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Sample records for vivo mri-based 3d

  1. Validation of SPAMM Tagged MRI Based Measurement of 3D Soft Tissue Deformation

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    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    This study presents and validates a novel (non-ECG-triggered) MRI sequence based on SPAtial Modulation of the Magnetization (SPAMM) to non-invasively measure 3D (quasi-static) soft tissue deformations using only six acquisitions (three static and three indentations). In current SPAMM tagged MRI approaches data is typically constructed from many repeated motion cycles. This has so far restricted its application to the measurement of highly repeatable and periodic movements (e.g. cardiac deformation). In biomechanical applications where soft tissue deformation is artificially induced, often by indentation, significant repeatability constraints exist and, for clinical applications, discomfort and health issues generally preclude a large number of repetitions.

  2. Developing 3D microscopy with CLARITY on human brain tissue: Towards a tool for informing and validating MRI-based histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Markus; Kirilina, Evgeniya; Scherf, Nico; Jäger, Carsten; Reimann, Katja; Trampel, Robert; Gavriilidis, Filippos; Geyer, Stefan; Biedermann, Bernd; Arendt, Thomas; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2017-11-28

    Recent breakthroughs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enabled quantitative relaxometry and diffusion-weighted imaging with sub-millimeter resolution. Combined with biophysical models of MR contrast the emerging methods promise in vivo mapping of cyto- and myelo-architectonics, i.e., in vivo histology using MRI (hMRI) in humans. The hMRI methods require histological reference data for model building and validation. This is currently provided by MRI on post mortem human brain tissue in combination with classical histology on sections. However, this well established approach is limited to qualitative 2D information, while a systematic validation of hMRI requires quantitative 3D information on macroscopic voxels. We present a promising histological method based on optical 3D imaging combined with a tissue clearing method, Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging compatible Tissue hYdrogel (CLARITY), adapted for hMRI validation. Adapting CLARITY to the needs of hMRI is challenging due to poor antibody penetration into large sample volumes and high opacity of aged post mortem human brain tissue. In a pilot experiment we achieved transparency of up to 8 mm-thick and immunohistochemical staining of up to 5 mm-thick post mortem brain tissue by a combination of active and passive clearing, prolonged clearing and staining times. We combined 3D optical imaging of the cleared samples with tailored image processing methods. We demonstrated the feasibility for quantification of neuron density, fiber orientation distribution and cell type classification within a volume with size similar to a typical MRI voxel. The presented combination of MRI, 3D optical microscopy and image processing is a promising tool for validation of MRI-based microstructure estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cardinal and deep uterosacral ligament lines of action: MRI based 3D technique development and preliminary findings in normal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanah, Rajeev; Hsu, Yvonne; Ashton-Miller, James A.; DeLancey, John O. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis The cardinal ligament (CL) and deep uterosacral ligament (US) play a critical role in utero-vaginal support. This study aims to quantify their geometrical relationships in living women using a MRI-based 3D technique. Methods The angles between ligaments, the ligaments length and curvature were assessed on 3D models constructed from twenty MRIs of volunteers with normal support. How angle variation theoretically affects ligament tension was investigated using a simplified biomechanical model. Results The CLs are 18.1 °±6.8 °(SD) from the cephalic-caudal body axis , and the USs are dorsally directed and 92.5 °±13.5 from the body axis. The CLs are longer and more curved than US. The theoretical calculated tension on CL is 52 % larger than that on US. Conclusions The CL is relatively parallel to the body axis while the US is dorsally directed. The tensions on these ligaments are affected by their orientations. PMID:22618207

  4. 3D bioprinting and its in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nhayoung; Yang, Gi-Hoon; Lee, JaeHwan; Kim, GeunHyung

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of 3D bioprinting technology is to design and create functional 3D tissues or organs in situ for in vivo applications. 3D cell-printing, or additive biomanufacturing, allows the selection of biomaterials and cells (bioink), and the fabrication of cell-laden structures in high resolution. 3D cell-printed structures have also been used for applications such as research models, drug delivery and discovery, and toxicology. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to fabricate tissues and organs by using various 3D printing techniques. However, challenges such as vascularization are yet to be solved. This article reviews the most commonly used 3D cell-printing techniques with their advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, up-to-date achievements of 3D bioprinting in in vivo applications are introduced, and prospects for the future of 3D cell-printing technology are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 444-459, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Clinical evaluation of 3D/3D MRI-CBCT automatching on brain tumors for online patient setup verification - A step towards MRI-based treatment planning

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    Buhl, Sune K.; Kristensen, Brian H.; Behrens, Claus F. (Dept. of Oncology, Copenhagen Univ. Hospital, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark)), E-mail: sukrbu01@heh.regionh.dk; Duun-Christensen, Anne K. (Dept. of Informatics and Mathematical Modeling, Technical Univ. of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2010-10-15

    Background. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is often used in modern day radiotherapy (RT) due to superior soft tissue contrast. However, treatment planning based solely on MRI is restricted due to e.g. the limitations of conducting online patient setup verification using MRI as reference. In this study 3D/3D MRI-Cone Beam CT (CBCT) automatching for online patient setup verification was investigated. Material and methods. Initially, a multi-modality phantom was constructed and used for a quantitative comparison of CT-CBCT and MRI-CBCT automatching. Following the phantom experiment three patients undergoing postoperative radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors received a weekly CBCT. In total 18 scans was matched with both CT and MRI as reference. The CBCT scans were acquired using a Clinac iX 2300 linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems) with an On-Board Imager (OBI). Results. For the phantom experiment CT-CBCT and MRI-CBCT automatching resulted in similar results. A significant difference was observed only in the longitudinal direction where MRI-CBCT resulted in the best match (mean and standard deviations of 1.85+-2.68 mm for CT and -0.05+-2.55 mm for MRI). For the clinical experiment the absolute difference in couch shift coordinates acquired from MRI-CBCT and CT-CBCT automatching, were =2 mm in the vertical direction and =3 mm in the longitudinal and lateral directions. For yaw rotation differences up to 3.3 degrees were observed. Mean values and standard deviations were 0.8+-0.6 mm, 1.5+-1.2 mm and 1.2+-1.2 mm for the vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions, respectively and 1.95+-1.12 degrees for the rotation (n=17). Conclusion. It is feasible to use MRI as reference when conducting 3D/3D CBCT automatching for online patient setup verification. For both the phantom and clinical experiment MRI-CBCT performed similar to CT-CBCT automatching and significantly better in the longitudinal direction for the phantom experiment.

  6. Digital photography and 3D MRI-based multimodal imaging for individualized planning of resective neocortical epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Jörg; von Oertzen, Joachim; Schaller, Carlo; Urbach, Horst; König, Roy; Widman, Guido; Van Roost, Dirk; Elger, Christian E

    2002-12-01

    Invasive presurgical work up of pharmacoresistant epilepsies presumes integration of multiple diagnostic modalities into a comprehensive picture of seizure onset and eloquent brain areas. During resection, reliable transfer of evaluation results to the patient's individual anatomy must be made. We investigated the value of digital photography-based grid localization in combination with preoperative three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical routine. Digital photographs of the exposed cortex were taken before and after grid placement. Location of electrode contacts on the cortex was identified and schematically indicated on native cortex prints. Accordingly, transfer of contact positions to a 3D MRI brain-surface rendering was carried out manually by using the rendering software. Results of the electrophysiologic evaluation were transferred to either electrode contact reproduction and co-registered with imaging-based techniques such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional MRI (fMRI). Digital photography allows precise and highly realistic documentation of electrode contact positions on the individual neocortical surface. Lesions underneath grids can be highlighted by semitransparent MRI surface rendering, and lobar boundaries can be identified. Because of integrating electrode contact positions into the postprocessed 3D MRI data set, imaging-based techniques can be codisplayed with the results of the electrophysiologic evaluation. Comparison with CT/MRI co-registration showed good accuracy of the method. However, grids not sewn to the dura at implantation can become subject to significant displacement. Digital photography in combination with preimplantation 3D MRI allows the generation of reliable tailored resection plans in neocortical epilepsy surgery. The method enhances surgical safety and confidence.

  7. 3D Subharmonic Ultrasound Imaging In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, John R.; Sridharan, Anush; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G.; Dave, Jaydev K.; Liu, Ji-Bin; Park, Suhyun; Dianis, Scott; Wallace, Kirk; Thomenius, Kai E.; Forsberg, F.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives While contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging techniques such as harmonic imaging (HI) have evolved to reduce tissue signals using the nonlinear properties of the contrast agent, levels of background suppression have been mixed. Subharmonic imaging (SHI) offers near-complete tissue suppression by centering the receive bandwidth at half the transmitting frequency. In this work we demonstrate the feasibility of 3D SHI and compare it to 3D HI. Materials and Methods 3D HI and SHI were implemented on a Logiq 9 ultrasound scanner (GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) with a 4D10L probe. Four-cycle SHI was implemented to transmit at 5.8 MHz and receive at 2.9 MHz, while 2-cycle HI was implemented to transmit at 5 MHz and receive at 10 MHz. The ultrasound contrast agent Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, MA) was imaged within a flow phantom and the lower pole of two canine kidneys in both HI and SHI modes. Contrast to tissue ratios (CTR) and rendered images were compared offline. Results SHI resulted in significant improvement in CTR levels relative to HI both in vitro (12.11±0.52 vs. 2.67±0.77, p<0.001) and in vivo (5.74±1.92 vs. 2.40±0.48, p=0.04). Rendered 3D SHI images provided better tissue suppression and a greater overall view of vessels in a flow phantom and canine renal vasculature. Conclusions The successful implementation of SHI in 3D allows imaging of vascular networks over a heterogeneous sample volume and should improve future diagnostic accuracy. Additionally, 3D SHI provides improved CTR values relative to 3D HI. PMID:22464198

  8. A New Method to Explore the Spectral Impact of the Piriform Fossae on the Singing Voice: Benchmarking Using MRI-Based 3D-Printed Vocal Tracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Bertrand; Howard, David

    2014-01-01

    The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics) is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4–5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output. PMID:25048199

  9. A new method to explore the spectral impact of the piriform fossae on the singing voice: benchmarking using MRI-based 3D-printed vocal tracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Delvaux

    Full Text Available The piriform fossae are the 2 pear-shaped cavities lateral to the laryngeal vestibule at the lower end of the vocal tract. They act acoustically as side-branches to the main tract, resulting in a spectral zero in the output of the human voice. This study investigates their spectral role by comparing numerical and experimental results of MRI-based 3D printed Vocal Tracts, for which a new experimental method (based on room acoustics is introduced. The findings support results in the literature: the piriform fossae create a spectral trough in the region 4-5 kHz and act as formants repellents. Moreover, this study extends those results by demonstrating numerically and perceptually the impact of having large piriform fossae on the sung output.

  10. MRI-based 3D pelvic autonomous innervation: a first step towards image-guided pelvic surgery

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    Bertrand, M.M. [University Montpellier I, Laboratory of Experimental Anatomy Faculty of Medicine Montpellier-Nimes, Montpellier (France); Macri, F.; Beregi, J.P. [Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Radiology Department, Nimes (France); Mazars, R.; Prudhomme, M. [University Montpellier I, Laboratory of Experimental Anatomy Faculty of Medicine Montpellier-Nimes, Montpellier (France); Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Digestive Surgery Department, Nimes (France); Droupy, S. [Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Urology-Andrology Department, Nimes (France)

    2014-08-15

    To analyse pelvic autonomous innervation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with anatomical macroscopic dissection on cadavers. Pelvic MRI was performed in eight adult human cadavers (five men and three women) using a total of four sequences each: T1, T1 fat saturation, T2, diffusion weighed. Images were analysed with segmentation software in order to extract nervous tissue. Key height points of the pelvis autonomous innervation were located in every specimen. Standardised pelvis dissections were then performed. Distances between the same key points and the three anatomical references forming a coordinate system were measured on MRIs and dissections. Concordance (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient) between MRI and dissection was calculated. MRI acquisition allowed an adequate visualization of the autonomous innervation. Comparison between 3D MRI images and dissection showed concordant pictures. The statistical analysis showed a mean difference of less than 1 cm between MRI and dissection measures and a correct concordance correlation coefficient on at least two coordinates for each point. Our acquisition and post-processing method demonstrated that MRI is suitable for detection of autonomous pelvic innervations and can offer a preoperative nerve cartography. (orig.)

  11. 3D magnetic resonance microscopy of the ex vivo retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Garza, Bryan H; Muir, Eric R; Shih, Yen-Yu I; Duong, Timothy Q

    2012-04-01

    3D-MR microscopy at 11.7T and 20 × 20 × 57 μm resolution was performed on formalin-fixed rat eyes with: (I) no contrast agent and (II) Gadodiamide (Omniscan(®) ) added to the fixative. Group I data showed generally poor contrast among layers. Group II data showed markedly better lamina-specific contrast with the nerve fiber + ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer being hypointense, and the inner plexiform, outer plexiform, outer nuclear layer, and the segments being hyperintense. The signal-to-noise ratio in group II was higher than group I, consistent with Gadodiamide acting as a T(1) -contrast agent. All major retinal layers were assigned and their thicknesses quantified with corroboration by histology. MR microscopy allows nondestructive examination of valuable specimens and could have applications in disease and in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. 3D Printable Biophotopolymers for in Vivo Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russmueller, Guenter; Liska, Robert; Stampfl, Juergen; Heller, Christian; Mautner, Andreas; Macfelda, Karin; Kapeller, Barbara; Lieber, Roman; Haider, Agnes; Mika, Kathrin; Schopper, Christian; Perisanidis, Christos; Seemann, Rudolf; Moser, Doris

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated two novel biophotopolymer classes that are chemically based on non-toxic poly (vinyl alcohol). These vinylesters and vinylcarbonates were compared to standard acrylates in vitro on MC3T3-E1 cells and in vivo in a small animal model. In vitro, both vinylester and vinylcarbonate monomers showed about tenfold less cytotoxicity when compared to acrylates (IC50: 2.922 mM and 2.392 mM vs. 0.201 mM) and at least threefold higher alkaline phosphatase activity (17.038 and 18.836 vs. 5.795, measured at [10 mM]). In vivo, polymerized 3D cellular structures were implanted into the distal femoral condyle of 16 New Zealand White Rabbits and were observed for periods from 4 to 12 weeks. New bone formation and bone to implant contact was evaluated by histomorphometry at end of observation. Vinylesters showed similar rates of new bone formation but significantly less (p = 0.002) bone to implant contact, when compared to acrylates. In contrast, the implantation of vinylcarbonate based biophotopolymers led to significantly higher rates of newly formed bone (p < 0.001) and bone to implant contact (p < 0.001). Additionally, distinct signs of polymer degradation could be observed in vinylesters and vinylcarbonates by histology. We conclude, that vinylesters and vinylcarbonates are promising new biophotopolymers, that outmatch available poly(lactic acid) and (meth)acrylate based materials.

  13. 3D Printable Biophotopolymers for in Vivo Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Russmueller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated two novel biophotopolymer classes that are chemically based on non-toxic poly (vinyl alcohol. These vinylesters and vinylcarbonates were compared to standard acrylates in vitro on MC3T3-E1 cells and in vivo in a small animal model. In vitro, both vinylester and vinylcarbonate monomers showed about tenfold less cytotoxicity when compared to acrylates (IC50: 2.922 mM and 2.392 mM vs. 0.201 mM and at least threefold higher alkaline phosphatase activity (17.038 and 18.836 vs. 5.795, measured at [10 mM]. In vivo, polymerized 3D cellular structures were implanted into the distal femoral condyle of 16 New Zealand White Rabbits and were observed for periods from 4 to 12 weeks. New bone formation and bone to implant contact was evaluated by histomorphometry at end of observation. Vinylesters showed similar rates of new bone formation but significantly less (p = 0.002 bone to implant contact, when compared to acrylates. In contrast, the implantation of vinylcarbonate based biophotopolymers led to significantly higher rates of newly formed bone (p < 0.001 and bone to implant contact (p < 0.001. Additionally, distinct signs of polymer degradation could be observed in vinylesters and vinylcarbonates by histology. We conclude, that vinylesters and vinylcarbonates are promising new biophotopolymers, that outmatch available poly(lactic acid and (methacrylate based materials.

  14. In Vivo 3-D Vector Velocity Estimation with Continuous Data

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    Holbek, Simon; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities at very high frame rate using continuous data acquisition is presented. An emission sequence was designed to acquire real-time continuous data in one plane. The transverse oscillation (TO) method was used to estimate 3-D vector flow...... measurements, three heart cycles acquired at 2.1 kHz showed peak out-of-plane velocities of 83 cm/s, 87 cm/s and 90 cm/s in agreement with the 92 cm/s found with spectral Doppler. Mean flow rate was estimated to 257 ml/min. The results demonstrate that accurate real-time 3- D vector velocities can be obtained...

  15. A simple backprojection algorithm for 3D in vivo EPID dosimetry of IMRT treatments

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    Wendling, Markus; McDermott, Leah N.; Mans, Anton; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Herk, Marcel van; Mijnheer, Ben J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-07-15

    Treatment plans are usually designed, optimized, and evaluated based on the total 3D dose distribution, motivating a total 3D dose verification. The purpose of this study was to develop a 2D transmission-dosimetry method using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) into a simple 3D method that provides 3D dose information. In the new method, the dose is reconstructed within the patient volume in multiple planes parallel to the EPID for each gantry angle. By summing the 3D dose grids of all beams, the 3D dose distribution for the total treatment fraction is obtained. The algorithm uses patient contours from the planning CT scan but does not include tissue inhomogeneity corrections. The 3D EPID dosimetry method was tested for IMRT fractions of a prostate, a rectum, and a head-and-neck cancer patient. Planned and in vivo-measured dose distributions were within 2% at the dose prescription point. Within the 50% isodose surface of the prescribed dose, at least 97% of points were in agreement, evaluated with a 3D {gamma} method with criteria of 3% of the prescribed dose and 0.3 cm. Full 3D dose reconstruction on a 0.1x0.1x0.1 cm{sup 3} grid and 3D {gamma} evaluation took less than 15 min for one fraction on a standard PC. The method allows in vivo determination of 3D dose-volume parameters that are common in clinical practice. The authors conclude that their EPID dosimetry method is an accurate and fast tool for in vivo dose verification of IMRT plans in 3D. Their approach is independent of the treatment planning system and provides a practical safety net for radiotherapy.

  16. Scapholunate ligament injury adversely alters in vivo wrist joint mechanics: an MRI-based modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joshua E; Lee, Phil; McIff, Terence E; Toby, E Bruce; Fischer, Kenneth J

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of scapholunate ligament injury on in vivo radiocarpal joint mechanics using image-based surface contact modeling. Magnetic resonance images of 10 injured and contralateral normal wrists were acquired at high resolution (hand relaxed) and during functional grasp. Three-dimensional surface models of the radioscaphoid and radiolunate articulations were constructed from the relaxed images, and image registration between the relaxed and grasp images provided kinematics. The displacement driven models were implemented in contact modeling software. Contact parameters were determined from interpenetration of interacting bodies and a linear contact rule. Peak and mean contact pressures, contact forces and contact areas were compared between the normal and injured wrists. Also measured were effective (direct) contact areas and intercentroid distances from the grasp images. Means of the model contact areas were within 10 mm(2) of the direct contact areas for both articulations. With injury, all contact parameters significantly increased in the radioscaphoid articulation, while only peak contact pressure and contact force significantly increased in the radiolunate articulation. Intercentroid distances also increased significantly with injury. This study provides novel in vivo contact mechanics data from scapholunate ligament injury and confirms detrimental alterations as a result of injury. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  18. 3D Quasi-Static Ultrasound Elastography With Plane Wave In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadacci, Clement; Bunting, Ethan A; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2017-02-01

    In biological tissue, an increase in elasticity is often a marker of abnormalities. Techniques such as quasi-static ultrasound elastography have been developed to assess the strain distribution in soft tissues in two dimensions using a quasi-static compression. However, as abnormalities can exhibit very heterogeneous shapes, a three dimensional approach would be necessary to accurately measure their volume and remove operator dependency. Acquisition of volumes at high rates is also critical to performing real-time imaging with a simple freehand compression. In this study, we developed for the first time a 3D quasi-static ultrasound elastography method with plane waves that estimates axial strain distribution in vivo in entire volumes at high volume rate. Acquisitions were performed with a 2D matrix array probe of 2.5 MHz frequency and 256 elements. Plane waves were emitted at a volume rate of 100 volumes/s during a continuous motorized and freehand compression. 3D B-mode volumes and 3D cumulative axial strain volumes were successfully estimated in inclusion phantoms and in ex vivo canine liver before and after a high intensity focused ultrasound ablation. We also demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of the method using freehand compression on the calf muscle of a human volunteer and were able to retrieve 3D axial strain volume at a high volume rate depicting the differences in stiffness of the two muscles which compose the calf muscle. 3D ultrasound quasi-static elastography with plane waves could become an important technique for the imaging of the elasticity in human bodies in three dimensions using simple freehand scanning.

  19. Ex vivo tracheomalacia model with 3D-printed external tracheal splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Rachel; Goldstein, Todd; Aronowitz, Danielle; Grande, Daniel A; Zeltsman, David; Smith, Lee P

    2017-04-01

    To design and evaluate an ex vivo model of tracheomalacia with and without a three-dimensional (3D)-printed external tracheal splint. Prospective, ex vivo animal trial. Three groups of ex vivo porcine tracheas were used: 1) control (unmanipulated trachea), 2) tracheomalacia (tracheal rings partially incised and crushed), and 3) splinted tracheomalacia (external custom tracheal splint fitted onto group 2 trachea). Each end of an ex vivo trachea was sealed with a custom-designed and 3D-printed cap; a transducer was placed through one end to measure the pressure inside the trachea. Although the negative pressure was applied to the tracheal lumen, the tracheal wall collapse was measured externally and internally using a bronchoscope. Each group had at least three recorded trials. Tracheal diameter was evaluated using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) and was averaged between two raters. Average tracheal occlusion percentage was compared using Student t test. The average occlusion was 31% for group 1, 87.4% for group 2, and 20% for group 3. Significant differences were found between the control and tracheomalacia groups (P splinted tracheomalacia groups (P splinted tracheomalacia groups (P = 0.13). Applied pressure was plotted against occlusion and regression line slope differed between the tracheomalacia (0.91) and control (0.12) or splinted tracheomalacia (0.39) groups. We demonstrate the potential for an ex vivo tracheomalacia model to reproduce airway collapse and show that this collapse can be treated successfully with a 3D-printed external splint. These results are promising and justify further studies. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:950-955, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Do cancer cells have distinct adhesions in 3D collagen matrices and in vivo?

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    Geraldo, Sara; Simon, Anthony; Elkhatib, Nadia; Louvard, Daniel; Fetler, Luc; Vignjevic, Danijela M

    2012-01-01

    During metastasis, cancer cells breach the basement membrane and migrate through the stroma mostly composed of a network of collagen I fibers. Cell migration on 2D is initiated by protrusion of the cell membrane followed by formation of adhesions that link the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells then move forwards by exerting traction forces on the adhesions at its front and by disassembling adhesions at the rear. In 2D, only the ventral surface of a migrating cell is in contact with the ECM, where cell-matrix adhesions are assembled. In 3D matrices, even though the whole surface of a migrating cell is available for interacting with the ECM, it is unclear whether discrete adhesion structures actually exist. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy we imaged the endogenous adhesome proteins in three different cancer cell types embedded in non-pepsinized collagen type I, polymerized at a slow rate, to allow the formation of a network that resembles the organization of EMC observed in vivo. Vinculin aggregates were detected in the cellular protrusions, frequently colocalizing with collagen fibers, implying they correspond to adhesion structures in 3D. As the distance from the substrate bottom increases, adhesion aggregates become smaller and almost undetectable in some cell lines. Using intravital imaging we show here, for the first time, the existence of adhesome proteins aggregates in vivo. These aggregates share similarities with the ones found in 3D collagen matrices. It still remains to be determined if adhesions assembled in 3D and in vivo share functional similarities to the well-described adhesions in 2D. This will provide a major step forward in understanding cell migration in more physiological environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. In vivo thorax 3D modelling from costovertebral joint complex kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Benoît; Sholukha, Victor; Dugailly, Pierre Michel; Rooze, Marcel; Moiseev, Fedor; Feipel, Véronique; Van Sint Jan, Serge

    2014-04-01

    The costovertebral joint complex is mechanically involved in both respiratory function and thoracic spine stability. The thorax has been studied for a long time to understand its involvement in the physiological mechanism leading to specific gas exchange. Few studies have focused on costovertebral joint complex kinematics, and most of them focused on experimental in vitro analysis related to loading tests or global thorax and/or lung volume change analysis. There is however a clinical need for new methods allowing to process in vivo clinical data. This paper presents results from in vivo analysis of the costovertebral joint complex kinematics from clinically-available retrospective data. In this study, in vivo spiral computed tomography imaging data were obtained from 8 asymptomatic subjects at three different lung volumes (from total lung capacity to functional residual capacity) calibrated using a classical spirometer. Fusion methods including 3D modelling and kinematic analysis were used to provide 3D costovertebral joint complex visualization for the true ribs (i.e., first seven pairs of ribs). The 3D models of the first seven pairs of costovertebral joint complexes were obtained. A continuous kinematics simulation was interpolated from the three discrete computerized tomography positions. Helical axis representation was also achieved. Preliminary results show that the method leads to meaningful and relevant results for clinical and pedagogical applications. Research in progress compares data from a sample of healthy volunteers with data collected from patients with cystic fibrosis to obtain new insights about the costovertebral joint complex range of motion and helical axis assessment in different pathological conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo analysis of physiological 3D blood flow of cerebral veins

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    Schuchardt, Florian; Schroeder, Laure; Baeuerle, Jochen; Harloff, Andreas [University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Anastasopoulos, Constantin [University Medical Center, Department of Neuropaediatrics and Muscle Disorders, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine and McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Hennemuth, Anja; Drexl, Johann [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Valdueza, Jose M. [Neurological Center, Segeberger Kliniken, Bad Segeberg (Germany); Mader, Irina [University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    To visualize and quantify physiological blood flow of intracranial veins in vivo using time-resolved, 3D phase-contrast MRI (4D flow MRI), and to test measurement accuracy. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent repeated ECG-triggered 4D flow MRI (3 Tesla, 32-channel head coil). Intracranial venous blood flow was analysed using dedicated software allowing for blood flow visualization and quantification in analysis planes at the superior sagittal, straight, and transverse sinuses. MRI was evaluated for intra- and inter-observer agreement and scan-rescan reproducibility. Measurements of the transverse sinuses were compared with transcranial two-dimensional duplex ultrasound. Visualization of 3D blood flow within cerebral sinuses was feasible in 100 % and within at least one deep cerebral vein in 87 % of the volunteers. Blood flow velocity/volume increased along the superior sagittal sinus and was lower in the left compared to the right transverse sinus. Intra- and inter-observer reliability and reproducibility of blood flow velocity (mean difference 0.01/0.02/0.02 m/s) and volume (mean difference 0.0002/-0.0003/0.00003 l/s) were good to excellent. High/low velocities were more pronounced (8 % overestimation/9 % underestimation) in MRI compared to ultrasound. Four-dimensional flow MRI reliably visualizes and quantifies three-dimensional cerebral venous blood flow in vivo and is promising for studies in patients with sinus thrombosis and related diseases. (orig.)

  3. Ex vivo evaluation of new 2D and 3D dental radiographic technology for detecting caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Donald; Mol, André; Everett, Eric T; Bangdiwala, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Proximal dental caries remains a prevalent disease with only modest detection rates by current diagnostic systems. Many new systems are available without controlled validation of diagnostic efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three potentially promising new imaging systems. Methods: This study evaluated the caries detection efficacy of Schick 33 (Sirona Dental, Salzburg, Austria) intraoral digital detector images employing an advanced sharpening filter, Planmeca ProMax® (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland) extraoral “panoramic bitewing” images and Sirona Orthophos XG3D (Sirona Dental) CBCT images with advanced artefact reduction. Conventional photostimulable phosphor images served as the control modality. An ex vivo study design using extracted human teeth, ten expert observers and micro-CT ground truth was employed. Results: Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated similar diagnostic efficacy of all systems (ANOVA p > 0.05). The sensitivity of the Schick 33 images (0.48) was significantly lower than the other modalities (0.53–0.62). The specificity of the Planmeca images (0.86) was significantly lower than Schick 33 (0.96) and XG3D (0.97). The XG3D showed significantly better cavitation detection sensitivity (0.62) than the other modalities (0.48–0.57). Conclusions: The Schick 33 images demonstrated reduced caries sensitivity, whereas the Planmeca panoramic bitewing images demonstrated reduced specificity. XG3D with artefact reduction demonstrated elevated sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, improved depth accuracy and substantially improved cavitation detection. Care must be taken to recognize potential false-positive caries lesions with Planmeca panoramic bitewing images. Use of CBCT for caries detection must be carefully balanced with the presence of metal artefacts, time commitment, financial cost and radiation dose. PMID:26670605

  4. Ex vivo evaluation of new 2D and 3D dental radiographic technology for detecting caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaalaas, Laurence; Tyndall, Donald; Mol, André; Everett, Eric T; Bangdiwala, Ananta

    2016-01-01

    Proximal dental caries remains a prevalent disease with only modest detection rates by current diagnostic systems. Many new systems are available without controlled validation of diagnostic efficacy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of three potentially promising new imaging systems. This study evaluated the caries detection efficacy of Schick 33 (Sirona Dental, Salzburg, Austria) intraoral digital detector images employing an advanced sharpening filter, Planmeca ProMax(®) (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland) extraoral "panoramic bitewing" images and Sirona Orthophos XG3D (Sirona Dental) CBCT images with advanced artefact reduction. Conventional photostimulable phosphor images served as the control modality. An ex vivo study design using extracted human teeth, ten expert observers and micro-CT ground truth was employed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated similar diagnostic efficacy of all systems (ANOVA p > 0.05). The sensitivity of the Schick 33 images (0.48) was significantly lower than the other modalities (0.53-0.62). The specificity of the Planmeca images (0.86) was significantly lower than Schick 33 (0.96) and XG3D (0.97). The XG3D showed significantly better cavitation detection sensitivity (0.62) than the other modalities (0.48-0.57). The Schick 33 images demonstrated reduced caries sensitivity, whereas the Planmeca panoramic bitewing images demonstrated reduced specificity. XG3D with artefact reduction demonstrated elevated sensitivity and specificity for caries detection, improved depth accuracy and substantially improved cavitation detection. Care must be taken to recognize potential false-positive caries lesions with Planmeca panoramic bitewing images. Use of CBCT for caries detection must be carefully balanced with the presence of metal artefacts, time commitment, financial cost and radiation dose.

  5. Application of compressed sensing to in vivo 3D ¹⁹F CSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, T; Fischer, A; Basse-Lüsebrink, T C; Ladewig, G; Breuer, F; Stoll, G; Jakob, P M; Bauer, W R

    2010-12-01

    This study shows how applying compressed sensing (CS) to (19)F chemical shift imaging (CSI) makes highly accurate and reproducible reconstructions from undersampled datasets possible. The missing background signal in (19)F CSI provides the required sparsity needed for application of CS. Simulations were performed to test the influence of different CS-related parameters on reconstruction quality. To test the proposed method on a realistic signal distribution, the simulation results were validated by ex vivo experiments. Additionally, undersampled in vivo 3D CSI mouse datasets were successfully reconstructed using CS. The study results suggest that CS can be used to accurately and reproducibly reconstruct undersampled (19)F spectroscopic datasets. Thus, the scanning time of in vivo(19)F CSI experiments can be significantly reduced while preserving the ability to distinguish between different (19)F markers. The gain in scan time provides high flexibility in adjusting measurement parameters. These features make this technique a useful tool for multiple biological and medical applications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo 3D molecular imaging with BIRDS at high spatiotemporal resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Daniel; de Graaf, Robin A.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic signals which emanate from complexes between paramagnetic lanthanide III ions (e.g., Tm3+) and macrocyclic chelates (e.g., 1,4,7,10-tetramethyl 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate, or DOTMA4−) are sensitive to physiology (e.g., temperature and/or pH). Because non-exchanging protons from these lanthanide-based macrocyclic agents have relaxation times on the order of a few milliseconds, rapid data acquisition is possible with chemical shift imaging (CSI). Thus Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS) which originate from non-exchanging protons of these paramagnetic agents, but exclude water proton detection, can allow molecular imaging. Previous 2D CSI experiments with such lanthanide-based macrocyclics allowed acquisition from ~12 µL voxels in rat brain within 5 minutes using rectangular encoding of k-space. Because cubical encoding of k-space in 3D for whole brain coverage increases CSI acquisition time to several tens of minutes or more, a faster CSI technique is required for BIRDS to be of practical use. Here we demonstrate a CSI acquisition method to improve 3D molecular imaging capabilities with lanthanide-based macrocyclics. Using TmDOTMA−, we show datasets from a 20×20×20 mm3 field-of-view with voxels of ~1 µL effective volume acquired within 5 minutes (at 11.7T) for temperature mapping. By employing reduced spherical encoding with Gaussian weighting (RESEGAW) instead of cubical encoding of k-space, a significant increase in CSI signal is obtained. In vitro and in vivo 3D CSI data with TmDOTMA−, and presumably similar lanthanide-based macrocyclics, suggest that acquisition using RESEGAW can be used for high spatiotemporal molecular mapping with BIRDS. PMID:23881869

  7. In vivo analysis of physiological 3D blood flow of cerebral veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Florian; Schroeder, Laure; Anastasopoulos, Constantin; Markl, Michael; Bäuerle, Jochen; Hennemuth, Anja; Drexl, Johann; Valdueza, José M; Mader, Irina; Harloff, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    To visualize and quantify physiological blood flow of intracranial veins in vivo using time-resolved, 3D phase-contrast MRI (4D flow MRI), and to test measurement accuracy. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent repeated ECG-triggered 4D flow MRI (3 Tesla, 32-channel head coil). Intracranial venous blood flow was analysed using dedicated software allowing for blood flow visualization and quantification in analysis planes at the superior sagittal, straight, and transverse sinuses. MRI was evaluated for intra- and inter-observer agreement and scan-rescan reproducibility. Measurements of the transverse sinuses were compared with transcranial two-dimensional duplex ultrasound. Visualization of 3D blood flow within cerebral sinuses was feasible in 100 % and within at least one deep cerebral vein in 87 % of the volunteers. Blood flow velocity/volume increased along the superior sagittal sinus and was lower in the left compared to the right transverse sinus. Intra- and inter-observer reliability and reproducibility of blood flow velocity (mean difference 0.01/0.02/0.02 m/s) and volume (mean difference 0.0002/-0.0003/0.00003 l/s) were good to excellent. High/low velocities were more pronounced (8 % overestimation/9 % underestimation) in MRI compared to ultrasound. Four-dimensional flow MRI reliably visualizes and quantifies three-dimensional cerebral venous blood flow in vivo and is promising for studies in patients with sinus thrombosis and related diseases. • 4D flow MRI can be used to visualize and quantify physiological cerebral venous haemodynamics • Flow quantification within cerebral sinuses reveals high reliability and accuracy of 4D flow MRI • Blood flow volume and velocity increase along the superior sagittal sinus • Limited spatial resolution currently precludes flow quantification in small cerebral veins.

  8. Expansion of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Perfused 3D Ceramic Scaffolds Enhances In Vivo Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Allison I; Duhr, Ralph; Di Maggio, Nunzia; Mehrkens, Arne; Jakob, Marcel; Wendt, David

    2017-12-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC), when expanded directly within 3D ceramic scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors, more reproducibly form bone when implanted in vivo as compared to conventional expansion on 2D polystyrene dishes/flasks. Since the bioreactor-based expansion on 3D ceramic scaffolds encompasses multiple aspects that are inherently different from expansion on 2D polystyrene, we aimed to decouple the effects of specific parameters among these two model systems. We assessed the effects of the: 1) 3D scaffold vs. 2D surface; 2) ceramic vs. polystyrene materials; and 3) BMSC niche established within the ceramic pores during in vitro culture, on subsequent in vivo bone formation. While BMSC expanded on 3D polystyrene scaffolds in the bioreactor could maintain their in vivo osteogenic potential, results were similar as BMSC expanded in monolayer on 2D polystyrene, suggesting little influence of the scaffold 3D environment. Bone formation was most reproducible when BMSC are expanded on 3D ceramic, highlighting the influence of the ceramic substrate. The presence of a pre-formed niche within the scaffold pores had negligible effects on the in vivo bone formation. The results of this study allow a greater understanding of the parameters required for perfusion bioreactor-based manufacturing of osteogenic grafts for clinical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  10. Ovarian normal and tumor-associated fibroblasts retain in vivo stromal characteristics in a 3-D matrix-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiros, Roderick M; Valianou, Matthildi; Kwon, Youngjoo; Brown, Kimberly M; Godwin, Andrew K; Cukierman, Edna

    2008-07-01

    Due to a lack of experimental systems, little is known about ovarian stroma. Here, we introduce an in vivo-like 3-D system of mesenchymal stromal progression during ovarian tumorigenesis to support the study of stroma permissiveness in human ovarian neoplasias. To sort 3-D cultures into 'normal,' 'primed' and 'activated' stromagenic stages, 29 fibroblastic cell lines from 5 ovarian tumor samples (tumor ovarian fibroblasts, TOFs) and 14 cell lines from normal prophylactic oophorectomy samples (normal ovarian fibroblasts, NOFs) were harvested and characterized for their morphological, biochemical and 3-D culture features. Under 2-D conditions, cells displayed three distinct morphologies: spread, spindle, and intermediate. We found that spread and spindle cells have similar levels of alpha-SMA, a desmoplastic marker, and consistent ratios of pFAKY(397)/totalFAK. In 3-D intermediate cultures, alpha-SMA levels were virtually undetectable while pFAKY(397)/totalFAK ratios were low. In addition, we used confocal microscopy to assess in vivo-like extracellular matrix topography, nuclei morphology and alpha-SMA features in the 3-D cultures. We found that all NOFs presented 'normal' characteristics, while TOFs presented both 'primed' and 'activated' features. Moreover, immunohistochemistry analyses confirmed that the 3-D matrix-dependent characteristics are reminiscent of those observed in in vivo stromal counterparts. We conclude that primary human ovarian fibroblasts maintain in vivo-like (staged) stromal characteristics in a 3-D matrix-dependent manner. Therefore, our stromal 3-D system offers a tool that can enhance the understanding of both stromal progression and stroma-induced ovarian tumorigenesis. In the future, this system could also be used to develop ovarian stroma-targeted therapies.

  11. In vivo pediatric shoulder muscle volumes and their relationship to 3D strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyun Soo; Alter, Katharine E; Brochard, Sylvain; Pons, Christelle; Sheehan, Frances T

    2014-08-22

    In the pediatric shoulder, injury and pathology can disrupt the muscle force balance, resulting in severe functional losses. As little data exists pertaining to in vivo pediatric shoulder muscle function, musculoskeletal data are crucially needed to advance the treatment of pediatric shoulder pathology/injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a pediatric database of in vivo volumes for the major shoulder muscles and correlate these volumes with maximum isometric flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, and abduction/adduction joint moments. A methodology was developed to derive 3D shoulder muscle volumes and to divide the deltoid into sub-units with unique torque producing capabilities, based on segmentation of three-dimensional magnetic resonance images. Eleven typically developing children/adolescents (4F/7M, 12.0 ± 3.2 years, 150.8 ± 16.7 cm, 49.2 ± 16.4 kg) participated. Correlation and regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between volume and maximum, voluntary, isometric joint torques. The deltoid demonstrated the largest (30.4 ± 1.2%) and the supraspinatus the smallest (4.8 ± 0.5%) percent of the total summed volume of all six muscles evaluated. The anterior and posterior deltoid sections were 43.4 ± 3.9% and 56.6 ± 3.9% of the total deltoid volume. The percent volumes were highly consistent across subjects. Individual muscle volumes demonstrated moderate-high correlations with torque values (0.70-0.94, pmuscle volume. Using these data a clear relationship between shoulder volume and the torques they produce was established in all three rotational degrees-of-freedom. This study furthers the understanding of shoulder muscle function and serves as a foundation for evaluating shoulder injury/pathology in the pediatric/adolescent population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. In Vivo Pediatric Shoulder Muscle Volumes and Their Relationship to 3D Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyun Soo; Alter, Katharine E.; Brochard, Sylvain; Pons, Christelle; Sheehan, Frances T.

    2017-01-01

    In the pediatric shoulder, injury and pathology can disrupt the muscle force balance, resulting in severe functional losses. As little data exists pertaining to in vivo pediatric shoulder muscle function, musculoskeletal data are crucially needed to advance the treatment of pediatric shoulder pathology/injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a pediatric database of in vivo volumes for the major shoulder muscles and correlate these volumes to maximum isometric flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, and abduction/adduction joint moments. A methodology was developed to derive 3D shoulder muscle volumes and to divide the deltoid into sub-units with unique torque producing capabilities, based on segmentation of three-dimensional magnetic resonance images. Eleven typically developing children/adolescents (4F/7M, 12.0±3.2years, 150.8±16.7cm, 49.2±16.4kg) participated. Correlation and regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between volume and maximum, voluntary, isometric joint torques. The deltoid demonstrated the largest (30.4 ±1.2%) and the supraspinatus the smallest (4.8 ± 0.5%) percent of the total summed volume of all six muscles evaluated. The anterior and posterior deltoid sections were 43.4±3.9% and 56.6±3.9% of the total deltoid volume. The percent volumes were highly consistent across subjects. Individual muscle volumes demonstrated moderate-high correlations with torque values (0.70–0.94, pshoulder muscle volume. Using these data a clear relationship between shoulder volume and the torques they produce was established in all three rotational degrees-of-freedom. This study furthers the understanding of shoulder muscle function and serves as a foundation for evaluating shoulder injury/pathology in the pediatric/adolescent population. PMID:24925254

  13. Synthetic 3D diamond-based electrodes for flexible retinal neuroprostheses: Model, production and in vivo biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendali, Amel; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissorgues, Gaëlle; Scorsone, Emmanuel; Djilas, Milan; Dégardin, Julie; Dubus, Elisabeth; Fouquet, Stéphane; Benosman, Ryad; Bergonzo, Philippe; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2015-10-01

    Two retinal implants have recently received the CE mark and one has obtained FDA approval for the restoration of useful vision in blind patients. Since the spatial resolution of current vision prostheses is not sufficient for most patients to detect faces or perform activities of daily living, more electrodes with less crosstalk are needed to transfer complex images to the retina. In this study, we modelled planar and three-dimensional (3D) implants with a distant ground or a ground grid, to demonstrate greater spatial resolution with 3D structures. Using such flexible 3D implant prototypes, we showed that the degenerated retina could mould itself to the inside of the wells, thereby isolating bipolar neurons for specific, independent stimulation. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility of diamond as an electrode or an isolating material, we developed a procedure for depositing diamond onto flexible 3D retinal implants. Taking polyimide 3D implants as a reference, we compared the number of neurones integrating the 3D diamond structures and their ratio to the numbers of all cells, including glial cells. Bipolar neurones were increased whereas there was no increase even a decrease in the total cell number. SEM examinations of implants confirmed the stability of the diamond after its implantation in vivo. This study further demonstrates the potential of 3D designs for increasing the resolution of retinal implants and validates the safety of diamond materials for retinal implants and neuroprostheses in general. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. In Vitro Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells into Functional β Islets Under 2D and 3D Culture Conditions and In Vivo Preclinical Validation of 3D Islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Bipasha; Sudheer, P Shenoy

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of pluripotent stem cells, (embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells), applications of such pluripotent stem cells are of prime importance. Indeed, scientists are involved in studying the basic biology of pluripotent stem cells, but equal impetus is there to direct the pluripotent stem cells into multiple lineages for cell therapy applications. Scientists across the globe have been successful, to a certain extent, in obtaining cells of definitive endoderm and also pancreatic β islets by differentiating human pluripotent stem cells. Pluripotent stem cell differentiation protocols aim at mimicking in vivo embryonic development. As in vivo embryonic development is a complex process and involves interplay of multiple cytokines, the differentiation protocols also involve a stepwise use of multiple cytokines. Indeed the novel markers for pancreas organogenesis serve as the roadmaps to develop new protocols for pancreatic differentiation from pluripotent stem cells. Earliest developed protocols for pancreas differentiation involved "Nestin selection pathway," a pathway common for both neuronal and pancreatic differentiation lead to the generation of cells that were a combination of cells from neuronal lineage. Eventually with the discovery of hierarchy of β cell transcription factors like Pdx1, Pax4, and Nkx2.2, forced expression of such transcription factors proved successful in converting a pluripotent stem cell into a β cell. Protocols developed almost half a decade ago to the recent ones rather involve stepwise differentiations involving various cytokines and could generate as high as 25 % functional insulin-positive cells in vitro. Most advanced protocols for β islet differentiations from human pluripotent stem cells focused on 3D culture conditions, which reportedly produced 60-65 % functional β islet cells. Here, we describe the protocol for differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional β cells under both 2D and 3D

  15. Comparison between PET template-based method and MRI-based method for cortical quantification of florbetapir (AV-45) uptake in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Aubert, L.; Nemmi, F.; Peran, P. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, E.J. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, France, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France); Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Payoux, P. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Chollet, F.; Pariente, J. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2014-05-15

    Florbetapir (AV-45) has been shown to be a reliable tool for assessing in vivo amyloid load in patients with Alzheimer's disease from the early stages. However, nonspecific white matter binding has been reported in healthy subjects as well as in patients with Alzheimer's disease. To avoid this issue, cortical quantification might increase the reliability of AV-45 PET analyses. In this study, we compared two quantification methods for AV-45 binding, a classical method relying on PET template registration (route 1), and a MRI-based method (route 2) for cortical quantification. We recruited 22 patients at the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease and 17 matched controls. AV-45 binding was assessed using both methods, and target-to-cerebellum mean global standard uptake values (SUVr) were obtained for each of them, together with SUVr in specific regions of interest. Quantification using the two routes was compared between the clinical groups (intragroup comparison), and between groups for each route (intergroup comparison). Discriminant analysis was performed. In the intragroup comparison, differences in uptake values were observed between route 1 and route 2 in both groups. In the intergroup comparison, AV-45 uptake was higher in patients than controls in all regions of interest using both methods, but the effect size of this difference was larger using route 2. In the discriminant analysis, route 2 showed a higher specificity (94.1 % versus 70.6 %), despite a lower sensitivity (77.3 % versus 86.4 %), and D-prime values were higher for route 2. These findings suggest that, although both quantification methods enabled patients at early stages of Alzheimer's disease to be well discriminated from controls, PET template-based quantification seems adequate for clinical use, while the MRI-based cortical quantification method led to greater intergroup differences and may be more suitable for use in current clinical research. (orig.)

  16. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxley, Sean, E-mail: sean.foxley@ndcn.ox.ac.uk; Karczmar, Gregory S. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Domowicz, Miriam [Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Schwartz, Nancy [Department of Pediatrics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T{sub 2}{sup *} and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm{sup 3} and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in

  17. Innovative approaches to establish and characterize primary cultures: anex vivo3D system and the zebrafish model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverani, Chiara; La Manna, Federico; Groenewoud, Arwin; Mercatali, Laura; Van Der Pluijm, Gabri; Pieri, Federica; Cavaliere, Davide; De Vita, Alessandro; Spadazzi, Chiara; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Recine, Federica; Riva, Nada; Amadori, Dino; Tasciotti, Ennio; Snaar-Jagalska, Ewa; Ibrahim, Toni

    2017-02-15

    Patient-derived specimens are an invaluable resource to investigate tumor biology. However, in vivo studies on primary cultures are often limited by the small amount of material available, while conventional in vitro systems might alter the features and behavior that characterize cancer cells. We present our data obtained on primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma cells cultured in a 3D scaffold-based system and injected into a zebrafish model. Primary cells were characterized in vitro for their morphological features, sensitivity to drugs and biomarker expression, and in vivo for their engraftment and invasiveness abilities. The 3D culture showed a higher enrichment in cancer cells than the standard monolayer culture and a better preservation of liposarcoma-associated markers. We also successfully grafted primary cells into zebrafish, showing their local migratory and invasive abilities. Our work provides proof of concept of the ability of 3D cultures to maintain the original phenotype of ex vivo cells, and highlights the potential of the zebrafish model to provide a versatile in vivo system for studies with limited biological material. Such models could be used in translational research studies for biomolecular analyses, drug screenings and tumor aggressiveness assays. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. 3D morphological analysis of the mouse cerebral vasculature: Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Joe; Koletar, Margaret M; Stefanovic, Bojana; Sled, John G

    2017-01-01

    Ex vivo 2-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) with optical clearing enables vascular imaging deep into tissue. However, optical clearing may also produce spherical aberrations if the objective lens is not index-matched to the clearing material, while the perfusion, clearing, and fixation procedure may alter vascular morphology. We compared in vivo and ex vivo 2PFM in mice, focusing on apparent differences in microvascular signal and morphology. Following in vivo imaging, the mice (four total) were perfused with a fluorescent gel and their brains fructose-cleared. The brain regions imaged in vivo were imaged ex vivo. Vessels were segmented in both images using an automated tracing algorithm that accounts for the spatially varying PSF in the ex vivo images. This spatial variance is induced by spherical aberrations caused by imaging fructose-cleared tissue with a water-immersion objective. Alignment of the ex vivo image to the in vivo image through a non-linear warping algorithm enabled comparison of apparent vessel diameter, as well as differences in signal. Shrinkage varied as a function of diameter, with capillaries rendered smaller ex vivo by 13%, while penetrating vessels shrunk by 34%. The pial vasculature attenuated in vivo microvascular signal by 40% 300 μm below the tissue surface, but this effect was absent ex vivo. On the whole, ex vivo imaging was found to be valuable for studying deep cortical vasculature.

  19. Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented....

  20. Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology from 3D MR angiograms: In vitro and in vivo results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frangi, A. F.; Niessen, W. J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Bakker, J.; Mali, W. P.; Viergever, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3D model-based approach for quantification of vascular morphology from several MRA acquisition protocols was evaluated. Accuracy, reproducibility, and influence of the image acquisition techniques were studied via in vitro experiments with ground truth diameters and the measurements of two expert

  1. Plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI evaluated by dense 3D correspondence with histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; de Bruijne, Marleen; Klein, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Automatic quantification of carotid artery plaque composition is important in the development of methods that distinguish vulnerable from stable plaques. MRI has shown to be capable of imaging different components noninvasively. We present a new plaque classification method which uses 3D....... Histological slices of human atherosclerotic plaques were manually segmented into necrotic core, fibrous tissue and calcification. Classification of these three components was voxelwise evaluated. As features the intensity, gradient magnitude and Laplacian in four MRI sequences after different degrees...

  2. Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Thomsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Jensen, Jorgen Arendt

    2017-03-01

    Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented. The aim of this paper is to estimate precise flow rates and peak velocities derived from 3-D vector flow estimates. The emission sequence provides 3-D vector flow estimates at up to 1.145 frames/s in a plane, and was used to estimate 3-D vector flow in a cross-sectional image plane. The method is validated in two phantom studies, where flow rates are measured in a flow-rig, providing a constant parabolic flow, and in a straight-vessel phantom ( ∅=8 mm) connected to a flow pump capable of generating time varying waveforms. Flow rates are estimated to be 82.1 ± 2.8 L/min in the flow-rig compared with the expected 79.8 L/min, and to 2.68 ± 0.04 mL/stroke in the pulsating environment compared with the expected 2.57 ± 0.08 mL/stroke. Flow rates estimated in the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer are compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured flow rates using a 1-D through-plane velocity sequence. Mean flow rates were 333 ± 31 mL/min for the presented method and 346 ± 2 mL/min for the MRI measurements.

  3. Ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model using human normal vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaqi; Yang, Yan; Guo, Juanjuan; Dai, Ying; Ye, Lina; Qiu, Jianbin; Zeng, Zhihong; Wu, Xiaoting; Xing, Yanmei; Long, Xiang; Wu, Xufeng; Ye, Lin; Wang, Shubin; Li, Hui

    2017-02-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects human genital mucosa and establishes life-long latent infection. It is unmet need to establish a human cell-based microphysiological system for virus biology and anti-viral drug discovery. One of barriers is lacking of culture system of normal epithelial cells in vitro over decades. In this study, we established human normal vaginal epithelial cell (HNVEC) culture using co-culture system. HNVEC cells were then propagated rapidly and stably in a defined culture condition. HNVEC cells exhibited a normal diploid karyotype and formed the well-defined and polarized spheres in matrigel three-dimension (3D) culture, while malignant cells (HeLa) formed disorganized and nonpolar solid spheres. HNVEC cells had a normal cellular response to DNA damage and had no transforming property using soft agar assays. HNVEC expressed epithelial marker cytokeratin 14 (CK14) and p63, but not cytokeratin 18 (CK18). Next, we reconstructed HNVEC-derived 3D vaginal epithelium using air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. This 3D vaginal epithelium has the basal and apical layers with expression of epithelial markers as its originated human vaginal tissue. Finally, we established an HSV-2 infection model based on the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium. After inoculation of HSV-2 (G strain) at apical layer of the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium, we observed obvious pathological effects gradually spreading from the apical layer to basal layer with expression of a viral protein. Thus, we established an ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model that can be used for HSV-2 virology and anti-viral drug discovery.

  4. In vivo and 3D visualization of coronary artery development by optical coherence tomography - art. no. 662709

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Norozi, K.; Männer, J.

    2007-01-01

    . The in vivo images were generated by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The OCT system used in this study is a mobile fiber-based time-domain real-time OCT system operating with a center wavelength of 1330 nm, an A-scan rate of 4 kHz, and a typical frame rate of 8 frames/s. The axial resolution is 17 mu m...... (in tissue), and the lateral resolution is 30 mu m. The OCT system is optimized for in vivo chick heart visualization and enables OCT movie recording with 8 frames/s, full-automatic 3D OCT scanning, and blood flow visualization, i.e., Doppler OCT imaging. Using this OCT system, we generated in vivo...

  5. USPIO-enhanced 3D-cine self-gated cardiac MRI based on a stack-of-stars golden angle short echo time sequence: Application on mice with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotier, Aurélien J; Castets, Charles R; Lefrançois, William; Ribot, Emeline J; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Thiaudière, Eric; Miraux, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    To develop and assess a 3D-cine self-gated method for cardiac imaging of murine models. A 3D stack-of-stars (SOS) short echo time (STE) sequence with a navigator echo was performed at 7T on healthy mice (n = 4) and mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 4) injected with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles. In all, 402 spokes were acquired per stack with the incremental or the golden angle method using an angle increment of (360/402)° or 222.48°, respectively. A cylindrical k-space was filled and repeated with a maximum number of repetitions (NR) of 10. 3D cine cardiac images at 156 μm resolution were reconstructed retrospectively and compared for the two methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The golden angle images were also reconstructed with NR = 10, 6, and 3, to assess cardiac functional parameters (ejection fraction, EF) on both animal models. The combination of 3D SOS-STE and USPIO injection allowed us to optimize the identification of cardiac peaks on navigator signal and generate high CNR between blood and myocardium (15.3 ± 1.0). The golden angle method resulted in a more homogeneous distribution of the spokes inside a stack (P cine images could be obtained without electrocardiogram or respiratory gating in mice. It allows precise measurement of cardiac functional parameters even on MI mice. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:355-365. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. In vivo testing of a 3D bifurcating microchannel scaffold inducing separation of regenerating axon bundles in peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Irina I.; van Wezel, Richard J. A.; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2013-12-01

    Artificial nerve guidance channels enhance the regenerative effectiveness in an injured peripheral nerve but the existing design so far has been limited to basic straight tubes simply guiding the growth to bridge the gap. Hence, one of the goals in development of more effective neuroprostheses is to create bidirectional highly selective neuro-electronic interface between a prosthetic device and the severed nerve. A step towards improving selectivity for both recording and stimulation have been made with some recent in vitro studies which showed that three-dimensional (3D) bifurcating microchannels can separate neurites growing on a planar surface and bring them into contact with individual electrodes. Since the growing axons in vivo have the innate tendency to group in bundles surrounded by connective tissue, one of the big challenges in neuro-prosthetic interface design is how to overcome it. Therefore, we performed experiments with 3D bifurcating guidance scaffolds implanted in the sciatic nerve of rats to test if this new channel architecture could trigger separation pattern of ingrowth also in vivo. Our results showed that this new method enabled the re-growth of neurites into channels with gradually diminished width (80, 40 and 20 µm) and facilitated the separation of the axonal bundles with 91% success. It seems that the 3D bifurcating scaffold might contribute towards conveying detailed neural control and sensory feedback to users of prosthetic devices, and thus could improve the quality of their daily life.

  7. 3D printed optical phantoms and deep tissue imaging for in vivo applications including oral surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Brian Z.; Costas, Alfonso; Gaind, Vaibhav; Garcia, Jose M.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as "phantoms" for testing, evaluation, and calibration. This work demonstrates that 3D printing is an ideal method for fabricating such objects, allowing intricate inhomogeneities to be placed at exact locations in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, a process that is difficult or impossible using molds. We show printed mouse phantoms we have fabricated for developing deep tissue fluorescence imaging methods, and measurements of both their optical and mechanical properties. Additionally, we present a printed phantom of the human mouth that we use to develop an artery localization method to assist in oral surgery.

  8. Spectral triangulation: a 3D method for locating single-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Wei; Bachilo, Sergei M; Vu, Michael; Beckingham, Kathleen M; Bruce Weisman, R

    2016-05-21

    Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and imaging of cancer tumours, when linked to selective targeting agents such as antibodies. However, such applications face the challenge of sensitively detecting and localizing the source of SWIR emission from inside tissues. A new method, called spectral triangulation, is presented for three dimensional (3D) localization using sparse optical measurements made at the specimen surface. Structurally unsorted SWCNT samples emitting over a range of wavelengths are excited inside tissue phantoms by an LED matrix. The resulting SWIR emission is sampled at points on the surface by a scanning fibre optic probe leading to an InGaAs spectrometer or a spectrally filtered InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector. Because of water absorption, attenuation of the SWCNT fluorescence in tissues is strongly wavelength-dependent. We therefore gauge the SWCNT-probe distance by analysing differential changes in the measured SWCNT emission spectra. SWCNT fluorescence can be clearly detected through at least 20 mm of tissue phantom, and the 3D locations of embedded SWCNT test samples are found with sub-millimeter accuracy at depths up to 10 mm. Our method can also distinguish and locate two embedded SWCNT sources at distinct positions.

  9. Skeletonization algorithm-based blood vessel quantification using in vivo 3D photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiburger, K. M.; Nam, S. Y.; Chung, E.; Suggs, L. J.; Emelianov, S. Y.; Molinari, F.

    2016-11-01

    Blood vessels are the only system to provide nutrients and oxygen to every part of the body. Many diseases can have significant effects on blood vessel formation, so that the vascular network can be a cue to assess malicious tumor and ischemic tissues. Various imaging techniques can visualize blood vessel structure, but their applications are often constrained by either expensive costs, contrast agents, ionizing radiations, or a combination of the above. Photoacoustic imaging combines the high-contrast and spectroscopic-based specificity of optical imaging with the high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging, and image contrast depends on optical absorption. This enables the detection of light absorbing chromophores such as hemoglobin with a greater penetration depth compared to purely optical techniques. We present here a skeletonization algorithm for vessel architectural analysis using non-invasive photoacoustic 3D images acquired without the administration of any exogenous contrast agents. 3D photoacoustic images were acquired on rats (n  =  4) in two different time points: before and after a burn surgery. A skeletonization technique based on the application of a vesselness filter and medial axis extraction is proposed to extract the vessel structure from the image data and six vascular parameters (number of vascular trees (NT), vascular density (VD), number of branches (NB), 2D distance metric (DM), inflection count metric (ICM), and sum of angles metric (SOAM)) were calculated from the skeleton. The parameters were compared (1) in locations with and without the burn wound on the same day and (2) in the same anatomic location before (control) and after the burn surgery. Four out of the six descriptors were statistically different (VD, NB, DM, ICM, p  <  0.05) when comparing two anatomic locations on the same day and when considering the same anatomic location at two separate times (i.e. before and after burn surgery). The study demonstrates an

  10. [Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells-biomaterial mixture in vivo after 3D bio-printing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Xiao-fei; Wang, Yu-guang; Sun, Yu-chun; Lv, Pei-jun

    2016-02-18

    To construct human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs)-biomaterial mixture 3D bio-printing body and detect its osteogenesis in vivo, and to establish a guideline of osteogenesis in vivo by use of 3D bio-printing technology preliminarily. P4 hASCs were used as seed cells, whose osteogenic potential in vitro was tested by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and alizarin red staining after 14 d of osteogenic induction. The cells were added into 20 g/L sodium alginate and 80 g/L gelatin mixture (cell density was 1 × 10(6)/mL), and the cell-sodium alginate-gelatin mixture was printed by Bioplotter 3D bio-printer (Envision company, Germany), in which the cells'survival rate was detected by live- dead cell double fluorescence staining. Next, the printing body was osteogenically induced for 1 week to gain the experimental group; and the sodium alginate-gelatin mixture without cells was also printed to gain the control group. Both the experimental group and the control group were implanted into the back of the nude mice. After 6 weeks of implantation, the samples were collected, HE staining, Masson staining, immunohistochemical staining and Inveon Micro CT test were preformed to analyze their osteogenic capability. The cells'survival rate was 89%± 2% after printing. Six weeks after implantation, the samples of the control group were mostly degraded, whose shape was irregular and gel-like; the samples of the experimental group kept their original size and their texture was tough. HE staining and Masson staining showed that the bone-like tissue and vessel in-growth could be observed in the experimental group 6 weeks after implantation, immunohistochemical staining showed that the result of osteocalcin was positive, and Micro CT results showed that samples of the experimental group had a higher density and the new bone volume was 18% ± 1%. hASCs -biomaterial mixture 3D bio-printing body has capability of ectopic bone formation in nude mice, and it is feasible to

  11. 3D handheld endoscope for optical coherence tomography of the human oral mucosa in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Julia; Schnabel, Christian; Ebert, Nadja; Baumann, Michael; Koch, Edmund

    2017-07-01

    The early non-invasive diagnosis of epithelial tissue alterations in daily clinical routine is still challenging. Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows the potential to differentiate between benign and malignant tissue of primal endothelium, OCT could be beneficial for the early diagnosis of malignancies in routine health checks. In this research, a new handheld endoscopic scanning unit was designed and connected to a spectral domain OCT system of our workgroup for the in vivo imaging of the human oral mucosa.

  12. 3D-printed wearable backpack stimulator for chronic in vivo aquatic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unguez, Graciela; Duran, Craig; Valles-Rosales, Delia; Harris, Michael; Salazar, Evan; McDowell, Michael; Tang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying changes in gene expression in the interconversion between skeletal muscle and the non-contractile electrogenic cells of the electric organ in electric fishes require several days to be manifested. It is extremely challenging to study these non-immediate forms of plasticity in reduced preparations in cell culture due to the time requirements. To address this experimental obstacle we developed a 3D-printed wearable backpack that allows chronic electrical stimulation of aquatic teleost fish. The backpack holds a biphasic simulator using a full H-bridge driver structure. Stimulation amplitude is adjusted with a current source controlled by a micro potentiometer whereas the stimulation waveform is reconfigurable through a micro-controller. A 3.7 V Lithium Ion Polymer battery powers the entire circuit. This backpack system will allow underwater chronic stimulation experiments aimed to study the role that neuronal input exerts on cell phenotypes in a vertebrate species with high tissue regeneration and cell trans-differentiation capabilities.

  13. Automated 3-D Detection of Dendritic Spines from In Vivo Two-Photon Image Stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, P K; Hernandez-Herrera, P; Labate, D; Papadakis, M

    2017-10-01

    Despite the significant advances in the development of automated image analysis algorithms for the detection and extraction of neuronal structures, current software tools still have numerous limitations when it comes to the detection and analysis of dendritic spines. The problem is especially challenging in in vivo imaging, where the difficulty of extracting morphometric properties of spines is compounded by lower image resolution and contrast levels native to two-photon laser microscopy. To address this challenge, we introduce a new computational framework for the automated detection and quantitative analysis of dendritic spines in vivo multi-photon imaging. This framework includes: (i) a novel preprocessing algorithm enhancing spines in a way that they are included in the binarized volume produced during the segmentation of foreground from background; (ii) the mathematical foundation of this algorithm, and (iii) an algorithm for the detection of spine locations in reference to centerline trace and separating them from the branches to whom spines are attached to. This framework enables the computation of a wide range of geometric features such as spine length, spatial distribution and spine volume in a high-throughput fashion. We illustrate our approach for the automated extraction of dendritic spine features in time-series multi-photon images of layer 5 cortical excitatory neurons from the mouse visual cortex.

  14. Transtibial ACL reconstruction technique fails to position drill tunnels anatomically in vivo 3D CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, Sebastian; Forsythe, Brian; Wong, Andrew K; Tashman, Scott; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to visualize and quantify the positions of femoral and tibial tunnels in patients who underwent traditional transtibial single-bundle ACL reconstruction, as performed by multiple surgeons, utilizing 3D CT models, and to compare these positions to our previously reported anatomical tunnel positions. Fifty-eight knee computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on patients who underwent primary or revision transtibial single-bundle ACL reconstruction, and three-dimensional reconstructions of the CT scans were aligned within an anatomical coordinate system. The position of femoral tunnel aperture centers was measured with (1) the quadrant method and (2) in the anatomic posterior-to-anterior and proximal-to-distal directions. The position of tibia tunnel aperture centers were measured similarly, in the anterior-to-posterior and medial-to-lateral dimensions on the tibial plateau. Comparisons were made to previously established anatomical tunnel positions, and data were presented as "mean value ± standard deviation (range)." The location of tibial tunnels was at 48.0 ± 5.4% (35.6-59.5%) of the anterior-to-posterior plateau depth and at 47.9 ± 2.9% (42.2-57.4%) of the medial-to-lateral plateau width. The location of femoral tunnels was at 55.8 ± 8.0% (41.5-79.5%) in the anatomic posterior-to-anterior direction and at 41.2 ± 10.4% (15.1-67.4%) in the proximal-to-distal directions. Utilizing a quadrant method, femoral tunnels were positioned at 37.4 ± 5.1% (24.9-50.6%) from the proximal condylar surface, parallel to Blumensaat line, and at 11.0 ± 7.3% (-6.0-28.7%) from the notch roof, perpendicular to Blumensaat line. In summary, tibial tunnels were positioned medial to the anatomic PL position (p tunnels were positioned anterior to both AM and PL anatomic tunnel locations (p tunnels within the native ACL insertion site. To achieve anatomical graft placement, other surgical techniques should be considered. IV.

  15. High intensity focused ultrasound induced in vivo large volume hyperthermia under 3D MRI temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillander, Matti; Hokland, Steffen; Koskela, Julius; Dam, Høgni; Andersen, Niels Peter; Pedersen, Michael; Tanderup, Kari; Ylihautala, Mika; Köhler, Max

    2016-03-01

    Mild hyperthermia can be used as an adjuvant therapy to enhance radiation therapy or chemotherapy of cancer. However, administering mild hyperthermia is technically challenging due to the high accuracy required of the temperature control. MR guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a technology that can address this challenge. In this work, accurate and spatially uniform mild hyperthermia is demonstrated for deep-seated clinically relevant heating volumes using a HIFU system under MR guidance. Mild hyperthermia heating was evaluated for temperature accuracy and spatial uniformity in 11 in vivo porcine leg experiments. Hyperthermia was induced with a commercial Philips Sonalleve MR-HIFU system embedded in a 1.5T Ingenia MR scanner. The operating software was modified to allow extended duration mild hyperthermia. Heating time varied from 10 min up to 60 min and the assigned target temperature was 42.5 °C. Electronic focal point steering, mechanical transducer movement, and dynamic transducer element switch-off were exploited to enlarge the heated volume and obtain uniform heating throughout the acoustic beam path. Multiple temperature mapping images were used to control and monitor the heating. The magnetic field drift and transducer susceptibility artifacts were compensated to enable accurate volumetric MR thermometry. The obtained mean temperature for the target area (the cross sectional area of the heated volume at focal depth primarily used to control the heating) was on average 42.0 ± 0.6 °C. Temperature uniformity in the target area was evaluated using T10 and T90, which were 43.1 ± 0.6 and 40.9 ± 0.6 °C, respectively. For the near field, the corresponding temperatures were 39.3 ± 0.8 °C (average), 40.6 ± 1.0 °C (T10), and 38.0 ± 0.9 °C (T90). The sonications resulted in a concise heating volume, typically in the shape of a truncated cone. The average depth reached from the skin was 86.9 mm. The results show that the heating

  16. Simultaneous 3D MR elastography of the in vivo mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Steven P.; Majumdar, Shreyan; Royston, Thomas J.; Klatt, Dieter

    2017-10-01

    The feasibility of sample interval modulation (SLIM) magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for the in vivo mouse brain is assessed, and an alternative SLIM-MRE encoding method is introduced. In SLIM-MRE, the phase accumulation for each motion direction is encoded simultaneously by varying either the start time of the motion encoding gradient (MEG), SLIM-phase constant (SLIM-PC), or the initial phase of the MEG, SLIM-phase varying (SLIM-PV). SLIM-PC provides gradient moment nulling, but the mutual gradient shift necessitates increased echo time (TE). SLIM-PV requires no increased TE, but exhibits non-uniform flow compensation. Comparison was to conventional MRE using six C57BL/6 mice. For SLIM-PC, the Spearman’s rank correlation to conventional MRE for the shear storage and loss modulus images were 80% and 76%, respectively, and likewise for SLIM-PV, 73% and 69%, respectively. The results of the Wilcoxon rank sum test showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the spatially averaged shear moduli derived from conventional-MRE, SLIM-PC, and SLIM-PV acquisitions. Both SLIM approaches were comparable to conventional MRE scans with Spearman’s rank correlation of 69%-80% and with 3 times reduction in scan time. The SLIM-PC method had the best correlation, and SLIM-PV may be a useful tool in experimental conditions, where both measurement time and T2 relaxation is critical.

  17. Locoregional deformation pattern of the patellar cartilage after different loading types. High-resolution 3D-MRI volumetry at 3 T in-vivo; Lokoregionaere Deformationsmuster im Patellarknorpel nach unterschiedlichen Belastungsparadigmen. Hochaufloesende 3-D-MR-Volumetrie bei 3 T in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie [University Hospital LMU Munich, Muenchen (Germany). Radiology; Raya, J. [New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States). Center of Biomedical Imaging; Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Zscharn, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern (DE). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie] (and others)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: To analyze locoregional deformation patterns indicative of contact areas in patellar cartilage after different loading exercises. Materials and Methods: 7 healthy patellae were examined in-vivo before and immediately after standardized loading (kneeling, squatting or knee bends) and after 90 minutes of rest using a sagittal 3D-T1-w FLASH WE sequence (22 msec/ 9.8msec/ 15 / 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.5 mm{sup 3}) at 3 T. After cartilage segmentation and 3D reconstruction, voxel-based and global precision errors (PR) were calculated. The former were used to determine significant differences in local cartilage thickness. Voxel-based 2{sigma}-thickness difference maps were calculated to visualize locoregional deformation patterns. Global changes in volume (Vol), mean thickness (mTh) and cartilage-bone-interface area (CBIA) were calculated. Results: The voxel-based PR depended on cartilage thickness (D) ranging from 0.12 - 0.35 mm. For D {>=} 1 mm the RF was < 0.31 mm (< voxel size), and for D {>=} 2 mm, the RF was < 0.22 mm. The global PR was 83 mm{sup 3} (2.4 %) for Vol, 0.06 mm (2.0 %) for mTh and 16 mm{sup 2} (1.4 %) for CBIA. The focal cartilage deformation equaled 14 % of the local thickness reduction. The deformation areas were oval and located in the peripheral medial (more vertically oriented, all exercises) and caudo-lateral (more horizontally oriented, kneeling and knee bends) aspects of the patella and were least pronounced in knee bends. Significant changes for Vol/mTh ranged from 2.1 to 3.7 %. Conclusion: This MRI-based study is the first to identify in-vivo voxel-based patellar cartilage deformation patterns indicating contact and loading zones after kneeling and squatting. These zones are anatomically and functionally plausible and may represent areas where stress induced degeneration and subsequent OA can originate. The data may facilitate understanding of individual knee loading properties and help to improve and validate biomechanical models for the knee

  18. 3-D visualization and non-linear tissue classification of breast tumors using ultrasound elastography in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Ahmed; Layne, Ginger; Abraham, Jame; Mukdadi, Osama M

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the study described here was to introduce new methods for the classification and visualization of human breast tumors using 3-D ultrasound elastography. A tumor's type, shape and size are key features that can help the physician to decide the sort and extent of necessary treatment. In this work, tumor type, being either benign or malignant, was classified non-invasively for nine volunteer patients. The classification was based on estimating four parameters that reflect the tumor's non-linear biomechanical behavior, under multi-compression levels. Tumor prognosis using non-linear elastography was confirmed with biopsy as a gold standard. Three tissue classification parameters were found to be statistically significant with a p-value linear parameter was highly significant, having a p-value < 0.001. Furthermore, each breast tumor's shape and size were estimated in vivo using 3-D elastography, and were enhanced using interactive segmentation. Segmentation with level sets was used to isolate the stiff tumor from the surrounding soft tissue. Segmentation also provided a reliable means to estimate tumors volumes. Four volumetric strains were investigated: the traditional normal axial strain, the first principal strain, von Mises strain and maximum shear strain. It was noted that these strains can provide varying degrees of boundary enhancement to the stiff tumor in the constructed elastograms. The enhanced boundary improved the performance of the segmentation process. In summary, the proposed methods can be employed as a 3-D non-invasive tool for characterization of breast tumors, and may provide early prognosis with minimal pain, as well as diminish the risk of late-stage breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [In vivo study on the body motion during the Shi's cervical reduction technique with 3D motion capture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-hao; Zhang, Min; Niu, Wen-xin; Shen, Xu-zhe; Zhan, Hong-sheng

    2015-10-01

    The clinical effect of the Shi's cervical reduction technique for cervical spondylosis and related disorders has confirmed, however, there were few studies on the body motion during manipulation in vivo study. This study is to summary the law of motion and the motion characteristics of the right operation shoulder, elbow, knee and ankle joints by data acquisition and analysis with the 3D motion capture system. The markers were pasted on the head, trunk, left and right acromion, elbow joint, wrist joint inner side and the outer side of the inner and the outer side and the lateral upper arm, forearm lateral, anterior superior iliac spine, posterior superior iliac spine, trochanter, femoral and tibial tubercle, inner and outer side of knee, ankle, fibular head, medial and lateral in first, 2,5 metatarsal head, heel and dual lateral thigh the calf, lateral tibia of one manipulation practioner, and the subject accepted a complete cycle of cervical "Jin Chu Cao and Gu Cuo Feng" manipulation which was repeated five times. The movement trajectory of the practioner's four markers of operation joints were captured, recorded, calculated and analyzed. The movement trajectories of four joints were consistent, while the elbow joint had the biggest discrete degree. The 3D activities of the shoulder and elbow were more obvious than other two joints, but the degree of flexion and extension in the knee was significantly greater than the rotation and lateral bending. The flexibility of upper limb joint and stability of lower limb joint are the important guarantees for the Shi's cervical reduction technique, and the right knee facilitated the exerting force of upper limb by the flexion and extension activities. The 3D model built by the motion capture system would provide a new idea for manipulation teaching and further basic biomechanical research.

  20. Human Lung Cancer Cells Grown in an Ex Vivo 3D Lung Model Produce Matrix Metalloproteinases Not Produced in 2D Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dhruva K.; Sakamoto, Jason H.; Thrall, Michael J.; Baird, Brandi N.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Ferrari, Mauro; Kurie, Jonathan M.; Kim, Min P.

    2012-01-01

    We compared the growth of human lung cancer cells in an ex vivo three-dimensional (3D) lung model and 2D culture to determine which better mimics lung cancer growth in patients. A549 cells were grown in an ex vivo 3D lung model and in 2D culture for 15 days. We measured the size and formation of tumor nodules and counted the cells after 15 days. We also stained the tissue/cells for Ki-67, and Caspase-3. We measured matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) levels in the conditioned media and in blood plasma from patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung. Organized tumor nodules with intact vascular space formed in the ex vivo 3D lung model but not in 2D culture. Proliferation and apoptosis were greater in the ex vivo 3D lung model compared to the 2D culture. After 15 days, there were significantly more cells in the 2D culture than the 3D model. MMP-1, MMP-9, and MMP-10 production were significantly greater in the ex vivo 3D lung model. There was no production of MMP-9 in the 2D culture. The patient samples contained MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-10. The human lung cancer cells grown on ex vivo 3D model form perfusable nodules that grow over time. It also produced MMPs that were not produced in 2D culture but seen in human lung cancer patients. The ex vivo 3D lung model may more closely mimic the biology of human lung cancer development than the 2D culture. PMID:23028922

  1. A novel 3-D bio-microfluidic system mimicking in vivo heterogeneous tumour microstructures reveals complex tumour–stroma interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Qihui

    2017-07-10

    A 3-D microfluidic system consisting of microchamber arrays embedded in a collagen hydrogel with tuneable biochemical gradients that mimics the tumour microenvironment of mammary glands was constructed for the investigation on the interactions between invasive breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The hollow microchambers in collagen provide a very similar 3-D environment to that in vivo that regulates collective cellular dynamics and behaviour, while the microfluidic channels surrounding the collagen microchamber arrays allow one to impose complex concentration gradients of specific biological molecules or drugs. We found that breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) seeded in the microchambers formed lumen-like structures similar to those in epithelial layers. When MCF-10A cells were co-cultured with invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), the formation of lumen-like structures in the microchambers was inhibited, indicating the capability of cancer cells to disrupt the structures formed by surrounding cells for further invasion and metastasis. Subsequent mechanism studies showed that down regulation of E-cad expression due to MMPs produced by the cancer cells plays a dominant role in determining the cellular behaviour. Our microfluidic system offers a robust platform for high throughput studies that aim to understand combinatorial effects of multiple biochemical and microenvironmental factors.

  2. Quantitative in vivo HR-pQCT imaging of 3D wrist and metacarpophalangeal joint space width in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Andrew J; Lee, Chan Hee; Kuo, Daniel; Majumdar, Sharmila; Imboden, John B; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan

    2013-12-01

    In this technique development study, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) was applied to non-invasively image and quantify 3D joint space morphology of the wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). HR-pQCT imaging (82 μm voxel-size) of the dominant hand was performed in patients with diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA, N = 16, age: 52.6 ± 12.8) and healthy controls (CTRL, N = 7, age: 50.1 ± 15.0). An automated computer algorithm was developed to segment wrist and MCP joint spaces. The 3D distance transformation method was applied to spatially map joint space width, and summarized by the mean joint space width (JSW), minimal and maximal JSW (JSW.MIN, JSW.MAX), asymmetry (JSW.AS), and distribution (JSW.SD)-a measure of joint space heterogeneity. In vivo precision was determined for each measure by calculating the smallest detectable difference (SDD) and root mean square coefficient of variation (RMSCV%) of repeat scans. Qualitatively, HR-pQCT images and pseudo-color JSW maps showed global joint space narrowing, as well as regional and focal abnormalities in RA patients. In patients with radiographic JSN at an MCP, JSW.SD was two-fold greater vs. CTRL (p HR-pQCT, could improve early detection of joint damage in rheumatological diseases.

  3. 3D Local in vivo Environment (LivE imaging for single cell protein analysis of bone tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Carly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The molecular processes behind pathological bone remodelling seen in diseases such as osteoporosis are unclear. However, a recently developed methodological platform known as Local in vivo Environment (LivE imaging has been used to link cellular expression data to the local remodelling and mechanical environment in 2D sections of bone tissue. The method therefore can be used to give insight into which proteins are important for pathological bone remodelling. However, the cells within bone tissue exist as a 3D network. Therefore extension of LivE to accommodate 3D data may provide additional physiologically relevant information that is not possible to determine using 2D analysis alone. This will have implications for the further understanding of the cellular basis that underlies bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Here the LivE imaging technique is expanded to incorporate data from cells in a three dimensional manner via a serial sectioning technique. The methodological steps involved in the LivE imaging approach are defined and the optimisation steps performed are explained in detail.

  4. Novel application of 3D contrast-enhanced CMR to define fibrotic structure of the human sinoatrial node in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csepe, Thomas A; Zhao, Jichao; Sul, Lidiya V; Wang, Yufeng; Hansen, Brian J; Li, Ning; Ignozzi, Anthony J; Bratasz, Anna; Powell, Kimerly A; Kilic, Ahmet; Mohler, Peter J; Janssen, Paul M L; Hummel, John D; Simonetti, Orlando P; Fedorov, Vadim V

    2017-05-01

    The adult human sinoatrial node (SAN) has a specialized fibrotic intramural structure (35-55% fibrotic tissue) that provides mechanical and electrical protection from the surrounding atria. We hypothesize that late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) can be applied to define the fibrotic human SAN structure in vivo. LGE-CMR atrial scans of healthy volunteers (n olu, 23-52 y.o.) using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system with a spatial resolution of 1.0 mm3 or 0.625 × 0.625 × 1.25 mm3 were obtained and analysed. Percent fibrosis of total connective and cardiomyocyte tissue area in segmented atrial regions were measured based on signal intensity differences of fibrotic vs. non-fibrotic cardiomyocyte tissue. A distinct ellipsoidal fibrotic region (length: 23.6 ± 1.9 mm; width: 7.2 ± 0.9 mm; depth: 2.9 ± 0.4 mm) in all hearts was observed along the posterior junction of the crista terminalis and superior vena cava extending towards the interatrial septum, corresponding to the anatomical location of the human SAN. The SAN fibrotic region consisted of 41.9 ± 5.4% of LGE voxels above an average threshold of 2.7 SD (range 2-3 SD) from the non-fibrotic right atrial free wall tissue. Fibrosis quantification and SAN identification by in vivo LGE-CMR were validated in optically mapped explanted donor hearts ex vivo (n ivo, 19-65 y.o.) by contrast-enhanced CMR (9.4 Tesla; up to 90 µm3 resolution) correlated with serial histological sections of the SAN. This is the first study to visualize the 3D human SAN fibrotic structure in vivo using LGE-CMR. Identification of the 3D SAN location and its high fibrotic content by LGE-CMR may provide a new tool to avoid or target SAN structure during ablation.

  5. Imaging of prostate cancer: a platform for 3D co-registration of in-vivo MRI ex-vivo MRI and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczyk, Clément; Mikheev, Artem; Rosenkrantz, Andrew; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Rusinek, Henry

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Multi-parametric MRI is emerging as a promising method for prostate cancer diagnosis. prognosis and treatment planning. However, the localization of in-vivo detected lesions and pathologic sites of cancer remains a significant challenge. To overcome this limitation we have developed and tested a system for co-registration of in-vivo MRI, ex-vivo MRI and histology. Materials and Methods: Three men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (ages 54-72, PSA levels 5.1-7.7 ng/ml) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent 3T multi-parametric MRI that included T2W, DCEMRI, and DWI prior to robotic-assisted prostatectomy. Ex-vivo multi-parametric MRI was performed on fresh prostate specimen. Excised prostates were then sliced at regular intervals and photographed both before and after fixation. Slices were perpendicular to the main axis of the posterior capsule, i.e., along the direction of the rectal wall. Guided by the location of the urethra, 2D digital images were assembled into 3D models. Cancer foci, extra-capsular extensions and zonal margins were delineated by the pathologist and included in 3D histology data. A locally-developed software was applied to register in-vivo, ex-vivo and histology using an over-determined set of anatomical landmarks placed in anterior fibro-muscular stroma, central. transition and peripheral zones. The mean root square distance across corresponding control points was used to assess co-registration error. Results: Two specimens were pT3a and one pT2b (negative margin) at pathology. The software successfully fused invivo MRI. ex-vivo MRI fresh specimen and histology using appropriate (rigid and affine) transformation models with mean square error of 1.59 mm. Coregistration accuracy was confirmed by multi-modality viewing using operator-guided variable transparency. Conclusion: The method enables successful co-registration of pre-operative MRI, ex-vivo MRI and pathology and it provides initial evidence

  6. Microcirculation in the murine liver: a computational fluid dynamic model based on 3D reconstruction from in vivo microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Monica; Bianchi, Elena; Capitani, Giada; Li Piani, Irene; Ganzer, Lucia; Guidotti, Luca G; Iannacone, Matteo; Dubini, Gabriele

    2017-10-03

    The liver is organized in hexagonal functional units - termed lobules - characterized by a rather peculiar blood microcirculation, due to the presence of a tangled network of capillaries - termed sinusoids. A better understanding of the hemodynamics that governs liver microcirculation is relevant to clinical and biological studies aimed at improving our management of liver diseases and transplantation. Herein, we built a CFD model of a 3D sinusoidal network, based on in vivo images of a physiological mouse liver obtained with a 2-photon microscope. The CFD model was developed with Fluent 16.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA), particular care was taken in imposing the correct boundary conditions representing a physiological state. To account for the remaining branches of the sinusoids, a lumped parameter model was used to prescribe the correct pressure at each outlet. The effect of an adhered cell on local hemodynamics is also investigated for different occlusion degrees. The model here proposed accurately reproduces the fluid dynamics in a portion of the sinusoidal network in mouse liver. Mean velocities and mass flow rates are in agreement with literature values from in vivo measurements. Our approach provides details on local phenomena, hardly described by other computational studies, either focused on the macroscopic hepatic vasculature or based on homogeneous porous medium model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging and quantification of carious lesions and dental pulp in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymofiyeva, Olga; Boldt, Julian; Rottner, Kurt; Schmid, Florian; Richter, Ernst-Juergen; Jakob, Peter M

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of MRI of three-dimensional visualization and quantification of carious lesions, as well as measurement of the distance between the lesion and dental pulp in vivo. High-resolution 3D MRI was performed to measure seven carious lesions in vivo using gelatinous gadolinium-based oral contrast medium in combination with an intraoral radio frequency receiver coil on a clinical 1.5 T MRI scanner. Extension of the carious lesion in three spatial dimensions and the minimum distance between the lesion and dental pulp were quantified. When possible, the result was compared to an X-ray projection and an impression of the lesion taken using a plastic impression material before and after dental treatment. Carious lesions, including pit and fissure, approximal lesions, and occult dentin caries, could be visualized due to the MRI signal rise in the porous affected dentin. The minimum distance between the carious lesion and dental pulp could be determined in all cases. The results presented demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution dental MRI to three-dimensionally visualize and quantify carious lesions, including approximal and occult caries lesions, and measure the minimum distance to the dental pulp.

  8. Topographic deformation patterns of knee cartilage after exercises with high knee flexion: an in vivo 3D MRI study using voxel-based analysis at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Annie; Raya, J G; Stockinger, M; Notohamiprodjo, M; Pietschmann, M; Hoehne-Hueckstaedt, U; Glitsch, U; Ellegast, R; Hering, K G; Glaser, C

    2015-06-01

    To implement a novel voxel-based technique to identify statistically significant local cartilage deformation and analyze in-vivo topographic knee cartilage deformation patterns using a voxel-based thickness map approach for high-flexion postures. Sagittal 3T 3D-T1w-FLASH-WE-sequences of 10 healthy knees were acquired before and immediately after loading (kneeling/squatting/heel sitting/knee bends). After cartilage segmentation, 3D-reconstruction and 3D-registration, colour-coded deformation maps were generated by voxel-based subtraction of loaded from unloaded datasets to visualize cartilage thickness changes in all knee compartments. Compression areas were found bifocal at the peripheral medial/caudolateral patella, both posterior femoral condyles and both anterior/central tibiae. Local cartilage thickening were found adjacent to the compression areas. Significant local strain ranged from +13 to -15 %. Changes were most pronounced after squatting, least after knee bends. Shape and location of deformation areas varied slightly with the loading paradigm, but followed a similar pattern consistent between different individuals. Voxel-based deformation maps identify individual in-vivo load-specific and posture-associated strain distribution in the articular cartilage. The data facilitate understanding individual knee loading properties and contribute to improve biomechanical 3 models. They lay a base to investigate the relationship between cartilage degeneration patterns in common osteoarthritis and areas at risk of cartilage wear due to mechanical loading in work-related activities. • 3D MRI helps differentiate true knee-cartilage deformation from random measurement error • 3D MRI maps depict in vivo topographic distribution of cartilage deformation after loading • 3D MRI maps depict in vivo intensity of cartilage deformation after loading • Locating cartilage contact areas might aid differentiating common and work-related osteoarthritis.

  9. Single-Shot-RARE for rapid 3D hyperpolarized metabolic ex vivo tissue imaging: RF-pulse design for semi-dense spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, P.O.; Jensen, Pernille Rose; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    they require narrow excitation transition-bands. We have designed a 3D-MRSI pulse sequence for hyperpolarized ex vivo sample imaging for semi-dense compound spectra (few components, relatively small separations), ultimately aimed to be used for metastasis detection in excised lymph nodes.......MRS of hyperpolarized (HP) 13C-enriched compounds is a promising method for in vivo cancer diagnosis . Sentinel lymph node ex vivo tissue sample histology used in clinical routine for breast cancer metastasis diagnosis requires time consuming sample analysis. 3D-HP-MRSI can potentially speed up...... the diagnosis given a sensitive marker that can be efficiently imaged in tissue after homogenous injection. The entire sample can be confined within the imaged volume giving the possibility of complete spatial non-selectivity of the radio frequency (RF) pulses in the RF pulse design with no chemical shift...

  10. Multi-feature-based plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI trained by registration to 3D histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelen, Arna van; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    . The ground truth for fibrous, necrotic and calcified tissue was provided by histology and micro-CT in 12 carotid plaque specimens. Semi-automatic registration of a 3D stack of histological slices and micro-CT images to MRI allowed for 3D rotations and inplane deformations of histology. By basing voxelwise...... MRI and histology slices per specimen, and (2) an approach that uses only the three corresponding MRI slices from the 3D-registered volumes. Voxelwise classification accuracy was best when all features were used (73.3 ± 6.3 %) and was significantly better than when only original intensities...

  11. Quantify patient-specific coronary material property and its impact on stress/strain calculations using in vivo IVUS data and 3D FSI models: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoya; Zhu, Jian; Maehara, Akiko; Monoly, David; Samady, Habib; Wang, Liang; Billiar, Kristen L; Zheng, Jie; Yang, Chun; Mintz, Gary S; Giddens, Don P; Tang, Dalin

    2017-02-01

    Computational models have been used to calculate plaque stress and strain for plaque progression and rupture investigations. An intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based modeling approach is proposed to quantify in vivo vessel material properties for more accurate stress/strain calculations. In vivo Cine IVUS and VH-IVUS coronary plaque data were acquired from one patient with informed consent obtained. Cine IVUS data and 3D thin-slice models with axial stretch were used to determine patient-specific vessel material properties. Twenty full 3D fluid-structure interaction models with ex vivo and in vivo material properties and various axial and circumferential shrink combinations were constructed to investigate the material stiffness impact on stress/strain calculations. The approximate circumferential Young's modulus over stretch ratio interval [1.0, 1.1] for an ex vivo human plaque sample and two slices (S6 and S18) from our IVUS data were 1631, 641, and 346 kPa, respectively. Average lumen stress/strain values from models using ex vivo, S6 and S18 materials with 5 % axial shrink and proper circumferential shrink were 72.76, 81.37, 101.84 kPa and 0.0668, 0.1046, and 0.1489, respectively. The average cap strain values from S18 material models were 150-180 % higher than those from the ex vivo material models. The corresponding percentages for the average cap stress values were 50-75 %. Dropping axial and circumferential shrink consideration led to stress and strain over-estimations. In vivo vessel material properties may be considerably softer than those from ex vivo data. Material stiffness variations may cause 50-75 % stress and 150-180 % strain variations.

  12. Quantification of plaque lipids in the aortic root of ApoE-deficient mice by 3D DIXON magnetic resonance imaging in an ex vivo model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietel, Barbara; Kuehn, Constanze; Achenbach, Stephan [University Hospital of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Erlangen (Germany); Budinsky, Lubos [Campus Science Support Facilities (CSF), Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Vienna (Austria); Uder, Michael [University Hospital of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hess, Andreas [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-10-31

    To establish a dedicated protocol for the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of plaque lipids in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE{sup -/-}) mice using ex vivo MRI. ApoE{sup -/-} mice were fed a high-fat diet (n = 10) or normal food (n = 10) for 3 months. Subsequently, a 3D FLASH MRI sequence was used to view the anatomy of the aortic root in the isolated hearts, where a 3D double-echo two-excitation pulse sequence (DIXON sequence) was used to selectively image plaque lipids. The vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid volumes were quantified by MRI and histology for correlation analysis. DIXON MRI allowed visualisation and accurate quantification of plaque lipids. When comparing the vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid sizes in the aortic root, Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis revealed a close correlation between MRI results and the histological data both on a slice-by-slice basis and of the volumetric measurements (vessel wall: r{sup 2} = 0.775, p < 0.001; vessel lumen: r{sup 2} = 0.875; p = 0.002; plaque lipid: r{sup 2} = 0.819, p = 0.003). The combination of 3D FLASH and DIXON-sequence MRI permits an accurate ex vivo assessment of the investigated plaque parameters in the aortic root of mice, particularly the lipid content. (orig.)

  13. In vivo 3D neuroanatomical evaluation of periprostatic nerve plexus with 3T-MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panebianco, Valeria, E-mail: valeria.panebianco@gmail.com [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Anatomical Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Barchetti, Flavio [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Anatomical Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Sciarra, Alessandro [Department of Urology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Marcantonio, Andrea; Zini, Chiara [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Anatomical Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy); Salciccia, Stefano [Department of Urology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Collettini, Federico [Department of Radiology, Charité, Berlin (Germany); Gentile, Vincenzo [Department of Urology, Sapienza University of Rome (Italy); Hamm, Bernard [Department of Radiology, Charité, Berlin (Germany); Catalano, Carlo [Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Anatomical Pathology, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: To evaluate if Diffusion Tensor Imaging technique (DTI) can improve the visualization of periprostatic nerve fibers describing the location and distribution of entire neurovascular plexus around the prostate in patients who are candidates for prostatectomy. Materials and methods: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), including a 2D T2-weighted FSE sequence in 3 planes, 3D T2-weighted and DTI using 16 gradient directions and b = 0 and 1000, was performed on 36 patients. Three out of 36 patients were excluded from the analysis due to poor image quality (blurring N = 2, artifact N = 1). The study was approved by local ethics committee and all patients gave an informed consent. Images were evaluated by two radiologists with different experience in MRI. DTI images were analyzed qualitatively using dedicated software. Also 2D and 3D T2 images were independently considered. Results: 3D-DTI allowed description of the entire plexus of the periprostatic nerve fibers in all directions, while 2D and 3D T2 morphological sequences depicted part of the fibers, in a plane by plane analysis of fiber courses. DTI demonstrated in all patients the dispersion of nerve fibers around the prostate on both sides including the significant percentage present in the anterior and anterolateral sectors. Conclusions: DTI offers optimal representation of the widely distributed periprostatic plexus. If validated, it may help guide nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy.

  14. Skin-sparing Helical Tomotherapy vs 3D-conformal Radiotherapy for Adjuvant Breast Radiotherapy: In Vivo Skin Dosimetry Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelle, Lisa [Division of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Warkentin, Heather; MacKenzie, Marc [Division of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Joseph, Kurian; Gabos, Zsolt; Pervez, Nadeem; Tankel, Keith; Chafe, Susan [Division of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Amanie, John [Division of Statistics and Epidemiology, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Ghosh, Sunita; Parliament, Matthew [Division of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Abdulkarim, Bassam, E-mail: bassam.abdulkarim@mcgill.ca [Division of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether treatment-planning system (TPS)-calculated dose accurately reflects skin dose received for patients receiving adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) with standard three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) or skin-sparing helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating acute skin toxicity from adjuvant breast RT with 3D-CRT compared to skin-sparing HT, where a 5-mm strip of ipsilateral breast skin was spared. Thermoluminescent dosimetry or optically stimulated luminescence measurements were made in multiple locations and were compared to TPS-calculated doses. Skin dosimetric parameters and acute skin toxicity were recorded in these patients. Results: With HT there was a significant correlation between calculated and measured dose in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.67, P<.001; r = 0.44, P=.03, respectively) and the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.73, P<.001; r = 0.88, P<.001, respectively). With 3D-CRT there was a significant correlation in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.45, P=.03; r = 0.68, P<.001, respectively); the medial and central contralateral breast (r = 0.62, P=.001; r = 0.86, P<.001, respectively); and the mid neck (r = 0.42, P=.04, respectively). On average, HT-calculated dose overestimated the measured dose by 14%; 3D-CRT underestimated the dose by 0.4%. There was a borderline association between highest measured skin dose and moist desquamation (P=.05). Skin-sparing HT had greater skin homogeneity (homogeneity index of 1.39 vs 1.65, respectively; P=.005) than 3D-CRT plans. HT plans had a lower skin{sub V50} (1.4% vs 5.9%, respectively; P=.001) but higher skin{sub V40} and skin{sub V30} (71.7% vs 64.0%, P=.02; and 99.0% vs 93.8%, P=.001, respectively) than 3D-CRT plans. Conclusion: The 3D-CRT TPS more accurately reflected skin dose than the HT TPS, which tended to overestimate dose received by 14% in patients

  15. Generation of 3D ultrasound biomicroscopic images: technique validation and in vivo volumetric imaging of rat lateral gastrocnemius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Santos da Fonseca Martins

    Full Text Available Introduction Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM is a technique for generating high-resolution images, with frequencies from 20 MHz to 100 MHz. For example, it has been used in animal research related to models of injury and diseases that mimic human conditions. With a three-dimensional ultrasound (3D image system, an organ can be viewed at various angles and the volume estimated, contributing to an accurate diagnosis. This work refers to the generation of 3D-UBM images, employing a 35 MHz ultrasound system, from multiple two-dimensional (2D images. Phantoms were used to validate the technique and to determine its reliability of volume measurements. Additionally, the technique was used to obtain 3D images of the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Methods Four different phantoms were used and ten acquisition sequences of 2D-images acquired for each one. Thereafter, 5 volume segmentations were performed for each acquisition sequence, resulting in 50 measured volumes for each phantom. The physical volumes of all phantoms were used to validate the technique based on the coefficient of variation (CV and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Images of the gastrocnemius muscle were acquired and the partial volume quantified. Results The CV and ICC confirmed the reliability of volume measurements obtained by segmentation. Moreover, cross-sectional 2D images of rat hindlimb were obtained, allowing to identify the gastrocnemius muscle and to partially quantify the muscle volume from 3D images. Conclusion The results indicated that the technique is valid to generate 3D images and quantify the volume of a muscle compatible with the dimensions of a small animal.

  16. In Vivo Evaluation of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone Scaffold Implantation Combined with β-TCP Powder for Alveolar Bone Augmentation in a Beagle Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su A. Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient bone volume is one of the major challenges encountered by dentists after dental implant placement. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a customized three-dimensional polycaprolactone (3D PCL scaffold implant fabricated with a 3D bio-printing system to facilitate rapid alveolar bone regeneration. Saddle-type bone defects were surgically created on the healed site after extracting premolars from the mandibles of four beagle dogs. The defects were radiologically examined using computed tomography for designing a customized 3D PCL scaffold block to fit the defect site. After fabricating 3D PCL scaffolds using rapid prototyping, the scaffolds were implanted into the alveolar bone defects along with β-tricalcium phosphate powder. In vivo analysis showed that the PCL blocks maintained the physical space and bone conductivity around the defects. In addition, no inflammatory infiltrates were observed around the scaffolds. However, new bone formation occurred adjacent to the scaffolds, rather than directly in contact with them. More new bone was observed around PCL blocks with 400/1200 lattices than around blocks with 400/400 lattices, but the difference was not significant. These results indicated the potential of 3D-printed porous PCL scaffolds to promote alveolar bone regeneration for defect healing in dentistry.

  17. WE-D-BRA-05: Pseudo In Vivo Patient Dosimetry Using a 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ger, R; Craft, DF [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (United States); Burgett, EA [Idaho State University, Pocatello, idaho (United States); Price, RR [RANDJ Consulting, Frederick, MD (United States); Kry, SF; Howell, RM [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (United States); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA). Methods: We created a patient-specific whole-head phantom using a 3D printer. The printer data file was created from high-resolution DICOM computed tomography (CT) images of 3-year old child treated at our institution for medulloblastoma. A custom-modified extruder system was used to create tissue-equivalent materials. For the printing process, the Hounsfield Units from the CT images were converted to proportional volumetric densities. A 5-field IMRT plan was created from the patient CT and delivered to the 3D- phantom. Dose was measured by an ion chamber placed through the eye. The ion chamber was placed at the posterior edge of the planning target volume in a high dose gradient region. CT scans of the patient and 3D-phantom were fused by using commercial treatment planning software (TPS). The patient’s plan was calculated on the phantom CT images. The ion chamber’s active volume was delineated in the TPS; dose per field and total dose were obtained. Measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The 3D-phantom dimensions and tissue densities were in good agreement with the patient. However, because of a printing error, there was a large discrepancy in the density in the frontal cortex. The calculated and measured treatment plan doses were 1.74 Gy and 1.72 Gy, respectively. For individual fields, the absolute dose difference between measured and calculated values was on average 3.50%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for IMRT QA. Such phantoms would be particularly advantageous for complex IMRT treatment plans featuring high dose gradients and/or for anatomical sites with high variation in tissue densities. Our preliminary findings are promising. We anticipate that, once the printing process is further refined, the agreement between

  18. Construction of a 3D coronary map to assess geometrical information in-vivo from coronary patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casciaro, M. E.; Craiem, D.; Graf, S.; Gurfinkel, E. P.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Traditional risk factors are involved in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), but geometrical risk factors have also proved to be determinant. In this work we present a new method to construct a 3D map of the left coronary artery tree using CT image processing and skeletonization techniques. We computed cumulative length-volume functions through the coronary tree bifurcations and also the relationships between total tree volumes, total length, number of segments and bifurcations with respect to the presence and severity of atherosclerotic plaques. A total of 65 patients, 40 with and 20 without CAD were recruited. We found more vascular segments and bifurcations per patient in the CAD group. Accordingly, total cumulative length was longer in CAD patients (ppatients follow a compensatory mechanism, dilating the vessels to maintain a normal coronary flow. The 3D coronary map offers useful quantitative information of the coronary morphometry.

  19. Reconstruction for Time-Domain In Vivo EPR 3D Multigradient Oximetric Imaging—A Parallel Processing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Dharmaraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23×23×23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet. The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time.

  20. 3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: Effect of SrO and MgO doping on in vivo osteogenesis in a rat distal femoral defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Davies, Neal M; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2013-12-01

    The presence of interconnected macro pores is important in tissue engineering scaffolds for guided tissue regeneration. This study reports in vivo biological performance of interconnected macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds due to the addition of SrO and MgO as dopants in TCP. We have used direct three dimensional printing (3DP) technology for scaffold fabrication followed by microwave sintering. Mechanical strength was evaluated by scaffolds with 500 µm, 750 µm, and 1000 µm interconnected designed pore sizes. Maximum compressive strength of 12.01 ± 1.56 MPa was achieved for 500 µm interconnected designed pore size Sr-Mg doped scaffold. In vivo biological performance of the microwave sintered pure TCP and Sr-Mg doped TCP scaffolds was assessed by implanting 350 µm designed interconnected macro porous scaffolds in rat distal femoral defect. Sintered pore size of these 3D printed scaffolds were 311 ± 5.9 µm and 245 ± 7.5 µm for pure and SrO-MgO doped TCP scaffolds, respectively. These 3D printed scaffolds possessed multiscale porosity, i.e., 3D interconnected designed macro pores along with intrinsic micro pores. Histomorphology and histomorphometric analysis revealed a significant increase in osteoid like new bone formation, and accelerated mineralization inside SrO and MgO doped 3D printed TCP scaffolds as compared to pure TCP scaffolds. An increase in osteocalcin and type I collagen level was also observed in rat blood serum with SrO and MgO doped TCP scaffolds compared to pure TCP scaffolds. Our results show that these 3D printed SrO and MgO doped TCP scaffolds with multiscale porosity contributed to early healing through accelerated osteogenesis.

  1. Measurement of in vitro and in vivo stent geometry and deformation by means of 3D imaging and stereo-photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzak, Iwona; Cosentino, Daria; Narracott, Andrew J; Bonhoeffer, Philipp; Diaz, Vanessa; Fenner, John W; Schievano, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    To quantify variability of in vitro and in vivo measurement of 3D device geometry using 3D and biplanar imaging. Comparison of stent reconstruction is reported for in vitro coronary stent deployment (using micro-CT and optical stereo-photogrammetry) and in vivo pulmonary valve stent deformation (using 4DCT and biplanar fluoroscopy). Coronary stent strut length and inter-strut angle were compared in the fully deployed configuration. Local (inter-strut angle) and global (dog-boning ratio) measures of stent deformation were reported during stent deployment. Pulmonary valve stent geometry was assessed throughout the cardiac cycle by reconstruction of stent geometry and measurement of stent diameter. Good agreement was obtained between methods for assessment of coronary stent geometry with maximum disagreement of +/- 0.03 mm (length) and +/- 3 degrees (angle). The stent underwent large, non-uniform, local deformations during balloon inflation, which did not always correlate with changes in stent diameter. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pulmonary valve stent was feasible for all frames of the fluoroscopy and for 4DCT images, with good correlation between the diameters calculated from the two methods. The largest compression of the stent during the cardiac cycle was 6.98% measured from fluoroscopy and 7.92% from 4DCT, both in the most distal ring. Quantitative assessment of stent geometry reconstructed from biplanar imaging methods in vitro and in vivo has shown good agreement with geometry reconstructed from 3D techniques. As a result of their short image acquisition time, biplanar methods may have significant advantages in the measurement of dynamic 3D stent deformation.

  2. Implications of adipose-derived stromal cells in a 3D culture system for osteogenic differentiation: an in vitro and in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Francis H; Werner, Brian C; Liang, Haixiang; Shang, Hulan; Yang, Ning; Li, Xudong; Shimer, Adam L; Balian, Gary; Katz, Adam J

    2013-01-01

    Healthy mammalian cells in normal tissues are organized in complex three-dimensional (3D) networks that display nutrient and signaling gradients. Conventional techniques that grow cells in a 2D monolayer fail to reproduce the environment that is observed in vivo. In recent years, 3D culture systems have been used to mimic tumor microenvironments in cancer research and to emulate embryogenesis in stem cell cultures. However, there have been no studies exploring the ability for adipose-derived stromal (ADS) cells in a 3D culture system to undergo osteogenic differentiation. To characterize and investigate the in vitro and in vivo potential for human ADS cells in a novel 3D culture system to undergo osteogenic differentiation. Basic science and laboratory study. Human ADS cells were isolated and prepared as either a 2D monolayer or 3D multicellular aggregates (MAs). Multicellular aggregates were formed using the hanging droplet technique. Cells were treated in osteogenic medium in vitro, and cellular differentiation was investigated using gene expression, histology, and microCT at 1-, 2-, and 4-week time points. In vivo investigation involved creating a muscle pouch by developing the avascular muscular interval in the vastus lateralis of male athymic rats. Specimens were then pretreated with osteogenic medium and surgically implanted as (1) carrier (Matrigel) alone (control), (2) carrier with human ADS cells in monolayer, or (3) human ADS cells as MAs. In vivo evidence of osteogenic differentiation was evaluated with micro computed tomography and histologic sectioning at a 2-week time point. Human ADS cells cultured by the hanging droplet technique successfully formed MAs at the air-fluid interface. Adipose-derived stromal cells cultured in monolayer or as 3D MAs retain their ability to self-replicate and undergo multilineage differentiation as confirmed by increased runx2/Cbfa2, ALP, and OCN and increased matrix mineralization on histologic sectioning

  3. Depiction of Achilles Tendon Microstructure In-Vivo Using High-Resolution 3D Ultrashort Echo-Time MRI at 7T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Misung; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Liu, Jing; Krug, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the feasibility of depicting the internal structure of the Achilles tendon in vivo using high-resolution 3D ultrashort echo-time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 7T. Materials and Methods For our UTE imaging, a minimum-phase radiofrequency pulse and an anisotropic field-of-view 3D radial acquisition were used to minimize the echo time and scan time. A fat saturation pulse was applied every eight spoke acquisitions to reduce blurring and chemical shift artifacts from fat and to improve dynamic range of the tendon signal. Five healthy volunteers and one patient were scanned with an isotropic spatial resolution of up to 0.6 mm. Fat-suppressed UTE images were qualitatively evaluated and compared to non-fat-suppressed UTE images and longer echo-time images. Results High-resolution UTE imaging was able to visualize the microstructure of the Achilles tendon. Fat suppression substantially improved the depiction of the internal structure. The UTE images revealed a fascicular pattern in the Achilles tendon and fibrocartilage at the tendon insertion. In a patient who had tendon elongation surgery after birth there was clear depiction of disrupted tendon structure. Conclusions High-resolution fat-suppressed 3D UTE imaging at 7T allows for evaluation of the Achilles tendon microstructure in vivo. PMID:24500089

  4. Topographic deformation patterns of knee cartilage after exercises with high knee flexion: an in vivo 3D MRI study using voxel-based analysis at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie; Stockinger, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Raya, J.G. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Pietschmann, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hoehne-Hueckstaedt, U.; Glitsch, U.; Ellegast, R. [Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Miner' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dortmund (Germany); Glaser, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); RZM Zentrum, Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To implement a novel voxel-based technique to identify statistically significant local cartilage deformation and analyze in-vivo topographic knee cartilage deformation patterns using a voxel-based thickness map approach for high-flexion postures. Sagittal 3T 3D-T1w-FLASH-WE-sequences of 10 healthy knees were acquired before and immediately after loading (kneeling/squatting/heel sitting/knee bends). After cartilage segmentation, 3D-reconstruction and 3D-registration, colour-coded deformation maps were generated by voxel-based subtraction of loaded from unloaded datasets to visualize cartilage thickness changes in all knee compartments. Compression areas were found bifocal at the peripheral medial/caudolateral patella, both posterior femoral condyles and both anterior/central tibiae. Local cartilage thickening were found adjacent to the compression areas. Significant local strain ranged from +13 to -15 %. Changes were most pronounced after squatting, least after knee bends. Shape and location of deformation areas varied slightly with the loading paradigm, but followed a similar pattern consistent between different individuals. Voxel-based deformation maps identify individual in-vivo load-specific and posture-associated strain distribution in the articular cartilage. The data facilitate understanding individual knee loading properties and contribute to improve biomechanical 3 models. They lay a base to investigate the relationship between cartilage degeneration patterns in common osteoarthritis and areas at risk of cartilage wear due to mechanical loading in work-related activities. (orig.)

  5. Ex-vivo dynamic 3-D culture of human tissues in the RCCS™ bioreactor allows the study of Multiple Myeloma biology and response to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Marina; Steimberg, Nathalie; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Belloni, Daniela; Berenzi, Angiola; Girlanda, Stefania; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Mazzoleni, Giovanna; Ferrero, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) culture models are emerging as invaluable tools in tumor biology, since they reproduce tissue-specific structural features and cell-cell interactions more accurately than conventional 2-D cultures. Multiple Myeloma, which depends on myeloma cell-Bone Marrow microenvironment interactions for development and response to drugs, may particularly benefit from such an approach. An innovative 3-D dynamic culture model based on the use of the RCCS™ Bioreactor was developed to allow long-term culture of myeloma tissue explants. This model was first validated with normal and pathological explants, then applied to tissues from myeloma patients. In all cases, histological examination demonstrated maintenance of viable myeloma cells inside their native microenvironment, with an overall well preserved histo-architecture including bone lamellae and vessels. This system was then successfully applied to evaluate the cytotoxic effects exerted by the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib not only on myeloma cells but also on angiogenic vessels. Moreover, as surrogate markers of specialized functions expressed by myeloma cells and microenvironment, β2 microglobulin, VEGF and Angiopoietin-2 levels, as well as Matrix Metalloproteases activity, were evaluated in supernatants from 3D cultures and their levels reflected the effects of Bortezomib treatment. Notably, determination of β2 microglobulin levels in supernatants from Bortezomib-treated samples and in patients'sera following Bortezomib-based therapies disclosed an overall concordance in the response to the drug ex vivo and in vivo. Our findings indicate, as a proof of principle, that 3-D, RCCS™ bioreactor-based culture of tissue explants can be exploited for studying myeloma biology and for a pre-clinical approach to patient-targeted therapy.

  6. A semiautomatic method for in vivo three-dimensional quantitative analysis of fascial layers mobility based on 3D ultrasound scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condino, S; Turini, G; Parrini, S; Stecco, A; Busoni, F; Ferrari, V; Ferrari, M; Gesi, M

    2015-11-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the role of deep fascia mobility in musculoskeletal dynamics and chronic pain mechanisms; however, no strategies have been presented so far to study in vivo fascial motion in 3D. This paper presents a semiautomatic method, based on ultrasound (US) imaging, enabling a 3D evaluation of fascia mobility. The proposed approach relies on the acquisition of 3D US datasets at rest and during a voluntary muscular contraction and consists of two phases: 3D US dataset analysis and generation of a displacement vector field using a block matching technique (Phase 1) and validation and filtering of the resulting displacement vector field for outliers removal (Phase 2). The accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method were preliminarily tested on different 3D US datasets, undergoing either simulated (procedural) or real (muscular contraction) deformations. As for the simulated deformation, estimated displacement vectors resulting from Phase 1 presented a mean magnitude percentage error of 8.05 % and a mean angular error of 4.78° which, after Phase 2, were reduced by 69.44 and by 83.05 %, respectively. Tests on real deformations further validated the effectiveness of Phase 2 in the removal of outliers from the displacement vector field. Obtained results preliminarily demonstrate the viability of the proposed algorithm for the analysis of fascia mobility. Such analysis can enable clinicians to better understand the fascia role in musculoskeletal dynamics and disorder. Further experiments are needed to optimize the method in consideration of the anatomical region to be studied.

  7. Multi-Material 3-D Viscoelastic Model of a Transtibial Residuum from In-vivo Indentation and MRI Data

    CERN Document Server

    Sengeh, David Moinina; Petron, Arthur; Herr, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Although the socket is critical in a prosthetic system for a person with limb amputation, the methods of its design are largely artisanal. A roadblock for a repeatable and quantitative socket design process is the lack of predictive and patient specific biomechanical models of the residuum. This study presents the evaluation of such a model using a combined experimental-numerical approach. The model geometry and tissue boundaries are derived from MRI. The soft tissue non-linear elastic and viscoelastic mechanical behavior was evaluated using inverse finite element analysis (FEA) of in-vivo indentation experiments. A custom designed robotic in-vivo indentation system was used to provide a rich experimental data set of force versus time at 18 sites across a limb. During FEA, the tissues were represented by two layers, namely the skin-adipose layer and an underlying muscle-soft tissue complex. The non-linear elastic behavior was modeled using 2nd order Ogden hyperelastic formulations, and viscoelasticity was mod...

  8. Simulation of platelet, thrombus and erythrocyte hydrodynamic interactions in a 3D arteriole with in vivo comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Wang

    Full Text Available Cylindrical blood vessels, ellipsoid platelets and biconcave-shaped deformable erythrocytes (RBCs are important participants in hemostasis and thrombosis. However, due to the challenge of combining these components in simulation tools, few simulation studies have included all of them in realistic three-dimensional models. In the present study, we apply a recently developed simulation model to incorporate these components and analyze the flow in a thrombotic tubular arteriole, particularly the detailed hydrodynamic interactions between the thrombus shape, RBCs and platelets. It was found that at certain azimuth positions, the velocity drops in the proximity of both the upstream and downstream edge of the thrombus, which is accompanied by a rapid velocity increase in the narrowed region. The RBCs alter the flow profiles significantly from the typical low Reynolds (Re number flow, and also enhance the deposition of free flowing platelets onto the thrombus. By evaluating the platelet-thrombus interaction and platelet-RBC interaction together, several mechanisms of platelet deposition augmentation are identified. With in vivo data comparison, our model illustrates the potential of future thrombosis studies that incorporate detailed receptor-ligand adhesion modules.

  9. Evaluation of trained immunity by β-1, 3 (d)-glucan on murine monocytes in vitro and duration of response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Valtanen, Pablo; Guzman-Genuino, Ruth Marian; Williams, David L; Hayball, John D; Diener, Kerrilyn R

    2017-08-01

    The β-1, 3 (d)-glucan (β-glucan) present in the cell wall of Candida albicans induces epigenetic changes in human monocytes resulting in primed macrophages exhibiting increased cytokine responsiveness to reinfection. This phenomenon is referred to as trained immunity or innate immune memory. However, whether β-glucan can reprogramme murine monocytes in vitro or induce lasting effects in vivo has yet to be elucidated. Thus, purified murine spleen-derived monocytes were primed with β-glucan in vitro and assessed for markers of differentiation and survival. Important macrophage cell markers during monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation were downregulated and survival enhanced due to partial inhibition of apoptosis. Increased survival and not the β-glucan training effect explained the elevated production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced by subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. In vivo, 4 days after systemic administration of β-glucan, mice were more responsive to LPS challenge as shown by the increased serum levels of TNFα, IL-6 and IL-10, an effect shown to be short lived as enhanced cytokine production was lost by day 20. Here, we have characterised murine macrophages derived from β-glucan-primed monocytes based on their surface marker expression and for the first time provide evidence that the training effect of β-glucan in vivo declines within a 3-week period.

  10. In vivo mouse myocardial (31)P MRS using three-dimensional image-selected in vivo spectroscopy (3D ISIS): technical considerations and biochemical validations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakermans, A.J.; Abdurrachim, D.; Nierop, B.J. van; Koeman, A.; Kroon, I. van der; Baartscheer, A.; Schumacher, C.A.; Strijkers, G.J.; Houten, S.M.; Zuurbier, C.J.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    (31)P MRS provides a unique non-invasive window into myocardial energy homeostasis. Mouse models of cardiac disease are widely used in preclinical studies, but the application of (31)P MRS in the in vivo mouse heart has been limited. The small-sized, fast-beating mouse heart imposes challenges

  11. SiO2 and ZnO Dopants in 3D Printed TCP Scaffolds Enhances Osteogenesis and Angiogenesis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Gary; Bose, Susmita

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds with three dimensionally (3D) interconnected pores play an important role in mechanical interlocking and biological fixation in bone implant applications. CaPs alone, however, are only osteoconductive (ability to guide bone growth). Much attention has been given to the incorporation of biologics and pharmacologics to add osteoinductive (ability to cause new bone growth) properties to CaP materials. Because biologics and pharmacologics are generally delicate compounds and also subject to increased regulatory scrutiny, there is a need to investigate alternative methods to introduce osteoinductivity to CaP materials. In this study silica (SiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been incorporated in to 3D printed β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds to investigate their potential to trigger osteoinduction in vivo. Silicon and zinc are trace elements that are common to bone and have also been shown to have many beneficial properties from increased bone regeneration to angiogenesis. Implants were placed in bicortical femur defects introduced to a murine model for up to 16 weeks. Addition of dopants into TCP increased the capacity for new early bone formation by modulating collagen I production and osteocalcin production. Neovascularization was found to be up to three times more than the pure TCP control group. The findings from this study indicate that the combination of SiO2 and ZnO dopants in TCP may be a viable alternative to introduce osteoinductive properties to CaPs. PMID:23871941

  12. Anti-tuberculosis drug combination for controlled oral delivery using 3D printed compartmental dosage forms: From drug product design to in vivo testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, Natalja; Boetker, Johan Peter; Colombo, Stefano; Harmankaya, Necati; Rantanen, Jukka; Bohr, Adam

    2017-10-06

    The design and production of an oral dual-compartmental dosage unit (dcDU) was examined in vitro and in vivo with the purpose of physically isolating and modulating the release profile of an anti-tuberculosis drug combination. Rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (ISO) are first line combination drugs for treatment of tuberculosis (TB) that negatively interact with each other upon simultaneous release in acidic environment. The dcDUs were designed in silico by computer aided design (CAD) and fabricated in two steps; first three-dimensional (3D) printing of the outer structure, followed by hot-melt extrusion (HME) of the drug-containing filaments. The structure of the fabricated dcDUs was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The 3D printed compartmentalized shells were loaded with filaments containing active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and selectively sealed to modulate drug dissolution. The drug release profile of the dcDUs was characterized by pH-transfer dissolution in vitro and pharmacokinetics studies in rats, and resulted in modified release of the APIs from the dcDUs as compared to the free filaments. Furthermore, the selective physical sealing of the compartments resulted in an effective retardation of the in vitro API release. The findings of this study support the development of controllable-by-design dcDU systems for combination therapies to enable efficient therapeutic translation of oral dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Correlation of 3D Shift and 3D Tilt of the Patella in Patients With Recurrent Dislocation of the Patella and Healthy Volunteers: An In Vivo Analysis Based on 3-Dimensional Computer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuzo; Toritsuka, Yukiyoshi; Nakamura, Norimasa; Horibe, Shuji; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shino, Konsei

    2017-11-01

    The concepts of lateral deviation and lateral inclination of the patella, characterized as shift and tilt, have been applied in combination to evaluate patellar malalignment in patients with patellar dislocation. It is not reasonable, however, to describe the 3-dimensional (3D) positional relation between the patella and the femur according to measurements made on 2-dimensional (2D) images. The current study sought to clarify the relation between lateral deviation and inclination of the patella in patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella (RDP) by redefining them via 3D computer models as 3D shift and 3D tilt. Descriptive laboratory study. Altogether, 60 knees from 56 patients with RDP and 15 knees from 10 healthy volunteers were evaluated. 3D shift and tilt of the patella were analyzed with 3D computer models created by magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained at 10° intervals of knee flexion (0°-50°). 3D shift was defined as the spatial distance between the patellar reference point and the midsagittal plane of the femur; it is expressed as a percentage of the interepicondylar width. 3D tilt was defined as the spatial angle between the patellar reference plane and the transepicondylar axis. Correlations between the 2 parameters were assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The patients' mean Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.895 ± 0.186 (range, -0.073 to 0.997; median, 0.965). In all, 56 knees (93%) had coefficients >0.7 (strong correlation); 1 knee (2%), >0.4 (moderate correlation); 2 knees (3%), >0.2 (weak correlation); and 1 knee (2%), correlation). The mean correlation coefficient of the healthy volunteers was 0.645 ± 0.448 (range, -0.445 to 0.982; median, 0.834). A statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of the correlation coefficients between the patients and the healthy volunteers ( P = .0034). When distribution of the correlation coefficients obtained by the 3D analyses was compared with that by the 2

  14. Polycaprolactone-coated 3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: in vitro alendronate release behavior and local delivery effect on in vivo osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Bose, Susmita

    2014-07-09

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro alendronate (AD) release behavior through polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on in vivo bone formation using PCL-coated 3D printed interconnected porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. Higher AD and Ca(2+) ion release was observed at lower pH (5.0) than that at higher pH (7.4). AD and Ca(2+) release, surface morphology, and phase analysis after release indicated a matrix degradation dominated AD release caused by TCP dissolution. PCL coating showed its effectiveness for controlled and sustained AD release. Six different scaffold compositions, namely, (i) TCP (bare TCP), (ii) TCP + AD (AD-coated TCP), (iii) TCP + PCL (PCL-coated TCP), (iv) TCP + PCL + AD, (v) TCP + AD + PCL, and (vi) TCP + AD + PCL + AD were tested in the distal femoral defect of Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 and 10 weeks. An excellent bone formation inside the micro and macro pores of the scaffolds was observed from histomorphology. Histomorphometric analysis revealed maximum new bone formation in TCP + AD + PCL scaffolds after 6 weeks. No adverse effect of PCL on bioactivity of TCP and in vivo bone formation was observed. All scaffolds with AD showed higher bone formation and reduced TRAP (tartrate resistant acid phosphatase) positive cells activity compared to bare TCP and TCP coated with only PCL. Bare TCP scaffolds showed the highest TRAP positive cells activity followed by TCP + PCL scaffolds, whereas TCP + AD scaffolds showed the lowest TRAP activity. A higher TRAP positive cells activity was observed in TCP + AD + PCL compared to TCP + AD scaffolds after 6 weeks. Our results show that in vivo local AD delivery from PCL-coated 3DP TCP scaffolds could further induce increased early bone formation.

  15. Microscopic dual-energy CT (microDECT): a flexible tool for multichannel ex vivo 3D imaging of biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, S; Beisser, C J; Ruthensteiner, B; Metscher, B D

    2017-07-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) uses two different x-ray energy spectra in order to differentiate between tissues, materials or elements in a single sample or patient. DECT is becoming increasingly popular in clinical imaging and preclinical in vivo imaging of small animal models, but there have been only very few reports on ex vivo DECT of biological samples at microscopic resolutions. The present study has three main aims. First, we explore the potential of microscopic DECT (microDECT) for delivering isotropic multichannel 3D images of fixed biological samples with standard commercial laboratory-based microCT setups at spatial resolutions reaching below 10 μm. Second, we aim for retaining the maximum image resolution and quality during the material decomposition. Third, we want to test the suitability for microDECT imaging of different contrast agents currently used for ex vivo staining of biological samples. To address these aims, we used microCT scans of four different samples stained with x-ray dense contrast agents. MicroDECT scans were acquired with five different commercial microCT scanners from four companies. We present a detailed description of the microDECT workflow, including sample preparation, image acquisition, image processing and postreconstruction material decomposition, which may serve as practical guide for applying microDECT. The MATLAB script (The Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA, USA) used for material decomposition (including a graphical user interface) is provided as a supplement to this paper (https://github.com/microDECT/DECTDec). In general, the presented microDECT workflow yielded satisfactory results for all tested specimens. Original scan resolutions have been mostly retained in the separate material fractions after basis material decomposition. In addition to decomposition of mineralized tissues (inherent sample contrast) and stained soft tissues, we present a case of double labelling of different soft tissues with subsequent

  16. In vivo visualization and analysis of 3-D hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms with flow-sensitized 4-D MR imaging at 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckel, Stephan; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Wetzel, Stephan G. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Stalder, Aurelien F.; Markl, Michael [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Santini, Francesco [University Hospital Basel, MR Physics, Institute of Radiology, Basel (Switzerland); Ruefenacht, Daniel A. [Geneva University Hospitals, Neurointerventional Service, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-06-15

    Blood-flow patterns and wall shear stress (WSS) are considered to play a major role in the development and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. These hemodynamic aspects have been extensively studied in vitro using geometric realistic aneurysm models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of in vivo flow-sensitized 4-D MR imaging for analysis of intraaneurysmal hemodynamics. Five cerebral aneurysms were examined using ECG-gated, flow-sensitized 4-D MR imaging at 3 T in three patients. Postprocessing included quantification of flow velocities, visualization of time-resolved 2-D vector graphs and 3-D particle traces, vortical flow analysis, and estimation of WSS. Flow patterns were analyzed in relation to aneurysm geometry and aspect ratio. Magnitude, spatial and temporal evolution of vortical flow differed markedly among the aneurysms. Particularly unstable vortical flow was demonstrated in a wide-necked parophthalmic ICA aneurysm (high aspect ratio). Relatively stable vortical flow was observed in aneurysms with a lower aspect ratio. Except for a wide-necked cavernous ICA aneurysm (low aspect ratio), WSS was reduced in all aneurysms and showed a high spatial variation. In vivo flow-sensitized 4-D MR imaging can be applied to analyze complex patterns of intraaneurysmal flow. Flow patterns, distribution of flow velocities, and WSS seem to be determined by the vascular geometry of the aneurysm. Temporal and spatial averaging effects are drawbacks of the MR-based analysis of flow patterns as well as the estimation of WSS, particularly in small aneurysms. Further studies are needed to establish a direct link between definitive flow patterns and different aneurysm geometries. (orig.)

  17. Non-invasive 3d magnetic resonance thermal mapping: determination of the lesion size during laser-therapy in ex vivo tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viard, R. [Lille 2 University, INSERM U703, EA 1049, Lille cedex (France); USTL, LAGIS CNRS UMR 8146, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piron, B.; Rousseau, J. [Lille 2 University, INSERM U703, EA 1049, Lille cedex (France); Steiner, A. [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Lille (France); Wassmer, B. [Osyris SA, Hellemmes (France); Mordon, S. [Lille University Hospital, INSERM (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research) IFR 114, Lille (France)

    2008-04-15

    Developments in open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets have made possible the use of reproducible thermosensitive sequences to determine temperature distribution inside biological tissue. This study aimed to compare MR thermal mapping during laser-induced interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) with macroscopically observed thermal lesions in order to estimate the 3D size of the coagulative necrosis. Laser irradiation was performed ex vivo with a 980-nm laser in pig liver in an open low-magnetic field (0.2 T) scanner. Laser light was transmitted through a 1,040/600 {mu}m (outer/core diameter) bare-tipped silica fiber. Laser energy was applied in a pulsed mode (10 s laser-on, 10 s laser-off) for 12 min, power 6 W, energy 2,160 J. Gradient-echo images acquired during laser irradiation were used for real-time temperature mapping by the MR-T1 method. The method was then validated by a comparison between calculated 60 C isotherm and macroscopic lesion size. Temperature accuracy was 2.2 C, temporal resolution was 20 s. and spatial resolution was 2.5 x 2.5 x 2.5 mm{sup 3} (0.8% of the mean volume of coagulative necrosis). The mean lesion volume was 1830 mm{sup 3} {+-} 189 (standard error), {sigma} (standard deviation) = 499 and range (min = 1281; max = 2591) mm{sup 3}. Volumes calculated from MRI isotherms were correlated (correlation coefficient r {sup 2} = 0.70) significantly (P = 0.08) to lesion size determined from macroscopic measurements. Using fast gradient-echo sequence, laser monitoring is achieved efficiently with fast temperature mapping. T1-weighted images appear promising in monitoring lesion size evolution in future low magnetic field in vivo studies. (orig.)

  18. IN VIVO KINEMATICS OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT DEFICIENT KNEE DURING WIDE-BASED SQUAT USING A 2D/3D REGISTRATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Miyaji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL deficiency increases the risk of early osteoarthritis (OA. Studies of ACL deficient knee kinematics would be important to reveal the disease process and therefore to find mechanisms which would potentially slow OA progression. The purpose of this study was to determine if in vivo kinematics of the anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD knee during a wide-based squat activity differ from kinematics of the contralateral intact knee. Thirty-three patients with a unilateral ACLD knee consented to participate in this institutional review board approved study with the contralateral intact knee serving as the control. In vivo knee kinematics during the wide-based squat were analyzed using a 2D/3D registration technique utilizing CT-based bone models and lateral fluoroscopy. Comparisons were performed using values between 0 and 100° flexion both in flexion and extension phases of the squat activity. Both the ACLD and intact knees demonstrated increasing tibial internal rotation with knee flexion, and no difference was observed in tibial rotation between the groups. The tibia in the ACLD knee was more anterior than that of the contralateral knees at 0 and 5° flexion in both phases (p < 0.05. Tibiofemoral medial contact points of the ACLD knees were more posterior than that of the contralateral knees at 5, 10 and 15° of knee flexion in the extension phase of the squat activity (p < 0.05. Tibiofemoral lateral contact points of the ACLD knees were more posterior than that of the contralateral knees at 0° flexion in the both phases (p < 0.05. The kinematics of the ACLD and contralateral intact knees were similar during the wide-based squat except at the low flexion angles. Therefore, we conclude the wide-based squat may be recommended for the ACLD knee by avoiding terminal extension

  19. 3D wide field-of-view Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy advancing real-time in-vivo imaging and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cogliati, Andrea; Hayes, Adam; Tankam, Patrice; Santhanam, Anand; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2017-02-01

    Real-time volumetric high-definition wide-field-of-view in-vivo cellular imaging requires micron-scale resolution in 3D. Compactness of the handheld device and distortion-free images with cellular resolution are also critically required for onsite use in clinical applications. By integrating a custom liquid lens-based microscope and a dual-axis MEMS scanner in a compact handheld probe, Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) breaks the lateral resolution limit of optical coherence tomography through depth, overcoming the tradeoff between numerical aperture and depth of focus, enabling advances in biotechnology. Furthermore, distortion-free imaging with no post-processing is achieved with a compact, lightweight handheld MEMS scanner that obtained a 12-fold reduction in volume and 17-fold reduction in weight over a previous dual-mirror galvanometer-based scanner. Approaching the holy grail of medical imaging - noninvasive real-time imaging with histologic resolution - GD-OCM demonstrates invariant resolution of 2 μm throughout a volume of 1 x 1 x 0.6 mm3, acquired and visualized in less than 2 minutes with parallel processing on graphics processing units. Results on the metrology of manufactured materials and imaging of human tissue with GD-OCM are presented.

  20. Contribution of In Vivo and Organotypic 3D Models to Understanding the Role of Macrophages and Neutrophils in the Pathogenesis of Psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Lorthois

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis, a common chronic immune-mediated skin disease, is histologically characterized by a rapid keratinocyte turnover and differentiation defects. Key insights favor the idea that T cells are not the only key actors involved in the inflammatory process. Innate immune cells, more precisely neutrophils and macrophages, provide specific signals involved in the initiation and the maintenance of the pathogenesis. Current data from animal models and, to a lesser extent, three-dimensional in vitro models have confirmed the interest in leaning towards other immune cell types as a potential new cellular target for the treatment of the disease. Although these models do not mimic the complex phenotype nor all human features of psoriasis, their development is necessary and essential to better understand reciprocal interactions between skin cells and innate immune cells and to emphasize the crucial importance of the local lesional microenvironment. In this review, through the use of in vivo and 3D organotypic models, we aim to shed light on the crosstalk between epithelial and immune components and to discuss the role of secreted inflammatory molecules in the development of this chronic skin disease.

  1. Controlled, parametric, individualized, 2D and 3D imaging measurements of aerosol deposition in the respiratory tract of healthy human volunteers: in vivo data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majoral, Caroline; Fleming, John; Conway, Joy; Katz, Ira; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Pichelin, Marine; Montesantos, Spyridon; Caillibotte, Georges

    2014-10-01

    To provide a validation dataset for aerosol deposition modeling, a clinical trial was performed in which the inhalation parameters and the inhaled aerosol were controlled or characterized. Eleven, healthy, never-smokers, male participants completed the study. Each participant performed two inhalations of (99m)Tc-labeled aerosol from a vibrating mesh nebulizer, which differed by a single controlled parameter (aerosol particle size: "small" or "large"; inhalation: "deep" or "shallow"; carrier gas: air or a helium-oxygen mix). The deposition measurements were made by planar imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT). The difference between the mean activity measured by two-dimensional imaging and that delivered from the nebulizer was 2.7%, which was not statistically significant. The total activity deposited was significantly lower in the left lung than in the right lung (p<0.0001) with a mean ratio (left/right) of 0.87±0.1 standard deviation (SD). However, when normalized to lung air volume, the left lung deposition was significantly higher (p=0.0085) with a mean ratio of 1.08±0.12 SD. A comparison of the three-dimensional central-to-peripheral (nC/P3D) ratio showed that it was significantly higher for the left lung (p<0.0001) with a mean ratio (left/right) of 1.36±0.20 SD. The effect of particle size was statistically significant on the nC/P3D ratio (p=0.0014), extrathoracic deposition (p=0.0037), and 24-hr clearance (p<0.0001), contrary to the inhalation parameters, which showed no effect. This article presents the results of an analysis of the in vivo deposition data, obtained in a clinical study designed to provide data for model validation. This study has demonstrated the value of SPECT imaging over planar, the influence of particle size on regional distribution within the lung, and differences in deposition between the left and right lungs.

  2. SrO- and MgO-doped microwave sintered 3D printed tricalcium phosphate scaffolds: mechanical properties and in vivo osteogenesis in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Solaiman; Dernell, William S; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2015-04-01

    The presence of interconnected macro pores allows guided tissue regeneration in tissue engineering scaffolds. However, highly porous scaffolds suffer from having poor mechanical strength. Previously, we showed that microwave sintering could successfully be used to improve mechanical strength of macro porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. This study reports the presence of SrO and MgO as dopants in TCP scaffolds improves mechanical and in vivo biological performance. We have used direct three dimensional printing (3DP) technology for scaffold fabrication. These 3DP scaffolds possessed multiscale porosity, that is, 3D interconnected designed macro pores along with intrinsic micro pores. A significant increase in mechanical strength, between 37 and 41%, was achieved due to SrO and MgO doping in TCP as compared with pure TCP. Maximum compressive strengths of 9.38 ± 1.86 MPa and 12.01 ± 1.56 MPa were achieved by conventional and microwave sintering, respectively, for SrO-MgO-doped 3DP scaffolds with 500 μm designed pores. Histomorphological and histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly higher osteoid, bone and haversian canal formation induced by the presence of SrO and MgO dopants in 3DP TCP as compared with pure TCP scaffolds when tested in rabbit femoral condyle defect model. Increased osteon and thus enhanced network of blood vessel formation, and osteocalcin expression were observed in the doped TCP scaffolds. Our results show that these 3DP SrO-MgO-doped TCP scaffolds have the potential for early wound healing through accelerated osteogenesis and vasculogenesis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Rapid 3D in vivo 1H human lung respiratory imaging at 1.5 T using ultra-fast balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Orso; Bauman, Grzegorz; Wielpütz, Mark O; Nyilas, Sylvia; Latzin, Philipp; Heussel, Claus P; Bieri, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    To introduce a reproducible, nonenhanced 1H MRI method for rapid in vivo functional assessment of the whole lung at 1.5 Tesla (T). At different respiratory volumes, the pulmonary signal of ultra-fast steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) follows an adapted sponge model, characterized by a respiratory index α. From the model, α reflects local ventilation-related information, is virtually independent from the lung density and thus from the inspiratory phase and breathing amplitude. Respiratory α-mapping is evaluated for healthy volunteers and patients with obstructive lung disease from a set of five consecutive 3D ultra-fast steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) scans performed in breath-hold and at different inspiratory volumes. For the patients, α-maps were compared with CT, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and Fourier decomposition (FD). In healthy volunteers, respiratory α-maps showed good reproducibility and were homogeneous on iso-gravitational planes, but showed a gravity-dependent respiratory gradient. In patients with obstructive pulmonary disease, the functional impairment observed in respiratory α-maps was associated with emphysematous regions present on CT images, perfusion defects observable on DCE-MRI, and impairments visualized on FD ventilation and perfusion maps. Respiratory α-mapping derived from multivolumetric ufSSFP provides insights into functional lung impairment and may serve as a reproducible and normative measure for clinical studies. Magn Reson Med 78:1059-1069, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. A simple but reliable method for measuring 3D Achilles tendon moment arm geometry from a single, static magnetic resonance scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C F; Lum, I; Reid, S; Clarke, E; Stannage, K; El-Sallam Abd, A; Herbert, R D; Donnelly, C J

    2017-04-11

    Current methods for measuring in vivo 3D muscle-tendon moment arms generally rely on the acquisition of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans at multiple joint angles. However, for patients with musculoskeletal pathologies such as fixed contractures, moving a joint through its full range of motion is not always feasible. The purpose of this research was to develop a simple, but reliable in vivo 3D Achilles tendon moment arm (ATMA) technique from a single static MRI scan. To accomplish this, for nine healthy adults (5 males, 4 females), the geometry of a cylinder was fit to the 3D form of the talus dome, which was used to estimate the talocrural flexion/extension axis, and a fifth-order polynomial fit to the line of action of the Achilles tendon. The single static scan in vivo 3D ATMA estimates were compared to estimates obtained from the same subjects at the same ankle joint angles using a previously validated 3D dynamic MRI based in vivo ATMA measurement technique. The ATMA estimates from the single scan in vivo 3D method (52.5mm±5.6) were in excellent agreement (ICC=0.912) to the validated in vivo 3D method (51.5mm±5.1). These data show reliable in vivo 3D ATMA can be obtained from a single MRI scan for healthy adult populations. The single scan, in vivo 3D ATMA technique provides researchers with a simple, but reliable method for obtaining subject-specific ATMAs for musculoskeletal modelling purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  6. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  7. 3D Cell Culture: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koledova, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    3D cell culture is an invaluable tool in developmental, cell, and cancer biology. By mimicking crucial features of in vivo environment, including cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, 3D cell culture enables proper structural architecture and differentiated function of normal tissues or tumors in vitro. Thereby 3D cell culture realistically models in vivo tissue conditions and processes, and provides in vivo like responses. Since its early days in the 1970s, 3D cell culture has revealed important insights into mechanisms of tissue homeostasis and cancer, and accelerated translational research in cancer biology and tissue engineering.

  8. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    OpenAIRE

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-01-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There ar...

  9. Europeana and 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  10. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  11. Integrated light-sheet imaging and flow-based enquiry (iLIFE) system for 3D in-vivo imaging of multicellular organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmi, Chelur K.; Padmanabhan, Sreedevi; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Rajan, Kanhirodan; Manjithaya, Ravi; Singh, Varsha; Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2017-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a light-sheet-based 3D interrogation system on a microfluidic platform for screening biological specimens during flow. To achieve this, a diffraction-limited light-sheet (with a large field-of-view) is employed to optically section the specimens flowing through the microfluidic channel. This necessitates optimization of the parameters for the illumination sub-system (illumination intensity, light-sheet width, and thickness), microfluidic specimen platform (channel-width and flow-rate), and detection sub-system (camera exposure time and frame rate). Once optimized, these parameters facilitate cross-sectional imaging and 3D reconstruction of biological specimens. The proposed integrated light-sheet imaging and flow-based enquiry (iLIFE) imaging technique enables single-shot sectional imaging of a range of specimens of varying dimensions, ranging from a single cell (HeLa cell) to a multicellular organism (C. elegans). 3D reconstruction of the entire C. elegans is achieved in real-time and with an exposure time of few hundred micro-seconds. A maximum likelihood technique is developed and optimized for the iLIFE imaging system. We observed an intracellular resolution for mitochondria-labeled HeLa cells, which demonstrates the dynamic resolution of the iLIFE system. The proposed technique is a step towards achieving flow-based 3D imaging. We expect potential applications in diverse fields such as structural biology and biophysics.

  12. Accuracy of spiral CT and 3D reconstruction in the detection of acute pulmonary embolism - development of an animal model using porcine lungs and technical specimens. Development of an animal model using porcine lungs and technical specimens; Diagnostik der akuten Lungenembolie mittels Spiral-CT und 3D-Rekonstruktion. Entwicklung eines Tiermodells und technischer Probekoerper im Ex-vivo-Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, B.G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Kauczor, H.U.; Thelen, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Konerding, M.A. [Anatomisches Inst., Mainz Univ (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    Purpose: To develop a model for simulation the CT morphologic situation of acute pulmonary embolism, to evaluate the accuracy of spiral CT and 3D reconstruction in the detection of artificial emboli and to investigate the influence of the orientation of emboli depending on z-axis orientation. Materials and Methods: Standardized artificial emboli made of wax and of defined size and shape were positioned into the pulmonary arteries of porcine lungs. Castings of the embolized pulmonary arterial trees were made by injection of a special opaque resin. After performance of spiral CT the data sets of the emboli and the pulmonary arteries were post-processed. The 3D segmentations were compared with the anatomic preparation to evaluate the accuracy of spiral CT/3D reconstruction-technique. Technical specimens simulating CT-morphology of acute embolized vessels underwent spiral CT in six different positions with respect to the z-axis. The CT data were reconstructed using a standardized and a contrastadapted method with interactive correction. The 3D emboli were analysed under qualitative aspects, and measurements of their extent were done. Results: In nearly 91%, there was complete agreement between CT and the corresponding findings at the anatomical preparation. Measurements of the 3D reconstructed technical specimens showed discrepancies of shape and size in dependence of the size of the original preparation, orientation and reconstruction technique. Overestimation up to 4 mm and underestimation to 2,2 mm were observed. Measurements of preparations with heights from 14 to 26 mm showed variances of {+-}1,5 mm ({proportional_to}6-11%). Conclusion: The presented models are suitable to simulate CT morphology of acute pulmonary embolism under ex-vivo conditions. Accuracy in the detection of artificial emboli using spiral CT/3D reconstruction is affected by localization, size and orientation of the emboli and the reconstruction technique. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Entwicklung

  13. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hee-Joong [California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dimofte, Tudor [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Gukov, Sergei [California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik,Vivatsgasse 7, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Sułkowski, Piotr [California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-04-21

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d N=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  14. Assessment of in vivo 3D kinematics of cervical spine manipulation: Influence of practitioner experience and occurrence of cavitation noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geyt, Bernard; Dugailly, Pierre-Michel; Klein, Paul; Lepers, Yves; Beyer, Benoît; Feipel, Véronique

    2017-04-01

    Investigations on 3D kinematics during spinal manipulation are widely reported for assessing motion data, task reliability and clinical effects. However the link between cavitation occurrence and specific kinematics remains questionable. This paper investigates the 3D head-trunk kinematics during high velocity low amplitude (HVLA) manipulation for different practitioners with respect to the occurrence of cavitation. Head-trunk 3D motions were sampled during HVLA manipulation in twenty asymptomatic volunteers manipulated by four practitioners with different seniority (years of experience). Four target levels were selected, C3 and C5 on each side, and were randomly allocated to the different practitioners. The data was recorded before, during and after each set of trial in each anatomical plane. The number of trials with cavitation occurrence was collected for each practitioner. The manipulation task was performed using extension, ipsilateral side bending and contra-lateral axial rotation independent of side or target level. The displayed angular motion magnitudes did not exceed normal active ROM. Regardless cavitation occurrence, wide variations were observed between practitioners, especially in terms of velocity and acceleration. Cavitation occurrence was related to several kinematics features (i.e. frontal ROM and velocity, sagittal acceleration) and practitioner experience. In addition, multilevel cavitation was observed regularly. Kinematics of cervical manipulation is dependent on practitioner and years of experience. Cavitation occurrence could be related to particular kinematics features. These aspects should be further investigated in order to improve teaching and learning of cervical manipulation technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-Term Cultures of Human Cornea Limbal Explants Form 3D Structures Ex Vivo - Implications for Tissue Engineering and Clinical Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóra Júlia Szabó

    Full Text Available Long-term cultures of cornea limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs were developed and characterized for future tissue engineering and clinical applications. The limbal tissue explants were cultivated and expanded for more than 3 months in medium containing serum as the only growth supplement and without use of scaffolds. Viable 3D cell outgrowth from the explants was observed within 4 weeks of cultivation. The outgrowing cells were examined by immunofluorescent staining for putative markers of stemness (ABCG2, CK15, CK19 and Vimentin, proliferation (p63α, Ki-67, limbal basal epithelial cells (CK8/18 and differentiated cornea epithelial cells (CK3 and CK12. Morphological and immunostaining analyses revealed that long-term culturing can form stratified 3D tissue layers with a clear extracellular matrix deposition and organization (collagen I, IV and V. The LESCs showed robust expression of p63α, ABCG2, and their surface marker fingerprint (CD117/c-kit, CXCR4, CD146/MCAM, CD166/ALCAM changed over time compared to short-term LESC cultures. Overall, we provide a model for generating stem cell-rich, long-standing 3D cultures from LESCs which can be used for further research purposes and clinical transplantation.

  16. A natural chalcone induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells: 3D-QSAR, docking and an in vivo/vitro assay

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gang; Zhou, Di; Li, Xue-Zheng; Jiang, Zhe; Tan, Chengyu; Wei, Xiu-Yan; Ling, Junhong; Jing, Jing; Liu, Fen; Li, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This study was to study the antitumor effect of lonchocarpin (34) from traditional herbal medicine Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre and to reveal the underlying mechanism. The cytotoxic activities of lonchocarpin were evaluated in 10 lung cancer cell lines and it exhibited 97.5% activity at a dose of 100??M in the H292 cell line. A field-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) study of 37 flavonoids from P. pinnata was also performed, and the results obtained showed that the ...

  17. Three step derivation of cartilage like tissue from human embryonic stem cells by 2D-3D sequential culture in vitro and further implantation in vivo on alginate/PLGA scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hai Yan; Chen, Gui An; Mao, Gen Hong; Song, Tian Ran; Wang, Yan Xia

    2010-08-01

    In this study a three step culture system, 2D-3D sequential culture in vitro and further implantation in vivo was developed to induce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into cartilage like tissues. Five-day-old embryoid bodies were plated for chondrogenic induction for 27 days (step1), then the cells were suspended in alginate and seeded onto polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds for 3D cultivation for 7 days (step 2) and the cells/alginate/PLGA complexes were further transplanted into nude mice for 8 weeks (step 3). At same time, some of complexes were cultured in vitro up to 8 weeks. At the end of step 1, cells exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and expressed chondrocyte-specific markers, Sox 9 and collagen II. During the following 8 weeks of 3D cultivation in vitro, cells displayed spherical morphology, decreased immunoreactivity to Sox-9 and increased one to collagen II, demonstrated further differentiation to mature chondrocyte. In implanted grafts, not only cells appeared typical chondrocytes shape and markers but also cartilage like tissues were formed. These results indicate that 2D-3D sequential culture in vitro is an efficient protocol to induce hESCs differentiates into chondrocytes, while the three step culture system may be an appropriate procedure to derive cartilage like tissues from hESCs. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 3D and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  19. Precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, A N; Bech, J; Tvilling, L

    BACKGROUND: Stereotaxic neurosurgery in large animals is used widely in different sophisticated models, where precision is becoming more crucial as desired anatomical target regions are becoming smaller. Individually calculated coordinates are necessary in large animal models with cortical...... and subcortical anatomical differences. NEW METHOD: We present a convenient method to make an MRI-visible skull fiducial for 3D MRI-based stereotaxic procedures in larger experimental animals. Plastic screws were filled with either copper-sulphate solution or MRI-visible paste from a commercially available...... cranial head marker. The screw fiducials were inserted in the animal skulls and T1 weighted MRI was performed allowing identification of the inserted skull marker. RESULTS: Both types of fiducial markers were clearly visible on the MRÍs. This allows high precision in the stereotaxic space. COMPARISON...

  20. A non-invasive, 3D, dynamic MRI method for measuring muscle moment arms in vivo: demonstration in the human ankle joint and Achilles tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, E C; Martin, J H; d'Entremont, A G; Pandy, M G; Wilson, D R; Herbert, R D

    2015-01-01

    Muscle moment arms are used widely in biomechanical analyses. Often they are measured in 2D or at a series of static joint positions. In the present study we demonstrate a simple MRI method for measuring muscle moment arms dynamically in 3D from a single range-of-motion cycle. We demonstrate this method in the Achilles tendon for comparison with other methods, and validate the method using a custom apparatus. The method involves registration of high-resolution joint geometry from MRI scans of the stationary joint with low-resolution geometries from ultrafast MRI scans of the slowly moving joint. Tibio-talar helical axes and 3D Achilles tendon moment arms were calculated throughout passive rotation for 10 adult subjects, and compared with recently published data. A simple validation was conducted by comparing MRI measurements with direct physical measurements made on a phantom. The moment arms measured using our method and those of others were similar and there was good agreement between physical measurements (mean 41.0mm) and MRI measurements (mean 39.5mm) made on the phantom. This new method can accurately measure muscle moment arms from a single range-of-motion cycle without the need to control rotation rate or gate the scanning. Supplementary data includes custom software to assist implementation. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; van Loon, Mark

    2017-04-01

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N = 2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N = 2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N = 2∗ theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-'t Hooft loops in the 4d N = 2∗ theory. In the presence of a mass parameter cfor the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  2. Anti-tuberculosis drug combination for controlled oral delivery using 3D printed compartmental dosage forms: From drug product design to in vivo testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Boetker, Johan Peter; Colombo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    The design and production of an oral dual-compartmental dosage unit (dcDU) was examined in vitro and in vivo with the purpose of physically isolating and modulating the release profile of an anti-tuberculosis drug combination. Rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (ISO) are first line combination drugs...

  3. TEHNOLOGIJE 3D TISKALNIKOV

    OpenAIRE

    Kolar, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    Diplomsko delo predstavi razvoj tiskanja skozi čas. Podrobneje so opisani 3D tiskalniki, ki uporabljajo različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja. Predstavljene so različne tehnologije 3D tiskanja, njihova uporaba in narejeni prototipi oz. končni izdelki. Diplomsko delo opiše celoten postopek, od zamisli, priprave podatkov in tiskalnika do izdelave prototipa oz. končnega izdelka.

  4. Nanoworld in 3-D

    OpenAIRE

    Torrisi, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The 3-D version of James Cameron’s last movie, “Avatar”, has been considered a breakthrough in the cinematographic world and I, personally, still remember the strong impact of the experience of watching this film at the IMAX-3D cinema. The 3-D movies must all be grateful to the advent of stereoscopic photography, which dates back to 1838, when Sir Charles Wheatstone invented the first 3-D stereoscope. Stereoscopy creates an illusion of depth by using eyeglasses to combine two perspectives (2-...

  5. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  6. Physicomechanical, In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of 3D Printed Doped Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Solaiman

    Although tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is widely used in bone tissue engineering, the strength degradation kinetics is not well controlled. This study focuses on the underlying mechanism of strength degradation kinetics by incorporating trace elements in TCP. The objective of this research is to modify the mechanical properties of TCP to achieve the desired degradation rate for the specific need, and improve the in vivo bioactivity for early wound healing by incorporating trace elements such as strontium (Sr2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and silicon (Si4+) as dopants. The hypothesis of this research is that the presence of different trace elements in TCP will influence its phase stability, microstructure, mechanical strength, and both in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. Direct three dimensional printing (3DP) was used to fabricate designed interconnected macroporous pure and doped TCP scaffolds. Microwave sintering as opposed to conventional sintering was also used for better densification and higher mechanical strength. A maximum compressive strength of 10.95 +/- 1.28 MPa and 12.01 +/- 1.56 MPa were achieved for pure and Sr2+-Mg2+ doped TCP scaffolds with 500 microm designed pores (˜400 microm after sintering) sintered in microwave furnace, respectively. Substitution of Mg2+ and Sr2+ into calcium (Ca2+) sites of TCP crystal lattice contributed to phase stability and controlled gradual degradation. On the other hand, Si4+ substitution into phosphorous (P5+) sites destabilized the crystal structure and accelerated degradation of TCP. Interconnected macroporous beta-TCP scaffolds facilitated in vivo guided bone tissue regeneration through infiltration of cells and extracellular matrix into the designed pores. Presence of Sr2+, Mg2+ and Si4+ into beta-TCP induced increased in vivo early bone formation and better bone remodeling through increased extracellular matrix production such as, collagen and osteocalcin, when tested in rat and rabbit distal femur model. The presence of Si4

  7. Changes in global gene expression associated with 3D structure of tumors: an ex vivo matrix-free mesothelioma spheroid model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heungnam Kim

    Full Text Available Tumor microenvironments present significant barriers to anti-tumor agents. Molecules involved in multicellular tumor microenvironments, however, are difficult to study ex vivo. Here, we generated a matrix-free tumor spheroid model using the NCI-H226 mesothelioma cell line and compared the gene expression profiles of spheroids and monolayers using microarray analysis. Microarray analysis revealed that 142 probe sets were differentially expressed between tumor spheroids and monolayers. Gene ontology analysis revealed that upregulated genes were primarily related to immune response, wound response, lymphocyte stimulation and response to cytokine stimulation, whereas downregulated genes were primarily associated with apoptosis. Among the 142 genes, 27 are located in the membrane and related to biologic processes of cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling, cellular growth and proliferation and morphology. Western blot analysis validated elevation of MMP2, BAFF/BLyS/TNFSF13B, RANTES/CCL5 and TNFAIP6/TSG-6 protein expression in spheroids as compared to monolayers. Thus, we have reported the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles using an ex vivo matrix-free spheroid model to identify genes specific to the three-dimensional biological structure of tumors. The method described here can be used for gene expression profiling of tumors other than mesothelioma.

  8. Changes in global gene expression associated with 3D structure of tumors: an ex vivo matrix-free mesothelioma spheroid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heungnam; Phung, Yen; Ho, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Tumor microenvironments present significant barriers to anti-tumor agents. Molecules involved in multicellular tumor microenvironments, however, are difficult to study ex vivo. Here, we generated a matrix-free tumor spheroid model using the NCI-H226 mesothelioma cell line and compared the gene expression profiles of spheroids and monolayers using microarray analysis. Microarray analysis revealed that 142 probe sets were differentially expressed between tumor spheroids and monolayers. Gene ontology analysis revealed that upregulated genes were primarily related to immune response, wound response, lymphocyte stimulation and response to cytokine stimulation, whereas downregulated genes were primarily associated with apoptosis. Among the 142 genes, 27 are located in the membrane and related to biologic processes of cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling, cellular growth and proliferation and morphology. Western blot analysis validated elevation of MMP2, BAFF/BLyS/TNFSF13B, RANTES/CCL5 and TNFAIP6/TSG-6 protein expression in spheroids as compared to monolayers. Thus, we have reported the first large scale comparison of the transcriptional profiles using an ex vivo matrix-free spheroid model to identify genes specific to the three-dimensional biological structure of tumors. The method described here can be used for gene expression profiling of tumors other than mesothelioma.

  9. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  10. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  11. 3D heart reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Roxo, Diogo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to achieve a 3D reconstruction of the four heart chambers using 2D echocardiographic images. A level set algorithm based on the phase symmetry approach and on a new logarithmic based stopping function was used to extract simultaneously the four heart cavities from these images in a fully automatic way. However to proceed to the 3D reconstruction using the segmented images, it was first necessary to satisfy clinical practise requirements. This means that the algo...

  12. AE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-20

    AE3D solves for the shear Alfven eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies in a torodal magnetic fusion confinement device. The configuration can be either 2D (e.g. tokamak, reversed field pinch) or 3D (e.g. stellarator, helical reversed field pinch, tokamak with ripple). The equations solved are based on a reduced MHD model and sound wave coupling effects are not currently included.

  13. A Novel Rat Model of Orthodontic Tooth Movement Using Temporary Skeletal Anchorage Devices: 3D Finite Element Analysis and In Vivo Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelambar Kaipatur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this animal study was to develop a model of orthodontic tooth movement using a microimplant as a TSAD in rodents. A finite element model of the TSAD in alveolar bone was built using μCT images of rat maxilla to determine the von Mises stresses and displacement in the alveolar bone surrounding the TSAD. For in vivo validation of the FE model, Sprague-Dawley rats (n=25 were used and a Stryker 1.2 × 3 mm microimplant was inserted in the right maxilla and used to protract the right first permanent molar using a NiTi closed coil spring. Tooth movement measurements were taken at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. At 8 weeks, animals were euthanized and tissues were analyzed by histology and EPMA. FE modeling showed maximum von Mises stress of 45 Mpa near the apex of TSAD but the average von Mises stress was under 25 Mpa. Appreciable tooth movement of 0.62 ± 0.04 mm at 4 weeks and 1.99 ± 0.14 mm at 8 weeks was obtained. Histological and EPMA results demonstrated no active bone remodeling around the TSAD at 8 weeks depicting good secondary stability. This study provided evidence that protracted tooth movement is achieved in small animals using TSADs.

  14. Dixon imaging-based partial volume correction improves quantification of choline detected by breast 3D-MRSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minarikova, Lenka; Gruber, Stephan; Bogner, Wolfgang; Trattnig, Siegfried; Chmelik, Marek [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, MR Center of Excellence, Vienna (Austria); Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Helbich, Thomas H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-09-14

    Our aim was to develop a partial volume (PV) correction method of choline (Cho) signals detected by breast 3D-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-MRSI), using information from water/fat-Dixon MRI. Following institutional review board approval, five breast cancer patients were measured at 3 T. 3D-MRSI (1 cm{sup 3} resolution, duration ∝11 min) and Dixon MRI (1 mm{sup 3}, ∝2 min) were measured in vivo and in phantoms. Glandular/lesion tissue was segmented from water/fat-Dixon MRI and transformed to match the resolution of 3D-MRSI. The resulting PV values were used to correct Cho signals. Our method was validated on a two-compartment phantom (choline/water and oil). PV values were correlated with the spectroscopic water signal. Cho signal variability, caused by partial-water/fat content, was tested in 3D-MRSI voxels located in/near malignant lesions. Phantom measurements showed good correlation (r = 0.99) with quantified 3D-MRSI water signals, and better homogeneity after correction. The dependence of the quantified Cho signal on the water/fat voxel composition was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced using Dixon MRI-based PV correction, compared to the original uncorrected data (1.60-fold to 3.12-fold) in patients. The proposed method allows quantification of the Cho signal in glandular/lesion tissue independent of water/fat composition in breast 3D-MRSI. This can improve the reproducibility of breast 3D-MRSI, particularly important for therapy monitoring. (orig.)

  15. 3-D Cataract Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, L. J.; Soliz, P.; McMakin, I.; Greenaway, A.; Blanchard, P.; Ogawa, G.

    This paper describes a new adaptive optics instrument and associated diagnostic system for volumetric, in vivo imaging of the human lens and visual acuity characterization. The system is designed to allow one to capture simultaneous, in-focus images of the human lens at multiple "image planes." Based on the adaptation of a deformable grating originally developed for atmospheric turbulence measurements, the instrument will demonstrate an improvement over current techniques for imaging cortical, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataracts. The system will characterize the human lens optically and will automatically produce an estimate of visual function as affected by the measured abnormalities in the lens. The process that Kestrel and DERA Malvern will use to demonstrate the key techniques for simultaneously acquiring in vivo lens imagery at multiple focus planes employs a surrogate lens. Eventually the camera could be considered as a replacement for most standard slit lamp instruments allowing them to be converted into a 3-D imaging system.

  16. Validation of a method for in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for IMRT and VMAT treatments using on-treatment EPID images and a model-based forward-calculation algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Uytven, Eric, E-mail: eric.vanuytven@cancercare.mb.ca; Van Beek, Timothy [Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); McCowan, Peter M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada and Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Chytyk-Praznik, Krista [Medical Physics Department, Nova Scotia Cancer Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada); Greer, Peter B. [School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle, NSW 2298 (Australia); McCurdy, Boyd M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Medical Physics Department, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, 820 Sherbrook Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3A 1R9 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Radiation treatments are trending toward delivering higher doses per fraction under stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated treatment regimens. There is a need for accurate 3D in vivo patient dose verification using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. This work presents a model-based technique to compute full three-dimensional patient dose reconstructed from on-treatment EPID portal images (i.e., transmission images). Methods: EPID dose is converted to incident fluence entering the patient using a series of steps which include converting measured EPID dose to fluence at the detector plane and then back-projecting the primary source component of the EPID fluence upstream of the patient. Incident fluence is then recombined with predicted extra-focal fluence and used to calculate 3D patient dose via a collapsed-cone convolution method. This method is implemented in an iterative manner, although in practice it provides accurate results in a single iteration. The robustness of the dose reconstruction technique is demonstrated with several simple slab phantom and nine anthropomorphic phantom cases. Prostate, head and neck, and lung treatments are all included as well as a range of delivery techniques including VMAT and dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results: Results indicate that the patient dose reconstruction algorithm compares well with treatment planning system computed doses for controlled test situations. For simple phantom and square field tests, agreement was excellent with a 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rate ≥98.9%. On anthropomorphic phantoms, the 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rates ranged from 79.9% to 99.9% in the planning target volume (PTV) region and 96.5% to 100% in the low dose region (>20% of prescription, excluding PTV and skin build-up region). Conclusions: An algorithm to reconstruct delivered patient 3D doses from EPID exit dosimetry measurements was presented. The method was applied to phantom and patient

  17. Validation of a method for in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for IMRT and VMAT treatments using on-treatment EPID images and a model-based forward-calculation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Uytven, Eric; Van Beek, Timothy; McCowan, Peter M; Chytyk-Praznik, Krista; Greer, Peter B; McCurdy, Boyd M C

    2015-12-01

    Radiation treatments are trending toward delivering higher doses per fraction under stereotactic radiosurgery and hypofractionated treatment regimens. There is a need for accurate 3D in vivo patient dose verification using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. This work presents a model-based technique to compute full three-dimensional patient dose reconstructed from on-treatment EPID portal images (i.e., transmission images). EPID dose is converted to incident fluence entering the patient using a series of steps which include converting measured EPID dose to fluence at the detector plane and then back-projecting the primary source component of the EPID fluence upstream of the patient. Incident fluence is then recombined with predicted extra-focal fluence and used to calculate 3D patient dose via a collapsed-cone convolution method. This method is implemented in an iterative manner, although in practice it provides accurate results in a single iteration. The robustness of the dose reconstruction technique is demonstrated with several simple slab phantom and nine anthropomorphic phantom cases. Prostate, head and neck, and lung treatments are all included as well as a range of delivery techniques including VMAT and dynamic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results indicate that the patient dose reconstruction algorithm compares well with treatment planning system computed doses for controlled test situations. For simple phantom and square field tests, agreement was excellent with a 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rate ≥98.9%. On anthropomorphic phantoms, the 2%/2 mm 3D chi pass rates ranged from 79.9% to 99.9% in the planning target volume (PTV) region and 96.5% to 100% in the low dose region (>20% of prescription, excluding PTV and skin build-up region). An algorithm to reconstruct delivered patient 3D doses from EPID exit dosimetry measurements was presented. The method was applied to phantom and patient data sets, as well as for dynamic IMRT and

  18. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  19. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article...... contributes to the understanding of the distinctive characteristics of such a new medium, and identifies three strategies for designing 3-D projection installations: establishing space; interplay between the digital and the physical; and transformation of materiality. The principal empirical case, From...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  20. 3-D Banegenerator

    OpenAIRE

    Majidian, Peshko

    2014-01-01

    Denne oppgaven har gått ut på å lage en banegenerator som simulerer banen til et fartøy i 3-D. Den spesifikke kraften og vinkelhastigheten har blitt regnet ut for å simulere akselerometer og gyroskop og ved å implementere et treghetsnavigasjonssystem (TNS), har det vært mulig å beregne banen til fartøyet ved å bruke sensordataene i navigasjonslikningene. En sirkelbane ble brukt til å verifisere TNS systemet før 3-D banen ble testet uten støy. Deretter skulle det legges til hvit og farget støy...

  1. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  2. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  3. 45S5-Bioglass(®)-based 3D-scaffolds seeded with human adipose tissue-derived stem cells induce in vivo vascularization in the CAM angiogenesis assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Marina; Hammer, Timo R; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Hoefer, Dirk

    2013-12-01

    Poor vascularization is the key limitation for long-term acceptance of large three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering constructs in regenerative medicine. 45S5 Bioglass(®) was investigated given its potential for applications in bone engineering. Since native Bioglass(®) shows insufficient angiogenic properties, we used a collagen coating, to seed human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASC) confluently onto 3D 45S5 Bioglass(®)-based scaffolds. To investigate vascularization by semiquantitative analyses, these biofunctionalized scaffolds were then subjected to in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cells formation assays, and were also investigated in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis model, an in vivo angiogenesis assay, which uses the CAM of the hen's egg. In their native, nonbiofunctionalized state, neither Bioglass(®)-based nor biologically inert fibrous polypropylene control scaffolds showed angiogenic properties. However, significant vascularization was induced by hASC-seeded scaffolds (Bioglass(®) and polypropylene) in the CAM angiogenesis assay. Biofunctionalized scaffolds also showed enhanced tube lengths, compared to unmodified scaffolds or constructs seeded with fibroblasts. In case of biologically inert hernia meshes, the quantification of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion as the key angiogenic stimulus strongly correlated to the tube lengths and vessel numbers in all models. This correlation proved the CAM angiogenesis assay to be a suitable semiquantitative tool to characterize angiogenic effects of larger 3D implants. In addition, our results suggest that combinations of suitable scaffold materials, such as 45S5 Bioglass(®), with hASC could be a promising approach for future tissue engineering applications.

  4. 45S5-Bioglass®-Based 3D-Scaffolds Seeded with Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Induce In Vivo Vascularization in the CAM Angiogenesis Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Marina; Hammer, Timo R.; Nooeaid, Patcharakamon; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2013-01-01

    Poor vascularization is the key limitation for long-term acceptance of large three-dimensional (3D) tissue engineering constructs in regenerative medicine. 45S5 Bioglass® was investigated given its potential for applications in bone engineering. Since native Bioglass® shows insufficient angiogenic properties, we used a collagen coating, to seed human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASC) confluently onto 3D 45S5 Bioglass®-based scaffolds. To investigate vascularization by semiquantitative analyses, these biofunctionalized scaffolds were then subjected to in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cells formation assays, and were also investigated in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis model, an in vivo angiogenesis assay, which uses the CAM of the hen's egg. In their native, nonbiofunctionalized state, neither Bioglass®-based nor biologically inert fibrous polypropylene control scaffolds showed angiogenic properties. However, significant vascularization was induced by hASC-seeded scaffolds (Bioglass® and polypropylene) in the CAM angiogenesis assay. Biofunctionalized scaffolds also showed enhanced tube lengths, compared to unmodified scaffolds or constructs seeded with fibroblasts. In case of biologically inert hernia meshes, the quantification of vascular endothelial growth factor secretion as the key angiogenic stimulus strongly correlated to the tube lengths and vessel numbers in all models. This correlation proved the CAM angiogenesis assay to be a suitable semiquantitative tool to characterize angiogenic effects of larger 3D implants. In addition, our results suggest that combinations of suitable scaffold materials, such as 45S5 Bioglass®, with hASC could be a promising approach for future tissue engineering applications. PMID:23837884

  5. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through facil...

  6. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  7. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  8. Development of a Patient-Specific Tumor Mold Using MRI and 3D Printing Technology for Targeted Tissue Procurement and Radiomics Analysis of Renal Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Chatzinoff, Yonatan; Zhang, Yue; Yuan, Qing; Fulkerson, Michael; Chopra, Rajiv; Brugarolas, James; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Kapur, Payal; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2017-10-19

    To implement a platform for co-localization of in vivo quantitative multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) features with ex vivo surgical specimens of patients with renal masses using patient-specific 3D-printed tumor molds, which may aid in targeted tissue procurement and radiomics/radiogenomic analyses. Volumetric segmentation of 6 renal masses was performed with 3D Slicer (http://www.slicer.org) to create a three-dimensional (3D) tumor model. A slicing guide template was created with specialized software, which included notches corresponding to the anatomic locations of the MRI images. The tumor model was subtracted from the slicing guide to create a depression in the slicing guide corresponding to the exact size and shape of the tumor. A customized, tumor-specific, slicing guide was then printed using a 3D printer. After partial nephrectomy, the surgical specimen was bivalved through the preselected MRI plane. A thick slab of the tumor was obtained, fixed and processed as a whole-mount slide and correlated to mpMRI findings. All patients successfully underwent partial nephrectomy and adequate fitting of the tumor specimens within the 3D mold was achieved in all tumors. Distinct in vivo MRI features corresponded to unique pathologic characteristics in the same tumor. The average cost of printing each mold was US$ 160.7 ± 111.1 (range: US$ 20.9 - 350.7). MRI-based pre-operative 3D printing of tumor-specific molds allow for accurate sectioning of the tumor after surgical resection and co-localization of in vivo imaging features with tissue-based analysis in radiomics/radiogenomic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An MRI-based diagnostic framework for early diagnosis of dyslexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Baz, A. [University of Louisville, Bioengineering Department, Louisville, KY (United States); Casanova, M.; Mott, M.; Switala, A. [University of Louisville, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Louisville, KY (United States); Gimel' farb, G. [University of Auckland, Computer Science Department, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2008-09-15

    A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for early diagnosis of dyslexia was developed and tested. Dyslexia can severely impair the learning abilities of children so improved diagnostic methods are needed. Neuropathological studies show abnormal anatomy of the cerebral white matter (CWM) in dyslexic brains. We sought to develop an MRI-based macroscopic neuropathological correlate to the minicolumnopathy of dyslexia that relates to cortical connectivity: the gyral window. The brains of dyslexic patients often exhibit decreased gyrifications, so the thickness of gyral CWM for dyslexic subjects is greater than for normal subjects. We developed an MRI-based method for assessment of gyral CWM thickness with automated recognition of abnormal (e.g., dyslexic) brains. In vivo data was collected from 16 right-handed dyslexic men aged 18-40 years, and a group of 14 controls matched for gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic background, handedness and general intelligence. All the subjects were physically healthy and free of history of neurological diseases and head injury. Images were acquired with the same 1.5T MRI scanner (GE, Milwaukee, WI, USA) with voxel resolution 0.9375 x 0.9375 x 1.5 mm using a T1-weighted imaging sequence protocol. The ''ground truth'' diagnosis to evaluate the classification accuracy for each patient was given by the clinicians. The accuracy of diagnosis/classification of both the training and test subjects was evaluated using the Chi-square test at the three confidence levels - 85, 90 and 95% - in order to examine significant differences in the Levy distances. As expected, the 85% confidence level yielded the best results, the system correctly classified 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects (a 100% accuracy) and 14 out of 14 control subjects (a 100% accuracy). At the 90% confidence level, 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects were still classified correctly; however, only 13 out of 14 control subjects were correct, bringing the

  10. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...... that for precision docking of 9 DoF boxes, some of the proposed techniques are significantly better than ones with explicit rotation and scaling. Another interesting result is that the number of DoF simultaneously controlled by the user significantly influences the precision of the docking....

  11. Intraoral 3D scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühmstedt, Peter; Bräuer-Burchardt, Christian; Munkelt, Christoph; Heinze, Matthias; Palme, Martin; Schmidt, Ingo; Hintersehr, Josef; Notni, Gunther

    2007-09-01

    Here a new set-up of a 3D-scanning system for CAD/CAM in dental industry is proposed. The system is designed for direct scanning of the dental preparations within the mouth. The measuring process is based on phase correlation technique in combination with fast fringe projection in a stereo arrangement. The novelty in the approach is characterized by the following features: A phase correlation between the phase values of the images of two cameras is used for the co-ordinate calculation. This works contrary to the usage of only phase values (phasogrammetry) or classical triangulation (phase values and camera image co-ordinate values) for the determination of the co-ordinates. The main advantage of the method is that the absolute value of the phase at each point does not directly determine the coordinate. Thus errors in the determination of the co-ordinates are prevented. Furthermore, using the epipolar geometry of the stereo-like arrangement the phase unwrapping problem of fringe analysis can be solved. The endoscope like measurement system contains one projection and two camera channels for illumination and observation of the object, respectively. The new system has a measurement field of nearly 25mm × 15mm. The user can measure two or three teeth at one time. So the system can by used for scanning of single tooth up to bridges preparations. In the paper the first realization of the intraoral scanner is described.

  12. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  13. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  14. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  15. Stereolithographic hydrogel printing of 3D culture chips with biofunctionalized complex 3D perfusion networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Rujing; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2017-01-01

    the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically stable hydrogel...... and material flexibility by embedding a highly compliant cell-laden gelatin hydrogel within the confines of a 3D printed resilient PEGDA hydrogel chip of intermediate compliance. Overall, our proposed strategy represents an automated, cost-effective and high resolution technique to manufacture complex 3D......Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models capturing both the structural and dynamic complexity of the in vivo situation are in great demand as an alternative to animal models. Despite tremendous progress in engineering complex tissue/organ models in the past decade, approaches that support...

  16. Lunaserv Global Explorer, 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miconi, C. E.; Estes, N. M.; Bowman-Cisneros, E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Lunaserv Global Explorer 3D is a platform independent, planetary data visualization application, which serves high resolution base-map imagery and terrain from web map service data sources, and displays it on a 3D spinning-globe interface.

  17. The Future Is 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    3D printers are a way of producing a 3D model of an item from a digital file. The model builds up in successive layers of material placed by the printer controlled by the information in the computer file. In this article the author argues that 3D printers are one of the greatest technological advances of recent times. He discusses practical uses…

  18. The 3D additivist cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, Morehshin; Rourke, Daniel; Rasch, Miriam

    The 3D Additivist Cookbook, devised and edited by Morehshin Allahyari & Daniel Rourke, is a free compendium of imaginative, provocative works from over 100 world-leading artists, activists and theorists. The 3D Additivist Cookbook contains .obj and .stl files for the 3D printer, as well as critical

  19. The Future Is 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luke

    3D printers are a way of producing a 3D model of an item from a digital file. The model builds up in successive layers of material placed by the printer controlled by the information in the computer file. In this article the author argues that 3D printers are one of the greatest technological advances of recent times. He discusses practical uses…

  20. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  1. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  2. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  3. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  4. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  5. Clinical evaluation of 3D/3D MRI-CBCT automatching on brain tumors for online patient setup verification - A step towards MRI-based treatment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, S.K.; Duun-Christensen, Anne Katrine; Kristensen, B.H.

    2010-01-01

    undergoing postoperative radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors received a weekly CBCT. In total 18 scans was matched with both CT and MRI as reference. The CBCT scans were acquired using a Clinac iX 2300 linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems) with an On-Board Imager (OBI). Results. For the phantom...

  6. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  7. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  8. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  9. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  10. MRI-based 3D shape analysis of thigh muscles patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease versus healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HajGhanbari, Bahareh; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Changizi, Neda; Ward, Aaron D; Reid, W Darlene

    2011-02-01

    Because lower limb muscles differ in architecture and function, the systemic effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related disuse may result in regional abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between patients with COPD and healthy controls in three-dimensional shape and size measurements of individual thigh muscles. Twenty patients with COPD and 20 healthy adults (aged 55-79 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the thighs. After manual segmentation of individual knee extensor and flexor muscles, the three-dimensional shape of each muscle was obtained using specialized software. Eight shape descriptors were computed both globally (for the whole muscle) and regionally (for portions of the muscle). A two-tailed t test with a modified Bonferroni correction was used to compare group differences. Compared to the thigh muscles of healthy subjects, vastus intermedius and semimembranosus showed the most shape abnormalities in the COPD group (P muscles and the middle region of the semimembranosus muscle, compared to those of the control group (P muscles and the increased susceptibility of the knee extensors to atrophy-related anatomic anomalies in COPD. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ADT-3D Tumor Detection Assistant in 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lazcano Bello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present document describes ADT-3D (Three-Dimensional Tumor Detector Assistant, a prototype application developed to assist doctors diagnose, detect and locate tumors in the brain by using CT scan. The reader may find on this document an introduction to tumor detection; ADT-3D main goals; development details; description of the product; motivation for its development; result’s study; and areas of applicability.

  12. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Therese; Auk-Emblem, Pia; Dornish, Michael

    2015-03-24

    This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent), and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell-matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  13. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  14. Tuotekehitysprojekti: 3D-tulostin

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Janne

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tutustuttiin 3D-tulostamisen teknologiaan. Työssä käytiin läpi 3D-tulostimesta tehty tuotekehitysprojekti. Sen lisäksi esiteltiin yleisellä tasolla tuotekehitysprosessi ja syntyneiden tulosten mahdollisia suojausmenetelmiä. Tavoitteena tässä työssä oli kehittää markkinoilta jo löytyvää kotitulostin-tasoista 3D-laiteteknologiaa lähemmäksi ammattilaistason ratkaisua. Tavoitteeseen pyrittiin keskittymällä parantamaan laitteella saavutettavaa tulostustarkkuutta ja -nopeutt...

  15. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  16. Accepting the T3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, D.O.; Pope, S.C.; DeLapp, J.G.

    1994-10-01

    In April, a 128 PE Cray T3D was installed at Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Advanced Computing Laboratory as part of the DOE`s High-Performance Parallel Processor Program (H4P). In conjunction with CRI, the authors implemented a 30 day acceptance test. The test was constructed in part to help them understand the strengths and weaknesses of the T3D. In this paper, they briefly describe the H4P and its goals. They discuss the design and implementation of the T3D acceptance test and detail issues that arose during the test. They conclude with a set of system requirements that must be addressed as the T3D system evolves.

  17. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... Field II simulations and measurements with the ultrasound research scanner SARUS and a 3.5MHz 1024 element 2-D transducer array. In all investigations, 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieved a smaller main-lobe, lower sidelobes, higher contrast, and better signal to noise ratio than parallel...

  18. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  19. 3D Face Appearance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Åström, Kalle

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}......We build a 3d face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical jacobian of its resulting 2d rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations.}...

  20. 3D-mallinnus ja 3D-animaatiot biovoimalaitoksesta

    OpenAIRE

    Hiltula, Tytti

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä tehtiin biovoimalaitoksen piirustuksista 3D-mallinnus ja animaatiot. Työn tarkoituksena oli saada valmiiksi Recwell Oy:lle markkinointiin tarkoitetut kuva- ja videomateriaalit. Työssä perehdyttiin 3D-mallintamisen perustietoihin ja lähtökohtiin sekä animaation laatimiseen. Työ laadittiin kokonaisuudessaan AutoCAD-ohjelmalla, ja työn aikana tutustuttiin huolellisesti myös ohjelman käyttöohjeisiin. Piirustusten mitoituksessa huomattiin jo alkuvaiheessa suuria puutteita, ...

  1. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  2. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  3. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  4. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  5. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  6. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  7. Stereolithographic hydrogel printing of 3D culture chips with biofunctionalized complex 3D perfusion networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rujing; Larsen, Niels B

    2017-12-05

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models capturing both the structural and dynamic complexity of the in vivo situation are in great demand as an alternative to animal models. Despite tremendous progress in engineering complex tissue/organ models in the past decade, approaches that support the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically stable hydrogel constructs as self-contained chips, where confined culture volumes are traversed and surrounded by perfusable vascular-like networks. An optimized resin formulation enables printing of hydrogel chips holding perfusable microchannels with a cross-section as small as 100 μm × 100 μm, and the printed microchannels can be steadily perfused for at least one week. In addition, the integration of multiple independently perfusable and structurally stable channel systems further allows for easy combination of different bulk material volumes at exact relative spatial positions. We demonstrate this structural and material flexibility by embedding a highly compliant cell-laden gelatin hydrogel within the confines of a 3D printed resilient PEGDA hydrogel chip of intermediate compliance. Overall, our proposed strategy represents an automated, cost-effective and high resolution technique to manufacture complex 3D constructs containing microfluidic perfusion networks for advanced in vitro models.

  8. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Halamíček, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  9. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Dongmin [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Kim, Nakwoo [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Basic Science, Kyung Hee University,Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo,Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2016-10-12

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory of type A{sub N−1} on a 3-manifold M. The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,ℂ)) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T{sub N}[M]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T[SU(N)], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N>2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2T{sub N}[M] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/30/30LT02, which summarizes our main results.

  10. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  11. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  12. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... animationsbaseret software Real Flow. Dynamics er en fællesbetegnelse for en række digitale redskaber i 3d software, der er beregnet til at simulere virkelighedsrelaterede fænomener som væsker, vind, tyngdekraft o. lign. For det første viser disse eksperimenter, at brugen af dynamics kan ses som et generativt og...... traditionel keramisk produktionssammenhæng. Problemstillingen opmuntrede endvidere til i et samarbejde med en programmør at udvikle et 3d digitalt redskab, der er blevet kaldt et digitalt interaktivt formgivningsredskab (DIF). Eksperimentet undersøger interaktive 3d digitale dynamiske systemer, der...

  13. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  14. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  15. 3D Printing of Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits that could be derived if the science and technology of 3D printing were to be established have been the crux behind monumental efforts by governments, in most countries, that invest billions of dollars to develop this manufacturing technology.[...

  16. 3D terahertz beam profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Wang, Tianwu

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D be...

  17. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using 23Na and proton MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L.; Harrington, Michael G.; Schepkin, Victor D.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1 T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 mm3 and imaging matrices of 60 × 60 × 60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/.

  18. Sodium 3D COncentration MApping (COMA 3D) using (23)Na and proton MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Milton L; Harrington, Michael G; Schepkin, Victor D; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2014-10-01

    Functional changes of sodium 3D MRI signals were converted into millimolar concentration changes using an open-source fully automated MATLAB toolbox. These concentration changes are visualized via 3D sodium concentration maps, and they are overlaid over conventional 3D proton images to provide high-resolution co-registration for easy correlation of functional changes to anatomical regions. Nearly 5000/h concentration maps were generated on a personal computer (ca. 2012) using 21.1T 3D sodium MRI brain images of live rats with spatial resolution of 0.8×0.8×0.8 mm(3) and imaging matrices of 60×60×60. The produced concentration maps allowed for non-invasive quantitative measurement of in vivo sodium concentration in the normal rat brain as a functional response to migraine-like conditions. The presented work can also be applied to sodium-associated changes in migraine, cancer, and other metabolic abnormalities that can be sensed by molecular imaging. The MATLAB toolbox allows for automated image analysis of the 3D images acquired on the Bruker platform and can be extended to other imaging platforms. The resulting images are presented in a form of series of 2D slices in all three dimensions in native MATLAB and PDF formats. The following is provided: (a) MATLAB source code for image processing, (b) the detailed processing procedures, (c) description of the code and all sub-routines, (d) example data sets of initial and processed data. The toolbox can be downloaded at: http://www.vuiis.vanderbilt.edu/~truongm/COMA3D/. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multizone Paper Platform for 3D Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Ratmir; Hong, Estrella; Mwangi, Martin; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture is an important model for tissues in vivo. Cells in different locations of 3D tissues are physiologically different, because they are exposed to different concentrations of oxygen, nutrients, and signaling molecules, and to other environmental factors (temperature, mechanical stress, etc). The majority of high-throughput assays based on 3D cultures, however, can only detect the average behavior of cells in the whole 3D construct. Isolation of cells from specific regions of 3D cultures is possible, but relies on low-throughput techniques such as tissue sectioning and micromanipulation. Based on a procedure reported previously (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” or CiGiP), this paper describes a simple method for culture of arrays of thin planar sections of tissues, either alone or stacked to create more complex 3D tissue structures. This procedure starts with sheets of paper patterned with hydrophobic regions that form 96 hydrophilic zones. Serial spotting of cells suspended in extracellular matrix (ECM) gel onto the patterned paper creates an array of 200 micron-thick slabs of ECM gel (supported mechanically by cellulose fibers) containing cells. Stacking the sheets with zones aligned on top of one another assembles 96 3D multilayer constructs. De-stacking the layers of the 3D culture, by peeling apart the sheets of paper, “sections” all 96 cultures at once. It is, thus, simple to isolate 200-micron-thick cell-containing slabs from each 3D culture in the 96-zone array. Because the 3D cultures are assembled from multiple layers, the number of cells plated initially in each layer determines the spatial distribution of cells in the stacked 3D cultures. This capability made it possible to compare the growth of 3D tumor models of different spatial composition, and to examine the migration of cells in these structures. PMID:21573103

  20. 3-D eye movement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchowski, Andrew; Medlin, Eric; Cournia, Nathan; Murphy, Hunter; Gramopadhye, Anand; Nair, Santosh; Vorah, Jeenal; Melloy, Brian

    2002-11-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional (3-D) eye movement analysis algorithm for binocular eye tracking within virtual reality (VR). The user's gaze direction, head position, and orientation are tracked in order to allow recording of the user's fixations within the environment. Although the linear signal analysis approach is itself not new, its application to eye movement analysis in three dimensions advances traditional two-dimensional approaches, since it takes into account the six degrees of freedom of head movements and is resolution independent. Results indicate that the 3-D eye movement analysis algorithm can successfully be used for analysis of visual process measures in VR. Process measures not only can corroborate performance measures, but also can lead to discoveries of the reasons for performance improvements. In particular, analysis of users' eye movements in VR can potentially lead to further insights into the underlying cognitive processes of VR subjects.

  1. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... Oscillation (TO) method, which estimates both the axial and the lateral velocity components. The first part of the scientific contribution demonstrates that a commercial implementation of the TO method is feasible. Afterwards, the method is expanded to a phased array geometry, and performance metrics based......:1 parallel receive beamforming. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the method. In the final part, an experimental investigation of the 3D TO method is presented. Velocity measurements of steady flow were conducted in a flow-rig system, and the data were acquired using an experimental...

  2. Mortars for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at developing scientifically proven compositions of mortars for 3D printing modified by a peat-based admixture with improved operational characteristics. The paper outlines the results of experimental research on hardened cement paste and concrete mixture with the use of modifying admixture MT-600 (thermally modified peat. It is found that strength of hardened cement paste increases at early age when using finely dispersed admixtures, which is the key factor for formation of construction and technical specifications of concrete for 3D printing technologies. The composition of new formations of hardened cement paste modified by MT-600 admixture were obtained, which enabled to suggest the possibility of their physico-chemical interaction while hardening.

  3. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  4. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  5. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom......For the last decade, the field of ultrasonic vector flow imaging has gotten an increasingly attention, as the technique offers a variety of new applications for screening and diagnostics of cardiovascular pathologies. The main purpose of this PhD project was therefore to advance the field of 3-D...... hampers the task of real-time processing. In a second study, some of the issue with the 2-D matrix array are solved by introducing a 2-D row-column (RC) addressing array with only 62 + 62 elements. It is investigated both through simulations and via experimental setups in various flow conditions...

  6. 3D Printing A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid free fabrication SFF are produced to enhance the printing instrument utilizing distinctive strategies like Piezo spout control multi-spout injet printers or STL arrange utilizing cutting information. The procedure is utilized to diminish the cost and enhance the speed of printing. A few techniques take long at last because of extra process like dry the printing. This study will concentrate on SFFS utilizing UV gum for 3D printing.

  7. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  8. 3D Graphics with Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Benacka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the formulas for orthographic parallel projection of 3D bodies on computer screen are derived using secondary school vector algebra. The spreadsheet implementation is demonstrated in six applications that project bodies with increasing intricacy – a convex body (cube with non-solved visibility, convex bodies (cube, chapel with solved visibility, a coloured convex body (chapel with solved visibility, and a coloured non-convex body (church with solved visibility. The projections are revolvable in horizontal and vertical plane, and they are changeable in size. The examples show an unusual way of using spreadsheets as a 3D computer graphics tool. The applications can serve as a simple introduction to the general principles of computer graphics, to the graphics with spreadsheets, and as a tool for exercising stereoscopic vision. The presented approach is usable at visualising 3D scenes within some topics of secondary school curricula as solid geometry (angles and distances of lines and planes within simple bodies or analytic geometry in space (angles and distances of lines and planes in E3, and even at university level within calculus at visualising graphs of z = f(x,y functions. Examples are pictured.

  9. MRI-based microrobotic system for the propulsion and navigation of ferromagnetic microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belharet, Karim; Folio, David; Ferreira, Antoine

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents real-time MRI-based control of a ferromagnetic microcapsule for endovascular navigation. The concept was studied for future development of microdevices designed to perform minimally invasive interventions in remote sites accessible through the human cardiovascular system. A system software architecture is presented illustrating the different software modules to allow 3-D navigation of a microdevice in blood vessels, namely: (i) vessel path planner, (ii) magnetic gradient steering, (iii) tracking and (iv) closed-loop navigation control. First, the position recognition of the microrobot into the blood vessel is extracted using Frangi vesselness filtering from the pre-operation images (3-D MRI imaging). Then, a set of minimal trajectories is predefined, using path-planning algorithms, to guide the microrobot from the injection point to the tumor area through the anarchic vessel network. Based on the pre-computed path, a Generalized Predictive Controller (GPC) is proposed for robust time-multiplexed navigation along a two-dimensional (2D) path in presence of pulsative flow.

  10. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Wu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 Multiplication-Sign 376 Multiplication-Sign 630 voxels. Conclusions

  11. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-02-17

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields.

  12. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  13. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  14. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  15. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  16. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  17. Microfabrication and microfluidics for 3D brain-on-chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurink, Bart

    2016-01-01

    A revolution in cell culturing has been seen in the last two decades in which 3D culturing became the state-of the-art, with the goal to mimic the in-vivo situation more closely and allow for a physiologically more relevant study compared to the environment in a petri dish. This revolution, however,

  18. Fabrication of highly modulable fibrous 3D extracellular microenvironments

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-06-13

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro scaffolds that mimic the irregular fibrous structures of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) are critical for many important biological applications. However, structural properties modulation of fibrous 3D scaffolds remains a challenge. Here, we report the first highly modulable 3D fibrous scaffolds self-assembled by high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microfibers. The scaffolds structural properties can be easily tailored to incorporate various physical cues, including geometry, stiffness, heterogeneity and nanotopography. Moreover, the fibrous scaffolds are readily and accurately patterned on desired locations of the substrate. Cell culture exhibits that our scaffolds can elicit strong bidirectional cell-material interactions. Furthermore, a functional disparity between the two-dimensional substrate and our 3D scaffolds is identified by cell spreading and proliferation data. These results prove the potential of the proposed scaffold as a biomimetic extracellular microenvironment for cell study.

  19. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  20. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-10-12

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step of printing the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate; placing the flexible silicon substrate in a cavity of the first portion of the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate in the 3D structure; and resuming the step of printing the 3D structure to form the second portion of the 3D structure.

  1. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  2. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  3. Accuracy of MRI-based Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russek, Stephen; Erdevig, Hannah; Keenan, Kathryn; Stupic, Karl

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to map tissue susceptibility to identify microbleeds associated with brain injury and pathologic iron deposits associated with neurologic diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Field distortions with a resolution of a few parts per billion can be measured using MRI phase maps. The field distortion map can be inverted to obtain a quantitative susceptibility map. To determine the accuracy of MRI-based susceptibility measurements, a set of phantoms with paramagnetic salts and nano-iron gels were fabricated. The shapes and orientations of features were varied. Measured susceptibility of 1.0 mM GdCl3 solution in water as a function of temperature agreed well with the theoretical predictions, assuming Gd+3 is spin 7/2. The MRI susceptibility measurements were compared with SQUID magnetometry. The paramagnetic susceptibility sits on top of the much larger diamagnetic susceptibility of water (-9.04 x 10-6), which leads to errors in the SQUID measurements. To extract out the paramagnetic contribution using standard magnetometry, measurements must be made down to low temperature (2K). MRI-based susceptometry is shown to be as or more accurate than standard magnetometry and susceptometry techniques.

  4. From Microscale Devices to 3D Printing: Advances in Fabrication of 3D Cardiovascular Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovjagin, Anton V.; Ogle, Brenda; Berry, Joel; Zhang, Jianyi

    2016-01-01

    Current strategies for engineering cardiovascular cells and tissues have yielded a variety of sophisticated tools for studying disease mechanisms, for development of drug therapies, and for fabrication of tissue equivalents that may have application in future clinical use. These efforts are motivated by the need to extend traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems into 3D to more accurately replicate in vivo cell and tissue function of cardiovascular structures. Developments in microscale devices and bioprinted 3D tissues are beginning to supplant traditional 2D cell cultures and pre-clinical animal studies that have historically been the standard for drug and tissue development. These new approaches lend themselves to patient-specific diagnostics, therapeutics, and tissue regeneration. The emergence of these technologies also carries technical challenges to be met before traditional cell culture and animal testing become obsolete. Successful development and validation of 3D human tissue constructs will provide powerful new paradigms for more cost effective and timely translation of cardiovascular tissue equivalents. PMID:28057791

  5. Three-dimensional MRI-based statistical shape model and application to a cohort of knees with acute ACL injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoia, V; Lansdown, D A; Zaid, M; McCulloch, C E; Souza, R; Ma, C B; Li, X

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a novel 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based Statistical Shape Modeling (SSM) and apply it in knee MRIs in order to extract and compare relevant shapes of the tibia and femur in patients with and without acute Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Bilateral MR images were acquired and analyzed for 50 patients with acute ACL injuries and for 19 control subjects. A shape model was extracted for the tibia and femur using an SSM algorithm based on a set of matched landmarks that are computed in a fully automatic manner. Shape differences were detected between the knees in the ACL-injury group and control group, suggesting a common shape feature that may predispose these knees to injury. Some of the detected shape features that discriminate between injured and control knees are related to intercondylar width and posterior tibia slope, features that have been suggested in previous studies as ACL morphological risk factors. However, shape modeling has the great potential to quantify these characteristics with a comprehensive description of the surfaces describing complex 3D deformation that cannot be represented with simple geometric indexes. 3D MRI-based bone shape quantification has the ability to identify specific anatomic risk factors for ACL injury. A better understanding of the role in bony shape on ligamentous injuries could help in the identification of subjects with an increased risk for an ACL tear and to develop targeted prevention strategies, including education and training. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mesoderm Lineage 3D Tissue Constructs Are Produced at Large-Scale in a 3D Stem Cell Bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Min; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Jung, Sunyoung; Ji, Yurim; Bang, Oh Young; Bae, Hojae

    2017-09-01

    Various studies have presented different approaches to direct pluripotent stem cell differentiation such as applying defined sets of exogenous biochemical signals and genetic/epigenetic modifications. Although differentiation to target lineages can be successfully regulated, such conventional methods are often complicated, laborious, and not cost-effective to be employed to the large-scale production of 3D stem cell-based tissue constructs. A 3D-culture platform that could realize the large-scale production of mesoderm lineage tissue constructs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is developed. ESCs are cultured using our previously established 3D-bioprocess platform which is amenable to mass-production of 3D ESC-based tissue constructs. Hepatocarcinoma cell line conditioned medium is introduced to the large-scale 3D culture to provide a specific biomolecular microenvironment to mimic in vivo mesoderm formation process. After 5 days of spontaneous differentiation period, the resulting 3D tissue constructs are composed of multipotent mesodermal progenitor cells verified by gene and molecular expression profiles. Subsequently the optimal time points to trigger terminal differentiation towards cardiomyogenesis or osteogenesis from the mesodermal tissue constructs is found. A simple and affordable 3D ESC-bioprocess that can reach the scalable production of mesoderm origin tissues with significantly improved correspondent tissue properties is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  8. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  9. 3D multiplexed immunoplasmonics microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Éric; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Rioux, David; Meunier, Michel

    2016-07-01

    Selective labelling, identification and spatial distribution of cell surface biomarkers can provide important clinical information, such as distinction between healthy and diseased cells, evolution of a disease and selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment. Immunofluorescence is the gold standard for efficient detection of biomarkers expressed by cells. However, antibodies (Abs) conjugated to fluorescent dyes remain limited by their photobleaching, high sensitivity to the environment, low light intensity, and wide absorption and emission spectra. Immunoplasmonics is a novel microscopy method based on the visualization of Abs-functionalized plasmonic nanoparticles (fNPs) targeting cell surface biomarkers. Tunable fNPs should provide higher multiplexing capacity than immunofluorescence since NPs are photostable over time, strongly scatter light at their plasmon peak wavelengths and can be easily functionalized. In this article, we experimentally demonstrate accurate multiplexed detection based on the immunoplasmonics approach. First, we achieve the selective labelling of three targeted cell surface biomarkers (cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and voltage-gated K+ channel subunit KV1.1) on human cancer CD44+ EGFR+ KV1.1+ MDA-MB-231 cells and reference CD44- EGFR- KV1.1+ 661W cells. The labelling efficiency with three stable specific immunoplasmonics labels (functionalized silver nanospheres (CD44-AgNSs), gold (Au) NSs (EGFR-AuNSs) and Au nanorods (KV1.1-AuNRs)) detected by reflected light microscopy (RLM) is similar to the one with immunofluorescence. Second, we introduce an improved method for 3D localization and spectral identification of fNPs based on fast z-scanning by RLM with three spectral filters corresponding to the plasmon peak wavelengths of the immunoplasmonics labels in the cellular environment (500 nm for 80 nm AgNSs, 580 nm for 100 nm AuNSs and 700 nm for 40 nm × 92 nm AuNRs). Third, the developed

  10. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  11. Accuracy of UTE-MRI-based patient setup for brain cancer radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yingli; Cao, Minsong; Kaprealian, Tania; Sheng, Ke; Gao, Yu; Gomez, Caitlin; Santhanam, Anand; Tenn, Stephen; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Han, Fei; Hu, Peng, E-mail: penghu@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy simulations solely based on MRI have advantages compared to CT-based approaches. One feature readily available from computed tomography (CT) that would need to be reproduced with MR is the ability to compute digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for comparison against on-board radiographs commonly used for patient positioning. In this study, the authors generate MR-based bone images using a single ultrashort echo time (UTE) pulse sequence and quantify their 3D and 2D image registration accuracy to CT and radiographic images for treatments in the cranium. Methods: Seven brain cancer patients were scanned at 1.5 T using a radial UTE sequence. The sequence acquired two images at two different echo times. The two images were processed using an in-house software to generate the UTE bone images. The resultant bone images were rigidly registered to simulation CT data and the registration error was determined using manually annotated landmarks as references. DRRs were created based on UTE-MRI and registered to simulated on-board images (OBIs) and actual clinical 2D oblique images from ExacTrac™. Results: UTE-MRI resulted in well visualized cranial, facial, and vertebral bones that quantitatively matched the bones in the CT images with geometric measurement errors of less than 1 mm. The registration error between DRRs generated from 3D UTE-MRI and the simulated 2D OBIs or the clinical oblique x-ray images was also less than 1 mm for all patients. Conclusions: UTE-MRI-based DRRs appear to be promising for daily patient setup of brain cancer radiotherapy with kV on-board imaging.

  12. Automation of 3D cell culture using chemically defined hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimann, Markus; Angres, Brigitte; Patocchi-Tenzer, Isabel; Braum, Susanne; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    Drug development relies on high-throughput screening involving cell-based assays. Most of the assays are still based on cells grown in monolayer rather than in three-dimensional (3D) formats, although cells behave more in vivo-like in 3D. To exemplify the adoption of 3D techniques in drug development, this project investigated the automation of a hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system using a liquid-handling robot. The hydrogel technology used offers high flexibility of gel design due to a modular composition of a polymer network and bioactive components. The cell inert degradation of the gel at the end of the culture period guaranteed the harmless isolation of live cells for further downstream processing. Human colon carcinoma cells HCT-116 were encapsulated and grown in these dextran-based hydrogels, thereby forming 3D multicellular spheroids. Viability and DNA content of the cells were shown to be similar in automated and manually produced hydrogels. Furthermore, cell treatment with toxic Taxol concentrations (100 nM) had the same effect on HCT-116 cell viability in manually and automated hydrogel preparations. Finally, a fully automated dose-response curve with the reference compound Taxol showed the potential of this hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system in advanced drug development.

  13. 3D printing of microscopic bacterial communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jodi L. Connell; Eric T. Ritschdorff; Marvin Whiteley; Jason B. Shear

    2013-01-01

    .... Here, we describe a microscopic threedimensional (3D) printing strategy that enables multiple populations of bacteria to be organized within essentially any 3D geometry, including adjacent, nested, and free-floating...

  14. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  15. 3D Scanning technology for offshore purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Morten Thoft

    2005-01-01

    New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities......New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities...

  16. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  17. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  18. 3D modelling in building cadastre

    OpenAIRE

    Cedilnik, Rok

    2012-01-01

    Diploma thesis explained legislation and procedure of building registration, and also elaborate components for building registration in building cadastre. There are shown some ways of creating general 3D cadastre, and theories of establishment 3D building cadastre abroad. Some examples and reasons are shown why 3D cadastre building should be establish in Slovenia. With the help of software tool called AutoCAD is illustrated a way of creating 3D model building cadastre, there are also given so...

  19. 3D modeliranje v katastru stavb

    OpenAIRE

    Cedilnik, Rok

    2015-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je razložena zakonodaja in postopek vpisa stavbe, ter sestavni deli elaborata za vpis stavbe v kataster stavb. Predstavljeni so načini izdelave splošnega 3D katastra in teorije vzpostavitve 3D katastra stavb v tujini. Prikazani so primeri in razlogi zakaj bi morali vzpostaviti 3D kataster v Sloveniji. S pomočjo programskega okolja AutoCAD je ponazorjen način izdelave 3D modela katastra stavb,

  20. 3D-Printed Millimeter Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    demonstrates the resolution of the printer with a 10 micron nozzle. Figure 2: Measured loss tangent of SEBS and SBS samples. 3D - Printed Millimeter... 3D printing of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and styrene ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) is used to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D - printed ...Additionally, a dielectric lens is printed which improves the antenna gain of an open-ended WR-28 waveguide from 7 to 8.5 dBi. Keywords: 3D printing

  1. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  2. 3D analysis of facial morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammond, Peter; Hutton, Tim J.; Allanson, Judith E.; Campbell, Linda E.; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Holden, Sean; Patton, Michael A.; Shaw, Adam; Temple, I. Karen; Trotter, Matthew; Murphy, Kieran C.; Winter, Robin M.

    2004-01-01

    Dense surface models can be used to analyze 3D facial morphology by establishing a correspondence of thousands of points across each 3D face image. The models provide dramatic visualizations of 3D face-shape variation with potential for training physicians to recognize the key components of

  3. 3D immersive and interactive learning

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Yiyu

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews innovative uses of 3D for immersive and interactive learning, covering gifted programs, normal stream and special needs education. Reports on curriculum-based 3D learning in classrooms, and co-curriculum-based 3D student research projects.

  4. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  5. Imaging a Sustainable Future in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kanngieser, E.

    2012-07-01

    It is the intention of this paper, to contribute to a sustainable future by providing objective object information based on 3D photography as well as promoting 3D photography not only for scientists, but also for amateurs. Due to the presentation of this article by CIPA Task Group 3 on "3D Photographs in Cultural Heritage", the presented samples are masterpieces of historic as well as of current 3D photography concentrating on cultural heritage. In addition to a report on exemplarily access to international archives of 3D photographs, samples for new 3D photographs taken with modern 3D cameras, as well as by means of a ground based high resolution XLITE staff camera and also 3D photographs taken from a captive balloon and the use of civil drone platforms are dealt with. To advise on optimum suited 3D methodology, as well as to catch new trends in 3D, an updated synoptic overview of the 3D visualization technology, even claiming completeness, has been carried out as a result of a systematic survey. In this respect, e.g., today's lasered crystals might be "early bird" products in 3D, which, due to lack in resolution, contrast and color, remember to the stage of the invention of photography.

  6. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew William; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain and d...

  7. 3D-Printable Antimicrobial Composite Resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Zhao, Pei; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; van de Lagemaat, Marieke; Grotenhuis, Arjen; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is seen as a game-changing manufacturing process in many domains, including general medicine and dentistry, but the integration of more complex functions into 3D-printed materials remains lacking. Here, it is expanded on the repertoire of 3D-printable materials to include antimicrobial

  8. Intensity-based image registration for 3D spatial compounding using a freehand 3D ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoulatos, Niko; Haynor, David R.; Kim, Yongmin

    2002-04-01

    3D spatial compounding involves the combination of two or more 3D ultrasound (US) data sets, acquired under different insonation angles and windows, to form a higher quality 3D US data set. An important requirement for this method to succeed is the accurate registration between the US images used to form the final compounded image. We have developed a new automatic method for rigid and deformable registration of 3D US data sets, acquired using a freehand 3D US system. Deformation is provided by using a 3D thin-plate spline (TPS). Our method is fundamentally different from the previous ones in that the acquired scattered US 2D slices are registered and compounded directly into the 3D US volume. Our approach has several benefits over the traditional registration and spatial compounding methods: (i) we only peform one 3D US reconstruction, for the first acquired data set, therefore we save the computation time required to reconstruct subsequent acquired scans, (ii) for our registration we use (except for the first scan) the acquired high-resolution 2D US images rather than the 3D US reconstruction data which are of lower quality due to the interpolation and potential subsampling associated with 3D reconstruction, and (iii) the scans performed after the first one are not required to follow the typical 3D US scanning protocol, where a large number of dense slices have to be acquired; slices can be acquired in any fashion in areas where compounding is desired. We show that by taking advantage of the similar information contained in adjacent acquired 2D US slices, we can reduce the computation time of linear and nonlinear registrations by a factor of more than 7:1, without compromising registration accuracy. Furthermore, we implemented an adaptive approximation to the 3D TPS with local bilinear transformations allowing additional reduction of the nonlinear registration computation time by a factor of approximately 3.5. Our results are based on a commercially available

  9. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  10. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  11. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  12. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  13. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2001-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  14. Tissuelike 3D Assemblies of Human Broncho-Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissuelike assemblies (TLAs) of human broncho-epithelial (HBE) cells have been developed for use in in vitro research on infection of humans by respiratory viruses. The 2D monolayer HBE cell cultures heretofore used in such research lack the complex cell structures and interactions characteristic of in vivo tissues and, consequently, do not adequately emulate the infection dynamics of in-vivo microbial adhesion and invasion. In contrast, the 3D HBE TLAs are characterized by more-realistic reproductions of the geometrical and functional complexity, differentiation of cells, cell-to-cell interactions, and cell-to-matrix interactions characteristic of human respiratory epithelia. Hence, the 3D HBE TLAs are expected to make it possible to perform at least some of the research in vitro under more-realistic conditions, without need to infect human subjects. The TLAs are grown on collagen-coated cyclodextran microbeads under controlled conditions in a nutrient liquid in the simulated microgravitational environment of a bioreactor of the rotating- wall-vessel type. Primary human mesenchymal bronchial-tracheal cells are used as a foundation matrix, while adult human bronchial epithelial immortalized cells are used as the overlying component. The beads become coated with cells, and cells on adjacent beads coalesce into 3D masses. The resulting TLAs have been found to share significant characteristics with in vivo human respiratory epithelia including polarization, tight junctions, desmosomes, and microvilli. The differentiation of the cells in these TLAs into tissues functionally similar to in vivo tissues is confirmed by the presence of compounds, including villin, keratins, and specific lung epithelium marker compounds, and by the production of tissue mucin. In a series of initial infection tests, TLA cultures were inoculated with human respiratory syncytial viruses and parainfluenza type 3 viruses. Infection was confirmed by photomicrographs that

  15. 3D Extracellular Matrix from Sectioned Human Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Catherine B.; Cukierman, Edna; Artym, Vira V.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) matrices have significant advantages compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) matrices for studying cell adhesion, migration, and tissue organization. Cellular behavior is dependent on the surrounding matrix environment for signaling and induction of biological responses (Carletti, et al., 2011; Pampaloni, et al., 2007; Vlodavsky, 1999). 2D cultures induce an artificial polarity in cultured cells between upper and lower surfaces not present normally in the in vivo ...

  16. RT3D tutorials for GMS users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, T.P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Jones, N.L. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    1998-02-01

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a computer code that solves coupled partial differential equations that describe reactive-flow and transport of multiple mobile and/or immobile species in a three dimensional saturated porous media. RT3D was developed from the single-species transport code, MT3D (DoD-1.5, 1997 version). As with MT3D, RT3D also uses the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW for computing spatial and temporal variations in groundwater head distribution. This report presents a set of tutorial problems that are designed to illustrate how RT3D simulations can be performed within the Department of Defense Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). GMS serves as a pre- and post-processing interface for RT3D. GMS can be used to define all the input files needed by RT3D code, and later the code can be launched from within GMS and run as a separate application. Once the RT3D simulation is completed, the solution can be imported to GMS for graphical post-processing. RT3D v1.0 supports several reaction packages that can be used for simulating different types of reactive contaminants. Each of the tutorials, described below, provides training on a different RT3D reaction package. Each reaction package has different input requirements, and the tutorials are designed to describe these differences. Furthermore, the tutorials illustrate the various options available in GMS for graphical post-processing of RT3D results. Users are strongly encouraged to complete the tutorials before attempting to use RT3D and GMS on a routine basis.

  17. 3D change detection - Approaches and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Rongjun; Tian, Jiaojiao; Reinartz, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Due to the unprecedented technology development of sensors, platforms and algorithms for 3D data acquisition and generation, 3D spaceborne, airborne and close-range data, in the form of image based, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) based point clouds, Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and 3D city models, become more accessible than ever before. Change detection (CD) or time-series data analysis in 3D has gained great attention due to its capability of providing volumetric dynamics to facilitate more applications and provide more accurate results. The state-of-the-art CD reviews aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis and to simplify the taxonomy of the traditional remote sensing CD techniques, which mainly sit within the boundary of 2D image/spectrum analysis, largely ignoring the particularities of 3D aspects of the data. The inclusion of 3D data for change detection (termed 3D CD), not only provides a source with different modality for analysis, but also transcends the border of traditional top-view 2D pixel/object-based analysis to highly detailed, oblique view or voxel-based geometric analysis. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of 3D CD using remote sensing and close-range data, in support of both academia and industry researchers who seek for solutions in detecting and analyzing 3D dynamics of various objects of interest. We first describe the general considerations of 3D CD problems in different processing stages and identify CD types based on the information used, being the geometric comparison and geometric-spectral analysis. We then summarize relevant works and practices in urban, environment, ecology and civil applications, etc. Given the broad spectrum of applications and different types of 3D data, we discuss important issues in 3D CD methods. Finally, we present concluding remarks in algorithmic aspects of 3D CD.

  18. Clinical feasibility of 3D-QALAS - Single breath-hold 3D myocardial T1- and T2-mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvernby, Sofia; Warntjes, Marcel; Engvall, Jan; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the in-vivo precision and clinical feasibility of 3D-QALAS - a novel method for simultaneous three-dimensional myocardial T1- and T2-mapping. Ten healthy subjects and 23 patients with different cardiac pathologies underwent cardiovascular 3T MRI examinations including 3D-QALAS, MOLLI and T2-GraSE acquisitions. Precision was investigated in the healthy subjects between independent scans, between dependent scans and as standard deviation of consecutive scans. Clinical feasibility of 3D-QALAS was investigated for native and contrast enhanced myocardium in patients. Data were analyzed using mean value and 95% confidence interval, Pearson correlation, Paired t-tests, intraclass correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Average myocardial relaxation time values and SD from eight repeated acquisitions within the group of healthy subjects were 1178±18.5ms (1.6%) for T1 with 3D-QALAS, 52.7±1.2ms (2.3%) for T2 with 3D-QALAS, 1145±10.0ms (0.9%) for T1 with MOLLI and 49.2±0.8ms (1.6%) for T2 with GraSE. Myocardial T1 and T2 relaxation times obtained with 3D-QALAS correlated very well with reference methods; MOLLI for T1 (r=0.994) and T2-GraSE for T2 (r=0.818) in the 23 patients. Average native/post-contrast myocardial T1 values from the patients were 1166.2ms/411.8ms for 3D-QALAS and 1174.4ms/438.9ms for MOLLI. Average native myocardial T2 values from the patients were 53.2ms for 3D-QALAS and 54.4ms for T2-GraSE. Repeated independent and dependent scans together with the intra-scan repeatability, demonstrated all a very good precision for the 3D-QALAS method in healthy volunteers. This study shows that 3D T1 and T2 mapping in the left ventricle is feasible in one breath hold for patients with different cardiac pathologies using 3D-QALAS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 3D frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Gursharan Yash; West, Erik; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Duric, Neb

    2017-03-01

    Frequency-domain ultrasound waveform tomography is a promising method for the visualization and characterization of breast disease. It has previously been shown to accurately reconstruct the sound speed distributions of breasts of varying densities. The reconstructed images show detailed morphological and quantitative information that can help differentiate different types of breast disease including benign and malignant lesions. The attenuation properties of an ex vivo phantom have also been assessed. However, the reconstruction algorithms assumed a 2D geometry while the actual data acquisition process was not. Although clinically useful sound speed images can be reconstructed assuming this mismatched geometry, artifacts from the reconstruction process exist within the reconstructed images. This is especially true for registration across different modalities and when the 2D assumption is violated. For example, this happens when a patient's breast is rapidly sloping. It is also true for attenuation imaging where energy lost or gained out of the plane gets transformed into artifacts within the image space. In this paper, we will briefly review ultrasound waveform tomography techniques, give motivation for pursuing the 3D method, discuss the 3D reconstruction algorithm, present the results of 3D forward modeling, show the mismatch that is induced by the violation of 3D modeling via numerical simulations, and present a 3D inversion of a numerical phantom.

  20. 3D myocardial T1 mapping using saturation recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Giovanna; Henningsson, Markus; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Villa, Adriana D M; Schneider, Torben; Botnar, René M

    2017-07-01

    To propose a 3D quantitative high-resolution T1 mapping technique, called 3D SASHA (saturation-recovery single-shot acquisition), which combines a saturation recovery pulse with 1D-navigator-based-respiratory motion compensation to acquire the whole volume of the heart in free breathing. The sequence was tested and validated both in a T1 phantom and in healthy subjects. The 3D SASHA method was implemented on a 1.5T scanner. A diaphragmatic navigator was used to allow free-breathing acquisition and the images were acquired with a resolution of 1.4 × 1.4 × 8 mm(3) . For assessment of accuracy and precision the sequence was compared with the reference gold-standard inversion-recovery spin echo (IRSE) pulse sequence in a T1 phantom, while for the in vivo studies (10 healthy volunteers) 3D SASHA was compared with the clinically used 2D MOLLI (3-3-5) and 2D SASHA protocols. There was good agreement between the T1 values measured in a T1 phantom with 3D SASHA and the reference IRSE pulse sequences (1111.6 ± 31 msec vs. 1123.6 ± 8 msec, P = 0.9947). Mean and standard deviation of the myocardial T1 values in healthy subjects measured with 2D MOLLI, 2D SASHA, and 3D SASHA sequences were 881 ± 40 msec, 1181.3 ± 32 msec, and 1153.6 ± 28 msec respectively. The proposed 3D SASHA sequence allows for high-resolution free-breathing whole-heart T1 -mapping with T1 values in good agreement with the 2D SASHA and improved precision. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:218-227. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and

  2. 3D PHOTOGRAPHS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schuhr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper on providing "oo-information" (= objective object-information on cultural monuments and sites, based on 3D photographs is also a contribution of CIPA task group 3 to the 2013 CIPA Symposium in Strasbourg. To stimulate the interest in 3D photography for scientists as well as for amateurs, 3D-Masterpieces are presented. Exemplary it is shown, due to their high documentary value ("near reality", 3D photography support, e.g. the recording, the visualization, the interpretation, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. This also includes samples for excavation documentation, 3D coordinate calculation, 3D photographs applied for virtual museum purposes and as educational tools. In addition 3D photography is used for virtual museum purposes, as well as an educational tool and for spatial structure enhancement, which in particular holds for inscriptions and in rock arts. This paper is also an invitation to participate in a systematic survey on existing international archives of 3D photographs. In this respect it is also reported on first results, to define an optimum digitization rate for analog stereo views. It is more than overdue, in addition to the access to international archives for 3D photography, the available 3D photography data should appear in a global GIS(cloud-system, like on, e.g., google earth. This contribution also deals with exposing new 3D photographs to document monuments of importance for Cultural Heritage, including the use of 3D and single lense cameras from a 10m telescope staff, to be used for extremely low earth based airborne 3D photography, as well as for "underwater staff photography". In addition it is reported on the use of captive balloon and drone platforms for 3D photography in Cultural Heritage. It is liked to emphasize, the still underestimated 3D effect on real objects even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches as well as of nuances in

  3. Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New

  4. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Deaky Bogdan; Pârv Luminița

    2017-01-01

    GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  5. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaky Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  6. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  7. Perspectives on Materials Science in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    to its implementation is described. The present status of materials science in 3D is illustrated by examples related to recrystallization. Finally, challenges and suggestions for the future success for 3D Materials Science relating to hardware evolution, data analysis, data exchange and modeling......Materials characterization in 3D has opened a new era in materials science, which is discussed in this paper. The original motivations and visions behind the development of one of the new 3D techniques, namely the three dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) method, are presented and the route...

  8. FastScript3D - A Companion to Java 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Patti

    2005-01-01

    FastScript3D is a computer program, written in the Java 3D(TM) programming language, that establishes an alternative language that helps users who lack expertise in Java 3D to use Java 3D for constructing three-dimensional (3D)-appearing graphics. The FastScript3D language provides a set of simple, intuitive, one-line text-string commands for creating, controlling, and animating 3D models. The first word in a string is the name of a command; the rest of the string contains the data arguments for the command. The commands can also be used as an aid to learning Java 3D. Developers can extend the language by adding custom text-string commands. The commands can define new 3D objects or load representations of 3D objects from files in formats compatible with such other software systems as X3D. The text strings can be easily integrated into other languages. FastScript3D facilitates communication between scripting languages [which enable programming of hyper-text markup language (HTML) documents to interact with users] and Java 3D. The FastScript3D language can be extended and customized on both the scripting side and the Java 3D side.

  9. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  10. 3D volume reconstruction from serial breast specimen radiographs for mapping between histology and 3D whole specimen imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertzanidou, Thomy; Hipwell, John H; Reis, Sara; Hawkes, David J; Ehteshami Bejnordi, Babak; Dalmis, Mehmet; Vreemann, Suzan; Platel, Bram; van der Laak, Jeroen; Karssemeijer, Nico; Hermsen, Meyke; Bult, Peter; Mann, Ritse

    2017-03-01

    In breast imaging, radiological in vivo images, such as x-ray mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are used for tumor detection, diagnosis, and size determination. After excision, the specimen is typically sliced into slabs and a small subset is sampled. Histopathological imaging of the stained samples is used as the gold standard for characterization of the tumor microenvironment. A 3D volume reconstruction of the whole specimen from the 2D slabs could facilitate bridging the gap between histology and in vivo radiological imaging. This task is challenging, however, due to the large deformation that the breast tissue undergoes after surgery and the significant undersampling of the specimen obtained in histology. In this work, we present a method to reconstruct a coherent 3D volume from 2D digital radiographs of the specimen slabs. To reconstruct a 3D breast specimen volume, we propose the use of multiple target neighboring slices, when deforming each 2D slab radiograph in the volume, rather than performing pairwise registrations. The algorithm combines neighborhood slice information with free-form deformations, which enables a flexible, nonlinear deformation to be computed subject to the constraint that a coherent 3D volume is obtained. The neighborhood information provides adequate constraints, without the need for any additional regularization terms. The volume reconstruction algorithm is validated on clinical mastectomy samples using a quantitative assessment of the volume reconstruction smoothness and a comparison with a whole specimen 3D image acquired for validation before slicing. Additionally, a target registration error of 5 mm (comparable to the specimen slab thickness of 4 mm) was obtained for five cases. The error was computed using manual annotations from four observers as gold standard, with interobserver variability of 3.4 mm. Finally, we illustrate how the reconstructed volumes can be used to map histology images to a 3D specimen

  11. 3D Extracellular Matrix from Sectioned Human Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine B; Cukierman, Edna; Artym, Vira V

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) matrices have significant advantages compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) matrices for studying cell adhesion, migration, and tissue organization. Cellular behavior is dependent on the surrounding matrix environment for signaling and induction of biological responses (Carletti, et al., 2011; Pampaloni, et al., 2007; Vlodavsky, 1999). 2D cultures induce an artificial polarity in cultured cells between upper and lower surfaces not present normally in the in vivo environment. No longer nonpolar, many aspects of cellular behavior are altered (Beacham, et al., 2007; Grinnell and Petroll, 2010; Yamada and Cukierman, 2007). In addition, 2D models lack the physical properties of 3D matrix, such as topography, stiffness, and dimensionality. To begin to mimic the 3D environment of in vivo connective tissue extracellular matrix (ECM), collagen gels have been used widely (see Unit 10.3). Culture of cells in collagen gels results in a bipolar fibroblast morphology that resembles the in vivo phenotype (Friedl and Brocker, 2000; Even-Ram and Yamada, 2005; Grinnell and Petroll, 2010). Although more physiological, 3D collagen gels lack the complex biochemical and physical microenvironment present in an in vivo ECM that regulates cellular physiological properties (Beacham, et al., 2007). A variety of methods to create a more in vivo-like ECM have been published (Yamada and Cukierman, 2007). Adding critical ECM components to 3D collagen matrices, including fibronectin, hyaluronan, link protein and glycosaminoglycans, can more accurately mimic the structural microenvironment of the native ECM (Friedl and Brocker, 2000). Other ECM models use cultured cell lines, such as fibroblasts, to derive an ECM lattice through secretion of an organized ECM (Beacham, et al., 2007). Different cell lines have been chosen to generate a specific microenvironment for study of particularly types of cellular behavior (Kutys and Yamada, 2013). For example, cultured bovine

  12. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  13. 3D-printed cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.; Bommel, K. van; Renzetti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is an up-and-coming production technology based on layer-by-layer deposition of material to reproduce a computer-generated 3D design. Additive manufacturing is a collective term used for a variety of technologies, such as fused deposition modeling

  14. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be

  15. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  16. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  17. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  18. A Framework for 3d Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Frandsen, Thomas; Kapetaniou, Chrystalla

    3D printing technologies and processes offer such a radical range of options for firms that we currently lack a structured way of recording possible impact and recommending actions for managers. The changes arising from 3d printing includes more than just new options for product design, but also...

  19. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Liang, Jinrong; Shen, Linlin; Yang, Meng; Zhang, David; Lai, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D) fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D) fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER) of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  20. Recognition of 3D facial expression dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, G.; Zafeiriou, S.; Pantic, Maja; Rueckert, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that exploits 3D motion-based features between frames of 3D facial geometry sequences for dynamic facial expression recognition. An expressive sequence is modelled to contain an onset followed by an apex and an offset. Feature selection methods are applied in order

  1. Towards sustainable and clean 3D Geoinformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Ledoux, H.; Zlatanova, S.; Biljecki, F.; Kolbe, T.H.; Bill, R.; Donaubauer, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises the on going research activities of the 3D Geoinformation Group at the Delft University of Technology. The main challenge underpinning the research of this group is providing clean and appropriate 3D data about our environment in order to serve a wide variety of applications.

  2. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    . In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality...... interact by navigating, browsing, manipulating and querying the system....

  3. Directional light scanning 3-D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoji; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Lim, Pang Boey; Watanabe, Kenjiro; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a new Three-Dimensional display method, so called Directional Light Scanning 3D display. By using holographic screen as a beam scanner and high frame rate Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), this method requires only one SLM but can display high resolution 3D images, solving the usual problem of lack of resolution.

  4. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and laminated object manufacturing. The materials are certified for printing individual impression trays, orthodontic models, gingiva mask, and different prosthetic objects. The material can reach a flexural strength of more than 80 MPa. 3D printing takes the effectiveness of digital projects to the production phase. Dental laboratories are able to produce crowns, bridges, stone models, and various orthodontic appliances by methods that combine oral scanning, 3D printing, and CAD/CAM design. Modern 3D printing has been used for the development of prototypes for several years, and it has begun to find its use in the world of manufacturing. Digital technology and 3D printing have significantly elevated the rate of success in dental implantology using custom surgical guides and improving the quality and accuracy of dental work.

  5. Authoring Adaptive 3D Virtual Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewais, Ahmed; De Troyer, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The use of 3D and Virtual Reality is gaining interest in the context of academic discussions on E-learning technologies. However, the use of 3D for learning environments also has drawbacks. One way to overcome these drawbacks is by having an adaptive learning environment, i.e., an environment that dynamically adapts to the learner and the…

  6. Stereo 3-D Vision in Teaching Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabunov, Svetoslav

    2012-01-01

    Stereo 3-D vision is a technology used to present images on a flat surface (screen, paper, etc.) and at the same time to create the notion of three-dimensional spatial perception of the viewed scene. A great number of physical processes are much better understood when viewed in stereo 3-D vision compared to standard flat 2-D presentation. The…

  7. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...

  8. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion"…

  9. MRI-based stem cell imaging using Gd-nanocarriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Guenoun (Jamal)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis has addressed important questions with regard to stem cell labeling and cell tracking both in vitro and in vivo by MRI, mainly using Gd-liposomes but also using SPIO particles.

  10. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic data LandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model can be manipulated interactively and better shared with colleagues. For that reason, LandSIM3D is different from traditional 3D imagery solutions, normally reserved for computer graphics experts. For more information about LandSIM3D, go to www.landsim3d.com.

  11. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  12. 3D digitizer for complex parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu X.; Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Mingtao; Tan, Yushan

    1999-10-01

    This article presents a new method which obtain 3D data of the complex parts or its CAD model based upon the material removal process and each cross-section optical scanning process of the parts. The advantages of this method is that the internal and external profile information of the complex parts can be capture data the same precision, the 3D data and 3D CAD model is acquired through the 3D CAD/CAM package. Examples of such structure described in this paper. In addition, the 3D digitizer is made with an existing CNC milling machine and an image scanner. Its highest accuracy of 2D edge detecting is 5.4micrometers , and the resolution is 2.7micrometers .

  13. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  14. Quon 3D language for quantum information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengwei; Wozniakowski, Alex; Jaffe, Arthur M

    2017-03-07

    We present a 3D topological picture-language for quantum information. Our approach combines charged excitations carried by strings, with topological properties that arise from embedding the strings in the interior of a 3D manifold with boundary. A quon is a composite that acts as a particle. Specifically, a quon is a hemisphere containing a neutral pair of open strings with opposite charge. We interpret multiquons and their transformations in a natural way. We obtain a type of relation, a string-genus "joint relation," involving both a string and the 3D manifold. We use the joint relation to obtain a topological interpretation of the C ∗ -Hopf algebra relations, which are widely used in tensor networks. We obtain a 3D representation of the controlled NOT (CNOT) gate that is considerably simpler than earlier work, and a 3D topological protocol for teleportation.

  15. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  16. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  17. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  18. Single cell-based automated quantification of therapy responses of invasive cancer spheroids in organotypic 3D culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelken, C.; Bakker, G.J.; Drell, D.; Friedl, P.

    2017-01-01

    Organotypic in vitro culture of 3D spheroids in an extracellular matrix represent a promising cancer therapy prediction model for personalized medicine screens due to their controlled experimental conditions and physiological similarities to in vivo conditions. As in tumors in vivo, 3D invasion

  19. MRI-based elastic-mapping method for inter-subject comparison of brain FDG-PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Huang, S.C.; Lin, K.P.; Small, G.; Phelps, M.E. [UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Inter-subject anatomic differences prohibits direct image-wise statistical evaluation of brain FDG-PET images of Alzheimer`s disease (AD) patients. In this study, we propose a MRI-based elastic-mapping method which enables image-wise evaluation. The method involves intra-subject MR-PET registration, 3-D elastic mapping of two set of MR images, and elastically transforming the co-registered PET images. The MR-PET registration used simulated PET images, which were based on segmentation of MR images. In the 3-D elastic mapping stage, first a global linear scaling was applied to compensate for brain size difference, then a deformation field was obtained by minimizing the regional sum of squared difference between the two sets of MR images. Two groups (AD patient and normal control), each with three subjects, were included in the current study. After processing, images from all subjects have similar shapes. Averaging the images across all subjects (either within the individual group or for both groups) give images indistinguishable from original single subject FDG images (i.e. without much spatial resolution loss), except with lower image noise level. The method is expected to allow statistical image-wise analysis to be performed across different subjects.

  20. 3D printing – a key technology for tailored biomedical cell culture lab ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmieder Florian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s 3D printing technologies offer great possibilities for biomedical researchers to create their own specific laboratory equipment. With respect to the generation of ex vivo vascular perfusion systems this will enable new types of products that will embed complex 3D structures possibly coupled with cell loaded scaffolds closely reflecting the in-vivo environment. Moreover this could lead to microfluidic devices that should be available in small numbers of pieces at moderate prices. Here, we will present first results of such 3D printed cell culture systems made from plastics and show their use for scaffold based applications.

  1. 3D knee-motion tracking from sequences of radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Byoung-Moon; Siy, Pepe; Tashman, Scott

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, a 3D model-based approach is proposed for tracking 3D motion (positions and orientations) of the knee from sequences of 2D radiographs. Conventional methods using external skin markers or body model do not accurately reflect motion of the underlying bone. In contrast, our method is to use sequences of radiographs for direct visualization of bone motion during activities. A 3D texture-mapped volume rendering is used to simulate a radiograph image, a 2D projected image of the 3D model data. A Quadtree-based normalized correlation algorithm is employed to measure similarity between the projected 2D model image and the pre-processed radiograph image. An optimization routine iterates the six motion parameters until the optimal similarity is obtained. This method has been evaluated using test data collected from an anatomically accurate radiographic knee phantom, specifically femur part of the phantom. Further testing is underway using in-vivo radiograph image sequences of a canine hindlime during treadmill walking.

  2. Nanomagnetic Levitation 3-D Cultures of Breast and Colorectal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpers, Harvey L.; Janagama, Dasharatham G.; Manne, Upender; Basson, Marc D.; Katkoori, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    Background Innovative technologies for drug discovery and development, cancer models, stem cell research, tissue engineering, and drug testing in various cell-based platforms require an application similar to the in vivo system. Materials and Methods We developed for the first time nanomagnetically levitated three dimensional (3-D) cultures of breast cancer (BC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells using carbon encapsulated cobalt magnetic nanoparticles. BC and CRC xenografts grown in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were evaluated for N-cadherin and Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expressions. These phenotypes were compared with 2-D cultures and 3-D cultures grown in a gel matrix. Results The BC and CRC cells grown by magnetic levitation formed microtissues. The levitated cultures had high viability and were maintained in culture for long periods of time. It has been observed that N-cadherin and EGFR activities were highly expressed in the levitated 3-D tumor spheres and xenografts of CRC and BC cells. Conclusions Nanomagnetically levitated 3-D cultures tend to form stable microtissues of BC and CRC and may be more feasible for a range of applications in drug discovery or regenerative medicine. PMID:25617973

  3. Advancing the field of 3D biomaterial printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakus, Adam E; Rutz, Alexandra L; Shah, Ramille N

    2016-01-11

    3D biomaterial printing has emerged as a potentially revolutionary technology, promising to transform both research and medical therapeutics. Although there has been recent progress in the field, on-demand fabrication of functional and transplantable tissues and organs is still a distant reality. To advance to this point, there are two major technical challenges that must be overcome. The first is expanding upon the limited variety of available 3D printable biomaterials (biomaterial inks), which currently do not adequately represent the physical, chemical, and biological complexity and diversity of tissues and organs within the human body. Newly developed biomaterial inks and the resulting 3D printed constructs must meet numerous interdependent requirements, including those that lead to optimal printing, structural, and biological outcomes. The second challenge is developing and implementing comprehensive biomaterial ink and printed structure characterization combined with in vitro and in vivo tissue- and organ-specific evaluation. This perspective outlines considerations for addressing these technical hurdles that, once overcome, will facilitate rapid advancement of 3D biomaterial printing as an indispensable tool for both investigating complex tissue and organ morphogenesis and for developing functional devices for a variety of diagnostic and regenerative medicine applications.

  4. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  5. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  6. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  7. 3D imaging in forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Jones, Carl; Plassmann, Peter

    2010-06-16

    This paper describes the investigation of a new 3D capture method for acquiring and subsequent forensic analysis of bite mark injuries on human skin. When documenting bite marks with standard 2D cameras errors in photographic technique can occur if best practice is not followed. Subsequent forensic analysis of the mark is problematic when a 3D structure is recorded into a 2D space. Although strict guidelines (BAFO) exist, these are time-consuming to follow and, due to their complexity, may produce errors. A 3D image capture and processing system might avoid the problems resulting from the 2D reduction process, simplifying the guidelines and reducing errors. Proposed Solution: a series of experiments are described in this paper to demonstrate that the potential of a 3D system might produce suitable results. The experiments tested precision and accuracy of the traditional 2D and 3D methods. A 3D image capture device minimises the amount of angular distortion, therefore such a system has the potential to create more robust forensic evidence for use in courts. A first set of experiments tested and demonstrated which method of forensic analysis creates the least amount of intra-operator error. A second set tested and demonstrated which method of image capture creates the least amount of inter-operator error and visual distortion. In a third set the effects of angular distortion on 2D and 3D methods of image capture were evaluated.

  8. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah

    2014-01-01

    objects. In this research, the authors propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA......) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, they extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested for single object, nearest neighbor and range search queries using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results...... are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a sub-interval of the ([0,1]) interval to the corresponding...

  9. 3D Immersive Visualization with Astrophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    We present the refinement of a new 3D immersion technique for astrophysical data visualization.Methodology to create 360 degree spherical panoramas is reviewed. The 3D software package Blender coupled with Python and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to create the final data products. Data can be viewed interactively with a mobile phone or tablet or in a web browser. The technique can apply to different kinds of astronomical data including 3D stellar and galaxy catalogs, images, and planetary maps.

  10. 3D packaging for integrated circuit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, D.; Palmer, D.W. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    A goal was set for high density, high performance microelectronics pursued through a dense 3D packing of integrated circuits. A {open_quotes}tool set{close_quotes} of assembly processes have been developed that enable 3D system designs: 3D thermal analysis, silicon electrical through vias, IC thinning, mounting wells in silicon, adhesives for silicon stacking, pretesting of IC chips before commitment to stacks, and bond pad bumping. Validation of these process developments occurred through both Sandia prototypes and subsequent commercial examples.

  11. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  12. 3D Bio-Printing Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianbin

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace pathological or necrotic body tissue or organ by artificial tissue or organ and tissue engineering is a very promising research field. 3D bio-printing is a kind of emerging technologies and a branch of tissue engineering. It has made significant progress in the past decade. 3D bio-printing can realize tissue and organ construction in vitro and has wide application in basic research and pharmacy. This paper is to make an analysis and review on 3D bio-printing from the perspectives of bioink, printing technology and technology application.

  13. Pharmacophore definition and 3D searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, T; Wolber, G

    2004-12-01

    The most common pharmacophore building concepts based on either 3D structure of the target or ligand information are discussed together with the application of such models as queries for 3D database search. An overview of the key techniques available on the market is given and differences with respect to algorithms used and performance obtained are highlighted. Pharmacophore modelling and 3D database search are shown to be successful tools for enriching screening experiments aimed at the discovery of novel bio-active compounds.: © 2004 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  14. OUNASRINTEEN MONITOIMITALON 3D-MALLINNUS

    OpenAIRE

    Granroth, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli piirtää CadWorks 3D-ohjelmalla Ounasrinteen monitoimitalo. 3D-kuvan luomisessa käytettiin arkkitehtitoimiston suunnitelmia sekä alustavia rakennesuunnittelun kuvia ja mitoituksia. Aluksi läpi käydään CadWorks-ohjelman ominaisuuksia ja objektien luomista. 3D-mallinnus eli BIM-mallinnus on työkalu jota käytetään jo laajasti suunnittelussa ympäri maailman. BIM-mallinnuksella voidaan tehdä suunnitelmia myös esim. saneeraus- ja korjauskohteisiin. Rakennuksesta voidaan...

  15. 3D printed magnetic polymer composite transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey M.; Hilpisch, Peter J.; Mowry, Greg S.; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of 3D printing a transformer core using fused deposition modeling methods is explored. With the use of additive manufacturing, ideal transformer core geometries can be achieved in order to produce a more efficient transformer. In this work, different 3D printed settings and toroidal geometries are tested using a custom integrated magnetic circuit capable of measuring the hysteresis loop of a transformer. These different properties are then characterized, and it was determined the most effective 3D printed transformer core requires a high fill factor along with a high concentration of magnetic particulate.

  16. Projektiranje i izrada 3D printera

    OpenAIRE

    Glavak, Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Suvremenu tehnologiju za brzu izradu proizvoda u današnje vrijeme nije moguće zamisliti bez dobrog uređaja i alata. U diplomskom radu opisane su tehnologije brze izrade proizvoda, prikazana je mehanička struktura, projektiranje i izrada 3D printera. S izrađenim 3D printerom napravljen je model od polimera. Ova tehnologija pomoću 3D printera smanjuje troškove izrade i omogućava fleksibilnost izrade proizvoda. Modern technology for rapid production of products can not be imagined without goo...

  17. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  18. Semi- and virtual 3D dosimetry in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this review, 3D dosimetry is divided in three categories; "true" 3D, semi-3D and virtual 3D. Virtual 3D involves the use of measurement arrays either before or after beam entry in the patient/phantom, whereas semi-3D involves use of measurement arrays in phantoms mimicking the patient. True 3D...

  19. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  20. 3D-Dynamic Culture Models of Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Marina; Steimberg, Nathalie; Boniotti, Jennifer; Berenzi, Angiola; Belloni, Daniela; Mazzoleni, Giovanna; Ferrero, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    3D-dynamic culture models represent an invaluable tool for a better comprehension of tumor biology and drug response, as they accurately re-create/preserve the complex multicellular organization and the dynamic interactions of the parental microenvironment, which can affect tumor fate and drug sensitivity. Hence, development of models that recapitulate tumor within its embedding microenvironment is an imperative need. This is particularly true for multiple myeloma (MM), which survives almost exclusively in the bone marrow (BM). To meet this need, we have previously exploited and validated an innovative 3D-dynamic culture technology, based on the use of the Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS ™) bioreactor . Here, we describe, step by step, the procedures we have employed to establish two human MM ex vivo models, i.e., the culture of human BM-derived isolated cells and of MM tissues from patients.

  1. XML3D and Xflow: combining declarative 3D for the Web with generic data flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Felix; Sons, Kristian; Rubinstein, Dmitri; Slusallek, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have combined XML3D, which provides declarative, interactive 3D scene descriptions based on HTML5, with Xflow, a language for declarative, high-performance data processing. The result lets Web developers combine a 3D scene graph with data flows for dynamic meshes, animations, image processing, and postprocessing.

  2. 3D lens-free time-lapse microscopy for 3D cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeu, Anthony; Momey, Fabien; Laperrousaz, Bastien; Bordy, Thomas; Gidrol, Xavier; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Picollet-D'hahan, Nathalie; Allier, Cédric

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new imaging platform based on lens-free time-lapse microscopy for 3D cell culture and its dedicated algorithm lying on a fully 3D regularized inverse problem approach. First 3D+t results are presented

  3. CHAPLET-3D results for the 3-D extension C5G7 Mox benchmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinya, Kosaka [TEPSYS (TEPco SYStems corporation) Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) extension C5G7 MOX benchmark problems were solved by CHAPLET-3D code which is based on the idea of dynamic linkage of the multi-plane method of characteristics solutions. The benchmark results are quite accurate in comparison with the reference solutions, independently of the axial solver incorporated in the CHAPLET-3D code. (author)

  4. 3D presentatie van geluid in de cockpit [3D sound presentation in the cockpit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronkhorst, A.W.

    2003-01-01

    A.W. Bronkhorst, 3D-presentatie van geluid in de cockpit 1 Using virtual acoustics, sound can be presented from virtual sources located in the 3D space around the listener. This 3D sound has interesting applications in the cockpit. Sounds can be used to convey directional information, and

  5. The 3D Object Mediator : Handling 3D Models on Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.J.F.; Lawick van Pabst, J. van; Afsarmanesh, H.

    1997-01-01

    The 3D Object MEdiator (3DOME 3) offers two services for handling 3D models: a modelshop and a renderfarm. These services can be consulted through the Internet. The modelshop meets the demands for brokerage of geometric descriptions of 3D models. People who create geometric models of objects can

  6. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  7. Visualization of Features in 3D Terrain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steve Dübel; Heidrun Schumann

    2017-01-01

    In 3D terrain analysis, topographical characteristics, such as mountains or valleys, and geo-spatial data characteristics, such as specific weather conditions or objects of interest, are important features...

  8. Lightning fast animation in Element 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Audronis, Ty

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow and all-inclusive guide, in which the underlying principles of 3D animation as well as their importance are explained in detail. The lessons are designed to teach you how to think of 3D animation in such a way that you can troubleshoot any problem, or animate any scene that comes your way.If you are a Digital Artist, Animation Artist, or a Game Programmer and you want to become an expert in Element 3D, this is the book for you. Although there are a lot of basics for beginners in this book, it includes some advanced techniques for both animating in Element 3D, and overcoming i

  9. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  10. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Gollaz Morales, Jose Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  11. Advanced 3D Object Identification System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optra will build an Advanced 3D Object Identification System utilizing three or more high resolution imagers spaced around a launch platform. Data from each imager...

  12. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  13. 3D-FPA Hybridization Improvements Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  14. Intraoperative 3D Computed Tomography: Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Stephanie E; Bova, Frank J; Hoh, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    Spinal instrumentation often involves placing implants without direct visualization of their trajectory or proximity to adjacent neurovascular structures. Two-dimensional fluoroscopy is commonly used to navigate implant placement, but with the advent of computed tomography, followed by the invention of a mobile scanner with an open gantry, three-dimensional (3D) navigation is now widely used. This article critically appraises the available literature to assess the influence of 3D navigation on radiation exposure, accuracy of instrumentation, operative time, and patient outcomes. Also explored is the latest technological advance in 3D neuronavigation: the manufacturing of, via 3D printers, patient-specific templates that direct implant placement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 3D VISUALIZATION FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skamantzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  16. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  17. 3D in vitro technology for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro systems that can mimic organ and tissue structure and function in vivo, will be of great benefit for a variety of biological applications from basic biology to toxicity testing and drug discovery. There have been several attempts to generate 3D tissue models but most of these models require costly equipment, and the most serious disadvantage in them is that they are too far from the mature human organs in vivo. Because of these problems, research and development in drug discovery, toxicity testing and biotech industries are highly expensive, and involve sacrifice of countless animals and it takes several years to bring a single drug/product to the market or to find the toxicity or otherwise of chemical entities. Our group has been actively working on several alternative models by merging biomaterials science, nanotechnology and biological principles to generate 3D in vitro living organs, to be called "Human Organs-on-Chip", to mimic natural organ/tissues, in order to reduce animal testing and clinical trials. We have fabricated a novel type of mechanically and biologically bio-mimicking collagen-based hydrogel that would provide for interconnected mini-wells in which 3D cell/organ culture of human samples in a manner similar to human organs with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules would be possible. These products mimic the physical, chemical, and biological properties of natural organs and tissues at different scales. This paper will review the outcome of our several experiments so far in this direction and the future perspectives.

  18. 3D Bioprinting for Engineering Complex Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition...

  19. Making 3D movies of Northern Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivon, Eric; Mouette, Jean; Legault, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    We describe the steps necessary to create three-dimensional (3D) movies of Northern Lights or Aurorae Borealis out of real-time images taken with two distant high-resolution fish-eye cameras. Astrometric reconstruction of the visible stars is used to model the optical mapping of each camera and correct for it in order to properly align the two sets of images. Examples of the resulting movies can be seen at http://www.iap.fr/aurora3d

  20. Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.

  1. Signal and Noise in 3D Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    complicated 3D environments. I have also been doing a great deal of work in modeling the noise field (the ocean soundscape ) due to various sources... soundscape to learn about the ocean environment. I distinguish this from geoacoustic inversion and ocean tomography, in that the methods envisioned will rely...on broader features of the soundscape . OBJECTIVES In the first phase of this effort we will focus on the 3D modeling solutions, documenting the

  2. The Idaho Virtualization Laboratory 3D Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Holmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D virtualization and visualization is an important component of industry, art, museum curation and cultural heritage, yet the step by step process of 3D virtualization has been little discussed. Here we review the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory’s (IVL process of virtualizing a cultural heritage item (artifact from start to finish. Each step is thoroughly explained and illustrated including how the object and its metadata are digitally preserved and ultimately distributed to the world.

  3. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve

    OpenAIRE

    Keating, Steven J.; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G.; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S.; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deform...

  4. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  5. 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Dylan Jack; Tan, Yu; Jia, Jia; Yao, Hai; Mei, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to fabricate functional tissue for applications in regenerative medicine and drug testing. More recently, 3D printing has shown great promise in tissue fabrication with a structural control from micro- to macro-scale by using a layer-by-layer approach. Whether through scaffold-based or scaffold-free approaches, the standard for 3D printed tissue engineering constructs is to provide a biomimetic structural environment that facilitates tissue formation and promotes host ...

  6. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  7. Steps towards 3D Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullcke, Benjamin; Gong, Bo; Moeller, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a promising imaging technique to visualize the dynamics of regional lung ventilation. 2D EIT has shown promise in monitoring ventilation therapy, with the drawback of only displaying a single horizontal slice of the lungs. Until now there are no generally accepted approaches available to generate meaningful 3D images in real-time. This paper describes general problems and first attempts to overcome those that may extend to a hierarchical scheme for 3D EIT imaging.

  8. 3D Bioprinting for Vascularized Tissue Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Yost, Michael; Markwald, Roger; Mei, Ying

    2017-01-01

    3D bioprinting holds remarkable promise for rapid fabrication of 3D tissue engineering constructs. Given its scalability, reproducibility, and precise multi-dimensional control that traditional fabrication methods do not provide, 3D bioprinting provides a powerful means to address one of the major challenges in tissue engineering: vascularization. Moderate success of current tissue engineering strategies have been attributed to the current inability to fabricate thick tissue engineering constructs that contain endogenous, engineered vasculature or nutrient channels that can integrate with the host tissue. Successful fabrication of a vascularized tissue construct requires synergy between high throughput, high-resolution bioprinting of larger perfusable channels and instructive bioink that promotes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the field of 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. It will cover the methods of bioprinting vascularized constructs, bioink for vascularization, and perspectives on recent innovations in 3D printing and biomaterials for the next generation of 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication.

  9. Power spectral density of 3D noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, David P.

    2017-05-01

    When evaluated with a spatially uniform irradiance, an imaging sensor exhibits both spatial and temporal variations, which can be described as a three-dimensional (3D) random process considered as noise. In the 1990s, NVESD engineers developed an approximation to the 3D power spectral density (PSD) for noise in imaging systems known as 3D noise. This correspondence describes the decomposition of the full 3D PSD into the familiar components from the 3D Noise model. The standard 3D noise method assumes spectrally (spatio-temporal) white random processes, which is demonstrated to be atypically in the case with complex modern imaging sensors. Using the spectral shape allows for more appropriate analysis of the impact of the noise of the sensor. The processing routines developed for this work consider finite memory constraints and utilize Welch's method for unbiased PSD estimation. In support of the reproducible research effort, the Matlab functions associated with this work can be found on the Mathworks file exchange [1].

  10. ASSESSING 3D PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES IN CRANIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Moshobane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  11. Towards next generation 3D cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit

    2017-03-01

    We are in the midst of a 3D revolution. Robots enabled by 3D cameras are beginning to autonomously drive cars, perform surgeries, and manage factories. However, when deployed in the real-world, these cameras face several challenges that prevent them from measuring 3D shape reliably. These challenges include large lighting variations (bright sunlight to dark night), presence of scattering media (fog, body tissue), and optically complex materials (metal, plastic). Due to these factors, 3D imaging is often the bottleneck in widespread adoption of several key robotics technologies. I will talk about our work on developing 3D cameras based on time-of-flight and active triangulation that addresses these long-standing problems. This includes designing `all-weather' cameras that can perform high-speed 3D scanning in harsh outdoor environments, as well as cameras that recover shape of objects with challenging material properties. These cameras are, for the first time, capable of measuring detailed (<100 microns resolution) scans in extremely demanding scenarios with low-cost components. Several of these cameras are making a practical impact in industrial automation, being adopted in robotic inspection and assembly systems.

  12. 3D goes digital: from stereoscopy to modern 3D imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerwien, N.

    2014-11-01

    In the 19th century, English physicist Charles Wheatstone discovered stereopsis, the basis for 3D perception. His construction of the first stereoscope established the foundation for stereoscopic 3D imaging. Since then, many optical instruments were influenced by these basic ideas. In recent decades, the advent of digital technologies revolutionized 3D imaging. Powerful readily available sensors and displays combined with efficient pre- or post-processing enable new methods for 3D imaging and applications. This paper draws an arc from basic concepts of 3D imaging to modern digital implementations, highlighting instructive examples from its 175 years of history.

  13. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  14. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  15. 3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Min; Yoo, Eun-Joo; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Yoonae A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p < 0.001, Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r = 0.034, p = 0.33; headache, r = 0.320, p = 0.119; eye fatigue, r = 0.135, p = 0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to

  16. Self assembled structures for 3D integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhav

    Three dimensional (3D) micro-scale structures attached to a silicon substrate have various applications in microelectronics. However, formation of 3D structures using conventional micro-fabrication techniques are not efficient and require precise control of processing parameters. Self assembly is a method for creating 3D structures that takes advantage of surface area minimization phenomena. Solder based self assembly (SBSA), the subject of this dissertation, uses solder as a facilitator in the formation of 3D structures from 2D patterns. Etching a sacrificial layer underneath a portion of the 2D pattern allows the solder reflow step to pull those areas out of the substrate plane resulting in a folded 3D structure. Initial studies using the SBSA method demonstrated low yields in the formation of five different polyhedra. The failures in folding were primarily attributed to nonuniform solder deposition on the underlying metal pads. The dip soldering method was analyzed and subsequently refined. A modified dip soldering process provided improved yield among the polyhedra. Solder bridging referred as joining of solder deposited on different metal patterns in an entity influenced the folding mechanism. In general, design parameters such as small gap-spacings and thick metal pads were found to favor solder bridging for all patterns studied. Two types of soldering: face and edge soldering were analyzed. Face soldering refers to the application of solder on the entire metal face. Edge soldering indicates application of solder only on the edges of the metal face. Mechanical grinding showed that face soldered SBSA structures were void free and robust in nature. In addition, the face soldered 3D structures provide a consistent heat resistant solder standoff height that serve as attachments in the integration of dissimilar electronic technologies. Face soldered 3D structures were developed on the underlying conducting channel to determine the thermo-electric reliability of

  17. A dose planning study on applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost in combination with 3D MRI based brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assenholt, Marianne S.; Petersen, Joergen B.; Nielsen, Soeren K.; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Tanderup, Kari (Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2008-08-15

    Purpose. Locally advanced cervical cancer is usually treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy (BT). However, if response or tumour topography is unfavourable it may be difficult to reach a sufficient BT dose. The purpose of this study was to explore whether an applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost could be combined with brachytherapy to improve dose volume parameters. Material and methods. Dose plans of 6 patients with HR CTV volumes of 31-100cc at the time of BT were analysed. MRI was performed with a combined intracavitary (IC)-interstitial (IS) ring applicator in situ. A radiotherapy schedule consisting of 45Gy (1.8Gyx25) IMRT followed by boost of 28Gy (7Gyx4fx) was modelled. Four different boost techniques were evaluated: IC-BT, IC/IS-BT, IC-BT+IMRT and IMRT. Dose plans were optimised for maximal tumour dose (D90) and coverage (V85Gy) while respecting DVH constraints in organs at risk: D2cc <75Gy in rectum and sigmoid and <90Gy in bladder (EQD2). In combined BT+IMRT dose plans, the IMRT plan was optimised on top of the BT dose distribution. Volumes irradiated to more than 60 Gy EQD2 (V60Gy) were evaluated. Results. Median dose coverage in IC plans was 74% [66-93%]. By using IC/IS or IC-BT+IMRT boost, the median coverage was improved to 95% [78-99%], and to 96% [69-99%] respectively. For IMRT alone, a median coverage of 98% [90-100%] was achieved, but V60Gy volumes were significantly increased by a median factor of 2.0 [1.4-2.3] as compared to IC/IS. It depended on the individual tumour topography whether IC/IS-BT or IC-BT+IMRT boost was the most favourable technique. Conclusion. It is technically possible to create dose plans that combine image guided BT and IMRT. In this study the dose coverage could be significantly increased by adding IS-BT or IMRT boost to the intracavitary dose. Using IMRT alone for boost cannot be advocated since this results in a significant increase of the volume irradiated to 60Gy

  18. Proof of principle: Applicator-guided stereotactic IMRT boost in combination with 3D MRI-based brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenholt, Marianne S; Vestergaard, Anne; Kallehauge, Jesper F; Mohamed, Sandy; Nielsen, Søren K; Petersen, Jørgen B; Fokdal, Lars; Lindegaard, Jacob C; Tanderup, Kari

    2014-01-01

    To describe a new technique involving high-precision stereotactic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) boost in combination with intracavitary-interstitial (IC-IS) brachytherapy (BT) in cervical tumors that cannot be sufficiently covered by IC-IS-BT due to extensive residual disease and/or difficult topography at the time of BT. Three patients with stage IIIB-IVA cervical cancer had significant residual disease at the time of BT. MRI-guided IC-IS-BT (pulsed-dose rate) was combined with a stereotactic IMRT boost guided according to the BT applicator in situ, using cone beam CT. The planning aim dose (total external beam radiotherapy and BT) for the high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) was D90 >70-85 Gy, whereas constraints for organs at risk were D2cm3 81 Gy were obtained in the central HR-CTV and D90 >69 Gy in the distal regions of HR-CTV. Image-guided set up of the IMRT boost with the applicator in situ was feasible. The dose plans were robust to intra-fraction uncertainties of 3 mm. Local control with acceptable morbidity was obtained at a followup of 3, 2.5, and 1 year, respectively. The combination of MRI-guided BT with an applicator-guided stereotactic IMRT boost is feasible. This technique seems to be useful in the few cases where HR-CTV coverage cannot be obtained even with IS-IC-BT. Copyright © 2014 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A dose planning study on applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost in combination with 3D MRI based brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenholt, Marianne S; Petersen, Jørgen B; Nielsen, Søren K; Lindegaard, Jacob C; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Locally advanced cervical cancer is usually treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy (BT). However, if response or tumour topography is unfavourable it may be difficult to reach a sufficient BT dose. The purpose of this study was to explore whether an applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost could be combined with brachytherapy to improve dose volume parameters. Dose plans of 6 patients with HR CTV volumes of 31-100cc at the time of BT were analysed. MRI was performed with a combined intracavitary (IC)-interstitial (IS) ring applicator in situ. A radiotherapy schedule consisting of 45Gy (1.8Gy x 25) IMRT followed by boost of 28Gy (7Gy x 4fx) was modelled. Four different boost techniques were evaluated: IC-BT, IC/IS-BT, IC-BT+IMRT and IMRT. Dose plans were optimised for maximal tumour dose (D90) and coverage (V85Gy) while respecting DVH constraints in organs at risk: D2cc <75Gy in rectum and sigmoid and <90Gy in bladder (EQD2). In combined BT+IMRT dose plans, the IMRT plan was optimised on top of the BT dose distribution. Volumes irradiated to more than 60 Gy EQD2 (V60Gy) were evaluated. Median dose coverage in IC plans was 74% [66-93%]. By using IC/IS or IC-BT+IMRT boost, the median coverage was improved to 95% [78-99%], and to 96% [69-99%] respectively. For IMRT alone, a median coverage of 98% [90-100%] was achieved, but V60Gy volumes were significantly increased by a median factor of 2.0 [1.4-2.3] as compared to IC/IS. It depended on the individual tumour topography whether IC/IS-BT or IC-BT+IMRT boost was the most favourable technique. It is technically possible to create dose plans that combine image guided BT and IMRT. In this study the dose coverage could be significantly increased by adding IS-BT or IMRT boost to the intracavitary dose. Using IMRT alone for boost cannot be advocated since this results in a significant increase of the volume irradiated to 60Gy.

  20. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic Properties of 3D Printed Toroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey; Otto, Austin; Hilpisch, Peter; Mowry, Greg; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany; Renewable Energy; Alternatives Lab (REAL) Team

    Transformers are ubiquitous in electronics today. Although toroidal geometries perform most efficiently, transformers are traditionally made with rectangular cross-sections due to the lower manufacturing costs. Additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) can easily achieve toroidal geometries by building up a part through a series of 2D layers. To get strong magnetic properties in a 3D printed transformer, a composite filament is used containing Fe dispersed in a polymer matrix. How the resulting 3D printed toroid responds to a magnetic field depends on two structural factors of the printed 2D layers: fill factor (planar density) and fill pattern. In this work, we investigate how the fill factor and fill pattern affect the magnetic properties of 3D printed toroids. The magnetic properties of the printed toroids are measured by a custom circuit that produces a hysteresis loop for each toroid. Toroids with various fill factors and fill patterns are compared to determine how these two factors can affect the magnetic field the toroid can produce. These 3D printed toroids can be used for numerous applications in order to increase the efficiency of transformers by making it possible for manufacturers to make a toroidal geometry.

  2. 3D culture for cardiac cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppinger, Christian

    2016-07-01

    This review discusses historical milestones, recent developments and challenges in the area of 3D culture models with cardiovascular cell types. Expectations in this area have been raised in recent years, but more relevant in vitro research, more accurate drug testing results, reliable disease models and insights leading to bioartificial organs are expected from the transition to 3D cell culture. However, the construction of organ-like cardiac 3D models currently remains a difficult challenge. The heart consists of highly differentiated cells in an intricate arrangement.Furthermore, electrical “wiring”, a vascular system and multiple cell types act in concert to respond to the rapidly changing demands of the body. Although cardiovascular 3D culture models have been predominantly developed for regenerative medicine in the past, their use in drug screening and for disease models has become more popular recently. Many sophisticated 3D culture models are currently being developed in this dynamic area of life science. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  3. Optimization of 3D Field Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nikolas; Zhu, Caoxiang

    2017-10-01

    Recent progress in 3D tokamak modeling is now leveraged to create a conceptual design of new external 3D field coils for the DIII-D tokamak. Using the IPEC dominant mode as a target spectrum, the Finding Optimized Coils Using Space-curves (FOCUS) code optimizes the currents and 3D geometry of multiple coils to maximize the total set's resonant coupling. The optimized coils are individually distorted in space, creating toroidal ``arrays'' containing a variety of shapes that often wrap around a significant poloidal extent of the machine. The generalized perturbed equilibrium code (GPEC) is used to determine optimally efficient spectra for driving total, core, and edge neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque and these too provide targets for the optimization of 3D coil designs. These conceptual designs represent a fundamentally new approach to 3D coil design for tokamaks targeting desired plasma physics phenomena. Optimized coil sets based on plasma response theory will be relevant to designs for future reactors or on any active machine. External coils, in particular, must be optimized for reliable and efficient fusion reactor designs. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. Microscale 3D Printing of Nanotwinned Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozfar, Ali; Daryadel, Soheil; Morsali, S Reza; Moreno, Salvador; Baniasadi, Mahmoud; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Minary-Jolandan, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Nanotwinned (nt)-metals exhibit superior mechanical and electrical properties compared to their coarse-grained and nanograined counterparts. nt-metals in film and bulk forms are obtained using physical and chemical processes including pulsed electrodeposition (PED), plastic deformation, recrystallization, phase transformation, and sputter deposition. However, currently, there is no process for 3D printing (additive manufacturing) of nt-metals. Microscale 3D printing of nt-Cu is demonstrated with high density of coherent twin boundaries using a new room temperature process based on localized PED (L-PED). The 3D printed nt-Cu is fully dense, with low to none impurities, and low microstructural defects, and without obvious interface between printed layers, which overall result in good mechanical and electrical properties, without any postprocessing steps. The L-PED process enables direct 3D printing of layer-by-layer and complex 3D microscale nt-Cu structures, which may find applications for fabrication of metamaterials, sensors, plasmonics, and micro/nanoelectromechanical systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Recent Progress on 3D Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    3D silicon detectors, in which the electrodes penetrate the sensor bulk perpendicular to the surface, have recently undergone a rapid development from R\\&D over industrialisation to their first installation in a real high-energy-physics experiment. Since June 2015, the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer is taking first collision data with 3D pixel detectors. At the same time, preparations are advancing to install 3D pixel detectors in forward trackers such as the ATLAS Forward Proton detector or the CMS-TOTEM Proton Precision Spectrometer. For those experiments, the main requirements are a slim edge and the ability to cope with non-uniform irradiation. Both have been shown to be fulfilled by 3D pixel detectors. For the High-Luminosity LHC pixel upgrades of the major experiments, 3D detectors are promising candidates for the innermost pixel layers to cope with harsh radiation environments up to fluences of $2\\times10^{16}$\\,n$_{eq}$/cm$^2$ thanks to their excellent radiation hardness at low operational voltages and ...

  6. Coloring 3D Printed Surfaces by Thermoforming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yizhong; Tong, Yiying; Zhou, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Decorating the surfaces of 3D printed objects with color textures is still not readily available in most consumer-level or even high-end 3D printers. Existing techniques such as hydrographics color transfer suffer from the issues of air pockets in concave regions and discoloration in overly stretched regions. We propose a novel thermoforming-based coloring technique to alleviate these problems as well as to simplify the overall procedure. Thermoforming is a widely used technique in industry for plastic thin shell product manufacturing by pressing heated plastic sheets onto molds using atmospheric pressure. We attach on the transparent plastic sheet a precomputed color pattern decal prior to heating, and adhere it to 3D printed models treated as the molds in thermoforming. The 3D models are thus decorated with the desired color texture, as well as a thin, polished protective cover. The precomputation involves a physical simulation of the thermoforming process to compute the correct color pattern on the plastic sheet, and the vent hole layout on the 3D model for air pocket elimination. We demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of our computational model and our prototype thermoforming surface coloring system through physical experiments.

  7. In situ repair of bone and cartilage defects using 3D scanning and 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Yu, Fei; Shi, Jianping; Shen, Sheng; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Xingsong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-08-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly emerging technology that promises to transform tissue engineering into a commercially successful biomedical industry. However, the use of robotic bioprinters alone is not sufficient for disease treatment. This study aimed to report the combined application of 3D scanning and 3D printing for treating bone and cartilage defects. Three different kinds of defect models were created to mimic three orthopedic diseases: large segmental defects of long bones, free-form fracture of femoral condyle, and International Cartilage Repair Society grade IV chondral lesion. Feasibility of in situ 3D bioprinting for these diseases was explored. The 3D digital models of samples with defects and corresponding healthy parts were obtained using high-resolution 3D scanning. The Boolean operation was used to achieve the shape of the defects, and then the target geometries were imported in a 3D bioprinter. Two kinds of photopolymerized hydrogels were synthesized as bioinks. Finally, the defects of bone and cartilage were restored perfectly in situ using 3D bioprinting. The results of this study suggested that 3D scanning and 3D bioprinting could provide another strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  8. 3D-MB-MUSE: A robust 3D multi-slab, multi-band and multi-shot reconstruction approach for ultrahigh resolution diffusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Iain P; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Petty, Christopher; Chen, Nan-Kuei; Song, Allen W

    2017-10-01

    Recent advances in achieving ultrahigh spatial resolution (e.g. sub-millimeter) diffusion MRI (dMRI) data have proven highly beneficial in characterizing tissue microstructures in organs such as the brain. However, the routine acquisition of in-vivo dMRI data at such high spatial resolutions has been largely prohibited by factors that include prolonged acquisition times, motion induced artifacts, and low SNR. To overcome these limitations, we present here a framework for acquiring and reconstructing 3D multi-slab, multi-band and interleaved multi-shot EPI data, termed 3D-MB-MUSE. Through multi-band excitations, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple 3D slabs enables whole brain dMRI volumes to be acquired in-vivo on a 3 T clinical MRI scanner at high spatial resolution within a reasonably short amount of time. Representing a true 3D model, 3D-MB-MUSE reconstructs an entire 3D multi-band, multi-shot dMRI slab at once while simultaneously accounting for coil sensitivity variations across the slab as well as motion induced artifacts commonly associated with both 3D and multi-shot diffusion imaging. Such a reconstruction fully preserves the SNR advantages of both 3D and multi-shot acquisitions in high resolution dMRI images by removing both motion and aliasing artifacts across multiple dimensions. By enabling ultrahigh resolution dMRI for routine use, the 3D-MB-MUSE framework presented here may prove highly valuable in both clinical and research applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  10. Butterfly effect in 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.

  11. 3D blob dynamics in toroidal geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Henry; Reiser, Dirk

    point radial inward, see e.g. [1-2]. Here, the initial condition is implemented in two very different 3D numerical codes, ATTEMPT [3], and a new developed code, DIESEL (Disk version of ESEL), and the results are compared and discussed in detail. The ATTEMPT code has been employed to study the blob...... dynamics in a full 3D tokamak geometry including the edge and SOL region as well. Previous studies with the ATTEMPT code proved that density blobs appear for typical parameters in the TEXTOR tokamak. The code has been prepared for flux driven simulations with detailed control of the blob initial state....... The DIESEL code is an extension of the ESEL code [1]. It solves a simple interchange model in full 3D tokamak geometry, where the toroidal direction is divided into a number of drift planes. On each drift plane the equations are solved in a domain corresponding to the full 2D cross section of the tokamak...

  12. 3D imaging without range information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. D.; Myatt, D. R.

    2010-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging technologies have considerable potential for aiding military operations in areas such as reconnaissance, mission planning and situational awareness through improved visualisation and user-interaction. This paper describes the development of fast 3D imaging capabilities from low-cost, passive sensors. The two systems discussed here are capable of passive depth perception and recovering 3D structure from a single electro-optic sensor attached to an aerial vehicle that is, for example, circling a target. Based on this example, the proposed method has been shown to produce high quality results when positional data of the sensor is known, and also in the more challenging case when the sensor geometry must be estimated from the input imagery alone. The methods described exploit prior knowledge concerning the type of sensor that is used to produce a more robust output.

  13. Texture Classification for 3D Urban Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inatsuka Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to control texture resolution for rendering large-scale 3D urban maps. Since on the 3D maps texture data generally tend to be far larger than geometry information such as vertices and triangles, it is more effective to reduce the texture by exploiting the LOD (Level of Detail in order to decrease whole data size. For this purpose, we propose a new method to control the resolution of the texture. In our method we classify the textures to four classes based on their salient features. The appropriate texture resolutions are decided based on the classification resulsts, their rendered sizes on a display, and their level of importance. We verify the validity of our texture classification algorithm by applying it to the large-scale 3D urban map rendering.

  14. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Keating

    Full Text Available We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  15. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  16. Developing 3D microstructures for tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    casting process to generate various large scale tissue engineering constructs with single pore geometry with the desired mechanical stiffness and porosity. In addition, a new technique was developed to fa bricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue-engineering applications where 3D printing...... of a hydrogel to create an additional interpenetrating network (IPN) of hydrogel nanodeposits. Biocompatible IPNs of silicone elastomer with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and Poly(ethylene glycol) methylether acrylate (PEGMEA) hydrogel 3D scaffolds were produced in this way. The model drug...... of hiPSC-derived DE cells cultured for 25 days in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system with an array of 16 small-scale tissue-bioreactors with integrated dual-pore pore scaffolds and flow rates. Hepatic differentiation and functionality of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes were successfully assessed and compared...

  17. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...... is solved by creating cavities of air and distributing dense materials inside the model. Consequently, the surface is not deformed. However, printing materials with significantly different densities is often not possible and adding cavities of air is often not enough to make the model balance. Consequently...

  18. Multiplane 3D superresolution optical fluctuation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Geissbuehler, Stefan; Godinat, Aurélien; Bocchio, Noelia L; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Lasser, Theo; Leutenegger, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    By switching fluorophores on and off in either a deterministic or a stochastic manner, superresolution microscopy has enabled the imaging of biological structures at resolutions well beyond the diffraction limit. Superresolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) provides an elegant way of overcoming the diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions by computing higher-order cumulants of image sequences of blinking fluorophores acquired with a conventional widefield microscope. So far, three-dimensional (3D) SOFI has only been demonstrated by sequential imaging of multiple depth positions. Here we introduce a versatile imaging scheme which allows for the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes. Using 3D cross-cumulants, we show that the depth sampling can be increased. Consequently, the simultaneous acquisition of multiple focal planes reduces the acquisition time and hence the photo-bleaching of fluorescent markers. We demonstrate multiplane 3D SOFI by imaging the mitochondria network in fixed ...

  19. Circuit QED with 3D cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Edwar; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Deppe, Frank; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), 80799 Muenchen (Germany); Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In typical circuit QED systems, on-chip superconducting qubits are coupled to integrated coplanar microwave resonators. Due to the planar geometry, the resonators are often a limiting factor regarding the total coherence of the system. Alternatively, similar hybrid systems can be realized using 3D microwave cavities. Here, we present studies on transmon qubits capacitively coupled to 3D cavities. The internal quality factors of our 3D cavities, machined out of high purity aluminum, are above 1.4 .10{sup 6} at the single photon level and a temperature of 50 mK. For characterization of the sample, we perform dispersive shift measurements up to the third energy level of the qubit. We show simulations and data describing the effect of the transmon geometry on it's capacitive properties. In addition, we present progress towards an integrated quantum memory application.

  20. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Steven J; Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Patrick, William G; Sharma, Sunanda; Kong, David S; Oxman, Neri

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  1. Stereo vision based 3D game interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Chen, Yisong; Dong, Chao

    2009-10-01

    Currently, keyboards, mice, wands and joysticks are still the most popular interactive devices. While these devices are mostly adequate, they are so unnatural that they are unable to give players the feeling of immersiveness. Researchers have begun investigation into natural interfaces that are intuitively simple and unobtrusive to the user. Recent advances in various signal-processing technologies, coupled with an explosion in the available computing power, have given rise to a number of natural human computer interface (HCI) modalities: speech, vision-based gesture recognition, etc. In this paper we propose a natural three dimensional (3D) game interface, which uses the motion of the player fists in 3D space to achieve the control of sixd egree of freedom (DOFs). And we also propose a real-time 3D fist tracking algorithm, which is based on stereo vision and Bayesian network. Finally, a flying game is used to test our interface.

  2. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  3. Trends of semiconductivity in 3d oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    Open shell transition metal oxides are usually described as Mott insulators, which are often viewed as being disparate from semiconductors. Based on the premise that the presence of a Mott gap and semiconductivity are not mutually exclusive, this work reviews electronic structure calculations on the binary 3d oxides, so to distill trends and design principles for semiconducting transition metal oxides. This class of materials possesses the potential for discovery, design, and development of novel functional semiconducting compounds, e.g., for energy applications. This presentation gives an overview for the band-structure trends of 3d oxides with special attention on the hybridization between the 3d crystal field symmetries with the sp bands, and on how this interactions affect the effective masses and the likelihood of self-trapping of electrons or holes. Supported by DOE-SC-BES as part on an Energy Frontier Research Center.

  4. 3D CAPABILITIES OF PLEIADES SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available End of 2011 a new optical satellite, called Pléiades, was launched by the French space agency (CNES. It provides 20 km x 20 km images at 0.5 meters. This agile acquisition system is able to relocate very rapidly and scan the earth in any direction. The agility of the system offers the ability to acquire multi viewing angle images of the same area during the same orbit. This ability to capture, from a single stereoscopic pair, to a sequence of 25 images, allows enhancing the quality and the completeness of automatically extracted 3D maps. The aim of the study is to validate and quantify the capacity of the Pléiades system to perform 3D mapping. The analysis explores the advantages in terms of quality and automatism to use more than 2 stereoscopic images. In the last 10 years, automatic 3D processing of digital images became more and more popular and efficient. Thanks to aerial images with very large overlap and very high resolution satellite images, new methodologies and algorithms have been implemented to improve the quality and accuracy of automatic 3D processing. We propose to experiment the same type of approaches using Pléiades images to produce digital elevation models (DEM. A focus is made on analysing the 3D processing using video like (multi viewing acquisitions. Different reference sites with very accurate 3D control points are used to quantify the quality of the Pléiades DEM. Different acquisition modes are explored from a single stereo pair to a sequence of 17 images.

  5. 3D scene reconstruction based on 3D laser point cloud combining UAV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyun; Yan, Yangyang; Zhang, Xitong; Wu, Zhenzhen

    2016-03-01

    It is a big challenge capturing and modeling 3D information of the built environment. A number of techniques and technologies are now in use. These include GPS, and photogrammetric application and also remote sensing applications. The experiment uses multi-source data fusion technology for 3D scene reconstruction based on the principle of 3D laser scanning technology, which uses the laser point cloud data as the basis and Digital Ortho-photo Map as an auxiliary, uses 3DsMAX software as a basic tool for building three-dimensional scene reconstruction. The article includes data acquisition, data preprocessing, 3D scene construction. The results show that the 3D scene has better truthfulness, and the accuracy of the scene meet the need of 3D scene construction.

  6. X3d2pov. Traductor of X3D to POV-Ray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Castellanos Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality and low-quality interactive graphics represent two different approaches to computer graphics’ 3D object representation. The former is mainly used to produce high computational cost movie animation. The latter is used for producing interactive scenes as part of virtual reality environments. Many file format specifications have appeared to satisfy underlying model needs; POV-ray (persistence of vision is an open source specification for rendering photorealistic images with the ray tracer algorithm and X3D (extendable 3D as the VRML successor standard for producing web virtual-reality environments written in XML. X3D2POV has been introduced to render high-quality images from an X3D scene specification; it is a grammar translator tool from X3D code to POV-ray code.

  7. Relevance of 3d culture systems to study osteosarcoma environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Angela; Raimondi, Lavinia; Salamanna, Francesca; Carina, Valeria; Costa, Viviana; Bellavia, Daniele; Alessandro, Riccardo; Fini, Milena; Giavaresi, Gianluca

    2018-01-05

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant tumor of bone, which preferentially develops lung metastasis. Although standard chemotherapy has significantly improved long-term survival over the past few decades, the outcome for patients with metastatic or recurrent OS remains dramatically poor. Novel therapies are therefore required to slow progression and eradicate the disease. Furthermore, to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for OS onset and progression, the development of novel predictive culture systems resembling the native three-dimensional (3D) tumor microenvironment are mandatory. 'Tumor engineering' approaches radically changed the previous scenario, through the development of advanced and alternative 3D cell culture in vitro models able to tightly mimic the in vivo tumor microenvironment.In this review, we will summarize the state of the art in this novel area, illustrating the different methods and techniques employed to realize 3D OS cell culture models and we report the achieved results, which highlight the efficacy of these models in reproducing the tumor milieu. Although data need to be further validated, the scientific studies reviewed here are certainly promising and give new insights into the clinical practice.

  8. 3D Cultivation Techniques for Primary Human Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Bachmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in drug development is the prediction of in vivo toxicity based on in vitro data. The standard cultivation system for primary human hepatocytes is based on monolayer cultures, even if it is known that these conditions result in a loss of hepatocyte morphology and of liver-specific functions, such as drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. As it has been demonstrated that hepatocytes embedded between two sheets of collagen maintain their function, various hydrogels and scaffolds for the 3D cultivation of hepatocytes have been developed. To further improve or maintain hepatic functions, 3D cultivation has been combined with perfusion. In this manuscript, we discuss the benefits and drawbacks of different 3D microfluidic devices. For most systems that are currently available, the main issues are the requirement of large cell numbers, the low throughput, and expensive equipment, which render these devices unattractive for research and the drug-developing industry. A higher acceptance of these devices could be achieved by their simplification and their compatibility with high-throughput, as both aspects are of major importance for a user-friendly device.

  9. Regurgitation quantification using 3D PISA in volume echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Leo; Datta, Saurabh; Kutter, Oliver; Duong, Christophe; Wein, Wolfgang; Little, Stephen H; Igo, Stephen R; Liu, Shizhen; Vannan, Mani

    2011-01-01

    We present the first system for measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) on a 3D ultrasound acquisition using modified ultrasound hardware, volumetric image segmentation and a simple efficient workflow. Accurate measurement of the PISA in 3D flow through a valve is an emerging method for quantitatively assessing cardiac valve regurgitation and function. Current state of the art protocols for assessing regurgitant flow require laborious and time consuming user interaction with the data, where a precise execution is crucial for an accurate diagnosis. We propose a new improved 3D PISA workflow that is initialized interactively with two points, followed by fully automatic segmentation of the valve annulus and isovelocity surface area computation. Our system is first validated against several in vitro phantoms to verify the calculations of surface area, orifice area and regurgitant flow. Finally, we use our system to compare orifice area calculations obtained from in vivo patient imaging measurements to an independent measurement and then use our system to successfully classify patients into mild-moderate regurgitation and moderate-severe regurgitation categories.

  10. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanen, Akkari, E-mail: bettaieb.hanen@topnet.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Imen, Bhouri, E-mail: bhouri_imen@yahoo.f [Unite de recherche ondelettes et multifractals, Faculte des sciences (Tunisia); Asma, Ben Abdallah, E-mail: asma.babdallah@cristal.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Patrick, Dubois, E-mail: pdubois@chru-lille.f [INSERM, U 703, Lille (France); Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed, E-mail: medhedi.bedoui@fmm.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia)

    2009-09-28

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  11. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  12. 3-D Reconstruction From Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project has been to implement a software system, that is able to create a 3-D reconstruction from two or more 2-D photographic images made from different positions. The height is determined from the disparity difference of the images. The general purpose of the system is mapping o......, where various methods have been tested in order to optimize the performance. The match results are used in the reconstruction part to establish a 3-D digital representation and finally, different presentation forms are discussed....

  13. Research on 3D reconstruction of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Pan-fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to associate with using acoustic emission, ultrasonic or other means to locate damage of concrete, based on the concrete CT image information, the research of 3D reconstruction of concrete crack structure was completed by using Amira 5.2.1 3D reconstruction software. Experiments showed that: three dimensional reconstruction of concrete can reflect the real crack structure, and distribution of aggregate concrete of three dimensional model established was basically in accordance with the original CT image, which laid the good foundation to simulate and analysis by using ANSYS finite element software in the future.

  14. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....... this shift in paradigms we begin by describing some of the concrete models we have made, showing the relationship between model structure (methodology and content) and model use. We also describe the projects we are working on at present in order to illustrate new ideas concerning the potential development...

  15. EAFIT 3D móvil

    OpenAIRE

    Hincapié Casas, Miguel Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Se desarrollo una aplicación para celulares que permite visualizar un mundo virtual en 3D del campus universitario -- El objetivo de este desarrollo fue tener a disposición una herramienta que prestara el mismo servicio prestado por un mapa impreso del campus universitario -- Adicionalmente la aplicación permite hacer uso del GPS integrado en algunos celulares -- La escena 3D fue creada en 3DS Max y enfocada a tener la menor cantidad de polígonos posibles dada las limitaciones de ...

  16. 3D Modeling Engine Representation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Prescott; Ramprasad Sampath; Curtis Smith; Timothy Yang

    2014-09-01

    Computers have been used for 3D modeling and simulation, but only recently have computational resources been able to give realistic results in a reasonable time frame for large complex models. This summary report addressed the methods, techniques, and resources used to develop a 3D modeling engine to represent risk analysis simulation for advanced small modular reactor structures and components. The simulations done for this evaluation were focused on external events, specifically tsunami floods, for a hypothetical nuclear power facility on a coastline.

  17. 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, N.H.

    Statens Forsknings- og Uddannelsesbygninger har på forskellige nybyggerier eksperimenteret med anvendelse af 3D-visualisering i tilknytning til bedømmelsen af arkitektkonkurrencer. Interview af dommerkomitéen på konkurrencerne på Muskikkens Hus i Nordjylland og nye bygninger til Roskilde...... Universitetscenter har givet input til forslag om den fremtidige udvikling. Forslagene retter sig både mod arkitekternes kompetence og udvalgte forretningsstrategier og mod den professionelle bygherres fremtidige krav til 3D-visualisering i arkitektkonkurrencer. Et indbudt seminar om rapportens anbefalinger samler...

  18. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  19. Delft3D turbine turbulence module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-18

    The DOE has funded Sandia National Labs (SNL) to develop an open-source modeling tool to guide the design and layout of marine hydrokinetic (MHK) arrays to maximize power production while minimizing environmental effects. This modeling framework simulates flows through and around a MHK arrays while quantifying environmental responses. As an augmented version of the Dutch company, Deltares’s, environmental hydrodynamics code, Delft3D, SNL-Delft3D includes a new module that simulates energy conversion (momentum withdrawal) by MHK devices with commensurate changes in the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate.

  20. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...... cell differentiation into tissue-specifi c lineages. The use of 3D biomaterial microarrays can, if optimized correctly, result in a more than 1000-fold reduction in biomaterials and cells consumption when engineering optimal materials combinations, which makes these miniaturized systems very attractive...

  1. Building 3D models with modo 701

    CERN Document Server

    García, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    The book will focus on creating a sample application throughout the book, building gradually from chapter to chapter.If you are new to the 3D world, this is the key to getting started with a modern software in the modern visualization industry. Only minimal previous knowledge is needed.If you have some previous knowledge about 3D content creation, you will find useful tricks that will differentiate the learning experience from a typical user manual from this, a practical guide concerning the most common problems and situations and how to solve them.

  2. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  3. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  4. Making 3D movies of Northern Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hivon Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the steps necessary to create three-dimensional (3D movies of Northern Lights or Aurorae Borealis out of real-time images taken with two distant high-resolution fish-eye cameras. Astrometric reconstruction of the visible stars is used to model the optical mapping of each camera and correct for it in order to properly align the two sets of images. Examples of the resulting movies can be seen at http://www.iap.fr/aurora3d.

  5. Participation and 3D Visualization Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Jensen, Mikkel Holm; Henriksen, Sune

    2004-01-01

    perceptions of architectural representation in urban design where 3D visualisation techniques are used. It is the authors? general finding that, while 3D visualisation media have the potential to increase understanding of virtual space for the lay public, as well as for professionals, the lay public require...... communication and visualisation media. It is largely experimental in nature and has a qualitative approach in analysing some of the actions and arguments which took place. These experiences and preliminary results form the basis for a discussion towards an understanding of virtual space and the varying...

  6. [3D printing personalized implant manufactured via fused deposition modeling: an accuracy research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of personalized implant fabricated via 3D printing and fused deposition modeling technique (FDM) and to compare the results with a real tooth. Six prepared extracted orthodontic teeth (in vivo) were scanned via cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to obtain 3D data and to build the data models by using Mimics 15.0 software. The extracted orthodontic teeth (in vitro) and the personalized implants designed via 3D printing and FDM were scanned via CBCT to obtain data and to build the data models at the same parameters. The 3D deviations were compared among the in vivo teeth data models, in vitro teeth data models, and printing personalized implant data models by using the Geomagic studio software. The average deviations of high and low areas between date models of in vivo teeth and personalized implants were 0.19 mm and -0.16 mm, respectively, and the average deviations between in vitro and in vivo teeth were 0.14 mm and -0.07 mm, respectively. The independent t test showed that no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (P>0.05). 1) The personalized dental implants were manufactured via 3D printing and FDM with a high degree of precision. 2) Errors between the data models of in vitro and in vivo teeth were observed at the same CBCT parameters.

  7. GECKA3D: A 3D Game Engine for Commonsense Knowledge Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Cambria, Erik; Nguyen, Tam V.; Cheng, Brian; Kwok, Kenneth; Sepulveda, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Commonsense knowledge representation and reasoning is key for tasks such as artificial intelligence and natural language understanding. Since commonsense consists of information that humans take for granted, gathering it is an extremely difficult task. In this paper, we introduce a novel 3D game engine for commonsense knowledge acquisition (GECKA3D) which aims to collect commonsense from game designers through the development of serious games. GECKA3D integrates the potential of serious games...

  8. In situ repair of bone and cartilage defects using 3D scanning and 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lan; Yu, Fei; Shi, Jianping; Shen, Sheng; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Xingsong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly emerging technology that promises to transform tissue engineering into a commercially successful biomedical industry. However, the use of robotic bioprinters alone is not sufficient for disease treatment. This study aimed to report the combined application of 3D scanning and 3D printing for treating bone and cartilage defects. Three different kinds of defect models were created to mimic three orthopedic diseases: large segmental defects of long bon...

  9. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  10. 3D imaging using magnetic resonance tomosynthesis (MRT) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Oh; Zho, Sang-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2012-08-01

    To introduce an alternative approach to three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using a method that is similar to x-ray tomosynthesis. Variable angle tilted-projection images are acquired using a multiple-oblique view (MOV) pulse sequence. Reconstruction is performed using three methods similar to that of x-ray tomosynthesis, which generate a set of tomographic images with multiple 2D projection images. The reconstruction algorithm is further modified to reformat to the practical imaging situations of MR. The procedure is therefore termed magnetic resonance tomosynthesis (MRT). To analyze the characteristics of MRT, simulations are performed. Phantom and in vivo experiments were done to suggest potential applications. Simulation results show anisotropic features that are structurally dependent in terms of resolution. Partial blurrings along slice direction were observed. In phantom and in vivo experiments, the reconstruction performance is particularly noticeable in the low SNR case where improved images with lower noise are obtained. Reformatted reconstruction using thinner slice thickness and∕or extended field-of-view can increase spatial resolution partially and alleviate slice profile imperfection. Results demonstrate that MRT can generate adequate 3D images using the MOV images. Various reconstruction methods in tomosynthesis were readily adapted, while allowing other tomosynthesis reconstruction algorithms to be incorporated. A reformatted reconstruction process was incorporated for applications relevant to MR imaging.

  11. Study of the interactions between proximal femur 3d bone shape, cartilage health, and biomechanics in patients with hip Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedoia, Valentina; Samaan, Michael A; Inamdar, Gaurav; Gallo, Matthew C; Souza, Richard B; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2017-07-08

    In this study quantitative MRI and gait analysis were used to investigate the relationships between proximal femur 3D bone shape, cartilage morphology, cartilage biochemical composition, and joint biomechanics in subject with hip Osteoarthritis (OA). Eighty subjects underwent unilateral hip MR-imaging: T1ρ and T2 relaxation times were extracted through voxel based relaxometry and bone shape was assessed with 3D MRI-based statistical shape modeling. In addition, 3D gait analysis was performed in seventy-six of the studied subjects. Associations between shape, cartilage lesion presence, severity, and cartilage T1ρ and T2 were analyzed with linear regression and statistical parametric mapping. An ad hoc analysis was performed to investigate biomechanics and shape associations. Our results showed that subjects with a higher neck shaft angle in the coronal plane (higher mode 1, coxa valga), thicker femoral neck and a less spherical femoral head (higher mode 5, pistol grip) exhibited more severe acetabular and femoral cartilage abnormalities, showing different interactions with demographics factors. Subjects with coxa valga also demonstrated a prolongation of T1ρ and T2. Subjects with pistol grip deformity exhibited reduced hip internal rotation angles and subjects with coxa valga exhibited higher peak hip adduction moment and moment impulse. The results of this study establish a clear relationship between 3D proximal femur shape variations and markers of hip joint degeneration-morphological, compositional, well as insight on the possible interactions with demographics and biomechanics, suggesting that 3D MRI-based bone shape maybe a promising biomarker of early hip joint degeneration. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Raman Spectroscopy of 3-D Printed Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Vanessa; Wood, Erin; Hight Walker, Angela; Seppala, Jonathan; Kotula, Anthony

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, such as 3-D printing are becoming an innovative and efficient way to produce highly customized parts for applications ranging from automotive to biomedical. Polymer-based AM parts can be produced from a myriad of materials and processing conditions to enable application-specific products. However, bringing 3-D printing from prototype to production relies on understanding the effect of processing conditions on the final product. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful and non-destructive characterization technique that can assist in determining the chemical homogeneity and physical alignment of polymer chains in 3-D printed materials. Two polymers commonly used in 3-D printing, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polycarbonate (PC), were investigated using 1- and 2-D hyperspectral Raman imaging. In the case of ABS, a complex thermoplastic, the homogeneity of the material through the weld zone was investigated by comparing Raman peaks from each of the three components. In order to investigate the effect of processing conditions on polymer chain alignment, polarized Raman spectroscopy was used. In particular, the print speed or shear rate and effect of strain on PC filaments was investigated with perpendicular and parallel polarizations. National Institute of Standards and Technology Gaithersburg, MD ; Society of Physics Students.

  13. 3D Printed Terahertz Focusing Grating Couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, David; Weidenbach, Marcel; Lehr, Jannik; Becker, Leonard; Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Busch, Stefan F.; Balzer, Jan C.; Koch, Martin

    2017-06-01

    We have designed, constructed and characterized a grating that focuses electromagnetic radiation at specific frequencies out of a dielectric waveguide. A simple theoretical model predicts the focusing behaviour of these chirped gratings, along with numerical results that support our assumptions and improved the grating geometry. The leaky waveguide was 3D printed and characterized at 120 GHz demonstrating its potential for manipulating terahertz waves.

  14. 3D MHD Flux emergence experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hood, A.W.; Archontis, V.; Mactaggart, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the many 3D numerical experiments of the emergence of magnetic fields from the solar interior and the subsequent interaction with the pre-existing coronal magnetic field. The models described here are idealised, in the sense that the internal energy equation only involves...

  15. A practical guide to 3D printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dijkstra; Rik Wesselink; Tommy Stobbe; Marc Beusenberg

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 “Printen in de derde dimensie” - a booklet on 3D printing and its applications within small and medium enterprises - was published as the result of research conducted by the Professorship for Polymer Engineering. It showed the rapidly growing possibilities resulting from the

  16. Fast volume reconstruction for 3D PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpayee, Abhishek; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2017-08-01

    Presented is a memory-efficient and highly parallelizable method for reconstructing volumes, based on a homography fit synthetic aperture refocusing method. This technique facilitates rapid processing of very large amounts of data, such as that recorded using high-speed cameras, for the purpose of conducting 3D particle imaging velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry.

  17. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  18. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.

  19. 3D face recognition using isogeodesic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretti, Stefano; Del Bimbo, Alberto; Pala, Pietro

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to 3D face matching that shows high effectiveness in distinguishing facial differences between distinct individuals from differences induced by nonneutral expressions within the same individual. The approach takes into account geometrical information of the 3D face and encodes the relevant information into a compact representation in the form of a graph. Nodes of the graph represent equal width isogeodesic facial stripes. Arcs between pairs of nodes are labeled with descriptors, referred to as 3D Weighted Walkthroughs (3DWWs), that capture the mutual relative spatial displacement between all the pairs of points of the corresponding stripes. Face partitioning into isogeodesic stripes and 3DWWs together provide an approximate representation of local morphology of faces that exhibits smooth variations for changes induced by facial expressions. The graph-based representation permits very efficient matching for face recognition and is also suited to being employed for face identification in very large data sets with the support of appropriate index structures. The method obtained the best ranking at the SHREC 2008 contest for 3D face recognition. We present an extensive comparative evaluation of the performance with the FRGC v2.0 data set and the SHREC08 data set.

  20. 3D MODELING FOR CAR BODY DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISPAS Marius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the method of designing the body of a car. There are several ways to create the exterior shape of a car, but in the following part we will use 3D StudioMax .

  1. 3D Character Modeling in Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, S.; Williams, A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a virtual reality modeling system based on interactive web technologies. The system's goal is to provide a user-friendly virtual environment for the development of 3D characters with an articulated structure. The interface allows the modeling of both the character's joint

  2. 3D microstructuring of biodegradable polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagstrup, Johan; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Biopolymer films with a thickness of 100μm are prepared using spin coating technique with solutions consisting of 25wt.% polycaprolactone or poly-l-lactide in dichloromethane. SU-8 stamps are fabricated using three photolithography steps. The stamps are used to emboss 3D microstructures in the bi...

  3. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  4. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  5. How to See Shadows in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikesit, Gea O. F.

    2014-01-01

    Shadows can be found easily everywhere around us, so that we rarely find it interesting to reflect on how they work. In order to raise curiosity among students on the optics of shadows, we can display the shadows in 3D, particularly using a stereoscopic set-up. In this paper we describe the optics of stereoscopic shadows using simple schematic…

  6. 3D-Nanomachining using corner lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berenschot, Johan W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    We present a fabrication method to create 3D nano structures without the need for nano lithography. The method, named "corner lithography" is based on conformal deposition and subsequent isotropic thinning of a thin film. The material that remains in sharp concave corners is either used as a mask or

  7. 3D Video Compression and Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamarin, Marco; Forchhammer, Søren

    In this short paper we provide a brief introduction to 3D and multi-view video technologies - like three-dimensional television and free-viewpoint video - focusing on the aspects related to data compression and transmission. Geometric information represented by depth maps is introduced as well...

  8. Stavba 3D tiskárny

    OpenAIRE

    Škop, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Cílem této práce je analýza dostupných řešení pro 3D tisk technologií FDM na základě požadavků zadavatelské firmy, sestavení návrhů elektronické a softwarové části řešení 3D tiskárny a následného zapojení elektronických komponent, jejich oživení, ověření funkčnosti a provedení potřebných úprav firmware. Podstatou této práce je zdokumentování činnosti stavby 3D tiskárny a řešení vzniklých problémů. Výsledkem práce je praktická realizace elektronické části 3D tiskárny, včetně ověření základní f...

  9. Implementation of a 3D Virtual Drummer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnenat-ThalmannThalmann, M.; Kragtwijk, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Thalmann, D.; Zwiers, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    We describe a system for the automatic generation of a 3D animation of a drummer playing along with a given piece of music. The input, consisting of a sound wave, is analysed to determine which drums are struck at what moments. The Standard MIDI File format is used to store the recognised notes.

  10. 3D puzzle reconstruction for archeological fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampy, F.; Hostein, A.; Fauvet, E.; Laligant, O.; Truchetet, F.

    2015-03-01

    The reconstruction of broken artifacts is a common task in archeology domain; it can be supported now by 3D data acquisition device and computer processing. Many works have been dedicated in the past to reconstructing 2D puzzles but very few propose a true 3D approach. We present here a complete solution including a dedicated transportable 3D acquisition set-up and a virtual tool with a graphic interface allowing the archeologists to manipulate the fragments and to, interactively, reconstruct the puzzle. The whole lateral part is acquired by rotating the fragment around an axis chosen within a light sheet thanks to a step-motor synchronized with the camera frame clock. Another camera provides a top view of the fragment under scanning. A scanning accuracy of 100μm is attained. The iterative automatic processing algorithm is based on segmentation into facets of the lateral part of the fragments followed by a 3D matching providing the user with a ranked short list of possible assemblies. The device has been applied to the reconstruction of a set of 1200 fragments from broken tablets supporting a Latin inscription dating from the first century AD.

  11. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  12. Calibrated HDRI in 3D point clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    3D-scanning technologies and point clouds as means for spatial representation introduce a new paradigm to the measuring and mapping of physical artefacts and space. This technology also offers possibilities for the measuring and mapping of outdoor urban lighting and has the potential to meet...

  13. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  14. Techniques and architectures for 3D interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, G.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial scientific datasets are all around us, and 3D visualization is a powerful tool to explore details and structures within them. When dealing with complex spatial structures, interactive Virtual Reality (VR) systems can potentially improve exploration over desktop-based systems. However, from

  15. 3-D imaging of the CNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, V M; Gelblum, D Y; Wood, M L

    1990-01-01

    3-D gradient echo techniques, and in particular FLASH, represent a significant advance in MR imaging strategy allowing thin section, high resolution imaging through a large region of interest. Anatomical areas of application include the brain, spine, and extremities, although the majority of work to date has been performed in the brain. Superior T1 contrast and thus sensitivity to the presence of GdDTPA is achieved with 3-D FLASH when compared to 2-D spin echo technique. There is marked arterial and venous enhancement following Gd DTPA administration on 3-D FLASH, a less common finding with 2-D spin echo. Enhancement of the falx and tentorium is also more prominent. From a single data acquisition, requiring less than 11 min of scan time, high resolution reformatted sagittal, coronal, and axial images can obtained in addition to sections in any arbitrary plane. Tissue segmentation techniques can be applied and lesions displayed in three dimensions. These results may lead to the replacement of 2-D spin echo with 3-D FLASH for high resolution T1-weighted MR imaging of the CNS, particularly in the study of mass lesions and structural anomalies. The application of similar T2-weighted gradient echo techniques may follow, however the signal-to-noise ratio which can be achieved remains a potential limitation.

  16. Individual patient oesophageal cancer 3D models for tailored treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, John H; Onion, David; Collier, Pamela; Dorrington, Matthew S; Argent, Richard H; Clarke, Philip A; Reece-Smith, Alex M; Parsons, Simon L; Grabowska, Anna M

    2017-04-11

    A model to predict chemotherapy response would provide a marked clinical benefit, enabling tailored treatment of oesophageal cancer, where less than half of patients respond to the routinely administered chemotherapy. Cancer cells were established from tumour biopsies taken from individual patients about to undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy. A 3D-tumour growth assay (3D-TGA) was developed, in which cancer cells were grown with or without supporting mesenchymal cells, then subjected to chemo-sensitivity testing using the standard chemotherapy administered in clinic, and a novel emerging HDAC inhibitor, Panobinostat. Individual patient's cancer cells could be expanded and screened within a clinically applicable timescale of 3 weeks. Incorporating mesenchymal support within the 3D-TGA significantly enhanced both the growth and drug resistance profiles of the patient's cancer cells. The ex vivo drug response in the presence, but not absence, of mesenchymal cells accurately reflected clinical chemo-sensitivity, as measured by tumour regression grade. Combination with Panobinostat enhanced response and proved efficacious in otherwise chemo-resistant tumours. This novel method of establishing individual patient oesophageal cancers in the laboratory, from small endoscopic biopsies, enables clinically-relevant chemo-sensitivity testing, and reduces use of animals by providing more refined in vitro models for pre-screening of drugs. The 3D-TGA accurately predicted chemo-sensitivity in patients, and could be developed to guide tailored patient treatment. The incorporation of mesenchymal cells as the stromal cell component of the tumour micro-environment had a significant effect upon enhancing chemotherapy drug resistance in oesophageal cancer, and could prove a useful target for future drug development.

  17. Uncertainty in 3D gel dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deene, Yves; Jirasek, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) gel dosimetry has a unique role to play in safeguarding conformal radiotherapy treatments as the technique can cover the full treatment chain and provides the radiation oncologist with the integrated dose distribution in 3D. It can also be applied to benchmark new treatment strategies such as image guided and tracking radiotherapy techniques. A major obstacle that has hindered the wider dissemination of gel dosimetry in radiotherapy centres is a lack of confidence in the reliability of the measured dose distribution. Uncertainties in 3D dosimeters are attributed to both dosimeter properties and scanning performance. In polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout, discrepancies in dose response of large polymer gel dosimeters versus small calibration phantoms have been reported which can lead to significant inaccuracies in the dose maps. The sources of error in polymer gel dosimetry with MRI readout are well understood and it has been demonstrated that with a carefully designed scanning protocol, the overall uncertainty in absolute dose that can currently be obtained falls within 5% on an individual voxel basis, for a minimum voxel size of 5 mm3. However, several research groups have chosen to use polymer gel dosimetry in a relative manner by normalizing the dose distribution towards an internal reference dose within the gel dosimeter phantom. 3D dosimetry with optical scanning has also been mostly applied in a relative way, although in principle absolute calibration is possible. As the optical absorption in 3D dosimeters is less dependent on temperature it can be expected that the achievable accuracy is higher with optical CT. The precision in optical scanning of 3D dosimeters depends to a large extend on the performance of the detector. 3D dosimetry with X-ray CT readout is a low contrast imaging modality for polymer gel dosimetry. Sources of error in x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry (XCT) are currently under investigation and include inherent

  18. PubChem3D: Similar conformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Evan E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubChem is a free and open public resource for the biological activities of small molecules. With many tens of millions of both chemical structures and biological test results, PubChem is a sizeable system with an uneven degree of available information. Some chemical structures in PubChem include a great deal of biological annotation, while others have little to none. To help users, PubChem pre-computes "neighboring" relationships to relate similar chemical structures, which may have similar biological function. In this work, we introduce a "Similar Conformers" neighboring relationship to identify compounds with similar 3-D shape and similar 3-D orientation of functional groups typically used to define pharmacophore features. Results The first two diverse 3-D conformers of 26.1 million PubChem Compound records were compared to each other, using a shape Tanimoto (ST of 0.8 or greater and a color Tanimoto (CT of 0.5 or greater, yielding 8.16 billion conformer neighbor pairs and 6.62 billion compound neighbor pairs, with an average of 253 "Similar Conformers" compound neighbors per compound. Comparing the 3-D neighboring relationship to the corresponding 2-D neighboring relationship ("Similar Compounds" for molecules such as caffeine, aspirin, and morphine, one finds unique sets of related chemical structures, providing additional significant biological annotation. The PubChem 3-D neighboring relationship is also shown to be able to group a set of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, despite limited PubChem 2-D similarity. In a study of 4,218 chemical structures of biomedical interest, consisting of many known drugs, using more diverse conformers per compound results in more 3-D compound neighbors per compound; however, the overlap of the compound neighbor lists per conformer also increasingly resemble each other, being 38% identical at three conformers and 68% at ten conformers. Perhaps surprising is that the average

  19. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  20. 3-D Whole-Core Transport Calculation with 3D/2D Rotational Plane Slicing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Han Jong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Use of the method of characteristics (MOC) is very popular due to its capability of heterogeneous geometry treatment and widely used for 2-D core calculation, but direct extension of MOC to 3-D core is not so attractive due to huge calculational cost. 2-D/1-D fusion method was very successful for 3-D calculation of current generation reactor types (highly heterogeneous in radial direction but piece-wise homogeneous in axial direction). In this paper, 2-D MOC concept is extended to 3-D core calculation with little modification of an existing 2-D MOC code. The key idea is to suppose 3-D geometry as a set of many 2-D planes like a phone-directory book. Dividing 3-D structure into a large number of 2-D planes and solving each plane with a simple 2-D SN transport method would give the solution of a 3-D structure. This method was developed independently at KAIST but it is found that this concept is similar with that of 'plane tracing' in the MCCG-3D code. The method developed was tested on the 3-D C5G7 OECD/NEA benchmark problem and compared with the 2-D/1-D fusion method. Results show that the proposed method is worth investigating further. A new approach to 3-D whole-core transport calculation is described and tested. By slicing 3-D structure along characteristic planes and solving each 2-D plane problem, we can get 3-D solution. The numerical test results indicate that the new method is comparable with the 2D/1D fusion method and outperforms other existing methods. But more fair comparison should be done in similar discretization level.

  1. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  2. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Steigner, Michael L.; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Medical 3D printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, echocardiography and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced pre-operative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases, valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing peri-operative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality. PMID:27149367

  3. A novel 3D stereoscopic anatomy tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip M; Hamilton, Neil M; Denison, Alan R

    2012-02-01

    Advancement in technology is an important driver for the evolution of the medical curriculum. With continued criticism of medical students' knowledge of anatomy, further investigation into adjuncts for anatomy teaching seems appropriate. This project sought to create an interactive 3D stereoscopic tutorial to bridge the teaching of anatomy and pathology. Anonymised computed tomography (CT) scans were collected of a normal aorta and a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. These scans were rendered into 3D stereoscopic images using open-source software. These images were then annotated with interactive labels and buttons to access information on normal aortic anatomy and the clinical details of abdominal aortic aneurysms. A total of 183 first-year medical students viewed the tutorial, and 160 gave feedback (87%). The students found the 3D system aided their understanding of anatomy and pathology (93 versus 3%), and provided an advantage when compared with current anatomy classes (93 versus 1%). The students highlighted the musculoskeletal system and cerebral vasculature as areas for future 3D visualisation. Of the responders, 96 per cent felt that the curriculum would benefit from further 3D stereoscopic anatomy/pathology tutorials. This technology has the exciting potential to use the radiographic libraries in hospitals for medical education. The computer software, however, has some limitations at present. It is not able to effectively distinguish between tissues of similar densities. Furthermore, not all tissues are amenable to CT scanning of a high enough resolution for presentation. Despite these limitations, the software continues to advance and is capable of producing very high quality anatomy images. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  4. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorin Zaharia; C.Z. Cheng; K. Maezawa

    2003-02-10

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions.

  5. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  6. Applicator reconstruction in MRI 3D image-based dose planning of brachytherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Søren; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian; Gelineck, John; Tanderup, Kari

    2009-05-01

    To elaborate a method for applicator reconstruction for MRI-based brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Custom-made plastic catheters with a copper sulphate solution were made for insertion in the source channels of MR-CT compatible applicators: plastic and titanium tandem ring applicators, and titanium needles. The applicators were CT and MR scanned in a phantom for accurate 3D assessment of applicator visibility and geometry. A reconstruction method was developed and evaluated in 19 patient MR examinations with ring applicator (plastic: 14, titanium: 5). MR applicator reconstruction uncertainties related to inter-observer variation were evaluated. The catheters were visible in the plastic applicator on T1-weighted images in phantom and in 14/14 clinical applications. On T2-weighted images, the catheters appeared weaker but still visible in phantom and in 13/14 MR clinical applications. In the titanium applicator, the catheters could not be separated from the artifacts from the applicator itself. However, these artifacts could be used to localize both titanium ring applicator (5/5 clinical applications) and needles (6/6 clinical applications). Standard deviations of inter-observer differences were below 2 mm in all directions. 3D applicator reconstruction based on MR imaging could be performed for plastic and titanium applicators. Plastic applicators proved well to be suited for MRI-based reconstruction. For improved practicability of titanium applicator reconstruction, development of MR applicator markers is essential. Reconstruction of titanium applicator and needles at 1.5 T MR requires geometric evaluations in phantoms before using the applicator in patients.

  7. Cinema Parisien 3D: 3D Visualisation as a Tool for the History of Cinemagoing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordegraaf, J.; Opgenhaffen, L.; Bakker, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we evaluate the relevance of 3D visualisation as a research tool for the history of cinemagoing. How does the process of building a 3D model of cinema theatres relate to what we already know about this history? In which ways does the modelling process allow for the synthesis of

  8. FI3D : Direct-Touch Interaction for the Exploration of 3D Scientific Visualization Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Lingyun; Svetachov, Pjotr; Isenberg, Petra; Everts, Maarten H.; Isenberg, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and evaluation of FI3D, a direct-touch data exploration technique for 3D visualization spaces. The exploration of three-dimensional data is core to many tasks and domains involving scientific visualizations. Thus, effective data navigation techniques are essential to enable

  9. Three-dimensional (3D) printing of mouse primary hepatocytes to generate 3D hepatic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yohan; Kang, Kyojin; Jeong, Jaemin; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Ji Sook; Park, Su A; Kim, Wan Doo; Park, Jisun; Choi, Dongho

    2017-02-01

    The major problem in producing artificial livers is that primary hepatocytes cannot be cultured for many days. Recently, 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology draws attention and this technology regarded as a useful tool for current cell biology. By using the 3D bio-printing, these problems can be resolved. To generate 3D bio-printed structures (25 mm × 25 mm), cells-alginate constructs were fabricated by 3D bio-printing system. Mouse primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of 6-8 weeks old mice by a 2-step collagenase method. Samples of 4 × 107 hepatocytes with 80%-90% viability were printed with 3% alginate solution, and cultured with well-defined culture medium for primary hepatocytes. To confirm functional ability of hepatocytes cultured on 3D alginate scaffold, we conducted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence with hepatic marker genes. Isolated primary hepatocytes were printed with alginate. The 3D printed hepatocytes remained alive for 14 days. Gene expression levels of Albumin, HNF-4α and Foxa3 were gradually increased in the 3D structures. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the primary hepatocytes produced hepatic-specific proteins over the same period of time. Our research indicates that 3D bio-printing technique can be used for long-term culture of primary hepatocytes. It can therefore be used for drug screening and as a potential method of producing artificial livers.

  10. MolPrint3D: Enhanced 3D Printing of Ball-and-Stick Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukstelis, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of noncommercial 3D printers has provided instructors and students improved access to printing technology. However, printing complex ball-and-stick molecular structures faces distinct challenges, including the need for support structures that increase with molecular complexity. MolPrint3D is a software add-on for the…

  11. Fabrication of 3D-culture platform with sandwich architecture for preserving liver-specific functions of hepatocytes using 3D bioprinter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kenichi; Yoshida, Toshiko; Okabe, Motonori; Goto, Mitsuaki; Mir, Tanveer Ahmad; Soko, Chika; Tsukamoto, Yoshinari; Akaike, Toshihiro; Nikaido, Toshio; Zhou, Kaixuan; Nakamura, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    The development of new three-dimensional (3D) cell culture system that maintains the physiologically relevant signals of hepatocytes is essential in drug discovery and tissue engineering research. Conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture yields cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. However, gene expression and signaling profiles can be different from in vivo environment. Here, we report the fabrication of a 3D culture system using an artificial scaffold and our custom-made inkjet 3D bioprinter as a new strategy for studying liver-specific functions of hepatocytes. We built a 3D culture platform for hepatocytes-attachment and formation of cell monolayer by interacting the galactose chain of galactosylated alginate gel (GA-gel) with asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) of hepatocytes. The 3D geometrical arrangement of cells was controlled by using 3D bioprinter, and cell polarity was controlled with the galactosylated hydrogels. The fabricated GA-gel was able to successfully promote adhesion of hepatocytes. To observe liver-specific functions and to mimic hepatic cord, an additional parallel layer of hepatocytes was generated using two gel sheets. These results indicated that GA-gel biomimetic matrices can be used as a 3D culture system that could be effective for the engineering of liver tissues. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1583-1592, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Verification of photon attenuation characteristics for 3D printer based small animal lung model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Se Ho; Lee, Seung Wook [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Su Chul; Park, Seung Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Since it is difficult to measure absorbed dose to mice in vivo, replica mice are mostly used as alternative. In this study, realistic mouse phantom was fabricated by using 3D printer (object500 connex3, Stratasys, USA). Elemental inks as material of 3D printer were selected corresponding to mouse tissue. To represent lung, selected material was partially used with air layer. In order to verify material equivalent, super-flex bolus was simply compared to verify photon attenuation characteristics. In the case of lung, Hounsfield unit (HU) of the phantom were compared with a live mouse. In this study, we fabricated mouse phantom by using 3D printer, and practically verified photon attenuation characteristics. The fabricated phantom shows tissue equivalence as well as similar geometry with live mouse. As more and more growing of 3D printer technique, 3D printer based small preclinical animal phantom would increase reliability of verification of absorbed dose in small animal for preclinical study.

  13. 3D Turtle Graphics” by using a 3D Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasusi Kanada

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When creating shapes by using a 3D printer, usually, a static (declarative model designed by using a 3D CAD system is translated to a CAM program and it is sent to the printer. However, widely-used FDM-type 3D printers input a dynamical (procedural program that describes control of motions of the print head and extrusion of the filament. If the program is expressed by using a programming language or a library in a straight manner, solids can be created by a method similar to turtle graphics. An open-source library that enables “turtle 3D printing” method was described by Python and tested. Although this method currently has a problem that it cannot print in the air; however, if this problem is solved by an appropriate method, shapes drawn by 3D turtle graphics freely can be embodied by this method.

  14. 3D Model Optimization of Four-Facet Drill for 3D Drilling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buranský Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on optimization of four-facet drill for 3D drilling numerical modelling. For optimization, the process of reverse engineering by PowerShape software was used. The design of four-facet drill was created in NumrotoPlus software. The modified 3D model of the drill was used in the numerical analysis of cutting forces. Verification of the accuracy of 3D models for reverse engineering was implemented using the colour deviation maps. The CAD model was in the STEP format. For simulation software, 3D model in the STEP format is ideal. STEP is a solid model. Simulation software automatically splits the 3D model into finite elements. The STEP model was therefore more suitable than the STL model.

  15. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  16. 3D visualization of polymer nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, James H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Soft materials and structured polymers are extremely useful nanotechnology building blocks. Block copolymers, in particular, have served as 2D masks for nanolithography and 3D scaffolds for photonic crystals, nanoparticle fabrication, and solar cells. F or many of these applications, the precise 3 dimensional structure and the number and type of defects in the polymer is important for ultimate function. However, directly visualizing the 3D structure of a soft material from the nanometer to millimeter length scales is a significant technical challenge. Here, we propose to develop the instrumentation needed for direct 3D structure determination at near nanometer resolution throughout a nearly millimeter-cubed volume of a soft, potentially heterogeneous, material. This new capability will be a valuable research tool for LANL missions in chemistry, materials science, and nanoscience. Our approach to soft materials visualization builds upon exciting developments in super-resolution optical microscopy that have occurred over the past two years. To date, these new, truly revolutionary, imaging methods have been developed and almost exclusively used for biological applications. However, in addition to biological cells, these super-resolution imaging techniques hold extreme promise for direct visualization of many important nanostructured polymers and other heterogeneous chemical systems. Los Alamos has a unique opportunity to lead the development of these super-resolution imaging methods for problems of chemical rather than biological significance. While these optical methods are limited to systems transparent to visible wavelengths, we stress that many important functional chemicals such as polymers, glasses, sol-gels, aerogels, or colloidal assemblies meet this requirement, with specific examples including materials designed for optical communication, manipulation, or light-harvesting Our Research Goals are: (1) Develop the instrumentation necessary for imaging materials

  17. [Digital modeling for the individual mandibular 3D mesh scaffold based on 3D printing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongzeng; Luo, Danmei; Qin, Xiaoyu; Li, Runxin; Rong, Qiguo; Hu, Min

    2016-05-01

    To investigate an ideal modeling method of designing 3D mesh scaffold substitutes based on tissue engineering to restore mandibular bone defects. By analyzing the theoretical model from titanium scaffolds fabricated by 3D printing, the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methodology were verified. Based on the CT scanned data of a subject, the Mimics 15.0 and Geomagic studio 12.0 reverse engineering software were adopted to generate surface model of mandibular bone and the defect area was separated from the 3D model of bone. Then prosthesis was designed via mirror algorithm, in which outer shape was used as the external shape of scaffold. Unigraphics software NX 8.5 was applied on Boolean calculation of subtraction between prosthesis and regular microstructure structure and ANSYS 14.0 software was used to design the inner construction of 3D mesh scaffolds. The topological structure and the geometrical parameters of 3D mesh titanium scaffolds were adjusted according to the aim of optimized structure and maximal strength with minimal weight. The 3D mesh scaffolds solid model through two kinds of computer-aided methods was input into 3D printing equipment to fabricate titanium scaffolds. Individual scaffolds were designed successfully by two modeling methods. The finite element optimization made 10% decrease of the stress peak and volume decrease of 43%, and the porosity increased to 76.32%. This modeling method was validated by 3D printing titanium scaffold to be feasible and effective. 3D printing technology combined with finite element topology optimization to obtain the ideal mandibular 3D mesh scaffold is feasible and effective.

  18. 3D bioprinting for drug discovery and development in pharmaceutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Weijie; Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Veli; Sosnoski, Donna; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-07-15

    Successful launch of a commercial drug requires significant investment of time and financial resources wherein late-stage failures become a reason for catastrophic failures in drug discovery. This calls for infusing constant innovations in technologies, which can give reliable prediction of efficacy, and more importantly, toxicology of the compound early in the drug discovery process before clinical trials. Though computational advances have resulted in more rationale in silico designing, in vitro experimental studies still require gaining industry confidence and improving in vitro-in vivo correlations. In this quest, due to their ability to mimic the spatial and chemical attributes of native tissues, three-dimensional (3D) tissue models have now proven to provide better results for drug screening compared to traditional two-dimensional (2D) models. However, in vitro fabrication of living tissues has remained a bottleneck in realizing the full potential of 3D models. Recent advances in bioprinting provide a valuable tool to fabricate biomimetic constructs, which can be applied in different stages of drug discovery research. This paper presents the first comprehensive review of bioprinting techniques applied for fabrication of 3D tissue models for pharmaceutical studies. A comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is performed to assess the performance and ability of fabricating 3D tissue models for pharmaceutical use as the critical selection of bioprinting modalities indeed plays a crucial role in efficacy and toxicology testing of drugs and accelerates the drug development cycle. In addition, limitations with current tissue models are discussed thoroughly and future prospects of the role of bioprinting in pharmaceutics are provided to the reader. Present advances in tissue biofabrication have crucial role to play in aiding the pharmaceutical development process achieve its objectives. Advent of three-dimensional (3D) models, in particular, is

  19. Screening miRNA for Functional Significance by 3D Cell Culture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bo

    2018-01-01

    Cell-based assays play important roles in cell biology and drug discovery. 3D cell culture, which allows cells to grow or interact with their surrounding in all three dimensions, provides more physiological information for the in vivo tests. Here, we describe a tunable collagen-based 3D cell culture system based on collagen material crosslinked with transgluminase, to study the function of miR. Methods including gel handling, proliferation assays, gene, and protein expressions in a 3D setting are described.

  20. Assembly of hydrogel units for 3D microenvironment in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang Hyun; Kwon, Seyong; Park, Je-Kyun

    2017-12-01

    Construction of three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment become an important issue in recent biological studies due to their biological relevance compared to conventional two-dimensional (2D) microenvironment. Various fabrication techniques have been employed to construct a 3D microenvironment, however, it is difficult to fully satisfy the biological and mechanical properties required for the 3D cell culture system, such as heterogeneous tissue structures generated from the functional differences or diseases. We propose here an assembly method for facile construction of 3D microenvironment in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) channel using hydrogel units. The high-aspect-ratio of hydrogel units was achieved by fabricating these units using a 2D mold. With this approach, 3D heterogeneous hydrogel units were produced and assembled in a PDMS channel by structural hookup. In vivo-like 3D heterogeneous microenvironment in a precisely controllable fluidic system was also demonstrated using a controlled assembly of different types of hydrogel units, which was difficult to obtain from previous methods. By regulating the flow condition, the mechanical stability of the assembled hydrogel units was verified by the flow-induced deformation of hydrogel units. In addition, in vivo-like cell culture environment was demonstrated using an assembly of cell-coated hydrogel units in the fluidic channel. Based on these features, our method expects to provide a beneficial tool for the 3D cell culture module and biomimetic engineering.

  1. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  2. Structural MRI-based discrimination between autistic and typically developing brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmi, R.; Hassan, H.; Farag, A.A. [CVIP Lab., Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Elbaz, A. [Dept. of Bioengineering, Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Casanova, M.F. [Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral science, Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by marked deficits in communication, social interaction, and interests. Various studies of autism have suggested abnormalities in several brain regions, with an increasing agreement on the abnormal anatomy of the white matter (WM) and on deficits in the size of the corpus callosum (CC) and its sub-regions in autism. In this paper, we aim at using these abnormalities in order to devise robust classification methods of autistic vs. typically developing brains by analyzing their respective MRIs. Our analysis is based on shape descriptions and geometric models. We compute the 3D distance map to describe the shape of the WM, and use it as a statistical feature to discriminate between the two groups. We also use our recently proposed non-rigid registration technique to devise another classification approach by statistically analyzing and comparing the deformation fields generated from registering segmented CC's onto each others. The proposed techniques are tested on postmortem and on in-vivo brain MR data. At the 85% confidence level the WM-based classification algorithm correctly classified 14/14 postmortem-autistics and 12/12 in-vivo autistics, a 100% accuracy rate, and 13/15 postmortem controls (86% accuracy rate) and 30/30 in-vivo controls (100% accuracy rate). The technique based on the analysis of the CC was applied only on the in vivo data. At the 85% confidence rate, this technique correctly classified 10/15 autistics, a 0.66 accuracy rate, and 29/30 controls, a 0.96 accuracy rate. These results are very promising and show that, contrary to traditional methods, the proposed techniques are less sensitive to age and volume effects. (orig.)

  3. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    electrochemical activity, chemical stability, and ease in surface functionalization [1]. The most common carbon microfabrication techniques (i.e. screen printing) produce two-dimensional (2D) electrodes, which limit the detection sensitivity. Hence several 3D microfabrication techniques have been explored......This work presents the fabrication and characterization of multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized UV photolithography and pyrolysis process with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 has been developed....... The fabricated three electrode electrochemical cell is characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) using the standard potassium ferri-ferrocyanide redox probe. Carbon materials have several attractive characteristics as microelectrodes for electrochemical applications, such as wide potential window, good...

  4. Cyclic cellular automata in 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Clifford A., E-mail: reiterc@lafayette.edu [Department of Mathematics, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > We explore the self-organization of cyclic cellular automata in 3D. > Von Neumann, Moore and two types of intermediate neighborhoods are investigated. > Random neighborhoods self organize through phases into complex nested structures. > Demons are seen to have many alternatives in 3D. - Abstract: Cyclic cellular automata in two dimensions have long been intriguing because they self organize into spirals and that behavior can be analyzed. The form for the patterns that develop is highly dependent upon the form of the neighborhood. We extend this work to three dimensional cyclic cellular automata and observe self organization dependent upon the neighborhood type. This includes neighborhood types intermediate between Von Neumann and Moore neighborhoods. We also observe that the patterns include nested shells with the appropriate forms but that the nesting is far more complex than the spirals that occur in two dimensions.

  5. Circuit QED with 3D cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Edwar; Baust, Alexander; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Anderson, Gustav; Wang, Lujun; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In typical circuit QED systems on-chip superconducting qubits are coupled to integrated coplanar microwave resonators. Due to the planar geometry, the resonators are often a limiting factor regarding the total coherence of the system. Alternatively, similar hybrid systems can be realized using 3D microwave cavities. Here, we present design considerations for the 3D microwave cavity as well as the superconducting transmon qubit. Moreover, we show experimental data of a high purity aluminum cavity demonstrating quality factors above 1.4 .10{sup 6} at the single photon level and a temperature of 50 mK. Our experiments also demonstrate that the quality factor is less dependent on the power compared to planar resonator geometries. Furthermore, we present strategies for tuning both the cavity and the qubit individually.

  6. Narratives from the Agora 3D world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sanne Fejfer; Siggaard Jensen, Sisse; Bolander, Klara

    2004-01-01

    Networked Learning 2004, edited by Sheena Banks, Peter Goodyear, Vivien Hodgson, Chris Jones, Vic Lally, David McConnell and Christine Steeples. Lancaster University Press, Lancaster, chapter 17, pages 588-585. 2004 Short description: This paper is in five narratives based on first hand experiences...... is on presence and knowledge sharing in interaction with avatars communicating in chat while building a 3D Agora AWEDU world (www.activeworlds.com). The narratives and reflections on knowledge sharing are all produced in explorative sessions carried out in a special interest group (SIG 5) on ?Knowledge sharing...... across knowledge cultures? in the EU project EQUEL on quality in e-learning. The understanding of social interaction and knowledge sharing in the Agora 3D world is based on explorative and experiential approaches and sessions. Joint explorations have been carried out to facilitate the sharing...

  7. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-10-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Sensing and compressing 3-D models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumm, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent System Sensors and Controls Dept.

    1998-02-01

    The goal of this research project was to create a passive and robust computer vision system for producing 3-D computer models of arbitrary scenes. Although the authors were unsuccessful in achieving the overall goal, several components of this research have shown significant potential. Of particular interest is the application of parametric eigenspace methods for planar pose measurement of partially occluded objects in gray-level images. The techniques presented provide a simple, accurate, and robust solution to the planar pose measurement problem. In addition, the representational efficiency of eigenspace methods used with gray-level features were successfully extended to binary features, which are less sensitive to illumination changes. The results of this research are presented in two papers that were written during the course of this project. The papers are included in sections 2 and 3. The first section of this report summarizes the 3-D modeling efforts.

  9. Debris Dispersion Model Using Java 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar; Bardina, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes web based simulation of Shuttle launch operations and debris dispersion. Java 3D graphics provides geometric and visual content with suitable mathematical model and behaviors of Shuttle launch. Because the model is so heterogeneous and interrelated with various factors, 3D graphics combined with physical models provides mechanisms to understand the complexity of launch and range operations. The main focus in the modeling and simulation covers orbital dynamics and range safety. Range safety areas include destruct limit lines, telemetry and tracking and population risk near range. If there is an explosion of Shuttle during launch, debris dispersion is explained. The shuttle launch and range operations in this paper are discussed based on the operations from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.

  10. 3D Visualization of Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamicists and biologists have long recognized the benefits of formation flight. When birds or aircraft fly in the upwash region of the vortex generated by leaders in a formation, induced drag is reduced for the trail bird or aircraft, and efficiency improves. The major consequence of this is that fuel consumption can be greatly reduced. When two aircraft are separated by a large enough longitudinal distance, the aircraft are said to be flying in a cooperative trajectory. A simulation has been developed to model autonomous cooperative trajectories of aircraft; however it does not provide any 3D representation of the multi-body system dynamics. The topic of this research is the development of an accurate visualization of the multi-body system observable in a 3D environment. This visualization includes two aircraft (lead and trail), a landscape for a static reference, and simplified models of the vortex dynamics and trajectories at several locations between the aircraft.

  11. Fabricating 3D figurines with personalized faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, J Rafael; Mahler, Moshe; Beeler, Thabo; Grosse, Max; Hengchin Yeh; Matthews, Iain

    2013-01-01

    We present a semi-automated system for fabricating figurines with faces that are personalised to the individual likeness of the customer. The efficacy of the system has been demonstrated by commercial deployments at Walt Disney World Resort and Star Wars Celebration VI in Orlando Florida. Although the system is semi automated, human intervention is limited to a few simple tasks to maintain the high throughput and consistent quality required for commercial application. In contrast to existing systems that fabricate custom heads that are assembled to pre-fabricated plastic bodies, our system seamlessly integrates 3D facial data with a predefined figurine body into a unique and continuous object that is fabricated as a single piece. The combination of state-of-the-art 3D capture, modelling, and printing that are the core of our system provide the flexibility to fabricate figurines whose complexity is only limited by the creativity of the designer.

  12. Forensic 3D documentation of skin injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and precise documentation of injuries is fundamental in a forensic pathological context. Photographs and manual measurements are taken of all injuries during autopsies, but ordinary photography projects a 3D wound on a 2D space. Using technologies such as photogrammetry, it is possible...... to create 3D detailed, to-scale, true-color documentation of skin injuries from 2D pictures. A comparison between the measurements of 165 lesions taken during autopsies and on photogrammetrically processed pictures was performed. Different types of lesions were considered: 38 blunt force injuries, 58 sharp...... force injuries, and 69 gunshot injuries. In all cases, very low differences were found with mean ≤ 0.06 cm and median ≤ 0.04 cm; a mean difference of 0.13 cm was found for the blunt force injuries. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed no statistically significant differences between the two measurement...

  13. Thirty Thousand 3D Models from Thingiverse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix W. Baumann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This dataset contains files and geometrical analysis of 3D model data, acquired from the thingiverse online repository. More than thirty thousand stereolithography files (STL were retrieved and analysed. The geometrical analysis of the respective models is presented along with model renderings in both GIF and PNG format, and pre-sliced machine instructions as GCode. This dataset is intended to be used as a basis for further research in Additive Manufacturing (AM, such as 3D printing time estimation, printability assessment or slicing algorithm development. All files retrieved are user-generated, with the respective user and associated licence presented in the overview. The dataset was acquired between 2016 and 2017.

  14. Techniques for interactive 3-D scientific visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinert, E.P. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (USA). Dept. of Computer Science); Blattner, M.M. (Anderson (M.D.) Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Biomathematics California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Becker, B.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National La

    1990-09-24

    Interest in interactive 3-D graphics has exploded of late, fueled by (a) the allure of using scientific visualization to go where no-one has gone before'' and (b) by the development of new input devices which overcome some of the limitations imposed in the past by technology, yet which may be ill-suited to the kinds of interaction required by researchers active in scientific visualization. To resolve this tension, we propose a flat 5-D'' environment in which 2-D graphics are augmented by exploiting multiple human sensory modalities using cheap, conventional hardware readily available with personal computers and workstations. We discuss how interactions basic to 3-D scientific visualization, like searching a solution space and comparing two such spaces, are effectively carried out in our environment. Finally, we describe 3DMOVE, an experimental microworld we have implemented to test out some of our ideas. 40 refs., 4 figs.

  15. 3D FFTs on a Single FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Benjamin; Zhang, Hansen; Sheng, Jiayi; Landaverde, Raphael; Herbordt, Martin C

    2014-05-01

    The 3D FFT is critical in many physical simulations and image processing applications. On FPGAs, however, the 3D FFT was thought to be inefficient relative to other methods such as convolution-based implementations of multi-grid. We find the opposite: a simple design, operating at a conservative frequency, takes 4μs for 163, 21μs for 323, and 215μs for 643 single precision data points. The first two of these compare favorably with the 25μs and 29μs obtained running on a current Nvidia GPU. Some broader significance is that this is a critical piece in implementing a large scale FPGA-based MD engine: even a single FPGA is capable of keeping the FFT off of the critical path for a large fraction of possible MD simulations.

  16. Recent development in 3D food printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Min; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2017-09-22

    Robots and software have been significantly improving our daily lives by rendering us much convenience. And 3D printing is a typical example, for it is going to usher in a new era of localized manufacturing that is actually based on digital fabrication by layer-by-layer deposition in three-dimensional space. In terms of food industry, the revolution that three-dimensional printing technologies is bringing to food manufacturing is convenience of low-cost customized fabrication and even precise nutrition control. This paper is aimed to give a brief introduction of recent development of food printing and material property of food ingredients that can be used to design the 3D food matrix and investigate the relationship between process parameters and resulting printed food properties in order to establish a food manufacturing process with this new food production approach.

  17. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  18. Essentials of 3D biofabrication and translation

    CERN Document Server

    Atala, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Essentials of 3D Biofabrication and Translation discusses the techniques that are making bioprinting a viable alternative in regenerative medicine. The book runs the gamut of topics related to the subject, including hydrogels and polymers, nanotechnology, toxicity testing, and drug screening platforms, also introducing current applications in the cardiac, skeletal, and nervous systems, and organ construction. Leaders in clinical medicine and translational science provide a global perspective of the transformative nature of this field, including the use of cells, biomaterials, and macromolecules to create basic building blocks of tissues and organs, all of which are driving the field of biofabrication to transform regenerative medicine. Provides a new and versatile method to fabricating living tissue Discusses future applications for 3D bioprinting technologies, including use in the cardiac, skeletal, and nervous systems, and organ construction Describes current approaches and future challenges for translation...

  19. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITH TURB3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  20. PLOT3D/AMES, DEC VAX VMS VERSION USING DISSPLA (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buning, P. G.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  1. INTERACTIVE 3D LANDSCAPES ON LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fanini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  2. 3D Integration for Wireless Multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmich, Georg

    The convergence of mobile phone, internet, mapping, gaming and office automation tools with high quality video and still imaging capture capability is becoming a strong market trend for portable devices. High-density video encode and decode, 3D graphics for gaming, increased application-software complexity and ultra-high-bandwidth 4G modem technologies are driving the CPU performance and memory bandwidth requirements close to the PC segment. These portable multimedia devices are battery operated, which requires the deployment of new low-power-optimized silicon process technologies and ultra-low-power design techniques at system, architecture and device level. Mobile devices also need to comply with stringent silicon-area and package-volume constraints. As for all consumer devices, low production cost and fast time-to-volume production is key for success. This chapter shows how 3D architectures can bring a possible breakthrough to meet the conflicting power, performance and area constraints. Multiple 3D die-stacking partitioning strategies are described and analyzed on their potential to improve the overall system power, performance and cost for specific application scenarios. Requirements and maturity of the basic process-technology bricks including through-silicon via (TSV) and die-to-die attachment techniques are reviewed. Finally, we highlight new challenges which will arise with 3D stacking and an outlook on how they may be addressed: Higher power density will require thermal design considerations, new EDA tools will need to be developed to cope with the integration of heterogeneous technologies and to guarantee signal and power integrity across the die stack. The silicon/wafer test strategies have to be adapted to handle high-density IO arrays, ultra-thin wafers and provide built-in self-test of attached memories. New standards and business models have to be developed to allow cost-efficient assembly and testing of devices from different silicon and technology

  3. [Application of 3D printing in urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyaev, Yu G; Bezrukov, E A; Fiev, D N; Sirota, E S; Pesegov, S V; Byadretdinov, I Sh

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to outline the role and possible applications of 3D printing in urology. At present, this technique provides the opportunity to choose the individual strategy of patient management, to conduct preoperative planning and surgical rehearsal; for medical specialists to reduce the learning curve in mastering modern complex surgical techniques, and for doctors and students to improve understanding of pathological processes in the kidney and the prostate gland.

  4. Remote Collaborative 3D Printing - Process Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    of a component. Such a system would be very similar to automated filament layup equipment used in the composites manufacturing industry. • Travel...Throughout the course of this investigation, observations and notes were made on desired additive manufacturing capabilities, which would be useful at...transferring, receiving, manipulating, and printing a digital 3D model into an additively manufactured component. Several digital models were

  5. Using Ignorance in 3D Scene Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Harasymowicz-Boggio; Barbara Siemiątkowska

    2014-01-01

    Awareness of its own limitations is a fundamental feature of the human sight, which has been almost completely omitted in computer vision systems. In this paper we present a method of explicitly using information about perceptual limitations of a 3D vision system, such as occluded areas, limited field of view, loss of precision along with distance increase, and imperfect segmentation for a better understanding of the observed scene. The proposed mechanism integrates metric and semantic infere...

  6. High accuracy 3-D laser radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busck, Jens; Heiselberg, Henning

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a mono-static staring 3-D laser radar based on gated viewing with range accuracy below 1 m at 10 m and 1 cm at 100. We use a high sensitivity, fast, intensified CCD camera, and a Nd:Yag passively Q-switched 32.4 kHz pulsed green laser at 532 nm. The CCD has 752x582 pixels. Camer...

  7. Growth of bacteria in 3-d colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xinxian; Mugler, Andrew; Kim, Justin; Jeong, Ha Jun; Levin, Bruce R; Nemenman, Ilya

    2017-07-01

    The dynamics of growth of bacterial populations has been extensively studied for planktonic cells in well-agitated liquid culture, in which all cells have equal access to nutrients. In the real world, bacteria are more likely to live in physically structured habitats as colonies, within which individual cells vary in their access to nutrients. The dynamics of bacterial growth in such conditions is poorly understood, and, unlike that for liquid culture, there is not a standard broadly used mathematical model for bacterial populations growing in colonies in three dimensions (3-d). By extending the classic Monod model of resource-limited population growth to allow for spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial access to nutrients, we develop a 3-d model of colonies, in which bacteria consume diffusing nutrients in their vicinity. By following the changes in density of E. coli in liquid and embedded in glucose-limited soft agar, we evaluate the fit of this model to experimental data. The model accounts for the experimentally observed presence of a sub-exponential, diffusion-limited growth regime in colonies, which is absent in liquid cultures. The model predicts and our experiments confirm that, as a consequence of inter-colony competition for the diffusing nutrients and of cell death, there is a non-monotonic relationship between total number of colonies within the habitat and the total number of individual cells in all of these colonies. This combined theoretical-experimental study reveals that, within 3-d colonies, E. coli cells are loosely packed, and colonies produce about 2.5 times as many cells as the liquid culture from the same amount of nutrients. We verify that this is because cells in liquid culture are larger than in colonies. Our model provides a baseline description of bacterial growth in 3-d, deviations from which can be used to identify phenotypic heterogeneities and inter-cellular interactions that further contribute to the structure of bacterial

  8. EQUIPMENT WITH HYDROSTATIC AMPLIFIER MODELED 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFTIMIE Dorin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The equipment with hydrostatic amplifier is a new constructive solution modeled 3D using NX 7.5 software. Hydraulic equipment allows the amplification of a constant torque of a DC electric motor of low power at a variable speed. The hydrostatic speed amplifier of constant torque with electric control device is a hydraulic device which provides by design a bridge between the conventional hydraulic and the servo-hydraulic.

  9. 3D Mobile Game Engine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Danyang

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of mobile games, more rich and colorful mobile games are demanded. While during the development of mobile games, a good mobile game engine is a key technology, since it can integrate some important functions in a framework. In my thesis, the objective is to design the framework of 3D mobile game engine. For completing the research, I put forward specific three research questions, and through understanding and learning the knowledge of professional technologies and t...

  10. 3D geodetic monitoring slope deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Gabriel

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available For plenty of slope failures that can be found in Slovakia is necessary and very important their geodetic monitoring (because of their activity, reactivisations, checks. The paper gives new methodologies for these works, using 3D terrestrial survey technologies for measurements in convenient deformation networks. The design of an optimal type of deformation model for various kinds of landslides and their exact processing with an efficient testing procedure to determine the kinematics of the slope deformations are presented too.

  11. Advanced 3D Printers for Cellular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    invaluable part of the newly formed Aerospace 3D Digital Fabrication Laboratory at the William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics at the...Laboratory at the William E. Boeing Department of Aeronautics & Astronautics at the University of Washington (UW) – Seattle. This departmental...PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: PERCENT_SUPPORTEDNAME FTE Equivalent: Total Number: Sub Contractors (DD882) Names of Personnel receiving masters

  12. Interface magnetism of 3d transition metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niklasson, A. M. N.; Johansson, B.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1999-01-01

    The layered resolved magnetic spin moments of the magnetic 3d bilayer interfaces Fe/V bcc, Fe/Co bcc, Fe/Cu bcc, Co/V bcc, Co/Ni fee, Co/Cu fee, Ni/V fee, Ni/Cr fcc, Ni/Cu fee and the magnetic surfaces Fe bcc, Co bcc, Co fee, and Ni fee are calculated for the (001), (011), and (111) orientations ...

  13. Experimental Satellite Phase 3D before Launch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sebesta

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available To build a satellite can be a dream for many engineers. We are happy that we can participate in the AMSAT PHASE 3D project. Our responsibility is very high because one of our on-board receivers is the main one of the command link and will never be switched off. The project is also a very good opportunity for our students to meet satellite technology.

  14. Applications of 3D printing in healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is a relatively new, rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that found numerous applications in healthcare, automotive, aerospace and defense industries and in many other areas. In this review, applications in medicine that are revolutionizing the way surgeries are carried out, disrupting prosthesis and implant markets as well as dentistry will be presented. The relatively new field of bioprinting, that is printing with cells, will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27785150

  15. Trusted Fabrication through 3D Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    On the other hand if further obfuscation is desired, the CMOS wafers could come from two different fabs. Design Experiment An experiment was...clock routing. (In hindsight this was a mistake and a simple 3D clock router should have been introduced.) Scripts keep track of matching connections...hindsight an easily correctable error . Clearly, the above estimate of over 1 million pairs to search is an upper bound. A clever attacker looks for

  16. Growth of bacteria in 3-d colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxian Shao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of growth of bacterial populations has been extensively studied for planktonic cells in well-agitated liquid culture, in which all cells have equal access to nutrients. In the real world, bacteria are more likely to live in physically structured habitats as colonies, within which individual cells vary in their access to nutrients. The dynamics of bacterial growth in such conditions is poorly understood, and, unlike that for liquid culture, there is not a standard broadly used mathematical model for bacterial populations growing in colonies in three dimensions (3-d. By extending the classic Monod model of resource-limited population growth to allow for spatial heterogeneity in the bacterial access to nutrients, we develop a 3-d model of colonies, in which bacteria consume diffusing nutrients in their vicinity. By following the changes in density of E. coli in liquid and embedded in glucose-limited soft agar, we evaluate the fit of this model to experimental data. The model accounts for the experimentally observed presence of a sub-exponential, diffusion-limited growth regime in colonies, which is absent in liquid cultures. The model predicts and our experiments confirm that, as a consequence of inter-colony competition for the diffusing nutrients and of cell death, there is a non-monotonic relationship between total number of colonies within the habitat and the total number of individual cells in all of these colonies. This combined theoretical-experimental study reveals that, within 3-d colonies, E. coli cells are loosely packed, and colonies produce about 2.5 times as many cells as the liquid culture from the same amount of nutrients. We verify that this is because cells in liquid culture are larger than in colonies. Our model provides a baseline description of bacterial growth in 3-d, deviations from which can be used to identify phenotypic heterogeneities and inter-cellular interactions that further contribute to the structure of

  17. 3D Bioprinting for Organ Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haitao; Nowicki, Margaret; Fisher, John P; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2017-01-01

    Regenerative medicine holds the promise of engineering functional tissues or organs to heal or replace abnormal and necrotic tissues/organs, offering hope for filling the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is evolving into an unparalleled biomanufacturing technology due to its high-integration potential for patient-specific designs, precise and rapid manufacturing capabilities with high resolution, and unprecedented versatility. It enables precise control over multiple compositions, spatial distributions, and architectural accuracy/complexity, therefore achieving effective recapitulation of microstructure, architecture, mechanical properties, and biological functions of target tissues and organs. Here we provide an overview of recent advances in 3D bioprinting technology, as well as design concepts of bioinks suitable for the bioprinting process. We focus on the applications of this technology for engineering living organs, focusing more specifically on vasculature, neural networks, the heart and liver. We conclude with current challenges and the technical perspective for further development of 3D organ bioprinting. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. 3D Integration for Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Danna; Kim, David; Yost, Donna-Ruth; Mallek, Justin; Yoder, Jonilyn; Das, Rabindra; Racz, Livia; Hover, David; Weber, Steven; Kerman, Andrew; Oliver, William

    Superconducting qubits are a prime candidate for constructing a large-scale quantum processor due to their lithographic scalability, speed, and relatively long coherence times. Moving beyond the few qubit level, however, requires the use of a three-dimensional approach for routing control and readout lines. 3D integration techniques can be used to construct a structure where the sensitive qubits are shielded from a potentially-lossy readout and interconnect chip by an intermediate chip with through-substrate vias, with indium bump bonds providing structural support and electrical conductivity. We will discuss our work developing 3D-integrated coupled qubits, focusing on the characterization of 3D integration components and the effects on qubit performance and design. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  19. 3D structure of muscle dihydropyridine receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Excitation contraction coupling, the rapid and massive Ca2+ release under control of an action potential that triggers muscle contraction, takes places at specialized regions of the cell called triad junctions. There, a highly ordered supramolecular complex between the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR and the ryanodine receptor (RyR1 mediates the quasi‐instantaneous conversion from T‐tubule depolarization into Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR. The DHPR has several key modules required for EC coupling: the voltage sensors and II‐III loop in the alpha1s subunit, and the beta subunit. To gain insight into their molecular organization, this review examines the most updated 3D structure of the DHPR as obtained by transmission electron microscopy and image reconstruction. Although structure determination of a heteromeric membrane protein such as the DHPR is challenging, novel technical advances in protein expression and 3D labeling facilitated this task. The 3D structure of the DHPR complex consists of a main body with five irregular corners around its perimeter encompassing the transmembrane alpha 1s subunit besides the intracellular beta subunit, an extended extracellular alpha 2 subunit, and a bulky intracellular II‐III loop. The structural definition attained at 19 Å resolution enabled docking of the atomic coordinates of structural homologs of the alpha1s and beta subunits. These structural features, together with their relative location with respect to the RyR1, are discussed in the context of the functional data.

  20. 3D Rainbow Particle Tracking Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Pablo, Andres A.; Xiong, Jinhui; Idoughi, Ramzi; Aljedaani, Abdulrahman B.; Dun, Xiong; Fu, Qiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-11-01

    A single color camera is used to reconstruct a 3D-3C velocity flow field. The camera is used to record the 2D (X,Y) position and colored scattered light intensity (Z) from white polyethylene tracer particles in a flow. The main advantage of using a color camera is the capability of combining different intensity levels for each color channel to obtain more depth levels. The illumination system consists of an LCD projector placed perpendicularly to the camera. Different intensity colored level gradients are projected onto the particles to encode the depth position (Z) information of each particle, benefiting from the possibility of varying the color profiles and projected frequencies up to 60 Hz. Chromatic aberrations and distortions are estimated and corrected using a 3D laser engraved calibration target. The camera-projector system characterization is presented considering size and depth position of the particles. The use of these components reduces dramatically the cost and complexity of traditional 3D-PTV systems.