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Sample records for vivo mri-based 3d

  1. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3D fluid-structure interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xueying; Teng, Zhongzhao; Canton, Gador; Ferguson, Marina; Yuan, Chun; Tang, Dalin

    2010-12-31

    Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS) and flow shear stress (FSS). In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 5 patients with intraplaque hemorrhage confirmed by histology were acquired. 3D multi-component FSI models were constructed for each plaque to obtain mechanical stresses. Plaque Wall Stress (PWS) and Flow Shear Stress (FSS) were extracted from all nodal points on the lumen surface of each plaque for analysis. The mean PWS value from all hemorrhage nodes of the 5 plaques combined was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes (75.6 versus 68.1 kPa, P = 0.0003). The mean PWS values from hemorrhage nodes for each of the 5 plaques were all significantly higher (5 out of 5) than those from non-hemorrhage nodes (P shear stress values from individual cases showed mixed results: only one out of five plaques showed mean FSS value from hemorrhage nodes was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes; three out of five plaques showed that their mean FSS values from hemorrhage nodes were lower than those from non-hemorrhage nodes; and one plaque showed that the difference had no statistical significance. The results of this study suggested that intraplaque hemorrhage nodes were associated with higher plaque wall stresses. Compared to flow shear stress, plaque wall stress has a better correlation with plaque component feature (hemorrhage) linked to plaque progression and vulnerability. With further validation, plaque stress analysis may provide additional stress indicators for image-based vulnerability assessment.

  2. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3d fluid-structure interaction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canton Gador

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS and flow shear stress (FSS. Methods In vivo MRI data of carotid plaques from 5 patients with intraplaque hemorrhage confirmed by histology were acquired. 3D multi-component FSI models were constructed for each plaque to obtain mechanical stresses. Plaque Wall Stress (PWS and Flow Shear Stress (FSS were extracted from all nodal points on the lumen surface of each plaque for analysis. Results The mean PWS value from all hemorrhage nodes of the 5 plaques combined was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes (75.6 versus 68.1 kPa, P = 0.0003. The mean PWS values from hemorrhage nodes for each of the 5 plaques were all significantly higher (5 out of 5 than those from non-hemorrhage nodes (P 2, P = 0.0002. However, the mean flow shear stress values from individual cases showed mixed results: only one out of five plaques showed mean FSS value from hemorrhage nodes was higher than that from non-hemorrhage nodes; three out of five plaques showed that their mean FSS values from hemorrhage nodes were lower than those from non-hemorrhage nodes; and one plaque showed that the difference had no statistical significance. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that intraplaque hemorrhage nodes were associated with higher plaque wall stresses. Compared to flow shear stress, plaque wall stress has a better correlation with plaque component feature (hemorrhage linked to plaque progression and vulnerability. With further validation, plaque stress analysis may provide

  3. Intraplaque hemorrhage is associated with higher structural stresses in human atherosclerotic plaques: an in vivo MRI-based 3d fluid-structure interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xueying; Teng, Zhongzhao; Canton, Gador; Ferguson, Marina; Yuan, Chun; Tang, Dalin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies using medical images have shown that intraplaque hemorrhage may accelerate plaque progression and may produce a stimulus for atherosclerosis development by increasing lipid core and plaque volume and creating new destabilizing factors. Image-based 3D computational models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI) will be used to perform plaque mechanical analysis and investigate possible associations between intraplaque hemorrhage and both plaque wall stress (PWS) and...

  4. 3D MRI-based anisotropic FSI models with cyclic bending for human coronary atherosclerotic plaque mechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Teng, Zhongzhao; Billiar, Kristen; Bach, Richard; Ku, David N

    2009-06-01

    Heart attack and stroke are often caused by atherosclerotic plaque rupture, which happens without warning most of the time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based atherosclerotic plaque models with fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) have been introduced to perform flow and stress/strain analysis and identify possible mechanical and morphological indices for accurate plaque vulnerability assessment. For coronary arteries, cyclic bending associated with heart motion and anisotropy of the vessel walls may have significant influence on flow and stress/strain distributions in the plaque. FSI models with cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties for coronary plaques are lacking in the current literature. In this paper, cyclic bending and anisotropic vessel properties were added to 3D FSI coronary plaque models so that the models would be more realistic for more accurate computational flow and stress/strain predictions. Six computational models using one ex vivo MRI human coronary plaque specimen data were constructed to assess the effects of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel properties, pulsating pressure, plaque structure, and axial stretch on plaque stress/strain distributions. Our results indicate that cyclic bending and anisotropic properties may cause 50-800% increase in maximum principal stress (Stress-P1) values at selected locations. The stress increase varies with location and is higher when bending is coupled with axial stretch, nonsmooth plaque structure, and resonant pressure conditions (zero phase angle shift). Effects of cyclic bending on flow behaviors are more modest (9.8% decrease in maximum velocity, 2.5% decrease in flow rate, 15% increase in maximum flow shear stress). Inclusion of cyclic bending, anisotropic vessel material properties, accurate plaque structure, and axial stretch in computational FSI models should lead to a considerable improvement of accuracy of computational stress/strain predictions for coronary plaque vulnerability

  5. Heterogeneity phantoms for visualization of 3D dose distributions by MRI-based polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Mooij, Rob; Mark Perera, G.; Maryanski, Marek J.

    2004-01-01

    Heterogeneity corrections in dose calculations are necessary for radiation therapy treatment plans. Dosimetric measurements of the heterogeneity effects are hampered if the detectors are large and their radiological characteristics are not equivalent to water. Gel dosimetry can solve these problems. Furthermore, it provides three-dimensional (3D) dose distributions. We used a cylindrical phantom filled with BANG-3 registered polymer gel to measure 3D dose distributions in heterogeneous media. The phantom has a cavity, in which water-equivalent or bone-like solid blocks can be inserted. The irradiated phantom was scanned with an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Dose distributions were obtained by calibrating the polymer gel for a relationship between the absorbed dose and the spin-spin relaxation rate of the magnetic resistance (MR) signal. To study dose distributions we had to analyze MR imaging artifacts. This was done in three ways: comparison of a measured dose distribution in a simulated homogeneous phantom with a reference dose distribution, comparison of a sagittally scanned image with a sagittal image reconstructed from axially scanned data, and coregistration of MR and computed-tomography images. We found that the MRI artifacts cause a geometrical distortion of less than 2 mm and less than 10% change in the dose around solid inserts. With these limitations in mind we could make some qualitative measurements. Particularly we observed clear differences between the measured dose distributions around an air-gap and around bone-like material for a 6 MV photon beam. In conclusion, the gel dosimetry has the potential to qualitatively characterize the dose distributions near heterogeneities in 3D

  6. 3D bioprinting and its in vivo applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Nhayoung; Yang, Gi-Hoon; Lee, JaeHwan; Kim, GeunHyung

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of 3D bioprinting technology is to design and create functional 3D tissues or organs in situ for in vivo applications. 3D cell-printing, or additive biomanufacturing, allows the selection of biomaterials and cells (bioink), and the fabrication of cell-laden structures in high resolution. 3D cell-printed structures have also been used for applications such as research models, drug delivery and discovery, and toxicology. Recently, numerous attempts have been made to fabricate tissues and organs by using various 3D printing techniques. However, challenges such as vascularization are yet to be solved. This article reviews the most commonly used 3D cell-printing techniques with their advantages and drawbacks. Furthermore, up-to-date achievements of 3D bioprinting in in vivo applications are introduced, and prospects for the future of 3D cell-printing technology are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 444-459, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Diagnostic value of MRI-based 3D texture analysis for tissue characterisation and discrimination of low-grade chondrosarcoma from enchondroma. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisson, Catharina S.; Lisson, Christoph G.; Flosdorf, Kerstin; Meier, Reinhard; Beer, Meinrad; Schmidt, Stefan A. [University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Mayer-Steinacker, Regine [University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine III, Ulm (Germany); Schultheiss, Markus; Baer, Alexandra von [University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Trauma Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Barth, Thomas F.E. [University of Ulm, Institute of Pathology, Ulm (Germany); Beer, Ambros J. [University Hospital of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Baumhauer, Matthias [Mint Medical, Dossenheim (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    To explore the diagnostic value of MRI-based 3D texture analysis to identify texture features that can be used for discrimination of low-grade chondrosarcoma from enchondroma. Eleven patients with low-grade chondrosarcoma and 11 patients with enchondroma were retrospectively evaluated. Texture analysis was performed using mint Lesion: Kurtosis, entropy, skewness, mean of positive pixels (MPP) and uniformity of positive pixel distribution (UPP) were obtained in four MRI sequences and correlated with histopathology. The Mann-Whitney U-test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed to identify most discriminative texture features. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and optimal cut-off values were calculated. Significant differences were found in four of 20 texture parameters with regard to the different MRI sequences (p<0.01). The area under the ROC curve values to discriminate chondrosarcoma from enchondroma were 0.876 and 0.826 for kurtosis and skewness in contrast-enhanced T1 (ceT1w), respectively; in non-contrast T1, values were 0.851 and 0.822 for entropy and UPP, respectively. The highest discriminatory power had kurtosis in ceT1w with a cut-off ≥3.15 to identify low-grade chondrosarcoma (82 % sensitivity, 91 % specificity, accuracy 86 %). MRI-based 3D texture analysis might be able to discriminate low-grade chondrosarcoma from enchondroma by a variety of texture parameters. (orig.)

  8. MRI-based 3D pelvic autonomous innervation: a first step towards image-guided pelvic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, M.M. [University Montpellier I, Laboratory of Experimental Anatomy Faculty of Medicine Montpellier-Nimes, Montpellier (France); Macri, F.; Beregi, J.P. [Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Radiology Department, Nimes (France); Mazars, R.; Prudhomme, M. [University Montpellier I, Laboratory of Experimental Anatomy Faculty of Medicine Montpellier-Nimes, Montpellier (France); Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Digestive Surgery Department, Nimes (France); Droupy, S. [Nimes University Hospital, University Montpellier 1, Urology-Andrology Department, Nimes (France)

    2014-08-15

    To analyse pelvic autonomous innervation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with anatomical macroscopic dissection on cadavers. Pelvic MRI was performed in eight adult human cadavers (five men and three women) using a total of four sequences each: T1, T1 fat saturation, T2, diffusion weighed. Images were analysed with segmentation software in order to extract nervous tissue. Key height points of the pelvis autonomous innervation were located in every specimen. Standardised pelvis dissections were then performed. Distances between the same key points and the three anatomical references forming a coordinate system were measured on MRIs and dissections. Concordance (Lin's concordance correlation coefficient) between MRI and dissection was calculated. MRI acquisition allowed an adequate visualization of the autonomous innervation. Comparison between 3D MRI images and dissection showed concordant pictures. The statistical analysis showed a mean difference of less than 1 cm between MRI and dissection measures and a correct concordance correlation coefficient on at least two coordinates for each point. Our acquisition and post-processing method demonstrated that MRI is suitable for detection of autonomous pelvic innervations and can offer a preoperative nerve cartography. (orig.)

  9. 3-D Velocity Estimation for Two Planes in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    3-D velocity vectors can provide additional flow information applicable for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases e.g. by estimating the out-of-plane velocity component. A 3-D version of the Transverse Oscillation (TO) method has previously been used to obtain this information in a carotid flow...... and stored on the experimental scanner SARUS. The full 3-D velocity profile can be created and examined at peak-systole and end-diastole without ECG gating in two planes. Maximum out-of-plane velocities for the three peak-systoles and end-diastoles were 68.5 5.1 cm/s and 26.3 3.3 cm/s, respectively....... In the longitudinal plane, average maximum peak velocity in flow direction was 65.2 14.0 cm/s at peak-systole and 33.6 4.3 cm/s at end-diastole. A commercial BK Medical ProFocus UltraView scanner using a spectral estimator gave 79.3 cm/s and 14.6 cm/s for the same volunteer. This demonstrates that real-time 3-D...

  10. In Vivo Chondrogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Human Cell-laden Hydrogel Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Thomas; Amoroso, Matteo; H?gg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; K?lby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Methods: Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- ? 5- ? 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/...

  11. In vivo biomarker expression patterns are preserved in 3D cultures of Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windus, Louisa C.E.; Kiss, Debra L.; Glover, Tristan; Avery, Vicky M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report that Prostate Cancer (PCa) cell-lines DU145, PC3, LNCaP and RWPE-1 grown in 3D matrices in contrast to conventional 2D monolayers, display distinct differences in cell morphology, proliferation and expression of important biomarker proteins associated with cancer progression. Consistent with in vivo growth rates, in 3D cultures, all PCa cell-lines were found to proliferate at significantly lower rates in comparison to their 2D counterparts. Moreover, when grown in a 3D matrix, metastatic PC3 cell-lines were found to mimic more precisely protein expression patterns of metastatic tumour formation as found in vivo. In comparison to the prostate epithelial cell-line RWPE-1, metastatic PC3 cell-lines exhibited a down-regulation of E-cadherin and α6 integrin expression and an up-regulation of N-cadherin, Vimentin and β1 integrin expression and re-expressed non-transcriptionally active AR. In comparison to the non-invasive LNCaP cell-lines, PC3 cells were found to have an up-regulation of chemokine receptor CXCR4, consistent with a metastatic phenotype. In 2D cultures, there was little distinction in protein expression between metastatic, non-invasive and epithelial cells. These results suggest that 3D cultures are more representative of in vivo morphology and may serve as a more biologically relevant model in the drug discovery pipeline. -- Highlights: ► We developed and optimised 3D culturing techniques for Prostate Cancer cell-lines. ► We investigated biomarker expression in 2D versus 3D culture techniques. ► Metastatic PC3 cells re-expressed non-transcriptionally active androgen receptor. ► Metastatic PCa cell lines retain in vivo-like antigenic profiles in 3D cultures

  12. In vivo 3D PIXE-micron-CT imaging of Drosophila melanogaster using a contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Shigeo; Hamada, Naoki; Ishii, Keizo; Nozawa, Yuichiro; Ohkura, Satoru; Terakawa, Atsuki; Hatori, Yoshinobu; Fujiki, Kota; Fujiwara, Mitsuhiro; Toyama, Sho

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) in vivo imaging system for imaging small insects with micrometer resolution. The 3D CT imaging system, referred to as 3D PIXE-micron-CT (PIXEμCT), uses characteristic X-rays produced by ion microbeam bombardment of a metal target. PIXEμCT was used to observe the body organs and internal structure of a living Drosophila melanogaster. Although the organs of the thorax were clearly imaged, the digestive organs in the abdominal cavity could not be clearly discerned initially, with the exception of the rectum and the Malpighian tubule. To enhance the abdominal images, a barium sulfate powder radiocontrast agent was added. For the first time, 3D images of the ventriculus of a living D. melanogaster were obtained. Our results showed that PIXEμCT can provide in vivo 3D-CT images that reflect correctly the structure of individual living organs, which is expected to be very useful in biological research.

  13. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornblower, V D M; Yu, E; Fenster, A; Battista, J J; Malthaner, R A

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo

  14. 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound volume measurement validation in an ex vivo and in vivo porcine model of lung tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornblower, V D M [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Yu, E [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Fenster, A [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Battista, J J [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada); Malthaner, R A [Canadian Surgical Technologies and Advanced Robotics, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-01-07

    The purpose of this study was to validate the accuracy and reliability of volume measurements obtained using three-dimensional (3D) thoracoscopic ultrasound (US) imaging. Artificial 'tumours' were created by injecting a liquid agar mixture into spherical moulds of known volume. Once solidified, the 'tumours' were implanted into the lung tissue in both a porcine lung sample ex vivo and a surgical porcine model in vivo. 3D US images were created by mechanically rotating the thoracoscopic ultrasound probe about its long axis while the transducer was maintained in close contact with the tissue. Volume measurements were made by one observer using the ultrasound images and a manual-radial segmentation technique and these were compared with the known volumes of the agar. In vitro measurements had average accuracy and precision of 4.76% and 1.77%, respectively; in vivo measurements had average accuracy and precision of 8.18% and 1.75%, respectively. The 3D thoracoscopic ultrasound can be used to accurately and reproducibly measure 'tumour' volumes both in vivo and ex vivo.

  15. Chondrocytes and stem cells in 3D-bioprinted structures create human cartilage in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Apelgren, Peter; Amoroso, Matteo; Lindahl, Anders; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Gatenholm, Paul; Kölby, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage repair and replacement is a major challenge in plastic reconstructive surgery. The development of a process capable of creating a patient-specific cartilage framework would be a major breakthrough. Here, we described methods for creating human cartilage in vivo and quantitatively assessing the proliferative capacity and cartilage-formation ability in mono- and co-cultures of human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinted hydrogel scaffold....

  16. A hyperspectral fluorescence system for 3D in vivo optical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavattini, Guido; Vecchi, Stefania; Mitchell, Gregory; Weisser, Ulli; Leahy, Richard M; Pichler, Bernd J; Smith, Desmond J; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-01-01

    In vivo optical instruments designed for small animal imaging generally measure the integrated light intensity across a broad band of wavelengths, or make measurements at a small number of selected wavelengths, and primarily use any spectral information to characterize and remove autofluorescence. We have developed a flexible hyperspectral imaging instrument to explore the use of spectral information to determine the 3D source location for in vivo fluorescence imaging applications. We hypothesize that the spectral distribution of the emitted fluorescence signal can be used to provide additional information to 3D reconstruction algorithms being developed for optical tomography. To test this hypothesis, we have designed and built an in vivo hyperspectral imaging system, which can acquire data from 400 to 1000 nm with 3 nm spectral resolution and which is flexible enough to allow the testing of a wide range of illumination and detection geometries. It also has the capability to generate a surface contour map of the animal for input into the reconstruction process. In this paper, we present the design of the system, demonstrate the depth dependence of the spectral signal in phantoms and show the ability to reconstruct 3D source locations using the spectral data in a simple phantom. We also characterize the basic performance of the imaging system

  17. Ex vivo tracheomalacia model with 3D-printed external tracheal splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Rachel; Goldstein, Todd; Aronowitz, Danielle; Grande, Daniel A; Zeltsman, David; Smith, Lee P

    2017-04-01

    To design and evaluate an ex vivo model of tracheomalacia with and without a three-dimensional (3D)-printed external tracheal splint. Prospective, ex vivo animal trial. Three groups of ex vivo porcine tracheas were used: 1) control (unmanipulated trachea), 2) tracheomalacia (tracheal rings partially incised and crushed), and 3) splinted tracheomalacia (external custom tracheal splint fitted onto group 2 trachea). Each end of an ex vivo trachea was sealed with a custom-designed and 3D-printed cap; a transducer was placed through one end to measure the pressure inside the trachea. Although the negative pressure was applied to the tracheal lumen, the tracheal wall collapse was measured externally and internally using a bronchoscope. Each group had at least three recorded trials. Tracheal diameter was evaluated using ImageJ software (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD) and was averaged between two raters. Average tracheal occlusion percentage was compared using Student t test. The average occlusion was 31% for group 1, 87.4% for group 2, and 20% for group 3. Significant differences were found between the control and tracheomalacia groups (P tracheomalacia and splinted tracheomalacia groups (P tracheomalacia groups (P = 0.13). Applied pressure was plotted against occlusion and regression line slope differed between the tracheomalacia (0.91) and control (0.12) or splinted tracheomalacia (0.39) groups. We demonstrate the potential for an ex vivo tracheomalacia model to reproduce airway collapse and show that this collapse can be treated successfully with a 3D-printed external splint. These results are promising and justify further studies. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:950-955, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. In Vivo Chondrogenesis in 3D Bioprinted Human Cell-laden Hydrogel Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Thomas; Amoroso, Matteo; Hägg, Daniel; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Apelgren, Peter; Lindahl, Anders; Kölby, Lars; Gatenholm, Paul

    2017-02-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology allows creation of 3D constructs in a layer-by-layer fashion utilizing biologically relevant materials such as biopolymers and cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of 3D bioprinting in a clinically relevant setting to evaluate the potential of this technique for in vivo chondrogenesis. Thirty-six nude mice (Balb-C, female) received a 5- × 5- × 1-mm piece of bioprinted cell-laden nanofibrillated cellulose/alginate construct in a subcutaneous pocket. Four groups of printed constructs were used: (1) human (male) nasal chondrocytes (hNCs), (2) human (female) bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs), (3) coculture of hNCs and hBMSCs in a 20/80 ratio, and (4) Cell-free scaffolds (blank). After 14, 30, and 60 days, the scaffolds were harvested for histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical analysis. The constructs had good mechanical properties and keep their structural integrity after 60 days of implantation. For both the hNC constructs and the cocultured constructs, a gradual increase of glycosaminoglycan production and hNC proliferation was observed. However, the cocultured group showed a more pronounced cell proliferation and enhanced deposition of human collagen II demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis. In vivo chondrogenesis in a 3D bioprinted human cell-laden hydrogel construct has been demonstrated. The trophic role of the hBMSCs in stimulating hNC proliferation and matrix deposition in the coculture group suggests the potential of 3D bioprinting of human cartilage for future application in reconstructive surgery.

  19. Chondrocytes and stem cells in 3D-bioprinted structures create human cartilage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelgren, Peter; Amoroso, Matteo; Lindahl, Anders; Brantsing, Camilla; Rotter, Nicole; Gatenholm, Paul; Kölby, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage repair and replacement is a major challenge in plastic reconstructive surgery. The development of a process capable of creating a patient-specific cartilage framework would be a major breakthrough. Here, we described methods for creating human cartilage in vivo and quantitatively assessing the proliferative capacity and cartilage-formation ability in mono- and co-cultures of human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinted hydrogel scaffold. The 3D-bioprinted constructs (5 × 5 × 1.2 mm) were produced using nanofibrillated cellulose and alginate in combination with human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells using a 3D-extrusion bioprinter. Immediately following bioprinting, the constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the back of 48 nude mice and explanted after 30 and 60 days, respectively, for morphological and immunohistochemical examination. During explantation, the constructs were easy to handle, and the majority had retained their macroscopic grid appearance. Constructs consisting of human nasal chondrocytes showed good proliferation ability, with 17.2% of the surface areas covered with proliferating chondrocytes after 60 days. In constructs comprising a mixture of chondrocytes and stem cells, an additional proliferative effect was observed involving chondrocyte production of glycosaminoglycans and type 2 collagen. This clinically highly relevant study revealed 3D bioprinting as a promising technology for the creation of human cartilage.

  20. Chondrocytes and stem cells in 3D-bioprinted structures create human cartilage in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Apelgren

    Full Text Available Cartilage repair and replacement is a major challenge in plastic reconstructive surgery. The development of a process capable of creating a patient-specific cartilage framework would be a major breakthrough. Here, we described methods for creating human cartilage in vivo and quantitatively assessing the proliferative capacity and cartilage-formation ability in mono- and co-cultures of human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells in a three-dimensional (3D-bioprinted hydrogel scaffold. The 3D-bioprinted constructs (5 × 5 × 1.2 mm were produced using nanofibrillated cellulose and alginate in combination with human chondrocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells using a 3D-extrusion bioprinter. Immediately following bioprinting, the constructs were implanted subcutaneously on the back of 48 nude mice and explanted after 30 and 60 days, respectively, for morphological and immunohistochemical examination. During explantation, the constructs were easy to handle, and the majority had retained their macroscopic grid appearance. Constructs consisting of human nasal chondrocytes showed good proliferation ability, with 17.2% of the surface areas covered with proliferating chondrocytes after 60 days. In constructs comprising a mixture of chondrocytes and stem cells, an additional proliferative effect was observed involving chondrocyte production of glycosaminoglycans and type 2 collagen. This clinically highly relevant study revealed 3D bioprinting as a promising technology for the creation of human cartilage.

  1. In vivo validation of a 3D ultrasound system for imaging the lateral ventricles of neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, J.; Fenster, A.; Chen, N.; Lee, D.; de Ribaupierre, S.

    2014-03-01

    Dilated lateral ventricles in neonates can be due to many different causes, such as brain loss, or congenital malformation; however, the main cause is hydrocephalus, which is the accumulation of fluid within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus can raise intracranial pressure resulting in secondary brain damage, and up to 25% of patients with severely enlarged ventricles have epilepsy in later life. Ventricle enlargement is clinically monitored using 2D US through the fontanels. The sensitivity of 2D US to dilation is poor because it cannot provide accurate measurements of irregular volumes such as the ventricles, so most clinical evaluations are of a qualitative nature. We developed a 3D US system to image the cerebral ventricles of neonates within the confines of incubators that can be easily translated to more open environments. Ventricle volumes can be segmented from these images giving a quantitative volumetric measurement of ventricle enlargement without moving the patient into an imaging facility. In this paper, we report on in vivo validation studies: 1) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes before and after clinically necessary interventions removing CSF, and 2) comparing 3D US ventricle volumes to those from MRI. Post-intervention ventricle volumes were less than pre-intervention measurements for all patients and all interventions. We found high correlations (R = 0.97) between the difference in ventricle volume and the reported removed CSF with the slope not significantly different than 1 (p < 0.05). Comparisons between ventricle volumes from 3D US and MR images taken 4 (±3.8) days of each other did not show significant difference (p=0.44) between 3D US and MRI through paired t-test.

  2. In vivo analysis of physiological 3D blood flow of cerebral veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, Florian; Schroeder, Laure; Baeuerle, Jochen; Harloff, Andreas [University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Anastasopoulos, Constantin [University Medical Center, Department of Neuropaediatrics and Muscle Disorders, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine and McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Hennemuth, Anja; Drexl, Johann [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Valdueza, Jose M. [Neurological Center, Segeberger Kliniken, Bad Segeberg (Germany); Mader, Irina [University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    To visualize and quantify physiological blood flow of intracranial veins in vivo using time-resolved, 3D phase-contrast MRI (4D flow MRI), and to test measurement accuracy. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent repeated ECG-triggered 4D flow MRI (3 Tesla, 32-channel head coil). Intracranial venous blood flow was analysed using dedicated software allowing for blood flow visualization and quantification in analysis planes at the superior sagittal, straight, and transverse sinuses. MRI was evaluated for intra- and inter-observer agreement and scan-rescan reproducibility. Measurements of the transverse sinuses were compared with transcranial two-dimensional duplex ultrasound. Visualization of 3D blood flow within cerebral sinuses was feasible in 100 % and within at least one deep cerebral vein in 87 % of the volunteers. Blood flow velocity/volume increased along the superior sagittal sinus and was lower in the left compared to the right transverse sinus. Intra- and inter-observer reliability and reproducibility of blood flow velocity (mean difference 0.01/0.02/0.02 m/s) and volume (mean difference 0.0002/-0.0003/0.00003 l/s) were good to excellent. High/low velocities were more pronounced (8 % overestimation/9 % underestimation) in MRI compared to ultrasound. Four-dimensional flow MRI reliably visualizes and quantifies three-dimensional cerebral venous blood flow in vivo and is promising for studies in patients with sinus thrombosis and related diseases. (orig.)

  3. A novel 3-D bio-microfluidic system mimicking in vivo heterogeneous tumour microstructures reveals complex tumour–stroma interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Qihui; Liu, Ruchuan; Jiao, Yang; Tian, Chunxiu; Farrell, James D.; Diao, Wenwen; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Fengrong; Yuan, Wei; Han, Haibo; Chen, Jinfeng; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xixiang; Ye, Fangfu; Li, Ming; Ouyang, Zhongcan; Liu, Liyu

    2017-01-01

    between invasive breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The hollow microchambers in collagen provide a very similar 3-D environment to that in vivo that regulates collective cellular dynamics and behaviour, while the microfluidic channels surrounding

  4. Facilitating tumor functional assessment by spatially relating 3D tumor histology and in vivo MRI: image registration approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lejla Alic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, together with histology, is widely used to diagnose and to monitor treatment in oncology. Spatial correspondence between these modalities provides information about the ability of MRI to characterize cancerous tissue. However, registration is complicated by deformations during pathological processing, and differences in scale and information content. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study proposes a methodology for establishing an accurate 3D relation between histological sections and high resolution in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are: 1 standardized acquisition and processing, 2 use of an intermediate ex vivo MRI, 3 use of a reference cutting plane, 4 dense histological sampling, 5 elastic registration, and 6 use of complete 3D data sets. Five rat pancreatic tumors imaged by T2*-w MRI were used to evaluate the proposed methodology. The registration accuracy was assessed by root mean squared (RMS distances between manually annotated landmark points in both modalities. After elastic registration the average RMS distance decreased from 1.4 to 0.7 mm. The intermediate ex vivo MRI and the reference cutting plane shared by all three 3D images (in vivo MRI, ex vivo MRI, and 3D histology data were found to be crucial for the accurate co-registration between the 3D histological data set and in vivo MRI. The MR intensity in necrotic regions, as manually annotated in 3D histology, was significantly different from other histologically confirmed regions (i.e., viable and hemorrhagic. However, the viable and the hemorrhagic regions showed a large overlap in T2(*-w MRI signal intensity. CONCLUSIONS: The established 3D correspondence between tumor histology and in vivo MRI enables extraction of MRI characteristics for histologically confirmed regions. The proposed methodology allows the creation of a tumor database of spatially registered multi-spectral MR images and multi-stained 3D

  5. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility study on laser 3D microstructurable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskas, Mangirdas; Baltriukiene, Daiva; Kraniauskas, Antanas; Danilevicius, Paulius; Jarasiene, Rasa; Sirmenis, Raimondas; Zukauskas, Albertas; Balciunas, Evaldas; Purlys, Vytautas; Gadonas, Roaldas; Bukelskiene, Virginija; Sirvydis, Vytautas; Piskarskas, Algis

    2012-09-01

    Films and microstructured scaffolds have been fabricated using direct laser writing out of different polymers: hybrid organic-inorganic ORMOCORE b59, acrylate-based AKRE23, novel organic-inorganic Zr containing hybrid SZ2080, and biodegradable PEG-DA-258. Adult myogenic stem cells were grown on these surfaces in vitro. Their adhesion, growth, and viability test results suggest good potential applicability of the materials in biomedical practice. Pieces of these polymers were implanted in rat's paravertebral back tissue. Histological examination of the implants and surrounding tissue ex vivo after 3 weeks of implantation was conducted and results show the materials to be at least as biocompatible as surgical clips or sutures. The applied direct laser writing technique seems to offer good future prospects in a polymeric 3D scaffold design for artificial tissue engineering with autologous stem cells.

  6. Chitosan porous 3D scaffolds embedded with resolvin D1 to improve in vivo bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Daniela P; Costa, Madalena; Neves, Nuno; Teixeira, José H; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Santos, Susana G; Águas, Artur P; Barbosa, Mário A; Barbosa, Judite N

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect chitosan (Ch) porous 3D scaffolds embedded with resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous pro-resolving lipid mediator, on bone tissue healing. These scaffolds previous developed by us have demonstrated to have immunomodulatory properties namely in the modulation of the macrophage inflammatory phenotypic profile in an in vivo model of inflammation. Herein, results obtained in an in vivo rat femoral defect model demonstrated that two months after Ch + RvD1 scaffolds implantation, an increase in new bone formation, in bone trabecular thickness, and in collagen type I and Coll I/Coll III ratio were observed. These results suggest that Ch scaffolds embedded with RvD1 were able to lead to the formation of new bone with improvement of trabecular thickness. This study shows that the presence of RvD1 in the acute phase of the inflammatory response to the implanted biomaterial had a positive role in the subsequent bone tissue repair, thus demonstrating the importance of innovative approaches for the control of immune responses to biomedical implants in the design of advanced strategies for regenerative medicine. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1626-1633, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Expansion of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Perfused 3D Ceramic Scaffolds Enhances In Vivo Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Allison I; Duhr, Ralph; Di Maggio, Nunzia; Mehrkens, Arne; Jakob, Marcel; Wendt, David

    2017-12-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC), when expanded directly within 3D ceramic scaffolds in perfusion bioreactors, more reproducibly form bone when implanted in vivo as compared to conventional expansion on 2D polystyrene dishes/flasks. Since the bioreactor-based expansion on 3D ceramic scaffolds encompasses multiple aspects that are inherently different from expansion on 2D polystyrene, we aimed to decouple the effects of specific parameters among these two model systems. We assessed the effects of the: 1) 3D scaffold vs. 2D surface; 2) ceramic vs. polystyrene materials; and 3) BMSC niche established within the ceramic pores during in vitro culture, on subsequent in vivo bone formation. While BMSC expanded on 3D polystyrene scaffolds in the bioreactor could maintain their in vivo osteogenic potential, results were similar as BMSC expanded in monolayer on 2D polystyrene, suggesting little influence of the scaffold 3D environment. Bone formation was most reproducible when BMSC are expanded on 3D ceramic, highlighting the influence of the ceramic substrate. The presence of a pre-formed niche within the scaffold pores had negligible effects on the in vivo bone formation. The results of this study allow a greater understanding of the parameters required for perfusion bioreactor-based manufacturing of osteogenic grafts for clinical applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L [Clinical Physics Laboratory-833, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); De Boode, W P [Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huisman, H J [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kapusta, L [Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.m.nillesen@cukz.umcn.nl

    2009-04-07

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  9. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nillesen, M M; Lopata, R G P; Gerrits, I H; Thijssen, J M; De Korte, C L; De Boode, W P; Huisman, H J; Kapusta, L

    2009-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  10. In vivo validation of cardiac output assessment in non-standard 3D echocardiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillesen, M. M.; Lopata, R. G. P.; de Boode, W. P.; Gerrits, I. H.; Huisman, H. J.; Thijssen, J. M.; Kapusta, L.; de Korte, C. L.

    2009-04-01

    Automatic segmentation of the endocardial surface in three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic images is an important tool to assess left ventricular (LV) geometry and cardiac output (CO). The presence of speckle noise as well as the nonisotropic characteristics of the myocardium impose strong demands on the segmentation algorithm. In the analysis of normal heart geometries of standardized (apical) views, it is advantageous to incorporate a priori knowledge about the shape and appearance of the heart. In contrast, when analyzing abnormal heart geometries, for example in children with congenital malformations, this a priori knowledge about the shape and anatomy of the LV might induce erroneous segmentation results. This study describes a fully automated segmentation method for the analysis of non-standard echocardiographic images, without making strong assumptions on the shape and appearance of the heart. The method was validated in vivo in a piglet model. Real-time 3D echocardiographic image sequences of five piglets were acquired in radiofrequency (rf) format. These ECG-gated full volume images were acquired intra-operatively in a non-standard view. Cardiac blood flow was measured simultaneously by an ultrasound transit time flow probe positioned around the common pulmonary artery. Three-dimensional adaptive filtering using the characteristics of speckle was performed on the demodulated rf data to reduce the influence of speckle noise and to optimize the distinction between blood and myocardium. A gradient-based 3D deformable simplex mesh was then used to segment the endocardial surface. A gradient and a speed force were included as external forces of the model. To balance data fitting and mesh regularity, one fixed set of weighting parameters of internal, gradient and speed forces was used for all data sets. End-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were computed from the segmented endocardial surface. The cardiac output derived from this automatic segmentation was

  11. Intracranial implantation with subsequent 3D in vivo bioluminescent imaging of murine gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Mohammed G; Sankar, Tejas; Preul, Mark C; Scheck, Adrienne C

    2011-11-06

    detectable from the day of implantation and the tumor can be analyzed using the 3D image reconstruction feature of the IVIS Spectrum instrument. Animals receive a subcutaneous injection of 150 μg luciferin /kg body weight 20 min prior to imaging. Tumor burden is quantified using mean tumor bioluminescence over time. Tumor-bearing mice were observed daily to assess morbidity and were euthanized when one or more of the following symptoms are present: lethargy, failure to ambulate, hunched posture, failure to groom, anorexia resulting in >10% loss of weight. Tumors were evident in all of the animals on necropsy.

  12. Bioengineering a 3D integumentary organ system from iPS cells using an in vivo transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Ryoji; Ishimaru, Junko; Sugawara, Ayaka; Toyoshima, Koh-Ei; Ishida, Kentaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sakakibara, Kei; Asakawa, Kyosuke; Kashiwakura, Akitoshi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Minamide, Ryohei; Sato, Akio; Yoshitake, Toshihiro; Takeda, Akira; Egusa, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    The integumentary organ system is a complex system that plays important roles in waterproofing, cushioning, protecting deeper tissues, excreting waste, and thermoregulation. We developed a novel in vivo transplantation model designated as a clustering-dependent embryoid body transplantation method and generated a bioengineered three-dimensional (3D) integumentary organ system, including appendage organs such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands, from induced pluripotent stem cells. This bioengineered 3D integumentary organ system was fully functional following transplantation into nude mice and could be properly connected to surrounding host tissues, such as the epidermis, arrector pili muscles, and nerve fibers, without tumorigenesis. The bioengineered hair follicles in the 3D integumentary organ system also showed proper hair eruption and hair cycles, including the rearrangement of follicular stem cells and their niches. Potential applications of the 3D integumentary organ system include an in vitro assay system, an animal model alternative, and a bioengineered organ replacement therapy.

  13. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxley, Sean; Karczmar, Gregory S.; Domowicz, Miriam; Schwartz, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T 2 * -weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T 2 * and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm 3 and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T 2 * -weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in the water resonance that is not

  14. 3D high spectral and spatial resolution imaging of ex vivo mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foxley, Sean, E-mail: sean.foxley@ndcn.ox.ac.uk; Karczmar, Gregory S. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Domowicz, Miriam [Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Schwartz, Nancy [Department of Pediatrics, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Widely used MRI methods show brain morphology both in vivo and ex vivo at very high resolution. Many of these methods (e.g., T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted imaging, phase-sensitive imaging, or susceptibility-weighted imaging) are sensitive to local magnetic susceptibility gradients produced by subtle variations in tissue composition. However, the spectral resolution of commonly used methods is limited to maintain reasonable run-time combined with very high spatial resolution. Here, the authors report on data acquisition at increased spectral resolution, with 3-dimensional high spectral and spatial resolution MRI, in order to analyze subtle variations in water proton resonance frequency and lineshape that reflect local anatomy. The resulting information compliments previous studies based on T{sub 2}{sup *} and resonance frequency. Methods: The proton free induction decay was sampled at high resolution and Fourier transformed to produce a high-resolution water spectrum for each image voxel in a 3D volume. Data were acquired using a multigradient echo pulse sequence (i.e., echo-planar spectroscopic imaging) with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 × 70 μm{sup 3} and spectral resolution of 3.5 Hz. Data were analyzed in the spectral domain, and images were produced from the various Fourier components of the water resonance. This allowed precise measurement of local variations in water resonance frequency and lineshape, at the expense of significantly increased run time (16–24 h). Results: High contrast T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted images were produced from the peak of the water resonance (peak height image), revealing a high degree of anatomical detail, specifically in the hippocampus and cerebellum. In images produced from Fourier components of the water resonance at −7.0 Hz from the peak, the contrast between deep white matter tracts and the surrounding tissue is the reverse of the contrast in water peak height images. This indicates the presence of a shoulder in

  15. In vivo analysis of the human superficial cerebral venous anatomy by using 3D-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujinaga, Yasunari

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the reliability of three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI), and to classify the drainage patterns of the superficial cerebral veins. At first, toothpicks were stuck into fixed brain surface of a dog. To examine the best methods for making 3D-MRI, the 3D-MRI, including the diameter of the holes, of the dog's brain were analyzed in four threshold values. The holes on the 3D-MRI appeared smaller than their actual size due to the partial volume effect. The low threshold showed more errors than the higher. This result showed it was necessary to display the good 3D-MRI to refer the original MR images. Next, the 3D-MRI of clinical patients who had brain tumors were correlated with operative findings especially in relation to the lesions and brain surface, vessels, ventricles. The relation between the lesions and brain surface, vessels were displayed well, but there were some problems with inadequate ventricular display. Finally, anatomical study using 3D-MRI was performed, because 3D-MRI could display the relation between the brain surface and the superficial cerebral veins in the basic studies. The third study demonstrated that the transverse frontal vein was found in 15%, vein of Trolard ran in front of the central sulcus in 91.5% and several anastomosing veins were frequently observed. These studies showed the progress of technology in bringing about a lot of new information by using 3D-MRI. (author)

  16. Comparison between PET template-based method and MRI-based method for cortical quantification of florbetapir (AV-45) uptake in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Aubert, L.; Nemmi, F.; Peran, P. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Barbeau, E.J. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition, France, CNRS, CerCo, Toulouse (France); Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Payoux, P. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Pole Imagerie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Chollet, F.; Pariente, J. [Inserm, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps neurologiques UMR 825, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Imagerie Cerebrale et Handicaps Neurologiques UMR 825, Toulouse (France); Service de Neurologie, Pole Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2014-05-15

    Florbetapir (AV-45) has been shown to be a reliable tool for assessing in vivo amyloid load in patients with Alzheimer's disease from the early stages. However, nonspecific white matter binding has been reported in healthy subjects as well as in patients with Alzheimer's disease. To avoid this issue, cortical quantification might increase the reliability of AV-45 PET analyses. In this study, we compared two quantification methods for AV-45 binding, a classical method relying on PET template registration (route 1), and a MRI-based method (route 2) for cortical quantification. We recruited 22 patients at the prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease and 17 matched controls. AV-45 binding was assessed using both methods, and target-to-cerebellum mean global standard uptake values (SUVr) were obtained for each of them, together with SUVr in specific regions of interest. Quantification using the two routes was compared between the clinical groups (intragroup comparison), and between groups for each route (intergroup comparison). Discriminant analysis was performed. In the intragroup comparison, differences in uptake values were observed between route 1 and route 2 in both groups. In the intergroup comparison, AV-45 uptake was higher in patients than controls in all regions of interest using both methods, but the effect size of this difference was larger using route 2. In the discriminant analysis, route 2 showed a higher specificity (94.1 % versus 70.6 %), despite a lower sensitivity (77.3 % versus 86.4 %), and D-prime values were higher for route 2. These findings suggest that, although both quantification methods enabled patients at early stages of Alzheimer's disease to be well discriminated from controls, PET template-based quantification seems adequate for clinical use, while the MRI-based cortical quantification method led to greater intergroup differences and may be more suitable for use in current clinical research. (orig.)

  17. 3D morphological analysis of the mouse cerebral vasculature: Comparison of in vivo and ex vivo methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Steinman

    Full Text Available Ex vivo 2-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM with optical clearing enables vascular imaging deep into tissue. However, optical clearing may also produce spherical aberrations if the objective lens is not index-matched to the clearing material, while the perfusion, clearing, and fixation procedure may alter vascular morphology. We compared in vivo and ex vivo 2PFM in mice, focusing on apparent differences in microvascular signal and morphology. Following in vivo imaging, the mice (four total were perfused with a fluorescent gel and their brains fructose-cleared. The brain regions imaged in vivo were imaged ex vivo. Vessels were segmented in both images using an automated tracing algorithm that accounts for the spatially varying PSF in the ex vivo images. This spatial variance is induced by spherical aberrations caused by imaging fructose-cleared tissue with a water-immersion objective. Alignment of the ex vivo image to the in vivo image through a non-linear warping algorithm enabled comparison of apparent vessel diameter, as well as differences in signal. Shrinkage varied as a function of diameter, with capillaries rendered smaller ex vivo by 13%, while penetrating vessels shrunk by 34%. The pial vasculature attenuated in vivo microvascular signal by 40% 300 μm below the tissue surface, but this effect was absent ex vivo. On the whole, ex vivo imaging was found to be valuable for studying deep cortical vasculature.

  18. In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Jin Hyoung; Yoon, Yeoreum; Chung, Wan Kyun; Tchah, Hungwon; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-05-01

    Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin are fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics used in the clinic to prevent or treat ocular infections. Their pharmacokinetics in the cornea is usually measured from extracted ocular fluids or tissues, and in vivo direct measurement is difficult. In this study multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is a 3D optical microscopic technique based on multiphoton fluorescence, was applied to the measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distribution in the cornea. Intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence properties of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin were characterized, and their distributions in mouse cornea in vivo were measured by 3D MPM imaging. Both moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin had similar multiphoton spectra, while moxifloxacin had stronger fluorescence than gatifloxacin. MPM imaging of mouse cornea in vivo showed (1) moxifloxacin had good penetration through the superficial corneal epithelium, while gatifloxacin had relatively poor penetration, (2) both ophthalmic solutions had high intracellular distribution. In vivo MPM results were consistent with previous studies. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MPM as a method for in vivo direct measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin in the cornea.

  19. In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Jin Hyoung; Yoon, Yeoreum; Chung, Wan Kyun; Tchah, Hungwon; Kim, Myoung Joon; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-01-01

    Moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin are fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotics used in the clinic to prevent or treat ocular infections. Their pharmacokinetics in the cornea is usually measured from extracted ocular fluids or tissues, and in vivo direct measurement is difficult. In this study multiphoton microscopy (MPM), which is a 3D optical microscopic technique based on multiphoton fluorescence, was applied to the measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distribution in the cornea. I...

  20. Bioengineering a 3D integumentary organ system from iPS cells using an in vivo transplantation model

    OpenAIRE

    Takagi, Ryoji; Ishimaru, Junko; Sugawara, Ayaka; Toyoshima, Koh-ei; Ishida, Kentaro; Ogawa, Miho; Sakakibara, Kei; Asakawa, Kyosuke; Kashiwakura, Akitoshi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Minamide, Ryohei; Sato, Akio; Yoshitake, Toshihiro; Takeda, Akira; Egusa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The integumentary organ system is a complex system that plays important roles in waterproofing, cushioning, protecting deeper tissues, excreting waste, and thermoregulation. We developed a novel in vivo transplantation model designated as a clustering-dependent embryoid body transplantation method and generated a bioengineered three-dimensional (3D) integumentary organ system, including appendage organs such as hair follicles and sebaceous glands, from induced pluripotent stem cells. This bio...

  1. Multi-feature-based plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI trained by registration to 3D histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Engelen, Arna; Niessen, Wiro J; Klein, Stefan; De Bruijne, Marleen; Groen, Harald C; Wentzel, Jolanda J; Verhagen, Hence JM; Lugt, Aad van der

    2012-01-01

    We present a new method for automated characterization of atherosclerotic plaque composition in ex vivo MRI. It uses MRI intensities as well as four other types of features: smoothed, gradient magnitude and Laplacian images at several scales, and the distances to the lumen and outer vessel wall. The ground truth for fibrous, necrotic and calcified tissue was provided by histology and μCT in 12 carotid plaque specimens. Semi-automatic registration of a 3D stack of histological slices and μCT images to MRI allowed for 3D rotations and in-plane deformations of histology. By basing voxelwise classification on different combinations of features, we evaluated their relative importance. To establish whether training by 3D registration yields different results than training by 2D registration, we determined plaque composition using (1) a 2D slice-based registration approach for three manually selected MRI and histology slices per specimen, and (2) an approach that uses only the three corresponding MRI slices from the 3D-registered volumes. Voxelwise classification accuracy was best when all features were used (73.3 ± 6.3%) and was significantly better than when only original intensities and distance features were used (Friedman, p < 0.05). Although 2D registration or selection of three slices from the 3D set slightly decreased accuracy, these differences were non-significant. (paper)

  2. Locoregional deformation pattern of the patellar cartilage after different loading types. High-resolution 3D-MRI volumetry at 3 T in-vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, Annie; Raya, J.; Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern; Zscharn, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze locoregional deformation patterns indicative of contact areas in patellar cartilage after different loading exercises. Materials and Methods: 7 healthy patellae were examined in-vivo before and immediately after standardized loading (kneeling, squatting or knee bends) and after 90 minutes of rest using a sagittal 3D-T1-w FLASH WE sequence (22 msec/ 9.8msec/ 15 / 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.5 mm 3 ) at 3 T. After cartilage segmentation and 3D reconstruction, voxel-based and global precision errors (PR) were calculated. The former were used to determine significant differences in local cartilage thickness. Voxel-based 2σ-thickness difference maps were calculated to visualize locoregional deformation patterns. Global changes in volume (Vol), mean thickness (mTh) and cartilage-bone-interface area (CBIA) were calculated. Results: The voxel-based PR depended on cartilage thickness (D) ranging from 0.12 - 0.35 mm. For D ≥ 1 mm the RF was 3 (2.4 %) for Vol, 0.06 mm (2.0 %) for mTh and 16 mm 2 (1.4 %) for CBIA. The focal cartilage deformation equaled 14 % of the local thickness reduction. The deformation areas were oval and located in the peripheral medial (more vertically oriented, all exercises) and caudo-lateral (more horizontally oriented, kneeling and knee bends) aspects of the patella and were least pronounced in knee bends. Significant changes for Vol/mTh ranged from 2.1 to 3.7 %. Conclusion: This MRI-based study is the first to identify in-vivo voxel-based patellar cartilage deformation patterns indicating contact and loading zones after kneeling and squatting. These zones are anatomically and functionally plausible and may represent areas where stress induced degeneration and subsequent OA can originate. The data may facilitate understanding of individual knee loading properties and help to improve and validate biomechanical models for the knee. (orig.)

  3. Ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model using human normal vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaqi; Yang, Yan; Guo, Juanjuan; Dai, Ying; Ye, Lina; Qiu, Jianbin; Zeng, Zhihong; Wu, Xiaoting; Xing, Yanmei; Long, Xiang; Wu, Xufeng; Ye, Lin; Wang, Shubin; Li, Hui

    2017-02-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infects human genital mucosa and establishes life-long latent infection. It is unmet need to establish a human cell-based microphysiological system for virus biology and anti-viral drug discovery. One of barriers is lacking of culture system of normal epithelial cells in vitro over decades. In this study, we established human normal vaginal epithelial cell (HNVEC) culture using co-culture system. HNVEC cells were then propagated rapidly and stably in a defined culture condition. HNVEC cells exhibited a normal diploid karyotype and formed the well-defined and polarized spheres in matrigel three-dimension (3D) culture, while malignant cells (HeLa) formed disorganized and nonpolar solid spheres. HNVEC cells had a normal cellular response to DNA damage and had no transforming property using soft agar assays. HNVEC expressed epithelial marker cytokeratin 14 (CK14) and p63, but not cytokeratin 18 (CK18). Next, we reconstructed HNVEC-derived 3D vaginal epithelium using air-liquid interface (ALI) culture. This 3D vaginal epithelium has the basal and apical layers with expression of epithelial markers as its originated human vaginal tissue. Finally, we established an HSV-2 infection model based on the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium. After inoculation of HSV-2 (G strain) at apical layer of the reconstructed 3D vaginal epithelium, we observed obvious pathological effects gradually spreading from the apical layer to basal layer with expression of a viral protein. Thus, we established an ex vivo 2D and 3D HSV-2 infection model that can be used for HSV-2 virology and anti-viral drug discovery.

  4. 3D bioprinting of functional human skin: production and in vivo analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Nieves; Garcia, Marta; Del Cañizo, Juan F; Velasco, Diego; Jorcano, Jose L

    2016-12-05

    Significant progress has been made over the past 25 years in the development of in vitro-engineered substitutes that mimic human skin, either to be used as grafts for the replacement of lost skin, or for the establishment of in vitro human skin models. In this sense, laboratory-grown skin substitutes containing dermal and epidermal components offer a promising approach to skin engineering. In particular, a human plasma-based bilayered skin generated by our group, has been applied successfully to treat burns as well as traumatic and surgical wounds in a large number of patients in Spain. There are some aspects requiring improvements in the production process of this skin; for example, the relatively long time (three weeks) needed to produce the surface required to cover an extensive burn or a large wound, and the necessity to automatize and standardize a process currently performed manually. 3D bioprinting has emerged as a flexible tool in regenerative medicine and it provides a platform to address these challenges. In the present study, we have used this technique to print a human bilayered skin using bioinks containing human plasma as well as primary human fibroblasts and keratinocytes that were obtained from skin biopsies. We were able to generate 100 cm 2 , a standard P100 tissue culture plate, of printed skin in less than 35 min (including the 30 min required for fibrin gelation). We have analysed the structure and function of the printed skin using histological and immunohistochemical methods, both in 3D in vitro cultures and after long-term transplantation to immunodeficient mice. In both cases, the generated skin was very similar to human skin and, furthermore, it was indistinguishable from bilayered dermo-epidermal equivalents, handmade in our laboratories. These results demonstrate that 3D bioprinting is a suitable technology to generate bioengineered skin for therapeutical and industrial applications in an automatized manner.

  5. In vivo testing of a 3D bifurcating microchannel scaffold inducing separation of regenerating axon bundles in peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Irina I.; van Wezel, Richard J. A.; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2013-12-01

    Artificial nerve guidance channels enhance the regenerative effectiveness in an injured peripheral nerve but the existing design so far has been limited to basic straight tubes simply guiding the growth to bridge the gap. Hence, one of the goals in development of more effective neuroprostheses is to create bidirectional highly selective neuro-electronic interface between a prosthetic device and the severed nerve. A step towards improving selectivity for both recording and stimulation have been made with some recent in vitro studies which showed that three-dimensional (3D) bifurcating microchannels can separate neurites growing on a planar surface and bring them into contact with individual electrodes. Since the growing axons in vivo have the innate tendency to group in bundles surrounded by connective tissue, one of the big challenges in neuro-prosthetic interface design is how to overcome it. Therefore, we performed experiments with 3D bifurcating guidance scaffolds implanted in the sciatic nerve of rats to test if this new channel architecture could trigger separation pattern of ingrowth also in vivo. Our results showed that this new method enabled the re-growth of neurites into channels with gradually diminished width (80, 40 and 20 µm) and facilitated the separation of the axonal bundles with 91% success. It seems that the 3D bifurcating scaffold might contribute towards conveying detailed neural control and sensory feedback to users of prosthetic devices, and thus could improve the quality of their daily life.

  6. 3D printed optical phantoms and deep tissue imaging for in vivo applications including oral surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Brian Z.; Costas, Alfonso; Gaind, Vaibhav; Garcia, Jose M.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in developing optical imaging for biomedical applications requires customizable and often complex objects known as "phantoms" for testing, evaluation, and calibration. This work demonstrates that 3D printing is an ideal method for fabricating such objects, allowing intricate inhomogeneities to be placed at exact locations in complex or anatomically realistic geometries, a process that is difficult or impossible using molds. We show printed mouse phantoms we have fabricated for developing deep tissue fluorescence imaging methods, and measurements of both their optical and mechanical properties. Additionally, we present a printed phantom of the human mouth that we use to develop an artery localization method to assist in oral surgery.

  7. Integration of multi-modality imaging for accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoglou, George D.; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S.; Sianos, George; Tsikaderis, Dimitrios; Matakos, Antonis; Koutkias, Vassilios; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Maglaveras, Nicos; Parcharidis, George E.; Louridas, George E.

    2006-01-01

    In conventional intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of human coronary arteries, IVUS images are arranged linearly generating a straight vessel volume. However, with this approach real vessel curvature is neglected. To overcome this limitation an imaging method was developed based on integration of IVUS and biplane coronary angiography (BCA). In 17 coronary arteries from nine patients, IVUS and BCA were performed. From each angiographic projection, a single end-diastolic frame was selected and in each frame the IVUS catheter was interactively detected for the extraction of 3D catheter path. Ultrasound data was obtained with a sheath-based catheter and recorded on S-VHS videotape. S-VHS data was digitized and lumen and media-adventitia contours were semi-automatically detected in end-diastolic IVUS images. Each pair of contours was aligned perpendicularly to the catheter path and rotated in space by implementing an algorithm based on Frenet-Serret rules. Lumen and media-adventitia contours were interpolated through generation of intermediate contours creating a real 3D lumen and vessel volume, respectively. The absolute orientation of the reconstructed lumen was determined by back-projecting it onto both angiographic planes and comparing the projected lumen with the actual angiographic lumen. In conclusion, our method is capable of performing rapid and accurate 3D reconstruction of human coronary arteries in vivo. This technique can be utilized for reliable plaque morphometric, geometrical and hemodynamic analyses

  8. Measuring in-vivo and in-situ ex-vivo the 3D deformation of the lamina cribrosa microstructure under elevated intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junchao; Yang, Bin; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Tran, Huong; Brazile, Bryn; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel; Smith, Matthew A.; Wollstein, Gadi; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-02-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) deforms the lamina cribrosa (LC), a structure within the optic nerve head (ONH) in the back of the eye. Evidence suggests that these deformations trigger events that eventually cause irreversible blindness, and have therefore been studied in-vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ex-vivo using OCT and a diversity of techniques. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no in-situ ex-vivo studies of LC mechanics. Our goal was two-fold: to introduce a technique for measuring 3D LC deformations from OCT, and to determine whether deformations of the LC induced by elevated IOP differ between in-vivo and in-situ ex-vivo conditions. A healthy adult rhesus macaque monkey was anesthetized and IOP was controlled by inserting a 27- gauge needle into the anterior chamber of the eye. Spectral domain OCT was used to obtain volumetric scans of the ONH at normal and elevated IOPs. To improve the visibility of the LC microstructure the scans were first processed using a novel denoising technique. Zero-normalized cross-correlation was used to find paired corresponding locations between images. For each location pair, the components of the 3D strain tensor were determined using non-rigid image registration. A mild IOP elevation from 10 to 15mmHg caused LC effective strains as large as 3%, and about 50% larger in-vivo than in-situ ex-vivo. The deformations were highly heterogeneous, with substantial 3D components, suggesting that accurate measurement of LC microstructure deformation requires high-resolution volumes. This technique will help improve understanding of LC biomechanics and how IOP contributes to glaucoma.

  9. Transparent soil microcosms allow 3D spatial quantification of soil microbiological processes in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Helen F; Valentine, Tracy A; Otten, Wilfred; Spiers, Andrew J; Dupuy, Lionel X

    2014-01-01

    The recently developed transparent soil consists of particles of Nafion, a polymer with a low refractive index (RI), which is prepared by milling and chemical treatment for use as a soil analog. After the addition of a RI-matched solution, confocal imaging can be carried out in vivo and without destructive sampling. In a previous study, we showed that the new substrate provides a good approximation of plant growth conditions found in natural soils. In this paper, we present further development of the techniques for detailed quantitative analysis of images of root-microbe interactions in situ. Using this system it was possible for the first time to analyze bacterial distribution along the roots and in the bulk substrate in vivo. These findings indicate that the coupling of transparent soil with light microscopy is an important advance toward the discovery of the mechanisms of microbial colonisation of the rhizosphere.

  10. Ultrasonic 3-D Vector Flow Method for Quantitative In Vivo Peak Velocity and Flow Rate Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Ewertsen, Caroline; Bouzari, Hamed

    2017-01-01

    Current clinical ultrasound (US) systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the transverse oscillation method, a 32×32 element matrix array, and the experimental US scanner SARUS is presented...... is validated in two phantom studies, where flow rates are measured in a flow-rig, providing a constant parabolic flow, and in a straight-vessel phantom ( ∅=8 mm) connected to a flow pump capable of generating time varying waveforms. Flow rates are estimated to be 82.1 ± 2.8 L/min in the flow-rig compared...

  11. Spectral triangulation: a 3D method for locating single-walled carbon nanotubes in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Wei; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Vu, Michael; Beckingham, Kathleen M.; Bruce Weisman, R.

    2016-05-01

    Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and imaging of cancer tumours, when linked to selective targeting agents such as antibodies. However, such applications face the challenge of sensitively detecting and localizing the source of SWIR emission from inside tissues. A new method, called spectral triangulation, is presented for three dimensional (3D) localization using sparse optical measurements made at the specimen surface. Structurally unsorted SWCNT samples emitting over a range of wavelengths are excited inside tissue phantoms by an LED matrix. The resulting SWIR emission is sampled at points on the surface by a scanning fibre optic probe leading to an InGaAs spectrometer or a spectrally filtered InGaAs avalanche photodiode detector. Because of water absorption, attenuation of the SWCNT fluorescence in tissues is strongly wavelength-dependent. We therefore gauge the SWCNT-probe distance by analysing differential changes in the measured SWCNT emission spectra. SWCNT fluorescence can be clearly detected through at least 20 mm of tissue phantom, and the 3D locations of embedded SWCNT test samples are found with sub-millimeter accuracy at depths up to 10 mm. Our method can also distinguish and locate two embedded SWCNT sources at distinct positions.Nanomaterials with luminescence in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region are of special interest for biological research and medical diagnostics because of favorable tissue transparency and low autofluorescence backgrounds in that region. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) show well-known sharp SWIR spectral signatures and therefore have potential for noninvasive detection and

  12. 3D handheld endoscope for optical coherence tomography of the human oral mucosa in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Julia; Schnabel, Christian; Ebert, Nadja; Baumann, Michael; Koch, Edmund

    2017-07-01

    The early non-invasive diagnosis of epithelial tissue alterations in daily clinical routine is still challenging. Since optical coherence tomography (OCT) shows the potential to differentiate between benign and malignant tissue of primal endothelium, OCT could be beneficial for the early diagnosis of malignancies in routine health checks. In this research, a new handheld endoscopic scanning unit was designed and connected to a spectral domain OCT system of our workgroup for the in vivo imaging of the human oral mucosa.

  13. [Osteogenesis of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells-biomaterial mixture in vivo after 3D bio-printing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Xiao-fei; Wang, Yu-guang; Sun, Yu-chun; Lv, Pei-jun

    2016-02-18

    To construct human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs)-biomaterial mixture 3D bio-printing body and detect its osteogenesis in vivo, and to establish a guideline of osteogenesis in vivo by use of 3D bio-printing technology preliminarily. P4 hASCs were used as seed cells, whose osteogenic potential in vitro was tested by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and alizarin red staining after 14 d of osteogenic induction. The cells were added into 20 g/L sodium alginate and 80 g/L gelatin mixture (cell density was 1 × 10(6)/mL), and the cell-sodium alginate-gelatin mixture was printed by Bioplotter 3D bio-printer (Envision company, Germany), in which the cells'survival rate was detected by live- dead cell double fluorescence staining. Next, the printing body was osteogenically induced for 1 week to gain the experimental group; and the sodium alginate-gelatin mixture without cells was also printed to gain the control group. Both the experimental group and the control group were implanted into the back of the nude mice. After 6 weeks of implantation, the samples were collected, HE staining, Masson staining, immunohistochemical staining and Inveon Micro CT test were preformed to analyze their osteogenic capability. The cells'survival rate was 89%± 2% after printing. Six weeks after implantation, the samples of the control group were mostly degraded, whose shape was irregular and gel-like; the samples of the experimental group kept their original size and their texture was tough. HE staining and Masson staining showed that the bone-like tissue and vessel in-growth could be observed in the experimental group 6 weeks after implantation, immunohistochemical staining showed that the result of osteocalcin was positive, and Micro CT results showed that samples of the experimental group had a higher density and the new bone volume was 18% ± 1%. hASCs -biomaterial mixture 3D bio-printing body has capability of ectopic bone formation in nude mice, and it is feasible to

  14. Large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping registration of reconstructed 3D histological section images and in vivo MR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Ceritoglu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of neuroanatomical abnormalities in neuropsychiatric diseases is based largely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and post mortem histological analyses of the brain. Further advances in elucidating altered brain structure in these human conditions might emerge from combining MRI and histological methods. We propose a multistage method for registering 3D volumes reconstructed from histological sections to corresponding in vivo MRI volumes from the same subjects: (1 manual segmentation of white matter (WM, gray matter (GM and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF compartments in histological sections, (2 alignment of consecutive histological sections using 2D rigid transformation to construct a 3D histological image volume from the aligned sections, (3 registration of reconstructed 3D histological volumes to the corresponding 3D MRI volumes using 3D affine transformation, (4 intensity normalization of images via histogram matching and (5 registration of the volumes via intensity based Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric (LDDMM image matching algorithm. Here we demonstrate the utility of our method in the transfer of cytoarchitectonic information from histological sections to identify regions of interest in MRI scans of nine adult macaque brains for morphometric analyses. LDDMM improved the accuracy of the registration via decreased distances between GM/CSF surfaces after LDDMM (0.39±0.13 mm compared to distances after affine registration (0.76±0.41 mm. Similarly, WM/GM distances decreased to 0.28±0.16 mm after LDDMM compared to 0.54±0.39 mm after affine registration. The multistage registration method may find broad application for mapping histologically based information, e.g., receptor distributions, gene expression, onto MRI volumes.

  15. Plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI evaluated by dense 3D correspondence with histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Engelen, Arna; de Bruijne, Marleen; Klein, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    registration of histology data with ex vivo MRI data, using non-rigid registration, both for training and evaluation. This is more objective than previously presented methods, as it eliminates selection bias that is introduced when 2D MRI slices are manually matched to histological slices before evaluation....... Histological slices of human atherosclerotic plaques were manually segmented into necrotic core, fibrous tissue and calcification. Classification of these three components was voxelwise evaluated. As features the intensity, gradient magnitude and Laplacian in four MRI sequences after different degrees...

  16. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, E Z; Laufer, J G; Beard, P C; Pedley, R B

    2009-01-01

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  17. In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, E Z; Laufer, J G; Beard, P C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Pedley, R B [UCL Cancer Institute, Paul O' Gorman Building, University College London, 72 Huntley St, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-21

    The application of a photoacoustic imaging instrument based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor to imaging the superficial vasculature is described. This approach provides a backward mode-sensing configuration that has the potential to overcome the limitations of current piezoelectric based detection systems used in superficial photoacoustic imaging. The system has been evaluated by obtaining non-invasive images of the vasculature in human and mouse skin as well as mouse models of human colorectal tumours. These studies showed that the system can provide high-resolution 3D images of vascular structures to depths of up to 5 mm. It is considered that this type of instrument may find a role in the clinical assessment of conditions characterized by changes in the vasculature such as skin tumours and superficial soft tissue damage due to burns, wounds or ulceration. It may also find application in the characterization of small animal cancer models where it is important to follow the tumour vasculature over time in order to study its development and/or response to therapy.

  18. USPIO-enhanced 3D-cine self-gated cardiac MRI based on a stack-of-stars golden angle short echo time sequence: Application on mice with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotier, Aurélien J; Castets, Charles R; Lefrançois, William; Ribot, Emeline J; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Thiaudière, Eric; Miraux, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    To develop and assess a 3D-cine self-gated method for cardiac imaging of murine models. A 3D stack-of-stars (SOS) short echo time (STE) sequence with a navigator echo was performed at 7T on healthy mice (n = 4) and mice with acute myocardial infarction (MI) (n = 4) injected with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles. In all, 402 spokes were acquired per stack with the incremental or the golden angle method using an angle increment of (360/402)° or 222.48°, respectively. A cylindrical k-space was filled and repeated with a maximum number of repetitions (NR) of 10. 3D cine cardiac images at 156 μm resolution were reconstructed retrospectively and compared for the two methods in terms of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The golden angle images were also reconstructed with NR = 10, 6, and 3, to assess cardiac functional parameters (ejection fraction, EF) on both animal models. The combination of 3D SOS-STE and USPIO injection allowed us to optimize the identification of cardiac peaks on navigator signal and generate high CNR between blood and myocardium (15.3 ± 1.0). The golden angle method resulted in a more homogeneous distribution of the spokes inside a stack (P cine images could be obtained without electrocardiogram or respiratory gating in mice. It allows precise measurement of cardiac functional parameters even on MI mice. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:355-365. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Quantitative in vivo HR-pQCT imaging of 3D wrist and metacarpophalangeal joint space width in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Andrew J; Lee, Chan Hee; Kuo, Daniel; Majumdar, Sharmila; Imboden, John B; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan

    2013-12-01

    In this technique development study, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) was applied to non-invasively image and quantify 3D joint space morphology of the wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). HR-pQCT imaging (82 μm voxel-size) of the dominant hand was performed in patients with diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis (RA, N = 16, age: 52.6 ± 12.8) and healthy controls (CTRL, N = 7, age: 50.1 ± 15.0). An automated computer algorithm was developed to segment wrist and MCP joint spaces. The 3D distance transformation method was applied to spatially map joint space width, and summarized by the mean joint space width (JSW), minimal and maximal JSW (JSW.MIN, JSW.MAX), asymmetry (JSW.AS), and distribution (JSW.SD)-a measure of joint space heterogeneity. In vivo precision was determined for each measure by calculating the smallest detectable difference (SDD) and root mean square coefficient of variation (RMSCV%) of repeat scans. Qualitatively, HR-pQCT images and pseudo-color JSW maps showed global joint space narrowing, as well as regional and focal abnormalities in RA patients. In patients with radiographic JSN at an MCP, JSW.SD was two-fold greater vs. CTRL (p 3D joint space morphology from HR-pQCT, could improve early detection of joint damage in rheumatological diseases.

  20. Locoregional deformation pattern of the patellar cartilage after different loading types. High-resolution 3D-MRI volumetry at 3 T in-vivo; Lokoregionaere Deformationsmuster im Patellarknorpel nach unterschiedlichen Belastungsparadigmen. Hochaufloesende 3-D-MR-Volumetrie bei 3 T in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie [University Hospital LMU Munich, Muenchen (Germany). Radiology; Raya, J. [New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (United States). Center of Biomedical Imaging; Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Zscharn, M. [Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Grosshadern (DE). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie] (and others)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: To analyze locoregional deformation patterns indicative of contact areas in patellar cartilage after different loading exercises. Materials and Methods: 7 healthy patellae were examined in-vivo before and immediately after standardized loading (kneeling, squatting or knee bends) and after 90 minutes of rest using a sagittal 3D-T1-w FLASH WE sequence (22 msec/ 9.8msec/ 15 / 0.3 x 0.3 x 1.5 mm{sup 3}) at 3 T. After cartilage segmentation and 3D reconstruction, voxel-based and global precision errors (PR) were calculated. The former were used to determine significant differences in local cartilage thickness. Voxel-based 2{sigma}-thickness difference maps were calculated to visualize locoregional deformation patterns. Global changes in volume (Vol), mean thickness (mTh) and cartilage-bone-interface area (CBIA) were calculated. Results: The voxel-based PR depended on cartilage thickness (D) ranging from 0.12 - 0.35 mm. For D {>=} 1 mm the RF was < 0.31 mm (< voxel size), and for D {>=} 2 mm, the RF was < 0.22 mm. The global PR was 83 mm{sup 3} (2.4 %) for Vol, 0.06 mm (2.0 %) for mTh and 16 mm{sup 2} (1.4 %) for CBIA. The focal cartilage deformation equaled 14 % of the local thickness reduction. The deformation areas were oval and located in the peripheral medial (more vertically oriented, all exercises) and caudo-lateral (more horizontally oriented, kneeling and knee bends) aspects of the patella and were least pronounced in knee bends. Significant changes for Vol/mTh ranged from 2.1 to 3.7 %. Conclusion: This MRI-based study is the first to identify in-vivo voxel-based patellar cartilage deformation patterns indicating contact and loading zones after kneeling and squatting. These zones are anatomically and functionally plausible and may represent areas where stress induced degeneration and subsequent OA can originate. The data may facilitate understanding of individual knee loading properties and help to improve and validate biomechanical models for the knee

  1. In vivo and 3D visualization of coronary artery development by optical coherence tomography - art. no. 662709

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Norozi, K.; Männer, J.

    2007-01-01

    . The in vivo images were generated by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The OCT system used in this study is a mobile fiber-based time-domain real-time OCT system operating with a center wavelength of 1330 nm, an A-scan rate of 4 kHz, and a typical frame rate of 8 frames/s. The axial resolution is 17 mu m......One of the most critical but poorly understood processes during cardiovascular development is the establishment of a functioning coronary artery (CA) system. Due to the lack of suitable imaging technologies, it is currently impossible to visualize this complex dynamic process on living human...... (in tissue), and the lateral resolution is 30 mu m. The OCT system is optimized for in vivo chick heart visualization and enables OCT movie recording with 8 frames/s, full-automatic 3D OCT scanning, and blood flow visualization, i.e., Doppler OCT imaging. Using this OCT system, we generated in vivo...

  2. Integration of 3D Printed and Micropatterned Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Guidance of Oriented Collagenous Tissue Formation In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipchuk, Sophia P; Monje, Alberto; Jiao, Yizu; Hao, Jie; Kruger, Laura; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Giannobile, William V

    2016-03-01

    Scaffold design incorporating multiscale cues for clinically relevant, aligned tissue regeneration has potential to improve structural and functional integrity of multitissue interfaces. The objective of this preclinical study is to develop poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds with mesoscale and microscale architectural cues specific to human ligament progenitor cells and assess their ability to form aligned bone-ligament-cementum complexes in vivo. PCL scaffolds are designed to integrate a 3D printed bone region with a micropatterned PCL thin film consisting of grooved pillars. The patterned film region is seeded with human ligament cells, fibroblasts transduced with bone morphogenetic protein-7 genes seeded within the bone region, and a tooth dentin segment positioned on the ligament region prior to subcutaneous implantation into a murine model. Results indicate increased tissue alignment in vivo using micropatterned PCL films, compared to random-porous PCL. At week 6, 30 μm groove depth significantly enhances oriented collagen fiber thickness, overall cell alignment, and nuclear elongation relative to 10 μm groove depth. This study demonstrates for the first time that scaffolds with combined hierarchical mesoscale and microscale features can align cells in vivo for oral tissue repair with potential for improving the regenerative response of other bone-ligament complexes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Development and validation of technique for in-vivo 3D analysis of cranial bone graft survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Mark P.; Caldwell, Curtis B.; Antonyshyn, Oleh M.; Ma, Karen; Cooper, Perry W.; Ehrlich, Lisa E.

    1997-05-01

    Bone autografts are routinely employed in the reconstruction of facial deformities resulting from trauma, tumor ablation or congenital malformations. The combined use of post- operative 3D CT and SPECT imaging provides a means for quantitative in vivo evaluation of bone graft volume and osteoblastic activity. The specific objectives of this study were: (1) Determine the reliability and accuracy of interactive computer-assisted analysis of bone graft volumes based on 3D CT scans; (2) Determine the error in CT/SPECT multimodality image registration; (3) Determine the error in SPECT/SPECT image registration; and (4) Determine the reliability and accuracy of CT-guided SPECT uptake measurements in cranial bone grafts. Five human cadaver heads served as anthropomorphic models for all experiments. Four cranial defects were created in each specimen with inlay and onlay split skull bone grafts and reconstructed to skull and malar recipient sites. To acquire all images, each specimen was CT scanned and coated with Technetium doped paint. For purposes of validation, skulls were landmarked with 1/16-inch ball-bearings and Indium. This study provides a new technique relating anatomy and physiology for the analysis of cranial bone graft survival.

  4. A novel 3-D bio-microfluidic system mimicking in vivo heterogeneous tumour microstructures reveals complex tumour–stroma interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Qihui

    2017-07-10

    A 3-D microfluidic system consisting of microchamber arrays embedded in a collagen hydrogel with tuneable biochemical gradients that mimics the tumour microenvironment of mammary glands was constructed for the investigation on the interactions between invasive breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The hollow microchambers in collagen provide a very similar 3-D environment to that in vivo that regulates collective cellular dynamics and behaviour, while the microfluidic channels surrounding the collagen microchamber arrays allow one to impose complex concentration gradients of specific biological molecules or drugs. We found that breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A) seeded in the microchambers formed lumen-like structures similar to those in epithelial layers. When MCF-10A cells were co-cultured with invasive breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), the formation of lumen-like structures in the microchambers was inhibited, indicating the capability of cancer cells to disrupt the structures formed by surrounding cells for further invasion and metastasis. Subsequent mechanism studies showed that down regulation of E-cad expression due to MMPs produced by the cancer cells plays a dominant role in determining the cellular behaviour. Our microfluidic system offers a robust platform for high throughput studies that aim to understand combinatorial effects of multiple biochemical and microenvironmental factors.

  5. Imaging of prostate cancer: a platform for 3D co-registration of in-vivo MRI ex-vivo MRI and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orczyk, Clément; Mikheev, Artem; Rosenkrantz, Andrew; Melamed, Jonathan; Taneja, Samir S.; Rusinek, Henry

    2012-02-01

    Objectives: Multi-parametric MRI is emerging as a promising method for prostate cancer diagnosis. prognosis and treatment planning. However, the localization of in-vivo detected lesions and pathologic sites of cancer remains a significant challenge. To overcome this limitation we have developed and tested a system for co-registration of in-vivo MRI, ex-vivo MRI and histology. Materials and Methods: Three men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (ages 54-72, PSA levels 5.1-7.7 ng/ml) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients underwent 3T multi-parametric MRI that included T2W, DCEMRI, and DWI prior to robotic-assisted prostatectomy. Ex-vivo multi-parametric MRI was performed on fresh prostate specimen. Excised prostates were then sliced at regular intervals and photographed both before and after fixation. Slices were perpendicular to the main axis of the posterior capsule, i.e., along the direction of the rectal wall. Guided by the location of the urethra, 2D digital images were assembled into 3D models. Cancer foci, extra-capsular extensions and zonal margins were delineated by the pathologist and included in 3D histology data. A locally-developed software was applied to register in-vivo, ex-vivo and histology using an over-determined set of anatomical landmarks placed in anterior fibro-muscular stroma, central. transition and peripheral zones. The mean root square distance across corresponding control points was used to assess co-registration error. Results: Two specimens were pT3a and one pT2b (negative margin) at pathology. The software successfully fused invivo MRI. ex-vivo MRI fresh specimen and histology using appropriate (rigid and affine) transformation models with mean square error of 1.59 mm. Coregistration accuracy was confirmed by multi-modality viewing using operator-guided variable transparency. Conclusion: The method enables successful co-registration of pre-operative MRI, ex-vivo MRI and pathology and it provides initial evidence

  6. Single-Shot-RARE for rapid 3D hyperpolarized metabolic ex vivo tissue imaging: RF-pulse design for semi-dense spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, P.O.; Jensen, Pernille Rose; Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    MRS of hyperpolarized (HP) 13C-enriched compounds is a promising method for in vivo cancer diagnosis . Sentinel lymph node ex vivo tissue sample histology used in clinical routine for breast cancer metastasis diagnosis requires time consuming sample analysis. 3D-HP-MRSI can potentially speed up...

  7. Microcirculation in the murine liver: a computational fluid dynamic model based on 3D reconstruction from in vivo microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piergiovanni, Monica; Bianchi, Elena; Capitani, Giada; Li Piani, Irene; Ganzer, Lucia; Guidotti, Luca G; Iannacone, Matteo; Dubini, Gabriele

    2017-10-03

    The liver is organized in hexagonal functional units - termed lobules - characterized by a rather peculiar blood microcirculation, due to the presence of a tangled network of capillaries - termed sinusoids. A better understanding of the hemodynamics that governs liver microcirculation is relevant to clinical and biological studies aimed at improving our management of liver diseases and transplantation. Herein, we built a CFD model of a 3D sinusoidal network, based on in vivo images of a physiological mouse liver obtained with a 2-photon microscope. The CFD model was developed with Fluent 16.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA), particular care was taken in imposing the correct boundary conditions representing a physiological state. To account for the remaining branches of the sinusoids, a lumped parameter model was used to prescribe the correct pressure at each outlet. The effect of an adhered cell on local hemodynamics is also investigated for different occlusion degrees. The model here proposed accurately reproduces the fluid dynamics in a portion of the sinusoidal network in mouse liver. Mean velocities and mass flow rates are in agreement with literature values from in vivo measurements. Our approach provides details on local phenomena, hardly described by other computational studies, either focused on the macroscopic hepatic vasculature or based on homogeneous porous medium model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Framework for 3D histologic reconstruction and fusion with in vivo MRI: Preliminary results of characterizing pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusu, Mirabela, E-mail: mirabela.rusu@gmail.com; Wang, Haibo; Madabhushi, Anant [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Golden, Thea; Gow, Andrew [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. Assessing pulmonary inflammation on in vivo imaging may facilitate the early detection and treatment of lung diseases. Although routinely used in thoracic imaging, computed tomography has thus far not been compellingly shown to characterize inflammation in vivo. Alternatively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a nonionizing radiation technique to better visualize and characterize pulmonary tissue. Prior to routine adoption of MRI for early characterization of inflammation in humans, a rigorous and quantitative characterization of the utility of MRI to identify inflammation is required. Such characterization may be achieved by considering ex vivo histology as the ground truth, since it enables the definitive spatial assessment of inflammation. In this study, the authors introduce a novel framework to integrate 2D histology, ex vivo and in vivo imaging to enable the mapping of the extent of disease from ex vivo histology onto in vivo imaging, with the goal of facilitating computerized feature analysis and interrogation of disease appearance on in vivo imaging. The authors’ framework was evaluated in a preclinical preliminary study aimed to identify computer extracted features on in vivo MRI associated with chronic pulmonary inflammation. Methods: The authors’ image analytics framework first involves reconstructing the histologic volume in 3D from individual histology slices. Second, the authors map the disease ground truth onto in vivo MRI via coregistration with 3D histology using the ex vivo lung MRI as a conduit. Finally, computerized feature analysis of the disease extent is performed to identify candidate in vivo imaging signatures of disease presence and extent. Results: The authors evaluated the framework by assessing the quality of the 3D histology reconstruction and the histology—MRI fusion, in the context of an initial use case involving characterization of chronic

  9. Framework for 3D histologic reconstruction and fusion with in vivo MRI: Preliminary results of characterizing pulmonary inflammation in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mirabela; Wang, Haibo; Madabhushi, Anant; Golden, Thea; Gow, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Pulmonary inflammation is associated with a variety of diseases. Assessing pulmonary inflammation on in vivo imaging may facilitate the early detection and treatment of lung diseases. Although routinely used in thoracic imaging, computed tomography has thus far not been compellingly shown to characterize inflammation in vivo. Alternatively, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a nonionizing radiation technique to better visualize and characterize pulmonary tissue. Prior to routine adoption of MRI for early characterization of inflammation in humans, a rigorous and quantitative characterization of the utility of MRI to identify inflammation is required. Such characterization may be achieved by considering ex vivo histology as the ground truth, since it enables the definitive spatial assessment of inflammation. In this study, the authors introduce a novel framework to integrate 2D histology, ex vivo and in vivo imaging to enable the mapping of the extent of disease from ex vivo histology onto in vivo imaging, with the goal of facilitating computerized feature analysis and interrogation of disease appearance on in vivo imaging. The authors’ framework was evaluated in a preclinical preliminary study aimed to identify computer extracted features on in vivo MRI associated with chronic pulmonary inflammation. Methods: The authors’ image analytics framework first involves reconstructing the histologic volume in 3D from individual histology slices. Second, the authors map the disease ground truth onto in vivo MRI via coregistration with 3D histology using the ex vivo lung MRI as a conduit. Finally, computerized feature analysis of the disease extent is performed to identify candidate in vivo imaging signatures of disease presence and extent. Results: The authors evaluated the framework by assessing the quality of the 3D histology reconstruction and the histology—MRI fusion, in the context of an initial use case involving characterization of chronic

  10. Comparative Study of 2D and 3D Optical Imaging Systems: Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Surgery in an Ex Vivo Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaça, Jaime; Pinto, José Pedro; Fernandes, Sandra; Costa, Patrício; Pinto, Jorge Correia; Leão, Pedro

    2017-12-01

    Usually laparoscopy is performed by means of a 2-dimensional (2D) image system and multiport approach. To overcome the lack of depth perception, new 3-dimensional (3D) systems are arising with the added advantage of providing stereoscopic vision. To further reduce surgery-related trauma, there are new minimally invasive surgical techniques being developed, such as LESS (laparoendoscopic single-site) surgery. The aim of this study was to compare 2D and 3D laparoscopic systems in LESS surgical procedures. All participants were selected from different levels of experience in laparoscopic surgery-10 novices, 7 intermediates, and 10 experts were included. None of the participants had had previous experience in LESS surgery. Participants were chosen randomly to begin their experience with either the 2D or 3D laparoscopic system. The exercise consisted of performing an ex vivo pork cholecystectomy through a SILS port with the assistance of a fixed distance laparoscope. Errors, time, and participants' preference were recorded. Statistical analysis of time and errors between groups was conducted with a Student's t test (using independent samples) and the Mann-Whitney test. In all 3 groups, the average time with the 2D system was significantly reduced after having used the 3D system ( P 3D system. This study suggests that the 3D system may improve the learning curve and that learning from the 3D system is transferable to the 2D environment. Additionally, the majority of participants prefer 3D equipment.

  11. 3D modeling to characterize lamina cribrosa surface and pore geometries using in vivo images from normal and glaucomatous eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredar, Nripun; Ivers, Kevin M.; Queener, Hope M.; Zouridakis, George; Porter, Jason

    2013-01-01

    En face adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) images of the anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS) represent a 2D projected view of a 3D laminar surface. Using spectral domain optical coherence tomography images acquired in living monkey eyes, a thin plate spline was used to model the ALCS in 3D. The 2D AOSLO images were registered and projected onto the 3D surface that was then tessellated into a triangular mesh to characterize differences in pore geometry between 2D and 3D images. Following 3D transformation of the anterior laminar surface in 11 normal eyes, mean pore area increased by 5.1 ± 2.0% with a minimal change in pore elongation (mean change = 0.0 ± 0.2%). These small changes were due to the relatively flat laminar surfaces inherent in normal eyes (mean radius of curvature = 3.0 ± 0.5 mm). The mean increase in pore area was larger following 3D transformation in 4 glaucomatous eyes (16.2 ± 6.0%) due to their more steeply curved laminar surfaces (mean radius of curvature = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm), while the change in pore elongation was comparable to that in normal eyes (−0.2 ± 2.0%). This 3D transformation and tessellation method can be used to better characterize and track 3D changes in laminar pore and surface geometries in glaucoma. PMID:23847739

  12. Quantification of plaque lipids in the aortic root of ApoE-deficient mice by 3D DIXON magnetic resonance imaging in an ex vivo model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietel, Barbara; Kuehn, Constanze; Achenbach, Stephan; Budinsky, Lubos; Uder, Michael; Hess, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    To establish a dedicated protocol for the three-dimensional (3D) quantification of plaque lipids in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE -/- ) mice using ex vivo MRI. ApoE -/- mice were fed a high-fat diet (n = 10) or normal food (n = 10) for 3 months. Subsequently, a 3D FLASH MRI sequence was used to view the anatomy of the aortic root in the isolated hearts, where a 3D double-echo two-excitation pulse sequence (DIXON sequence) was used to selectively image plaque lipids. The vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid volumes were quantified by MRI and histology for correlation analysis. DIXON MRI allowed visualisation and accurate quantification of plaque lipids. When comparing the vessel wall, lumen and plaque lipid sizes in the aortic root, Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis revealed a close correlation between MRI results and the histological data both on a slice-by-slice basis and of the volumetric measurements (vessel wall: r 2 = 0.775, p 2 = 0.875; p = 0.002; plaque lipid: r 2 = 0.819, p = 0.003). The combination of 3D FLASH and DIXON-sequence MRI permits an accurate ex vivo assessment of the investigated plaque parameters in the aortic root of mice, particularly the lipid content. (orig.)

  13. In vivo 3D neuroanatomical evaluation of periprostatic nerve plexus with 3T-MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panebianco, Valeria; Barchetti, Flavio; Sciarra, Alessandro; Marcantonio, Andrea; Zini, Chiara; Salciccia, Stefano; Collettini, Federico; Gentile, Vincenzo; Hamm, Bernard; Catalano, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate if Diffusion Tensor Imaging technique (DTI) can improve the visualization of periprostatic nerve fibers describing the location and distribution of entire neurovascular plexus around the prostate in patients who are candidates for prostatectomy. Materials and methods: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), including a 2D T2-weighted FSE sequence in 3 planes, 3D T2-weighted and DTI using 16 gradient directions and b = 0 and 1000, was performed on 36 patients. Three out of 36 patients were excluded from the analysis due to poor image quality (blurring N = 2, artifact N = 1). The study was approved by local ethics committee and all patients gave an informed consent. Images were evaluated by two radiologists with different experience in MRI. DTI images were analyzed qualitatively using dedicated software. Also 2D and 3D T2 images were independently considered. Results: 3D-DTI allowed description of the entire plexus of the periprostatic nerve fibers in all directions, while 2D and 3D T2 morphological sequences depicted part of the fibers, in a plane by plane analysis of fiber courses. DTI demonstrated in all patients the dispersion of nerve fibers around the prostate on both sides including the significant percentage present in the anterior and anterolateral sectors. Conclusions: DTI offers optimal representation of the widely distributed periprostatic plexus. If validated, it may help guide nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy

  14. Skin-sparing Helical Tomotherapy vs 3D-conformal Radiotherapy for Adjuvant Breast Radiotherapy: In Vivo Skin Dosimetry Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capelle, Lisa; Warkentin, Heather; MacKenzie, Marc; Joseph, Kurian; Gabos, Zsolt; Pervez, Nadeem; Tankel, Keith; Chafe, Susan; Amanie, John; Ghosh, Sunita; Parliament, Matthew; Abdulkarim, Bassam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether treatment-planning system (TPS)-calculated dose accurately reflects skin dose received for patients receiving adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT) with standard three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) or skin-sparing helical tomotherapy (HT). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial investigating acute skin toxicity from adjuvant breast RT with 3D-CRT compared to skin-sparing HT, where a 5-mm strip of ipsilateral breast skin was spared. Thermoluminescent dosimetry or optically stimulated luminescence measurements were made in multiple locations and were compared to TPS-calculated doses. Skin dosimetric parameters and acute skin toxicity were recorded in these patients. Results: With HT there was a significant correlation between calculated and measured dose in the medial and lateral ipsilateral breast (r = 0.67, P V50 (1.4% vs 5.9%, respectively; P=.001) but higher skin V40 and skin V30 (71.7% vs 64.0%, P=.02; and 99.0% vs 93.8%, P=.001, respectively) than 3D-CRT plans. Conclusion: The 3D-CRT TPS more accurately reflected skin dose than the HT TPS, which tended to overestimate dose received by 14% in patients receiving adjuvant breast RT.

  15. In Vivo Evaluation of 3D-Printed Polycaprolactone Scaffold Implantation Combined with β-TCP Powder for Alveolar Bone Augmentation in a Beagle Defect Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su A. Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient bone volume is one of the major challenges encountered by dentists after dental implant placement. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a customized three-dimensional polycaprolactone (3D PCL scaffold implant fabricated with a 3D bio-printing system to facilitate rapid alveolar bone regeneration. Saddle-type bone defects were surgically created on the healed site after extracting premolars from the mandibles of four beagle dogs. The defects were radiologically examined using computed tomography for designing a customized 3D PCL scaffold block to fit the defect site. After fabricating 3D PCL scaffolds using rapid prototyping, the scaffolds were implanted into the alveolar bone defects along with β-tricalcium phosphate powder. In vivo analysis showed that the PCL blocks maintained the physical space and bone conductivity around the defects. In addition, no inflammatory infiltrates were observed around the scaffolds. However, new bone formation occurred adjacent to the scaffolds, rather than directly in contact with them. More new bone was observed around PCL blocks with 400/1200 lattices than around blocks with 400/400 lattices, but the difference was not significant. These results indicated the potential of 3D-printed porous PCL scaffolds to promote alveolar bone regeneration for defect healing in dentistry.

  16. WE-D-BRA-05: Pseudo In Vivo Patient Dosimetry Using a 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ger, R; Craft, DF; Burgett, EA; Price, RR; Kry, SF; Howell, RM

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA). Methods: We created a patient-specific whole-head phantom using a 3D printer. The printer data file was created from high-resolution DICOM computed tomography (CT) images of 3-year old child treated at our institution for medulloblastoma. A custom-modified extruder system was used to create tissue-equivalent materials. For the printing process, the Hounsfield Units from the CT images were converted to proportional volumetric densities. A 5-field IMRT plan was created from the patient CT and delivered to the 3D- phantom. Dose was measured by an ion chamber placed through the eye. The ion chamber was placed at the posterior edge of the planning target volume in a high dose gradient region. CT scans of the patient and 3D-phantom were fused by using commercial treatment planning software (TPS). The patient’s plan was calculated on the phantom CT images. The ion chamber’s active volume was delineated in the TPS; dose per field and total dose were obtained. Measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The 3D-phantom dimensions and tissue densities were in good agreement with the patient. However, because of a printing error, there was a large discrepancy in the density in the frontal cortex. The calculated and measured treatment plan doses were 1.74 Gy and 1.72 Gy, respectively. For individual fields, the absolute dose difference between measured and calculated values was on average 3.50%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for IMRT QA. Such phantoms would be particularly advantageous for complex IMRT treatment plans featuring high dose gradients and/or for anatomical sites with high variation in tissue densities. Our preliminary findings are promising. We anticipate that, once the printing process is further refined, the agreement between

  17. WE-D-BRA-05: Pseudo In Vivo Patient Dosimetry Using a 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ger, R; Craft, DF [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (United States); Burgett, EA [Idaho State University, Pocatello, idaho (United States); Price, RR [RANDJ Consulting, Frederick, MD (United States); Kry, SF; Howell, RM [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (United States); The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Ctr., Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA). Methods: We created a patient-specific whole-head phantom using a 3D printer. The printer data file was created from high-resolution DICOM computed tomography (CT) images of 3-year old child treated at our institution for medulloblastoma. A custom-modified extruder system was used to create tissue-equivalent materials. For the printing process, the Hounsfield Units from the CT images were converted to proportional volumetric densities. A 5-field IMRT plan was created from the patient CT and delivered to the 3D- phantom. Dose was measured by an ion chamber placed through the eye. The ion chamber was placed at the posterior edge of the planning target volume in a high dose gradient region. CT scans of the patient and 3D-phantom were fused by using commercial treatment planning software (TPS). The patient’s plan was calculated on the phantom CT images. The ion chamber’s active volume was delineated in the TPS; dose per field and total dose were obtained. Measured and calculated doses were compared. Results: The 3D-phantom dimensions and tissue densities were in good agreement with the patient. However, because of a printing error, there was a large discrepancy in the density in the frontal cortex. The calculated and measured treatment plan doses were 1.74 Gy and 1.72 Gy, respectively. For individual fields, the absolute dose difference between measured and calculated values was on average 3.50%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of using 3D-printed patient-specific phantoms for IMRT QA. Such phantoms would be particularly advantageous for complex IMRT treatment plans featuring high dose gradients and/or for anatomical sites with high variation in tissue densities. Our preliminary findings are promising. We anticipate that, once the printing process is further refined, the agreement between

  18. Reconstruction for Time-Domain In Vivo EPR 3D Multigradient Oximetric Imaging—A Parallel Processing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Dharmaraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23×23×23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet. The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time.

  19. Reconstruction for time-domain in vivo EPR 3D multigradient oximetric imaging--a parallel processing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraj, Christopher D; Thadikonda, Kishan; Fletcher, Anthony R; Doan, Phuc N; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Matsumoto, Shingo; Johnson, Calvin A; Cook, John A; Mitchell, James B; Subramanian, Sankaran; Krishna, Murali C

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional Oximetric Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging using the Single Point Imaging modality generates unpaired spin density and oxygen images that can readily distinguish between normal and tumor tissues in small animals. It is also possible with fast imaging to track the changes in tissue oxygenation in response to the oxygen content in the breathing air. However, this involves dealing with gigabytes of data for each 3D oximetric imaging experiment involving digital band pass filtering and background noise subtraction, followed by 3D Fourier reconstruction. This process is rather slow in a conventional uniprocessor system. This paper presents a parallelization framework using OpenMP runtime support and parallel MATLAB to execute such computationally intensive programs. The Intel compiler is used to develop a parallel C++ code based on OpenMP. The code is executed on four Dual-Core AMD Opteron shared memory processors, to reduce the computational burden of the filtration task significantly. The results show that the parallel code for filtration has achieved a speed up factor of 46.66 as against the equivalent serial MATLAB code. In addition, a parallel MATLAB code has been developed to perform 3D Fourier reconstruction. Speedup factors of 4.57 and 4.25 have been achieved during the reconstruction process and oximetry computation, for a data set with 23 x 23 x 23 gradient steps. The execution time has been computed for both the serial and parallel implementations using different dimensions of the data and presented for comparison. The reported system has been designed to be easily accessible even from low-cost personal computers through local internet (NIHnet). The experimental results demonstrate that the parallel computing provides a source of high computational power to obtain biophysical parameters from 3D EPR oximetric imaging, almost in real-time.

  20. Fast, free-breathing, in vivo fetal imaging using time-resolved 3D MRI technique: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Glenn, Orit A; Xu, Duan

    2014-04-01

    Fetal MR imaging is very challenging due to the movement of fetus and the breathing motion of the mother. Current clinical protocols involve quick 2D scouting scans to determine scan plane and often several attempts to reorient the scan plane when the fetus moves. This makes acquisition of fetal MR images clinically challenging and results in long scan times in order to obtain images that are of diagnostic quality. Compared to 2D imaging, 3D imaging of the fetus has many advantages such as higher SNR and ability to reformat images in multiple planes. However, it is more sensitive to motion and challenging for fetal imaging due to irregular fetal motion in addition to maternal breathing and cardiac motion. This aim of this study is to develop a fast 3D fetal imaging technique to resolve the challenge of imaging the moving fetus. This 3D imaging sequence has multi-echo radial sampling in-plane and conventional Cartesian encoding through plane, which provides motion robustness and high data acquisition efficiency. The utilization of a golden-ratio based projection profile allows flexible time-resolved image reconstruction with arbitrary temporal resolution at arbitrary time points as well as high signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratio. The nice features of the developed image technique allow the 3D visualization of the movements occurring throughout the scan. In this study, we applied this technique to three human subjects for fetal MRI and achieved promising preliminary results of fetal brain, heart and lung imaging.

  1. Measurement of in vitro and in vivo stent geometry and deformation by means of 3D imaging and stereo-photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierzak, Iwona; Cosentino, Daria; Narracott, Andrew J; Bonhoeffer, Philipp; Diaz, Vanessa; Fenner, John W; Schievano, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    To quantify variability of in vitro and in vivo measurement of 3D device geometry using 3D and biplanar imaging. Comparison of stent reconstruction is reported for in vitro coronary stent deployment (using micro-CT and optical stereo-photogrammetry) and in vivo pulmonary valve stent deformation (using 4DCT and biplanar fluoroscopy). Coronary stent strut length and inter-strut angle were compared in the fully deployed configuration. Local (inter-strut angle) and global (dog-boning ratio) measures of stent deformation were reported during stent deployment. Pulmonary valve stent geometry was assessed throughout the cardiac cycle by reconstruction of stent geometry and measurement of stent diameter. Good agreement was obtained between methods for assessment of coronary stent geometry with maximum disagreement of +/- 0.03 mm (length) and +/- 3 degrees (angle). The stent underwent large, non-uniform, local deformations during balloon inflation, which did not always correlate with changes in stent diameter. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pulmonary valve stent was feasible for all frames of the fluoroscopy and for 4DCT images, with good correlation between the diameters calculated from the two methods. The largest compression of the stent during the cardiac cycle was 6.98% measured from fluoroscopy and 7.92% from 4DCT, both in the most distal ring. Quantitative assessment of stent geometry reconstructed from biplanar imaging methods in vitro and in vivo has shown good agreement with geometry reconstructed from 3D techniques. As a result of their short image acquisition time, biplanar methods may have significant advantages in the measurement of dynamic 3D stent deformation.

  2. Topographic deformation patterns of knee cartilage after exercises with high knee flexion: an in vivo 3D MRI study using voxel-based analysis at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, Annie; Stockinger, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M.; Raya, J.G.; Pietschmann, M.; Hoehne-Hueckstaedt, U.; Glitsch, U.; Ellegast, R.; Hering, K.G.; Glaser, C.

    2015-01-01

    To implement a novel voxel-based technique to identify statistically significant local cartilage deformation and analyze in-vivo topographic knee cartilage deformation patterns using a voxel-based thickness map approach for high-flexion postures. Sagittal 3T 3D-T1w-FLASH-WE-sequences of 10 healthy knees were acquired before and immediately after loading (kneeling/squatting/heel sitting/knee bends). After cartilage segmentation, 3D-reconstruction and 3D-registration, colour-coded deformation maps were generated by voxel-based subtraction of loaded from unloaded datasets to visualize cartilage thickness changes in all knee compartments. Compression areas were found bifocal at the peripheral medial/caudolateral patella, both posterior femoral condyles and both anterior/central tibiae. Local cartilage thickening were found adjacent to the compression areas. Significant local strain ranged from +13 to -15 %. Changes were most pronounced after squatting, least after knee bends. Shape and location of deformation areas varied slightly with the loading paradigm, but followed a similar pattern consistent between different individuals. Voxel-based deformation maps identify individual in-vivo load-specific and posture-associated strain distribution in the articular cartilage. The data facilitate understanding individual knee loading properties and contribute to improve biomechanical 3 models. They lay a base to investigate the relationship between cartilage degeneration patterns in common osteoarthritis and areas at risk of cartilage wear due to mechanical loading in work-related activities. (orig.)

  3. Topographic deformation patterns of knee cartilage after exercises with high knee flexion: an in vivo 3D MRI study using voxel-based analysis at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie; Stockinger, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Raya, J.G. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Pietschmann, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hoehne-Hueckstaedt, U.; Glitsch, U.; Ellegast, R. [Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Miner' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dortmund (Germany); Glaser, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); RZM Zentrum, Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To implement a novel voxel-based technique to identify statistically significant local cartilage deformation and analyze in-vivo topographic knee cartilage deformation patterns using a voxel-based thickness map approach for high-flexion postures. Sagittal 3T 3D-T1w-FLASH-WE-sequences of 10 healthy knees were acquired before and immediately after loading (kneeling/squatting/heel sitting/knee bends). After cartilage segmentation, 3D-reconstruction and 3D-registration, colour-coded deformation maps were generated by voxel-based subtraction of loaded from unloaded datasets to visualize cartilage thickness changes in all knee compartments. Compression areas were found bifocal at the peripheral medial/caudolateral patella, both posterior femoral condyles and both anterior/central tibiae. Local cartilage thickening were found adjacent to the compression areas. Significant local strain ranged from +13 to -15 %. Changes were most pronounced after squatting, least after knee bends. Shape and location of deformation areas varied slightly with the loading paradigm, but followed a similar pattern consistent between different individuals. Voxel-based deformation maps identify individual in-vivo load-specific and posture-associated strain distribution in the articular cartilage. The data facilitate understanding individual knee loading properties and contribute to improve biomechanical 3 models. They lay a base to investigate the relationship between cartilage degeneration patterns in common osteoarthritis and areas at risk of cartilage wear due to mechanical loading in work-related activities. (orig.)

  4. Fast, free-breathing, in vivo fetal imaging using time-resolved 3D MRI technique: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jing; Glenn, Orit A.; Xu, Duan

    2014-01-01

    Fetal MR imaging is very challenging due to the movement of fetus and the breathing motion of the mother. Current clinical protocols involve quick 2D scouting scans to determine scan plane and often several attempts to reorient the scan plane when the fetus moves. This makes acquisition of fetal MR images clinically challenging and results in long scan times in order to obtain images that are of diagnostic quality. Compared to 2D imaging, 3D imaging of the fetus has many advantages such as hi...

  5. Microfluidic-enhanced 3D bioprinting of aligned myoblast-laden hydrogels leads to functionally organized myofibers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Marco; Testa, Stefano; Mozetic, Pamela; Barbetta, Andrea; Fuoco, Claudia; Fornetti, Ersilia; Tamiro, Francesco; Bernardini, Sergio; Jaroszewicz, Jakub; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Trombetta, Marcella; Castagnoli, Luisa; Seliktar, Dror; Garstecki, Piotr; Cesareni, Gianni; Cannata, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto; Gargioli, Cesare

    2017-07-01

    We present a new strategy for the fabrication of artificial skeletal muscle tissue with functional morphologies based on an innovative 3D bioprinting approach. The methodology is based on a microfluidic printing head coupled to a co-axial needle extruder for high-resolution 3D bioprinting of hydrogel fibers laden with muscle precursor cells (C2C12). To promote myogenic differentiation, we formulated a tailored bioink with a photocurable semi-synthetic biopolymer (PEG-Fibrinogen) encapsulating cells into 3D constructs composed of aligned hydrogel fibers. After 3-5 days of culture, the encapsulated myoblasts started migrating and fusing, forming multinucleated myotubes within the 3D bioprinted fibers. The obtained myotubes showed high degree of alignment along the direction of hydrogel fiber deposition, further revealing maturation, sarcomerogenesis, and functionality. Following subcutaneous implantation in the back of immunocompromised mice, bioprinted constructs generated organized artificial muscle tissue in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate that our microfluidic printing head allows to design three dimensional multi-cellular assemblies with an exquisite compartmentalization of the encapsulated cells. Our results demonstrate an enhanced myogenic differentiation with the formation of parallel aligned long-range myotubes. The approach that we report here represents a robust and valid candidate for the fabrication of macroscopic artificial muscle to scale up skeletal muscle tissue engineering for human clinical application. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The 3-D Culture and In Vivo Growth of the Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Line HepG2 in a Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.; Yang, Z.; Liu, Y.; Liu, B.; Zhao, X.

    2010-01-01

    We report the use of the RADA16-I scaffold to mimic the ECM microenvironment and support tumor cell adherence and survival. Cellular morphology, proliferation, adhesion ability, and in vivo tumor formation were studied in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 in the 3-D RADA16-I scaffold. No significant differences in HepG2 cell proliferation, adhesion, and albumin secretion were observed in the peptide scaffold compared to collagen I. Furthermore, the HepG2 cells pre cultured in the peptide scaffold showed a higher proliferation rate and formed significantly bigger tumors when compared to cells grown on a traditional 2D monolayer, suggesting that the 3-D RADA16-I scaffold can mimic the tumor microenvironment and promote a malignant phenotype in HepG2 cells. Our results indicate that the RADA16-I scaffold can serve as an ideal model for tumorigenesis, growth, local invasion, and metastasis.

  7. SU-F-T-549: Validation of a Method for in Vivo 3D Dose Reconstruction for SBRT Using a New Transmission Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaguchi, Y; Shimohigashi, Y; Onizuka, R; Ohno, T [Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Recently, there has been increased clinical use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT treatments will strongly benefit from in vivo patient dose verification, as any errors in delivery can be more detrimental to the radiobiology of the patient as compared to conventional therapy. In vivo dose measurements, a commercially available quality assurance platform which is able to correlate the delivered dose to the patient’s anatomy and take into account tissue inhomogeneity, is the COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) using a new transmission detector (Dolphin, IBA Dosimetry). In this work, we evaluate a method for in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for SBRT using a new transmission detector, which was developed for in vivo dose verification for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of measurement for SBRT using simple small fields (2×2−10×10 cm2), a multileaf collimator (MLC) test pattern, and clinical cases. The dose distributions from the COMPASS were compared with those of EDR2 films (Kodak, USA) and the Monte Carlo simulations (MC). For clinical cases, we compared MC using dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) and dose profiles. Results: The dose profiles from the COMPASS for small fields and the complicated MLC test pattern agreed with those of EDR2 films, and MC within 3%. This showed the COMPASS with Dolphin system showed good spatial resolution and can measure small fields which are required for SBRT. Those results also suggest that COMPASS with Dolphin is able to detect MLC leaf position errors for SBRT. In clinical cases, the COMPASS with Dolphin agreed well with MC. The Dolphin detector, which consists of ionization chambers, provided stable measurement. Conclusion: COMPASS with Dolphin detector showed a useful in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for SBRT. The accuracy of the results indicates that this approach is suitable for clinical implementation.

  8. SU-F-T-549: Validation of a Method for in Vivo 3D Dose Reconstruction for SBRT Using a New Transmission Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaguchi, Y; Shimohigashi, Y; Onizuka, R; Ohno, T

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, there has been increased clinical use of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). SBRT treatments will strongly benefit from in vivo patient dose verification, as any errors in delivery can be more detrimental to the radiobiology of the patient as compared to conventional therapy. In vivo dose measurements, a commercially available quality assurance platform which is able to correlate the delivered dose to the patient’s anatomy and take into account tissue inhomogeneity, is the COMPASS system (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) using a new transmission detector (Dolphin, IBA Dosimetry). In this work, we evaluate a method for in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for SBRT using a new transmission detector, which was developed for in vivo dose verification for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of measurement for SBRT using simple small fields (2×2−10×10 cm2), a multileaf collimator (MLC) test pattern, and clinical cases. The dose distributions from the COMPASS were compared with those of EDR2 films (Kodak, USA) and the Monte Carlo simulations (MC). For clinical cases, we compared MC using dose-volume-histograms (DVHs) and dose profiles. Results: The dose profiles from the COMPASS for small fields and the complicated MLC test pattern agreed with those of EDR2 films, and MC within 3%. This showed the COMPASS with Dolphin system showed good spatial resolution and can measure small fields which are required for SBRT. Those results also suggest that COMPASS with Dolphin is able to detect MLC leaf position errors for SBRT. In clinical cases, the COMPASS with Dolphin agreed well with MC. The Dolphin detector, which consists of ionization chambers, provided stable measurement. Conclusion: COMPASS with Dolphin detector showed a useful in vivo 3D dose reconstruction for SBRT. The accuracy of the results indicates that this approach is suitable for clinical implementation.

  9. Visualizing Angiogenesis by Multiphoton Microscopy In Vivo in Genetically Modified 3D-PLGA/nHAp Scaffold for Calvarial Critical Bone Defect Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Jahr, Holger; Zheng, Wei; Ren, Pei-Gen

    2017-09-07

    The reconstruction of critically sized bone defects remains a serious clinical problem because of poor angiogenesis within tissue-engineered scaffolds during repair, which gives rise to a lack of sufficient blood supply and causes necrosis of the new tissues. Rapid vascularization is a vital prerequisite for new tissue survival and integration with existing host tissue. The de novo generation of vasculature in scaffolds is one of the most important steps in making bone regeneration more efficient, allowing repairing tissue to grow into a scaffold. To tackle this problem, the genetic modification of a biomaterial scaffold is used to accelerate angiogenesis and osteogenesis. However, visualizing and tracking in vivo blood vessel formation in real-time and in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds or new bone tissue is still an obstacle for bone tissue engineering. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a novel bio-imaging modality that can acquire volumetric data from biological structures in a high-resolution and minimally-invasive manner. The objective of this study was to visualize angiogenesis with multiphoton microscopy in vivo in a genetically modified 3D-PLGA/nHAp scaffold for calvarial critical bone defect repair. PLGA/nHAp scaffolds were functionalized for the sustained delivery of a growth factor pdgf-b gene carrying lentiviral vectors (LV-pdgfb) in order to facilitate angiogenesis and to enhance bone regeneration. In a scaffold-implanted calvarial critical bone defect mouse model, the blood vessel areas (BVAs) in PHp scaffolds were significantly higher than in PH scaffolds. Additionally, the expression of pdgf-b and angiogenesis-related genes, vWF and VEGFR2, increased correspondingly. MicroCT analysis indicated that the new bone formation in the PHp group dramatically improved compared to the other groups. To our knowledge, this is the first time multiphoton microscopy was used in bone tissue-engineering to investigate angiogenesis in a 3D bio-degradable scaffold in

  10. Assessment of pulmonary vasculature volume with automated threshold-based 3D quantitative CT volumetry: In vitro and in vivo validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingzhe; Wu Qingyu; Xu Yufeng; Bai Yan; Liu Zhibo; Li Hongyin; Zhu Jiemin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To validate the ability of threshold-based 3D CT volumetry to enable measurement of volume of visible pulmonary vessels on CT. Materials and methods: In vivo, 3D CT volumetry was validated in seven phantoms that consisted of silicone tubes embedded in a foam block. With the true volume value as reference standard, the accuracy of CT measurement at various lower thresholds of −600 HU, −500 HU, −300 HU and −200 HU were compared. The volume measurements obtained when filled with varied concentration of iodinated contrast media (1:100, 1:200 and 1:500) were also compared. In vivo validation was performed in sixteen patients (9 men, 7 women; mean age, 52.1 years). Inter-scan and inter-observer agreement and reproducibility for pulmonary vasculature volume measurement were evaluated with Bland–Altman analysis. Results: In vitro, the mean value measured under lower threshold of −300 HU (relative error = 1.5%) were the closest to the true values and have no significant difference (P = 0.375). There were no significant differences among the phantom measurement values with different filled concentration (1:100, 1:200 and 1:500). In vivo, the inter-scan reproducibility of volume measurements was good, with a correlation coefficient of 0.82 and ICC (intraclass correlation coefficient) of 0.86. Inter-observer agreement was excellent with a correlation coefficient of 0.91 and ICC of 0.95. Conclusions: The threshold-based 3D quantitative CT volumetry enables accurate and reproducible measurement of pulmonary vessels volume.

  11. Development of a 3D bellows tracheal graft: mechanical behavior analysis, fabrication and an in vivo feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong Hun; Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Jung-Seob; Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Joo, Young Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Artificial tracheal grafts should have not only enough compressive strength to maintain an open tracheal lumen, but also sufficient flexibility for stable mechanical behavior, similar to the native trachea at the implant site. In this study, we developed a new 3D artificial tracheal graft using a bellows design for considering its mechanical behavior. To investigate the mechanical behavior of the bellows structure, finite element method (FEM) analysis in terms of longitudinal tension/compression, bending and radial compression was conducted. The bellows structure was then compared with the cylinder structure generally used for artificial tracheal grafts. The FEM analysis showed that the bellows had outstanding flexibility in longitudinal tension/compression and bending. Moreover, the bellows kept the lumen open without severe luminal deformation in comparison with the cylinder structure. A three-dimensional artificial tracheal graft with a bellows design was fabricated using indirect solid freeform fabrication technology, and the actual mechanical test was conducted to investigate the actual mechanical behavior of the bellows graft. The fabricated bellows graft was then applied to segmental tracheal reconstruction in a rabbit model to assess its applicability. The bellows graft was completely incorporated into newly regenerated connective tissue and no obstruction at the implanted site was observed for up to 8 weeks after implantation. The data suggested that the developed bellows tracheal graft could be a promising alternative for tracheal reconstruction. (paper)

  12. Gain in cellular organization of inflammatory breast cancer: A 3D in vitro model that mimics the in vivo metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Jorge; Alpaugh, Mary L

    2009-01-01

    The initial step of metastasis in carcinomas, often referred to as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), occurs via the loss of adherens junctions (e.g. cadherins) by the tumor embolus. This leads to a subsequent loss of cell polarity and cellular differentiation and organization, enabling cells of the embolus to become motile and invasive. However highly malignant inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) over-expresses E-cadherin. The human xenograft model of IBC (MARY-X), like IBC, displays the signature phenotype of an exaggerated degree of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in situ by tumor emboli. An intact E-cadherin/α, β-catenin axis mediates the tight, compact clump of cells found both in vitro and in vivo as spheroids and tumor emboli, respectively. Using electron microscopy and focused ion beam milling to acquire in situ sections, we performed ultrastructural analysis of both an IBC and non-IBC, E-cadherin positive cell line to determine if retention of this adhesion molecule contributed to cellular organization. Here we report through ultrastructural analysis that IBC exhibits a high degree of cellular organization with polar elements such as apical/lateral positioning of E-cadherin, apical surface microvilli, and tortuous lumen-like (canalis) structures. In contrast, agarose-induced spheroids of MCF-7, a weakly invasive E-cadherin positive breast carcinoma cell line, do not exhibit ultrastructural polar features. This study has determined that the highly metastatic IBC with an exaggerated malignant phenotype challenges conventional wisdom in that instead of displaying a loss of cellular organization, IBC acquires a highly structured architecture. These findings suggest that the metastatic efficiency might be linked to the formation and maintenance of these architectural features. The comparative architectural features of both the spheroid and embolus of MARY-X provide an in vitro model with tractable in vivo applications

  13. 2.5D Representations Combining in vivo 3D MRI and ex vivo 2D MSI Approaches to Study the Lipid Distribution in the Whole Sheep Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Labas , Valérie; Teixeira-Gomes , Ana Paula; Andersson , Frédéric; Ménigot , Sébastien; Batailler , Martine; Adriaensen , Hans; Migaud , Martine; Chaillou , Elodie

    2015-01-01

    National audience; Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) provides easily high spatially resolved masses allowing characterization of endogenous lipids. These latter constitute about 70% of the composition of the white matter of the brain which can be implicated in developmental and/or cognitive troubles. In order to examine the molecular distribution of lipids in whole sheep brain, and especially in white/grey matter, we combined in vivo and ex vivo images, obtained in the same animals, using Magne...

  14. In vivo 3D modeling of the femoropopliteal artery in human subjects based on x-ray angiography: Methodology and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Andrew J.; Casserly, Ivan P.; Messenger, John C.; Carroll, John D.; Chen, S.-Y. James

    2009-01-01

    Endovascular revascularization of the femoropopliteal (FP) artery has been limited by high rates of restenosis and stent fracture. The unique physical forces that are applied to the FP artery during leg movement have been implicated in these phenomena. The foundation for measuring the effects of physical forces on the FP artery in a clinically relevant environment is based on the ability to develop 3D models of this vessel in different leg positions in vivo in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). By acquiring paired angiographic images of the FP artery, and using angiography-based 3D modeling algorithms previously validated in the coronary arteries, the authors generated 3D models of ten FP arteries in nine patients with PAD with the lower extremity in straight leg (SL) and crossed leg (CL) positions. Due to the length of the FP artery, overlapping paired angiographic images of the entire FP artery were required to image the entire vessel, which necessitated the development of a novel fusion process in order to generate a 3D model of the entire FP artery. The methodology of angiographic acquisition and 3D model generation of the FP artery is described. In a subset of patients, a third angiographic view (i.e., validation view) was acquired in addition to the standard paired views for the purpose of validating the 3D modeling process. The mean root-mean-square (rms) error of the point-to-point distances between the centerline of the main FP artery from the 2D validation view and the centerline from the 3D model placed in the validation view for the SL and CL positions were 0.93±0.19 mm and 1.12±0.25 mm, respectively. Similarly, the mean rms error of the same comparison for the main FP artery and sidebranches for the SL and CL positions were 1.09±0.38 mm and 1.21±0.25 mm, respectively. A separate validation of the novel fusion process was performed by comparing the 3D model of the FP artery derived from fusion of 3D models of adjacent FP segments with

  15. SU-F-BRE-13: Replacing Pre-Treatment Phantom QA with 3D In-Vivo Portal Dosimetry for IMRT Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroom, J; Vieira, S; Greco, C [Champalimaud Foundation, Lisbon (Portugal); Olaciregui-Ruiz, I; Rozendaal, R; Herk, M van [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, North Holland (Netherlands); Moser, E [Champalimaud Foundation, Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Pre-treatment QA of individual treatment plans requires costly linac time and physics effort. Starting with IMRT breast treatments, we aim to replace pre-treatment QA with in-vivo portal dosimetry. Methods: Our IMRT breast cancer plans are routinely measured using the ArcCheck device (SunNuclear). 2D-Gamma analysis is performed with 3%/3mm criteria and the percentage of points with gamma<1 (nG1) is calculated within the 50% isodose surface. Following AAPM recommendations, plans with nG1<90% are approved; others need further inspection and might be rejected. For this study, we used invivo portal dosimetry (IPD) to measure the 3D back-projected dose of the first three fractions for IMRT breast plans. Patient setup was online corrected before for all measured fractions. To reduce patient related uncertainties, the three IPD results were averaged and 3D-gamma analysis was applied with abovementioned criteria . For a subset of patients, phantom portal dosimetry (PPD) was also performed on a slab phantom. Results: Forty consecutive breast patients with plans that fitted the EPID were analysed. The average difference between planned and IPD dose in the reference point was −0.7+/−1.6% (1SD). Variation in nG1 between the 3 invivo fractions was about 6% (1SD). The average nG1 for IPD was 89+/−6%, worse than ArcCheck (95+/−3%). This can be explained by patient related factors such as changes in anatomy and/or model deficiencies due to e.g. inhomogeneities. For the 20 cases with PPD, mean nG1 was equal to ArcCheck values, which indicates that the two systems are equally accurate. These data therefore suggest that proper criteria for 3D invivo verification of breast treatments should be nG1>80% instead of nG1>90%, which, for our breast cases, would result in 5% (2/40) further inspections. Conclusion: First-fraction in-vivo portal dosimetry using new gamma-evaluation criteria will replace phantom measurements in our institution, saving resources and yielding 3D

  16. μCT of ex-vivo stained mouse hearts and embryos enables a precise match between 3D virtual histology, classical histology and immunochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Emanuel; Martin, Sabine; Lazzarini, Marcio; Tromba, Giuliana; Missbach-Guentner, Jeannine; Pinkert-Leetsch, Diana; Katschinski, Dörthe M.; Alves, Frauke

    2017-01-01

    The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos. Our x-ray based virtual histology approach is not limited to SRμCT as it does not require monochromatic and/or coherent x-ray sources and even more importantly can be combined with conventional histological procedures. Furthermore, it permits volumetric measurements as we show for the assessment of the plaque volumes in the aortic valve region of mice from an ApoE-/- mouse model. Subsequent, Masson-Goldner trichrome staining of paraffin sections of PTA stained samples revealed intact collagen and muscle fibres and positive staining of CD31 on endothelial cells by immunohistochemistry illustrates that our approach does not prevent immunochemistry analysis. The feasibility to scan hearts already embedded in paraffin ensured a 100% correlation between virtual cut sections of the CT data sets and histological heart sections of the same sample and may allow in future guiding the cutting process to specific regions of interest. In summary, since our CT based virtual histology approach is a powerful tool for the 3D depiction of morphological alterations in hearts and embryos in high resolution and can be combined with classical histological analysis it may be used in preclinical research to unravel structural alterations of various heart diseases. PMID:28178293

  17. Correlation of 3D Shift and 3D Tilt of the Patella in Patients With Recurrent Dislocation of the Patella and Healthy Volunteers: An In Vivo Analysis Based on 3-Dimensional Computer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuzo; Toritsuka, Yukiyoshi; Nakamura, Norimasa; Horibe, Shuji; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Shino, Konsei

    2017-11-01

    The concepts of lateral deviation and lateral inclination of the patella, characterized as shift and tilt, have been applied in combination to evaluate patellar malalignment in patients with patellar dislocation. It is not reasonable, however, to describe the 3-dimensional (3D) positional relation between the patella and the femur according to measurements made on 2-dimensional (2D) images. The current study sought to clarify the relation between lateral deviation and inclination of the patella in patients with recurrent dislocation of the patella (RDP) by redefining them via 3D computer models as 3D shift and 3D tilt. Descriptive laboratory study. Altogether, 60 knees from 56 patients with RDP and 15 knees from 10 healthy volunteers were evaluated. 3D shift and tilt of the patella were analyzed with 3D computer models created by magnetic resonance imaging scans obtained at 10° intervals of knee flexion (0°-50°). 3D shift was defined as the spatial distance between the patellar reference point and the midsagittal plane of the femur; it is expressed as a percentage of the interepicondylar width. 3D tilt was defined as the spatial angle between the patellar reference plane and the transepicondylar axis. Correlations between the 2 parameters were assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient. The patients' mean Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.895 ± 0.186 (range, -0.073 to 0.997; median, 0.965). In all, 56 knees (93%) had coefficients >0.7 (strong correlation); 1 knee (2%), >0.4 (moderate correlation); 2 knees (3%), >0.2 (weak correlation); and 1 knee (2%), correlation). The mean correlation coefficient of the healthy volunteers was 0.645 ± 0.448 (range, -0.445 to 0.982; median, 0.834). A statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of the correlation coefficients between the patients and the healthy volunteers ( P = .0034). When distribution of the correlation coefficients obtained by the 3D analyses was compared with that by the 2

  18. Bringing in vitro analysis closer to in vivo: Studying doxorubicin toxicity and associated mechanisms in 3D human microtissues with PBPK-based dose modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, Marcha; Schrooders, Yannick; Gmuender, Hans; Nudischer, Ramona; Clayton, Olivia; Hynes, James; Niederer, Steven; Cordes, Henrik; Kuepfer, Lars; Kleinjans, Jos; Caiment, Florian

    2018-05-24

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent of which the medical use is limited due to cardiotoxicity. While acute cardiotoxicity is reversible, chronic cardiotoxicity is persistent or progressive, dose-dependent and irreversible. While DOX mechanisms of action are not fully understood yet, 3 toxicity processes are known to occur in vivo: cardiomyocyte dysfunction, mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. We present an in vitro experimental design aimed at detecting DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by obtaining a global view of the induced molecular mechanisms through RNA-sequencing. To better reflect the in vivo situation, human 3D cardiac microtissues were exposed to physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) relevant doses of DOX for 2 weeks. We analysed a therapeutic and a toxic dosing profile. Transcriptomics analysis revealed significant gene expression changes in pathways related to "striated muscle contraction" and "respiratory electron transport", thus suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction as an underlying mechanism for cardiotoxicity. Furthermore, expression changes in mitochondrial processes differed significantly between the doses. Therapeutic dose reflects processes resembling the phenotype of delayed chronic cardiotoxicity, while toxic doses resembled acute cardiotoxicity. Overall, these results demonstrate the capability of our innovative in vitro approach to detect the three known mechanisms of DOX leading to toxicity, thus suggesting its potential relevance for reflecting the patient situation. Our study also demonstrated the importance of applying physiologically relevant doses during toxicological research, since mechanisms of acute and chronic toxicity differ. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microscopic dual-energy CT (microDECT): a flexible tool for multichannel ex vivo 3D imaging of biological specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, S; Beisser, C J; Ruthensteiner, B; Metscher, B D

    2017-07-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) uses two different x-ray energy spectra in order to differentiate between tissues, materials or elements in a single sample or patient. DECT is becoming increasingly popular in clinical imaging and preclinical in vivo imaging of small animal models, but there have been only very few reports on ex vivo DECT of biological samples at microscopic resolutions. The present study has three main aims. First, we explore the potential of microscopic DECT (microDECT) for delivering isotropic multichannel 3D images of fixed biological samples with standard commercial laboratory-based microCT setups at spatial resolutions reaching below 10 μm. Second, we aim for retaining the maximum image resolution and quality during the material decomposition. Third, we want to test the suitability for microDECT imaging of different contrast agents currently used for ex vivo staining of biological samples. To address these aims, we used microCT scans of four different samples stained with x-ray dense contrast agents. MicroDECT scans were acquired with five different commercial microCT scanners from four companies. We present a detailed description of the microDECT workflow, including sample preparation, image acquisition, image processing and postreconstruction material decomposition, which may serve as practical guide for applying microDECT. The MATLAB script (The Mathworks Inc., Natick, MA, USA) used for material decomposition (including a graphical user interface) is provided as a supplement to this paper (https://github.com/microDECT/DECTDec). In general, the presented microDECT workflow yielded satisfactory results for all tested specimens. Original scan resolutions have been mostly retained in the separate material fractions after basis material decomposition. In addition to decomposition of mineralized tissues (inherent sample contrast) and stained soft tissues, we present a case of double labelling of different soft tissues with subsequent

  20. Comparison of the Ex Vivo Expansion of UCB-Derived CD34+ in 3D DBM/MBA Scaffolds with USSC as a Feeder Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat Hashemi, Zahra; Forouzandeh Moghadam, Mahdi; Soleimani, Masoud

    2013-10-01

    Ex vivo expansion of hematopoitic stem cells is an alternative way to increase umbilical cord blood (UCB)-CD34+ cells for bone marrow transplantation. For this purpose demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and mineralized bone allograft (MBA) as two scaffolds based on bone matrix and stem cell niche, were simultaneously used to enhance the effect of human mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) - unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSCs) - as a feeder layer. USSCs were isolated and characterized by morphological and immunological analysis then seeded on both scaffolds as a feeder layer. UCB-CD34(+) were isolated by MACS method and were co-culture expanded by USSC in 3D and 2D environments. After 3 weeks expansion, cells were counted and were assessed by karyotype, flow cytometry, clonogenic activity, and long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC). Co-culture expansion in DBM and MBA was 29.22-fold and 27.77-fold, no significant differences in colony and LTC-IC were obtained. Maximum number of colonies belonged to the day 14 with the 73% CFU-GM (Colony Forming Unit- Granulocyte/Macrophage) in contrast to the day 0 which was BFU-E/CFU-E (Burst/Colony Forming Unit-Erythroid). Flow cytometry indicated that the percentage of CD34+ marker was decreased in USSC co-culture and the highest percentage was observed in simple 2D culture. Because of acid extraction in the DBM production process, mineral materials were removed and the protein background that was more flexible was presented. Therefore these results suggest that USSC-DBM can be a suitable ex vivo mimicry niche by intensifying of surface/volume ratio and supporting the stem cell differentiation and expansion.

  1. 3D Ultrashort TE MRI for Evaluation of Cartilaginous Endplate of Cervical Disk In Vivo: Feasibility and Correlation With Disk Degeneration in T2-Weighted Spin-Echo Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo Ju; Cha, Jang Gyu; Shin, Yoon Sang; Chaudhari, Akshay S; Suh, Young Ju; Hwan Yoon, Seung; Gold, Garry E

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 3D ultrashort TE (UTE) MRI in depicting the cartilaginous endplate (CEP) and its abnormalities and to investigate the association between CEP abnormalities and disk degeneration on T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) MR images in cervical disks in vivo. Eight healthy volunteers and 70 patients were examined using 3-T MRI with the 3D UTE cones trajectory technique (TR/TE, 16.1/0.032, 6.6). In the volunteer study, quantitative and qualitative assessments of CEP depiction were conducted for the 3D UTE and T2-weighted SE imaging. In the patient study, CEP abnormalities were analyzed. Intersequence agreement between the images obtained with the first-echo 3D UTE sequence and the images created by subtracting the second-echo from the first-echo 3D UTE sequence (subtracted 3D UTE) and the intraobserver and interobserver agreements for 3D UTE overall were also tested. The CEP abnormalities on the 3D UTE images correlated with the Miyazaki grading of the T2-weighted SE images. In the volunteer study, the CEP was well visualized on 3D UTE images but not on T2-weighted SE images (p evaluation of CEP abnormalities, intersequence agreements were substantial to almost perfect, intraobserver agreements were substantial to almost perfect, and interobserver agreements were moderate to substantial (p T2-weighted SE MRI.

  2. 3D wide field-of-view Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy advancing real-time in-vivo imaging and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavesi, Cristina; Cogliati, Andrea; Hayes, Adam; Tankam, Patrice; Santhanam, Anand; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2017-02-01

    Real-time volumetric high-definition wide-field-of-view in-vivo cellular imaging requires micron-scale resolution in 3D. Compactness of the handheld device and distortion-free images with cellular resolution are also critically required for onsite use in clinical applications. By integrating a custom liquid lens-based microscope and a dual-axis MEMS scanner in a compact handheld probe, Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GD-OCM) breaks the lateral resolution limit of optical coherence tomography through depth, overcoming the tradeoff between numerical aperture and depth of focus, enabling advances in biotechnology. Furthermore, distortion-free imaging with no post-processing is achieved with a compact, lightweight handheld MEMS scanner that obtained a 12-fold reduction in volume and 17-fold reduction in weight over a previous dual-mirror galvanometer-based scanner. Approaching the holy grail of medical imaging - noninvasive real-time imaging with histologic resolution - GD-OCM demonstrates invariant resolution of 2 μm throughout a volume of 1 x 1 x 0.6 mm3, acquired and visualized in less than 2 minutes with parallel processing on graphics processing units. Results on the metrology of manufactured materials and imaging of human tissue with GD-OCM are presented.

  3. Rapid 3D in vivo 1H human lung respiratory imaging at 1.5 T using ultra-fast balanced steady-state free precession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Orso; Bauman, Grzegorz; Wielpütz, Mark O; Nyilas, Sylvia; Latzin, Philipp; Heussel, Claus P; Bieri, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    To introduce a reproducible, nonenhanced 1H MRI method for rapid in vivo functional assessment of the whole lung at 1.5 Tesla (T). At different respiratory volumes, the pulmonary signal of ultra-fast steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) follows an adapted sponge model, characterized by a respiratory index α. From the model, α reflects local ventilation-related information, is virtually independent from the lung density and thus from the inspiratory phase and breathing amplitude. Respiratory α-mapping is evaluated for healthy volunteers and patients with obstructive lung disease from a set of five consecutive 3D ultra-fast steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) scans performed in breath-hold and at different inspiratory volumes. For the patients, α-maps were compared with CT, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), and Fourier decomposition (FD). In healthy volunteers, respiratory α-maps showed good reproducibility and were homogeneous on iso-gravitational planes, but showed a gravity-dependent respiratory gradient. In patients with obstructive pulmonary disease, the functional impairment observed in respiratory α-maps was associated with emphysematous regions present on CT images, perfusion defects observable on DCE-MRI, and impairments visualized on FD ventilation and perfusion maps. Respiratory α-mapping derived from multivolumetric ufSSFP provides insights into functional lung impairment and may serve as a reproducible and normative measure for clinical studies. Magn Reson Med 78:1059-1069, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Multi-feature-based plaque characterization in ex vivo MRI trained by registration to 3D histology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelen, Arna van; Niessen, Wiro J.; Klein, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    . The ground truth for fibrous, necrotic and calcified tissue was provided by histology and micro-CT in 12 carotid plaque specimens. Semi-automatic registration of a 3D stack of histological slices and micro-CT images to MRI allowed for 3D rotations and inplane deformations of histology. By basing voxelwise...

  5. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  6. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  7. Anti-tuberculosis drug combination for controlled oral delivery using 3D printed compartmental dosage forms: From drug product design to in vivo testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Boetker, Johan Peter; Colombo, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    for treatment of tuberculosis (TB) that negatively interact with each other upon simultaneous release in acidic environment. The dcDUs were designed in silico by computer aided design (CAD) and fabricated in two steps; first three-dimensional (3D) printing of the outer structure, followed by hot-melt extrusion...... (HME) of the drug-containing filaments. The structure of the fabricated dcDUs was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The 3D printed compartmentalized shells were loaded with filaments containing active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and selectively sealed to modulate drug dissolution...

  8. 3D cell printing of in vitro stabilized skin model and in vivo pre-vascularized skin patch using tissue-specific extracellular matrix bioink: A step towards advanced skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Soo; Kwon, Yang Woo; Kong, Jeong-Sik; Park, Gyu Tae; Gao, Ge; Han, Wonil; Kim, Moon-Bum; Lee, Hyungseok; Kim, Jae Ho; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2018-06-01

    3D cell-printing technique has been under spotlight as an appealing biofabrication platform due to its ability to precisely pattern living cells in pre-defined spatial locations. In skin tissue engineering, a major remaining challenge is to seek for a suitable source of bioink capable of supporting and stimulating printed cells for tissue development. However, current bioinks for skin printing rely on homogeneous biomaterials, which has several shortcomings such as insufficient mechanical properties and recapitulation of microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the capability of skin-derived extracellular matrix (S-dECM) bioink for 3D cell printing-based skin tissue engineering. S-dECM was for the first time formulated as a printable material and retained the major ECM compositions of skin as well as favorable growth factors and cytokines. This bioink was used to print a full thickness 3D human skin model. The matured 3D cell-printed skin tissue using S-dECM bioink was stabilized with minimal shrinkage, whereas the collagen-based skin tissue was significantly contracted during in vitro tissue culture. This physical stabilization and the tissue-specific microenvironment from our bioink improved epidermal organization, dermal ECM secretion, and barrier function. We further used this bioink to print 3D pre-vascularized skin patch able to promote in vivo wound healing. In vivo results revealed that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)-laden 3D-printed skin patch together with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) accelerates wound closure, re-epithelization, and neovascularization as well as blood flow. We envision that the results of this paper can provide an insightful step towards the next generation source for bioink manufacturing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrated light-sheet imaging and flow-based enquiry (iLIFE) system for 3D in-vivo imaging of multicellular organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmi, Chelur K.; Padmanabhan, Sreedevi; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Rajan, Kanhirodan; Manjithaya, Ravi; Singh, Varsha; Mondal, Partha Pratim

    2017-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a light-sheet-based 3D interrogation system on a microfluidic platform for screening biological specimens during flow. To achieve this, a diffraction-limited light-sheet (with a large field-of-view) is employed to optically section the specimens flowing through the microfluidic channel. This necessitates optimization of the parameters for the illumination sub-system (illumination intensity, light-sheet width, and thickness), microfluidic specimen platform (channel-width and flow-rate), and detection sub-system (camera exposure time and frame rate). Once optimized, these parameters facilitate cross-sectional imaging and 3D reconstruction of biological specimens. The proposed integrated light-sheet imaging and flow-based enquiry (iLIFE) imaging technique enables single-shot sectional imaging of a range of specimens of varying dimensions, ranging from a single cell (HeLa cell) to a multicellular organism (C. elegans). 3D reconstruction of the entire C. elegans is achieved in real-time and with an exposure time of few hundred micro-seconds. A maximum likelihood technique is developed and optimized for the iLIFE imaging system. We observed an intracellular resolution for mitochondria-labeled HeLa cells, which demonstrates the dynamic resolution of the iLIFE system. The proposed technique is a step towards achieving flow-based 3D imaging. We expect potential applications in diverse fields such as structural biology and biophysics.

  10. Accuracy of spiral CT and 3D reconstruction in the detection of acute pulmonary embolism - development of an animal model using porcine lungs and technical specimens. Development of an animal model using porcine lungs and technical specimens; Diagnostik der akuten Lungenembolie mittels Spiral-CT und 3D-Rekonstruktion. Entwicklung eines Tiermodells und technischer Probekoerper im Ex-vivo-Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, B.G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Kauczor, H.U.; Thelen, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie, Univ. Mainz (Germany); Konerding, M.A. [Anatomisches Inst., Mainz Univ (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    Purpose: To develop a model for simulation the CT morphologic situation of acute pulmonary embolism, to evaluate the accuracy of spiral CT and 3D reconstruction in the detection of artificial emboli and to investigate the influence of the orientation of emboli depending on z-axis orientation. Materials and Methods: Standardized artificial emboli made of wax and of defined size and shape were positioned into the pulmonary arteries of porcine lungs. Castings of the embolized pulmonary arterial trees were made by injection of a special opaque resin. After performance of spiral CT the data sets of the emboli and the pulmonary arteries were post-processed. The 3D segmentations were compared with the anatomic preparation to evaluate the accuracy of spiral CT/3D reconstruction-technique. Technical specimens simulating CT-morphology of acute embolized vessels underwent spiral CT in six different positions with respect to the z-axis. The CT data were reconstructed using a standardized and a contrastadapted method with interactive correction. The 3D emboli were analysed under qualitative aspects, and measurements of their extent were done. Results: In nearly 91%, there was complete agreement between CT and the corresponding findings at the anatomical preparation. Measurements of the 3D reconstructed technical specimens showed discrepancies of shape and size in dependence of the size of the original preparation, orientation and reconstruction technique. Overestimation up to 4 mm and underestimation to 2,2 mm were observed. Measurements of preparations with heights from 14 to 26 mm showed variances of {+-}1,5 mm ({proportional_to}6-11%). Conclusion: The presented models are suitable to simulate CT morphology of acute pulmonary embolism under ex-vivo conditions. Accuracy in the detection of artificial emboli using spiral CT/3D reconstruction is affected by localization, size and orientation of the emboli and the reconstruction technique. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Entwicklung

  11. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  12. Enhanced In Vivo Bone and Blood Vessel Formation by Iron Oxide and Silica Doped 3D Printed Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Susmita; Banerjee, Dishary; Robertson, Samuel; Vahabzadeh, Sahar

    2018-05-04

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics show significant promise towards bone graft applications because of the compositional similarity to inorganic materials of bone. With 3D printing, it is possible to create ceramic implants that closely mimic the geometry of human bone and can be custom-designed for unusual injuries or anatomical sites. The objective of the study was to optimize the 3D-printing parameters for the fabrication of scaffolds, with complex geometry, made from synthesized tricalcium phosphate (TCP) powder. This study was also intended to elucidate the mechanical and biological effects of the addition of Fe +3 and Si +4 in TCP implants in a rat distal femur model for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Doped with Fe +3 and Si +4 TCP scaffolds with 3D interconnected channels were fabricated to provide channels for micronutrients delivery and improved cell-material interactions through bioactive fixation. Addition of Fe +3 into TCP enhanced early-stage new bone formation by increasing type I collagen production. Neovascularization was observed in the Si +4 doped samples after 12 weeks. These findings emphasize that the additive manufacturing of scaffolds with complex geometry from synthesized ceramic powder with modified chemistry is feasible and may serve as a potential candidate to introduce angiogenic and osteogenic properties to CaPs, leading to accelerated bone defect healing.

  13. Open 3D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  14. Comparison of the Ex Vivo Expansion of UCB-Derived CD34+ in 3D DBM/MBA Scaffolds with USSC as a Feeder Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadat Hashemi

    2013-10-01

    Because of acid extraction in the DBM production process, mineral materials were removed and the protein background that was more flexible was presented. Therefore these results suggest that USSC-DBM can be a suitable ex vivo mimicry niche by intensifying of surface/volume ratio and supporting the stem cell differentiation and expansion.

  15. A novel approach for computer-assisted template-guided autotransplantation of teeth with custom 3d designed/printed surgical tooling. An ex vivo proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anssari Moin, D.; Derksen, W.; Verweij, J.P.; van Merkesteyn, R.; Wismeijer, D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method for accurate autotransplantation with computer-assisted guided templates and assembled custom-designed surgical tooling and to test the feasibility and accuracy of this method ex vivo. Materials and Methods: A partially edentulous human

  16. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  17. Construction of engineering adipose-like tissue in vivo utilizing human insulin gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells with silk fibroin 3D scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Long; Liu, Yi; Hui, Ling

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the use of a combination of human insulin gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUMSCs) with silk fibroin 3D scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering. In this study hUMSCs were isolated and cultured. HUMSCs infected with Ade-insulin-EGFP were seeded in fibroin 3D scaffolds with uniform 50-60 µm pore size. Silk fibroin scaffolds with untransfected hUMSCs were used as control. They were cultured for 4 days in adipogenic medium and transplanted under the dorsal skins of female Wistar rats after the hUMSCs had been labelled with chloromethylbenzamido-1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (CM-Dil). Macroscopical impression, fluorescence observation, histology and SEM were used for assessment after transplantation at 8 and 12 weeks. Macroscopically, newly formed adipose tissue was observed in the experimental group and control group after 8 and 12 weeks. Fluorescence observation supported that the formed adipose tissue originated from seeded hUMSCs rather than from possible infiltrating perivascular tissue. Oil red O staining of newly formed tissue showed that there was substantially more tissue regeneration in the experimental group than in the control group. SEM showed that experimental group cells had more fat-like cells, whose volume was larger than that of the control group, and degradation of the silk fibroin scaffold was greater under SEM observation. This study provides significant evidence that hUMSCs transfected by adenovirus vector have good compatibility with silk fibroin scaffold, and adenoviral transfection of the human insulin gene can be used for the construction of tissue-engineered adipose. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Validity of Intraoral Scans Compared with Plaster Models: An In-Vivo Comparison of Dental Measurements and 3D Surface Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    Full Text Available Dental measurements have been commonly taken from plaster dental models obtained from alginate impressions can. Through the use of an intraoral scanner, digital impressions now acquire the information directly from the mouth. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the intraoral scans compared to plaster models.Two types of dental models (intraoral scan and plaster model of 20 subjects were included in this study. The subjects had impressions taken of their teeth and made as plaster model. In addition, their mouths were scanned with the intraoral scanner and the scans were converted into digital models. Eight transverse and 16 anteroposterior measurements, 24 tooth heights and widths were recorded on the plaster models with a digital caliper and on the intraoral scan with 3D reverse engineering software. For 3D surface analysis, the two models were superimposed by using best-fit algorithm. The average differences between the two models at all points on the surfaces were computed. Paired t-test and Bland-Altman plot were used to determine the validity of measurements from the intraoral scan compared to those from the plaster model.There were no significant differences between the plaster models and intraoral scans, except for one measurement of lower intermolar width. The Bland-Altman plots of all measurements showed that differences between the two models were within the limits of agreement. The average surface difference between the two models was within 0.10 mm.The results of the present study indicate that the intraoral scans are clinically acceptable for diagnosis and treatment planning in dentistry and can be used in place of plaster models.

  19. Validity of Intraoral Scans Compared with Plaster Models: An In-Vivo Comparison of Dental Measurements and 3D Surface Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dental measurements have been commonly taken from plaster dental models obtained from alginate impressions can. Through the use of an intraoral scanner, digital impressions now acquire the information directly from the mouth. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the intraoral scans compared to plaster models. Materials and Methods Two types of dental models (intraoral scan and plaster model) of 20 subjects were included in this study. The subjects had impressions taken of their teeth and made as plaster model. In addition, their mouths were scanned with the intraoral scanner and the scans were converted into digital models. Eight transverse and 16 anteroposterior measurements, 24 tooth heights and widths were recorded on the plaster models with a digital caliper and on the intraoral scan with 3D reverse engineering software. For 3D surface analysis, the two models were superimposed by using best-fit algorithm. The average differences between the two models at all points on the surfaces were computed. Paired t-test and Bland-Altman plot were used to determine the validity of measurements from the intraoral scan compared to those from the plaster model. Results There were no significant differences between the plaster models and intraoral scans, except for one measurement of lower intermolar width. The Bland-Altman plots of all measurements showed that differences between the two models were within the limits of agreement. The average surface difference between the two models was within 0.10 mm. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that the intraoral scans are clinically acceptable for diagnosis and treatment planning in dentistry and can be used in place of plaster models. PMID:27304976

  20. A 3d-3d appetizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T[L(p,1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p,1). In particular, for p=1, we show how the familiar S{sup 3} partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p,1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p,1)] on the squashed three-sphere S{sub b}{sup 3}. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G{sub ℂ} complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  1. Physicomechanical, In Vitro and In Vivo Performance of 3D Printed Doped Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarafder, Solaiman

    Although tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is widely used in bone tissue engineering, the strength degradation kinetics is not well controlled. This study focuses on the underlying mechanism of strength degradation kinetics by incorporating trace elements in TCP. The objective of this research is to modify the mechanical properties of TCP to achieve the desired degradation rate for the specific need, and improve the in vivo bioactivity for early wound healing by incorporating trace elements such as strontium (Sr2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and silicon (Si4+) as dopants. The hypothesis of this research is that the presence of different trace elements in TCP will influence its phase stability, microstructure, mechanical strength, and both in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. Direct three dimensional printing (3DP) was used to fabricate designed interconnected macroporous pure and doped TCP scaffolds. Microwave sintering as opposed to conventional sintering was also used for better densification and higher mechanical strength. A maximum compressive strength of 10.95 +/- 1.28 MPa and 12.01 +/- 1.56 MPa were achieved for pure and Sr2+-Mg2+ doped TCP scaffolds with 500 microm designed pores (˜400 microm after sintering) sintered in microwave furnace, respectively. Substitution of Mg2+ and Sr2+ into calcium (Ca2+) sites of TCP crystal lattice contributed to phase stability and controlled gradual degradation. On the other hand, Si4+ substitution into phosphorous (P5+) sites destabilized the crystal structure and accelerated degradation of TCP. Interconnected macroporous beta-TCP scaffolds facilitated in vivo guided bone tissue regeneration through infiltration of cells and extracellular matrix into the designed pores. Presence of Sr2+, Mg2+ and Si4+ into beta-TCP induced increased in vivo early bone formation and better bone remodeling through increased extracellular matrix production such as, collagen and osteocalcin, when tested in rat and rabbit distal femur model. The presence of Si4

  2. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  3. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  4. μCT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry allows 3D evaluation of the early responses of bone resorption and formation to PTH and alendronate combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bakker, Chantal M J; Altman, Allison R; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Tribble, Mary Beth; Li, Connie; Chandra, Abhishek; Qin, Ling; Liu, X Sherry

    2015-04-01

    Current osteoporosis treatments improve bone mass by increasing net bone formation: anti-resorptive drugs such as bisphosphonates block osteoclast activity, while anabolic agents such as parathyroid hormone (PTH) increase bone remodeling, with a greater effect on formation. Although these drugs are widely used, their role in modulating formation and resorption is not fully understood, due in part to technical limitations in the ability to longitudinally assess bone remodeling. Importantly, it is not known whether or not PTH-induced bone formation is independent of resorption, resulting in controversy over the effectiveness of combination therapies that use both PTH and an anti-resorptive. In this study, we developed a μCT-based, in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry technique for rat tibiae, and applied this method to longitudinally track changes in bone resorption and formation as a result of treatment with alendronate (ALN), PTH, or combination therapy of both PTH and ALN (PTH+ALN). Correlations between our μCT-based measures of bone formation and measures of bone formation based on calcein-labeled histology (r=0.72-0.83) confirm the accuracy of this method. Bone remodeling parameters measured through μCT-based in vivo dynamic bone histomorphometry indicate an increased rate of bone formation in rats treated with PTH and PTH+ALN, together with a decrease in bone resorption measures in rats treated with ALN and PTH+ALN. These results were further supported by traditional histology-based measurements, suggesting that PTH was able to induce bone formation while bone resorption was suppressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2016-02-27

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  6. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S.; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C.; Chen, Li min; Landman, Bennett A.; Anderson, Adam W.

    2016-03-01

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  7. A Novel Approach for Computer-Assisted Template-Guided Autotransplantation of Teeth With Custom 3D Designed/Printed Surgical Tooling. An Ex Vivo Proof of Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anssari Moin, David; Derksen, Wiebe; Verweij, J P; van Merkesteyn, Richard; Wismeijer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method for accurate autotransplantation with computer-assisted guided templates and assembled custom-designed surgical tooling and to test the feasibility and accuracy of this method ex vivo. A partially edentulous human mandibular cadaver was scanned with a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system and an intraoral scan system. The 3-dimensional (3D) data of this cadaver were imported into specialized software and used to analyze the region of the recipient site and the donor tooth was selected. Subsequently, congruent to the donor tooth, custom surgical tools and a surgical guided template were designed and 3D printed. The guided osteotomy was performed and the donor tooth was transplanted. To evaluate the planned position of the donor tooth in relation to the position of the transplanted donor tooth, the mandible with the transplanted donor tooth was rescanned with the CBCT system and software matching was applied to measure the accuracy of the procedure. The angular deflection of the transplanted donor tooth in relation to the planned donor tooth position was 3.1°. When comparing the 3D positions of the shoulder, there was a deviation of 1.25 mm and an apical deviation of 0.89 mm. With the use of currently available technology, it is feasible to accurately plan and create in a virtual simulation a donor tooth position with congruent custom surgical tools and to transfer this to a clinical setting with 3D printing. However, further research on multiple levels is needed to explore this novel approach. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Bech, Johannes; Tvilling, Laura

    BACKGROUND: Stereotaxic neurosurgery in large animals is used widely in different sophisticated models, where precision is becoming more crucial as desired anatomical target regions are becoming smaller. Individually calculated coordinates are necessary in large animal models with cortical...... and subcortical anatomical differences. NEW METHOD: We present a convenient method to make an MRI-visible skull fiducial for 3D MRI-based stereotaxic procedures in larger experimental animals. Plastic screws were filled with either copper-sulphate solution or MRI-visible paste from a commercially available...... cranial head marker. The screw fiducials were inserted in the animal skulls and T1 weighted MRI was performed allowing identification of the inserted skull marker. RESULTS: Both types of fiducial markers were clearly visible on the MRÍs. This allows high precision in the stereotaxic space. COMPARISON...

  9. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  10. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  11. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  12. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  13. In vivo bioluminescence imaging for prolonged survival of transplanted human neural stem cells using 3D biocompatible scaffold in corticectomized rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Won Hwang

    Full Text Available Stem cell-based treatment of traumatic brain injury has been limited in its capacity to bring about complete functional recovery, because of the poor survival rate of the implanted stem cells. It is known that biocompatible biomaterials play a critical role in enhancing survival and proliferation of transplanted stem cells via provision of mechanical support. In this study, we noninvasively monitored in vivo behavior of implanted neural stem cells embedded within poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA scaffold, and showed that they survived over prolonged periods in corticectomized rat model. Corticectomized rat models were established by motor-cortex ablation of the rat. F3 cells expressing enhanced firefly luciferase (F3-effLuc were established through retroviral infection. The F3-effLuc within PLLA was monitored using IVIS-100 imaging system 7 days after corticectomized surgery. F3-effLuc within PLLA robustly adhered, and gradually increased luciferase signals of F3-effLuc within PLLA were detected in a day dependent manner. The implantation of F3-effLuc cells/PLLA complex into corticectomized rats showed longer-lasting luciferase activity than F3-effLuc cells alone. The bioluminescence signals from the PLLA-encapsulated cells were maintained for 14 days, compared with 8 days for the non-encapsulated cells. Immunostaining results revealed expression of the early neuronal marker, Tuj-1, in PLLA-F3-effLuc cells in the motor-cortex-ablated area. We observed noninvasively that the mechanical support by PLLA scaffold increased the survival of implanted neural stem cells in the corticectomized rat. The image-guided approach easily proved that scaffolds could provide supportive effect to implanted cells, increasing their viability in terms of enhancing therapeutic efficacy of stem-cell therapy.

  14. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  15. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  16. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  17. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  18. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article ...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  19. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  20. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip; Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions 〈ψψψψ〉 in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ×ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C{sub T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the Gross-Neveu models at large N. We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  1. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  2. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  3. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen (Marco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  4. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  5. 3D Surgical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive ...

  6. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...... facilitated discussions during the course as well as through a survey distributed to the participating students. The analysis of the experiences shows a mixed picture consisting of both benefits and limits to the experimental technique. A discussion about the applicability of the technique and about...

  7. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  8. Mobile 3D tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerhaus, Bernhard; Goebbels, Juergen; Onel, Yener; Sauerwein, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm [de

  9. An MRI-based diagnostic framework for early diagnosis of dyslexia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baz, A.; Casanova, M.; Mott, M.; Switala, A.; Gimel'farb, G.

    2008-01-01

    A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for early diagnosis of dyslexia was developed and tested. Dyslexia can severely impair the learning abilities of children so improved diagnostic methods are needed. Neuropathological studies show abnormal anatomy of the cerebral white matter (CWM) in dyslexic brains. We sought to develop an MRI-based macroscopic neuropathological correlate to the minicolumnopathy of dyslexia that relates to cortical connectivity: the gyral window. The brains of dyslexic patients often exhibit decreased gyrifications, so the thickness of gyral CWM for dyslexic subjects is greater than for normal subjects. We developed an MRI-based method for assessment of gyral CWM thickness with automated recognition of abnormal (e.g., dyslexic) brains. In vivo data was collected from 16 right-handed dyslexic men aged 18-40 years, and a group of 14 controls matched for gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic background, handedness and general intelligence. All the subjects were physically healthy and free of history of neurological diseases and head injury. Images were acquired with the same 1.5T MRI scanner (GE, Milwaukee, WI, USA) with voxel resolution 0.9375 x 0.9375 x 1.5 mm using a T1-weighted imaging sequence protocol. The ''ground truth'' diagnosis to evaluate the classification accuracy for each patient was given by the clinicians. The accuracy of diagnosis/classification of both the training and test subjects was evaluated using the Chi-square test at the three confidence levels - 85, 90 and 95% - in order to examine significant differences in the Levy distances. As expected, the 85% confidence level yielded the best results, the system correctly classified 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects (a 100% accuracy) and 14 out of 14 control subjects (a 100% accuracy). At the 90% confidence level, 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects were still classified correctly; however, only 13 out of 14 control subjects were correct, bringing the accuracy rate for the

  10. An MRI-based diagnostic framework for early diagnosis of dyslexia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Baz, A. [University of Louisville, Bioengineering Department, Louisville, KY (United States); Casanova, M.; Mott, M.; Switala, A. [University of Louisville, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Louisville, KY (United States); Gimel' farb, G. [University of Auckland, Computer Science Department, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2008-09-15

    A computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for early diagnosis of dyslexia was developed and tested. Dyslexia can severely impair the learning abilities of children so improved diagnostic methods are needed. Neuropathological studies show abnormal anatomy of the cerebral white matter (CWM) in dyslexic brains. We sought to develop an MRI-based macroscopic neuropathological correlate to the minicolumnopathy of dyslexia that relates to cortical connectivity: the gyral window. The brains of dyslexic patients often exhibit decreased gyrifications, so the thickness of gyral CWM for dyslexic subjects is greater than for normal subjects. We developed an MRI-based method for assessment of gyral CWM thickness with automated recognition of abnormal (e.g., dyslexic) brains. In vivo data was collected from 16 right-handed dyslexic men aged 18-40 years, and a group of 14 controls matched for gender, age, educational level, socioeconomic background, handedness and general intelligence. All the subjects were physically healthy and free of history of neurological diseases and head injury. Images were acquired with the same 1.5T MRI scanner (GE, Milwaukee, WI, USA) with voxel resolution 0.9375 x 0.9375 x 1.5 mm using a T1-weighted imaging sequence protocol. The ''ground truth'' diagnosis to evaluate the classification accuracy for each patient was given by the clinicians. The accuracy of diagnosis/classification of both the training and test subjects was evaluated using the Chi-square test at the three confidence levels - 85, 90 and 95% - in order to examine significant differences in the Levy distances. As expected, the 85% confidence level yielded the best results, the system correctly classified 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects (a 100% accuracy) and 14 out of 14 control subjects (a 100% accuracy). At the 90% confidence level, 16 out of 16 dyslexic subjects were still classified correctly; however, only 13 out of 14 control subjects were correct, bringing the

  11. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  12. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  13. Stereolithographic hydrogel printing of 3D culture chips with biofunctionalized complex 3D perfusion networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Rujing; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2017-01-01

    the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically stable hydrogel...... and material flexibility by embedding a highly compliant cell-laden gelatin hydrogel within the confines of a 3D printed resilient PEGDA hydrogel chip of intermediate compliance. Overall, our proposed strategy represents an automated, cost-effective and high resolution technique to manufacture complex 3D......Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models capturing both the structural and dynamic complexity of the in vivo situation are in great demand as an alternative to animal models. Despite tremendous progress in engineering complex tissue/organ models in the past decade, approaches that support...

  14. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  15. 3D Volume Rendering and 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, Rujuta A; Taft, Robert M; Grant, Gerald T

    2018-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered images allow 3D insight into the anatomy, facilitating surgical treatment planning and teaching. 3D printing, additive manufacturing, and rapid prototyping techniques are being used with satisfactory accuracy, mostly for diagnosis and surgical planning, followed by direct manufacture of implantable devices. The major limitation is the time and money spent generating 3D objects. Printer type, material, and build thickness are known to influence the accuracy of printed models. In implant dentistry, the use of 3D-printed surgical guides is strongly recommended to facilitate planning and reduce risk of operative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  17. The Future Is 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    3D printers are a way of producing a 3D model of an item from a digital file. The model builds up in successive layers of material placed by the printer controlled by the information in the computer file. In this article the author argues that 3D printers are one of the greatest technological advances of recent times. He discusses practical uses…

  18. The 3D additivist cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, Morehshin; Rourke, Daniel; Rasch, Miriam

    The 3D Additivist Cookbook, devised and edited by Morehshin Allahyari & Daniel Rourke, is a free compendium of imaginative, provocative works from over 100 world-leading artists, activists and theorists. The 3D Additivist Cookbook contains .obj and .stl files for the 3D printer, as well as critical

  19. Molecular MRI based on hyper-polarized xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassali, Nawal

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has a high importance in medicine as it enables the observation of the organs inside the body without the use of radiative or invasive techniques. However it is known to suffer from poor sensitivity. To circumvent this limitation, a key solution resides in the use of hyper-polarized species. Among the entities with which we can drastically increase nuclear polarization, xenon has very specific properties through its interactions with its close environment that lead to a wide chemical shift bandwidth. The goal is thus to use it as a tracer. This PhD thesis focuses on the concept of 129 Xe MRI-based sensors for the detection of biological events. In this approach, hyper-polarized xenon is vectorized to biological targets via functionalized host systems, and then localized thanks to fast dedicated MRI sequences. The conception and set-up of a spin-exchange optical pumping device is first described. Then studies about the interaction of the hyper-polarized noble gas with new cryptophanes susceptible to constitute powerful host molecules are detailed. Also the implementation of recent MRI sequences optimized for the transient character of the hyper-polarization and taking profit of the xenon in-out exchange is described. Applications of this approach for the detection of metallic ions and cellular receptors are studied. Finally, our first in vivo results on a small animal model are presented. (author) [fr

  20. Clinically viable magnetic poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) particles for MRI-based cell tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Dorit; Nkansah, Michael K.; Bennewitz, Margaret F.; Tang, Kevin S.; Markakis, Eleni A.; Shapiro, Erik M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To design, fabricate, characterize and in vivo assay clinically viable magnetic particles for MRI-based cell tracking. Methods PLGA encapsulated magnetic nano- and microparticles were fabricated. Multiple biologically relevant experiments were performed to assess cell viability, cellular performance and stem cell differentiation. In vivo MRI experiments were performed to separately test cell transplantation and cell migration paradigms, as well as in vivo biodegradation. Results Highly magnetic nano- (~100 nm) and microparticles (~1–2 μm) were fabricated. Magnetic cell labeling in culture occurred rapidly achieving 3–50 pg Fe/cell at 3 hrs for different particles types, and >100 pg Fe/cell after 10 hours, without the requirement of a transfection agent, and with no effect on cell viability. The capability of magnetically labeled mesenchymal or neural stem cells to differentiate down multiple lineages, or for magnetically labeled immune cells to release cytokines following stimulation, was uncompromised. An in vivo biodegradation study revealed that NPs degraded ~80% over the course of 12 weeks. MRI detected as few as 10 magnetically labeled cells, transplanted into the brains of rats. Also, these particles enabled the in vivo monitoring of endogenous neural progenitor cell migration in rat brains over 2 weeks. Conclusion The robust MRI properties and benign safety profile of these particles make them promising candidates for clinical translation for MRI-based cell tracking. PMID:23568825

  1. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  2. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  3. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  4. 3D IBFV : hardware-accelerated 3D flow visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.C.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique presented by van Wijk (2001) for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D

  5. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  6. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  7. Qademah Fault 3D Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Collect 3D seismic data at Qademah Fault location to 1. 3D traveltime tomography 2. 3D surface wave migration 3. 3D phase velocity 4. Possible reflection processing Acquisition Date: 26 – 28 September 2014 Acquisition Team: Sherif, Kai, Mrinal, Bowen, Ahmed Acquisition Layout: We used 288 receiver arranged in 12 parallel lines, each line has 24 receiver. Inline offset is 5 m and crossline offset is 10 m. One shot is fired at each receiver location. We use the 40 kgm weight drop as seismic source, with 8 to 15 stacks at each shot location.

  8. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  9. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  10. Abusir 3D survey 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Kawae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, in collaboration with the Czech Institute of Egyptology, we, a Japanese consortium, initiated the Abusir 3D Survey (A-3DS for the 3D documentation of the site’s pyramids, which have not been updated since the time of the architectural investigations of Vito Maragioglio and Celeste Rinaldi in the 1960s to the 1970s. The first season of our project focused on the exterior of Neferirkare’s pyramid, the largest pyramid at Abusir. By developing a strategic mathematical 3D survey plan, step-by-step 3D documentation to suit specific archaeological needs, and producing a new display method for the 3D data, we successfully measured the dimensions of the pyramid in a cost-effective way.

  11. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... a channel limited 2-D transducer array and the conventional 3-D beamforming technique, Parallel Beamforming. The first part of the scientific contributions demonstrate that 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieves a better image quality than the Parallel Beamforming technique. Data were obtained using both...

  12. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... are (vx, vy, vz) = (-0.03, 95, 1.0) ± (9, 6, 1) cm/s compared with the expected (0, 96, 0) cm/s. Afterwards, 3D vector flow images from a cross-sectional plane of the vessel are presented. The out of plane velocities exhibit the expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic shape. The experimental results...... verify that the 3D TO method estimates the complete 3D velocity vectors, and that the method is suitable for 3D vector flow imaging....

  13. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  14. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  15. Clinical evaluation of 3D/3D MRI-CBCT automatching on brain tumors for online patient setup verification - A step towards MRI-based treatment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, S.K.; Duun-Christensen, Anne Katrine; Kristensen, B.H.

    2010-01-01

    undergoing postoperative radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors received a weekly CBCT. In total 18 scans was matched with both CT and MRI as reference. The CBCT scans were acquired using a Clinac iX 2300 linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems) with an On-Board Imager (OBI). Results. For the phantom...

  16. Cardiac re-entry dynamics and self-termination in DT-MRI based model of Human Foetal Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biktasheva, Irina V.; Anderson, Richard A.; Holden, Arun V.; Pervolaraki, Eleftheria; Wen, Fen Cai

    2018-02-01

    The effect of human foetal heart geometry and anisotropy on anatomy induced drift and self-termination of cardiac re-entry is studied here in MRI based 2D slice and 3D whole heart computer simulations. Isotropic and anisotropic models of 20 weeks of gestational age human foetal heart obtained from 100μm voxel diffusion tensor MRI data sets were used in the computer simulations. The fiber orientation angles of the heart were obtained from the orientation of the DT-MRI primary eigenvectors. In a spatially homogeneous electrophysiological monodomain model with the DT-MRI based heart geometries, cardiac re-entry was initiated at a prescribed location in a 2D slice, and in the 3D whole heart anatomy models. Excitation was described by simplified FitzHugh-Nagumo kinetics. In a slice of the heart, with propagation velocity twice as fast along the fibres than across the fibers, DT-MRI based fiber anisotropy changes the re-entry dynamics from pinned to an anatomical re-entry. In the 3D whole heart models, the fiber anisotropy changes cardiac re-entry dynamics from a persistent re-entry to the re-entry self-termination. The self-termination time depends on the re-entry’s initial position. In all the simulations with the DT-MRI based cardiac geometry, the anisotropy of the myocardial tissue shortens the time to re-entry self-termination several folds. The numerical simulations depend on the validity of the DT-MRI data set used. The ventricular wall showed the characteristic transmural rotation of the helix angle of the developed mammalian heart, while the fiber orientation in the atria was irregular.

  17. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  18. Novel ex vivo model for hands-on teaching of and training in EUS-guided biliary drainage: creation of "Mumbai EUS" stereolithography/3D printing bile duct prototype (with videos)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhir, Vinay; Itoi, Takao; Fockens, Paul; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Khashab, Mouen A.; Seo, Dong Wan; Yang, Ai Ming; Lawrence, Khek Yu; Maydeo, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has emerged as an alternative rescue method in patients with failed ERCP. Opportunities for teaching and training are limited because of a low case volume at most centers. Objective: To evaluate a stereolithography/3-dimensional (3D) printing bile

  19. 3-D neutron transport benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Ikeda, H.

    1991-03-01

    A set of 3-D neutron transport benchmark problems proposed by the Osaka University to NEACRP in 1988 has been calculated by many participants and the corresponding results are summarized in this report. The results of K eff , control rod worth and region-averaged fluxes for the four proposed core models, calculated by using various 3-D transport codes are compared and discussed. The calculational methods used were: Monte Carlo, Discrete Ordinates (Sn), Spherical Harmonics (Pn), Nodal Transport and others. The solutions of the four core models are quite useful as benchmarks for checking the validity of 3-D neutron transport codes

  20. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  1. Developing 3D microstructures for tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    casting process to generate various large scale tissue engineering constructs with single pore geometry with the desired mechanical stiffness and porosity. In addition, a new technique was developed to fa bricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue-engineering applications where 3D printing...... materials have been developed and tested for enhancing the differentiation of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes and fabricating biodegradable scaffolds for in-vivo tissue engineering applications. Along with various scaffolds fabrication methods we finally presented an optimized study of hepatic differentiation...... of hiPSC-derived DE cells cultured for 25 days in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system with an array of 16 small-scale tissue-bioreactors with integrated dual-pore pore scaffolds and flow rates. Hepatic differentiation and functionality of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes were successfully assessed and compared...

  2. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Wu; Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue; Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 × 376 × 630 voxels. Conclusions: The proposed needle segmentation

  3. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  4. A digital 3D atlas of the marmoset brain based on multi-modal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cirong; Ye, Frank Q; Yen, Cecil Chern-Chyi; Newman, John D; Glen, Daniel; Leopold, David A; Silva, Afonso C

    2018-04-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New-World monkey of growing interest in neuroscience. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an essential tool to unveil the anatomical and functional organization of the marmoset brain. To facilitate identification of regions of interest, it is desirable to register MR images to an atlas of the brain. However, currently available atlases of the marmoset brain are mainly based on 2D histological data, which are difficult to apply to 3D imaging techniques. Here, we constructed a 3D digital atlas based on high-resolution ex-vivo MRI images, including magnetization transfer ratio (a T1-like contrast), T2w images, and multi-shell diffusion MRI. Based on the multi-modal MRI images, we manually delineated 54 cortical areas and 16 subcortical regions on one hemisphere of the brain (the core version). The 54 cortical areas were merged into 13 larger cortical regions according to their locations to yield a coarse version of the atlas, and also parcellated into 106 sub-regions using a connectivity-based parcellation method to produce a refined atlas. Finally, we compared the new atlas set with existing histology atlases and demonstrated its applications in connectome studies, and in resting state and stimulus-based fMRI. The atlas set has been integrated into the widely-distributed neuroimaging data analysis software AFNI and SUMA, providing a readily usable multi-modal template space with multi-level anatomical labels (including labels from the Paxinos atlas) that can facilitate various neuroimaging studies of marmosets. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  6. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  7. 3D accelerator magnet calculations using MAGNUS-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissanetzky, S.; Miao, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The steady trend towards increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of accelerator magnets has caused a need for reliable 3D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic system in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D family of programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors. MAGNUS-3D uses the finite element method and the two-scalar-potentials formulation of Maxwell's equations to obtain the solution, which can then be used interactively to obtain tables of field components at specific points or lines, plots of field lines, function graphs representing a field component plotted against a coordinate along any line in space (such as the beam line), and views of the conductors, the mesh and the magnetic bodies. The magnetic quantities that can be calculated include the force or torque on conductors or magnetic parts, the energy, the flux through a specified surface, line integrals of any field component along any line in space, and the average field or potential harmonic coefficients. We describe the programs with emphasis placed on their use for accelerator magnet design, and present an advanced example of actual calculations. (orig.)

  8. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  9. 3D imaging, 3D printing and 3D virtual planning in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Chong, B S

    2018-03-01

    The adoption and adaptation of recent advances in digital technology, such as three-dimensional (3D) printed objects and haptic simulators, in dentistry have influenced teaching and/or management of cases involving implant, craniofacial, maxillofacial, orthognathic and periodontal treatments. 3D printed models and guides may help operators plan and tackle complicated non-surgical and surgical endodontic treatment and may aid skill acquisition. Haptic simulators may assist in the development of competency in endodontic procedures through the acquisition of psycho-motor skills. This review explores and discusses the potential applications of 3D printed models and guides, and haptic simulators in the teaching and management of endodontic procedures. An understanding of the pertinent technology related to the production of 3D printed objects and the operation of haptic simulators are also presented.

  10. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  11. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  12. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  13. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  14. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Taska, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  15. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory of type A_N_−_1 on a 3-manifold M. The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,ℂ)) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T_N[M]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T[SU(N)], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N>2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2T_N[M] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/30/30LT02, which summarizes our main results.

  16. Stereoscopic 3D graphics generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianping; Zan, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Stereoscopic display technology is one of the key techniques of areas such as simulation, multimedia, entertainment, virtual reality, and so on. Moreover, stereoscopic 3D graphics generation is an important part of stereoscopic 3D display system. In this paper, at first, we describe the principle of stereoscopic display and summarize some methods to generate stereoscopic 3D graphics. Secondly, to overcome the problems which came from the methods of user defined models (such as inconvenience, long modifying period and so on), we put forward the vector graphics files defined method. Thus we can design more directly; modify the model simply and easily; generate more conveniently; furthermore, we can make full use of graphics accelerator card and so on. Finally, we discuss the problem of how to speed up the generation.

  17. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    , if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges...... ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom...... hampers the task of real-time processing. In a second study, some of the issue with the 2-D matrix array are solved by introducing a 2-D row-column (RC) addressing array with only 62 + 62 elements. It is investigated both through simulations and via experimental setups in various flow conditions...

  18. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  19. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  20. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  1. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  2. 3D Terahertz Beam Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  3. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  4. 3D Pit Stop Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lael; Shaw, Daniel; Gaidds, Kimberly; Lyman, Gregory; Sorey, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Although solving an engineering design project problem with limited resources or structural capabilities of materials can be part of the challenge, students making their own parts can support creativity. The authors of this article found an exciting solution: 3D printers are not only one of several tools for making but also facilitate a creative…

  5. 3D histomorphometric quantification from 3D computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F. de; Lopes, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The histomorphometric analysis is based on stereologic concepts and was originally applied to biologic samples. This technique has been used to evaluate different complex structures such as ceramic filters, net structures and cancellous objects that are objects with inner connected structures. The measured histomorphometric parameters of structure are: sample volume to total reconstructed volume (BV/TV), sample surface to sample volume (BS/BV), connection thickness (Tb Th ), connection number (Tb N ) and connection separation (Tb Sp ). The anisotropy was evaluated as well. These parameters constitute the base of histomorphometric analysis. The quantification is realized over cross-sections recovered by cone beam reconstruction, where a real-time microfocus radiographic system is used as tomographic system. The three-dimensional (3D) histomorphometry, obtained from tomography, corresponds to an evolution of conventional method that is based on 2D analysis. It is more coherent with morphologic and topologic context of the sample. This work shows result from 3D histomorphometric quantification to characterize objects examined by 3D computer tomography. The results, which characterizes the internal structures of ceramic foams with different porous density, are compared to results from conventional methods

  6. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  7. 3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...

  8. Registration of 3D spectral OCT volumes using 3D SIFT feature point matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Lee, Kyungmoo; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan

    2009-02-01

    The recent introduction of next generation spectral OCT scanners has enabled routine acquisition of high resolution, 3D cross-sectional volumetric images of the retina. 3D OCT is used in the detection and management of serious eye diseases such as glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. For follow-up studies, image registration is a vital tool to enable more precise, quantitative comparison of disease states. This work presents a registration method based on a recently introduced extension of the 2D Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) framework1 to 3D.2 The SIFT feature extractor locates minima and maxima in the difference of Gaussian scale space to find salient feature points. It then uses histograms of the local gradient directions around each found extremum in 3D to characterize them in a 4096 element feature vector. Matching points are found by comparing the distance between feature vectors. We apply this method to the rigid registration of optic nerve head- (ONH) and macula-centered 3D OCT scans of the same patient that have only limited overlap. Three OCT data set pairs with known deformation were used for quantitative assessment of the method's robustness and accuracy when deformations of rotation and scaling were considered. Three-dimensional registration accuracy of 2.0+/-3.3 voxels was observed. The accuracy was assessed as average voxel distance error in N=1572 matched locations. The registration method was applied to 12 3D OCT scans (200 x 200 x 1024 voxels) of 6 normal eyes imaged in vivo to demonstrate the clinical utility and robustness of the method in a real-world environment.

  9. Multizone Paper Platform for 3D Cell Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derda, Ratmir; Hong, Estrella; Mwangi, Martin; Mammoto, Akiko; Ingber, Donald E.; Whitesides, George M.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro 3D culture is an important model for tissues in vivo. Cells in different locations of 3D tissues are physiologically different, because they are exposed to different concentrations of oxygen, nutrients, and signaling molecules, and to other environmental factors (temperature, mechanical stress, etc). The majority of high-throughput assays based on 3D cultures, however, can only detect the average behavior of cells in the whole 3D construct. Isolation of cells from specific regions of 3D cultures is possible, but relies on low-throughput techniques such as tissue sectioning and micromanipulation. Based on a procedure reported previously (“cells-in-gels-in-paper” or CiGiP), this paper describes a simple method for culture of arrays of thin planar sections of tissues, either alone or stacked to create more complex 3D tissue structures. This procedure starts with sheets of paper patterned with hydrophobic regions that form 96 hydrophilic zones. Serial spotting of cells suspended in extracellular matrix (ECM) gel onto the patterned paper creates an array of 200 micron-thick slabs of ECM gel (supported mechanically by cellulose fibers) containing cells. Stacking the sheets with zones aligned on top of one another assembles 96 3D multilayer constructs. De-stacking the layers of the 3D culture, by peeling apart the sheets of paper, “sections” all 96 cultures at once. It is, thus, simple to isolate 200-micron-thick cell-containing slabs from each 3D culture in the 96-zone array. Because the 3D cultures are assembled from multiple layers, the number of cells plated initially in each layer determines the spatial distribution of cells in the stacked 3D cultures. This capability made it possible to compare the growth of 3D tumor models of different spatial composition, and to examine the migration of cells in these structures. PMID:21573103

  10. 3D integrated superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D.; Kim, D.; Das, R.; Yost, D.; Gustavsson, S.; Hover, D.; Krantz, P.; Melville, A.; Racz, L.; Samach, G. O.; Weber, S. J.; Yan, F.; Yoder, J. L.; Kerman, A. J.; Oliver, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    As the field of quantum computing advances from the few-qubit stage to larger-scale processors, qubit addressability and extensibility will necessitate the use of 3D integration and packaging. While 3D integration is well-developed for commercial electronics, relatively little work has been performed to determine its compatibility with high-coherence solid-state qubits. Of particular concern, qubit coherence times can be suppressed by the requisite processing steps and close proximity of another chip. In this work, we use a flip-chip process to bond a chip with superconducting flux qubits to another chip containing structures for qubit readout and control. We demonstrate that high qubit coherence (T1, T2,echo > 20 μs) is maintained in a flip-chip geometry in the presence of galvanic, capacitive, and inductive coupling between the chips.

  11. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  12. Mortars for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at developing scientifically proven compositions of mortars for 3D printing modified by a peat-based admixture with improved operational characteristics. The paper outlines the results of experimental research on hardened cement paste and concrete mixture with the use of modifying admixture MT-600 (thermally modified peat. It is found that strength of hardened cement paste increases at early age when using finely dispersed admixtures, which is the key factor for formation of construction and technical specifications of concrete for 3D printing technologies. The composition of new formations of hardened cement paste modified by MT-600 admixture were obtained, which enabled to suggest the possibility of their physico-chemical interaction while hardening.

  13. Automated 3-D Radiation Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpinian, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an automated radiation detection and imaging system which combines several state-of-the-art technologies to produce a portable but very powerful visualization tool for planning work in radiation environments. The system combines a radiation detection system, a computerized radiation imaging program, and computerized 3-D modeling to automatically locate and measurements are automatically collected and imaging techniques are used to produce colored, 'isodose' images of the measured radiation fields. The isodose lines from the images are then superimposed over the 3-D model of the area. The final display shows the various components in a room and their associated radiation fields. The use of an automated radiation detection system increases the quality of radiation survey obtained measurements. The additional use of a three-dimensional display allows easier visualization of the area and associated radiological conditions than two-dimensional sketches

  14. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  15. 3D neutron transport modelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.)

  16. 3D Printing A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid free fabrication SFF are produced to enhance the printing instrument utilizing distinctive strategies like Piezo spout control multi-spout injet printers or STL arrange utilizing cutting information. The procedure is utilized to diminish the cost and enhance the speed of printing. A few techniques take long at last because of extra process like dry the printing. This study will concentrate on SFFS utilizing UV gum for 3D printing.

  17. 3D neutron transport modelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.). 10 refs.

  18. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  19. Agarose hydrogel induced MCF-7 and BMG-1 cell line progressive 3D and 3D revert cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniyan, Aishwarya; Ravi, Maddaly

    2018-04-01

    3D culture systems have enhanced the utility of cancer cell lines as they are considered closer to the in vivo systems. A variety of changes are induced in cells cultured in 3D systems; an apparent and striking feature being the spontaneous acquisition of distinct morphological entities. 3D reverts (3DRs) can be obtained by introducing 3D aggregates in scaffold/matrix-free culture units. It could be seen that the two cell lines used in this study exhibited differences in 3DR structures, though both were cultured on agarose hydrogels. Also, differences in 3DR formation, growth and survival were different. While 3D aggregates of several cell lines have been reported for a variety of studies, there are no studies that describe or utilize 3DRs. 3DRs can provide insights into complex events that can occur in cancer cells; especially as material to study metastasis, migration, and invasion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  1. 3D treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng B; Li, Sicong

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The 3D treatment planning systems vary amongst the vendors and also the dose delivery systems they are designed to support. As such these systems have different planning tools to generate the treatment plans and convert the treatment plans into executable instructions that can be implemented by the dose delivery systems. The rapid advancements in computer technology and accelerators have facilitated constant upgrades and the introduction of different and unique dose delivery systems than the traditional C-arm type medical linear accelerators. The focus of this special issue is to gather relevant 3D treatment planning systems for the radiation oncology community to keep abreast of technology advancement by assess the planning tools available as well as those unique "tricks or tips" used to support the different dose delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Compact 3D quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Edwar; Deppe, Frank; Renger, Michael; Repp, Daniel; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Fedorov, Kirill G.; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting 3D microwave cavities offer state-of-the-art coherence times and a well-controlled environment for superconducting qubits. In order to realize at the same time fast readout and long-lived quantum information storage, one can couple the qubit to both a low-quality readout and a high-quality storage cavity. However, such systems are bulky compared to their less coherent 2D counterparts. A more compact and scalable approach is achieved by making use of the multimode structure of a 3D cavity. In our work, we investigate such a device where a transmon qubit is capacitively coupled to two modes of a single 3D cavity. External coupling is engineered so that the memory mode has an about 100 times larger quality factor than the readout mode. Using an all-microwave second-order protocol, we realize a lifetime enhancement of the stored state over the qubit lifetime by a factor of 6 with a fidelity of approximately 80% determined via quantum process tomography. We also find that this enhancement is not limited by fundamental constraints.

  3. 3D Graphics with Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Benacka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the formulas for orthographic parallel projection of 3D bodies on computer screen are derived using secondary school vector algebra. The spreadsheet implementation is demonstrated in six applications that project bodies with increasing intricacy – a convex body (cube with non-solved visibility, convex bodies (cube, chapel with solved visibility, a coloured convex body (chapel with solved visibility, and a coloured non-convex body (church with solved visibility. The projections are revolvable in horizontal and vertical plane, and they are changeable in size. The examples show an unusual way of using spreadsheets as a 3D computer graphics tool. The applications can serve as a simple introduction to the general principles of computer graphics, to the graphics with spreadsheets, and as a tool for exercising stereoscopic vision. The presented approach is usable at visualising 3D scenes within some topics of secondary school curricula as solid geometry (angles and distances of lines and planes within simple bodies or analytic geometry in space (angles and distances of lines and planes in E3, and even at university level within calculus at visualising graphs of z = f(x,y functions. Examples are pictured.

  4. 3D composite image, 3D MRI, 3D SPECT, hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Shibata, I.; Sugo, N.; Takano, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D)SPECT imaging technique we have studied and published for the past several years is an analytical tool that permits visual expression of the cerebral circulation profile in various cerebral diseases. The greatest drawback of SPECT is that the limitation on precision of spacial resolution makes intracranial localization impossible. In 3D SPECT imaging, intracranial volume and morphology may vary with the threshold established. To solve this problem, we have produced complimentarily combined SPECT and helical-CT 3D images by means of general-purpose visualization software for intracranial localization. In hydrocephalus, however, the key subject to be studied is the profile of cerebral circulation around the ventricles of the brain. This suggests that, for displaying the cerebral ventricles in three dimensions, CT is a difficult technique whereas MRI is more useful. For this reason, we attempted to establish the profile of cerebral circulation around the cerebral ventricles by the production of combined 3D images of SPECT and MRI. In patients who had shunt surgery for hydrocephalus, a difference between pre- and postoperative cerebral circulation profiles was assessed by a voxel distribution curve, 3D SPECT images, and combined 3D SPECT and MRI images. As the shunt system in this study, an Orbis-Sigma valve of the automatic cerebrospinal fluid volume adjustment type was used in place of the variable pressure type Medos valve currently in use, because this device requires frequent changes in pressure and a change in pressure may be detected after MRI procedure. The SPECT apparatus used was PRISM3000 of the three-detector type, and 123I-IMP was used as the radionuclide in a dose of 222 MBq. MRI data were collected with an MAGNEXa+2 with a magnetic flux density of 0.5 tesla under the following conditions: field echo; TR 50 msec; TE, 10 msec; flip, 30ueK; 1 NEX; FOV, 23 cm; 1-mm slices; and gapless. 3D images are produced on the workstation TITAN

  5. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  6. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  7. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  8. Needle segmentation using 3D Hough transform in 3D TRUS guided prostate transperineal therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Wu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada); Yuchi Ming; Ding Mingyue [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Tessier, David; Fenster, Aaron [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Prostate adenocarcinoma is the most common noncutaneous malignancy in American men with over 200 000 new cases diagnosed each year. Prostate interventional therapy, such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy, is an effective treatment for prostate cancer. Its success relies on the correct needle implant position. This paper proposes a robust and efficient needle segmentation method, which acts as an aid to localize the needle in three-dimensional (3D) transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate therapy. Methods: The procedure of locating the needle in a 3D TRUS image is a three-step process. First, the original 3D ultrasound image containing a needle is cropped; the cropped image is then converted to a binary format based on its histogram. Second, a 3D Hough transform based needle segmentation method is applied to the 3D binary image in order to locate the needle axis. The position of the needle endpoint is finally determined by an optimal threshold based analysis of the intensity probability distribution. The overall efficiency is improved through implementing a coarse-fine searching strategy. The proposed method was validated in tissue-mimicking agar phantoms, chicken breast phantoms, and 3D TRUS patient images from prostate brachytherapy and cryotherapy procedures by comparison to the manual segmentation. The robustness of the proposed approach was tested by means of varying parameters such as needle insertion angle, needle insertion length, binarization threshold level, and cropping size. Results: The validation results indicate that the proposed Hough transform based method is accurate and robust, with an achieved endpoint localization accuracy of 0.5 mm for agar phantom images, 0.7 mm for chicken breast phantom images, and 1 mm for in vivo patient cryotherapy and brachytherapy images. The mean execution time of needle segmentation algorithm was 2 s for a 3D TRUS image with size of 264 Multiplication-Sign 376 Multiplication-Sign 630 voxels. Conclusions

  9. 3D reconstruction of tensors and vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defrise, Michel; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2005-01-01

    Here we have developed formulations for the reconstruction of 3D tensor fields from planar (Radon) and line-integral (X-ray) projections of 3D vector and tensor fields. Much of the motivation for this work is the potential application of MRI to perform diffusion tensor tomography. The goal is to develop a theory for the reconstruction of both Radon planar and X-ray or line-integral projections because of the flexibility of MRI to obtain both of these type of projections in 3D. The development presented here for the linear tensor tomography problem provides insight into the structure of the nonlinear MRI diffusion tensor inverse problem. A particular application of tensor imaging in MRI is the potential application of cardiac diffusion tensor tomography for determining in vivo cardiac fiber structure. One difficulty in the cardiac application is the motion of the heart. This presents a need for developing future theory for tensor tomography in a motion field. This means developing a better understanding of the MRI signal for diffusion processes in a deforming media. The techniques developed may allow the application of MRI tensor tomography for the study of structure of fiber tracts in the brain, atherosclerotic plaque, and spine in addition to fiber structure in the heart. However, the relations presented are also applicable to other fields in medical imaging such as diffraction tomography using ultrasound. The mathematics presented can also be extended to exponential Radon transform of tensor fields and to other geometric acquisitions such as cone beam tomography of tensor fields

  10. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  11. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  12. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  13. Analysis of 3-D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, M. Arif; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-03-01

    Deriving generalized representation of 3-D objects for analysis and recognition is a very difficult task. Three types of representations based on type of an object is used in this paper. Objects which have well-defined geometrical shapes are segmented by using a fast edge region based segmentation technique. The segmented image is represented by plan and elevation of each part of the object if the object parts are symmetrical about their central axis. The plan and elevation concept enables representing and analyzing such objects quickly and efficiently. The second type of representation is used for objects having parts which are not symmetrical about their central axis. The segmented surface patches of such objects are represented by the 3-D boundary and the surface features of each segmented surface. Finally, the third type of representation is used for objects which don't have well-defined geometrical shapes (for example a loaf of bread). These objects are represented and analyzed from its features which are derived using a multiscale contour based technique. Anisotropic Gaussian smoothing technique is introduced to segment the contours at various scales of smoothing. A new merging technique is used which enables getting the current best estimate of break points at each scale. This new technique enables elimination of loss of accuracy of localization effects at coarser scales without using scale space tracking approach.

  14. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  15. 3D DNA Origami Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hartl, Caroline; Frank, Kilian; Heuer-Jungemann, Amelie; Fischer, Stefan; Nickels, Philipp C; Nickel, Bert; Liedl, Tim

    2018-05-18

    3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of the volume is empty space is presented here. Site-specific placement of gold nanoparticles within the lattice demonstrates that these crystals are spacious enough to efficiently host 20 nm particles in a cavity size of 1.83 × 10 5 nm 3 , which would also suffice to accommodate ribosome-sized macromolecules. The accurate assembly of the DNA origami lattice itself, as well as the precise incorporation of gold particles, is validated by electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The results show that it is possible to create DNA building blocks that assemble into lattices with customized geometry. Site-specific hosting of nano objects in the optically transparent DNA lattice sets the stage for metamaterial and structural biology applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  17. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics and 3D neutron kinetics. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution

  18. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-01-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  19. Fabrication of highly modulable fibrous 3D extracellular microenvironments

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xixiang; Han, Fangfei; Syed, Ahad; Bukhari, Ebtihaj M.; Siang, Basil Chew Joo; Yang, Shan; Zhou, Bingpu; Wen, Wei-jia; Jiang, Dechen

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro scaffolds that mimic the irregular fibrous structures of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) are critical for many important biological applications. However, structural properties modulation of fibrous 3D scaffolds remains a challenge. Here, we report the first highly modulable 3D fibrous scaffolds self-assembled by high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microfibers. The scaffolds structural properties can be easily tailored to incorporate various physical cues, including geometry, stiffness, heterogeneity and nanotopography. Moreover, the fibrous scaffolds are readily and accurately patterned on desired locations of the substrate. Cell culture exhibits that our scaffolds can elicit strong bidirectional cell-material interactions. Furthermore, a functional disparity between the two-dimensional substrate and our 3D scaffolds is identified by cell spreading and proliferation data. These results prove the potential of the proposed scaffold as a biomimetic extracellular microenvironment for cell study.

  20. Fabrication of highly modulable fibrous 3D extracellular microenvironments

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-06-13

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro scaffolds that mimic the irregular fibrous structures of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) are critical for many important biological applications. However, structural properties modulation of fibrous 3D scaffolds remains a challenge. Here, we report the first highly modulable 3D fibrous scaffolds self-assembled by high-aspect-ratio (HAR) microfibers. The scaffolds structural properties can be easily tailored to incorporate various physical cues, including geometry, stiffness, heterogeneity and nanotopography. Moreover, the fibrous scaffolds are readily and accurately patterned on desired locations of the substrate. Cell culture exhibits that our scaffolds can elicit strong bidirectional cell-material interactions. Furthermore, a functional disparity between the two-dimensional substrate and our 3D scaffolds is identified by cell spreading and proliferation data. These results prove the potential of the proposed scaffold as a biomimetic extracellular microenvironment for cell study.

  1. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  2. Telerobotics and 3-d TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Able, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of telerobotic techniques that can be used in the nuclear industry. The approach has been to apply available equipment, modify available equipment, or design and build anew. The authors have successfully built an input controller which can be used with standard industrial robots, converting them into telerobots. A clean room industrial robot has been re-engineered into an advanced telerobot engineered for the nuclear industry, using a knowledge of radiation tolerance design principles and collaboration with the manufacturer. A powerful hydraulic manipulator has been built to respond to a need for more heavy duty devices for in-cell handling. A variety of easy to use 3-D TV systems has been developed

  3. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  4. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-10-12

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step of printing the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate; placing the flexible silicon substrate in a cavity of the first portion of the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate in the 3D structure; and resuming the step of printing the 3D structure to form the second portion of the 3D structure.

  5. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  6. From Microscale Devices to 3D Printing: Advances in Fabrication of 3D Cardiovascular Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovjagin, Anton V.; Ogle, Brenda; Berry, Joel; Zhang, Jianyi

    2016-01-01

    Current strategies for engineering cardiovascular cells and tissues have yielded a variety of sophisticated tools for studying disease mechanisms, for development of drug therapies, and for fabrication of tissue equivalents that may have application in future clinical use. These efforts are motivated by the need to extend traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems into 3D to more accurately replicate in vivo cell and tissue function of cardiovascular structures. Developments in microscale devices and bioprinted 3D tissues are beginning to supplant traditional 2D cell cultures and pre-clinical animal studies that have historically been the standard for drug and tissue development. These new approaches lend themselves to patient-specific diagnostics, therapeutics, and tissue regeneration. The emergence of these technologies also carries technical challenges to be met before traditional cell culture and animal testing become obsolete. Successful development and validation of 3D human tissue constructs will provide powerful new paradigms for more cost effective and timely translation of cardiovascular tissue equivalents. PMID:28057791

  7. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  8. 3-D discrete analytical ridgelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines: 3-D discrete radial lines going through the origin defined from their orthogonal projections and 3-D planes covered with 2-D discrete line segments. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a 3-D DART adapted to a specific application. Indeed, the 3-D DART representation is not orthogonal, It is associated with a flexible redundancy factor. The 3-D DART has a very simple forward/inverse algorithm that provides an exact reconstruction without any iterative method. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new discrete transform, we apply the 3-D DART and its extension to the Local-DART (with smooth windowing) to the denoising of 3-D image and color video. These experimental results show that the simple thresholding of the 3-D DART coefficients is efficient.

  9. MRI-Based Computed Tomography Metal Artifact Correction Method for Improving Proton Range Calculation Accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Peter C.; Schreibmann, Eduard; Roper, Justin; Elder, Eric; Crocker, Ian; Fox, Tim; Zhu, X. Ronald; Dong, Lei; Dhabaan, Anees

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Computed tomography (CT) artifacts can severely degrade dose calculation accuracy in proton therapy. Prompted by the recently increased popularity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the radiation therapy clinic, we developed an MRI-based CT artifact correction method for improving the accuracy of proton range calculations. Methods and Materials: The proposed method replaces corrupted CT data by mapping CT Hounsfield units (HU number) from a nearby artifact-free slice, using a coregistered MRI. MRI and CT volumetric images were registered with use of 3-dimensional (3D) deformable image registration (DIR). The registration was fine-tuned on a slice-by-slice basis by using 2D DIR. Based on the intensity of paired MRI pixel values and HU from an artifact-free slice, we performed a comprehensive analysis to predict the correct HU for the corrupted region. For a proof-of-concept validation, metal artifacts were simulated on a reference data set. Proton range was calculated using reference, artifactual, and corrected images to quantify the reduction in proton range error. The correction method was applied to 4 unique clinical cases. Results: The correction method resulted in substantial artifact reduction, both quantitatively and qualitatively. On respective simulated brain and head and neck CT images, the mean error was reduced from 495 and 370 HU to 108 and 92 HU after correction. Correspondingly, the absolute mean proton range errors of 2.4 cm and 1.7 cm were reduced to less than 2 mm in both cases. Conclusions: Our MRI-based CT artifact correction method can improve CT image quality and proton range calculation accuracy for patients with severe CT artifacts

  10. Mesoderm Lineage 3D Tissue Constructs Are Produced at Large-Scale in a 3D Stem Cell Bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Min; Mantalaris, Athanasios; Jung, Sunyoung; Ji, Yurim; Bang, Oh Young; Bae, Hojae

    2017-09-01

    Various studies have presented different approaches to direct pluripotent stem cell differentiation such as applying defined sets of exogenous biochemical signals and genetic/epigenetic modifications. Although differentiation to target lineages can be successfully regulated, such conventional methods are often complicated, laborious, and not cost-effective to be employed to the large-scale production of 3D stem cell-based tissue constructs. A 3D-culture platform that could realize the large-scale production of mesoderm lineage tissue constructs from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is developed. ESCs are cultured using our previously established 3D-bioprocess platform which is amenable to mass-production of 3D ESC-based tissue constructs. Hepatocarcinoma cell line conditioned medium is introduced to the large-scale 3D culture to provide a specific biomolecular microenvironment to mimic in vivo mesoderm formation process. After 5 days of spontaneous differentiation period, the resulting 3D tissue constructs are composed of multipotent mesodermal progenitor cells verified by gene and molecular expression profiles. Subsequently the optimal time points to trigger terminal differentiation towards cardiomyogenesis or osteogenesis from the mesodermal tissue constructs is found. A simple and affordable 3D ESC-bioprocess that can reach the scalable production of mesoderm origin tissues with significantly improved correspondent tissue properties is demonstrated. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  12. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  13. CROWDSOURCING BASED 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somogyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users’ images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  14. Vrste i tehnike 3D modeliranja

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik, Andrija

    2010-01-01

    Proces stvaranja 3D stvarnih ili imaginarnih objekata naziva se 3D modeliranje. Razvoj računalne tehnologije omogućuje korisniku odabir raznih metoda i tehnika kako bi se postigla optimalna učinkovitost. Odabir je vezan za klasično 3D modeliranje ili 3D skeniranje pomoću specijaliziranih programskih i sklopovskih rješenja. 3D tehnikama modeliranja korisnik može izraditi 3D model na nekoliko načina: koristi poligone, krivulje ili hibrid dviju spomenutih tehnika pod nazivom subdivizijsko modeli...

  15. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  16. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  17. Magma emplacement in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, W.; Vogt, K.

    2017-12-01

    Magma intrusion is a major material transfer process in Earth's continental crust. Yet, the mechanical behavior of the intruding magma and its host are a matter of debate. In this study, we present a series of numerical thermo-mechanical experiments on mafic magma emplacement in 3D.In our model, we place the magmatic source region (40 km diameter) at the base of the mantle lithosphere and connect it to the crust by a 3 km wide channel, which may have evolved at early stages of magmatism during rapid ascent of hot magmatic fluids/melts. Our results demonstrate continental crustal response due to magma intrusion. We observe change in intrusion geometries between dikes, cone-sheets, sills, plutons, ponds, funnels, finger-shaped and stock-like intrusions as well as injection time. The rheology and temperature of the host-rock are the main controlling factors in the transition between these different modes of intrusion. Viscous deformation in the warm and deep crust favours host rock displacement and magma pools along the crust-mantle boundary forming deep-seated plutons or magma ponds in the lower to middle-crust. Brittle deformation in the cool and shallow crust induces cone-shaped fractures in the host rock and enables emplacement of finger- or stock-like intrusions at shallow or intermediate depth. A combination of viscous and brittle deformation forms funnel-shaped intrusions in the middle-crust. Low-density source magma results in T-shaped intrusions in cross-section with magma sheets at the surface.

  18. Automation of 3D cell culture using chemically defined hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimann, Markus; Angres, Brigitte; Patocchi-Tenzer, Isabel; Braum, Susanne; Graf-Hausner, Ursula

    2014-04-01

    Drug development relies on high-throughput screening involving cell-based assays. Most of the assays are still based on cells grown in monolayer rather than in three-dimensional (3D) formats, although cells behave more in vivo-like in 3D. To exemplify the adoption of 3D techniques in drug development, this project investigated the automation of a hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system using a liquid-handling robot. The hydrogel technology used offers high flexibility of gel design due to a modular composition of a polymer network and bioactive components. The cell inert degradation of the gel at the end of the culture period guaranteed the harmless isolation of live cells for further downstream processing. Human colon carcinoma cells HCT-116 were encapsulated and grown in these dextran-based hydrogels, thereby forming 3D multicellular spheroids. Viability and DNA content of the cells were shown to be similar in automated and manually produced hydrogels. Furthermore, cell treatment with toxic Taxol concentrations (100 nM) had the same effect on HCT-116 cell viability in manually and automated hydrogel preparations. Finally, a fully automated dose-response curve with the reference compound Taxol showed the potential of this hydrogel-based 3D cell culture system in advanced drug development.

  19. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  20. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  1. 3D-Printed Millimeter Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    demonstrates the resolution of the printer with a 10 micron nozzle. Figure 2: Measured loss tangent of SEBS and SBS samples. 3D - Printed Millimeter... 3D printing of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and styrene ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) is used to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D - printed ...Additionally, a dielectric lens is printed which improves the antenna gain of an open-ended WR-28 waveguide from 7 to 8.5 dBi. Keywords: 3D printing

  2. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia Cristian; Gabor Alin-Gabriel; Gavrilovici Andrei; Stan Adrian Tudor; Idorasi Laura; Sinescu Cosmin; Negruțiu Meda-Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, fused deposition mo...

  3. Detectors in 3D available for assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable reports on 3D devices resulting from the vertical integration of pixel sensors and readout electronics. After 3D integration steps such as etching of through-silicon vias and backside metallization of readout integrated circuits, ASICs and sensors are interconnected to form a 3D pixel detector. Various 3D detectors have been devised in AIDA WP3 and their status and performance is assessed here.

  4. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  5. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  6. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew William; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain...... on the formation of protrusions/retrusions....

  7. 3D-Printable Antimicrobial Composite Resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Zhao, Pei; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; van de Lagemaat, Marieke; Grotenhuis, Arjen; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is seen as a game-changing manufacturing process in many domains, including general medicine and dentistry, but the integration of more complex functions into 3D-printed materials remains lacking. Here, it is expanded on the repertoire of 3D-printable materials to include antimicrobial

  8. MRI-based preplanning in low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Hayashi, Shinya; Matsuo, Masayuki; Nakano, Masahiro; Kubota, Yasuaki; Maeda, Sunaho; Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Deguchi, Takashi; Hoshi, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric results between MRI-based and TRUS-based preplanning in permanent prostate brachytherapy, and to estimate the accuracy of MRI-based preplanning by comparing with CT/MRI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients were entered in this prospective study with written informed consent. MRI-based and TRUS-based preplanning were performed. The seed and needle locations were identical according to MRI-based and TRUS-based preplanning. MRI-based and TRUS-based preplanning were compared using DVH-related parameters. Following brachytherapy, the accuracy of the MRI-based preplanning was evaluated by comparing it with CT/MRI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Results: Mean MRI-based prostate volume was slightly underestimated (0.73 cc in mean volume) in comparison to TRUS-based volume. There were no significant differences in the mean DVH-related parameters except with rectal V 100 (cc) between TRUS-based and MRI-based preplanning. Mean rectal V 100 (cc) was 0.74 cc in TRUS-based and 0.29 cc in MRI-based preplanning, respectively, and the values demonstrated a statistical difference. There was no statistical difference in mean rectal V 150 (cc), and rectal V 100 (cc) between MRI-based preplanning and CT/MRI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry. Conclusion: Prostate volume estimation and DVH-related parameters in MRI-based preplanning were almost identical to TRUS-based preplanning. From the results of CT/MRI fusion-based postimplant dosimetry, MRI-based preplanning was therefore found to be a reliable and useful modality, as well as being helpful for TRUS-based preplanning. MRI-based preplanning can more accurately predict postimplant rectal dose than TRUS-based preplanning

  9. Comparison of MRI-based estimates of articular cartilage contact area in the tibiofemoral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Christopher E; Higginson, Jill S; Barrance, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) detrimentally impacts the lives of millions of older Americans through pain and decreased functional ability. Unfortunately, the pathomechanics and associated deviations from joint homeostasis that OA patients experience are not well understood. Alterations in mechanical stress in the knee joint may play an essential role in OA; however, existing literature in this area is limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of an existing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based modeling method to estimate articular cartilage contact area in vivo. Imaging data of both knees were collected on a single subject with no history of knee pathology at three knee flexion angles. Intra-observer reliability and sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the role of operator-influenced elements of the data processing on the results. The method's articular cartilage contact area estimates were compared with existing contact area estimates in the literature. The method demonstrated an intra-observer reliability of 0.95 when assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and was found to be most sensitive to changes in the cartilage tracings on the peripheries of the compartment. The articular cartilage contact area estimates at full extension were similar to those reported in the literature. The relationships between tibiofemoral articular cartilage contact area and knee flexion were also qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those previously reported. The MRI-based knee modeling method was found to have high intra-observer reliability, sensitivity to peripheral articular cartilage tracings, and agreeability with previous investigations when using data from a single healthy adult. Future studies will implement this modeling method to investigate the role that mechanical stress may play in progression of knee OA through estimation of articular cartilage contact area.

  10. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  11. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  12. 3D Printing of Fluid Flow Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Kunihiko; Sun, Yiyang; Canuto, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the use of 3D printing to physically visualize (materialize) fluid flow structures. Such 3D models can serve as a refreshing hands-on means to gain deeper physical insights into the formation of complex coherent structures in fluid flows. In this short paper, we present a general procedure for taking 3D flow field data and producing a file format that can be supplied to a 3D printer, with two examples of 3D printed flow structures. A sample code to perform this process is also prov...

  13. The Esri 3D city information model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T; Schubiger-Banz, S

    2014-01-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases

  14. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  15. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  16. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. Keywords: 3D microscopy dataset, 3D microscopy vision, 3D SEM surface reconstruction, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM

  17. A fiducial skull marker for precise MRI-based stereotaxic surgery in large animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Bech, Johannes; Tvilling, Laura; Zaer, Hamed; Orlowski, Dariusz; Fitting, Lise Moberg; Ziedler, Dora; Geneser, Michael; Sangill, Ryan; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bjarkam, Carsten Reidies; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

    2017-06-15

    Stereotaxic neurosurgery in large animals is used widely in different sophisticated models, where precision is becoming more crucial as desired anatomical target regions are becoming smaller. Individually calculated coordinates are necessary in large animal models with cortical and subcortical anatomical differences. We present a convenient method to make an MRI-visible skull fiducial for 3D MRI-based stereotaxic procedures in larger experimental animals. Plastic screws were filled with either copper-sulfate solution or MRI-visible paste from a commercially available cranial head marker. The screw fiducials were inserted in the animal skulls and T1 weighted MRI was performed allowing identification of the inserted skull marker. Both types of fiducial markers were clearly visible on the MRÍs. This allows high precision in the stereotaxic space. The use of skull bone based fiducial markers gives high precision for both targeting and evaluation of stereotaxic systems. There are no metal artifacts and the fiducial is easily removed after surgery. The fiducial marker can be used as a very precise reference point, either for direct targeting or in evaluation of other stereotaxic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Proton therapy of uveal melanomas. Intercomparison of MRI-based and conventional treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnitz, S.; Hinkelbein, W. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Charite Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Cordini, D.; Heufelder, J.; Simiantonakis, I.; Kluge, H. [Eye Tumor Therapy, Hahn-Meitner Inst., Berlin (Germany); Bendl, R. [Dept. of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Lemke, A.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Charite Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Bechrakis, N.E.; Foerster, M.H. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Charite Univ. Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Background and purpose: proton therapy for uveal melanoma provides high-conformal dose application to the target volume and, thus, an optimal saving of the organs at risk nearby. Treatment planning is done with the model-based treatment-planning system eyeplan. Tumor reconstruction is based only on a fundus composite, which often leads to an overestimation of the clinical target volume (CTV). The purpose was to exploit MRI on trial in a proton therapy-planning system by using the novel image-based treatment-planning system octopus. Patients and methods: ten patients with uveal melanomas received both a high-resolution planning CT and MRI of the eye. MR examinations were made with an eye coil. Eyeplan requires eye geometry data for modeling, and tantalum marker clips for submillimeter positioning and additional information from ultrasound and 3-D imaging. By contrast, octopus provides the full integration of 3-D imaging (e.g., CT, MRI). CTVs were delineated in each slice. For all patients, CTVs (eyeplan vs. octopus) were compared intraindividually. Results: octopus planning led to a mean reduction of the target volume by a factor of 1.7 (T1-weighted [T1w]) and 2.2 (T2w) without compromising safety. The corresponding field size could be scaled down on average by a factor of 1.2 (T1w) and 1.4 (T2w), respectively. Conclusion: compared with the conventional eyeplan, MRI-based treatment planning of ocular tumors with octopus could be a powerful tool for reducing the CTV and, consequently, the treatment volume and the field size. This might be translated into a better patient compliance during treatment and a decreased late toxicity. (orig.)

  19. Proton therapy of uveal melanomas. Intercomparison of MRI-based and conventional treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnitz, S.; Hinkelbein, W.; Cordini, D.; Heufelder, J.; Simiantonakis, I.; Kluge, H.; Bendl, R.; Lemke, A.J.; Bechrakis, N.E.; Foerster, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: proton therapy for uveal melanoma provides high-conformal dose application to the target volume and, thus, an optimal saving of the organs at risk nearby. Treatment planning is done with the model-based treatment-planning system eyeplan. Tumor reconstruction is based only on a fundus composite, which often leads to an overestimation of the clinical target volume (CTV). The purpose was to exploit MRI on trial in a proton therapy-planning system by using the novel image-based treatment-planning system octopus. Patients and methods: ten patients with uveal melanomas received both a high-resolution planning CT and MRI of the eye. MR examinations were made with an eye coil. Eyeplan requires eye geometry data for modeling, and tantalum marker clips for submillimeter positioning and additional information from ultrasound and 3-D imaging. By contrast, octopus provides the full integration of 3-D imaging (e.g., CT, MRI). CTVs were delineated in each slice. For all patients, CTVs (eyeplan vs. octopus) were compared intraindividually. Results: octopus planning led to a mean reduction of the target volume by a factor of 1.7 (T1-weighted [T1w]) and 2.2 (T2w) without compromising safety. The corresponding field size could be scaled down on average by a factor of 1.2 (T1w) and 1.4 (T2w), respectively. Conclusion: compared with the conventional eyeplan, MRI-based treatment planning of ocular tumors with octopus could be a powerful tool for reducing the CTV and, consequently, the treatment volume and the field size. This might be translated into a better patient compliance during treatment and a decreased late toxicity. (orig.)

  20. MRI-based diagnostic imaging of the intratemporal facial nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, B.; Baehren, W.

    2001-01-01

    Detailed imaging of the five sections of the full intratemporal course of the facial nerve can be achieved by MRI and using thin tomographic section techniques and surface coils. Contrast media are required for tomographic imaging of pathological processes. Established methods are available for diagnostic evaluation of cerebellopontine angle tumors and chronic Bell's palsy, as well as hemifacial spasms. A method still under discussion is MRI for diagnostic evaluation of Bell's palsy in the presence of fractures of the petrous bone, when blood volumes in the petrous bone make evaluation even more difficult. MRI-based diagnostic evaluation of the idiopatic facial paralysis currently is subject to change. Its usual application cannot be recommended for routine evaluation at present. However, a quantitative analysis of contrast medium uptake of the nerve may be an approach to improve the prognostic value of MRI in acute phases of Bell's palsy. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Apple derived cellulose scaffolds for 3D mammalian cell culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Modulevsky

    Full Text Available There are numerous approaches for producing natural and synthetic 3D scaffolds that support the proliferation of mammalian cells. 3D scaffolds better represent the natural cellular microenvironment and have many potential applications in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that 3D cellulose scaffolds produced by decellularizing apple hypanthium tissue can be employed for in vitro 3D culture of NIH3T3 fibroblasts, mouse C2C12 muscle myoblasts and human HeLa epithelial cells. We show that these cells can adhere, invade and proliferate in the cellulose scaffolds. In addition, biochemical functionalization or chemical cross-linking can be employed to control the surface biochemistry and/or mechanical properties of the scaffold. The cells retain high viability even after 12 continuous weeks of culture and can achieve cell densities comparable with other natural and synthetic scaffold materials. Apple derived cellulose scaffolds are easily produced, inexpensive and originate from a renewable source. Taken together, these results demonstrate that naturally derived cellulose scaffolds offer a complementary approach to existing techniques for the in vitro culture of mammalian cells in a 3D environment.

  2. Automatic respiration tracking for radiotherapy using optical 3D camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tuotuo; Geng, Jason; Li, Shidong

    2013-03-01

    Rapid optical three-dimensional (O3D) imaging systems provide accurate digitized 3D surface data in real-time, with no patient contact nor radiation. The accurate 3D surface images offer crucial information in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) treatments for accurate patient repositioning and respiration management. However, applications of O3D imaging techniques to image-guided radiotherapy have been clinically challenged by body deformation, pathological and anatomical variations among individual patients, extremely high dimensionality of the 3D surface data, and irregular respiration motion. In existing clinical radiation therapy (RT) procedures target displacements are caused by (1) inter-fractional anatomy changes due to weight, swell, food/water intake; (2) intra-fractional variations from anatomy changes within any treatment session due to voluntary/involuntary physiologic processes (e.g. respiration, muscle relaxation); (3) patient setup misalignment in daily reposition due to user errors; and (4) changes of marker or positioning device, etc. Presently, viable solution is lacking for in-vivo tracking of target motion and anatomy changes during the beam-on time without exposing patient with additional ionized radiation or high magnet field. Current O3D-guided radiotherapy systems relay on selected points or areas in the 3D surface to track surface motion. The configuration of the marks or areas may change with time that makes it inconsistent in quantifying and interpreting the respiration patterns. To meet the challenge of performing real-time respiration tracking using O3D imaging technology in IGRT, we propose a new approach to automatic respiration motion analysis based on linear dimensionality reduction technique based on PCA (principle component analysis). Optical 3D image sequence is decomposed with principle component analysis into a limited number of independent (orthogonal) motion patterns (a low dimension eigen-space span by eigen-vectors). New

  3. Identification of the transition arrays 3d74s-3d74p in Br X and 3d64s-3d64p in Br XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.T.; Jupen, C.; Bengtsson, P.; Engstroem, L.; Westerlind, M.; Martinson, I.

    1991-01-01

    We report a beam-foil study of multiply ionized bromine in the region 400-1300A, performed with 6 and 8 MeV Br ions from a tandem accelerator. At these energies transitions belonging to Fe-like Br X and Mn-like Br XI are expected to be prominent. We have identified 31 lines as 3d 7 4s-3d 7 4p transitions in Br X, from which 16 levels of the previously unknown 3d 7 4s configuration could be established. We have also added 6 new 3d 7 4p levels to the 99 previously known. For Br XI we have classified 9 lines as 3d 6 4s-3d 6 4p combinations. The line identifications have been corroborated by isoelectronic comparisons and theoretical calculations using the superposition-of-configurations technique. (orig.)

  4. 3D PHOTOGRAPHS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schuhr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper on providing "oo-information" (= objective object-information on cultural monuments and sites, based on 3D photographs is also a contribution of CIPA task group 3 to the 2013 CIPA Symposium in Strasbourg. To stimulate the interest in 3D photography for scientists as well as for amateurs, 3D-Masterpieces are presented. Exemplary it is shown, due to their high documentary value ("near reality", 3D photography support, e.g. the recording, the visualization, the interpretation, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. This also includes samples for excavation documentation, 3D coordinate calculation, 3D photographs applied for virtual museum purposes and as educational tools. In addition 3D photography is used for virtual museum purposes, as well as an educational tool and for spatial structure enhancement, which in particular holds for inscriptions and in rock arts. This paper is also an invitation to participate in a systematic survey on existing international archives of 3D photographs. In this respect it is also reported on first results, to define an optimum digitization rate for analog stereo views. It is more than overdue, in addition to the access to international archives for 3D photography, the available 3D photography data should appear in a global GIS(cloud-system, like on, e.g., google earth. This contribution also deals with exposing new 3D photographs to document monuments of importance for Cultural Heritage, including the use of 3D and single lense cameras from a 10m telescope staff, to be used for extremely low earth based airborne 3D photography, as well as for "underwater staff photography". In addition it is reported on the use of captive balloon and drone platforms for 3D photography in Cultural Heritage. It is liked to emphasize, the still underestimated 3D effect on real objects even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches as well as of nuances in

  5. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and

  6. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender (an open source visualization suite widely used in the entertainment and gaming industries) for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  7. Remote Collaborative 3D Printing - Process Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION Cody M. Reese, PE CAD MODEL PRINT MODEL PRINT PREVIEW PRINTED PART AERIAL VIRTUAL This...REMOTE COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Cody M. Reese...release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Remote Collaborative 3D Printing project is a collaboration between

  8. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com... geometries . The overarching challenge is to move away from traditional planar semiconductor photolitho- graphic techniques, which severely limit the type of

  9. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  10. 3D images and expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an expert system called 3D-IMPRESS for supporting applications of three dimensional (3D) image processing. This system can automatically construct a 3D image processing procedure based on a pictorial example of the goal given by a user. In the paper, to evaluate the performance of the system, it was applied to construction of procedures for extracting specific component figures from practical chest X-ray CT images. (author)

  11. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaky Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  12. Analysis of the in vitro degradation and the in vivo tissue response to bi-layered 3D-printed scaffolds combining PLA and biphasic PLA/bioglass components - Guidance of the inflammatory response as basis for osteochondral regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeck, Mike; Serra, Tiziano; Booms, Patrick; Stojanovic, Sanja; Najman, Stevo; Engel, Elisabeth; Sader, Robert; Kirkpatrick, Charles James; Navarro, Melba; Ghanaati, Shahram

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was the in vitro and in vivo analysis of a bi-layered 3D-printed scaffold combining a PLA layer and a biphasic PLA/bioglass G5 layer for regeneration of osteochondral defects in vivo Focus of the in vitro analysis was on the (molecular) weight loss and the morphological and mechanical variations after immersion in SBF. The in vivo study focused on analysis of the tissue reactions and differences in the implant bed vascularization using an established subcutaneous implantation model in CD-1 mice and established histological and histomorphometrical methods. Both scaffold parts kept their structural integrity, while changes in morphology were observed, especially for the PLA/G5 scaffold. Mechanical properties decreased with progressive degradation, while the PLA/G5 scaffolds presented higher compressive modulus than PLA scaffolds. The tissue reaction to PLA included low numbers of BMGCs and minimal vascularization of its implant beds, while the addition of G5 lead to higher numbers of BMGCs and a higher implant bed vascularization. Analysis revealed that the use of a bi-layered scaffold shows the ability to observe distinct in vivo response despite the physical proximity of PLA and PLA/G5 layers. Altogether, the results showed that the addition of G5 enables to reduce scaffold weight loss and to increase mechanical strength. Furthermore, the addition of G5 lead to a higher vascularization of the implant bed required as basis for bone tissue regeneration mediated by higher numbers of BMGCs, while within the PLA parts a significantly lower vascularization was found optimally for chondral regeneration. Thus, this data show that the analyzed bi-layered scaffold may serve as an ideal basis for the regeneration of osteochondral tissue defects. Additionally, the results show that it might be able to reduce the number of experimental animals required as it may be possible to analyze the tissue response to more than one implant in one

  13. Perspectives on Materials Science in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Materials characterization in 3D has opened a new era in materials science, which is discussed in this paper. The original motivations and visions behind the development of one of the new 3D techniques, namely the three dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) method, are presented and the route...... to its implementation is described. The present status of materials science in 3D is illustrated by examples related to recrystallization. Finally, challenges and suggestions for the future success for 3D Materials Science relating to hardware evolution, data analysis, data exchange and modeling...

  14. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  15. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  16. A 3d game in python

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    3D game has widely been accepted and loved by many game players. More and more different kinds of 3D games were developed to feed people’s needs. The most common programming language for development of 3D game is C++ nowadays. Python is a high-level scripting language. It is simple and clear. The concise syntax could speed up the development cycle. This project was to develop a 3D game using only Python. The game is about how a cat lives in the street. In order to live, the player need...

  17. Myocardial strains from 3D displacement encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindberg, Katarina; Haraldsson, Henrik; Sigfridsson, Andreas; Engvall, Jan; Ingels, Neil B Jr; Ebbers, Tino; Karlsson, Matts

    2012-01-01

    The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however. We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor. The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed method produced accurate results and showed low sensitivity to noise in the numerical phantom. The method was also demonstrated in vivo by assessment of the full strain tensor and to resolve transmural strain variations. Strain estimation within a 3D myocardial volume based on polynomial functions yields accurate and robust results when validated on an analytical model. The polynomial field is capable of resolving the measured material positions from the in vivo data, and the obtained in vivo strains values agree with previously reported myocardial strains in normal human hearts

  18. Myocardial strains from 3D displacement encoded magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindberg Katarina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE, make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however. Methods We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor. Results The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed method produced accurate results and showed low sensitivity to noise in the numerical phantom. The method was also demonstrated in vivo by assessment of the full strain tensor and to resolve transmural strain variations. Conclusions Strain estimation within a 3D myocardial volume based on polynomial functions yields accurate and robust results when validated on an analytical model. The polynomial field is capable of resolving the measured material positions from the in vivo data, and the obtained in vivo strains values agree with previously reported myocardial strains in normal human hearts.

  19. 2D/ 3D Quantitative Ultrasound of the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasief, Haidy Gerges

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death of women in the United States, so breast cancer screening for early detection is common. The purpose of this dissertation is to optimize quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods to improve the specificity and objectivity of breast ultrasound. To pursue this goal, the dissertation is divided into two parts: 1) to optimize 2D QUS, and 2) to introduce and validate 3D QUS. Previous studies had validated these methods in phantoms. Applying our QUS analysis on subcutaneous breast fat demonstrated that QUS parameter estimates for subcutaneous fat were consistent among different human subjects. This validated our in vivo data acquisition methods and supported the use of breast fat as a clinical reference tissue for ultrasound BI-RADSRTM assessments. Although current QUS methods perform well for straightforward cases when assumptions of stationarity and diffuse scattering are well-founded, these conditions often are not present due to the complicated nature of in vivo breast tissue. Key improvements in QUS algorithms to address these challenges were: 1) applying a "modified least squares method (MLSM)" to account for the heterogeneous tissue path between the transducer and the region of interest, ROI; 2) detecting anisotropy in acoustic parameters; and 3) detecting and removing the echo sources that depart from diffuse and stationary scattering conditions. The results showed that a Bayesian classifier combining three QUS parameters in a biased pool of high-quality breast ultrasound data successfully differentiated all fibroadenomas from all carcinomas. Given promising initial results in 2D, extension to 3D acquisitions in QUS provided a unique capability to test QUS for the entire breast volume. QUS parameter estimates using 3D data were consistent with those found in 2D for phantoms and in vivo data. Extensions of QUS technology from 2D to 3D can improve the specificity of breast ultrasound, and thus, could lead to

  20. Towards sustainable and clean 3D Geoinformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Ledoux, H.; Zlatanova, S.; Biljecki, F.; Kolbe, T.H.; Bill, R.; Donaubauer, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises the on going research activities of the 3D Geoinformation Group at the Delft University of Technology. The main challenge underpinning the research of this group is providing clean and appropriate 3D data about our environment in order to serve a wide variety of applications.

  1. Pattern recognition: invariants in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.

    1992-01-01

    In e + e - events, the jets have a spherical 3D symmetry. A set of invariants are defined for 3D objects with a spherical symmetry. These new invariants are used to tag the number of jets in e + e - events. (K.A.) 3 refs

  2. 3D Printing: What Are the Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2018-03-01

    As the popularity of three-dimensional (3D) printers increases, more research will be conducted to evaluate the benefits and risks of this technology. Occupational health professionals should stay abreast of new recommendations to protect workers from exposure to 3D printer emissions.

  3. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Li, Er; Dong, Weiming; Wonka, Peter; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces

  4. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  5. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Diaz, Cordero Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step

  6. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  7. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be

  8. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  9. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  10. 3D-printed cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.; Bommel, K. van; Renzetti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is an up-and-coming production technology based on layer-by-layer deposition of material to reproduce a computer-generated 3D design. Additive manufacturing is a collective term used for a variety of technologies, such as fused deposition modeling

  11. A Framework for 3d Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Frandsen, Thomas; Kapetaniou, Chrystalla

    3D printing technologies and processes offer such a radical range of options for firms that we currently lack a structured way of recording possible impact and recommending actions for managers. The changes arising from 3d printing includes more than just new options for product design, but also...

  12. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....

  13. 3D Programmable Micro Self Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bohringer, Karl F; Parviz, Babak A; Klavins, Eric

    2005-01-01

    .... We have developed a "self assembly tool box" consisting of a range of methods for micro-scale self-assembly in 2D and 3D We have shown physical demonstrations of simple 3D self-assemblies which lead...

  14. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  15. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and laminated object manufacturing. The materials are certified for printing individual impression trays, orthodontic models, gingiva mask, and different prosthetic objects. The material can reach a flexural strength of more than 80 MPa. 3D printing takes the effectiveness of digital projects to the production phase. Dental laboratories are able to produce crowns, bridges, stone models, and various orthodontic appliances by methods that combine oral scanning, 3D printing, and CAD/CAM design. Modern 3D printing has been used for the development of prototypes for several years, and it has begun to find its use in the world of manufacturing. Digital technology and 3D printing have significantly elevated the rate of success in dental implantology using custom surgical guides and improving the quality and accuracy of dental work.

  16. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  17. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  18. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic data LandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model can be manipulated interactively and better shared with colleagues. For that reason, LandSIM3D is different from traditional 3D imagery solutions, normally reserved for computer graphics experts. For more information about LandSIM3D, go to www.landsim3d.com.

  19. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  20. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  1. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  2. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  3. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  4. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  5. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  6. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  7. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  8. Development of a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Kim, M. J.; Nguyen, X. D.; Morten, K.; Go, J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, 3-dimensional in vitro cell cultures have gained much attention in biomedical sciences because of the closer relevance between in vitro cell cultures and in vivo environments. This paper presents a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system with consistent control of long-term culture conditions to mimic an in vivo microenvironment. It consists of two sudden expansion reservoirs to trap incoming air bubbles, gradient generators to provide a linear concentration, and microchannel mixers. Specifically, the air bubbles disturb a flow in the microfluidic channel resulting in the instability of the perfusion cell culture conditions. For long-term stable operation, the sudden expansion reservoir is designed to trap air bubbles by using buoyancy before they enter the culture system. The performance of the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system was examined experimentally and compared with analytical results. Finally, it was applied to test the cytotoxicity of cells infected with Ewing’s sarcoma. Cell death was observed for different concentrations of H2O2. For future work, the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system can be used to examine the behavior of cells treated with various drugs and concentrations for high-throughput drug screening.

  9. 3D printing – a key technology for tailored biomedical cell culture lab ware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmieder Florian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Today’s 3D printing technologies offer great possibilities for biomedical researchers to create their own specific laboratory equipment. With respect to the generation of ex vivo vascular perfusion systems this will enable new types of products that will embed complex 3D structures possibly coupled with cell loaded scaffolds closely reflecting the in-vivo environment. Moreover this could lead to microfluidic devices that should be available in small numbers of pieces at moderate prices. Here, we will present first results of such 3D printed cell culture systems made from plastics and show their use for scaffold based applications.

  10. Contributions of 3D Cell Cultures for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maddaly; Ramesh, Aarthi; Pattabhi, Aishwarya

    2017-10-01

    Cancer cell lines have contributed immensely in understanding the complex physiology of cancers. They are excellent material for studies as they offer homogenous samples without individual variations and can be utilised with ease and flexibility. Also, the number of assays and end-points one can study is almost limitless; with the advantage of improvising, modifying or altering several variables and methods. Literally, a new dimension to cancer research has been achieved by the advent of 3Dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques. This approach increased many folds the ways in which cancer cell lines can be utilised for understanding complex cancer biology. 3D cell culture techniques are now the preferred way of using cancer cell lines to bridge the gap between the 'absolute in vitro' and 'true in vivo'. The aspects of cancer biology that 3D cell culture systems have contributed include morphology, microenvironment, gene and protein expression, invasion/migration/metastasis, angiogenesis, tumour metabolism and drug discovery, testing chemotherapeutic agents, adaptive responses and cancer stem cells. We present here, a comprehensive review on the applications of 3D cell culture systems for these aspects of cancers. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2679-2697, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. MRI-based N-staging in esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupski, G.; Lorenzen, J.; Nicolas, V.; Adam, G.; Gawad, K.; Izbicki, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: For planning the therapeutic strategies and estimating the prognosis in esophageal cancer, N-staging is very important. To date, MRI still is of minor importance as imaging modality of the mediastinum despite promising developments in the past, like ECG-gating or 'averaging' sequences, e.g. LOTA (Long-term averaging), which facilitate mediastinal and thoracic MR-imaging. In a prospective approach, the value of MRI based N-staging was examined with respect to LOTA-sequences. Material and Methods: Within from weeks prior to esophagectomy, standardized MRI of the esophagus was performed in 15 patients (10 squamous-cell-carcinomas and 5 adenocarcinomas) using a 1.5 T whole body scanner. Imaging quality was classified based on depiction of aortic wall or tracheal wall layers. Criteria for malignant infiltration were a diameter of more than 15 mm or a round appearance of a lymph node together with GD-DTPA enhancement. All data were blinded and separately read by two radiologists. The data of the study were compared with those from the pathological workup of the resected specimen. Results: MRI had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 78% for lymph node metastases. Due to incomplete depiction of the celiac trunk (M1), nodal metastasis in a non-enlarged node was missed. Conclusion: With modern MRI, N-staging is almost as accurate as the gold standard endoscopic ultrasound and should particularly be used in patients not suited for an endoscopic ultrasound examination. (orig.) [de

  12. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  13. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  14. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  15. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  16. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  17. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Norman A

    2012-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  18. Advanced 3D Printers for Cellular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    06-2016 1-Aug-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...2211 3d printing, cellular solids REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8...Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids Report Title Final Report for DURIP grant W911NF

  19. Pharmacophore definition and 3D searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, T; Wolber, G

    2004-12-01

    The most common pharmacophore building concepts based on either 3D structure of the target or ligand information are discussed together with the application of such models as queries for 3D database search. An overview of the key techniques available on the market is given and differences with respect to algorithms used and performance obtained are highlighted. Pharmacophore modelling and 3D database search are shown to be successful tools for enriching screening experiments aimed at the discovery of novel bio-active compounds.: © 2004 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  20. 3D radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, M

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres is reviewed with special emphasis on the atmospheres of cool stars and applications. A short review of methods in 3D radiative transfer shows that mature methods exist, both for taking into account radiation as an energy transport mechanism in 3D (magneto-) hydrodynamical simulations of stellar atmospheres and for the diagnostic problem of calculating the emergent spectrum in more detail from such models, both assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and in non-LTE. Such methods have been implemented in several codes, and examples of applications are given.

  1. Nonperturbative summation over 3D discrete topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David

    2003-01-01

    The group field theories realizing the sum over all triangulations of all topologies of 3D discrete gravity amplitudes are known to be nonuniquely Borel summable. We modify these models to construct a new group field theory which is proved to be uniquely Borel summable, defining in an unambiguous way a nonperturbative sum over topologies in the context of 3D dynamical triangulations and spin foam models. Moreover, we give some arguments to support the fact that, despite our modification, this new model is similar to the original one, and therefore could be taken as a definition of the sum over topologies of 3D quantum gravity amplitudes

  2. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, N.N.

    2002-11-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnation points between 2D and 3D computations. The inner most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed. (au)

  3. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  4. [3D planning in maxillofacial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, R; Zweifel, D; Lanthemann, E; Zrounba, H; Broome, M

    2014-10-01

    The development of new technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) planning has changed the everyday practice in maxillofacial surgery. Rapid prototyping associated with the 3D planning has also enabled the creation of patient specific surgical tools, such as cutting guides. As with all new technologies, uses, practicalities, cost effectiveness and especially benefits for the patients have to be carefully evaluated. In this paper, several examples of 3D planning that have been used in our institution are presented. The advantages such as the accuracy of the reconstructive surgery and decreased operating time, as well as the difficulties have also been addressed.

  5. Participation and 3D Visualization Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Jensen, Mikkel Holm; Henriksen, Sune

    2004-01-01

    With a departure point in a workshop held at the VR Media Lab at Aalborg University , this paper deals with aspects of public participation and the use of 3D visualisation tools. The workshop grew from a desire to involve a broad collaboration between the many actors in the city through using new...... perceptions of architectural representation in urban design where 3D visualisation techniques are used. It is the authors? general finding that, while 3D visualisation media have the potential to increase understanding of virtual space for the lay public, as well as for professionals, the lay public require...

  6. 3D Bio-Printing Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianbin

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace pathological or necrotic body tissue or organ by artificial tissue or organ and tissue engineering is a very promising research field. 3D bio-printing is a kind of emerging technologies and a branch of tissue engineering. It has made significant progress in the past decade. 3D bio-printing can realize tissue and organ construction in vitro and has wide application in basic research and pharmacy. This paper is to make an analysis and review on 3D bio-printing from the perspectives of bioink, printing technology and technology application.

  7. 3D printed magnetic polymer composite transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey M.; Hilpisch, Peter J.; Mowry, Greg S.; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of 3D printing a transformer core using fused deposition modeling methods is explored. With the use of additive manufacturing, ideal transformer core geometries can be achieved in order to produce a more efficient transformer. In this work, different 3D printed settings and toroidal geometries are tested using a custom integrated magnetic circuit capable of measuring the hysteresis loop of a transformer. These different properties are then characterized, and it was determined the most effective 3D printed transformer core requires a high fill factor along with a high concentration of magnetic particulate.

  8. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-01-01

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results

  9. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  10. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...... most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed....

  11. FUN3D Manual: 13.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2018-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.3, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  12. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  13. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  14. FUN3D Manual: 13.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.2, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  15. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  16. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. Determination of the 3d34d and 3d35s configurations of Fe V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of the spectrum of four times ionized iron, Fe V, has led to the determination of the 3d 3 4d and 3d 3 5s configurations. From 975 classified lines in the region 645-1190 A we have established 123 of 168 theoretically possible 3d 3 4d levels and 26 of 38 possible 3d 3 5s levels. The estimated accuracy of values of energy levels of these two configurations is about 0.7 cm -1 and 1.0 cm -1 , respectively. The level structure of the system of the 3d 4 , 3d 3 4s, 3d 3 4d and 3d 3 5s configurations has been theoretically interpreted and the energy parameters have been determined by a least squares fit to the observed levels. A comparison of parameters in Cr III and Fe V ions is given. (orig.)

  19. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...

  20. Quantitative 3-D imaging topogrammetry for telemedicine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Bruce R.

    1994-01-01

    The technology to reliably transmit high-resolution visual imagery over short to medium distances in real time has led to the serious considerations of the use of telemedicine, telepresence, and telerobotics in the delivery of health care. These concepts may involve, and evolve toward: consultation from remote expert teaching centers; diagnosis; triage; real-time remote advice to the surgeon; and real-time remote surgical instrument manipulation (telerobotics with virtual reality). Further extrapolation leads to teledesign and telereplication of spare surgical parts through quantitative teleimaging of 3-D surfaces tied to CAD/CAM devices and an artificially intelligent archival data base of 'normal' shapes. The ability to generate 'topogrames' or 3-D surface numerical tables of coordinate values capable of creating computer-generated virtual holographic-like displays, machine part replication, and statistical diagnostic shape assessment is critical to the progression of telemedicine. Any virtual reality simulation will remain in 'video-game' realm until realistic dimensional and spatial relational inputs from real measurements in vivo during surgeries are added to an ever-growing statistical data archive. The challenges of managing and interpreting this 3-D data base, which would include radiographic and surface quantitative data, are considerable. As technology drives toward dynamic and continuous 3-D surface measurements, presenting millions of X, Y, Z data points per second of flexing, stretching, moving human organs, the knowledge base and interpretive capabilities of 'brilliant robots' to work as a surgeon's tireless assistants becomes imaginable. The brilliant robot would 'see' what the surgeon sees--and more, for the robot could quantify its 3-D sensing and would 'see' in a wider spectral range than humans, and could zoom its 'eyes' from the macro world to long-distance microscopy. Unerring robot hands could rapidly perform machine-aided suturing with

  1. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  2. 3D-modeling and 3D-printing explorations on Japanese tea ceremony utensils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, P.D.; Yamada, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we inquire aesthetical aspects of the Japanese tea ceremony, described as the aesthetics in the imperfection, based on novel fabrication technologies: 3D-modeling and 3D-printing. To do so, 3D-printed utensils (chashaku and chasen) were iteratively designed for the ceremony and were

  3. 3D in vitro technology for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2012-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro systems that can mimic organ and tissue structure and function in vivo, will be of great benefit for a variety of biological applications from basic biology to toxicity testing and drug discovery. There have been several attempts to generate 3D tissue models but most of these models require costly equipment, and the most serious disadvantage in them is that they are too far from the mature human organs in vivo. Because of these problems, research and development in drug discovery, toxicity testing and biotech industries are highly expensive, and involve sacrifice of countless animals and it takes several years to bring a single drug/product to the market or to find the toxicity or otherwise of chemical entities. Our group has been actively working on several alternative models by merging biomaterials science, nanotechnology and biological principles to generate 3D in vitro living organs, to be called "Human Organs-on-Chip", to mimic natural organ/tissues, in order to reduce animal testing and clinical trials. We have fabricated a novel type of mechanically and biologically bio-mimicking collagen-based hydrogel that would provide for interconnected mini-wells in which 3D cell/organ culture of human samples in a manner similar to human organs with extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules would be possible. These products mimic the physical, chemical, and biological properties of natural organs and tissues at different scales. This paper will review the outcome of our several experiments so far in this direction and the future perspectives.

  4. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  5. Tissue and Organ 3D Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zengmin; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables the creation of tissue constructs with heterogeneous compositions and complex architectures. It was initially used for preparing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It has recently been adopted to create living tissues, such as cartilage, skin, and heart valve. To facilitate vascularization, hollow channels have been created in the hydrogels by 3D bioprinting. This review discusses the state of the art of the technology, along with a broad range of biomaterials used for 3D bioprinting. It provides an update on recent developments in bioprinting and its applications. 3D bioprinting has profound impacts on biomedical research and industry. It offers a new way to industrialize tissue biofabrication. It has great potential for regenerating tissues and organs to overcome the shortage of organ transplantation.

  6. Mobile 3D Viewer Supporting RFID System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J J; Yang, S W; Choi, Y [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    As hardware capabilities of mobile devices are being rapidly enhanced, applications based upon mobile devices are also being developed in wider areas. In this paper, a prototype mobile 3D viewer with the object identification through RFID system is presented. To visualize 3D engineering data such as CAD data, we need a process to compute triangulated data from boundary based surface like B-rep solid or trimmed surfaces. Since existing rendering engines on mobile devices do not provide triangulation capability, mobile 3D programs have focused only on an efficient handling with pre-tessellated geometry. We have developed a light and fast triangulation process based on constrained Delaunay triangulation suitable for mobile devices in the previous research. This triangulation software is used as a core for the mobile 3D viewer on a PDA with RFID system that may have potentially wide applications in many areas.

  7. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  8. 3D Maps Representation Using GNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Morell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current RGB-D sensors provide a big amount of valuable information for mobile robotics tasks like 3D map reconstruction, but the storage and processing of the incremental data provided by the different sensors through time quickly become unmanageable. In this work, we focus on 3D maps representation and propose the use of the Growing Neural Gas (GNG network as a model to represent 3D input data. GNG method is able to represent the input data with a desired amount of neurons or resolution while preserving the topology of the input space. Experiments show how GNG method yields a better input space adaptation than other state-of-the-art 3D map representation methods.

  9. Advances in 3D neuronal cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimat, Jean Philippe; Xie, Sijia; Bastiaens, Alex; Schurink, Bart; Wolbers, Floor; Den Toonder, Jaap; Luttge, Regina

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors present our advances in three-dimensional (3D) neuronal cell culture platform technology contributing to controlled environments for microtissue engineering and analysis of cellular physiological and pathological responses. First, a micromachined silicon sieving

  10. 3D VISUALIZATION FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skamantzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  11. Intrinsic defects in 3D printed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Christopher; Dagastine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of bulk structural defects on the coherence, phase and polarisation of light passing through transparent 3D printed materials fabricated using a variety of commercial print technologies.

  12. Mobile 3D Viewer Supporting RFID System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. J.; Yang, S. W.; Choi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    As hardware capabilities of mobile devices are being rapidly enhanced, applications based upon mobile devices are also being developed in wider areas. In this paper, a prototype mobile 3D viewer with the object identification through RFID system is presented. To visualize 3D engineering data such as CAD data, we need a process to compute triangulated data from boundary based surface like B-rep solid or trimmed surfaces. Since existing rendering engines on mobile devices do not provide triangulation capability, mobile 3D programs have focused only on an efficient handling with pre-tessellated geometry. We have developed a light and fast triangulation process based on constrained Delaunay triangulation suitable for mobile devices in the previous research. This triangulation software is used as a core for the mobile 3D viewer on a PDA with RFID system that may have potentially wide applications in many areas

  13. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Gollaz Morales, Jose Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  14. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  15. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Hadwiger, Markus; Ben Romdhane, Mohamed; Behzad, Ali Reza; Madhavan, Poornima; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore

  16. 3D-printed Bioanalytical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  17. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  18. Expedient Gap Definition Using 3D LADAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Lulu; Jersey, Sarah R

    2006-01-01

    .... Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), ASI has developed an algorithm to reduce the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D profiles that describe the terrain...

  19. 3D modeling of the marine relief

    OpenAIRE

    Mànuel-González, Bernat; Garcia Benadí, Albert; Río Fernandez, Joaquín del; Cadena Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The article detail the systematic process for transformation the 2D representation to 3D representation, likewise the systematic process for gather up of data, and the considerations and instrumentation necessary for this action. Peer Reviewed

  20. 3D Visualization for Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, A. W.; Larsen, K.; Brain, D.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed visualization tools for viewing planetary orbiters and science data in 3D for both Earth and Mars, using the Cesium Javascript library, allowing viewers to visualize the position and orientation of spacecraft and science data.

  1. Lightning fast animation in Element 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Audronis, Ty

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow and all-inclusive guide, in which the underlying principles of 3D animation as well as their importance are explained in detail. The lessons are designed to teach you how to think of 3D animation in such a way that you can troubleshoot any problem, or animate any scene that comes your way.If you are a Digital Artist, Animation Artist, or a Game Programmer and you want to become an expert in Element 3D, this is the book for you. Although there are a lot of basics for beginners in this book, it includes some advanced techniques for both animating in Element 3D, and overcoming i

  2. Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.

  3. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanen, Akkari; Imen, Bhouri; Asma, Ben Abdallah; Patrick, Dubois; Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  4. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  5. The Idaho Virtualization Laboratory 3D Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Holmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D virtualization and visualization is an important component of industry, art, museum curation and cultural heritage, yet the step by step process of 3D virtualization has been little discussed. Here we review the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory’s (IVL process of virtualizing a cultural heritage item (artifact from start to finish. Each step is thoroughly explained and illustrated including how the object and its metadata are digitally preserved and ultimately distributed to the world.

  6. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  7. Making 3D movies of Northern Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivon, Eric; Mouette, Jean; Legault, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    We describe the steps necessary to create three-dimensional (3D) movies of Northern Lights or Aurorae Borealis out of real-time images taken with two distant high-resolution fish-eye cameras. Astrometric reconstruction of the visible stars is used to model the optical mapping of each camera and correct for it in order to properly align the two sets of images. Examples of the resulting movies can be seen at http://www.iap.fr/aurora3d

  8. Seismic processing using Parallel 3D FMM

    OpenAIRE

    Borlaug, Idar

    2007-01-01

    This thesis develops and tests 3D Fast Marching Method (FMM) algorithm and apply these to seismic simulations. The FMM is a general method for monotonically advancing fronts, originally developed by Sethian. It calculates the first arrival time for an advancing front or wave. FMM methods are used for a variety of applications including, fatigue cracks in materials, lymph node segmentation in CT images, computing skeletons and centerlines in 3D objects and for finding salt formations in seismi...

  9. Recognition of Symmetric 3D Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2014), s. 722-757 ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : rotation symmetry * reflection symmetry * 3D complex moments * 3D rotation invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.826, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/suk-0431156.pdf

  10. Simulation of spatiotemporal CT data sets using a 4D MRI-based lung motion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Mirko; Ehrhardt, Jan; Werner, René; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Handels, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Four-dimensional CT imaging is widely used to account for motion-related effects during radiotherapy planning of lung cancer patients. However, 4D CT often contains motion artifacts, cannot be used to measure motion variability, and leads to higher dose exposure. In this article, we propose using 4D MRI to acquire motion information for the radiotherapy planning process. From the 4D MRI images, we derive a time-continuous model of the average patient-specific respiratory motion, which is then applied to simulate 4D CT data based on a static 3D CT. The idea of the motion model is to represent the average lung motion over a respiratory cycle by cyclic B-spline curves. The model generation consists of motion field estimation in the 4D MRI data by nonlinear registration, assigning respiratory phases to the motion fields, and applying a B-spline approximation on a voxel-by-voxel basis to describe the average voxel motion over a breathing cycle. To simulate a patient-specific 4D CT based on a static CT of the patient, a multi-modal registration strategy is introduced to transfer the motion model from MRI to the static CT coordinates. Differences between model-based estimated and measured motion vectors are on average 1.39 mm for amplitude-based binning of the 4D MRI data of three patients. In addition, the MRI-to-CT registration strategy is shown to be suitable for the model transformation. The application of our 4D MRI-based motion model for simulating 4D CT images provides advantages over standard 4D CT (less motion artifacts, radiation-free). This makes it interesting for radiotherapy planning.

  11. 3D Viscoelastic Traction Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M.; Henann, David L.; Franck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in-vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels. PMID:25170569

  12. ASSESSING 3D PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES IN CRANIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Moshobane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  13. Endodontic applications of 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Wealleans, J; Ray, J

    2018-02-27

    Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies can leverage cone beam computed tomography data for production of objects used in surgical and nonsurgical endodontics and in educational settings. The aim of this article was to review all current applications of 3D printing in endodontics and to speculate upon future directions for research and clinical use within the specialty. A literature search of PubMed, Ovid and Scopus was conducted using the following terms: stereolithography, 3D printing, computer aided rapid prototyping, surgical guide, guided endodontic surgery, guided endodontic access, additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping, autotransplantation rapid prototyping, CAD, CAM. Inclusion criteria were articles in the English language documenting endodontic applications of 3D printing. Fifty-one articles met inclusion criteria and were utilized. The endodontic literature on 3D printing is generally limited to case reports and pre-clinical studies. Documented solutions to endodontic challenges include: guided access with pulp canal obliteration, applications in autotransplantation, pre-surgical planning and educational modelling and accurate location of osteotomy perforation sites. Acquisition of technical expertise and equipment within endodontic practices present formidable obstacles to widespread deployment within the endodontic specialty. As knowledge advances, endodontic postgraduate programmes should consider implementing 3D printing into their curriculums. Future research directions should include clinical outcomes assessments of treatments employing 3D printed objects. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Towards next generation 3D cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit

    2017-03-01

    We are in the midst of a 3D revolution. Robots enabled by 3D cameras are beginning to autonomously drive cars, perform surgeries, and manage factories. However, when deployed in the real-world, these cameras face several challenges that prevent them from measuring 3D shape reliably. These challenges include large lighting variations (bright sunlight to dark night), presence of scattering media (fog, body tissue), and optically complex materials (metal, plastic). Due to these factors, 3D imaging is often the bottleneck in widespread adoption of several key robotics technologies. I will talk about our work on developing 3D cameras based on time-of-flight and active triangulation that addresses these long-standing problems. This includes designing `all-weather' cameras that can perform high-speed 3D scanning in harsh outdoor environments, as well as cameras that recover shape of objects with challenging material properties. These cameras are, for the first time, capable of measuring detailed (robotic inspection and assembly systems.

  15. 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Yost, Michael; Markwald, Roger; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    3D bioprinting holds remarkable promise for rapid fabrication of 3D tissue engineering constructs. Given its scalability, reproducibility, and precise multi-dimensional control that traditional fabrication methods do not provide, 3D bioprinting provides a powerful means to address one of the major challenges in tissue engineering: vascularization. Moderate success of current tissue engineering strategies have been attributed to the current inability to fabricate thick tissue engineering constructs that contain endogenous, engineered vasculature or nutrient channels that can integrate with the host tissue. Successful fabrication of a vascularized tissue construct requires synergy between high throughput, high-resolution bioprinting of larger perfusable channels and instructive bioink that promotes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the field of 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. It will cover the methods of bioprinting vascularized constructs, bioink for vascularization, and perspectives on recent innovations in 3D printing and biomaterials for the next generation of 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication. PMID:27230253

  16. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  17. Development of a 3D bone marrow adipose tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfield, Heather; Falank, Carolyne; Farrell, Mariah; Vary, Calvin; Boucher, Joshua M; Driscoll, Heather; Liaw, Lucy; Rosen, Clifford J; Reagan, Michaela R

    2018-01-26

    Over the past twenty years, evidence has accumulated that biochemically and spatially defined networks of extracellular matrix, cellular components, and interactions dictate cellular differentiation, proliferation, and function in a variety of tissue and diseases. Modeling in vivo systems in vitro has been undeniably necessary, but when simplified 2D conditions rather than 3D in vitro models are used, the reliability and usefulness of the data derived from these models decreases. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop and validate reliable in vitro models to reproduce specific tissue-like structures and mimic functions and responses of cells in a more realistic manner for both drug screening/disease modeling and tissue regeneration applications. In adipose biology and cancer research, these models serve as physiologically relevant 3D platforms to bridge the divide between 2D cultures and in vivo models, bringing about more reliable and translationally useful data to accelerate benchtop to bedside research. Currently, no model has been developed for bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), a novel adipose depot that has previously been overlooked as "filler tissue" but has more recently been recognized as endocrine-signaling and systemically relevant. Herein we describe the development of the first 3D, BMAT model derived from either human or mouse bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We found that BMAT models can be stably cultured for at least 3 months in vitro, and that myeloma cells (5TGM1, OPM2 and MM1S cells) can be cultured on these for at least 2 weeks. Upon tumor cell co-culture, delipidation occurred in BMAT adipocytes, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between these two important cell types in the malignant BM niche. Overall, our studies suggest that 3D BMAT represents a "healthier," more realistic tissue model that may be useful for elucidating the effects of MAT on tumor cells, and tumor cells on MAT, to identify novel therapeutic

  18. 3D for free using the Mac's standard apps : converting raw 3D text files to QuickDraw 3D's 3DMF format using AppleScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajadiningrat, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces you to the basics of 3D files in general and the 3D Metafile (3DMF), QuickDraw 3D's native 3D format, in particular. It shows how you can use AppleScript to easily convert a raw 3D text file into a 3DMF readable by the QuickDraw 3D Viewer or any other QuickDraw 3D compatible

  19. Bottom-Up Engineering of Well-Defined 3D Microtissues Using Microplatforms and Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geon Hui; Lee, Jae Seo; Wang, Xiaohong; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-07

    During the last decades, the engineering of well-defined 3D tissues has attracted great attention because it provides in vivo mimicking environment and can be a building block for the engineering of bioartificial organs. In this Review, diverse engineering methods of 3D tissues using microscale devices are introduced. Recent progress of microtechnologies has enabled the development of microplatforms for bottom-up assembly of diverse shaped 3D tissues consisting of various cells. Micro hanging-drop plates, microfluidic chips, and arrayed microwells are the typical examples. The encapsulation of cells in hydrogel microspheres and microfibers allows the engineering of 3D microtissues with diverse shapes. Applications of 3D microtissues in biomedical fields are described, and the future direction of microplatform-based engineering of 3D micro-tissues is discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print ...

  1. 3-D repositioning and differential images of volumetric CT measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, B.; Rueegsegger, P.

    1993-01-01

    In quantitative computed tomography (QCT), time serial measurements are performed to detect a global bone density loss or to identify localized bone density changes. A prerequisite for an unambiguous analysis is the comparison of identical bone volumes. Usually, manual repositioning is too coarse. The authors therefore developed a mathematical procedure that allows matching two three-dimensional image volumes. The algorithm is based on correlation techniques. The procedure has been optimized and applied to computer-tomographic 3-D images of the human knee. It has been tested with both artificially created and in vivo measured image data. Furthermore, typical results of differential images calculated from real bone measurements are presented

  2. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  3. 3D deblending of simultaneous source data based on 3D multi-scale shaping operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Shaohuan; Zhou, Hui; Mao, Weijian; Gong, Fei; Huang, Weilin

    2018-04-01

    We propose an iterative three-dimensional (3D) deblending scheme using 3D multi-scale shaping operator to separate 3D simultaneous source data. The proposed scheme is based on the property that signal is coherent, whereas interference is incoherent in some domains, e.g., common receiver domain and common midpoint domain. In two-dimensional (2D) blended record, the coherency difference of signal and interference is in only one spatial direction. Compared with 2D deblending, the 3D deblending can take more sparse constraints into consideration to obtain better performance, e.g., in 3D common receiver gather, the coherency difference is in two spatial directions. Furthermore, with different levels of coherency, signal and interference distribute in different scale curvelet domains. In both 2D and 3D blended records, most coherent signal locates in coarse scale curvelet domain, while most incoherent interference distributes in fine scale curvelet domain. The scale difference is larger in 3D deblending, thus, we apply the multi-scale shaping scheme to further improve the 3D deblending performance. We evaluate the performance of 3D and 2D deblending with the multi-scale and global shaping operators, respectively. One synthetic and one field data examples demonstrate the advantage of the 3D deblending with 3D multi-scale shaping operator.

  4. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Meghan F; Hurt, Darrell E; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education.

  5. 3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Min; Yoo, Eun-Joo; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Yoonae A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r = 0.034, p = 0.33; headache, r = 0.320, p = 0.119; eye fatigue, r = 0.135, p = 0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may

  6. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  7. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using...... method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban...... objects. In this research, the authors propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA...

  8. 3D-mallien muokkaus 3D-tulostamista varten CAD-ohjelmilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Insinöörityössäni käsitellään 3D-mallien tulostamista ja erityisesti 3D-mallien mallintamista niin, että kappaleiden valmistaminen 3D-tulostimella onnistuisi mahdollisimman hyvin. Työ tehtiin Prohoc Oy:lle, joka sijaitsee Vaasassa. 3D-tulostuspalveluun tuli jatkuvasti 3D-malleja, joiden tulostuksessa oli ongelmia. Työssäni tutkin näiden ongelmien syntyä ja tein ohjeita eri 3D-mallinnusohjelmille, joiden tarkoituksena on auttaa tekemään helpommin tulostettavia 3D-malleja. Työhön kuului myös et...

  9. The 3d4-3d34p transitions of triply ionized manganese (Mn IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchang-Brillet, W.Ue.L.; Artru, M.C.; Wyart, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of Mn IV is extended in the wavelength range 473-847 A. A total of 600 classified lines are given, of which 372 are newly observed. All of them are due to 3d 4 -3d 3 4p transitions. Their classification and the identification of 59 new levels are supported by the parametric studies of the 3d 4 and 3d 3 4p configurations. The ground configuration 3d 4 is calculated by taking into account the effective magnetic interactions which improve by an order of magnitude the theoretical fine structure of the quintet and triplet terms. The analysis was guided by the prediction of relative line strengths in intermediate coupling. Calculated energies and LS composition are given for all levels of the configuration, 3d 4 and 3d 3 4p. (orig).

  10. 3D analysis of semiconductor devices: A combination of 3D imaging and 3D elemental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bianzhu; Gribelyuk, Michael A.

    2018-04-01

    3D analysis of semiconductor devices using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) Z-contrast tomography and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental tomography is presented. 3D STEM Z-contrast tomography is useful in revealing the depth information of the sample. However, it suffers from contrast problems between materials with similar atomic numbers. Examples of EDS elemental tomography are presented using an automated EDS tomography system with batch data processing, which greatly reduces the data collection and processing time. 3D EDS elemental tomography reveals more in-depth information about the defect origin in semiconductor failure analysis. The influence of detector shadowing and X-rays absorption on the EDS tomography's result is also discussed.

  11. 3D printed e-tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Gabriel; da Silva, Tatiana A.; Gaál, Vladimir; Hensel, Rafael C.; Amaral, Lucas R.; Rodrigues, Varlei; Riul, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest issues addressed to electronic sensor fabrication is the build-up of efficient electrodes as an alternative way to the expensive, complex and multistage processes required by traditional techniques. Printed electronics arises as an interesting alternative to fulfill this task due to the simplicity and speed to stamp electrodes on various surfaces. Within this context, the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing is an emerging, cost-effective and alternative technology to fabricate complex structures that potentiates several fields with more creative ideas and new materials for a rapid prototyping of devices. We show here the fabrication of interdigitated electrodes using a standard home-made CoreXY 3D printer using transparent and graphene-based PLA filaments. Macro 3D printed electrodes were easily assembled within 6 minutes with outstanding reproducibility. The electrodes were also functionalized with different nanostructured thin films via dip-coating Layer-by-Layer technique to develop a 3D printed e-tongue setup. As a proof of concept, the printed e-tongue was applied to soil analysis. A control soil sample was enriched with several macro-nutrients to the plants (N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca) and the discrimination was done by electrical impedance spectroscopy of water solution of the soil samples. The data was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the 3D printed sensor distinguished clearly all enriched samples despite the complexity of the soil chemical composition. The 3D printed e-tongue successfully used in soil analysis encourages further investments in developing new sensory tools for precision agriculture and other fields exploiting the simplicity and flexibility offered by the 3D printing techniques.

  12. 3-D image reconstruction in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangeat, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this course, we present highlights on fully 3-D image reconstruction algorithms used in 3-D X-ray Computed Tomography (3-D-CT) and 3-D Rotational Radiography (3-D-RR). We first consider the case of spiral CT with a one-row detector. Starting from the 2-D fan-beam inversion formula for a circular trajectory, we introduce spiral CT 3-D image reconstruction algorithm using axial interpolation for each transverse slice. In order to improve the X-ray detection efficiency and to speed the acquisition process, the future is to use multi-row detectors associated with small angle cone-beam geometry. The generalization of the 2-D fan-beam image reconstruction algorithm to cone beam defined direct inversion formula referred as Feldkamp's algorithm for a circular trajectory and Wang's algorithm for a spiral trajectory. However, large area detectors does exist such as Radiological Image Intensifiers or in a near future solid state detectors. To get a larger zoom effect, it defines a cone-beam geometry associated with a large aperture angle. For this case, we introduce indirect image reconstruction algorithm by plane re-binning in the Radon domain. We will present some results from a prototype MORPHOMETER device using the RADON reconstruction software. Lastly, we consider the special case of 3-D Rotational Digital Subtraction Angiography with a restricted number of views. We introduce constraint optimization algorithm using quadratic, entropic or half-quadratic constraints. Generalized ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) iterative reconstruction algorithm can be derived from the Bregman algorithm. We present reconstructed vascular trees from a prototype MORPHOMETER device. (author)

  13. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  14. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies. (paper)

  15. 3D Reasoning from Blocks to Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoyin Jia; Gallagher, Andrew C; Saxena, Ashutosh; Chen, Tsuhan

    2015-05-01

    Objects occupy physical space and obey physical laws. To truly understand a scene, we must reason about the space that objects in it occupy, and how each objects is supported stably by each other. In other words, we seek to understand which objects would, if moved, cause other objects to fall. This 3D volumetric reasoning is important for many scene understanding tasks, ranging from segmentation of objects to perception of a rich 3D, physically well-founded, interpretations of the scene. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to parse a single RGB-D image with 3D block units while jointly reasoning about the segments, volumes, supporting relationships, and object stability. Our algorithm is based on the intuition that a good 3D representation of the scene is one that fits the depth data well, and is a stable, self-supporting arrangement of objects (i.e., one that does not topple). We design an energy function for representing the quality of the block representation based on these properties. Our algorithm fits 3D blocks to the depth values corresponding to image segments, and iteratively optimizes the energy function. Our proposed algorithm is the first to consider stability of objects in complex arrangements for reasoning about the underlying structure of the scene. Experimental results show that our stability-reasoning framework improves RGB-D segmentation and scene volumetric representation.

  16. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daaviittila, A.

    2003-10-01

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  18. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions

  19. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  20. Optimization of 3D Field Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nikolas; Zhu, Caoxiang

    2017-10-01

    Recent progress in 3D tokamak modeling is now leveraged to create a conceptual design of new external 3D field coils for the DIII-D tokamak. Using the IPEC dominant mode as a target spectrum, the Finding Optimized Coils Using Space-curves (FOCUS) code optimizes the currents and 3D geometry of multiple coils to maximize the total set's resonant coupling. The optimized coils are individually distorted in space, creating toroidal ``arrays'' containing a variety of shapes that often wrap around a significant poloidal extent of the machine. The generalized perturbed equilibrium code (GPEC) is used to determine optimally efficient spectra for driving total, core, and edge neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque and these too provide targets for the optimization of 3D coil designs. These conceptual designs represent a fundamentally new approach to 3D coil design for tokamaks targeting desired plasma physics phenomena. Optimized coil sets based on plasma response theory will be relevant to designs for future reactors or on any active machine. External coils, in particular, must be optimized for reliable and efficient fusion reactor designs. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. 3-D MRI for lumbar degenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aota, Yoichi; Kumano, Kiyoshi; Hirabayashi, Shigeru; Ogawa, Yu; Izumi, Yasujiro; Yoshikawa, Koki; Yamazaki, Tatsuo.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained from 10 patients with lumbar degenerative diseases were retrospectively reviewed to determine how far 3-D MR imaging is capable of demonstrating nerve roots. In 8 of the 10 patients, the area up to the dorsal root ganglion was visualized on 3-D MR images. Thus, it is capable of detecting a wide area of nerve roots, thereby allowing the determination of running of nerve root, and size and location of dorsal root ganglion. In delineating the area from the dural canal to root cyst, 3-D MR imaging was equal to conventional myelography. The former was superior to the latter in detecting the positional relation between the degenerative intervertebral disc and the nerve root, and herniation-compressed root cyst. In 3 of 9 patients who presented with root symptoms, disturbed nerve roots were of high signal on 3-D MR images. This may suggest that it has the potential for selectively detecting root nerves associated with clinical manifestations. (N.K.)

  2. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  3. Characterizing 3D sensors using the 3D modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Timo; Breitbarth, Andreas; Zhang, Chen; Notni, Gunther

    2018-03-01

    The fields of optical 3D measurement system applications are continuously expanding and becoming more and more diverse. To evaluate appropriate systems for various measurement tasks, comparable parameters are necessary, whereas the 3D modulation transfer function (3D-MTF) has been established as a further criterion. Its aim is the determination of the system response between the measurement of a straight, sharp-edged cube and its opposite ideal calculated one. Within the scope of this work simulations and practical investigations regarding the 3D-MTF’s influences and its main issues are specifically investigated. Therefore, different determined edge radii representing the high-frequency spectra lead to various decreasing 3D-MTF characteristics. Furthermore, rising sampling frequencies improve its maximum transfer value to a saturation point in dependence of the radius. To approve these results of previous simulations, three fringe projection scanners were selected to determine the diversity. As the best 3D-MTF characteristic, a saturated transfer value of H_3D( f_N, 3D) = 0.79 has been identified at a sufficient sampling frequency, which is reached at four times the Nyquist limit. This high 3D resolution can mainly be achieved due to an improved camera projector interaction. Additionally, too small sampling ratios lead to uncertainties in the edge function determination, while higher ratios do not show major improvements. In conclusion, the 3D-MTF algorithm has thus been practically verified and its repeatability as well as its robustness have been confirmed.

  4. In situ repair of bone and cartilage defects using 3D scanning and 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Yu, Fei; Shi, Jianping; Shen, Sheng; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Xingsong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-08-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly emerging technology that promises to transform tissue engineering into a commercially successful biomedical industry. However, the use of robotic bioprinters alone is not sufficient for disease treatment. This study aimed to report the combined application of 3D scanning and 3D printing for treating bone and cartilage defects. Three different kinds of defect models were created to mimic three orthopedic diseases: large segmental defects of long bones, free-form fracture of femoral condyle, and International Cartilage Repair Society grade IV chondral lesion. Feasibility of in situ 3D bioprinting for these diseases was explored. The 3D digital models of samples with defects and corresponding healthy parts were obtained using high-resolution 3D scanning. The Boolean operation was used to achieve the shape of the defects, and then the target geometries were imported in a 3D bioprinter. Two kinds of photopolymerized hydrogels were synthesized as bioinks. Finally, the defects of bone and cartilage were restored perfectly in situ using 3D bioprinting. The results of this study suggested that 3D scanning and 3D bioprinting could provide another strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  5. Accurate and reproducible reconstruction of coronary arteries and endothelial shear stress calculation using 3D OCT: comparative study to 3D IVUS and 3D QCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Riga, Maria; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Tu, Shengxian; Fujino, Yusuke; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Doulaverakis, Charalampos; Tsampoulatidis, Ioannis; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Bouki, Konstantina; Li, Yingguang; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Cheimariotis, Grigorios; Maglaveras, Nicos; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Nakamura, Sunao; Reiber, Johan H C; Rybicki, Frank; Karvounis, Haralambos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Giannoglou, George D

    2015-06-01

    Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a new imaging modality with the potential to investigate the association of local hemodynamic microenvironment with OCT-derived high-risk features. We aimed to describe the methodology of 3D OCT and investigate the accuracy, inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT in reconstructing coronary arteries and calculating ESS, using 3D IVUS and 3D QCA as references. 35 coronary artery segments derived from 30 patients were reconstructed in 3D space using 3D OCT. 3D OCT was validated against 3D IVUS and 3D QCA. The agreement in artery reconstruction among 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA was assessed in 3-mm-long subsegments using lumen morphometry and ESS parameters. The inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA were assessed in a representative sample of 61 subsegments (n = 5 arteries). The data processing times for each reconstruction methodology were also calculated. There was a very high agreement between 3D OCT vs. 3D IVUS and 3D OCT vs. 3D QCA in terms of total reconstructed artery length and volume, as well as in terms of segmental morphometric and ESS metrics with mean differences close to zero and narrow limits of agreement (Bland-Altman analysis). 3D OCT exhibited excellent inter- and intra-observer agreement. The analysis time with 3D OCT was significantly lower compared to 3D IVUS. Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a feasible, accurate and reproducible 3D reconstruction technique that can perform reliable ESS calculations in coronary arteries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [3D printing personalized implant manufactured via fused deposition modeling: an accuracy research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiaolong; Liu, Gang; Liu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of personalized implant fabricated via 3D printing and fused deposition modeling technique (FDM) and to compare the results with a real tooth. Six prepared extracted orthodontic teeth (in vivo) were scanned via cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to obtain 3D data and to build the data models by using Mimics 15.0 software. The extracted orthodontic teeth (in vitro) and the personalized implants designed via 3D printing and FDM were scanned via CBCT to obtain data and to build the data models at the same parameters. The 3D deviations were compared among the in vivo teeth data models, in vitro teeth data models, and printing personalized implant data models by using the Geomagic studio software. The average deviations of high and low areas between date models of in vivo teeth and personalized implants were 0.19 mm and -0.16 mm, respectively, and the average deviations between in vitro and in vivo teeth were 0.14 mm and -0.07 mm, respectively. The independent t test showed that no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (P>0.05). 1) The personalized dental implants were manufactured via 3D printing and FDM with a high degree of precision. 2) Errors between the data models of in vitro and in vivo teeth were observed at the same CBCT parameters.

  7. Circuit QED with 3D cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Edwar; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Deppe, Frank; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), 80799 Muenchen (Germany); Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In typical circuit QED systems, on-chip superconducting qubits are coupled to integrated coplanar microwave resonators. Due to the planar geometry, the resonators are often a limiting factor regarding the total coherence of the system. Alternatively, similar hybrid systems can be realized using 3D microwave cavities. Here, we present studies on transmon qubits capacitively coupled to 3D cavities. The internal quality factors of our 3D cavities, machined out of high purity aluminum, are above 1.4 .10{sup 6} at the single photon level and a temperature of 50 mK. For characterization of the sample, we perform dispersive shift measurements up to the third energy level of the qubit. We show simulations and data describing the effect of the transmon geometry on it's capacitive properties. In addition, we present progress towards an integrated quantum memory application.

  8. DNA origami design of 3D nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig

    2009-01-01

    [8]. We have recently developed a semi-automated DNA origami software package [9] that uses a 2D sequence editor in conjunction with several automated tools to facilitate the design process. Here we extend the use of the program for designing DNA origami structures in 3D and show the application......Structural DNA nanotechnology has been heavily dependent on the development of dedicated software tools for the design of unique helical junctions, to define unique sticky-ends for tile assembly, and for predicting the products of the self-assembly reaction of multiple DNA strands [1-3]. Recently......, several dedicated 3D editors for computer-aided design of DNA structures have been developed [4-7]. However, many of these tools are not efficient for designing DNA origami structures that requires the design of more than 200 unique DNA strands to be folded along a scaffold strand into a defined 3D shape...

  9. 3D Reconstruction in Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostrom, G.; Fiocco, M.; Goncalves, J.M.C.; Puig, D.; Sequeira, V.; Chartier, B.; Mariotte, F.; Richard, M.; Zamora, P.; Kiesser, R.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate modelling is gaining increasing importance in security applications. Indeed, realistic and dimensionally accurate models of critical areas can be used for prevention and simulation exercises as well as for planning emergency responses once an attack is perpetrated. CEA-DAM and EC-JRC engaged in a joint exercise involving the simulation of a terrorist attack in an urban area with possible release of radiological substances. JRC was responsible for creating a dimensionally accurate (centimetre accuracy) 3D model from the urban area as-is before and after the attack. Further tests involved the automatic 3D detection of changes in both indoors and outdoors environments. The paper describes the principles and technologies behind the generation of photo-realistic and accurate 3D models of wide areas as-is, and will discuss the use of those technologies for nuclear security applications

  10. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    electrochemical activity, chemical stability, and ease in surface functionalization [1]. The most common carbon microfabrication techniques (i.e. screen printing) produce two-dimensional (2D) electrodes, which limit the detection sensitivity. Hence several 3D microfabrication techniques have been explored......This work presents the fabrication and characterization of multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized UV photolithography and pyrolysis process with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 has been developed...... carbon [2]. This process enables fabrication of 2D and 3D electrodes with possibility for tailoring ad-hoc designs and unique sensitivities for specific applications. Due to this, pyrolysed carbon is becoming increasingly attractive for numerous applications, such as novel sensors and scaffolds for cell...

  11. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  12. 3D Printing Openable Imaging Phantom Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Keun; Won, Jun Hyeok; Lee, Seung Wook

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design an openable phantom that can replace the internal measurement bar used for contrast comparison in order to increase the efficiency of manufacturing imaging phantom used in the medical industry and to improve convenience using 3D printer. Phantom concept design, 3D printing, and Image reconstruction were defined as the scope of the thesis. Also, we study metal artifact reduction with openable phantom. We have designed a Openable phantom using 3D printing, and have investigated metal artifact reduction after inserting a metallic material inside the phantom. The openable phantom can be adjusted at any time to suit the user's experiment and can be easily replaced and useful.

  13. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Keating

    Full Text Available We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  14. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...... is solved by creating cavities of air and distributing dense materials inside the model. Consequently, the surface is not deformed. However, printing materials with significantly different densities is often not possible and adding cavities of air is often not enough to make the model balance. Consequently...

  15. DNA origami design of 3D nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig

    2009-01-01

    , several dedicated 3D editors for computer-aided design of DNA structures have been developed [4-7]. However, many of these tools are not efficient for designing DNA origami structures that requires the design of more than 200 unique DNA strands to be folded along a scaffold strand into a defined 3D shape...... [8]. We have recently developed a semi-automated DNA origami software package [9] that uses a 2D sequence editor in conjunction with several automated tools to facilitate the design process. Here we extend the use of the program for designing DNA origami structures in 3D and show the application...... by the construction of a DNA box with dimensions of 42 × 36 × 36 nm3. The software is available at www.cdna.dk/origami/ ....

  16. Teknologi 3D dalam Proses Pembuatan Komik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Baptista Permadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comic has been people’s favorite since 1930. As the growth of years and technology, the demands in designing comic were also increasing. To fulfill the demands, comic authors spent their times to draw so that they have no time to discover other element besides technical. Therefore, it is important if the comic author helped by 3D technology to accelerate technical process so that the comic authors will get extra time to develop other elements like concept and story. Data is gathered from interviews with both semi-professional and professional comic authors who are having problems being solved. Solving problems are conducted by using 3D software to draw picture of distorted space. And then two semi-professional comic authors will try to draw distorted space in tracing the picture from 3D software to see how many times needed to draw hard part traditionally. 

  17. Butterfly effect in 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.

  18. 3D Object Metamorphosis with Pseudo Metameshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOCANU, B.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a novel framework for 3D object metamorphosis, represented by closed triangular meshes. The systems returns a high quality transition sequence, smooth and gradual, that is visual pleasant and consistent to both source and target topologies. The method starts by parameterizing both the source and the target model to a common domain (the unit sphere. Then, the features selected from the two models are aligned by applying the CTPS C2a radial basis functions. We demonstrate how the selected approach can create valid warping by deforming the models embedded into the parametric domain. In the final stage, we propose and validate a novel algorithm to construct a pseudo-supermesh able to approximate both, the source and target 3D objects. By using the pseudo-supermesh we developed a morphing transition consistent with respect to both geometry and topology of the 3D models.

  19. 3D seismic surveys for shallow targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C.; Stewart, R.R.; Bertram, M.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology

    2008-07-01

    Although 3D seismic surveys are generally used to map deep hydrocarbon plays, this study demonstrated that they can be useful for characterizing shallow targets, such as oilsands deposits. A high-resolution 3D seismic survey was undertaken to map shallow stratigraphy near Calgary, Alberta. The project demonstrated the efficacy of reflection seismic surveys for shallow targets ranging from 100 to 500 metres. The purpose of the program was to map shallow stratigraphy and structure to depths of up to 500m, and to investigate shallow aquifers in the study area. The results of the survey illustrated the opportunity that 3D seismic surveys provide for mapping shallow reflectors and the acquisition geometry needed to image them. Applications include mapping the distribution of shallow aquifers, delineating shallow coals and investigating oilsands deposits. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  20. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  1. FABLAB PRONTO3D: learning with practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Trevisan Pupo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development and use of digital fabrication techniques for architecture, product design, engineering, construction, among many others, has caused impact changes on design processes since its beginning until final construction. New construction methods have been developed with the use of those new techniques, spreading many ways of possibilities hardly achieved before. Nowadays, spaces called FABLABs offer a range of procedures and equipment that provide the manufacture of scale models, prototypes or final elements in different fidelity degrees. This paper shows the possibilities and activities being implemented, with the use of technology, at PRONTO3D - Prototyping and New 3D Oriented Technology Laboratory, at UFSC, that belongs to PRONTO3D Network Labs, in Santa Catarina State, since 2013.

  2. Simulating 3D deformation using connected polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, J. T.; Jaya, I.; Hardi, S. M.; Zamzami, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    In modern 3D application, interaction between user and the virtual world is one of an important factor to increase the realism. This interaction can be visualized in many forms; one of them is object deformation. There are many ways to simulate object deformation in virtual 3D world; each comes with different level of realism and performance. Our objective is to present a new method to simulate object deformation by using a graph-connected polygon. In this solution, each object contains multiple level of polygons in different level of volume. The proposed solution focusses on performance rather while maintaining the acceptable level of realism. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of our solution and show that this solution is usable in performance sensitive 3D application such as games and virtual reality.

  3. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  4. Averaged description of 3D MHD equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, S.Yu.; Drozdov, V.V.; Ivanov, A.A.; Martynov, A.A.; Pashekhonov, Yu.Yu.; Mikhailov, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach by S.A.Galkin et al. in 1991 to 2D description of MHD equilibrium and stability in 3D systems was proposed. The method requires a background 3D equilibrium with nested flux surfaces to generate the metric of a Riemannian space in which the background equilibrium is described by the 2D equation of Grad-Shafranov type. The equation can be solved then varying plasma profiles and shape to get approximate 3D equilibria. In the framework of the method both planar axis conventional stellarators and configurations with spatial magnetic axis can be studied. In the present report the formulation and numerical realization of the equilibrium problem for stellarators with planar axis is reviewed. The input background equilibria with nested flux surfaces are taken from vacuum magnetic field approximately described by analytic scalar potential

  5. 3D EIT image reconstruction with GREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Müller, Beat; Adler, Andy

    2016-06-01

    Most applications of thoracic EIT use a single plane of electrodes on the chest from which a transverse image 'slice' is calculated. However, interpretation of EIT images is made difficult by the large region above and below the electrode plane to which EIT is sensitive. Volumetric EIT images using two (or more) electrode planes should help compensate, but are little used currently. The Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT) has become popular in lung EIT. One shortcoming of the original formulation of GREIT is its restriction to reconstruction onto a 2D planar image. We present an extension of the GREIT algorithm to 3D and develop open-source tools to evaluate its performance as a function of the choice of stimulation and measurement pattern. Results show 3D GREIT using two electrode layers has significantly more uniform sensitivity profiles through the chest region. Overall, the advantages of 3D EIT are compelling.

  6. Brain size regulations by cbp haploinsufficiency evaluated by in-vivo MRI based volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateca-Cabarga, Juan C.; Cosa, Alejandro; Pallarés, Vicente; López-Atalaya, José P.; Barco, Ángel; Canals, Santiago; Moratal, David

    2015-11-01

    The Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RSTS) is a congenital disease that affects brain development causing severe cognitive deficits. In most cases the disease is associated with dominant mutations in the gene encoding the CREB binding protein (CBP). In this work, we present the first quantitative analysis of brain abnormalities in a mouse model of RSTS using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and two novel self-developed automated algorithms for image volumetric analysis. Our results quantitatively confirm key syndromic features observed in RSTS patients, such as reductions in brain size (-16.31%, p < 0.05), white matter volume (-16.00%, p < 0.05), and corpus callosum (-12.40%, p < 0.05). Furthermore, they provide new insight into the developmental origin of the disease. By comparing brain tissues in a region by region basis between cbp+/- and cbp+/+ littermates, we found that cbp haploinsufficiency is specifically associated with significant reductions in prosencephalic tissue, such us in the olfactory bulb and neocortex, whereas regions evolved from the embryonic rhombencephalon were spared. Despite the large volume reductions, the proportion between gray-, white-matter and cerebrospinal fluid were conserved, suggesting a role of CBP in brain size regulation. The commonalities with holoprosencephaly and arhinencephaly conditions suggest the inclusion of RSTS in the family of neuronal migration disorders.

  7. 3D Miniaturization of Human Organs for Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joseph; Wetzel, Isaac; Dréau, Didier; Cho, Hansang

    2018-01-01

    "Engineered human organs" hold promises for predicting the effectiveness and accuracy of drug responses while reducing cost, time, and failure rates in clinical trials. Multiorgan human models utilize many aspects of currently available technologies including self-organized spherical 3D human organoids, microfabricated 3D human organ chips, and 3D bioprinted human organ constructs to mimic key structural and functional properties of human organs. They enable precise control of multicellular activities, extracellular matrix (ECM) compositions, spatial distributions of cells, architectural organizations of ECM, and environmental cues. Thus, engineered human organs can provide the microstructures and biological functions of target organs and advantageously substitute multiscaled drug-testing platforms including the current in vitro molecular assays, cell platforms, and in vivo models. This review provides an overview of advanced innovative designs based on the three main technologies used for organ construction leading to single and multiorgan systems useable for drug development. Current technological challenges and future perspectives are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 3D CAPABILITIES OF PLEIADES SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available End of 2011 a new optical satellite, called Pléiades, was launched by the French space agency (CNES. It provides 20 km x 20 km images at 0.5 meters. This agile acquisition system is able to relocate very rapidly and scan the earth in any direction. The agility of the system offers the ability to acquire multi viewing angle images of the same area during the same orbit. This ability to capture, from a single stereoscopic pair, to a sequence of 25 images, allows enhancing the quality and the completeness of automatically extracted 3D maps. The aim of the study is to validate and quantify the capacity of the Pléiades system to perform 3D mapping. The analysis explores the advantages in terms of quality and automatism to use more than 2 stereoscopic images. In the last 10 years, automatic 3D processing of digital images became more and more popular and efficient. Thanks to aerial images with very large overlap and very high resolution satellite images, new methodologies and algorithms have been implemented to improve the quality and accuracy of automatic 3D processing. We propose to experiment the same type of approaches using Pléiades images to produce digital elevation models (DEM. A focus is made on analysing the 3D processing using video like (multi viewing acquisitions. Different reference sites with very accurate 3D control points are used to quantify the quality of the Pléiades DEM. Different acquisition modes are explored from a single stereo pair to a sequence of 17 images.

  9. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    . In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality...... and shadowing effects or with weather phenomena serving a level of realism and providing depth cues. The rendered objects and scenes are graphically accessible through the interface where immersive or non-immersive monitors in different sizes and shapes are relevant. Through the user interface, users can...

  10. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  11. Rakennusten 3d-mallinnusmenetelmät

    OpenAIRE

    Gangsö, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään rakennuksen 3D-mallinnusmenetelmiä. Pääasiassa perehdytäänn rakennusten tuotemalleihin sekä rakennusmallinnukseen visuaalisena projektina. Työssä pyritään tuomaan esille kuinka 3D-malleja voidaan rakennusten yhteydessä monipuolisesti hyödyntää. Keskitytään rakennusten mallinnusmenetelmiin, joita vasta suunnitellaan tai joita ei ole enää olemassa. Työn tavoitteena on esittää rakennusten CAD-mallien sekä visuaalisten mallien ominaisuuksia sekä eroavaisuu...

  12. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanen, Akkari, E-mail: bettaieb.hanen@topnet.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Imen, Bhouri, E-mail: bhouri_imen@yahoo.f [Unite de recherche ondelettes et multifractals, Faculte des sciences (Tunisia); Asma, Ben Abdallah, E-mail: asma.babdallah@cristal.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Patrick, Dubois, E-mail: pdubois@chru-lille.f [INSERM, U 703, Lille (France); Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed, E-mail: medhedi.bedoui@fmm.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia)

    2009-09-28

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  13. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...... for tissue engineering and drug screening applications....... cell differentiation into tissue-specifi c lineages. The use of 3D biomaterial microarrays can, if optimized correctly, result in a more than 1000-fold reduction in biomaterials and cells consumption when engineering optimal materials combinations, which makes these miniaturized systems very attractive...

  14. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended three-dimensional (3D) pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized process with multiple steps of UV photolithography with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 followed...... by pyrolysis at 900ºC for 1h was developed. With this process, microelectrode chips with a three electrode configuration were fabricated and characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) using a 10mM potassium ferri-ferrocyanide redox probe in a custom made batch system with magnetic clamping. The 3D pyrolytic...... carbon microelectrodes displayed twice the higher peak current compared to 2D....

  15. Calibrated HDRI in 3D point clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    the challenges of dynamic smart lighting planning in outdoor urban space. This paper presents findings on how 3D capturing of outdoor environments combined with HDRI establishes a new way for analysing and representing the spatial distribution of light in combination with luminance data.......3D-scanning technologies and point clouds as means for spatial representation introduce a new paradigm to the measuring and mapping of physical artefacts and space. This technology also offers possibilities for the measuring and mapping of outdoor urban lighting and has the potential to meet...

  16. Antenna Fabrication using 3D printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elibiary, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses to explore the use of additive manufacturing (AM) techniques to fabricate various radio frequency (RF) devices. 3D printing, a term used for AM has evolved to the point where it is being introduced into various industries, one of these, discussed in this thesis is the fabrication of antennas for the aim to reduce manufacturing costs and time.\\ud The aim is to investigate the performance and reliability of a modified low-cost 3D printer to print plastic and metal simultaneo...

  17. Building 3D models with modo 701

    CERN Document Server

    García, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    The book will focus on creating a sample application throughout the book, building gradually from chapter to chapter.If you are new to the 3D world, this is the key to getting started with a modern software in the modern visualization industry. Only minimal previous knowledge is needed.If you have some previous knowledge about 3D content creation, you will find useful tricks that will differentiate the learning experience from a typical user manual from this, a practical guide concerning the most common problems and situations and how to solve them.

  18. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  19. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  20. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  1. 3D geometric phase analysis and its application in 3D microscopic morphology measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ronghua; Shi, Wenxiong; Cao, Quankun; Liu, Zhanwei; Guo, Baoqiao; Xie, Huimin

    2018-04-01

    Although three-dimensional (3D) morphology measurement has been widely applied on the macro-scale, there is still a lack of 3D measurement technology on the microscopic scale. In this paper, a microscopic 3D measurement technique based on the 3D-geometric phase analysis (GPA) method is proposed. In this method, with machine vision and phase matching, the traditional GPA method is extended to three dimensions. Using this method, 3D deformation measurement on the micro-scale can be realized using a light microscope. Simulation experiments were conducted in this study, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method has a good anti-noise ability. In addition, the 3D morphology of the necking zone in a tensile specimen was measured, and the results demonstrate that this method is feasible.

  2. 3D Modelling and Printing Technology to Produce Patient-Specific 3D Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbara, Nicolette S; Otton, James M; Pather, Nalini

    2017-11-10

    A comprehensive knowledge of mitral valve (MV) anatomy is crucial in the assessment of MV disease. While the use of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and printing in MV assessment has undergone early clinical evaluation, the precision and usefulness of this technology requires further investigation. This study aimed to assess and validate 3D modelling and printing technology to produce patient-specific 3D MV models. A prototype method for MV 3D modelling and printing was developed from computed tomography (CT) scans of a plastinated human heart. Mitral valve models were printed using four 3D printing methods and validated to assess precision. Cardiac CT and 3D echocardiography imaging data of four MV disease patients was used to produce patient-specific 3D printed models, and 40 cardiac health professionals (CHPs) were surveyed on the perceived value and potential uses of 3D models in a clinical setting. The prototype method demonstrated submillimetre precision for all four 3D printing methods used, and statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p3D printed models, particularly using multiple print materials, were considered useful by CHPs for preoperative planning, as well as other applications such as teaching and training. This study suggests that, with further advances in 3D modelling and printing technology, patient-specific 3D MV models could serve as a useful clinical tool. The findings also highlight the potential of this technology to be applied in a variety of medical areas within both clinical and educational settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. In situ repair of bone and cartilage defects using 3D scanning and 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lan; Yu, Fei; Shi, Jianping; Shen, Sheng; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Xingsong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly emerging technology that promises to transform tissue engineering into a commercially successful biomedical industry. However, the use of robotic bioprinters alone is not sufficient for disease treatment. This study aimed to report the combined application of 3D scanning and 3D printing for treating bone and cartilage defects. Three different kinds of defect models were created to mimic three orthopedic diseases: large segmental defects of long bon...

  4. A dose planning study on applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost in combination with 3D MRI based brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assenholt, Marianne S.; Petersen, Joergen B.; Nielsen, Soeren K.; Lindegaard, Jacob C.; Tanderup, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Locally advanced cervical cancer is usually treated with external beam radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy (BT). However, if response or tumour topography is unfavourable it may be difficult to reach a sufficient BT dose. The purpose of this study was to explore whether an applicator guided stereotactic IMRT boost could be combined with brachytherapy to improve dose volume parameters. Material and methods. Dose plans of 6 patients with HR CTV volumes of 31-100cc at the time of BT were analysed. MRI was performed with a combined intracavitary (IC)-interstitial (IS) ring applicator in situ. A radiotherapy schedule consisting of 45Gy (1.8Gyx25) IMRT followed by boost of 28Gy (7Gyx4fx) was modelled. Four different boost techniques were evaluated: IC-BT, IC/IS-BT, IC-BT+IMRT and IMRT. Dose plans were optimised for maximal tumour dose (D90) and coverage (V85Gy) while respecting DVH constraints in organs at risk: D2cc <75Gy in rectum and sigmoid and <90Gy in bladder (EQD2). In combined BT+IMRT dose plans, the IMRT plan was optimised on top of the BT dose distribution. Volumes irradiated to more than 60 Gy EQD2 (V60Gy) were evaluated. Results. Median dose coverage in IC plans was 74% [66-93%]. By using IC/IS or IC-BT+IMRT boost, the median coverage was improved to 95% [78-99%], and to 96% [69-99%] respectively. For IMRT alone, a median coverage of 98% [90-100%] was achieved, but V60Gy volumes were significantly increased by a median factor of 2.0 [1.4-2.3] as compared to IC/IS. It depended on the individual tumour topography whether IC/IS-BT or IC-BT+IMRT boost was the most favourable technique. Conclusion. It is technically possible to create dose plans that combine image guided BT and IMRT. In this study the dose coverage could be significantly increased by adding IS-BT or IMRT boost to the intracavitary dose. Using IMRT alone for boost cannot be advocated since this results in a significant increase of the volume irradiated to 60Gy

  5. 3dRPC: a web server for 3D RNA-protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangyu; Li, Haotian; Xiao, Yi

    2018-04-01

    RNA-protein interactions occur in many biological processes. To understand the mechanism of these interactions one needs to know three-dimensional (3D) structures of RNA-protein complexes. 3dRPC is an algorithm for prediction of 3D RNA-protein complex structures and consists of a docking algorithm RPDOCK and a scoring function 3dRPC-Score. RPDOCK is used to sample possible complex conformations of an RNA and a protein by calculating the geometric and electrostatic complementarities and stacking interactions at the RNA-protein interface according to the features of atom packing of the interface. 3dRPC-Score is a knowledge-based potential that uses the conformations of nucleotide-amino-acid pairs as statistical variables and that is used to choose the near-native complex-conformations obtained from the docking method above. Recently, we built a web server for 3dRPC. The users can easily use 3dRPC without installing it locally. RNA and protein structures in PDB (Protein Data Bank) format are the only needed input files. It can also incorporate the information of interface residues or residue-pairs obtained from experiments or theoretical predictions to improve the prediction. The address of 3dRPC web server is http://biophy.hust.edu.cn/3dRPC. yxiao@hust.edu.cn.

  6. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  7. Local orientation measurements in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    The 3 Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (3DXRD) method is presented and its potentials illustrated by examples. The 3DXRD method is based on diffraction of high energy X-rays and allows fast and nondestructive 3D characterization of the local distribution of crystallographic orientations in the bulk....

  8. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  9. Embedding 3D into multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, A.A.; Hua, T.C.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    There is no doubt that the cadastral map provides a useful entrance to information in a land parcel based information system. However, such information system could be made more meaningful and useful if it can be extended for multiple usages with multi data layers, and in three-dimensions (3D).

  10. Techniques and architectures for 3D interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, G.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial scientific datasets are all around us, and 3D visualization is a powerful tool to explore details and structures within them. When dealing with complex spatial structures, interactive Virtual Reality (VR) systems can potentially improve exploration over desktop-based systems. However, from

  11. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David; Lega, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r s ), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  12. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  13. 3D Printing and Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehnberg, Märtha; Ponte, Stefano

    From the birth of industrialization, access to new technology has been a decisive factor in how value added is created and distributed across networks of global production. This article provides a balanced assessment of the potential impact that one of these technologies (3D printing, or 3DP) may...

  14. 3D printed helical antenna with lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    of 3D and 2D inkjet printing of dielectric and metallic inks respectively, we demonstrate a Fresnel lens that has been monolithically integrated to a non-planar antenna (helix) for the first time. Antenna measurements show that the integration of a

  15. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  16. On drawing complicated 3D surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, I.N.; Talanov, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of constructing images of complicated 3D surfaces - world sheet of strings is considered. The world sheet representation in the form of a frame of points determined with a specified supporting curve is described. The images of the world sheets of free string are constructed using various graphical technologies. 15 refs., 6 figs

  17. 3D MHD Flux emergence experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hood, A.W.; Archontis, V.; Mactaggart, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the many 3D numerical experiments of the emergence of magnetic fields from the solar interior and the subsequent interaction with the pre-existing coronal magnetic field. The models described here are idealised, in the sense that the internal energy equation only involves...

  18. 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Klaus; Holzner, Markus; Guala, Michele; Liberzon, Alexander; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang [Swiss Federal Institut of Technology Zurich, Institut fuer Hydromechanik und Wasserwirtschaft, Zuerich (Switzerland); Luethi, Beat [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-11-01

    In this article, we present an experimental setup and data processing schemes for 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV), which expands on the classical 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) through changes in the illumination, image acquisition and analysis. 3D PTV is a flexible flow measurement technique based on the processing of stereoscopic images of flow tracer particles. The technique allows obtaining Lagrangian flow information directly from measured 3D trajectories of individual particles. While for a classical PTV the entire region of interest is simultaneously illuminated and recorded, in SPTV the flow field is recorded by sequential tomographic high-speed imaging of the region of interest. The advantage of the presented method is a considerable increase in maximum feasible seeding density. Results are shown for an experiment in homogenous turbulence and compared with PTV. SPTV yielded an average 3,500 tracked particles per time step, which implies a significant enhancement of the spatial resolution for Lagrangian flow measurements. (orig.)

  19. 3D super-virtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Super-virtual refraction interferometry enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of far-offset refractions. However, when applied to 3D cases, traditional 2D SVI suffers because the stationary positions of the source-receiver pairs might be any place

  20. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.

  1. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  2. Implementation of a 3D Virtual Drummer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnenat-ThalmannThalmann, M.; Kragtwijk, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Thalmann, D.; Zwiers, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    We describe a system for the automatic generation of a 3D animation of a drummer playing along with a given piece of music. The input, consisting of a sound wave, is analysed to determine which drums are struck at what moments. The Standard MIDI File format is used to store the recognised notes.

  3. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  4. 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    TITLE (Include Security Classification) W 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, inso Kweoni... Autonomous Vehicles Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, Inso Kweon CMU-RI-TR-88-12 The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Acession For Pittsburgh

  5. MIM in 3D: dream or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Jinesh, K.B.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    Last decades great effort has been put in the development of 3D capacitors. These capacitors are used for RF decoupling and should therefore have a high capacitance density associated with a sufficient breakdown voltage. Increased capacitance densities have been achieved by exploring the use of the

  6. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  7. 3D microstructuring of biodegradable polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagstrup, Johan; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Biopolymer films with a thickness of 100μm are prepared using spin coating technique with solutions consisting of 25wt.% polycaprolactone or poly-l-lactide in dichloromethane. SU-8 stamps are fabricated using three photolithography steps. The stamps are used to emboss 3D microstructures in the bi...

  8. Cellular Factors Shape 3D Genome Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers, using novel large-scale imaging technology, have mapped the spatial location of individual genes in the nucleus of human cells and identified 50 cellular factors required for the proper 3D positioning of genes. These spatial locations play important roles in gene expression, DNA repair, genome stability, and other cellular activities.

  9. Excimer laser micromachining for 3D microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Meijer, J.; Masuzawa, Takahisa; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    A new 3D micromachining method, called Hole Area Modulation (HAM), has been introduced to enhance the current micromachining technology. In this method, information on the machining depth is converted to the sizes of holes on the mask. The machining is carried out with a simple 2D movement of the

  10. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  11. Gravitational radiation and 3D numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Study of Numerical Relativity in Kyoto is reviewed. Main topics discussed are 2D rotating collapse, phase cancellation effects and perturbation calculation of the gravitational radiation from a particle falling into a black hole. New numerical results on 3D time evolution of pure gravitational waves are also presented

  12. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  13. 3-D Whole-Core Transport Calculation with 3D/2D Rotational Plane Slicing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Han Jong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Use of the method of characteristics (MOC) is very popular due to its capability of heterogeneous geometry treatment and widely used for 2-D core calculation, but direct extension of MOC to 3-D core is not so attractive due to huge calculational cost. 2-D/1-D fusion method was very successful for 3-D calculation of current generation reactor types (highly heterogeneous in radial direction but piece-wise homogeneous in axial direction). In this paper, 2-D MOC concept is extended to 3-D core calculation with little modification of an existing 2-D MOC code. The key idea is to suppose 3-D geometry as a set of many 2-D planes like a phone-directory book. Dividing 3-D structure into a large number of 2-D planes and solving each plane with a simple 2-D SN transport method would give the solution of a 3-D structure. This method was developed independently at KAIST but it is found that this concept is similar with that of 'plane tracing' in the MCCG-3D code. The method developed was tested on the 3-D C5G7 OECD/NEA benchmark problem and compared with the 2-D/1-D fusion method. Results show that the proposed method is worth investigating further. A new approach to 3-D whole-core transport calculation is described and tested. By slicing 3-D structure along characteristic planes and solving each 2-D plane problem, we can get 3-D solution. The numerical test results indicate that the new method is comparable with the 2D/1D fusion method and outperforms other existing methods. But more fair comparison should be done in similar discretization level.

  14. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  15. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin Zaharia; Cheng, C.Z.; Maezawa, K.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions

  16. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Steigner, Michael L.; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Medical 3D printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, echocardiography and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced pre-operative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases, valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing peri-operative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality. PMID:27149367

  17. 3D printed soft parallel actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Ali; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Khoo, Sui Yang; Noshadi, Amin; Kaynak, Akif

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a 3-dimensional (3D) printed soft parallel contactless actuator for the first time. The actuator involves an electro-responsive parallel mechanism made of two segments namely active chain and passive chain both 3D printed. The active chain is attached to the ground from one end and constitutes two actuator links made of responsive hydrogel. The passive chain, on the other hand, is attached to the active chain from one end and consists of two rigid links made of polymer. The actuator links are printed using an extrusion-based 3D-Bioplotter with polyelectrolyte hydrogel as printer ink. The rigid links are also printed by a 3D fused deposition modelling (FDM) printer with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) as print material. The kinematics model of the soft parallel actuator is derived via transformation matrices notations to simulate and determine the workspace of the actuator. The printed soft parallel actuator is then immersed into NaOH solution with specific voltage applied to it via two contactless electrodes. The experimental data is then collected and used to develop a parametric model to estimate the end-effector position and regulate kinematics model in response to specific input voltage over time. It is observed that the electroactive actuator demonstrates expected behaviour according to the simulation of its kinematics model. The use of 3D printing for the fabrication of parallel soft actuators opens a new chapter in manufacturing sophisticated soft actuators with high dexterity and mechanical robustness for biomedical applications such as cell manipulation and drug release.

  18. 3-D bioprinting law regulation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Harkusha, Andrii

    Achieved level of technical progress moves us closer and closer to practical use of 3-d bioprinting technologies in real life. Such perspective raise a wide variety of crucial legal issues from the acceptable model of regulation of the science and its' societal effects to problems of the commercialization of the technology and potential restrictions of its use. Some key points on concept of legal regulation of abovementioned sphere is a base of this study. Scientific discussion on 3-D bioprinting, European Union`s and US experience in patenting of 3-D bioprinting technologies, European Medicine Agency (EMA) or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, European Medical Technology Industry Association (EUCOMED) Acts. Article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. General debate of last few years comes down to an attempt to resolve hesitation between legal attempts for regulation of 3-D biobrinting and concept of complete prohibition of such activities. An adequate response to the mentioned challenge is a reasonable position between some aspects of prohibition and self-regulation, resulting in a moderate number of regulations and standards for developing and marketing. Such regulations may concern an intellectual property (IP) rights, regulation of distribution, premarket restrictions, control mechanism etc. Scientific approach and regulatory settlement of 3-D bioprinting sphere must unite to achieve a fair balance between the interests of humanity and of individuals - on the one hand, and development of science and business benefits for stakeholders - on the other. The main instruments for this must be balanced regulation of intellectual property (IP) rights, regulation of access and distribution, premarket restrictions, control mechanism etc.

  19. Antera 3D capabilities for pore measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaraa, C; Metois, A; Walsh, M; Flynn, J; Doyle, L; Robertson, N; Mansfield, A; O'Connor, C; Mavon, A

    2018-04-29

    The cause of enlarged pores remains obscure but still remains of concern for women. To complement subjective methods, bioengineered methods are needed for quantification of pores visibility following treatments. The study objective was to demonstrate the suitability of pore measurements from the Antera 3D. Pore measurements were collected on 22 female volunteers aged 18-65 years with the Antera 3D, the DermaTOP and image analysis on photographs. Additionally, 4 raters graded pore size on photographs on a scale 0-5. Repeatability of Antera 3D parameters was ascertained and the benefit of a pore minimizer product on the cheek was assessed on a sub panel of seven female volunteers. Pore parameters using the Antera were shown to depict pore severity similar to raters on photographs, except for Max Depth. Mean pore volume, mean pore area and count were moderately correlated with DermaTOP parameters (up to r = .50). No relationship was seen between the Antera 3D and pore visibility analysis on photographs. The most repeatable parameters were found to be mean pore volume, mean pore area and max depth, especially for the small and medium filters. The benefits of a pore minimizer product were the most striking for mean pore volume and mean pore area when using the small filter for analysis, rather than the medium/large ones. Pore measurements with the Antera 3D represent a reliable tool for efficacy and field studies, with an emphasis of the small filter for analysis for the mean pore volume/mean pore area parameters. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.