminus, with conservation of the disulfide bonds, yielded the analogues displaying appropriate selective binding affinity and ability to activate RXFP1 and/or RXFP2 in vitro. The in vivo biological activity of Cy5.5-H2 relaxin and Cy5.5-H2:A(4-24)(F23A) was confirmed in mice, as acute icv infusion of these peptides (but not Cy5.5-INSL3) stimulated water drinking, an established behavioral response elicited by central RXFP1 activation. The central distribution of Cy5.5-conjugated peptides was examined in mice killed 30 min after infusion, revealing fluorescence within brain tissue near-adjacent to the cerebral ventricle walls relative to deeper brain areas. These data will aid the interpretation of behavioral studies. Production of fluorophore-conjugated relaxin family peptides will facilitate future pharmacological studies to probe the function of H2 relaxin/RXFP1 and INSL3/RXFP2 signaling in vivo while tracking their distribution following central or peripheral administration.

  13. Preliminary Results of the in Vivo and in Vitro Characterization of a Tentacle Venom Fraction from the Jellyfish Aurelia aurita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Dalia; López-Vera, Estuardo; Aguilar, Manuel B.; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The neurotoxic effects produced by a tentacle venom extract and a fraction were analyzed and correlated by in vivo and in vitro approaches. The tentacle venom extract exhibited a wide range of protein components (from 24 to >225 kDa) and produced tetanic reactions, flaccid paralysis, and death when injected into crabs. Two chromatography fractions also produced uncontrolled appendix movements and leg stretching. Further electrophysiological characterization demonstrated that one of these fractions potently inhibited ACh-elicited currents mediated by both vertebrate fetal and adult muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) subtypes. Receptor inhibition was concentration-dependent and completely reversible. The calculated IC50 values were 1.77 μg/μL for fetal and 2.28 μg/μL for adult muscle nAChRs. The bioactive fraction was composed of a major protein component at ~90 kDa and lacked phospholipase A activity. This work represents the first insight into the interaction of jellyfish venom components and muscle nicotinic receptors. PMID:24322597

  14. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for optical nerve identification. Preliminary ex vivo results for feedback controlled oral and maxillofacial laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzle, Florian; Zam, Azhar; Adler, Werner; Douplik, Alexandre; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Nkenke, Emeka; Neukam, Friedrich Wilhelm; Schmidt, Michael

    Objective: Laser surgery has many advantages. However, due to a lack of haptic feedback it is accompanied by the risk of iatrogenic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of optical nerve identification by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to set the base for a feedback control system to enhance nerve preservation in oral and maxillofacial laser surgery. Materials and Methods: Diffuse reflectance spectra of nerve tissue, skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone (15120 spectra) of ex vivo pig heads were acquired in the wavelength range of 350-650 nm. Tissue differentiation was performed by principal components analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Specificity and sensitivity were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the area under curve (AUC). Results: Nerve tissue could correctly be identified and differed from skin, mucosa, fat tissue, muscle, cartilage and bone in more than 90% of the cases (AUC results) with a specificity of over 78% and a sensitivity of more than 86%. Conclusion: Nerve tissue can be identified by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with high precision and reliability. The results may set the base for a feedback system to prevent iatrogenic nerve damage performing oral and maxillofacial laser surgery.

  15. [Renal effects and metabolism of sevoflurane in Fisher 3444 rats: an in-vivo and in-vitro comparison with methoxyflurane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, T L; Beppu, W J; Hitt, B A; Kosek, J C; Mazze, R I

    1975-07-01

    Sevoflurane, 1.4 per cent (MAC), was administered to groups of Fischer 344 rats for 10 hours, 4 hours, or 1 hour; additional rats received 0.5 per cent methoxyflurane for 3 hours or 1 hour. Urinary inorganic fluoride excretion of sevoflurane in vivo was a third to a fourth that of methoxyflurane. However, using hepatic microsomes, sevoflurane and methoxyflurane were defluorinated in vitro at essentially the same rate. The discrepancy between defluorination of sevoflurane and methoxyflurane in vivo and in vitro was probably due to differences in tissue solubility between the drugs. There were no renal functional or morphologic defects following sevoflurane administration. An unexplained adverse effect was significant weight loss, which occurred following all exposures to sevoflurane.

  16. In vivo measurement of gadolinium concentration in a rat glioma model by monochromatic quantitative computed tomography: comparison between gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadobutrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Géraldine; Corde, Stéphanie; Charvet, Anne-Marie; Elleaume, Hélène; Farion, Régine; Le Bas, Jean-François; Estève, François

    2004-07-01

    Monochromatic quantitative computed tomography allows a nondestructive and quantitative measurement of gadolinium (Gd) concentration. This technique was used in the C6 rat glioma model to compare gadopentetate dimeglumine and gadobutrol. Rats bearing late-stage gliomas received 2.5 mmol/kg (392.5 mg Gd/kg) of gadopentetate dimeglumine (n = 5) and gadobutrol (n = 6) intravenously before the imaging session performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Monochromatic quantitative computed tomography enabled in vivo follow-up of Gd concentration as a function of time in specified regions of interest. Surprisingly, after gadobutrol injection, Gd concentrations in the center and periphery of the tumor were higher than those after gadopentetate injection, although identical in normal and contralateral area of the brain. The in vivo assessment of absolute Gd concentrations revealed differences in gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine behaviors in tumoral tissues despite injections in the same conditions. These differences might be attributed to different characteristics of the contrast agents.

  17. Carnitine supplementation in high-fat diet-fed rats does not ameliorate lipid-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Bart; van den Broek, Nicole M A; Ciapaite, Jolita; Houten, Sander M; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2015-10-01

    Muscle lipid overload and the associated accumulation of lipid intermediates play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Carnitine insufficiency is a common feature of insulin-resistant states and might lead to incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired export of lipid intermediates out of the mitochondria. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation reduces high-fat diet-induced lipotoxicity, improves muscle mitochondrial function, and ameliorates insulin resistance. Wistar rats were fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet for 15 wk. One group of high-fat diet-fed rats was supplemented with 300 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) L-carnitine during the last 8 wk. Muscle mitochondrial function was measured in vivo by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry. Muscle lipid status was determined by (1)H MRS (intramyocellular lipids) and tandem mass spectrometry (acylcarnitines). High-fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance and was associated with decreases in muscle and blood free carnitine, elevated levels of muscle lipids and acylcarnitines, and an increased number of muscle mitochondria that showed an improved capacity to oxidize fat-derived substrates when tested ex vivo. This was, however, not accompanied by an increase in muscle oxidative capacity in vivo, indicating that in vivo mitochondrial function was compromised. Despite partial normalization of muscle and blood free carnitine content, carnitine supplementation did not induce improvements in muscle lipid status, in vivo mitochondrial function, or insulin sensitivity. Carnitine insufficiency, therefore, does not play a major role in high-fat diet-induced muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Electrophysiological recordings from rat hippocampus slices following in vivo brain ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M S; Lambert, J D; Johansen, F F

    1991-07-19

    Pyramidal neurons in area CA1 of the septal hippocampus degenerate 2-3 days after an episode of transient global cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate synaptic transmission and passive neuronal properties in the post-ischemic period prior to neuronal death. Electrophysiological recordings were made from area CA1 in hippocampal slices prepared from rats which had survived a period of 20 min of ischemia for up to 5 days. In septal slices, field responses were in area CA1 unaltered up to 24 h after the ischemic insult. Forty-eight hours after ischemia, the mean amplitude of the population spike, but not the field-EPSP, was significantly reduced. In septal slices prepared more than 48 h after ischemia field potentials were absent or strongly attenuated, whereas they were intact in slices prepared from the temporal pole. No spontaneous discharges were detected in slices prepared at any time from post-ischemic rats. Intracellular recordings were obtained from slices up to 48 h after the ischemic episode. There was no significant difference in the resting membrane potential or input resistance between these neurons and those from control slices. Action potentials followed by a fast afterhyperpolarization and spike accommodation were preserved in all post-ischemic neurons. In all neurons investigated, orthodromic stimulation evoked an EPSP followed by a fast- and then a slow-IPSP. One hour after ischemia, the slow-IPSP was reduced. Forty-eight hours after ischemia, the fast-IPSP was significantly increased. The EPSP was markedly attenuated by the non N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (10 microM). The residual depolarizing component was amplified by perfusing with Mg(2+)-free medium and blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. Paired-pulse facilitation of the EPSP was also preserved. As in control slices, the slow-IPSP and paired-pulse depression of the fast

  19. Elucidation of Arctigenin Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution after Intravenous, Oral, Hypodermic and Sublingual Administration in Rats and Beagle Dogs: Integration of In Vitro and In Vivo Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Li; Xin Li; Yu-Shan Ren; Yuan-Yuan Lv; Jun-Sheng Zhang; Xiao-Li Xu; Xian-Zhen Wang; Jing-Chun Yao; Gui-Min Zhang; Zhong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Although arctigenin (AG) has diverse bioactivities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activities, its pharmacokinetics have not been systematically evaluated. The purpose of this work was to identify the pharmacokinetic properties of AG via various experiments in vivo and in vitro. In this research, rats and beagle dogs were used to investigate the PK (pharmacokinetics, PK) profiles of AG with different drug-delivery manners, including ...

  20. The in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 and mRNA expression of their receptors in rat middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boni, L.J.; Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Olesen, Jes

    2009-01-01

    ) and PAC(1) receptors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-27, PACAP-38, the selective VPAC(1) agonist ([Lys15, Arg16, Leu27]-VIP(1-7)-GRF(8-27)) and a PAC(1) agonist, maxadilan on rat middle meningeal artery (MMA) diameter using the closed cranial window...... in the treatment of migraine headache...

  1. The role of catecholamines in the production of ischaemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias in the rat in vivo and in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Daugherty, A.; Frayn, K N; Redfern, W. S.; Woodward, B.

    1986-01-01

    The role of catecholamines in the production of ischaemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias in vivo and in vitro was studied using coronary artery ligation in the rat. Increases in plasma catecholamine concentrations during coronary artery ligation in pentobarbitone-anaesthetized animals were prevented by either acute adrenalectomy or chronic adrenal demedullation, but these procedures did not protect against the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias. Thus plasma catecholamines were not obligat...

  2. Investigation of the in vivo antioxidative activity of Cynara scolymus (artichoke) leaf extract in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magielse, Joanna; Verlaet, Annelies; Breynaert, Annelies; Keenoy, Begoña Manuel Y; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Hermans, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The in vivo antioxidant activity of a quantified leaf extract of Cynara scolymus (artichoke) was studied. The aqueous artichoke leaf extract (ALE), containing 1.5% caffeoylquinic acid with chlorogenic acid being most abundant (0.30%), and luteolin-7-O-glucoside as major flavonoid (0.15%), was investigated by evaluating the effect on different oxidative stress biomarkers, after 3 wk oral supplementation in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. Apart from two test groups (0.2 g ALE/kg BW/day and 1 g ALE/kg BW/day, where BW is body weight), a healthy control group, untreated oxidative stress group, and vitamin E treated group (positive control) were included. A 0.2 g/kg BW/day of ALE decreased oxidative stress: malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels significantly diminished, whereas erythrocyte glutathione levels significantly increased. A 1.0 g/kg BW/day ALE did not show higher antioxidant activity. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. A precise temporal dissection of monosodium glutamate-induced apoptotic events in newborn rat retina in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Viktória; Lakk, Mónika; Czotter, Nikoletta; Gábriel, Róbert

    2011-08-01

    Although L-glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina, excess glutamate level triggers severe neuronal damages. Therefore, monosodium glutamate has been used to probe neurodegenerative mechanisms but precise toxicity schedule is not available in vivo. We report, for the first time, a temporal analysis of apoptotic processes induced by subcutaneously applied monosodium glutamate. We investigated the glutamate triggered subcellular processes over a time scale of 48 h in neonatal retina. We employed immunoblots to measure the level of activated apoptotic factors and immunocytochemistry to reveal the dying cells. Upregulation of active caspase-9 started at 3 h and peaked at 6 h post-injection. Activations of caspase-3, caspase-6 and caspase-7 consistent with their late-phase roles increased at 6 h post-injection. The apoptotic processes were terminated by 24 h post-injection. Caspase 12 and calpain-2 seemed unaffected by subcutaneous monosodium glutamate administration. Uniquely, we found that the ubiquitous calpain-1 is not expressed in newborn rat retina.

  4. In vivo study of transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) in proximal convoluted tubules of rat kidney by synchronization modulation electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausell, Mathis; Fang, Zhihui; Chen, Wei

    2014-07-01

    Synchronization modulation (SM) electric field has been shown to effectively activate function of Na(+)/K(+) pumps in various cells and tissues, including skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocyte, monolayer of cultured cell line, and peripheral blood vessels. We are now reporting the in vivo studies in application of the SM electric field to kidney of living rats. The field-induced changes in the transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) or the lumen potential from the proximal convoluted tubules were monitored. The results showed that a short time (20 s) application of the SM electric field can significantly increase the magnitude of TEPD from 1-2 mV to about 20 mV. The TEPD is an active potential representing the transport current of the Na/K pumps in epithelial wall of renal tubules. This study showed that SM electric field can increase TEPD by activation of the pump molecules. Considering renal tubules, many active transporters are driven by the Na(+) concentration gradient built by the Na(+)/K(+) pumps, activation of the pump functions and increase in the magnitude of TEPD imply that the SM electric field may improve reabsorption functions of the renal tubules.

  5. Electrical stimulation vs. pulsed and continuous-wave optical stimulation of the rat prostate cavernous nerves, in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, William C.; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Burnett, Arthur; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-07-01

    Identification and preservation of the cavernous nerves (CNs) during prostate cancer surgery is critical for post-operative sexual function. Electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) mapping has previously been tested as an intraoperative tool for CN identification, but was found to be unreliable. ENS is limited by the need for electrode-tissue contact, poor spatial precision from electrical current spreading, and stimulation artifacts interfering with detection. Alternatively, optical nerve stimulation (ONS) provides noncontact stimulation, improved spatial selectivity, and elimination of stimulation artifacts. This study compares ENS to pulsed/CW ONS to explore the ONS mechanism. A total of eighty stimulations were performed in 5 rats, in vivo. ENS (4 V, 5 ms, 10 Hz) was compared to ONS using a pulsed diode laser nerve stimulator (1873 nm, 5 ms, 10 Hz) or CW diode laser nerve stimulator (1455 nm). Intracavernous pressure (ICP) response and nerve compound action potentials (nCAPs) were measured. All three stimulation modes (ENS, ONS-CW, ONS-P) produced comparable ICP magnitudes. However, ENS demonstrated more rapid ICP response times and well defined nCAPs compared to unmeasurable nCAPs for ONS. Further experiments measuring single action potentials during ENS and ONS are warranted to further understand differences in the ENS and ONS mechanisms.

  6. Distal tubule unidirectional HCO3 reabsorption in vivo during acute and chronic metabolic alkalosis in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Iacovitti, M; Buckman, S; Vandorpe, D; Harrison, V; Nadler, S P

    1994-06-01

    During metabolic alkalosis (MA) associated with 2 days of dietary chloride restriction, there is net bicarbonate secretion by rat distal tubules in vivo, whereas after 5 wk of chloride depletion alkalosis there is net bicarbonate reabsorption. To examine unidirectional components of net bicarbonate reabsorption during chronic MA, we measured distal tubule unidirectional bicarbonate secretion (Jsec) and reabsorption (Jreab), as well as the inhibitor sensitivity of Jreab. In control, 2-day, and 7-day alkalosis, Jsec was similar. Jreab, however, was only present in 7-day MA (17 +/- 3 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P < 0.05). This Jreab was completely suppressed by perfusion with 10(-7) M bafilomycin A1, partially suppressed with 10(-5) M Schering (Sch)-28080 (4 +/- 2 pmol.min-1.mm-1, P < 0.1), and converted into a secretory flux by 3 mM amiloride. We conclude that adaptation to chloride depletion MA from the acute secretory phase to the chronic state, where plasma bicarbonate is sustained at elevated levels, does not involve suppression of distal tubule Jsec but rather enhanced Jreab, which is sensitive to bafilomycin, Sch-28080, and amiloride.

  7. Prenatal restraint stress: an in vivo microdialysis study on catecholamine release in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, E; Barros, V G; Ibba, M; Silvagni, A; Mura, C; Antonelli, M C

    2010-06-16

    There is substantial evidence that prenatal exposure to adverse environmental conditions might lead to the psychiatric disorders that can appear in adolescence or in adulthood; vulnerability to drug addiction may increase as well. It is currently accepted that the alteration of catecholamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex plays a prominent role in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. We assessed basal and stimulated dopamine and noradrenaline extracellular concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex by means of microdialysis in awake male adolescent and young adult offspring of rats exposed to restraint stress in the last week of pregnancy. Catecholamine stimulation was obtained by amphetamine or nicotine. We observed that prenatal stress (PNS) did not change dopamine but decreased noradrenaline basal output in both adolescents and adults. Moreover, it decreased amphetamine stimulated dopamine output and increased amphetamine stimulated noradrenaline output. PNS decreased nicotine stimulated noradrenaline (but not dopamine output) in adults, though not in adolescents. These data show that PNS stress modifies prefrontal cortex catecholamine transmission in a complex and age dependent manner. Our results support the view that prenatal stress may be a contributing factor for the development of psychiatric disorders and that its effect may augment drug addiction vulnerability. 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In Vivo Remodeling of Fibroblast-Derived Vascular Scaffolds Implanted for 6 Months in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Y. Tondreau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clinical need for tissue-engineered small-diameter (<6 mm vascular grafts since clinical applications are halted by the limited suitability of autologous or synthetic grafts. This study uses the self-assembly approach to produce a fibroblast-derived decellularized vascular scaffold (FDVS that can be available off-the-shelf. Briefly, extracellular matrix scaffolds were produced using human dermal fibroblasts sheets rolled around a mandrel, maintained in culture to allow for the formation of cohesive and three-dimensional tubular constructs, and decellularized by immersion in deionized water. The FDVSs were implanted as an aortic interpositional graft in six Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 months. Five out of the six implants were still patent 6 months after the surgery. Histological analysis showed the infiltration of cells on both abluminal and luminal sides, and immunofluorescence analysis suggested the formation of neomedia comprised of smooth muscle cells and lined underneath with an endothelium. Furthermore, to verify the feasibility of producing tissue-engineered blood vessels of clinically relevant length and diameter, scaffolds with a 4.6 mm inner diameter and 17 cm in length were fabricated with success and stored for an extended period of time, while maintaining suitable properties following the storage period. This novel demonstration of the potential of the FDVS could accelerate the clinical availability of tissue-engineered blood vessels and warrants further preclinical studies.

  9. In vivo cardiac electrical activity of nitric oxide in barium chloride treated male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihi, Abbas B. Q.; Shekha, Mudhir S.; Hamadamin, Peshraw S.; Maulood, Ismail M.; Rasul, Khder H.; Salim, Muhammed A.; Qadir, Fikry A.; Othman, Goran Q.; Mahmud, Almas M. R.; Al-Habib, Omar A. M.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitric oxide in barium chloride (BaCl2)-induced arrhythmia in male albino rats. 10mg/kg/hr of BaCl2 was infused intravenously through caudal vein to induce arrhythmia, to ameliorate this effect 1mg and 10mg/kg/hr of sodium nitroprusside (SNP; nitric oxide donor) were infused, respectively. The ECG signals and parameters were recorded and analyzed with the aid of BioAmp of ADInstruments data acquisition system and Labchart software. The results showed that infusion of both 1mg/kg/hr and 10mg/kg/hr of SNP non significantly changed heart rate (BPM), QRS interval (s), S amplitude (mV), T amplitude (mV), ST height (mV), JT height (mV), QT intervals (s) and QTc (s). In conclusion the results of the current study indicate that SNP cannot ameliorate arrhythmia-induced by BaCl2.

  10. In Vivo Lipid Regulation Mechanism of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in High-Fat Diet Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of the water extracts of Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR and its processed products (PMRP on liver lipid metabolism were observed in this paper. Aqueous extract of PMR and PMRP was given to nonalcoholic fatty liver model rats, respectively. PMR was better in reducing the contents of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL than PMRP and the positive control groups. In the aspect of regulating TG, medium dose PMR reduced the activity of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT to 1536±47.69 pg/mL (P<0.001 and promoted the expression of hepatic lipase (HL to 23.59±0.2758 U/mL (P<0.05. HL promotion ability of medium dose PMR was similar with the simvastatin positive control. Both medium and high dose of PMR showed significant alterations in TC, which were related to the downregulation effects on hydroxyl methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR and upregulation effects on cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase or cytochrome P450 7A (CYP7A. Quantitative relationships research indicated that the prominent effect on inhibiting the content of HMGCR (r=0.756, P<0.05 was strongly positive correlated with to the TC regulation effects. Effects of PMR on enhancing decomposition rate or reducing de novo synthesis rate of TG and TC were better than PMRP.

  11. In Vivo Biocompatibility of PLGA-Polyhexylthiophene Nanofiber Scaffolds in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroactive polymers have applications in tissue engineering as a physical template for cell adhesion and carry electrical signals to improve tissue regeneration. Present study demonstrated the biocompatibility and biodegradability of poly(lactide-co-glycolide-poly(3-hexylthiophene (PLGA-PHT blend electrospun scaffolds in a subcutaneous rat model. The biocompatibility of PLGA-undoped PHT, PLGA-doped PHT, and aligned PLGA-doped PHT nanofibers was evaluated and compared with random PLGA fibers. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks; the surrounding tissue along with the implant was removed to evaluate biocompatibility and biodegradability by histologic analysis and GPC, respectively. Histology results demonstrated that all scaffolds except PLGA-undoped PHT showed decrease in inflammation over time. It was observed that the aligned PLGA-doped PHT fibers elicited moderate response at 2 weeks, which further reduced to a mild response over time with well-organized tissue structure and collagen deposition. The degradation of aligned nanofibers was found to be very slow when compared to random fibers. Further, there was no reduction in the molecular weight of undoped form of PHT throughout the study. These experiments revealed the biocompatibility and biodegradability of PLGA-PHT nanofibers that potentiate it to be used as a biomaterial for various applications.

  12. Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Z.; Du, C.; Yuan, Z.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.

    2010-09-08

    MRI techniques to study brain function assume coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and flow. However, recent evidence of physiological uncoupling between neuronal and cerebrovascular events highlights the need for methods to simultaneously measure these three properties. We report a multimodality optical approach that integrates dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (measures changes in blood flow, blood volume and hemoglobin oxygenation), digital-frequency-ramping optical coherence tomography (images quantitative 3D vascular network) and Rhod2 fluorescence (images intracellular calcium for measure of neuronal activity) at high spatiotemporal resolutions (30 {micro}m, 10 Hz) and over a large field of view (3 x 5 mm{sup 2}). We apply it to assess cocaine's effects in rat cortical brain and show an immediate decrease 3.5 {+-} 0.9 min, phase (1) in the oxygen content of hemoglobin and the cerebral blood flow followed by an overshoot 7.1 {+-} 0.2 min, phase (2) lasting over 20 min whereas Ca{sup 2+} increased immediately (peaked at t = 4.1 {+-} 0.4 min) and remained elevated. This enabled us to identify a delay (2.9 {+-} 0.5 min) between peak neuronal and vascular responses in phase 2. The ability of this multimodality optical approach for simultaneous imaging at high spatiotemporal resolutions permits us to distinguish the vascular versus cellular changes of the brain, thus complimenting other neuroimaging modalities for brain functional studies (e. g., PET, fMRI).

  13. In vivo wound healing activity of a herbal ointment in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karami

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The wounds are still the health tribulations at the present time. In the present research the effect of a new herbal ointment (Oppyheal in treatment of rat’s wound has been investigated. The effectiveness of the ointment was compared with the Fibrinolysin/DNAse. Methods: Fifty four male Wistar rats were used. The wound was created on the back cervical skin of the animals under anesthesia in three different sizes. The animals in each size group were randomly divided into three groups. The control group did not receive the ointments. The reference group was given the Fibrinolysin/DNAse and the third group was treated with the Oppyheal. The products were topically used once per day until the wounds of one group were completely healed. The size of the wound area was measured in days 0-20 by a standard reference ruler. The reduction in size of the wound was calculated and analyzed. The recovered skin of all animals were examined histologically, p

  14. In vivo phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy of rat hind limb skeletal muscle during sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, D O; Maris, J; Fried, R; Settle, R G; Rolandelli, R R; Koruda, M J; Chance, B; Rombeau, J L

    1988-11-01

    High-energy phosphate metabolism in skeletal muscle is altered during sepsis, although the chronology of events is uncertain. Phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure changes in muscle energy stores of the left hind limb musculature of adult male rats during sepsis. Following control scans, cecal ligation and puncture were performed and scanning was repeated 6, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. The ratios of phosphocreatine (PCr) to inorganic phosphate (Pi), a measure of energy stores, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to Pi ratio, a measure of the energy available for immediate use, were determined from peak heights. Intracellular pH was calculated using the distance between Pi and PCr peaks. In surviving animals, a 40% decrease in PCr/Pi ratio (+/- SEM) was observed by 24 hours (22.3 +/- 3.0 at time 0 vs 13.3 +/- 2.8 at 24 hours), whereas energy availability (beta-ATP/Pi) was statistically unchanged (18.2 +/- 2.2 at time 0 vs 15.2 +/- 1.2 at 48 hours). Intracellular pH did not change. Both PCr/Pi and ATP/Pi ratios were inversely correlated with time. In this model of documented peritonitis, skeletal muscle energy metabolism is rapidly altered following severe infection, and these changes can be detected using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  15. Glyoxal administration induces formation of high molecular weight aggregates of hemoglobin exhibiting amyloidal nature in experimental rats: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sauradipta; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2016-12-01

    Glyoxal, a highly reactive α-oxoaldehyde, increases in diabetic condition and reacts with proteins to form advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In the present study, we have investigated the effect of glyoxal on experimental rat hemoglobin in vivo after external administration of the α-dicarbonyl compound in animals. Gel electrophoretic profile of hemolysate collected from glyoxal-treated rats (32mg/kg body wt. dose) after one week exhibited the presence of some high molecular weight protein bands that were found to be absent for control, untreated rats. Mass spectrometric and absorption studies indicated that the bands represented hemoglobin. Further studies revealed that the fraction exhibited the presence of intermolecular cross β-sheet structure. Thus glyoxal administration induces formation of high molecular weight aggregates of hemoglobin with amyloid characteristics in rats. Aggregated hemoglobin fraction was found to exhibit higher stability compared to glyoxal-untreated hemoglobin. As evident from mass spectrometric studies, glyoxal was found to modify Arg-30β and Arg-31α of rat hemoglobin to hydroimidazolone adducts. The modifications thus appear to induce amyloid-like aggregation of hemoglobin in rats. Considering the increased level of glyoxal in diabetes mellitus as well as its high reactivity, the above findings may be physiologically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo near-infrared autofluorescence imaging of pigmented skin lesions: methods, technical improvements and preliminary clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; He, Qingli; Zeng, Haishan

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence emission from in vivo cutaneous melanin was recently detected under near-infrared (NIR) excitation by our group. We then built a prototype NIR autofluorescence imaging system to observe and characterize the melanin distribution in human skin. In this article, we reported a new setup of NIR fluorescence imaging system and calibration methods to optimize the system for better clinical feasibility and clearer image. The imaging system was designed to perform both fluorescence and reflectance imaging with a 785-nm fiber-coupled laser source. The illumination light was purified by a 785-nm bandpass filter for fluorescence excitation; while the spontaneous components were selected by a longpass filter for NIR reflectance imaging. A hand-controlled filter wheel was used to switch these two filters for different imaging modes. A dichroic filter was used to guide the illuminating light onto the skin surface for excitation. Reflectance and fluorescence signals were collected sequentially by a NIR optimized CCD camera. The captured images were calibrated by the reflectance images of a standard reflectance disk for non-uniform illuminations and light collection efficiencies. The clinical results demonstrated that NIR fluorescence intensities and distribution patterns vary among lesion types. It was also confirmed that pigmented skin lesions emitted higher NIR fluorescence than the surrounding normal skin due to the presentation of higher concentrations of cutaneous melanin within the lesions. NIR autofluorescence imaging system could be utilized as a powerful tool for visualizing melanin distribution in pigmented skin lesions and as a potential method for aiding melanoma detection. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Prediction of in vivo potential for metabolic activation of drugs into chemically reactive intermediate: correlation of in vitro and in vivo generation of reactive intermediates and in vitro glutathione conjugate formation in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, Noriko; Makino, Chie; Murayama, Nobuyuki

    2007-03-01

    The covalent binding of reactive intermediates to macromolecules might have potential involvement in severe adverse drug reactions. Thus, quantification of reactive metabolites is necessary during the early stage of drug discovery to avoid serious toxicity. In this study, the relationship between covalent binding and glutathione (GSH) conjugate formation in rat and human liver microsomes were investigated using 10 representative radioactive compounds that have been reported as hepatotoxic or having other toxicity derived from their reactive intermediates: acetaminophen, amodiaquine, carbamazepine, clozapine, diclofenac, furosemide, imipramine, indomethacin, isoniazid, and tienilic acid, all at a concentration of 10 microM. The GSH conjugate formation rate correlates well with the covalent binding of radioactivity (both rat and human, r2 = 0.93), which suggests that quantification of the GSH conjugate can be used to estimate covalent binding. To quantify the GSH-conjugation rate with non-radiolabeled compounds in vitro, the validation study for the determination of GSH conjugate formation using 35S-GSH by radio-HPLC was useful to predict metabolic activation. Following oral administration of 20 mg/kg of the radiolabeled compounds to rats, radioactivity that covalently bound to plasma and liver proteins was determined. The in vivo maximum covalent binding level in liver based on the free fraction of plasma area under the concentration curve (AUC) and in vitro covalent binding rate was found to correlate well (r2 = 0.79). Therefore, this model for in vitro covalent binding studies in human and rat and in vivo rat studies might be useful in predicting human metabolic activation of compounds.

  18. [Comparative study of in vitro and in vivo effect of ouabain and calixarene C107 on Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in plasma membranes of rat hepatocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsymbaliuk, O V; Kosterin, S O; Rodik, R V; Kal'chenko, V I

    2010-01-01

    The comparative study of influence of ouabain and calixarene C107, and the structure component of this calixarene--fragment M3, in the conditions of in vitro and chronic action in vivo on Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity was carried out on the fractions of plasmatic membranes (PM) of the rat hepatocytes. A general property in the conditions in vitro is the ability of calixarene C107 and ouabain (both substances were in the concentration of 1 mM) to inhibit PM Na+, K(+)-ATPase of rat hepatocytes. However, in the case of activities of calixarene C107 and ouabain in the conditions in vivo heterogeneous action on Mg2(+)-ATPase and Mg2+, Na+, K(+)-ATPase activities takes place: total activity in the conditions of injection of increased concentrations of ouabain remains without changes, but Mg2(+)-ATPase activity significantly grows; in analogous conditions under the action of calixarene C107 both these activities decrease twice in comparison with control. Both under the in vitro and in vivo conditions, M3 fragment (the structural component of C107) does not change the values of investigated enzymatic activities. The biochemical mechanisms of calixarene C107 action on Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity in PM of rat hepatocytes are discussed.

  19. In vivo suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity by stress and surgery in F344 rats: Glucocorticoids have a minor role compared to catecholamines and prostaglandins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenne, Ella; Sorski, Liat; Shaashua, Lee; Neeman, Elad; Matzner, Pini; Levi, Ben; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

    2015-01-01

    Most in vitro and ex-vivo studies indicate a profound suppression of NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) by glucocorticoids; while catecholamines and prostaglandins were reported both to suppress and to enhance NKCC. However, methodological considerations hinder our ability to deduce from these findings to the impact of endogenous release of these factors on in vivo levels of NKCC and their implications to NK-dependent resistance to pathologies in living humans or animals. Here we used an in vivo approach that sensitively and specifically reflects NKCC in living F344 rats, based on lung clearance of NK-sensitive tumor cells (MADB106), and based on comparing effects between NK-intact and NK-depleted rats. To study the role of corticosterone, epinephrine, and prostaglandins, we administered these factors to rats, or antagonized their endogenous release following different stress paradigms or surgery. The results indicated that endogenous or exogenous elevated corticosterone levels can suppress in vivo NKCC levels, but only under some conditions, and mostly secondarily to the NK-suppressing impact of epinephrine. Specifically, corticosterone-induced NKCC suppression occurred (i) only under prolonged, but not short exposure to stress, and mainly in males; (ii) was smaller than the prominent impact of epinephrine; (iii) was mostly ascribed to corticosterone-induced potentiation of the effects of epinephrine or/and prostaglandins; and (iv) was completely abolished through antagonizing epinephrine or/and prostaglandins. Overall, these findings markedly limit the significance of stress/surgery-induced corticosterone release in the in vivo suppression of NKCC, and highlight the blockade of epinephrine or/and prostaglandins as effective and clinically feasible approaches to overcome such immuno-suppressive effects. PMID:24333572

  20. IN-VIVO DIAGNOSIS OF CHEMICALLY INDUCED MELANOMA IN AN ANIMAL MODEL USING UV-VISIBLE AND NIR ELASTIC SCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY: PRELIMINARY TESTING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A' AMAR; R. LEY; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Elastic light scattering spectroscopy (ESS) has the potential to provide spectra that contain both morphological and chromophore information from tissue. We report on a preliminary study of this technique, with the hope of developing a method for diagnosis of highly-pigmented skin lesions, commonly associated with skin cancer. Four opossums were treated with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to induce both malignant melanoma and benign pigmented lesions. Skin lesions were examined in vivo using both UV-visible and near infrared (NIR) ESS, with wavelength ranges of 330-900 nm and 900-1700 nm, respectively. Both portable systems used identical fiber-optic probe geometry throughout all of the measurements. The core diameters for illuminating and collecting fibers were 400 and 200 {micro}m, respectively, with center-to-center separation of 350 {micro}m. The probe was placed in optical contact with the tissue under investigation. Biopsies from lesions were analyzed by two standard histopathological procedures. Taking into account only the biopsied lesions, UV-visible ESS showed distinct spectral correlation for 11/13 lesions. The NIR-ESS correlated well with 12/13 lesions correctly. The results of these experiments showed that UV-visible and NIR-ESS have the potential to classify benign and malignant skin lesions, with encouraging agreement to that provided by standard histopathological examination. These initial results show potential for ESS based diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions, but further trials are required in order to substantiate the technique.

  1. Standardized flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract retards in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thouaojam, Menaka C; Sankhari, Jayantha M; Jain, Mahendra; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present inventory evaluates anti-atherogenic potential of flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract (EJSE) against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, foam cell formation, and atherogenic (ATH) diet-induced experimental atherosclerosis in rats. EJSE was able to prevent in vitro LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. Also, EJSE supplementation to ATH rats significantly minimized increment in serum markers of LDL oxidation. The ex vivo oxidation indices were also minimized in LDL of EJSE-treated animals. Microscopic evaluation of thoracic aorta of ATH + EJSE rats recorded minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, accumulation of lipid laden macrophages, calcium deposition, and expression of cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin). This is the first scientific report that demonstrates anti-atherogenic potential of EJSE and warrants further evaluation at clinical level.

  2. Effects of low-molecular-weight-chitosan on the adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Xuan; Han, Baoqin; Sui, Xianxian; Hu, Rui; Liu, Wanshun

    2015-02-01

    The effects of low-molecular-weight-chitosan (LMWC) on chronic renal failure (CRF) rats induced by adenine were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Chitosan were hydrolyzed using chitosanase at pH 6-7 and 37° for 24 h to obtain LMWC. In vitro, the effect of LMWC on the proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) showed that it had no cytotoxic effect and could promote cell growth. For the in vivo experiment, chronic renal failure rats induced by adenine were randomly divided into control group, Niaoduqing group, and high-, medium- and low-dose LMWC groups. For each group, we detected serum creatinine (SCR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione oxidase (GSH-Px) activities of renal tissue, and obtained the ratio of kidney weight/body weight, pathological changes of kidney. The levels of serum SCR, BUN were higher in the adenine-induced rats than those in the control group, indicating that the rat chronic renal failure model worked successfully. The results after treatment showed that LMWC could reduce the SCR and BUN levels and enhance the activities/levels of T-SOD and GSH-PX in kidney compared to control group. Histopathological examination revealed that adenine-induced renal alterations were restored by LMWC at three tested dosages, especially at the low dosage of 100 mg kg-1 d-1.

  3. A novel rat fibrosarcoma cell line from transformed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with maintained in vitro and in vivo stemness properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng-Yu [Department of Cell Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Nestvold, Janne, E-mail: j.m.nestvold@medisin.uio.no [Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo (Norway); Rekdal, Øystein [Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø (Norway); Kvalheim, Gunnar [Department of Cell Therapy, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Fodstad, Øystein [Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2017-03-15

    Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats. In vitro, the rTMSCs displayed increased proliferation capacity compared to the untransformed cell line. The transformed MSCs maintained the mesenchymal phenotype by expression of the stem cell marker CD 90 and the lack of hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Cytogenetic analysis detected trisomy 6 in the rTMSCs. Side population (SP) isolation and tumorsphere cultivation of the transformed cells confirmed the presence of CSCs among the rTMSCs. Importantly, the rTMSCs retained their differentiation capacity towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This transformed MSC-based cell line may be valuable in examining the balance in a mixed cell population between cancer stem cell properties and the ability to differentiate to specific non-transformed cell populations. Moreover, it may also be a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of novel targeted immunotherapies in vivo. - Highlights: • Spontaneously transformed rat MSCs (rTMSCs) share characteristics with normal MSCs. • rTMSCs possess a side population, enriched with tumorigenic cells. • rTMSCs model fibrosarcoma in vivo.

  4. Cultured alveolar epithelial cells from septic rats mimic in vivo septic lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S Cohen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis results in the formation of pulmonary edema by increasing in epithelial permeability. Therefore we hypothesized that alveolar epithelial cells isolated from septic animals develop tight junctions with different protein composition and reduced barrier function relative to alveolar epithelial cells from healthy animals. Male rats (200-300 g were sacrificed 24 hours after cecal ligation and double puncture (2CLP or sham surgery. Alveolar epithelial cells were isolated and plated on fibronectin-coated flexible membranes or permeable, non-flexible transwell substrates. After a 5 day culture period, cells were either lysed for western analysis of tight junction protein expressin (claudin 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, and 18, occludin, ZO-1, and JAM-A and MAPk (JNK, ERK, an p38 signaling activation, or barrier function was examined by measuring transepithelial resistance (TER or the flux of two molecular tracers (5 and 20 A. Inhibitors of JNK (SP600125, 20 microM and ERK (U0126, 10 microM were used to determine the role of these pathways in sepsis induced epithelial barrier dysfunction. Expression of claudin 4, claudin 18, and occludin was significantly lower, and activation of JNK and ERK signaling pathways was significantly increased in 2CLP monolayers, relative to sham monolayers. Transepithelial resistance of the 2CLP monolayers was reduced significantly compared to sham (769 and 1234 ohm-cm(2, respectively, however no significant difference in the flux of either tracer was observed. Inhibition of ERK, not JNK, significantly increased TER and expression of claudin 4 in 2CLP monolayers, and prevented significant differences in claudin 18 expression between 2CLP and sham monolayers. We conclude that alveolar epithelial cells isolated from septic animals form confluent monolayers with impaired barrier function compared to healthy monolayers, and inhibition of ERK signaling partially reverses differences between these monolayers. This model provides a unique

  5. The effect of milk on plasmatic and tissue levels of macrolides: in vivo study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. C. Groppo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The ingestion of milk with drugs, particularly some antibiotics, is frequently recommended in order to decrease possible gastrointestinal discomfort. The objective of this study was to assess the interference of milk in the absorption and tissue levels of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin. Forty female rats received surgicallyimplanted PVC sponges on their backs. One week later, granulomatous tissue was observed and the animals were divided into eight groups, which received erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin and azithromycin with and without milk. One hour after administration of antibiotic, the animals were sacrificed. The serum and tissue samples were submitted to microbiological assay with Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, in order to determine drug concentration. Milk did not cause any reduction in the serum and tissue levels of azithromycin and clarithromycin (p>0.05,t-test. However, ingestion of milk reduced by approximately 28.7% the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and by 34.1% the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t test serum concentrations. Similar effects were observed on tissue levels. Milk ingestion caused a reduction of approximately 20.8% in the roxithromycin (p<0.0001, t-test and 40% in the erythromycin (p<0.0001, t-test tissue levels. We concluded that erythromycin and roxithromycin should be not administered with milk. Keywords: Pharmacokinetics, macrolides, milk, serum concentration

  6. In vivo investigations of neurotensin receptors in adipocytes, hepatocytes and enterocytes of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piątek, Jacek; Maćkowiak, Paweł; Krauss, Hanna; Nowak, Dorota; Bogdański, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerotic vascular disease is currently the biggest threat and the highest cause of death worldwide, approaching almost 60%.The development of atherosclerosis is affected by ecological factors associated with industry and pollution of the environment. Neurotensin (NT) is a peptide acting via 3 kinds of neurotensin receptors (NTR) localized in target tissues. In several studies, the presence of its receptors has been shown in chicken liver, and the influence of NT on the metabolism of this organ was confirmed (glycogenolysis stimulation through sympathetic nervous system, enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, metabolism of lipoproteins). Healthy male WISTAR rats weighing 300}30 grams, were used for the experiments. The animals were divided into 4 groups: 1) control group, to which 0.9% NaCl was administrated (i.p.); 2) the second group was given levocabastine 1mg/kg i.p.; 3) the third group received SR 48692 0.4 mg/; 4) the fourth group was given NT analog [D-Trp 11]-neurotensin 15 nM/kg. Plasmatic membranes of liver, small intestine and adipose tissue were prepared according to the method of Havrankova. Analysis of results obtained in the investigation of NT receptors was performed using the Scatchard method from LIGAND-Pc, v. 3.1 software. The investigation of antigenity of I125NT showed proper antigen-antibody reaction. No binding of the I125NT with plasmatic membranes of adipocytes or enterocytes was observed. Unspecific binding of I125NT with 10 μmol/L of free NT was observed in the plasmatic membranes of hepatocytes. The presence of NT receptors only in the membranes of hepatocytes may suggest their role in the regulation of lipid metabolism via receptor – ligand way.

  7. Interaction between pre- and postconditioning in the in vivo rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manintveld, Olivier C; Hekkert, Maaike te Lintel; van der Ploeg, Nathalie T; Verdouw, Pieter D; Duncker, Dirk J

    2009-11-01

    Patients with an impending myocardial infarction may be preconditioned by pre-infarct angina. Hence, it is important to establish whether ischemic postconditioning is still effective in preconditioned hearts. We therefore studied in anesthetized rats the effect of postconditioning after coronary artery occlusions (CAO) of 60 min in control hearts, hearts preconditioned by a single 15-min CAO (1IPC15) or a triple 3-min CAO (3IPC3). Furthermore, we studied the effect of postconditioning in hearts that had been pharmacologically preconditioned with intravenous adenosine and in hearts that had become tolerant to 1IPC15. Postconditioning limited infarct size in control hearts, but did not afford additional protection in preconditioned hearts, irrespective of the IPC stimulus. NO synthase inhibition abolished the cardioprotection by postconditioning, both IPC stimuli, and the combination of postconditioning and either IPC stimulus. Postconditioning also failed to afford cardioprotection in hearts protected by adenosine, and in hearts that had become tolerant to cardioprotection by 1IPC15. In accordance with previous observations, postconditioning paradoxically increased infarct size following a 30-min CAO. This detrimental effect was prevented by either IPC stimulus, in a NO synthase-dependent manner. In conclusion, postconditioning does not afford additional protection in preconditioned hearts, irrespective of the preconditioning stimulus and the presence of tolerance to preconditioning. Lack of additional protection may be related to the observation that postconditioning and preconditioning are both mediated via NO synthase. In contrast, the increase in infarct size by postconditioning following a 30-min CAO is abolished by either IPC stimulus. These findings indicate that the interaction between preconditioning and postconditioning is highly dependent on the duration of index ischemia, but independent of the preconditioning stimulus.

  8. Synaptic plasticity of the CA3 commissural projection in epileptic rats: an in vivo electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Claudio M T; Mello, Luiz Eugênio

    2007-05-01

    The hippocampal commissural system has recently been found to participate in the generation of mirror foci after kainate-induced epileptiform discharges. In the present study we have evaluated the electrophysiological alterations in the ventral commissural hippocampal system that originates in the pyramidal CA3 cells and connects to the contralateral CA3 pyramidal cells. The recordings were performed in epileptic rats 24 h after an early behavioural spontaneous seizure between 5 and 21 days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Epileptic animals presented a marked increase in neuronal excitability after contralateral CA3 stimulation, characterized by a shift to the left in the input-output curve and the clear appearance of a population spike. Input-output curves showed that maximum population excitatory postsynaptic potential (pEPSP) amplitude was decreased by 30%, which could be related to cell death in these regions. Using paired-pulse protocols to evaluate a fast form of synaptic plasticity (i.e. paired-pulse facilitation) we observed that, despite the similar pEPSP amplitude between control and experimental groups, only epileptic animals showed strong paired-pulse population spike facilitation up to 500 ms interstimulus intervals. Despite increased excitability and pyramidal cell death, epileptic animals presented a more robust potentiation after high-frequency stimulation than controls, a protocol used to evaluate a slow form of synaptic plasticity (i.e. long-term potentiation). The increased excitability in CA3 pyramidal neurons enhanced the probability of burst activity in these neurons; this could lead to greater CA1 synchronization. The present results might have relevance for the understanding of epileptogenesis and of learning and memory deficits seen in temporal lobe epilepsy.

  9. In Vivo Quantification of Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Rats Using Fluorine-19 Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals Immune Cell Recruitment outside the Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhong

    Full Text Available Progress in identifying new therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS can be accelerated by using imaging biomarkers of disease progression or abatement in model systems. In this study, we evaluate the ability to noninvasively image and quantitate disease pathology using emerging "hot-spot" 19F MRI methods in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE rat, a model of MS. Rats with clinical symptoms of EAE were compared to control rats without EAE, as well as to EAE rats that received daily prophylactic treatments with cyclophosphamide. Perfluorocarbon (PFC nanoemulsion was injected intravenously, which labels predominately monocytes and macrophages in situ. Analysis of the spin-density weighted 19F MRI data enabled quantification of the apparent macrophage burden in the central nervous system and other tissues. The in vivo MRI results were confirmed by extremely high-resolution 19F/1H magnetic resonance microscopy in excised tissue samples and histopathologic analyses. Additionally, 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intact tissue samples was used to assay the PFC biodistribution in EAE and control rats. In vivo hot-spot 19F signals were detected predominantly in the EAE spinal cord, consistent with the presence of inflammatory infiltrates. Surprising, prominent 19F hot-spots were observed in bone-marrow cavities adjacent to spinal cord lesions; these were not observed in control animals. Quantitative evaluation of cohorts receiving cyclophosphamide treatment displayed significant reduction in 19F signal within the spinal cord and bone marrow of EAE rats. Overall, 19F MRI can be used to quantitatively monitored EAE disease burden, discover unexpected sites of inflammatory activity, and may serve as a sensitive biomarker for the discovery and preclinical assessment of novel MS therapeutic interventions.

  10. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction enhances AAV-mediated gene transfection in human RPE cells in vitro and rat retina in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H L; Zheng, X Z; Wang, H P; Li, F; Wu, Y; Du, L F

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of ultrasound (US)-targeted microbubble (MB) destruction (UTMD)-mediated rAAV2-CMV-EGFP transfection to cultured human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells in vitro and to the rat retina in vivo. In the in vitro study, cultured human RPE cells were exposed to US under different conditions with or without MBs. Furthermore, the effect of UTMD on rAAV2-CMV-EGFP itself and on cells was evaluated. In the in vivo study, gene transfer was examined by injecting rAAV2-CMV-EGFP into the subretinal space of rats with or without MBs and then exposed to US. We investigated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression in vivo by stereomicroscopy and performed quantitative analysis using Axiovision 3.1 software. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and frozen sections were used to observe tissue damage and location of the EGFP gene expression. In the in vitro study, the transfection efficiency of rAAV2-CMV-EGFP under optimal UTMD was significantly higher than that of the control group (P=0.000). Furthermore, there was almost no cytotoxicity to the cells and to rAAV2-CMV-EGFP itself. In the in vivo study, UTMD could be used safely to enhance and accelerate the transgene expression of the retina. Fluorescence expression was mainly located in the retinal layer. UTMD is a promising method for gene delivery to the retina.

  11. Simultaneous assessment of absorption characteristics of coumarins from Angelicae Pubescentis Radix: In vitro transport across Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, You-Bo; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2017-08-15

    Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used for the treatments of rheumatism and headache for centuries. To assess the absorption characteristics of coumarins from APR, a sensitive and reliable UPLC-MS/MS method was established for the simultaneous determination of sixteen coumarins from APR, including psoralen, xanthotoxin, bergapten, bergaptol, isoimperatorin, imperatorin, columbianetin, columbianetin acetate, columbianadin, oxypeucedanin hydrate, angelol B, umbelliferone, scopoletin, osthole, meranzin hydrate and nodakenetin. The specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability of the method were all validated to be satisfactory. The method was then applied to the in vitro transport of APR extract (APRE) across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell and in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration of APRE. All of the tested coumarins were well or moderately absorbed across Caco-2 monolayers, and could be quickly absorbed into rat blood circulation after oral administration. Columbianetin was the most easily absorbed compound across Caco-2 cell, and also had extremely highest plasma concentration in vivo. Excellent correlation between in vitro absorption across Caco-2 cell monolayers and in vivo pharmacokinetics of coumarins from APRE was well verified. The results provided valuable information for the overall absorption characteristics of the coumarins from APR, as well as for its further studies of in vivo active substances in the further. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of physiologically based kinetic modeling-facilitated reverse dosimetry of in vitro toxicity data for prediction of in vivo developmental toxicity of tebuconazole in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hequn; Zhang, Mengying; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Louisse, Jochem

    2017-01-15

    Toxicological hazard and risk assessment largely rely on animal testing. For economic and ethical reasons, the development and validation of reliable alternative methods for these animal studies, such as in vitro assays, are urgently needed. In vitro concentration-response curves, however, need to be translated into in vivo dose-response curves for risk assessment purposes. In the present study, we translated in vitro concentration-response data of the antifungal compound tebuconazole, obtained in the ES-D3 cell differentiation assay, into predicted in vivo dose-response data for developmental toxicity using physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling-facilitated reverse dosimetry. Using the predicted in vivo dose-response data BMD(L)10 values for developmental toxicity in rat were calculated and compared with NOAEL values for developmental toxicity data in rats as reported in the literature. The results show that the BMDL10 value from predicted dose-response data are a reasonable approximation of the NOAEL values (ca. 3-fold difference). It is concluded that PBK modeling-facilitated reverse dosimetry of in vitro toxicity data is a promising tool to predict in vivo dose-response curves and may have the potential to define a point of departure for deriving safe exposure limits in risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Keratin Hydrogel Enhances In Vivo Skeletal Muscle Function in a Rat Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passipieri, J A; Baker, H B; Siriwardane, Mevan; Ellenburg, Mary D; Vadhavkar, Manasi; Saul, Justin M; Tomblyn, Seth; Burnett, Luke; Christ, George J

    2017-06-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries exceed the considerable intrinsic regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, resulting in permanent functional and cosmetic deficits. VML and VML-like injuries occur in military and civilian populations, due to trauma and surgery as well as due to a host of congenital and acquired diseases/syndromes. Current therapeutic options are limited, and new approaches are needed for a more complete functional regeneration of muscle. A potential solution is human hair-derived keratin (KN) biomaterials that may have significant potential for regenerative therapy. The goal of these studies was to evaluate the utility of keratin hydrogel formulations as a cell and/or growth factor delivery vehicle for functional muscle regeneration in a surgically created VML injury in the rat tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. VML injuries were treated with KN hydrogels in the absence and presence of skeletal muscle progenitor cells (MPCs), and/or insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and/or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Controls included VML injuries with no repair (NR), and implantation of bladder acellular matrix (BAM, without cells). Initial studies conducted 8 weeks post-VML injury indicated that application of keratin hydrogels with growth factors (KN, KN+IGF-1, KN+bFGF, and KN+IGF-1+bFGF, n = 8 each) enabled a significantly greater functional recovery than NR (n = 7), BAM (n = 8), or the addition of MPCs to the keratin hydrogel (KN+MPC, KN+MPC+IGF-1, KN+MPC+bFGF, and KN+MPC+IGF-1+bFGF, n = 8 each) (p functional recovery for as many as 12 weeks post-VML injury after application of keratin hydrogels in the absence of cells. A significant time-dependent increase in functional recovery of the KN, KN+bFGF, and KN+IGF+bFGF groups was observed, relative to NR and BAM implantation, achieving as much as 90% of the maximum possible functional recovery. Histological findings from harvested tissue at 12 weeks post-VML injury documented

  14. Acute blood glucose fluctuation enhances rat aorta endothelial cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na; Shen, Haitao; Liu, Henan; Wang, Yanjun; Bai, Yu; Han, Ping

    2016-08-05

    Complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) are related not only to elevated plasma glucose, but also plasma glucose fluctuations. However, the specific mechanism underlying the role of plasma glucose fluctuation in the pathogenesis of DM complications remains poorly understood. In the present study, the influence of acute fluctuant hyperglycemia and persistent hyperglycemia on vascular endothelial cell apoptosis, function, oxidative stress and inflammation was examined in vivo. Rats were assigned to three different groups (n = 10/group) that received 48-h infusions of saline (SAL group), continuous 50 % glucose (constant high glucose group [CHG]), or intermittent 50 % glucose (acute blood glucose fluctuation group [AFG]). Plasma 8-isoprostaglandin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels were quantified by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) commercial kits. Plasma insulin levels were measured by radioimmunoassays (RIAs) using kits. The aortic segment was collected. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) were measured in endothelial homogenates prepared from endothelial cells harvested from the aorta using colorimetric kits. Apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Endothelial dysfunction was assessed by isometric tension recording to evaluate the endothelial function. The expression of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 Associated X protein (Bax), pro caspase-3, caspase-3 p17, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and p47phox protein in rat aortic endothelial cells were tested with Western blot analysis. Endothelial cells reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was determined using dihydroethidium-dependent fluorescence microtopography in aortic cryo-sections. Expression of IL-6, TNF-α and ICAM-1 mRNAs in vascular endothelial cells were determined by real

  15. Transfer of uranium throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract of the rat: In vivo and in vitro approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dublineau, I.; Grison, S.; Dudoignon, N.; Baudelin, C.; Aigueperse, J.

    2004-07-01

    The presence of uranium in environment either natural or due to civil and military use, may lead to contamination of the public throughout the entire life mainly by chronic ingestion. The mechanisms of uranium transfer from alimentary bolus to blood are still not well known. In particular, few information are available on the different absorption sites along the gastrointestinal tract, the different cellular pathways (para-or trans-cellular), and the transporters implicated in the uranium absorption. In addition, the specific role of Peyer's patches, the aggregated structure of Gut-Associated Lymphoid tissue, in the intestinal transfer of uranium has never been determined. In fact, the transport of uranium through these structures specialized in antigen uptake from intestinal lumen may lead to major dysfunctions in mucosal immunity. Thus, different approaches have to be developed to determine the role of the different gastrointestinal structures and to apprehend the biological consequences of daily passage of uranium through these structures. These experiments include in vivo measurement of uranium in blood after in situ deposit of uranium (233U) in the different segments of the alimentary tract (buccal cavity, stomach, small intestine, colon) and ex vivo experiments in Using chambers to compare uranium passage from luminal to serosal side through intestinal epithelium and Peyer's patches. In vitro studies are also necessary to determine the nature of the cells as well as the transporters implicated in the gastrointestinal passage of uranium. Autoradiography experiments were performed to determine if uranium absorption was only restricted to villi which contained absorptive cells or if uranium absorption was also due to crypt cells. In addition, the transporter implicated in the uranium passage is dependent of the physico-chemical form of uranium present at the different gastrointestinal sites. When complexed to phosphate, uranium is transported by the

  16. Evaluation of 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether in the rat comet assay: Part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Catherine C; Walker, Joanne S; O'Donovan, Michael R; Doherty, Ann T

    2015-07-01

    As a part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (DPE), a known rodent genotoxic carcinogen, was tested in this laboratory. Sprague Dawley rats (7-9 weeks of age) were given three oral doses of DPE, 24 and 21 h apart and liver or stomach sampled 3h after the final dose. Under the conditions of the test, no increases in DNA damage in liver and stomach were observed with DPE (up to 200 mg/kg/day). A dose-dependent decrease in DNA migration, compared to vehicle controls, was noted for DPE in rat stomach. Further analysis is required to elucidate fully whether this decrease is a consequence of the mode of action or due to the toxicity of DPE. What is perhaps surprising is the inability of the comet assay to detect a known rat genotoxic carcinogen in liver. Further investigation is needed to clarify whether this apparent lack of response results from limited tissue exposure or metabolic differences between species. This finding highlights a need for careful consideration of study design when evaluating assay performance as a measure of in vivo genotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Diltiazem Reduces Mortality and Breakdown of ATP in Red Blood Cell Induced by Isoproterenol in a Freely Moving Rat Model in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollen K.F. Yeung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefit of calcium channel blockers for cardiovascular prevention against heart attack and stroke has not been firmly supported. We investigated the possible cardiovascular protective effect of diltiazem (DTZ against injury induced by isoproterenol using a freely moving rat model in vivo. Sprague Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously (sc with either 5 or 10 mg/kg of DTZ, or saline as control, twice daily for five doses. One hour after the last injection, a single dose of isoproterenol (30 mg/kg was injected sc to each rat. Blood samples were collected serially for 6 h for measurement of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP in red blood cell (RBC by a validated HPLC. The study has shown isoproterenol induced 50% mortality and also increased RBC concentrations of AMP from 0.04 ± 0.02 to 0.29 ± 0.21 mM at the end of the experiment (p < 0.05. Treatment with 10 mg/kg of DTZ reduced mortality from 50% to <20% and attenuated the increase of RBC concentrations of AMP from +0.25 ± 0.22 in the control rats to +0.072 ± 0.092 mM (p < 0.05. The study concluded that 10 mg/kg of DTZ reduced mortality and breakdown of ATP induced by isoproterenol in rats.

  18. The Alterations in the Expression and Function of P-Glycoprotein in Vitamin A-Deficient Rats as well as the Effect of Drug Disposition in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate whether vitamin A deficiency could alter P-GP expression and function in tissues of rats and whether such effects affected the drug distribution in vivo of vitamin A-deficient rats. We induced vitamin A-deficient rats by giving them a vitamin A-free diet for 12 weeks. Then, Abcb1/P-GP expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR and Western blot. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that Abcb1a mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus and liver. In kidney, it only showed an upward trend. Abcb1b mRNA levels were increased in hippocampus, but decreased in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. Western blot results were in good accordance with the alterations of Abcb1b mRNA levels. P-GP function was investigated through tissue distribution and body fluid excretion of rhodamine 123 (Rho123, and the results proclaimed that P-GP activities were also in good accordance with P-GP expression in cerebral cortex, liver and kidney. The change of drug distribution was also investigated through the tissue distribution of vincristine, and the results showed a significantly upward trend in all indicated tissues of vitamin A-deficient rats. In conclusion, vitamin A deficiency may alter Abcb1/P-GP expression and function in rat tissues, and the alterations may increase drug activity/toxicity through the increase of tissue accumulation.

  19. In vitro and non-invasive in vivo effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist AM841 on gastrointestinal motor function in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalo, R; Chen, C; Vera, G; Fichna, J; Thakur, GA; López-Pérez, AE; Makriyannis, A; Martín-Fontelles, MI; Storr, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabinoids have been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, but the associated central effects, through cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1R), constitute an important drawback. Our aims were to characterize the effects of the recently developed highly potent long-acting megagonist AM841 on GI motor function and to determine its central effects in rats. Methods Male Wistar rats were used for in vitro and in vivo studies. The effect of AM841 was tested on electrically-induced twitch contractions of GI preparations (in vitro) and on GI motility measured radiographically after contrast administration (in vivo). Central effects of AM841 were evaluated using the cannabinoid tetrad. The non-selective cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) was used for comparison. The CB1R (AM251) and CB2R (AM630) antagonists were used to characterize cannabinoid receptor-mediated effects of AM841. Key results AM841 dose-dependently reduced in vitro contractile activity of rat GI preparations via CB1R, but not CB2R or opioid receptors. In vivo, AM841 acutely and potently reduced gastric emptying and intestinal transit in a dose-dependent and AM251-sensitive manner. The in vivo GI effects of AM841 at 0.1 mg kg−1 were comparable to those induced by WIN at 5 mg kg−1. However, at this dose, AM841 did not induce any sign of the cannabinoid tetrad, whereas WIN induced significant central effects. Conclusions & Inferences The CB1R megagonist AM841 may potently depress GI motor function in the absence of central effects. This effect may be mediated peripherally and may be useful in the treatment of GI motility disorders. PMID:26387676

  20. In vivo oxidative stress alters thiol redox status of peroxiredoxin 1 and 6 and impairs rat sperm quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidant activity is a major culprit of male infertility. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs are major antioxidant enzymes of mammalian spermatozoa and are thiol oxidized and inactivated by ROS in a dose-dependent manner. Their deficiency and/or inactivation have been associated with men infertility. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of oxidative stress, generated by the in vivo tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BHP treatment on rat epididymal spermatozoa during their maturation process. Adult Sprague-Dawley males were treated with 300 μmoles tert-BHP/kg or saline (control per day intraperitoneal for 15 days. Lipid peroxidation (2-thibarbituric acid reactive substances assay, total amount and thiol oxidation of PRDXs along with the total amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD, motility and DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine were determined in epididymal spermatozoa. Total amount of PRDXs and catalase and thiol oxidation of PRDXs were determined in caput and cauda epididymis. While animals were not affected by treatment, their epididymal spermatozoa have decreased motility, increased levels of DNA oxidation and lipid peroxidation along with increased PRDXs (and not SOD amounts. Moreover, sperm PRDXs were highly thiol oxidized. There was a differential regulation in the expression of PRDX1 and PRDX6 in the epididymis that suggests a segment-specific role for PRDXs. In conclusion, PRDXs are increased in epididymal spermatozoa in an attempt to fight against the oxidative stress generated by tert-BHP in the epididymis. These findings highlight the role of PRDXs in the protection of sperm function and DNA integrity during epididymal maturation.

  1. The ethanol-induced stimulation of rat duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in vivo is critically dependent on luminal Cl-.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sommansson

    Full Text Available Alcohol may induce metabolic and functional changes in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, contributing to impaired mucosal barrier function. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS is a primary epithelial defense against gastric acid and also has an important function in maintaining the homeostasis of the juxtamucosal microenvironment. The aim in this study was to investigate the effects of the luminal perfusion of moderate concentrations of ethanol in vivo on epithelial DBS, fluid secretion and paracellular permeability. Under thiobarbiturate anesthesia, a ∼30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ in rats. The effects on DBS, duodenal transepithelial net fluid flux and the blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA were investigated. Perfusing the duodenum with isotonic solutions of 10% or 15% ethanol-by-volume for 30 min increased DBS in a concentration-dependent manner, while the net fluid flux did not change. Pre-treatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172 (i.p. or i.v. did not change the secretory response to ethanol, while removing Cl- from the luminal perfusate abolished the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. The administration of hexamethonium (i.v. but not capsazepine significantly reduced the basal net fluid flux and the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. Perfusing the duodenum with a combination of 1.0 mM HCl and 15% ethanol induced significantly greater increases in DBS than 15% ethanol or 1.0 mM HCl alone but did not influence fluid flux. Our data demonstrate that ethanol induces increases in DBS through a mechanism that is critically dependent on luminal Cl- and partly dependent on enteric neural pathways involving nicotinic receptors. Ethanol and HCl appears to stimulate DBS via the activation of different bicarbonate transporting mechanisms.

  2. In vivo comparison of norepinephrine and dopamine release in rat brain by simultaneous measurements with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinwoo; Takmakov, Pavel; Wightman, R Mark

    2011-12-01

    Brain norepinephrine and dopamine regulate a variety of critical behaviors such as stress, learning, memory, and drug addiction. In this study, we demonstrate differences in the regulation of in vivo neurotransmission for dopamine in the anterior nucleus accumbens (NAc) and norepinephrine in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (vBNST) of the anesthetized rat. Release of the two catecholamines was measured simultaneously using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at two different carbon-fiber microelectrodes, each implanted in the brain region of interest. Simultaneous dopamine and norepinephrine release was evoked by electrical stimulation of a region where the ventral noradrenergic bundle, the pathway of noradrenergic neurons, courses through the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra, the origin of dopaminergic cell bodies. The release and uptake of norepinephrine in the vBNST were both significantly slower than for dopamine in the NAc. Pharmacological manipulations in the same animal demonstrated that the two catecholamines are differently regulated. The combination of a dopamine autoreceptor antagonist and amphetamine significantly increased basal extracellular dopamine whereas a norepinephrine autoreceptor antagonist and amphetamine did not change basal norepinephrine concentration. α-Methyl-p-tyrosine, a tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor, decreased electrically evoked dopamine release faster than norepinephrine. The dual-microelectrode fast-scan cyclic voltammetry technique along with anatomical and pharmacological evidence confirms that dopamine in the NAc and norepinephrine in the vBNST can be monitored selectively and simultaneously in the same animal. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the technique enabled us to examine differences in the dynamics of extracellular norepinephrine and dopamine concurrently in two different limbic structures. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2011 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  3. In vivo oxidative stress alters thiol redox status of peroxiredoxin 1 and 6 and impairs rat sperm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yannan; O’Flaherty, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant activity is a major culprit of male infertility. Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are major antioxidant enzymes of mammalian spermatozoa and are thiol oxidized and inactivated by ROS in a dose-dependent manner. Their deficiency and/or inactivation have been associated with men infertility. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of oxidative stress, generated by the in vivo tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BHP) treatment on rat epididymal spermatozoa during their maturation process. Adult Sprague-Dawley males were treated with μmoles tert-BHP/kg or saline (control) per day intraperitoneal for 15 days. Lipid peroxidation (2-thibarbituric acid reactive substances assay), total amount and thiol oxidation of PRDXs along with the total amount of superoxide dismutase (SOD), motility and DNA oxidation (8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine) were determined in epididymal spermatozoa. Total amount of PRDXs and catalase and thiol oxidation of PRDXs were determined in caput and cauda epididymis. While animals were not affected by treatment, their epididymal spermatozoa have decreased motility, increased levels of DNA oxidation and lipid peroxidation along with increased PRDXs (and not SOD) amounts. Moreover, sperm PRDXs were highly thiol oxidized. There was a differential regulation in the expression of PRDX1 and PRDX6 in the epididymis that suggests a segment-specific role for PRDXs. In conclusion, PRDXs are increased in epididymal spermatozoa in an attempt to fight against the oxidative stress generated by tert-BHP in the epididymis. These findings highlight the role of PRDXs in the protection of sperm function and DNA integrity during epididymal maturation. PMID:26823067

  4. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of liver metabolites in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats: T2 relaxation times in methylene protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyu-Ho; Baek, Hyeon-Man; Lee, Do-Wan; Choe, Bo-Young

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the transverse relaxation time of methylene resonance as compared to other lipid resonances. The examinations were performed using a 3.0 T scanner with a point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence. Lipid relaxation time in a lipid phantom filled with canola oil was estimated with a repetition time (TR) of 6000ms and echo time (TE) of 40-550ms. For in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a normal-chow (NC) and another eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were given free access to a high-fat (HF) diet. Both groups drank water ad libitum. T2 measurements in the rats' livers were conducted at a fixed TR of 6000ms and TE of 40-220ms. Exponential curve fitting quality was calculated through the coefficients of determination (R(2)). Chemical analyses of the phantom and livers were not performed, but T2 decay curves were acquired. The T2 relaxation time of methylene resonance was estimated as follows: NC rats, 37.1±4.3ms; HF rats, 31.4±1.8ms (p<0.05). The extrapolated M0 values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p<0.005). This study of (1)H MRS led to sufficient spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio differences to characterize the T2 relaxation times of methylene resonance. (1)H MRS relaxation times may be useful for quantitative characterization of various liver diseases, including fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Elucidation of Arctigenin Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution after Intravenous, Oral, Hypodermic and Sublingual Administration in Rats and Beagle Dogs: Integration of In Vitro and In Vivo Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although arctigenin (AG has diverse bioactivities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activities, its pharmacokinetics have not been systematically evaluated. The purpose of this work was to identify the pharmacokinetic properties of AG via various experiments in vivo and in vitro. In this research, rats and beagle dogs were used to investigate the PK (pharmacokinetics, PK profiles of AG with different drug-delivery manners, including intravenous (i.v, hypodermic injection (i.h, and sublingual (s.l administration. The data shows that AG exhibited a strong absorption capacity in both rats and beagle dogs (absorption rate < 1 h, a high absorption degree (absolute bioavailability > 100%, and a strong elimination ability (t1/2 < 2 h. The tissue distributions of AG at different time points after i.h showed that the distribution of AG in rat tissues is rapid (2.5 h to reach the peak and wide (detectable in almost all tissues and organs. The AG concentration in the intestine was the highest, followed by that in the heart, liver, pancreas, and kidney. In vitro, AG were incubated with human, monkey, beagle dog and rat liver microsomes. The concentrations of AG were detected by UPLC-MS/MS at different time points (from 0 min to 90 min. The percentages of AG remaining in four species’ liver microsomes were human (62 ± 6.36% > beagle dog (25.9 ± 3.24% > rat (15.7 ± 9% > monkey (3.69 ± 0.12%. This systematic investigation of pharmacokinetic profiles of arctigenin (AG in vivo and in vitro is worthy of further exploration.

  6. Evaluation of the binding characteristics of [{sup 18}F]fluoroproxyfan in the rat brain for in vivo visualization of histamine H{sub 3} receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funaki, Yoshihito [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)], E-mail: zen@cyric.tohoku.ac.jp; Sato, Kimihiko [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kato, Motohisa [Department of Pharmacology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ishikawa, Yoichi; Iwata, Ren [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Yanai, Kazuhiko [Department of Pharmacology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    Histamine H{sub 3} receptors play an important role in biological functions. The aim of this research was to examine whether histamine H{sub 3} receptors can be visualized in vivo and in vitro with [{sup 18}F]3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl 4-fluorobenzyl ether (fluoroproxyfan). [{sup 18}F]Fluoroproxyfan was synthesized with high specific activity using [{sup 18}F]benzyl bromide. The binding of [{sup 18}F]fluoroproxyfan to rat brain homogenates was higher in the striatum and thalamus and was lowest in the cerebellum. The in vitro autoradiographic study successfully demonstrated the specific binding of [{sup 18}F]fluoroproxyfan to the H{sub 3} receptor in the rat brain. In accordance with the in vitro bindings, the in vivo distribution of [{sup 18}F]fluoroproxyfan was heterogeneous in the rat brain. In the blocking experiments, the heterogeneous distribution disappeared in the presence of large amounts of fluoroproxyfan. These data suggest that [{sup 18}F]fluoroproxyfan can be potentially useful to image histamine H{sub 3} receptor noninvasively in the human brain by positron emission tomography.

  7. Unilateral lesion of dorsal hippocampus in adult rats impairs contralateral long-term potentiation in vivo and spatial memory in the early postoperative phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Wu, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanrui; Huang, Yan; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang

    2012-05-01

    It is well documented that bilateral hippocampal lesions or unilateral hippocampal lesion at birth causes impairment of contralateral LTP and long-term memory. However, effects of unilateral hippocampal lesion in adults on contralateral in vivo LTP and memory are not clear. We here examined the influence of unilateral electrolytic dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats on contralateral LTP in vivo and spatial memory during different postoperative phases. We found that acute unilateral hippocampal lesion had no effect on contralateral LTP. However, contralateral LTP was impaired at 1 week after lesion, and was restored to the control level at postoperative week 4. Similarly, spatial memory was also impaired at postoperative week 1, and was restored at postoperative week 4. In addition, the rats at postoperative week 1 showed stronger spatial exploratory behavior in a novel open-field environment. The sham operation had no effects on contralateral LTP, spatial memory and exploration at either postoperative week 1 or week 4. These results suggest that unilateral dorsal hippocampal lesion in adult rats causes transient contralateral LTP impairment and spatial memory deficit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Stabilization of Prussian blue with polyaniline and carbon nanotubes in neutral media for in vivo determination of glucose in rat brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruixin; Guo, Deyin; Ye, Jianshan; Zhang, Meining

    2015-06-07

    This study demonstrates a new electrochemical microbiosensor for selective in vivo monitoring of glucose in rat brains. The microbiosensor is prepared by using Prussian blue (PB)/polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as the electrocatalyst for the reduction and determination of H2O2 generated from the glucose oxidase (GOx)-based enzymatic catalytic reaction. PANI and MWNTs are used to stabilize PB nanoparticles in physiological solutions. As a result, the as-formed three-dimensional (3D) PB/PANI/MWNT nanostructure exhibits a stable and large electrochemical response compared to the PB-modified electrode. The use of PB/PANI/MWNTs in this work to replace "natural peroxidase" (i.e., horseradish peroxidase) used in the existing microbiosensors enables the method developed here to be facile but selective for in vivo measurements of glucose virtually interference-free from ascorbic acid and other electroactive species coexisting in the brain. This property, along with the good linearity and stability toward glucose, makes this microbiosensor competent for continuous in vivo monitoring of the changes of glucose in rat brains during intraperitoneal injection of insulin. The method demonstrated here can be applied to develop other oxidase-based microbiosensors for other neurochemicals, which would be helpful for understanding the chemical process involved in some physiological and pathological events.

  9. Energy Deregulation Precedes Alteration in Heart Energy Balance in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Non Invasive In Vivo31P-MR Spectroscopy Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschodt-Arsac, Veronique; Arsac, Laurent; Magat, Julie; Naulin, Jerome; Quesson, Bruno; Dos Santos, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Gradual alterations in cardiac energy balance, as assessed by the myocardial PCr/ATP-ratio, are frequently associated with the development of cardiac disease. Despite great interest for the follow-up of myocardial PCr and ATP content, cardiac MR-spectroscopy in rat models in vivo is challenged by sensitivity issues and cross-contamination from other organs. Here we combined MR-Imaging and MR-Spectroscopy (Bruker BioSpec 9.4T) to follow-up for the first time in vivo the cardiac energy balance in the SHR, a genetic rat model of cardiac hypertrophy known to develop early disturbances in cytosolic calcium dynamics. We obtained consistent 31P-spectra with high signal/noise ratio from the left ventricle in vivo by using a double-tuned (31P/1H) surface coil. Reasonable acquisition time (energy regulation possibly due to calcium-mediated abnormalities in the SHR heart. Of note, defects in energy regulation were present before detectable abnormalities in cardiac energy balance at rest.

  10. Actions of p-synephrine on hepatic enzyme activities linked to carbohydrate metabolism and ATP levels in vivo and in the perfused rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Marcos Rodrigues; Bracht, Lívia; de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis Babeto; Corrêa, Rúbia Carvalho Gomes; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2018-01-01

    p-Synephrine is one of the main active components of the fruit of Citrus aurantium (bitter orange). Extracts of the bitter orange and other preparations containing p-synephrine have been used worldwide to promote weight loss and for sports performance. The purpose of the study was to measure the action of p-synephrine on hepatic enzyme activities linked to carbohydrate and energy metabolism and the levels of adenine mononucleotides. Enzymes and adenine mononucleotides were measured in the isolated perfused rat liver and in vivo after oral administration of the drug (50 and 300 mg/kg) by using standard techniques. p-Synephrine increased the activity of glycogen phosphorylase in vivo and in the perfused liver. It decreased, however, the activities of pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase also in vivo and in the perfused liver. p-Synephrine increased the hepatic pools of adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate. Stimulation of glycogen phosphorylase is consistent with the reported increased glycogenolysis in the perfused liver and increased glycemia in rats. The decrease in the pyruvate dehydrogenase activity indicates that p-synephrine is potentially capable of inhibiting the transformation of carbohydrates into lipids. The capability of increasing the adenosine triphosphate-adenosine diphosphate pool indicates a beneficial effect of p-synephrine on the cellular energetics. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Biocompatibility Assessment of Poly(lactic acid Films after Sterilization with Ethylene Oxide in Histological Study In Vivo with Wistar Rats and Cellular Adhesion of Fibroblasts In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Savaris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials must meet certain fundamental requirements for their usage in living beings, such as biocompatibility, bifunctionality, and sterilizability, without having chemical and structural changes. The biocompatibility of poly(lactic acid (PLA films, shaped by compression, was evaluated after sterilization by ethylene oxide by a histological in vivo test with Wistar rats and cytotoxicity in cell adhesion in vitro. The cytotoxicity test was performed by the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT. Thermal and chemical changes in PLA films concerning the proposed sterilization process and characteristics were not observed to evidence polymer degradation due to sterilization. The analysis of the cytotoxicity by the MTT method has shown that the sterilized PLA films are not cytotoxic. The adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts on PLA films were homogeneously distributed over the evaluation period, showing an elongated appearance with unnumbered cytoplasmic extensions and cell-cell interactions. By examining the biocompatibility in a histological study, a mild tissue inflammation was observed with the presence of fibrosis in the samples that had been exposed for 21 days in the rats’ bodies. PLA films sterilized with ethylene oxide did not exhibit cell adhesion in vitro and toxicity to the surrounding tissue in vivo and they may be used in future in vivo testing, according to histological findings in Wistar rats in the present study.

  12. Biosynthesis of collagen crosslinks. III. In vivo labeling and stability of lung collagen in rats with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, J.A.; Reiser, K.M. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1989-08-01

    Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 1 mCi (each) of (3H)lysine at Day 11 of neonatal life to label their lung collagen. Five weeks later, half of the animals were given an intratracheal injection of 1.5 U of bleomycin sulfate via a tracheostomy; control animals received saline intratracheally by the same technique. Age-matched groups of control and bleomycin-treated rats were killed, and their lung collagen was analyzed at zero (control animals only), 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 wk after bleomycin administration, a time course appropriate for development of pulmonary fibrosis in this animal model. We measured radioactivity in hydroxylysine and in the difunctional collagen crosslinks hydroxylysinonorleucine and dihydroxylysinonorleucine at each time point. No evidence of breakdown of this pool of mature, preformed collagen was observed in lungs of either the control or the bleomycin-treated rats. We also measured the total lung content of hydroxypyridinium, a trifunctional collagen crosslink, by its intrinsic fluorescence. There was no evidence of collagen degradation in lungs of either group of rats by this criterion either. We conclude that there is no biochemically detectable turnover of mature lung collagen, defined as that pool of lung collagen that is obligatorily extracellular (i.e., crosslinked and containing labeled hydroxylysine from an injection of precursor 5 to 15 wk earlier), in either normal rat lungs or lungs of rats made fibrotic with bleomycin. Statistical analysis of the data suggests that our methodology was sensitive and precise enough to have detected turnover of less than 0.5% of lung collagen per day, some 20-fold less than estimates of lung collagen turnover that have been suggested to be occurring in vivo by others using different techniques and presumably studying different pools of lung collagen.

  13. In Vivo Evaluation of Anti Diabetic, Hypolipidemic, Antioxidative Activities of Saudi Date Seed Extract on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Marghoob; Mohieldein, Abdelmarouf

    2016-03-01

    Phoenix dactylifera (date palm) is major fruit of gulf region. In folk medicine; dates have been traditionally use. The date seed is used as hypoglycaemic, expectorant, tonic, aphrodisiac, antidiarrheic and mouth hygiene. This study intended to evaluate the anti-diabetic, hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities of date seed extract in diabetes-induced rats. Total of seven groups of rats, consisting of control rats and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100g/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat. To evaluate the anti-diabetic property, glucose and weight was analysed weekly and at the end of eight week all rats were sacrificed. To evaluate the hypolipidaemic and antioxidative activities, serum cholesterol, triglyceride, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine were estimated. Liver enzymes and kidney function tests were performed. Moreover to verify the glycaemic effect; glycated haemoglobin and serum insulin was performed. Aqueous seed extract in concentration of 100 gm/L in dosage of 10ml/day/rat brings a significant reduction of blood glucose levels in diabetic rats in comparison of control rats. There were significant differences in the investigated clinical chemistry and oxidative stress parameters between control and diabetic rats with both seed extract of Ajwa and Sukkari dates. Present study verifies the antidiabetic property, of aqueous seed extracts of two different varieties of dates namely Ajwa and Sukkari of Kingdom of Saudi on streptozotocin induced Diabetic rats. Prolong treatments with the extract restores the function of liver and kidney and balance the oxidative stress condition in diabetic treated rats.

  14. Protective effects of the apigenin-O/C-diglucoside saponarin from Gypsophila trichotoma on carbone tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro/in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Rumyana; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Vitcheva, Vessela; Krasteva, Ilina; Manov, Vassil; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2014-01-15

    This study investigated the hepatoprotective activity of saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., using in vitro/in vivo hepatotoxicity model based on carbone tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced liver damage in male Wistar rats. The effect of saponarin was compared with those of silymarin. In vitro experiments were carried out in primary isolated rat hepatocytes. Cell incubation with CCl₄ (86 μmol l⁻¹) led to a significant decrease in cell viability, increased LDH leakage, decreased levels of cellular GSH and elevation in MDA quantity. Cell pre-incubation with saponarin (60-0.006 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated CCl₄-induced hepatic damage in a concentration-dependent manner. These results were supported by the following in vivo study. Along with decreased MDA quantity and increased level of cell protector GSH, seven day pre-treatment of rats with saponarin (80 mg/kg bw; p.o.) also prevented CCl₄ (10%, p.o.)-caused oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, SOD, GST, GPx, GR). Biotransformation phase I enzymes were also assessed. Administered alone, saponarin decreased EMND and AH activities but not at the same extent as CCl₄ did. However, pre-treatment with saponarin significantly increased enzyme activities in comparison to CCl₄ only group. The observed biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations where the hepatoprotective effect of saponarin was comparative to the effects of the known hepatoprotecor silymarin. Our results suggest that saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., showed in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against CCl₄-induced liver damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Short fasting does not protect perfused ex vivo rat liver against ischemia-reperfusion. On the importance of a minimal cell energy charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papegay, Bérengère; Stadler, Michaela; Nuyens, Vincent; Kruys, Véronique; Boogaerts, Jean G; Vamecq, Joseph

    2017-03-01

    Dietary restriction or reduced food intake was supported to protect against renal and hepatic ischemic injury. In this vein, short fasting was recently shown to protect in situ rat liver against ischemia-reperfusion. Here, perfused ex vivo instead of in situ livers were exposed to ischemia-reperfusion to study the impact of disconnecting liver from extrahepatic supply in energetic substrates on the protection given by short-term fasting. Perfused ex vivo livers using short (18 h) fasted compared with fed rats were submitted to ischemia-reperfusion and studied for release of cytolysis markers in the perfusate. Energetic stores are differently available in time and cell energetic charges (ratio of adenosine triphosphate plus half of the adenosine diphosphate concentrations to the sum of adenosine triphosphate + adenosine diphosphate + adenosine monophosphate concentrations), adenosine phosphates, and glycogen, which were further measured at different time points in livers. Short fasting versus feeding failed to protect perfused ex vivo rat livers against ischemia/reperfusion, increasing the release of cytolysis markers (potassium, cytochrome c, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase) in the perfusate during reoxygenation phase. Toxicity of short fasting versus feeding was associated with lower glycogen and energetic charges in livers and lower lactate levels in the perfusate. High energetic charge, intracellular content in glycogen, and glycolytic activity may protect liver against ischemia/reperfusion injury. This work does not question how much the protective role previously demonstrated in the literature for dietary restriction and short fasting. In fact, it suggests that exceeding the energy charge threshold value of 0.3 might trigger the effectiveness of this protective role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro and in vivo effect of the nootropic agent adafenoxate on the 5-HT1 sites in different rat brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiivanova, C I; Stancheva, S L

    1994-09-01

    1. The effect of the nootropic agent adafenoxate (a structural analogue of meclofenoxate) on the binding parameters of 5-HT1 receptors in vitro and in vivo in rat cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus was studied. 2. The chronic (100 mg/kg per os for 7 days) adafenoxate treatment produced a significant (24.6%) decrease in the density of 5-HT1 sites in the hippocampus. 3. In vitro adafenoxate inhibited specific [3H]5-HT binding with equal potency in all the regions studied with IC50s in the microM range. 4. It is suggested that the decrease in the density of the 5-HT1 sites in rat hippocampus might contribute to the nootropic action of adafenoxate.

  17. In vitro α-amylase inhibitory activity and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of ethyl acetate extract of Mallotus repandus (Willd. Muell. stem in rat mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rakib Hasan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of ethyl acetate extract of Mallotus repandus stem in α-amylase inhibitory activity (in vitro and hypoglycemic activity in normal and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats (in vivo. Methods: Ethyl acetate extract of Mallotus repandus stem was tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents, α-amylase inhibitory activity and hypoglycemic effect in normal rats and glucose induced hyperglycemic rats. Results: Presence of different types of phytochemicals was identified in the extract. The extract has moderate α-amylase inhibitory activity [IC50=(2.038±0.033 mg/mL] as compared to acarbose. The does 1 000 mg/kg significantly reduced (P<0.010 0 fasting blood glucose level in normal rats. In oral glucose tolerance test, both 1 000 and 2 000 mg/kg doses showed good hypoglycemic activity (P<0.000 1 like glibenclamide in each specific hour after administration. Overall time effect in oral glucose tolerance test was found extremely significant (P<0.000 1 with F (3, 48 value=202.4. Conclusions: These findings suggest that this plant may be a potential source for the development of new oral hypoglycemic agent.

  18. In vitro and in vivo studies of Allium sativum extract against deltamethrin-induced oxidative stress in rats brain and kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncir, Marwa; Saoudi, Mongi; Sellami, Hanen; Rahmouni, Fatma; Lahyani, Amina; Makni Ayadi, Fatma; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Allagui, Mohamed Salah

    2017-09-18

    The present study investigated the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant capacities of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against deltamethrin-induced oxidative damage in rat's brain and kidney. The in vitro result showed that highest extraction yield was achieved with methanol (20.08%). Among the tested extracts, the methanol extract exhibited the highest total phenolic, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity. The in vivo results showed that deltamethrin treatment caused an increase of the acetylcholinesterase level (AChE) in brain and plasma, the brain and kidney conjugated dienes and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels as compared to control group. The antioxidant enzymes results showed that deltamethrin treatment induced a significantly decrease (p < 0.01) in brain and kidney antioxidant enzymes as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) to control group. The co-administration of garlic extract reduced the toxic effects in brain and kidney tissues induced by deltamethrin.

  19. Efficient in vivo gene transfer into the heart in the rat myocardial infarction model using the HVJ (Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan)--liposome method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, M; Morishita, R; Muraishi, A; Moriguchi, A; Sugimoto, T; Maeda, K; Dzau, V J; Kaneda, Y; Higaki, J; Ogihara, T

    1997-03-01

    The lack of efficient treatment for myocardial infarction remains an unresolved problem in the field of cardiovascular disease. Gene therapy may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of myocardial infarction. However, current methods of in vivo gene transfer into the heart are limited by their low efficiency and/or potential toxicity. In the present study, we developed an efficient technique of gene transfer into the intact heart in vivo using the Sendai virus (HVJ: Hemagglutinating Virus of Japan)--liposome method. We used the beta-galactosidase gene, luciferase gene and human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene as markers. In vivo gene transfer into the rat heart was performed as follows: (1) direct injection into the rat heart, (2) incubation within the pericardium, and (3) infusion into a coronary artery. Direct injection of the HVJ-liposome complex containing the beta-galactosidase vector into the rat heart resulted in limited staining of beta-galactosidase 3 days after transfection. To compare transfection efficiency between "naked" plasmid DNA transfection and the HVJ-liposome method, we also transfected the luciferase reporter gene into the heart. Luciferase activity was significantly higher in hearts transfected by the HVJ-liposome method than that in hearts transfected by direct "naked" plasmid transfection (P HVJ-liposome complex, containing beta-galactosidase vector, within the pericardium resulted in widespread staining of cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, mainly located in several surface layers beneath the pericardium. More importantly, widespread stained areas of beta-galactosidase were also observed in the middle of the myocardium around the vasa vasorum. We also examined the efficiency of gene transfer by the HVJ-liposome method in a rat myocardial infarction model. In the infarction model, using the pericardium incubation approach, staining for beta-galactosidase was observed in the viable cells around the infarction area

  20. The effect of E. coli STa enterotoxin on the absorption of weakly dissociable anti-malarial drugs from rat intestine in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, J M; Lynch, J; Lucas, M. L.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of E. coli heat stable (STa) enterotoxin on the absorption of radiolabelled anti-malarial weak bases and their appearance in peripheral blood was assessed in vivo by a recirculation procedure in rat intestinal loops. 2. Enterotoxin increased the jejunal disappearance of quinine (P less than 0.05), trimethoprim (P less than 0.05), proguanil (P less than 0.05) and chloroquine (P less than 0.001) and left pyrimethamine disappearance unaltered. Peripheral blood levels of trimethopri...

  1. In Vivo CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing Corrects Retinal Dystrophy in the S334ter-3 Rat Model of Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakondi, Benjamin; Lv, Wenjian; Lu, Bin; Jones, Melissa K; Tsai, Yuchun; Kim, Kevin J; Levy, Rachelle; Akhtar, Aslam Abbasi; Breunig, Joshua J; Svendsen, Clive N; Wang, Shaomei

    2016-03-01

    Reliable genome editing via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 may provide a means to correct inherited diseases in patients. As proof of principle, we show that CRISPR/Cas9 can be used in vivo to selectively ablate the rhodopsin gene carrying the dominant S334ter mutation (Rho(S334)) in rats that model severe autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. A single subretinal injection of guide RNA/Cas9 plasmid in combination with electroporation generated allele-specific disruption of Rho(S334), which prevented retinal degeneration and improved visual function.

  2. Accumulation of the anandamide precursor and other N-acylethanolamine phospholipids in infant rat models of in vivo necrotic and apoptotic neuronal death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.H.; Ikonomidou, C.; Bittigau, P.

    2001-01-01

    infant rat models of in vivo neurodegeneration: (i) necrosis caused by intrastriatal injection of NMDA (25 nmol); (ii) apoptosis induced by systemic administration of the NMDA-receptor antagonist (+)MK-801 (3 × 0.5 mg/kg, i.p.); and (iii) apoptosis following focal necrosis triggered by concussive head......-801 did not alter cortical NAPE levels. Concussion head trauma resulted in a similar but less pronounced upregulation of NAPE levels at both 4 and 24 h as compared to NMDA injections. Increased levels of NAPE 24 h post-trauma possibly reflect that necrosis is still ongoing at this time point...

  3. Comparison of Celsior and Perfadex lung preservation solutions in rat lungs subjected to 6 and 12 hours of ischemia using an ex-vivo lung perfusion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arteiro Queiroz Menezes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the performance of lungs that were preserved with different solutions (Celsior, Perfadex or saline in an ex vivo rat lung perfusion system. METHODS: Sixty Wistar rats were anesthetized, anticoagulated and randomized into three groups (n = 20. The rats were subjected to antegrade perfusion via the pulmonary artery with Perfadex, Celsior, or saline, followed by 6 or 12 hours of ischemia (4ºC, n = 10 in each group. Respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and hemodynamics were measured at 10-minute intervals during the reperfusion of heart-lung blocks in an ex vivo system (IL2-Isolated Perfused Rat or Guinea Pig Lung System, Harvard Apparatus, Holliston, Massachusetts, USA; Hugo Sachs Elektronik, Germany for 60 minutes. The lungs were prepared for histopathology and evaluated for edema following reperfusion. Group comparisons were performed using ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Gas exchange was not significantly different between lungs perfused with either Perfadex or Celsior at the same ischemic times, but it was very low in lungs that were preserved with saline. Airway resistance was greater in the lungs that were preserved for 12 hours. Celsior lungs that were preserved for 6 and 12 hours exhibited lower airway resistance (p = 0.01 compared to Perfadex lungs. Pulmonary artery pressure was not different between the groups, and no significant differences in histopathology and apoptosis were observed between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Lungs that were preserved with Celsior or Perfadex exhibited similar gas exchange and histopathological findings. Airway resistance was slightly lower in the Celsior-preserved lungs compared with the Perfadex-preserved lungs.

  4. Light microscopy and morphometry of vinblastine in vivo cytotoxicity in the different developmental stages of rat incisor ameloblast epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther Nielsen, H

    1990-01-01

    To see whether the in vivo cytotoxicity of the antimicrotubule agent vinblastine (VB) was related to the degree of differentiation in a normal secretory cell population VB cytotoxicity in the various developmental stages of rat incisor ameloblast was studied. Normal values for cell and nucleus volumes, secretory velocity, VB dose-response curves for cell death, and proliferative and secretory activity were estimated quantitatively using simple stereological methods, 18 and 72 hours after VB administration i.v. Dose-response plots for cell death in jejunal crypt cells and the reduction of secretory activity in acinar pancreatic cells were compared with those of proliferating and secretory ameloblasts. Video light microscopy was used on 2 microns Epon sections with controlled orientation and position, permitting calculation of values on a per-cell-basis or per 10(4) microns 2 epithelial basal area. Normal cell and nuclear mean volumes (range: min.-max. value) for late-differentiating ameloblasts were 557 microns 3 (528-601) and 127 microns 3 (122-136), and for secretory ameloblasts 866 microns 3 (830-886) and 144 microns 3 (142-146). Mean volume of enamel matrix secreted per cell was around 169 microns 3 (122-202) per 24 hrs. Number of cells in the late-differentiating zone was 970(928-1003) and in the secretory zone 828 (820-835) per 10(4) microns 2 epithelial basal area. Cell death after VB in the ameloblast stem cells and pancreatic acinar cells was negligible. 72 hrs after VB, the supply of dividing cells to the proliferation zone was at lower doses increased, while at 3 mg/kg it was reduced to 72% of the normal. All proliferating cells appeared to be killed at 2 mg/kg, together with 38% of the differentiating and 34% of the secretory ameloblasts, and at 3 mg/kg, 70% and 66% respectively of the non-dividing ameloblasts were killed. The secretory output (volume of enamel matrix) of the ameloblasts exposed in the differentiating stage and now transformed into

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Two Garlic Species (Allium Sativum and A. Tuberosum Against Staphylococci Infection. In Vivo Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Venâncio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study observed the effect of garlic extracts and amoxicillin against an induced staphylococcal infection model. MIC and MBC were also obtained for aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (Asa and Allium tuberosum (Atu against Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-sensitive (PSSA - ATCC 25923 and MRSA (ATCC 33592. Methods: Granulation tissues were induced in the back of 205 rats. After 14 days, 0.5 mL of 108 CFU/mL of PSSA or MRSA were injected inside tissues. After 24h, animals were divided: G1 (Control – 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G2 – Asa 100 mg/kg or 400mg/kg; G3 – Atu 100 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg; G4 – amoxicillin suspension 50 mg/kg, considering PSSA infection; and G5 (Control - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G6 – Asa 400mg/kg; G7 – amoxicillin 50 mg/kg; and G8 - Asa 400 mg/kg + amoxicillin 50 mg/kg for MRSA. All treatments were administered P.O. every 6h. Animals were killed at 0, 6, 12 and 24h. Samples were spread on salt-mannitol agar. Colonies were counted after 18 h at 37 °C. Atu was not able to inhibit or kill PSSA and MRSA. Considering Asa, MIC and MBC against PSSA were 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively; and 16 mg/mL and 64 mg/mL against MRSA. Results: No effect was observed in vivo for control, Asa 100 mg/kg and Atu 100 mg/kg, while amoxicillin, Atu 400 mg/kg and Asa 400 mg/kg decreased PSSA counts in all-time points. No effect of any group against MRSA was observed at any time. Conclusion: Thus, A. sativum and A. tuberosum were able to reduce PSSA infection, but not MRSA infection.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Two Garlic Species (Allium Sativum and A. Tuberosum) Against Staphylococci Infection. In Vivo Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venâncio, Paulo César; Raimundo Figueroba, Sidney; Dias Nani, Bruno; Eduardo Nunes Ferreira, Luiz; Vilela Muniz, Bruno; de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Sartoratto, Adilson; Antonio Ribeiro Rosa, Edvaldo; Carlos Groppo, Francisco

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: This study observed the effect of garlic extracts and amoxicillin against an induced staphylococcal infection model. MIC and MBC were also obtained for aqueous extracts of Allium sativum (Asa) and Allium tuberosum (Atu) against Staphylococcus aureus penicillin-sensitive (PSSA - ATCC 25923) and MRSA (ATCC 33592). Methods: Granulation tissues were induced in the back of 205 rats. After 14 days, 0.5 mL of 108 CFU/mL of PSSA or MRSA were injected inside tissues. After 24h, animals were divided: G1 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G2 - Asa 100 mg/kg or 400mg/kg; G3 - Atu 100 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg; G4 - amoxicillin suspension 50 mg/kg, considering PSSA infection; and G5 (Control) - 0.5 mL of NaCl 0.9%; G6 - Asa 400mg/kg; G7 - amoxicillin 50 mg/kg; and G8 - Asa 400 mg/kg + amoxicillin 50 mg/kg for MRSA. All treatments were administered P.O. every 6h. Animals were killed at 0, 6, 12 and 24h. Samples were spread on salt-mannitol agar. Colonies were counted after 18 h at 37 °C. Atu was not able to inhibit or kill PSSA and MRSA. Considering Asa, MIC and MBC against PSSA were 2 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, respectively; and 16 mg/mL and 64 mg/mL against MRSA. Results: No effect was observed in vivo for control, Asa 100 mg/kg and Atu 100 mg/kg, while amoxicillin, Atu 400 mg/kg and Asa 400 mg/kg decreased PSSA counts in all-time points. No effect of any group against MRSA was observed at any time. Conclusion: Thus, A. sativum and A. tuberosum were able to reduce PSSA infection, but not MRSA infection.

  7. Effects of young-coconut juice on increasing mandibular cancellous bone in orchidectomized rats: Preliminary novel findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranee Suwanpal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens play a very important role in building the skeleton in young adults and help to prevent bone loss andosteoporosis in aging men. In addition, in hypogonadism or elderly men, bone mass has been related to estrogen levels ratherthan to testosterone. Estrogen replacement therapy has therefore been proposed to prevent bone loss in males as well as infemales. Estrogen, however, has been considered to be one of the hormonal risk factors for benign prostatic hyperplasia andprostate cancer and also has other side effects. Young coconut juice (YCJ presumably containing phytoestrogen was investigatedin the present study for its possible beneficial effects on delaying osteoporosis using a male rat model, and by this totest the possibility that it might be able to replace estrogen replacement therapy without side effects. In this study, mandibularcancellous bone was used as the osteoporotic model. Using the same model, we have previously found that total cartilagethickness particularly the hypertrophic zone of mandibular condylar cartilage was thicker in the sham-operated rats receivingYCJ orally fed for a 14 day period, compared with sham, orchidectomized animal, orchidectomized rats receiving estradiolbenzoate, and orchidectomized rats receiving YCJ. The present study confirmed our former study that mandibular cancellousbone in the sham-operated rats and in the orchidectomized rats receiving YCJ orally fed for a 14–day period were thicker thanthose of the sham and orchidectomized rat groups. This study results are novel and they indicate that YCJ may have beneficialeffects in the treatment of osteoporosis in andropause men.

  8. Preliminary study on serum enzyme changes in Long Evans rats given parenteral ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B1 and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownie, C F; Brownie, C

    1988-06-01

    Long Evans rats of both sexes were each administered a total of 250 micrograms aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin-A (OCH-A) or 500 micrograms AFB1 + OCH-A (1:1 ratio) in corn oil over 5 equal daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of 50 micrograms/rat/day. Control rats were given a total of 1.25 ml corn oil over 5 equal daily IP injections of 0.25 ml/rat. All rats were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity. Twenty-four hr following the last injection all rats were weighed, killed, examined for gross pathologic lesions and blood samples collected for routine hematologic and serum chemistry evaluation. All rats gained weight over the treatment period. Though not significantly different among the treatment groups, weight gain was significantly greater for males (54.0 g) than females (33.8 g). Routine hematology showed no difference among treatment groups. Serum enzyme aspartate aminotransferase (AST = SGOT) activities were indicative of hepatoxicity. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was significantly increased in the AFB1 and AFB1 + OCH-A treatment groups, signifying a possible interaction between these 2 mycotoxins. LDH isoenzyme fractionation studies would be helpful in delineating the organ system(s) involved and the possible diagnostic value of this interaction.

  9. Sigmoidal kinetics of CYP3A substrates: an approach for scaling dextromethorphan metabolism in hepatic microsomes and isolated hepatocytes to predict in vivo clearance in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, L E; Houston, J B

    1999-07-01

    The metabolism of a number of compounds by the cytochrome P-450 subfamily CYP3A does not exhibit classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics but displays a sigmoidal rate-substrate concentration relationship. Intrinsic clearance (CLint) cannot be calculated for these drugs due to the lack of a first order region in their kinetic profiles, and a suitable parameter has yet to be identified to allow such data to be scaled to predict in vivo clearance. As sigmoidal kinetics have only been observed with microsomal systems, we have investigated whether this behavior is demonstrable in freshly isolated hepatocytes. We have also evaluated the term maximum clearance (CLmax), which refers to the in vitro clearance when the enzyme is fully activated, to predict in vivo clearance. To these ends we have studied the metabolism of dextromethorphan to methoxymorphinan and dextrorphan; methoxymorphinan production is best described by sigmoidal kinetics in both hepatocytes and microsomes, dextrorphan production is best described by a two site Michaelis-Menten model in microsomes but is sigmoidal in hepatocytes. Total clearance, estimated from the CLmax and CLint terms, was scaled to give mean predictions of 127 to 319 ml/min/standard rat weight of 250 g. In vivo CLint, determined after infusion via the hepatic portal vein to steady state and correcting for plasma protein binding and blood-to-plasma concentration ratio, was 259 +/- 59.2 ml/min/standard rat weight of 250 g. These investigations show that sigmoidal kinetics is not unique to microsomes and that CLmax is a useful parameter for scaling to the in vivo situation.

  10. Phosphodiesterase inhibition mediates matrix metalloproteinase activity and the level of collagen degradation fragments in a liver fibrosis ex vivo rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veidal Sanne Skovgård

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity are hallmarks of liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to develop a model of liver fibrosis combining ex vivo tissue culture of livers from CCl4 treated animals with an ELISA detecting a fragment of type III collagen generated in vitro by MMP-9 (C3M, known to be associated with liver fibrosis and to investigate cAMP modulation of MMP activity and liver tissue turnover in this model. Findings In vivo: Rats were treated for 8 weeks with CCl4/Intralipid. Liver slices were cultured for 48 hours. Levels of C3M were determined in the supernatants of slices cultured without treatment, treated with GM6001 (positive control or treated with IBMX (phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Enzymatic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were studied by gelatin zymography. Ex vivo: The levels of serum C3M increased 77% in the CCl4-treated rats at week 8 (p 4-treated animals had highly increased MMP-9, but not MMP-2 activity, compared to slices derived from control animals. Conclusions We have combined an ex vivo model of liver fibrosis with measurement of a biochemical marker of collagen degradation in the condition medium. This technology may be used to evaluate the molecular process leading to structural fibrotic changes, as collagen species are the predominant structural part of fibrosis. These data suggest that modulation of cAMP may play a role in regulation of collagen degradation associated with liver fibrosis.

  11. [A preliminary study of the effect of mitochondrial autophagy on cognitive function in rats of early intermittent hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Wang, Hongyang; Yu, Jiangtao; Han, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yanan; Cao, Jinli

    2014-11-01

    To explore the effect of mitochondrial autophagy on cognitive function in rats of early intermittent hypoxia by observing hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell mitochondrial autophagy and the expression of related proteins in a intermittent hypoxia(IH) animal model. Seventy-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (UC) and a 5% intermittent hypoxia (IH) group. The compressed air was given to the UC group while rats in 5% IH group suffered from 7-hour IH every day. At 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 10 d and 14 d after the completion of the model, transmission electron microscopy was used to observation rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell mitochondrial ultrastructural changes, and immunohistochemistry assay was used to detect the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3. The Morris water test was performed to detect the learning and memory function in the rats. Compared with the UC group, the 5% IH group began to show mitochondrial size and shape changes, swelling, reduced matrix density, cristae, mitochondrial vacuolization, and typical mitochondria autophagosome formation from the 3 d. In the 5% IH group, Beclin-1 and LC3 protein expressions were significantly increased compared with the UC group (P 0.05). The level of learning and memory of the rats in the 5% IH group had no obvious changes compared with the UC group at 1 d, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, and 10 d, but the level started to drop at 14 d with a significant difference (P memory of the rats in the UC group was not different among different time points (P > 0.05). Early intermittent hypoxia induced hippocampus mitochondrial autophagy and autophagy-related protein expression in rats. Mitochondrial autophagy may reduce the damage to cognitive function of the rats exposed to early intermittent hypoxia.

  12. Acute blood glucose fluctuation enhances rat aorta endothelial cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Na; Shen, Haitao; Liu, Henan; Wang, Yanjun; Bai, Yu; Han, Ping

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present study, the influence of acute fluctuant hyperglycemia and persistent hyperglycemia on vascular endothelial cell apoptosis, function, oxidative stress and inflammation was examined in vivo...

  13. Contribution of K+ channels to endothelium-derived hypolarization-induced renal vasodilation in rats in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kasper Møller Bøje; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; Salomonsson, Max

    2016-01-01

    /or the Na+/K+-ATPase. Also, involvement of renal myoendothelial gap junctions was evaluated in vitro. Isometric tension in rat renal interlobar arteries was measured using a wire myograph. Renal blood flow was measured in isoflurane anesthetized rats. The EDH response was defined as the ACh...

  14. Imaging regional metabolic changes in the ischemic rat heart in vivo using hyperpolarized(1-13C)Pyruvate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Mette Hauge; Magnusson, Peter; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the use of hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an open-chest rat model of myocardial infarction to image regional changes in myocardial metabolism. In total, 10 rats were examined before and after 30 minutes of occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary art...

  15. Monoaminergic PET imaging and histopathological correlation in unilateral and bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rat models of Parkinson's disease: a longitudinal in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinet-Dronda, Francisco; Gago, Belén; Quiroga-Varela, Ana; Juri, Carlos; Collantes, María; Delgado, Mercedes; Prieto, Elena; Ecay, Margarita; Iglesias, Elena; Marín, Concepció; Peñuelas, Iván; Obeso, José A

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-11 labeled dihydrotetrabenazine ((11)C-DTBZ) binds to the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 and has been used to assess nigro-striatal integrity in animal models and patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we applied (11)C-DTBZ positron emission tomography (PET) to obtain longitudinally in-vivo assessment of striatal dopaminergic loss in the classic unilateral and in a novel bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model. Forty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 sub-groups: 1. 6-OHDA-induced unilateral lesion in the medial forebrain bundle, 2. bilateral lesion by injection of 6-OHDA in the third ventricle, and 3. vehicle injection in either site. (11)C-DTBZ PET studies were investigated in the same animals successively at baseline, 1, 3 and 6weeks after lesion using an anatomically standardized volumes-of-interest approach. Additionally, 12 rats had PET and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to construct a new (11)C-DTBZ PET template. Behavior was characterized by rotational, catalepsy and limb-use asymmetry tests and dopaminergic striatal denervation was validated post-mortem by immunostaining of the dopamine transporter (DAT). (11)C-DTBZ PET showed a significant decrease of striatal binding (SB) values one week after the unilateral lesion. At this point, there was a 60% reduction in SB in the affected hemisphere compared with baseline values in 6-OHDA unilaterally lesioned animals. A 46% symmetric reduction over baseline SB values was found in bilaterally lesioned rats at the first week after lesion. SB values remained constant in unilaterally lesioned rats whereas animals with bilateral lesions showed a modest (22%) increase in binding values at the 3rd and 6th weeks post-lesion. The degree of striatal dopaminergic denervation was corroborated histologically by DAT immunostaining. Statistical analysis revealed a high correlation between (11)C-DTBZ PET SB and striatal DAT immunostaining values (r=0.95, p<0.001). The data presented here indicate

  16. In vivo EPR pharmacokinetic evaluation of the redox status and the blood brain barrier permeability in the SOD1(G93A) ALS rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Stefan; Pavićević, Aleksandra; Mojović, Miloš; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Selaković, Vesna; Andjus, Pavle; Bačić, Goran

    2017-07-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder affecting the motor pathways of the central nervous system. Although a number of pathophysiological mechanisms have been described in the disease, post mortem and animal model studies indicate blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and elevated production of reactive oxygen species as major contributors to disease pathology. In this study, the BBB permeability and the brain tissue redox status of the SOD1(G93A) ALS rat model in the presymptomatic (preALS) and symptomatic (ALS) stages of the disease were investigated by in vivo EPR spectroscopy using three aminoxyl radicals with different cell membrane and BBB permeabilities, Tempol, 3-carbamoyl proxyl (3CP), and 3-carboxy proxyl (3CxP). Additionally, the redox status of the two brain regions previously implicated in disease pathology, brainstem and hippocampus, was investigated by spectrophotometric biochemical assays. The EPR results indicated that among the three spin probes, 3CP is the most suitable for reporting the intracellular redox status changes, as Tempol was reduced in vivo within minutes (t1/2 =2.0±0.5min), thus preventing reliable kinetic modeling, whereas 3CxP reduction kinetics gave divergent conclusions, most probably due to its membrane impermeability. It was observed that the reduction kinetics of 3CP in vivo, in the head of preALS and ALS SOD1(G93A) rats was altered compared to the controls. Pharmacokinetic modeling of 3CP reduction in vivo, revealed elevated tissue distribution and tissue reduction rate constants indicating an altered brain tissue redox status, and possibly BBB disruption in these animals. The preALS and ALS brain tissue homogenates also showed increased nitrilation, superoxide production, lipid peroxidation and manganese superoxide dismutase activity, and a decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity. The present study highlights in vivo EPR spectroscopy as a reliable tool for the investigation of

  17. Citrulline decreases hepatic endotoxin-induced injury in fructose-induced non-alcoholic liver disease: an ex vivo study in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouelaa, Wassila; Jegatheesan, Prasanthi; M'bouyou-Boungou, Japhète; Vicente, Christelle; Nakib, Samir; Nubret, Esther; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal

    2017-06-01

    Steatosis can sensitise the liver to various challenges and favour the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this context, fructose feeding promotes endotoxin translocation from the gut, contributing to disease progression via an inflammatory process. Citrulline is protective against fructose-induced NAFLD; we hypothesised that this property might be related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative action against endotoxin-induced hepatic injuries. This hypothesis was evaluated in a model of perfused liver isolated from NAFLD rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n 30) were fed either a standard rodent chow or a 60 % fructose diet alone, or supplemented with citrulline (1 g/kg per d) for 4 weeks. After an evaluation of their metabolic status, fasted rats received an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2·5 mg/kg). After 1 h, the livers were isolated and perfused for 1 h to study liver function and metabolism, inflammation and oxidative status. In vivo, citrulline significantly decreased dyslipidaemia induced by a high-fructose diet and insulin resistance. In the isolated perfused rat livers, endotoxaemia resulted in higher cytolysis (alanine aminotransferase release) and higher inflammation (Toll-like receptor 4) in livers of fructose-fed rats, and it was prevented by citrulline supplementation. Oxidative stress and antioxidative defences were similar in all three groups. Amino acid exchanges and metabolism (ammonia and urea release) were only slightly different between the three groups. In this context of mild steatosis, our results suggest that fructose-induced NAFLD leads to an increased hepatic sensitivity to LPS-induced inflammation. Citrulline-induced restriction of the inflammatory process may thus contribute to the prevention of NAFLD.

  18. Direct in vivo cell lineage analysis in the retrorsine and 2AAF models of liver injury after genetic labeling in adult and newborn rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Pichard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: When hepatocyte proliferation is impaired, liver regeneration proceeds from the division of non parenchymal hepatocyte progenitors. Oval cells and Small Hepatocyte-like Progenitor Cells (SHPCs represent the two most studied examples of such epithelial cells with putative stem cell capacity. In the present study we wished to compare the origin of SHPCs proliferating after retrorsine administration to the one of oval cells observed after 2-Acetyl-Amino fluorene (2-AAF treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used retroviral-mediated nlslacZ genetic labeling of dividing cells to study the fate of cells in the liver. Labeling was performed either in adult rats before treatment or in newborn animals. Labeled cells were identified and characterised by immunohistochemistry. In adult-labeled animals, labeling was restricted to mature hepatocytes. Retrorsine treatment did not modify the overall number of labeled cells in the liver whereas after 2-AAF administration unlabeled oval cells were recorded and the total number of labeled cells decreased significantly. When labeling was performed in newborn rats, results after retrorsine administration were identical to those obtained in adult-labeled rats. In contrast, in the 2-AAF regimen numerous labeled oval cells were present and were able to generate new labeled hepatocytes. Furthermore, we also observed labeled biliary tracts in 2-AAF treated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that SHPCs are derived from hepatocytes and we confirm that SHPCs and oval cells do not share the same origin. We also show that hepatic progenitors are labeled in newborn rats suggesting future directions for in vivo lineage studies.

  19. Development of an imaging system for in vivo real-time monitoring of neuronal activity in deep brain of free-moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Norio; Miyamoto, Shinji; Matsumoto, Keisuke; Takumi, Ken; Ueta, Yoichi; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2017-09-01

    We have newly developed a system that allows monitoring of the intensity of fluorescent signals from deep brains of rats transgenically modified to express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) via an optical fiber. One terminal of the optical fiber was connected to a blue semiconductor laser oscillator/green fluorescence detector. The other terminal was inserted into the vicinity of the eGFP-expressing neurons. Since the optical fiber was vulnerable to twisting stresses caused by animal movement, we also developed a cage in which the floor automatically turns, in response to the turning of the rat's head. This relieved the twisting stress on the optical fiber. The system then enabled real-time monitoring of fluorescence in awake and unrestrained rats over many hours. Using this system, we could continuously monitor eGFP-expression in arginine vasopressin-eGFP transgenic rats. Moreover, we observed an increase of eGFP-expression in the paraventricular nucleus under salt-loading conditions. We then performed in vivo imaging of eGFP-expressing GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus, via a bundle consisting of 3000 thin optical fibers. With the combination of the optical fiber bundle connection to the fluorescence microscope, and the special cage system, we were able to capture and retain images of eGFP-expressing neurons from free-moving rats. We believe that our newly developed method for monitoring and imaging eGFP-expression in deep brain neurons will be useful for analysis of neuronal functions in awake and unrestrained animals for long durations.

  20. In VitroStreptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Formation and In Vivo Middle Ear Mucosal Biofilm in a Rat Model of Acute Otitis Induced by S. pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun

    2012-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common pathogens of otitis media (OM) that exists in biofilm, which enhances the resistance of bacteria against antibiotic killing and diagnosis, compared to the free-floating (planktonic) form. This study evaluated biofilm formation by S. pneumoniae on an abiotic surface and in the middle ear cavity in a rat model of OM. In vitro biofilm formation was evaluated by inoculation of a 1:100 diluted S. pneumoniae cell suspension in a 96-well microplate. Adherent cells were quantified spectrophotometrically following staining with crystal violet by measurement of optical density at 570 nm. The ultrastructure of pneumococcal biofilm was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For in vitro biofilm study, S. pneumoniae cell suspensions containing 1×10(7) colony forming units were injected through transtympanic membrane into the middle ear cavity of Sprague Dawley rats. The ultrastructure of middle ear mucus was observed by SEM 1 and 2 weeks post-inoculation. The in vitro study revealed robust biofilm formation by S. pneumoniae after 12-18 hours of incubation in high glucose medium, independent of exogenously supplied competence stimulating peptide and medium replacement. Adherent cells formed three-dimensional structures approximately 20-30 µm thick. The in vivo study revealed that ciliated epithelium was relatively resistant to biofilm formation and that biofilm formation occurred mainly on non-ciliated epithelium of the middle ear cavity. One week after inoculation, biofilm formation was high in 50% of the treated rats and low in 25% of the rats. After 2 weeks, biofilm formation was high and low in 25% and 37.5% of rats, respectively. The results imply that glucose level is important for the S. pneumoniae biofilm formation and S. pneumoniae biofilm formation may play important role in the pathophysiology of OM.

  1. Cardiac function and lipid distribution in rats fed a high-fat diet: in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Vijayasarathi; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Kaneko, Manami; Angeli, Veronique; Gluckman, Peter; Richards, Arthur Mark; Kuchel, Philip W; Velan, S Sendhil

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and its pathophysiological precondition insulin resistance. Very little is known about the metabolic changes that occur in the myocardium and consequent changes in cardiac function that are associated with high-fat accumulation. Therefore, cardiac function and metabolism were evaluated in control rats and those fed a high-fat diet, using magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mRNA analysis, histology, and plasma biochemistry. Analysis of blood plasma from rats fed the high-fat diet showed that they were insulin resistant (P biochemistry, magnetic resonance imaging, and mRNA analysis confirmed that rats on the high-fat diet had moderate diabetes along with mild cardiac hypertrophy. The magnetic resonance spectroscopy results showed the extramyocellular lipid signal only in the spectra from high-fat diet rats, which was absent in the control diet rats. The intramyocellular lipids in high-fat diet rats was higher (8.7%) compared with rats on the control diet (6.1%). This was confirmed by electron microscope and light microscopy studies. Our results indicate that lipid accumulation in the myocardium might be an early indication of the cardiovascular pathophysiology associated with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Implanted, inductively-coupled, radiofrequency coils fabricated on flexible polymeric material: Application to in vivo rat brain MRI at 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginefri, J.-C.; Rubin, A.; Tatoulian, M.; Woytasik, M.; Boumezbeur, F.; Djemaï, B.; Poirier-Quinot, M.; Lethimonnier, F.; Darrasse, L.; Dufour-Gergam, E.

    2012-11-01

    Combined with high-field MRI scanners, small implanted coils allow for high resolution imaging with locally improved SNR, as compared to external coils. Small flexible implantable coils dedicated to in vivo MRI of the rat brain at 7 T were developed. Based on the Multi-turn Transmission Line Resonator design, they were fabricated with a Teflon substrate using copper micromolding process and a specific metal-polymer adhesion treatment. The implanted coils were made biocompatible by PolyDimethylSiloxane (PDMS) encapsulation. The use of low loss tangent material achieves low dielectric losses within the substrate and the use of the PDMS layer reduces the parasitic coupling with the surrounding media. An implanted coil was implemented in a 7 T MRI system using inductive coupling and a dedicated external pick-up coil for signal transmission. In vivo images of the rat brain acquired with in plane resolution of (150 μm)2 thanks to the implanted coil revealed high SNR near the coil, allowing for the visualization of fine cerebral structures.

  3. Long-lasting pro-ictogenic effects induced in vivo by rat brain exposure to serum albumin in the absence of concomitant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Federica; Frasca, Angelisa; Weissberg, Itai; Parrella, Sara; Friedman, Alon; Vezzani, Annamaria; Noé, Francesco M

    2012-11-01

      Dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common finding during seizures or following epileptogenic brain injuries, and experimentally induced BBB opening promotes seizures both in naive and epileptic animals. Brain albumin extravasation was reported to promote hyperexcitability by inducing astrocytes dysfunction. To provide in vivo evidence for a direct role of extravasated serum albumin in seizures independently on the pathologic context, we did the following: (1) quantified the amount of serum albumin extravasated in the rat brain parenchyma during status epilepticus (SE); (2) reproduced a similar concentration in the hippocampus by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) albumin injection in naive rats; (3) measured electroencephalography (EEG) activity in these rats, their susceptibility to kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures, and their hippocampal afterdischarge threshold (ADT).   Brain albumin concentration was measured in the rat hippocampus and other forebrain regions 2 and 24 h after SE by western blot analysis. Brain distribution of serum albumin or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-albumin was studied by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence, respectively. Naive rats were injected with rat albumin or FITC-albumin, i.c.v., to mimic the brain concentration attained after SE, or with dextran used as control. Inflammation was evaluated by immunohistochemistry by measuring glial induction of interleukin (IL)-1β. Western blot analysis was used to measure inward rectifying potassium channel subunit Kir4.1 protein levels in the hippocampus. Seizures were induced in rats by intrahippocampal injection of 80 ng KA and quantified by EEG analysis, 2 or 24 h after rat albumin or dextran administration. ADT was measured by electrical stimulation of the hippocampus 3 months after albumin injection. In these rats, EEG was continuously monitored for 2 weeks to search for spontaneous seizures.   The hippocampal serum albumin concentration 24

  4. Neonatal domoic acid decreases in vivo binding of [11C]yohimbine to α2 adrenoceptors in adult rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Majken; Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Jakobsen, Steen

    treated rats. microPET data revealed that DOM60 rats had a 40-47 % reduction in [11C]yohimbine binding in limbic and cortical brain regions relative to saline treated rats. We conclude that neonatal administration of DOM combined with the potential stress associated with behavioural testing results...... in a significant decrease in [11C]yohimbine binding in limbic and cortical brain regions. We suggest that the observed downregulation of α2 adrenoceptors is a result of elevated extracellular noradrenaline which may represent a form of preconditioning to decrease seizure susceptibility of the brain....

  5. Energy Deregulation Precedes Alteration in Heart Energy Balance in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: A Non Invasive In Vivo31P-MR Spectroscopy Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Deschodt-Arsac

    Full Text Available Gradual alterations in cardiac energy balance, as assessed by the myocardial PCr/ATP-ratio, are frequently associated with the development of cardiac disease. Despite great interest for the follow-up of myocardial PCr and ATP content, cardiac MR-spectroscopy in rat models in vivo is challenged by sensitivity issues and cross-contamination from other organs.Here we combined MR-Imaging and MR-Spectroscopy (Bruker BioSpec 9.4T to follow-up for the first time in vivo the cardiac energy balance in the SHR, a genetic rat model of cardiac hypertrophy known to develop early disturbances in cytosolic calcium dynamics.We obtained consistent 31P-spectra with high signal/noise ratio from the left ventricle in vivo by using a double-tuned (31P/1H surface coil. Reasonable acquisition time (<3.2min allowed assessing the PCr/ATP-ratio comparatively in SHR and age-matched control rats (WKY: i weekly from 12 to 21 weeks of age; ii in response to a bolus injection of the ß-adrenoreceptor agonist isoproterenol at age 21 weeks.Along weeks, the cardiac PCr/ATP-ratio was highly reproducible, steady and similar (2.35±0.06 in SHR and WKY, in spite of detectable ventricular hypertrophy in SHR. At the age 21 weeks, PCr/ATP dropped more markedly (-17.1%±0.8% vs. -3,5%±1.4%, P<0.001 after isoproterenol injection in SHR and recovered slowly thereafter (time constant 21.2min vs. 6.6min, P<0.05 despite similar profiles of tachycardia among rats.The exacerbated PCr/ATP drop under ß-adrenergic stimulation indicates a defect in cardiac energy regulation possibly due to calcium-mediated abnormalities in the SHR heart. Of note, defects in energy regulation were present before detectable abnormalities in cardiac energy balance at rest.

  6. Effect of fish oil on lipopolysaccharide-induced hydroxyapatite loss in rat alveolar bone: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didin E. Indahyani

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fish oil has been shown to inhibit bone resorption and, therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that fish oil alters lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced hydroxyapatite loss in rat alveolar bone. Rats were divided into four groups. The animals injected with saline or Escherichia coli-derived LPS into the maxillary alveolar mucosa on the buccoapical site of the molar region daily for 8 days were served as a negative or positive control, respectively. Other groups of animals were injected with LPS and orally treated with fish oil at the same day with or after LPS injection. The results of the present study showed that the hydroxyapatite contents of alveolar bone in rats treated with fish oil at the same day with or before LPS injection were significantly higher than those in rats injected with LPS alone, but still lower than those in untreated animals. Therefore, the present study suggests that oral treatment with fish oil may reduce LPS-induced hydroxyapatite loss in rat alveolar bone

  7. Variants of β-casofensin, a bioactive milk peptide, differently modulate the intestinal barrier: In vivo and ex vivo studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Jérémie; Nicolas, Aurélie; Pesenti, Sandra; Schwarz, Jessica; Simon, Jean-Luc; Léonil, Joëlle; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2017-05-01

    β-Casofensin is a bioactive milk peptide that modulates the intestinal barrier, particularly through its action on goblet cells. β-Casofensin corresponds to fragment (f) 94-123 of the bovine β-casein (β-CN) A2 variant. Fifteen genetic variants of bovine β-CN (A1-3, B-G, H1-2, I-L) are known, of which the A2, A1, and B forms are the most common. These variants differ from each other by the substitution of one or more amino acids, some of which are localized in f94 to 123. The aim of our study was to compare the intestinal effects of β-casofensin A2 and its 3 main variants: A1, A3, and B. For this purpose, a solution (0.1 µM; 10 μL/g of body weight, postnatal d 10-20) containing β-casofensin A2, one of its variants (A1, A3, or B), or drinking water (control; CT) was administered to rat pups orally. After euthanasia (postnatal d 20), intestinal segments were collected for biochemical and histochemical analysis and also used to determine paracellular permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 4-kDa dextran in an Ussing chamber. We also studied the direct effects of β-casofensin A2 and its A1 variant on the paracellular permeability of jejunum segments of adult rats. β-Casofensin A2 and its B variant significantly increased the population of goblet cells compared with the CT, A1, and A3 groups. The mucin 2 mRNA level was significantly higher in the β-casofensin A2 group than in the CT, A3, and B groups. Our results also revealed that the protein expression of zonula occludens-1 and occludin was reduced in the jejunum of rats in the A1, A3, and B groups compared with the CT group. However, the A1 variant was the only peptide to decrease jejunal permeability compared with the CT group. This variant, tested directly in the apical compartment of an Ussing chamber at a concentration of 0.1 nM, also reduced jejunal permeability. In conclusion, the substitution of a single amino acid alters the effect of β-CN sequence f94 to 123 on goblet cells and on

  8. Effects of a Tricaprylin Emulsion on Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis in Rats: In Vivo and in Silico Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Ning; Shi, Junfeng; Xiao, Ying; Yasue, Misato; Takei, Yoshinori; Sanefuji, Hayato; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Hirasawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    .... Current pharmacotherapy is limited to immunosuppressive therapy. In the present study, we found a novel antinephritic effect of a tricaprylin emulsion in the anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) GN rat model...

  9. Effects of a Tricaprylin Emulsion on Anti-glomerular Basement Membrane Glomerulonephritis in Rats : In Vivo and in Silico Studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ning Liua; Junfeng Shia; Ying Xiaoa; Misato Yasuea; Yoshinori Takeib; Hayato Sanefujic; Gozoh Tsujimotoa; Akira Hirasawaa; d

    2015-01-01

    .... Current pharmacotherapy is limited to immunosuppressive therapy. In the present study, we found a novel antinephritic effect of a tricaprylin emulsion in the anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) GN rat model...

  10. Fenproporex N-dealkylation to amphetamine--enantioselective in vitro studies in human liver microsomes as well as enantioselective in vivo studies in Wistar and Dark Agouti rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Thomas; Pflugmann, Thomas; Bossmann, Michael; Kneller, Nicole M; Peters, Frank T; Paul, Liane D; Springer, Dietmar; Staack, Roland F; Maurer, Hans H

    2004-09-01

    Fenproporex (FP) is known to be N-dealkylated to R(-)-amphetamine (AM) and S(+)-amphetamine. Involvement of the polymorphic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform CYP2D6 in metabolism of such amphetamine precursors is discussed controversially in literature. In this study, the human hepatic CYPs involved in FP dealkylation were identified using recombinant CYPs and human liver microsomes (HLM). These studies revealed that not only CYP2D6 but also CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 catalyzed this metabolic reaction for both enantiomers with slight preference for the S(+)-enantiomer. Formation of amphetamine was not significantly changed by quinidine and was not different in poor metabolizer HLM compared to pooled HLM. As in vivo experiments, blood levels of R(-)-amphetamine and S(+)-amphetamine formed after administration of FP were determined in female Dark Agouti rats (fDA), a model of the human CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype (PM), male Dark Agouti rats (mDA), an intermediate model, and in male Wistar rats (WI), a model of the human CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer phenotype. Analysis of the plasma samples showed that fDA exhibited significantly higher plasma levels of both amphetamine enantiomers compared to those of WI. Corresponding plasma levels in mDA were between those in fDA and WI. Furthermore, pretreatment of WI with the CYP2D inhibitor quinine resulted in significantly higher amphetamine plasma levels, which did not significantly differ from those in fDA. The in vivo studies suggested that CYP2D6 is not crucial to the N-dealkylation but to another metabolic step, most probably to the ring hydroxylation. Further studies are necessary for elucidating the role of CYP2D6 in FP hydroxylation.

  11. Linking binge alcohol-induced neurodamage to brain edema and potential aquaporin-4 upregulation: evidence in rat organotypic brain slice cultures and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripathirathan, Kumar; Brown, James; Neafsey, Edward J; Collins, Michael A

    2009-02-11

    Brain edema and derived oxidative stress potentially are critical events in the hippocampal-entorhinal cortical (HEC) neurodegeneration caused by binge alcohol (ethanol) intoxication and withdrawal in adult rats. Edema's role is based on findings that furosemide diuretic antagonizes binge alcohol-dependent brain overhydration and neurodamage in vivo and in rat organotypic HEC slice cultures. However, evidence that furosemide has significant antioxidant potential and knowledge that alcohol can cause oxidative stress through non-edemic pathways has placed edema's role in question. We therefore studied three other diuretics and a related non-diuretic that, according to our oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assays or the literature, possess minimal antioxidant potential. Acetazolamide (ATZ), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor/diuretic with negligible ORAC effectiveness and, interestingly, an aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel inhibitor, prevented alcohol-dependent tissue edema and neurodegeneration in HEC slice cultures. Likewise, in binge alcohol-intoxicated rats, ATZ suppressed brain edema while inhibiting neurodegeneration. Torasemide, a loop diuretic lacking furosemide's ORAC capability, also prevented alcohol-induced neurodamage in HEC slice cultures. However, bumetanide (BUM), a diuretic blocker of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) channels, and L-644, 711, a nondiuretic anion channel inhibitor--both lacking antioxidant capabilities as well as reportedly ineffective against alcohol-dependent brain damage in vivo--reduced neither alcohol-induced neurotoxicity nor (with BUM) edema in HEC slices. Because an AQP4 blocker (ATZ) was neuroprotective, AQP4 expression in the HEC slices was examined and found to be elevated by binge alcohol. The results further indicate that binge ethanol-induced brain edema/swelling, potentially associated with AQP4 upregulation, may be important in consequent neurodegeneration that could derive from neuroinflammatory processes, for example, membrane

  12. Effects of resveratrol, a grape polyphenol, on uterine contraction and Ca²+ mobilization in rats in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Shih-Min; Wang, Kai-Lee; Wang, Paulus S

    2011-05-01

    Dysmenorrhea is directly related to elevate prostaglandin F (PGF)(₂α) levels. In Western medicine, this condition is treated using nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Because nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs produce many side effects, Chinese medicinal therapy is considered as a feasible alternative for treating dysmenorrhea. Many special physiological components used in Chinese medicine, such as resveratrol, have been isolated and identified. Resveratrol has many physiological functions, such as antioxidation and anticarcinogenic effects. However, the relationship between uterine smooth muscle contraction and resveratrol remains unknown. Here, we studied the in vitro and in vivo effects of resveratrol on uterine smooth muscle contraction. The uterus was separated from a female Sprague Dawley rat, and uterine smooth muscle contraction activity was measured and recorded. The results demonstrated that 1) resveratrol treatment inhibited PGF(₂α)-, oxytocin-, acetylcholine-, and carbachol-induced uterine contractions in rats; 2) resveratrol inhibited uterine contractions stimulated by the Ca²(+) channel activator (Bay K 8644) and depolarization in response to high K(+) (KCl); 3) resveratrol inhibited PGF(₂α)-induced increases in the [Ca²(+)]i in human uterine smooth muscle cells; 4) resveratrol could mimic Ca²(+) channel blockers to block Ca²(+) influx through voltage-operated Ca²(+) channels in the plasma membrane; and 5) resveratrol inhibited PGF(₂α)-induced uterine contractions in rats in vivo. Resveratrol inhibited uterine contractions induced by PGF(₂α) and high K(+) in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro; furthermore, it inhibited Ca²(+)-dependent uterine contractions. Thus, resveratrol consistently suppressed the increases in intracellular Ca²(+) concentrations ([Ca²(+)]i) induced by PGF(₂α) and high K(+) concentrations. It can be assumed that resveratrol probably inhibited uterine contraction by blocking external Ca

  13. Uterus-relaxing effect of β2-agonists in combination with phosphodiesterase inhibitors: studies on pregnant rat in vivo and on pregnant human myometrium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verli, Judit; Klukovits, Anna; Kormányos, Zsolt; Hajagos-Tóth, Judit; Ducza, Eszter; Seres, Adrienn B; Falkay, George; Gáspár, Róbert

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to examine the effects of a simultaneous stimulation of β(2) -adrenergic receptors and inhibition of uterine phosphodiesterases (PDE), in the pregnant rat uterus in vivo and on human uterine tissue in vitro. We also set out to measure cAMP levels and detect the expressions of the isoenzymes PDE4B and PDE4D in human uterine tissue samples. Preterm birth was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The uterine effects of terbutaline alone or in combination with rolipram were tested in vivo. Human myometrial strips from cesarean sections at full-term pregnancy and at preterm labor were stimulated with oxytocin, and the inhibitory effects of theophylline, rolipram and terbutaline were studied. The myometrial accumulation of cAMP in the presence of rolipram and terbutaline was determined by enzyme immunoassay. The expressions of PDE4B and PDE4D proteins were detected by Western blotting. The selective PDE4 inhibitor rolipram was more effective than the non-selective PDE inhibitor theophylline in inhibiting the oxytocin-induced contractions in the human uterus. The uterus-relaxing effects of low doses of terbutaline were markedly potentiated by rolipram, both in rats and in human tissues. The changes in uterine cAMP levels correlated with these results. At preterm labor, PDE4B was the predominant form of PDE4 expressed; at full term, PDE4D was expressed more strongly. A combination of selective PDE4 inhibitors and β(2) -agonists should be considered for the treatment of preterm contractions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Increase of the uterus-relaxant effect of nifedipine by the Abcg2 efflux protein inhibitor KO134 in the rat in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasz, Norbert; Ducza, Eszter; Zupko, Istvan; Falkay, George

    2013-01-01

    High Abcg2 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter Subfamily G, Member-2) levels have been found in reproductive tissues, such as the placenta and uterus. The substrate specificity of Abcg2 is very wide, including uterus-relaxant agents (e.g. nifedipine and prazosine). Through the use of a potent inhibitor (KO134), intracellular accumulation of the substrate can be increased. Nifedipine, commonly used in acute tocolytic therapy, exerts a greater tocolytic effect and has fewer side-effects than β2-adrenergic receptor agonists. The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression of Abcg2 in the rat uterus during gestation and the uterus-relaxant effect of nifedipine in the presence of the Abcg2 inhibitor KO134. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and western blot analyses were performed to detect the levels of Abcg2 during gestation in the rat. The uterus-relaxant effect of nifedipine in vivo was investigated by the intra-uterine pressure measuring method, described by Csapo. Low levels of Abcg2 were found in non-pregnant animals and early-pregnancy (days 6, 8 and 10), but on day 15 of gestation, a sharp increase in Abcg2 levels was observed, which reached its maximum on day 18 and later decreased until the end of gestation. The post-partum levels were similar to those in non-pregnant rats. The in vivo contractility studies revealed that nifedipine had a strong uterus-relaxant effect on spontaneous contractions, and that this effect was significantly and dose-dependently increased by the Abcg2 blocker KO134. The administration of efflux pump inhibitors in combination with tocolytic agents may be of novel therapeutic relevance in the management of pre-term labour.

  15. In vivo Investigation of Anti-diabetic Properties of Ripe Onion Juice in Normal and Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Won; Lee, Hyung-Seok; Cha, Yong-Jun; Joo, Woo-Hong; Kang, Dae-Ook; Moon, Ja-Young

    2013-01-01

    The acute and subacute hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of drinkable ripe onion juice (Commercial product name is “Black Onion Extract”) were investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. For tests of acute and subacute hypoglycemic effects, ripe onion juice (5 and 15 mL/kg b.w.) was administered by oral gavage to normal Sprague Dawley rats and measurements of fasting glucose levels and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Tolbutamide was used as a reference drug at a single oral dose of 250 mg/kg b.w. To test anti-hyper-glycemic activity, the ripe onion juice was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by oral gavage at single dose of 15 mL/kg b.w. per day for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of the ripe onion juice at either dosed level of 5 or 15 mL/kg b.w. showed no remarkable acute hypoglycemic effect in normal rats. The two dosed levels caused a relatively small reduction, only 18% and 12% (5 and 15 mL/kg b.w., respectively) decrease in glucose levels at 2 h after glucose loading in normal rats. However, at 3 h after glucose loading, blood glucose levels in the ripe onion juice-dosed rats were decreased to the corresponding blood glucose level in tolbutamide-dosed rats. Although showing weak hypoglycemic potential compared to that of tolbutamide, oral administration of ripe onion juice (15 mL/kg b.w.) for a short period (8 days) resulted in a slight reduction in the blood glucose levels that had elevated in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that the commercial product “Black Onion Extract” may possess anti-hyperglycemic potential in diabetes. PMID:24471128

  16. In vivo study on the monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites change in the striatum of Parkinsonian rats by liquid chromatography with an acetylene black nanoparticles modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Yang, Jie; Lin, Ruipo; Yu, Li; Gao, Hongchang; Yang, Shulin; Li, Xiaokun

    2013-01-01

    The variation in the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in an experimental Parkinsonian animal model established by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine administration was studied. For the purpose of detecting monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites more sensitively, an acetylene black nanoparticles modified electrode was fabricated and used as the working electrode for an electrochemical detector in HPLC. The results indicated that the modified electrode exhibited efficiently electrocatalytic oxidation for monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites with relatively high sensitivity, long life, and stability. The linear ranges spanned four orders of magnitude (r>0.998) and the detectability was on the level of 0.1 nmolL(-1). The percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) for each compound at all concentration levels was lower than 2.57% and 1.94% for intra-day and inter-day precision, respectively. The mean recovery values were between 98.75% and 105.25%, and the %RSD was found to be less than 1.02%. Coupled with in vivo microdialysis sampling, the validated method was successfully applied to measure monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in both sides of the striatum of conscious and freely moving Parkinsonian rats, and the extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the lesioned-side striatum of unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats were lower than that in the intact side striatum or in the striatum of control rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of a myo-inositol hexakisphosphate gelated polyaniline hydrogel in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kwang-Hsiao; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Changjian; Yu, Tong; Shang, Tao; Huang, Chen; Zhou, Min; Liu, Cheng; Ran, Feng; Li, Yun; Shi, Yi; Pan, Lijia

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in understanding the interaction between electricity and cells/biomolecules have generated great interest in developing biocompatible electrically conductive materials. In this study, we investigated the biocompatibility of a myo-inositol hexakisphosphate gelated polyaniline hydrogel using in vitro and in vivo experiments in a rat model. The polyaniline hydrogel was used to coat a polycaprolactone scaffold and was cultured with rat endothelial progenitor cells differentiated from rat adipose-derived stem cells. Compared with the control sample on a pristine polycaprolactone scaffold, the treated polyaniline hydrogel had the same non-poisonous/cytotoxicity grade, enhanced cell adhesion, and a higher cell proliferation/growth rate. In implant studies, the polyaniline hydrogel sample induced milder inflammatory responses than did the control at the same time points. Combining the advantages of a biocompatible hydrogel and an organic conductor, the inositol phosphate-gelated polyaniline hydrogel could be used in bioelectronics applications such as biosensors, neural probes, cell stimulators, medical electrodes, tissue engineering, and electro-controlled drug delivery.

  18. Effects of Long-Term In Vivo Exposure to Di-2-Ethylhexylphthalate on Thyroid Hormones and the TSH/TSHR Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinwen; Dong, Jin; Zhao, Yue; Guo, Jipeng; Wang, Zhanju; Liu, Mingqi; Zhang, Yunbo; Na, Xiaolin

    2017-01-04

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was a widely used chemical with human toxicity. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that DEHP-exposure may be associated with altered serum thyroid hormones (THs) levels, but the underlying molecular mechanisms were largely unknown. To explore the possible molecular mechanisms, 128 Wistar rats were dosed with DEHP by gavage at 0, 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg/day for 3 months (M) and 6 M, respectively. After exposure, expression of genes and proteins in the thyroid, pituitary, and hypothalamus tissues of rats were analyzed by Q-PCR and western blot, while the sera and urine samples were assayed by radioimmunoassay and ELISA. Results showed that serum THs levels were suppressed by DEHP on the whole. DEHP treatment influenced the levels of rats' thyrotropin releasing hormone receptor (TRHr), Deiodinases 1 (D1), thyroid stimulating hormone beta (TSHβ), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHr), thyroperoxidase (TPO), thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and thyroglobulin (TG) mRNA/protein expression in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and decreased urine iodine. Taken together, observed findings indicate that DEHP could reduce thyroid hormones via disturbing the HPT axis, and the activated TSH/TSHR pathway is required to regulate thyroid function via altering TRHr, TSHβ, NIS, TSHr, TPO, TTF-1 and TG mRNA/protein expression of the HPT axis.

  19. Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of In Vitro and In Vivo Metabolites of Bornyl Gallate in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bornyl gallate (BG is a potential drug candidate synthesized by the reaction of two natural products, gallic acid and borneol. Previous studies have strongly suggested that BG is worthy of further investigation due to antioxidant, antiatherosclerosis activities, and obvious activity of stimulating intersegmental vessel growth in zebrafish. This work was designed to elucidate the metabolic profile of BG through analyzing its metabolites in vitro and in vivo by a chromatographic separation coupled with a mass spectrometry. The metabolites of BG were characterized from the rat liver microsome incubation solution, as well as rat urine and plasma after oral administration. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent TC-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm with gradient elution using methanol and water containing 0.2% (V : V formic acid as the mobile phase. Metabolites identification involved analyzing the retention behaviors, changes of molecular weights and MS/MS fragment patterns of BG and the metabolites. Five compounds were identified as isomers of hydroxylated BG metabolites in vitro. The major metabolites of BG in rat urine and plasma proved to be BG-O-glucuronide and O-methyl BG-O-glucuronide. The proposed method confirmed to be a reliable and sensitive alternative for characterizing metabolic pathways of BG.

  20. Up-regulation of DRP-3 long isoform during the induction of neural progenitor cells by glutamate treatment in the ex vivo rat retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro, E-mail: r502um@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Functional Proteomics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Byron, Baron; Kitagawa, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Functional Proteomics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Tokuda, Nobuko [Faculty of Health Sciences, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube (Japan); Kobayashi, Daiki; Nagayama, Megumi; Araki, Norie [Department of Tumor Genetics and Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sonoda, Koh-Hei [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuyuki [Department of Biochemistry and Functional Proteomics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Glutamate has been shown to induce neural progenitor cells in the adult vertebrate retina. However, protein dynamics during progenitor cell induction by glutamate are not fully understood. To identify specific proteins involved in the process, we employed two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics on glutamate untreated and treated retinal ex vivo sections. Rat retinal tissues were incubated with 1 mM glutamate for 1 h, followed by incubation in glutamate-free media for a total of 24 h. Consistent with prior reports, it was found that mitotic cells appeared in the outer nuclear layer without any histological damage. Immunohistological evaluations and immunoblotting confirmed the emergence of neuronal progenitor cells in the mature retina treated with glutamate. Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 3 (DRP-3), DRP-2 and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) during neural progenitor cell induction by glutamate. Moreover, mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased in the treated retina compared to that in the untreated retina. These results may indicate that glutamate induces neural progenitor cells in the mature rat retina by up-regulating the proteins which mediate cell mitosis and neurite growth. - Highlights: • Glutamate induced neuronal progenitor cells in the mature rat retina. • Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of DRP-3, DRP-2 and STIP1. • mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased.

  1. A novel rat fibrosarcoma cell line from transformed bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with maintained in vitro and in vivo stemness properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng-Yu; Nestvold, Janne; Rekdal, Øystein; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Fodstad, Øystein

    2017-03-15

    Increasing evidence suggests a possible relationship between mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and sarcoma. MSCs are hypothesized to be the cells initiating sarcomagenesis, and cancer stem cells (CSCs) sharing features of MSCs have been identified in sarcomas. Here, we report on the characteristics of a bone marrow-derived rat mesenchymal stem cell line that spontaneously transformed in long-term culture. The rat transformed mesenchymal stem cells (rTMSCs) produced soft-tissue fibrosarcomas in immunocompromised mice and immunocompetent rats. In vitro, the rTMSCs displayed increased proliferation capacity compared to the untransformed cell line. The transformed MSCs maintained the mesenchymal phenotype by expression of the stem cell marker CD 90 and the lack of hematopoietic and endothelial markers. Cytogenetic analysis detected trisomy 6 in the rTMSCs. Side population (SP) isolation and tumorsphere cultivation of the transformed cells confirmed the presence of CSCs among the rTMSCs. Importantly, the rTMSCs retained their differentiation capacity towards osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. This transformed MSC-based cell line may be valuable in examining the balance in a mixed cell population between cancer stem cell properties and the ability to differentiate to specific non-transformed cell populations. Moreover, it may also be a useful tool to evaluate the efficacy of novel targeted immunotherapies in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-infrared oxymeter biosensor prototype for non-invasive in vivo analysis of rat brain oxygenation: effects of drugs of abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, F.; Donini, M.; Bandera, A.; Congestri, F.; Formenti, F.; Sonntag, V.; Heidbreder, C.; Rovati, L.

    2006-07-01

    The feasibility of non-invasive analysis of brain activities was studied in the attempt to overcome the major limitation of actual in vivo methodologies, i.e. invasiveness. Optic fibre probes were used as the optical head of a novel, highly sensitive near-infrared continuous wave spectroscopy (CW-NIR) instrument. This prototype was designed for non-invasive analysis of the two main forms of haemoglobin: oxy-haemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxy-haemoglobin (Hb), chromophores present in biological tissues. It was tested in peripheral tissue (human gastrocnemius muscle) and then reset to perform the measurement on rat brain. In animal studies, the optical head was firmly placed using stereotaxic apparatus upon the sagittal line of the head of anaesthetized adult rats, without any surgery. Then pharmacological treatments with saline (300 µl s.c.) amphetamine (2 mg kg-1) or nicotine (0.4 mg kg-1) were performed. Within 10-20 min amphetamine substantially increased HbO2 and reduced Hb control levels. Nicotine produced a rapid initial increase followed by a decrease in HbO2. In contrast to amphetamine, nicotine treatment also reduced Hb and blood volume. These results support the capacity of our CW-NIR prototype to measure non-invasively HbO2 and Hb levels in the rat brain, that are markers of the degree of tissue oxygenation, thus providing an index of blood levels and therefore of brain metabolism.

  3. In vivo effect of the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on mast cell accumulation and glandular epithelium trophism in the rat prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Dionisios; Kyroudi, Aspasia; Zervas, Anastasios; Papadoukakis, Stefanos; Giannopoulos, Aris; Kittas, Christos; Karayannacos, Panagiotis

    2002-04-01

    The Serenoa repens lipido-sterolic extract (SRLSE, Permixon, Pierre Fabre Medicament, Castres, France) is used to treat benign prostate hyperplasia. We studied the in vivo effect of SRLSE on mast cell accumulation and the histological characteristics of the rat ventral prostate. Adult Wistar rats received either tocopherol or SRLSE (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively) every second day for 90 days. Histological features were studied in hematoxylin-eosin stained tissue sections while mean mast cell numbers were determined in Giemsa-stained sections. The central region of the ventral prostate in treated animals showed significant changes with acinar epithelium becoming flat or low cuboidal. In the same region, mean mast cell number per optical field in the control, low-dose and high-dose groups were, respectively, 4.7+/-0.7, 3.4+/-1.0 and 2.4+/-0.6, showing a dose-dependent, statistically significant decrease. Administering SRLSE significantly reduces mast cell accumulation and provokes epithelium atrophy within the central area of the rat ventral prostate. These phenomena may participate in the clinical activity of the drug.

  4. In vivo study of developmental changes in carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I in rat liver. Repression of the enzyme synthesis immediately after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Kitagawa, Y; Sugimoto, E

    1983-01-20

    The regulatory mechanism of the developmental increase of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I in fetal and neonatal rat liver was studied in vivo. The appearance and rapid increase of the enzyme in late fetal period were caused by de novo synthesis of the enzyme protein. The amount of the enzyme protein analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was proportional to the enzyme activity throughout the period of development. No indication was observed for preexisting protein which could be converted into the active protein. A novel system for the in vivo study of carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I synthesis was developed. Hepatocytes, mechanically dispersed by repeated passage of the tissue through a pipet, incorporated [35S]methionine into the enzyme. Taking advantage of this system, the regulation of the enzyme synthesis was studied. In vivo synthesis of the enzyme was detected at 4 days before birth and rapidly increased until 1 day before birth. However, the enzyme synthesis was markedly repressed after birth, when the amount of carmamoyl-phosphate synthetase I itself reached the adult level. This result was in a clear contrast with the constant level of the translatable mRNA (Raymond, Y. and Shore, G.C. (1981) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 656, 111-119) and suggested that post-transcriptional regulation is important in addition to the level of mRNA for the regulation of the carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I level.

  5. Toward an in Vivo Neurochemical Profile: Quantification of 18 Metabolites in Short-Echo-Time 1H NMR Spectra of the Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Josef; Tkáč , Ivan; Provencher, Stephen W.; Gruetter, Rolf

    1999-11-01

    Localized in vivo1H NMR spectroscopy was performed with 2-ms echo time in the rat brain at 9.4 T. Frequency domain analysis with LCModel showed that the in vivo spectra can be explained by 18 metabolite model solution spectra and a highly structured background, which was attributed to resonances with fivefold shorter in vivo T1 than metabolites. The high spectral resolution (full width at half maximum approximately 0.025 ppm) and sensitivity (signal-to-noise ratio approximately 45 from a 63-μL volume, 512 scans) was used for the simultaneous measurement of the concentrations of metabolites previously difficult to quantify in 1H spectra. The strongly represented signals of N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, taurine, myo-inositol, creatine, phosphocreatine, glutamine, and lactate were quantified with Cramér-Rao lower bounds below 4%. Choline groups, phosphorylethanolamine, glucose, glutathione, γ-aminobutyric acid, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, and alanine were below 13%, whereas aspartate and scyllo-inositol were below 22%. Intra-assay variation was assessed from a time series of 3-min spectra, and the coefficient of variation was similar to the calculated Cramér-Rao lower bounds. Interassay variation was determined from 31 pooled spectra, and the coefficient of variation for total creatine was 7%. Tissue concentrations were found to be in very good agreement with neurochemical data from the literature.

  6. Preliminary Study on Intrasplenic Implantation of Artificial Cell Bioencapsulated Stem Cells to Increase the Survival of 90% Hepatectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zun Chang; Chang, Thomas M.S.

    2012-01-01

    We implanted artificial cell bioencapsulated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into the spleens of 90% hepatectomized (PH) rats. The resulting 14 days survival rate was 91%. This is compared to a survival rate of 21% in 90% hepatectomized rats and 25% for those receiving free MSCs transplanted the same way. Unlike free MSCs, the bioencapsulated MSCs are retained in the spleens and their hepatotrophic factors can continue to drain directly into the liver without dilution resulting in improved hepatic regeneration. In addition, with time the transdifferentiation of MSCs into hepatocyte-like cells in the spleen renders the spleen as a ectopic liver support. PMID:19132579

  7. Preliminary toxicity study on the individual and combined effects of Citrullus colocynthis and Nerium oleander in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yahya, M A; AL-Farhan, A H; Adam, S E

    2000-08-01

    The toxicity of diet containing 10% of Citrullus colocynthis fruits or 10% of Nerium oleander leaves or their 1:1 mixture (5%+5%) for rats treated for 6 weeks was determined. Dullness, ruffled hair, decreased body weight gains and feed efficiency, and enterohepatonephropathy characterised treatment with C. colocynthis and N. oleander given alone. Diarrhoea was a prominent sign of C. colocynthis poisoning. Organ lesions were accompanied by leucopenia, anaemia and alterations in serum AST, ALT and ALP activities and concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, bilirubin and other serum constituents. Feeding the mixture of C. colocynthis and N. oleander caused more marked effects and death of rats.

  8. Preliminary Study on Pain Reduction of Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Knee Osteoarthritis in Rats by Carbon Dioxide Laser Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of CO2 laser moxibustion on the pain and inflammatory cytokine expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA- induced knee osteoarthritis (KOA, we designed an experiment by randomly assigning 8 SD rats into 3 groups, namely, a CO2 laser moxibustion group, a sham treatment group, and a blank control group. The treatment group received a laser moxibustion on acupoint Dubi (ST 35; 5 min/treatment, 1 treatment/day for 8 days, and after treatment, the rats exhibited significantly increased interhindpaw differences compared with their preinduction values. Meanwhile, cytokine microarray analysis showed that one cytokine (TIMP-1 was significantly upregulated and two cytokines (Agrin and MMP-8 were significantly downregulated in treatment group. The present study suggested that CO2 laser moxibustion created certain pain reduction in the rats with MIA-induced KOA and significantly inhibited the expression of most inflammatory cytokines in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn.

  9. An In Vivo Microdialysis Study of FLZ Penetration through the Blood-Brain Barrier in Normal and 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Parkinson’s Disease Model Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available FLZ (N-[2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl-ethyl]-2-(2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl-acrylamide is a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative and a potential anti-Parkinson’s disease (PD agent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the penetration of free FLZ across the BBB and the effects of P-gp inhibition on FLZ transport in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA induced PD model rats. In vivo microdialysis was used to collect FLZ containing brain and blood dialysates following intravenous (i.v. drug administration either with or without pretreatment with the specific P-gp inhibitor, zosuquidar trihydrochloride (zosuquidar·3HCl. A sensitive, rapid, and reliable ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS technique was developed and validated to quantitate free FLZ levels in the dialysates. No significant differences were observed in the brain/blood FLZ area under the concentration-time curve (AUC ratio between normal and PD model rats. However, pretreatment with zosuquidar·3HCl markedly increased the AUC ratio in both rat models. In addition, FLZ penetration was similar in zosuquidar·3HCl-pretreated normal and PD rats. These results suggest that P-gp inhibition increases BBB permeability to FLZ, thereby supporting the hypothesis that P-gp normally restricts FLZ transfer to the brain. These findings could provide reference data for future clinical trials and may aid investigation of the BBB permeability of other CNS-active substances.

  10. An In Vivo Microdialysis Study of FLZ Penetration through the Blood-Brain Barrier in Normal and 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Parkinson's Disease Model Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jinfeng; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingfei; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    FLZ (N-[2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative and a potential anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) agent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the penetration of free FLZ across the BBB and the effects of P-gp inhibition on FLZ transport in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced PD model rats. In vivo microdialysis was used to collect FLZ containing brain and blood dialysates following intravenous (i.v.) drug administration either with or without pretreatment with the specific P-gp inhibitor, zosuquidar trihydrochloride (zosuquidar·3HCl). A sensitive, rapid, and reliable ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) technique was developed and validated to quantitate free FLZ levels in the dialysates. No significant differences were observed in the brain/blood FLZ area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio between normal and PD model rats. However, pretreatment with zosuquidar·3HCl markedly increased the AUC ratio in both rat models. In addition, FLZ penetration was similar in zosuquidar·3HCl-pretreated normal and PD rats. These results suggest that P-gp inhibition increases BBB permeability to FLZ, thereby supporting the hypothesis that P-gp normally restricts FLZ transfer to the brain. These findings could provide reference data for future clinical trials and may aid investigation of the BBB permeability of other CNS-active substances. PMID:25045708

  11. Pomegranate By-Products in Colorectal Cancer Chemoprevention: Effects in Apc-Mutated Pirc Rats and Mechanistic Studies In Vitro and Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Katia; Femia, Angelo Pietro; Romagnoli, Andrea; Sineo, Irene; Khatib, Mohamad; Mulinacci, Nadia; Giovannelli, Lisa; Caderni, Giovanna

    2017-09-25

    To investigate the effect of pomegranate mesocarp, a polyphenol-rich by-product of juice production, in colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention. A mesocarp decoction (PMD) is administered