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Sample records for vivo low-level light

  1. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Julio C Rojas1,2, F Gonzalez-Lima1 1Departments of Psychology, Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX; 2Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Abstract: Low-level light therapy (LLLT using red to near-infrared light energy has gained attention in recent years as a new scientific approach with therapeutic applications in ophthalmology, neurology, and psychiatry. The ongoing therapeutic revolution spearheaded by LLLT is largely propelled by progress in the basic science fields of photobiology and bioenergetics. This paper describes the mechanisms of action of LLLT at the molecular, cellular, and nervous tissue levels. Photoneuromodulation of cytochrome oxidase activity is the most important primary mechanism of action of LLLT. Cytochrome oxidase is the primary photoacceptor of light in the red to near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is also a key mitochondrial enzyme for cellular bioenergetics, especially for nerve cells in the retina and the brain. Evidence shows that LLLT can secondarily enhance neural metabolism by regulating mitochondrial function, intraneuronal signaling systems, and redox states. Current knowledge about LLLT dosimetry relevant for its hormetic effects on nervous tissue, including noninvasive in vivo retinal and transcranial effects, is also presented. Recent research is reviewed that supports LLLT potential benefits in retinal disease, stroke, neurotrauma, neurodegeneration, and memory and mood disorders. Since mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in neurodegeneration, LLLT has potential significant applications against retinal and brain damage by counteracting the consequences of mitochondrial failure. Upon transcranial delivery in vivo, LLLT induces brain metabolic and antioxidant beneficial effects, as measured by increases in cytochrome oxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Increases

  2. Wound healing stimulation in mice by low-level light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidova, Tatiana N.; Herman, Ira M.; Salomatina, Elena V.; Yaroslavsky, Anna N.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    It has been known for many years that low levels of laser or non-coherent light (LLLT) accelerate some phases of wound healing. LLLT can stimulate fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation and migration. It is thought to work via light absorption by mitochondrial chromophores leading to an increase in ATP, reactive oxygen species and consequent gene transcription. However, despite many reports about the positive effects of LLLT on wound healing, its use remains controversial. Our laboratory has developed a model of a full thickness excisional wound in mice that allows quantitative and reproducible light dose healing response curves to be generated. We have found a biphasic dose response curve with a maximum positive effect at 2 J/cm2 of 635-nm light and successively lower beneficial effects from 3-25 J/cm2, the effect is diminished at doses below 2J/cm2 and gradually reaches control healing levels. At light doses above 25 J/cm2 healing is actually worse than controls. The two most effective wavelengths of light were found to be 635 and 820-nm. We found no difference between filtered 635+/-15-nm light from a lamp and 633-nm light from a HeNe laser. The strain and age of the mouse affected the magnitude of the effect. Light treated wounds start to contract after illumination while control wounds initially expand for the first 24 hours. Our hypothesis is that a single brief light exposure soon after wounding affects fibroblast cells in the margins of the wound. Cells may be induced to proliferate, migrate and assume a myofibroblast phenotype. Our future work will be focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying effects of light on wound healing processes.

  3. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) for cosmetics and dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Mossum K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last few years, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the field of aesthetic medicine, specifically aesthetic dermatology. LLLT encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures, primarily cosmetic, which provide treatment options for a myriad of dermatological conditions. Dermatological disorders involving inflammation, acne, scars, aging and pigmentation have been investigated with the assistance of animal models and clinical trials. The most commercially successful use of LLLT is for managing alopecia (hair loss) in both men and women. LLLT also seems to play an influential role in procedures such as lipoplasty and liposuction, allowing for noninvasive and nonthermal methods of subcutaneous fat reduction. LLLT offers a means to address such conditions with improved efficacy versatility and no known side-effects; however comprehensive literature reports covering the utility of LLLT are scarce and thus the need for coverage arises.

  4. Low level light therapy and tattoos: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenito, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Physical therapists (PTs) frequently provide neuromusculoskeletal treatment for patients who incidentally may have one or more tattoos. Low level light therapy (LLLT) is one of the modalities commonly used by physical therapists to decrease pain and facilitate healing. This case report describes a 22 year old man who was given LLLT to address his complaints of musculoskeletal pain. Blistering of the skin was documented over the LLLT application site, a black tattoo. The blisters, which formed after the LLLT treatment were most likely caused by the inadvertent and unexpected heating of the iron oxides and/or the metal salts in the tattoo's black pigment. PTs should exercise caution when applying LLLT in the presence of dark tattoos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-level laser/light therapy for androgenetic alopecia.

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    Gupta, Aditya K; Lyons, Danika C A; Abramovits, William

    2014-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a persistent and pervasive condition that affects men worldwide. Some common treatment options for AGA include hair prosthetics, oral and topical medications, and surgical hair restoration (SHR). Pharmaceutical and SHR treatments are associated with limitations including adverse side effects and significant financial burden. Low-level laser or light (LLL) devices offer alternative treatment options that are not typically associated with adverse side effects or significant costs. There are clinic- and home-based LLL devices. One home-based laser comb device has set a standard for others; however, this device requires time devoted to carefully moving the comb through the hair to allow laser penetration to the scalp. A novel helmet-like LLL device for hair growth has proven effective in preliminary trials and allows for hands-free use. Regardless, there are few clinical trials that have been conducted regarding LLL devices for AGA and results are mixed. Further research is required to establish the true efficacy of these devices for hair growth in comparison to existing alternative therapies.

  6. Cellular chromophores and signaling in low level light therapy

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    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.

    2007-02-01

    The use of low levels of visible or near infrared light (LLLT) for reducing pain, inflammation and edema, promoting healing of wounds, deeper tissues and nerves, and preventing tissue damage by reducing cellular apoptosis has been known for almost forty years since the invention of lasers. Originally thought to be a peculiar property of laser light (soft or cold lasers), the subject has now broadened to include photobiomodulation and photobiostimulation using non-coherent light. Despite many reports of positive findings from experiments conducted in vitro, in animal models and in randomized controlled clinical trials, LLLT remains controversial. This likely is due to two main reasons; firstly the biochemical mechanisms underlying the positive effects are incompletely understood, and secondly the complexity of rationally choosing amongst a large number of illumination parameters such as wavelength, fluence, power density, pulse structure and treatment timing has led to the publication of a number of negative studies as well as many positive ones. In recent years major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms that operate at the cellular and tissue levels during LLLT. Mitochondria are thought to be the main site for the initial effects of light and specifically cytochrome c oxidase that has absorption peaks in the red and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum matches the action spectra of LLLT effects. The discovery that cells employ nitric oxide (NO) synthesized in the mitochondria by neuronal nitric oxide synthase, to regulate respiration by competitive binding to the oxygen binding of cytochrome c oxidase, now suggests how LLLT can affect cell metabolism. If LLLT photodissociates inhibitory NO from cytochrome c oxidase, this would explain increased ATP production, modulation of reactive oxygen species, reduction and prevention of apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, increase of blood flow and induction of transcription factors. In

  7. Therapeutic effect of forearm low level light treatment on blood flow, oxygenation, and oxygen consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengbo; Sun, Jiajing; Meng, Lingkang; Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Low level light/laser therapy (LLLT) is considered as a novel, non-invasive, and potential therapy in a variety of psychological and physical conditions, due to its effective intricate photobiomodulation. The mechanism of LLLT is that when cells are stimulated by photons, mitochondria produce a large quantity of ATP, which accelerates biochemical responses in the cell. It is of great significance to gain a clear insight into the change or interplay of various physiological parameters. In this study, we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and venous-occlusion plethysmography to measure the LLLT-induced changes in blood flow, oxygenation, and oxygen consumption in human forearms in vivo. Six healthy human participants (4 males and 2 females) were administered with 810-nm light emitted by LED array in ten minutes and blood flow, oxygenation and oxygen consumption were detected in the entire experiment. We found that LLLT induced an increase of blood flow and oxygen consumption on the treated site. Meanwhile, LLLT took a good role in promoting oxygenation of regional tissue, which was indicated by a significant increase of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO2]), a nearly invariable deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[Hb]) and a increase of differential hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbD] = Δ[HbO2] - Δ[Hb]). These results not only demonstrate enormous potential of LLLT, but help to figure out mechanisms of photobiomodulation.

  8. Low level light in combination with metabolic modulators for effective therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingting; Zhang, Qi; Hamblin, Michael R.; Wu, Mei X.

    2015-03-01

    Vascular damage occurs frequently at the injured brain causing hypoxia and is associated with poor outcomes in the clinics. We found high levels of glycolysis, reduced ATP generation, and increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in neurons under hypoxia. Strikingly, these adverse events were reversed significantly by noninvasive exposure of injured brain to low-level light (LLL). LLL illumination sustained the mitochondrial membrane potential, constrained cytochrome C leakage in hypoxic cells, and protected them from apoptosis, underscoring a unique property of LLL. The effect of LLL was further bolstered by combination with metabolic substrates such as pyruvate or lactate both in vivo and in vitro. The combinational treatment retained memory and learning activities of injured mice to a normal level, whereas those treated with LLL or pyruvate alone, or sham light displayed partial or severe deficiency in these cognitive functions. In accordance with well-protected learning and memory function, the hippocampal region primarily responsible for learning and memory was completely protected by a combination of LLL and pyruvate, in marked contrast to the severe loss of hippocampal tissue due to secondary damage in control mice. These data clearly suggest that energy metabolic modulators can additively or synergistically enhance the therapeutic effect of LLL in energy-producing insufficient tissues like injured brain. Keywords:

  9. Treating metabolic syndrome's metaflammation with low level light therapy: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Tania M.; Kato, Ilka T.; Deana, Alessandro M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2014-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach could promote positive effects in modulating the inflammatory state of metabolic syndrome. That being the scope of this study, male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a high-fat/high-fructose diet among 8 weeks to induce metabolic syndrome. Animals were then irradiated on the abdominal region during 21 days using an 850 nm LED (6 sessions, 300 seconds per session, 60 mW output power, ~6 J/cm2 fluence, ~19 mW/cm2 fluence rate). Before and during treatment, blood was sampled either from the retroorbital plexus or from tail puncture for glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides analysis. So far our results indicate no alterations on these metabolic parameters after LLLT. For further investigations, blood was collected for plasma inflammatory cytokine quantification and fresh ex vivo samples of liver and intra-abdominal adipose tissue were harvested for immunohistochemistry purposes.

  10. An investigation into the depth of penetration of low level laser therapy through the equine tendon in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Teresa

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Low level laser therapy (LLLT is frequently used in the treatment of wounds, soft tissue injury and in pain management. The exact penetration depth of LLLT in human tissue remains unspecified. Similar uncertainty regarding penetration depth arises in treating animals. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that transmission of LLLT in horses is increased by clipping the hair and/or by cleaning the area to be treated with alcohol, but is unaffected by coat colour. A LLLT probe (810 nm, 500 mW was applied to the medial aspect of the superficial flexor tendon of seventeen equine forelimbs in vivo. A light sensor was applied to the lateral aspect, directly opposite the laser probe to measure the amount of light transmitted. Light transmission was not affected by individual horse, coat colour or leg. However, it was associated with leg condition (F = 4.42, p = 0.0032. Tendons clipped dry and clipped and cleaned with alcohol, were both associated with greater transmission of light than the unprepared state. Use of alcohol without clipping was not associated with an increase in light transmission. These results suggest that, when applying laser to a subcutaneous structure in the horse, the area should be clipped and cleaned beforehand.

  11. Low-level rf system for the AGS Light Ion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarik, V.; Ahrens, L.; Barton, D.S.; Frankel, R.; Otis, A.; Pope, D.; Pritsker, M.; Raka, E.; Warkentien, R.

    1987-01-01

    The new low level rf system for the light ion acceleration program features direct digital control of a phase continuous rf synthesizer clocked by finite changes in the B field. The system, its operation and testing are described. The system covers the complete rf frequency range and switches over from single cavity acceleration to multiple cavity acceleration with no beam loss. It also switches from the programmed drive to the normal bootstrap system

  12. Effects of Low-Level Laser Irradiation on the Pathogenicity of Candida albicans: In Vitro and in Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi Tasieh, S.; Hashemi, S.J.; Rezaie, S.; Fateh, M.; Djavid, G.E.; Zibafar, E.; Morsali, F.; Zand, N.; Alinaghizadeh, M.; Ataie-Fashtami, L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the in vitro growth characteristics and in vivo pathogenicity of Candida albicans in a murine model in the absence of a photosensitizer. Background data: C. albicans is an opportunistic

  13. Treating bulimia with hypnosis and low-level light therapy: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser, Eleanor; Sassack, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This case report describes an effort to control bulimia nervosa by combining low-level laser therapy (LLLT)-the application of red and near-infrared light to specific body points-and hypnosis. A 29-year old female with a 14-year history of bulimia received one session of LLLT combined with hypnosis. Two weeks later, following a measurable decrease in bulimic episodes (purging), a session of psychotherapy and hypnosis was administered. Six months post-treatment, the patient has experienced a complete cessation of purging activities without recurrence. LLLT, when used in conjunction with hypnosis and psychotherapy, was effective in managing bulimia and may prove useful in treating other eating disorders.

  14. Effects of low-level laser irradiation on the pathogenicity of Candida albicans: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Rezaie, Sasan; Fateh, Mohsen; Djavid, Gholamreza Esmaeeli; Zibafar, Ensieh; Morsali, Farhad; Zand, Nasrin; Alinaghizadeh, Mohammadreza; Ataie-Fashtami, Leila

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the in vitro growth characteristics and in vivo pathogenicity of Candida albicans in a murine model in the absence of a photosensitizer. C. albicans is an opportunistic commensal organism that causes a wide variety of diseases in human beings, ranging from superficial infections to life-threatening invasive candidiasis. The incidence of C. albicans infection is increasing, because of the greater frequency of acquired immunodeficiency conditions. A high recurrence rate has been reported for vulvovaginal and oral candidiasis, despite the best available treatments. Therefore, the search for new treatment modalities seems quite rational. Candida culture plates were exposed to common clinical energies of LLLI: 3, 5, 10, and 20 J at 685 nm (BTL Laser 5000, Medicinos Projektai, Czech Republic, Prague, max power output 50 mW) and 3, 5, 10, 30, and 50 J at 830 nm (BTL Laser 5000, Medicinos Projektai, Czech Republic, Prague, max power output 400 mW). Following LLLI with energies >10 J at both 685 and 830 nm wavelengths, statistically significant effects were observed in vitro on the turbidimetric growth kinetics of C. albicans and in vivo on the survival rate of infected mice (p value ≤ 0.05). Therefore, this energy could be considered a threshold for clinical investigation. Translating our data into the clinical setting, it can be proposed that a direct laser-based approach without using a photosensitizing dye can significantly reduce the pathogenicity of Candida albicans. It can also be concluded that laser light at specific wavelengths could be a possible promising novel treatment for superficial and mucocutaneous C. albicans infections.

  15. A visible Chinese human-combined Monte Carlo simulation study on low-level light therapy of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengbo; Pan, Boan; Zhong, Fulin; Li, Ting

    2017-02-01

    Stroke is a devastating disease, which is the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although the incidence of stroke increases progressively with age, morbidity among young and middle-aged adults is increasing annually. Medications nevertheless remain the bulwarks of stroke. The treatment is ineffective, speculative and has a long treatment cycle. The function of acupuncture and moxibustion, which are potential therapeutic tools for stroke, is still controversial. Recently, Low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated potent in vivo efficacy for treatment of ischemic conditions of acute myocardial infraction and stroke in multiple validated animal models. Optimum LLLT treatment has a dominant influence on therapy of stroke. While more than a thousand clinical trials have been halted, only a few trials on animals have been reported. We addressed this issue by simulating near-infrared light propagation with accurate visible Chinese human head by Monte Carlo modeling. The visible human head embody region of atherosclerotic plaques in head. Through comparing the light propagation of different light illumination, we can get a precise, optimized and straightforward treatment. Here, we developed a LLLT helmet for treating stroke depend on near-infrared light. There are more than 30 LED arrays in in multi-layered 3D printed helmet. Each LED array has independent water-cooling module and can be adjusted to touch the head of different subjects based on Electro pneumatic module. Moreover, the software provides the setup of illumination parameters and 3D distribution of light fluence rate distribution in human brain.

  16. Low level light promotes the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin-Chul; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Dae Yu; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Low-level light irradiation (LLLI) reported to stimulate the proliferation or differentiation of a variety of cell types. However, very little is known about the effect of light therapy on stem cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI on the molecular physiological change of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) by wavelength (470, 630, 660, 740 and 850, 50mW). The laser diode was performed with different time interval (0, 7.5, 15, 30J/cm2, 50mW) on hBMSC. To determine the molecular physiological changes of cellular level of hBMSC, the clonogenic assay, ATP assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, mitochondria membrane potential (MMPΦ) staining and calcium efflux assay were assessed after irradiation. There was a difference between with and without irradiation on hBMSCs. An energy density up to 30 J/cm² improved the cell proliferation in comparison to the control group. Among these irradiated group, 630 and 660nm were significantly increased the cell proliferation. The cellular level of ATP and calcium influx was increased with energy dose-dependent in all LLLI groups. Meanwhile, ROS and MMPΦ were also increased after irradiation except 470nm. It can be concluded that LLLI using infrared light and an energy density up to 30 J/cm² has a positive stimulatory effect on the proliferation or differentiation of hBMSCs. Our results suggest that LLLI may influence to the mitochondrial membrane potential activity through ATP synthesis and increased cell metabolism which leads to cell proliferation and differentiation.

  17. Improved detection probability of low level light and infrared image fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Fu, Rongguo; Zhang, Junju; Wang, Wencong; Chang, Benkang

    2018-02-01

    Low level light(LLL) image contains rich information on environment details, but is easily affected by the weather. In the case of smoke, rain, cloud or fog, much target information will lose. Infrared image, which is from the radiation produced by the object itself, can be "active" to obtain the target information in the scene. However, the image contrast and resolution is bad, the ability of the acquisition of target details is very poor, and the imaging mode does not conform to the human visual habit. The fusion of LLL and infrared image can make up for the deficiency of each sensor and give play to the advantages of single sensor. At first, we show the hardware design of fusion circuit. Then, through the recognition probability calculation of the target(one person) and the background image(trees), we find that the trees detection probability of LLL image is higher than that of the infrared image, and the person detection probability of the infrared image is obviously higher than that of LLL image. The detection probability of fusion image for one person and trees is higher than that of single detector. Therefore, image fusion can significantly enlarge recognition probability and improve detection efficiency.

  18. Ex-vivo assessment of chronic toxicity of low levels of cadmium on testicular meiotic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy-Siraudin, Cendrine [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Laboratoire de Biologie de la Reproduction, AP-HM, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, Boulevard Baille, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Perrard, Marie-Hélène [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, UMR 5242 CNRS INRA Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon 1, 46 allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Ghalamoun-Slaimi, Rahma [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Laboratoire de Biologie de la Reproduction, AP-HM, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, Boulevard Baille, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Ali, Sazan [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Chaspoul, Florence [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Unité de Chimie-Physique, Faculté de Pharmacie 13005, Marseille (France); Lanteaume, André [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Achard, Vincent [Laboratoire de Biologie de la Reproduction, AP-HM, Hôpital de la Conception, 147, Boulevard Baille, 13385 Marseille cedex 5 (France); Gallice, Philippe [Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR CNRS IMBE 7263, FR 3098 ECCOREV, 13005, Marseille (France); Unité de Chimie-Physique, Faculté de Pharmacie 13005, Marseille (France); Durand, Philippe [Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, UMR 5242 CNRS INRA Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon 1, 46 allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); and others

    2012-08-01

    Using a validated model of culture of rat seminiferous tubules, we assessed the effects of 0.1, 1 and 10 μg/L cadmium (Cd) on spermatogenic cells over a 2‐week culture period. With concentrations of 1 and 10 μg/L in the culture medium, the Cd concentration in the cells, determined by ICP-MS, increased with concentration in the medium and the day of culture. Flow cytometric analysis enabled us to evaluate changes in the number of Sertoli cells and germ cells during the culture period. The number of Sertoli cells did not appear to be affected by Cd. By contrast, spermatogonia and meiotic cells were decreased by 1 and 10 μg/L Cd in a time and dose dependent manner. Stage distribution of the meiotic prophase I and qualitative study of the synaptonemal complexes (SC) at the pachytene stage were performed by immunocytochemistry with an anti SCP3 antibody. Cd caused a time-and-dose-dependent increase of total abnormalities, of fragmented SC and of asynapsis from concentration of 0.1 μg/L. Additionally, we observed a new SC abnormality, the “motheaten” SC. This abnormality is frequently associated with asynapsis and SC widening which increased with both the Cd concentration and the duration of exposure. This abnormality suggests that Cd disrupts the structure and function of proteins involved in pairing and/or meiotic recombination. These results show that Cd induces dose-and-time-dependent alterations of the meiotic process of spermatogenesis ex-vivo, and that the lowest metal concentration, which induces an adverse effect, may vary with the cell parameter studied. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium induces ex-vivo severe time- and dose-dependent germ cell abnormalities. ► Cadmium at very low concentration (0.1 µg/l) induces synaptonemal complex abnormalities. ► The lowest concentration inducing adverse effect varied with the cell parameter studied. ► Cadmium alters proteins involved in pairing and recombination. ► Cadmium leads to achiasmate univalents and

  19. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) for treatment of hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K; Clark, Jason; Wikonkal, Norbert; Hamblin, Michael R

    2014-02-01

    Alopecia is a common disorder affecting more than half of the population worldwide. Androgenetic alopecia, the most common type, affects 50% of males over the age of 40 and 75% of females over 65. Only two drugs have been approved so far (minoxidil and finasteride) and hair transplant is the other treatment alternative. This review surveys the evidence for low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to the scalp as a treatment for hair loss and discusses possible mechanisms of actions. Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar were carried out using keywords alopecia, hair loss, LLLT, photobiomodulation. Studies have shown that LLLT stimulated hair growth in mice subjected to chemotherapy-induced alopecia and also in alopecia areata. Controlled clinical trials demonstrated that LLLT stimulated hair growth in both men and women. Among various mechanisms, the main mechanism is hypothesized to be stimulation of epidermal stem cells in the hair follicle bulge and shifting the follicles into anagen phase. LLLT for hair growth in both men and women appears to be both safe and effective. The optimum wavelength, coherence and dosimetric parameters remain to be determined. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Low level light therapy on stroke with a portable and illumination-parameter adjustable LED helmet: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengbo; Sun, Jiajing; Li, Zebin; Li, Ting

    2018-02-01

    Stroke is an obstinate and dreaded disease, which present characteristics of high incidence rates, high relapse rates, high mortality rates and high disability rates. Recent World Health Organization data suggest that a stroke victim is identified every 6 seconds around the world. There are not effective therapies for stroke except surgery that caused stroke victims enormous physical and psychological trauma. Transcranial low-level light/laser therapy (LLLT) of neurological diseases and brain trauma has gained momentum due to the character of high-efficiency, safe and non-invasive in the past decade. In this study, we found three conclusions through previous studies. 1). In simulation, 810nm light/laser makes the maximum light penetration (>5cm), which allow light to cross through gray matter into white matter. Gaussian beam with the same size of lesion area achieves better therapeutic. What's more, multi-light/laser- source has potential effect on stroke treatment. 2). In animal tests, LLLT has a positive therapeutic effect and PW mode LLLT has a better effect than XW mode LLLT on stroke treatment. 3). In clinical, large scale human experiment results are not so ideal due to the lower energy density of LLLT. In summary, it is no deny that those research results highlighted the great potential of transcranial LLLT as a novel, effective, and non-invasive therapy for stroke treatment.

  1. Effect of low-level light therapy on diabetic foot ulcers: a near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Massimo; Rimini, Daniele; Molinari, Filippo; Bestente, Gianni; Bruno, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a diabetic complication due to peripheral vasculopathy and neuropathy. A promising technology for wound healing in DFU is low-level light therapy (LLLT). Despite several studies showing positive effects of LLLT on DFU, LLLT's physiological effects have not yet been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate vascular and nervous systems modification in DFU after LLLT. Two samples of 45 DFU patients and 11 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. The total hemoglobin (totHb) concentration change was monitored before and after LLLT by near-infrared spectroscopy and analyzed in time and frequency domains. The spectral power of the totHb changes in the very-low frequency (VLF, 20 to 60 mHz) and low frequency (LF, 60 to 140 mHz) bandwidths was calculated. Data analysis revealed a mean increase of totHb concentration after LLLT in DFU patients, but not in HC. VLF/LF ratio decreased significantly after the LLLT period in DFU patients (indicating an increased activity of the autonomic nervous system), but not in HC. Eventually, different treatment intensities in LLLT therapy showed a different response in DFU. Overall, our results demonstrate that LLLT improves blood flow and autonomic nervous system regulation in DFU and the importance of light intensity in therapeutic protocols.

  2. THE Low-level Radio Frequency System for the superconducting cavities of National Synchrotron Light Source II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H.; Rose, J.; Holub, B.; Cupolo, J.; Oliva, J.; Sikora, R.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-01-01

    A digital low-level radio frequency (LLRF) field controller has been developed for the storage ring of The National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II). The primary performance goal for the LLRF is to support the required RF operation of the superconducting cavities with a beam current of 500mA and a 0.14 degree or better RF phase stability. The digital field controller is FPGA-based, in a standard format 19-inch/I-U chassis. It has an option of high-level control support with MATLAB running on a local host computer through a USB2.0 port. The field controller has been field tested with the high-power superconducting RF (SRF) at Canadian light Source, and successfully stored a high beam current of 250 mA. The test results show that required specifications for the cavity RF field stability are met. This digital field controller is also currently being used as a development platform for other functional modules in the NSLS-II RF systems.

  3. Ultrastructure and Light Microscope Analysis of Intact Skin after a Varying Number of Low Level Laser Irradiations in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamie Mizusaki Iyomasa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low level laser therapy (LLLT has been used to relieve pain, inflammation, and wound healing processes. Thus, the skin is overexposed to laser and this effect is not completely understood. This study analyzed the effects of the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10 on the intact skin of the masseteric region in mice of strain HRS/J. The animals (n=30 were equally divided into control (0 J/cm2 and irradiated (20 J/cm2, and each of these groups was further equally divided according to the number of laser applications (three, six, and 10 and underwent LLLT on alternate days. Samples were analyzed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The animals receiving applications exhibited open channels more dilated between the keratinocytes and photobiomodulation effect on endothelial cells and fibroblasts by TEM. Under the light microscope after 10 laser applications, the type I collagen decreased (P<0.05 compared to the three and six applications. Under these experimental conditions, all numbers of applications provided photobiomodulatory effect on the epidermis and dermis, without damage. More studies are needed to standardize the energy density and number of applications recommended for laser therapy to have a better cost-benefit ratio associated with treatment.

  4. a Study of the Bioluminescence of Larger Zooplankton and the Effects of Low-Level Light Changes on Their Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keuren, Jeffrey Robert

    A bio-optical study was undertaken to quantify the relationships which exist between counter-illuminating organisms and the downwelling spectral light field in which they exist. The basic hypothesis behind counter-illumination is that the animal emits light using ventrally-oriented photophores to disrupt or eliminate the shadowed area on ventral surfaces. An organism lacking photophores sharply silhouettes against the highly directional downwelling irradiance, whereas by distributing photophores over the ventral surface of the body and closely matching the spectral and intensity characteristics of the downwelling light, this silhouette is obscured. Analysis carried out on changes in vertical distribution patterns in response to low-level intensity changes in ambient surface light suggested that diel migrating organisms begin to shift vertically in the water column when surface scalar irradiance decreased below or increased above 1.0 times10^{-2} muEin m^{-2} sec^ {-1}. Maximum aggregations of organisms, as defined by MOCNESS net sampling or single-frequency acoustic backscatter, appeared to remain within definable in situ blue-green isolume ranges varying less than a factor of ten throughout each night. Comparisons made between organism counter-illumination capacity and modeled in situ downwelling irradiance levels suggested that euphausiids, decapods and myctophids use between 1-10 percent of their maximum counter-illumination capacity to match the ambient downwelling light conditions. Modeling also suggested that up to 40 percent of the maximum measured bioluminescence output is required to match ambient irradiance in the shallower surface zones where aggregations of copepods, potential food sources, were commonly found at night. An optical study to quantify the radiative transfer of bioluminescence from a point source revealed that non -isotropic point sources produce radiance patterns that cannot be simply explained by inverse square losses. Therefore simple

  5. Optimization of low-level light therapy's illumination parameters for spinal cord injury in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Ali; Bourisly, Ali

    2018-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in complete or partial loss of sensation and motor function due to interruption along the severed axonal tract(s). SCI can result in tetraplegia or paraplegia, which can have prohibitive lifetime medical costs and result in shorter life expectancy. A promising therapeutic technique that is currently in experimental phase and that has the potential to be used to treat SCI is Low-level light therapy (LLLT). Preclinical studies have shown that LLLT has reparative and regenerative capabilities on transected spinal cords, and that LLLT can enhance axonal sprouting in animal models. However, despite the promising effects of LLLT as a therapy for SCI, it remains difficult to compare published results due to the use of a wide range of illumination parameters (i.e. different wavelengths, fluences, beam types, and beam diameter), and due to the lack of a standardized experimental protocol(s). Before any clinical applications of LLLT for SCI treatment, it is crucial to standardize illumination parameters and efficacy of light delivery. Therefore, in this study we aim to evaluate the light fluence distribution on a 3D voxelated SCI rat model with different illumination parameters (wavelengths: 660, 810, and 980 nm; beam types: Gaussian and Flat; and beam diameters: 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 cm) for LLLT using Monte Carlo simulation. This study provides an efficient approach to guide researchers in optimizing the illumination parameters for LLLT spinal cord injury in an experimental model and will aid in quantitative and qualitative standardization of LLLT-SCI treatment.

  6. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-3: Basis for greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste light water reactor projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, A.; Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Woodberry, S.

    1994-09-01

    This study characterizes low-level radioactive waste types that may exceed Class C limits at light water reactors, estimates the amounts of waste generated, and estimates radionuclide content and distribution within the waste. Waste types that may exceed Class C limits include metal components that become activated during operations, process wastes such as cartridge filters and decontamination resins, and activated metals from decommissioning activities. Operating parameters and current management practices at operating plants are reviewed and used to estimate the amounts of low-level waste exceeding Class C limits that is generated per fuel cycle, including amounts of routinely generated activated metal components and process waste. Radionuclide content is calculated for specific activated metals components. Empirical data from actual low-level radioactive waste are used to estimate radionuclide content for process wastes. Volumes and activities are also estimated for decommissioning activated metals that exceed Class C limits. To estimate activation levels of decommissioning waste, six typical light water reactors are modeled and analyzed. This study does not consider concentration averaging

  7. The use of low-level light therapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and female pattern hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Daigle, Deanne

    2014-04-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is the most common form of hair loss in men and women. Despite its common occurrence, our understanding of the etiology of AGA and FPHL remains incomplete. As such, traditional therapies demonstrate modest efficacies and new therapies continue to be sought. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is a relatively new technique used to promote hair growth in both men and women with AGA and FPHL. Currently, there exist several LLLT devices marketed for the treatment of alopecia, which claim to stimulate hair growth; yet marketing these devices only requires that safety, not efficacy, be established. A handful of studies have since investigated the efficacy of LLLT for alopecia with mixed results. These studies suffered from power, confounding and analysis issues which resulted in a high risk of bias in LLLT studies. Due to the paucity of well-conducted randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of LLLT devices remains unclear. Randomized controlled trials of LLLT conducted and reported according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement would greatly increase the credibility of the evidence and clarify the ambiguity of the effectiveness of LLLT in the treatment of AGA and FPHL.

  8. Additive enhancement of wound healing in diabetic mice by low level light and topical CoQ10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhigang; Wu, Jeffrey H.; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes, a highly prevalent disease that affects 9.3% of Americans, often leads to severe complications and slow wound healing. Preclinical studies have suggested that low level light therapy (LLLT) can accelerate wound healing in diabetic subjects, but significant improvements must be made to overcome the absence of persuasive evidence for its clinical use. We demonstrate here that LLLT can be combined with topical Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to heal wounds in diabetic mice significantly faster than LLLT alone, CoQ10 alone, or controls. LLLT followed by topical CoQ10 enhanced wound healing by 68~103% in diabetic mice in the first week and more than 24% in the second week compared with untreated controls. All wounds were fully healed in two weeks following the dual treatment, in contrast to only 50% wounds or a fewer being fully healed for single or sham treatment. The accelerated healing was corroborated by at least 50% higher hydroxyproline levels, and tripling cell proliferation rates in LLLT and CoQ10 treated wounds over controls. The beneficial effects on wound healing were probably attributed to additive enhancement of ATP production by LLLT and CoQ10 treatment. The combination of LLLT and topical CoQ10 is safe and convenient, and merits further clinical study.

  9. Additive enhancement of wound healing in diabetic mice by low level light and topical CoQ10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhigang; Wu, Jeffrey H; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X

    2016-02-02

    Diabetes, a highly prevalent disease that affects 9.3% of Americans, often leads to severe complications and slow wound healing. Preclinical studies have suggested that low level light therapy (LLLT) can accelerate wound healing in diabetic subjects, but significant improvements must be made to overcome the absence of persuasive evidence for its clinical use. We demonstrate here that LLLT can be combined with topical Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to heal wounds in diabetic mice significantly faster than LLLT alone, CoQ10 alone, or controls. LLLT followed by topical CoQ10 enhanced wound healing by 68~103% in diabetic mice in the first week and more than 24% in the second week compared with untreated controls. All wounds were fully healed in two weeks following the dual treatment, in contrast to only 50% wounds or a fewer being fully healed for single or sham treatment. The accelerated healing was corroborated by at least 50% higher hydroxyproline levels, and tripling cell proliferation rates in LLLT and CoQ10 treated wounds over controls. The beneficial effects on wound healing were probably attributed to additive enhancement of ATP production by LLLT and CoQ10 treatment. The combination of LLLT and topical CoQ10 is safe and convenient, and merits further clinical study.

  10. Pulsed vs. CW low level light therapy on osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barolet, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) was formerly known as CREST syndrome in reference to the associated clinical features: Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysfunction, Sclerodactyly, and Telangiectasias. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has been identified has a major player in the pathogenic process, while low level light therapy (LLLT) has been shown to modulate this cytokine superfamily. This case study was conducted to assess the efficacy of 940nm using microsecond domain pulsing and continuous wave mode (CW) on osteoarticular signs and symptoms associated with lcSSc. The patient was treated two to three times a week for 13 weeks, using a sequential pulsing mode on one elbow, and a CW mode on the other. Efficacy assessments included inflammation, symptoms, pain, and health scales, patient satisfaction, clinical global impression, and adverse effects monitoring. Significant functional and morphologic improvements were observed after LLLT, with best results seen with the pulsing mode. No significant adverse effects were noted. Two mechanisms of action may be at play. The 940nm wavelength provides inside-out heating possibly vasodilating capillaries which in turn increases catabolic processes leading to a reduction of in situ calcinosis. LLLT may also improve symptoms by triggering a cascade of cellular reactions, including the modulation of inflammatory mediators.

  11. Low-level light therapy potentiates NPe6-mediated photodynamic therapy in a human osteosarcoma cell line via increased ATP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Yin, Rui; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Ching; Lee, Si-Chen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    Low-level light therapy (LLLT) is used to stimulate healing, reduce pain and inflammation, and preserve tissue from dying. LLLT has been shown to protect cells in culture from dying after various cytotoxic insults, and LLLT is known to increase the cellular ATP content. Previous studies have demonstrated that maintaining a sufficiently high ATP level is necessary for the efficient induction and execution of apoptosis steps after photodynamic therapy (PDT). We asked whether LLLT would protect cells from cytotoxicity due to PDT, or conversely whether LLLT would enhance the efficacy of PDT mediated by mono-l-aspartyl chlorin(e6) (NPe6). Increased ATP could lead to enhanced cell uptake of NPe6 by the energy dependent process of endocytosis, and also to more efficient apoptosis. In this study, human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was subjected to 1.5J/cm(2) of 810nm near infrared radiation (NIR) followed by addition of 10μM NPe6 and after 2h incubation by 1.5J/cm(2) of 652nm red light for PDT. PDT combined with LLLT led to higher cell death and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species compared to PDT alone. The uptake of NPe6 was moderately increased by LLLT, and cellular ATP was increased. The mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin A abrogated the LLLT-induced increase in cytotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that LLLT potentiates NPe6-mediated PDT via increased ATP synthesis and is a potentially promising strategy that could be applied in clinical PDT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Flegal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  13. The effect of low-level laser irradiation (In-Ga-Al-AsP - 660 nm) on melanoma in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigo, Lúcio; Luppi, Juliana SS; Favero, Giovani M; Maria, Durnavei A; Penna, Sócrates C; Bjordal, Jan M; Bensadoun, Rene J; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo AB

    2009-01-01

    It has been speculated that the biostimulatory effect of Low Level Laser Therapy could cause undesirable enhancement of tumor growth in neoplastic diseases. The aim of the present study is to analyze the behavior of melanoma cells (B16F10) in vitro and the in vivo development of melanoma in mice after laser irradiation. We performed a controlled in vitro study on B16F10 melanoma cells to investigate cell viability and cell cycle changes by the Tripan Blue, MTT and cell quest histogram tests at 24, 48 and 72 h post irradiation. The in vivo mouse model (male Balb C, n = 21) of melanoma was used to analyze tumor volume and histological characteristics. Laser irradiation was performed three times (once a day for three consecutive days) with a 660 nm 50 mW CW laser, beam spot size 2 mm 2 , irradiance 2.5 W/cm 2 and irradiation times of 60s (dose 150 J/cm 2 ) and 420s (dose 1050 J/cm 2 ) respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the in vitro groups, except for an increase in the hypodiploid melanoma cells (8.48 ± 1.40% and 4.26 ± 0.60%) at 72 h post-irradiation. This cancer-protective effect was not reproduced in the in vivo experiment where outcome measures for the 150 J/cm 2 dose group were not significantly different from controls. For the 1050 J/cm 2 dose group, there were significant increases in tumor volume, blood vessels and cell abnormalities compared to the other groups. LLLT Irradiation should be avoided over melanomas as the combination of high irradiance (2.5 W/cm 2 ) and high dose (1050 J/cm 2 ) significantly increases melanoma tumor growth in vivo

  14. Low level postnatal methylmercury exposure in vivo alters developmental forms of short-term synaptic plasticity in the visual cortex of rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasari, Sameera; Yuan, Yukun

    2009-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) has been previously shown to affect neurotransmitter release. Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) is primarily related to changes in the probability of neurotransmitter release. To determine if MeHg affects STP development, we examined STP forms in the visual cortex of rat following in vivo MeHg exposure. Neonatal rats received 0 (0.9% NaCl), 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg subcutaneously for 15 or 30 days beginning on postnatal day 5, after which visual cortical slices were prepared for field potential recordings. In slices prepared from rats treated with vehicle, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by paired-pulse stimulation at 20-200 ms inter-stimulus intervals showed a depression (PPD) of the second fEPSP (fEPSP2). PPD was also seen in slices prepared from rats after 15 day treatment with 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg/day MeHg. However, longer duration treatment (30 days) with either dose of MeHg resulted in paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) of fEPSP2 in the majority of slices examined. PPF remained observable in slices prepared from animals in which MeHg exposure had been terminated for 30 days after completion of the initial 30 day MeHg treatment, whereas slices from control animals still showed PPD. MeHg did not cause any frequency- or region-preferential effect on STP. Manipulations of [Ca 2+ ] e or application of the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline could alter the strength and polarity of MeHg-induced changes in STP. Thus, these data suggest that low level postnatal MeHg exposure interferes with the developmental transformation of STP in the visual cortex, which is a long-lasting effect.

  15. Visible-light-induced photocatalysis of low-level methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) using element-doped titanium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Yang, Chang-Hee [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sankeokdong, Bukgu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea)

    2010-04-15

    While the photocatalytic degradation of various volatile organic compounds in conjunction with UV light has been widely reported, visible-light-induced photocatalytic degradation of low-levels of the pollutants MTBE and TCE, which have been linked to potential adverse health effects, is rarely reported. The present study examined whether visible-light-activated S- or N-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic technology can be used to control indoor concentrations of MTBE and TCE. This study consists of the characterization of the doped TiO{sub 2} powders, as well as an investigation of their photocatalytic activities. In regards to both powders, a shift of the absorbance spectrum towards the visible light region was observed. An activity test suggested that these photocatalysts exhibited reasonably high degradation efficiencies towards MTBE and TCE under visible light irradiation. The degradation efficiencies of MTBE and TCE by S- and N-doped photocatalysts exceeded 75 and 80%, respectively, at input concentrations (IC) of 0.1 ppm. Degradation efficiency was dependent on both IC and relative humidity. TCE could enhance the degradation efficiency of MTBE even under visible-light irradiation. The estimated mineralization efficiencies (MEs) were comparable to those of previous studies conducted with UV/TiO{sub 2} systems. Similar to the relative degradation efficiencies, the ME of TCE was higher in comparison to that of MTBE. The CO production measured during the photocatalytic processes represented a negligible addition to indoor CO levels. These results suggest that visible-light-activated S- and N-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts may prove a useful tool in the effort to improve indoor air quality. (author)

  16. Photocatalytic performance of cylindrical reactor inserted with UV light-emitting-diodes for purification of low-level toxic volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Wan K.; Kang, Hyun J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Photocatalyst baked at 350 °C exhibited the highest BTEX degradation efficiency. ► Conventional lamp evidenced a higher degradation efficiency compared to LEDs. ► LEDs was more energy-efficient than conventional lamp for BTEX degradation. ► As the residence time increased, the average degradation efficiency increased. - Abstract: The present study investigated the photocatalytic performance of a cylindrical reactor inserted with UV light-emitting-diodes for the decomposition of low-level (0.1 ppm) gas-phase organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX)). The morphological and optical properties of photocatalysts (Degussa P-25 TiO 2 ) baked at different temperatures were determined using a range of spectral instruments. The photocatalyst baked at 350 °C exhibited the highest conversion efficiencies for both benzene and toluene (81 and ∼100%, respectively). The conventional lamp showed a higher conversion efficiency for benzene compared to the 380-nm UV-LED and a higher conversion efficiency for benzene and toluene than the 365-nm UV-LED. However, the ratios of conversion efficiency to electric power consumption were 2.5–3.0 times higher for the latter light source than the former source. Moreover, as the residence time increased from 0.2 to 1.2 min, the average conversion efficiencies for BTEX of the 3-h photocatalytic process increased from nearly zero to 81%, 7 to nearly 100%, 20 to nearly 100%, and 29–30 to nearly 100%, respectively. The cylindrical photocatalytic reactor inserted with UV-LEDs could be energy-efficiently applied for the decomposition of low-level toxic compounds after optimization of the operating conditions.

  17. Photocatalytic performance of cylindrical reactor inserted with UV light-emitting-diodes for purification of low-level toxic volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Wan K., E-mail: wkjo@knu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun J., E-mail: khj435@naver.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalyst baked at 350 Degree-Sign C exhibited the highest BTEX degradation efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional lamp evidenced a higher degradation efficiency compared to LEDs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LEDs was more energy-efficient than conventional lamp for BTEX degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As the residence time increased, the average degradation efficiency increased. - Abstract: The present study investigated the photocatalytic performance of a cylindrical reactor inserted with UV light-emitting-diodes for the decomposition of low-level (0.1 ppm) gas-phase organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX)). The morphological and optical properties of photocatalysts (Degussa P-25 TiO{sub 2}) baked at different temperatures were determined using a range of spectral instruments. The photocatalyst baked at 350 Degree-Sign C exhibited the highest conversion efficiencies for both benzene and toluene (81 and {approx}100%, respectively). The conventional lamp showed a higher conversion efficiency for benzene compared to the 380-nm UV-LED and a higher conversion efficiency for benzene and toluene than the 365-nm UV-LED. However, the ratios of conversion efficiency to electric power consumption were 2.5-3.0 times higher for the latter light source than the former source. Moreover, as the residence time increased from 0.2 to 1.2 min, the average conversion efficiencies for BTEX of the 3-h photocatalytic process increased from nearly zero to 81%, 7 to nearly 100%, 20 to nearly 100%, and 29-30 to nearly 100%, respectively. The cylindrical photocatalytic reactor inserted with UV-LEDs could be energy-efficiently applied for the decomposition of low-level toxic compounds after optimization of the operating conditions.

  18. Low level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.R.H.; Wilson, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    Factors in selecting a site for low-level radioactive waste disposal are discussed. South Australia has used a former tailings dam in a remote, arid location as a llw repository. There are also low-level waste disposal procedures at the Olympic Dam copper/uranium project

  19. Pulsed versus continuous wave low-level light therapy on osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome): a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barolet, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) was formerly known as CREST syndrome in reference to the associated clinical features: calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasias. The transforming growth factor beta has been identified as a major player in the pathogenic process, where low-level light therapy (LLLT) has been shown to modulate this cytokine superfamily. This case study was conducted to assess the efficacy of 940 nm using millisecond pulsing and continuous wave (CW) modes on osteoarticular signs and symptoms associated with lcSSc. The patient was treated two to three times a week for 13 weeks using a sequential pulsing mode on one elbow and a CW mode on the other. Efficacy assessments included inflammation, symptoms, pain, health scales, patient satisfaction, clinical global impression, and adverse effects monitoring. Considerable functional and morphologic improvements were observed after LLLT, with the best results seen with the pulsing mode. No adverse effects were noted. Pulsed LLLT represents a treatment alternative for osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome).

  20. Preconditioning by light-load eccentric exercise is equally effective as low-level laser therapy in attenuating exercise-induced muscle damage in collegiate men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Samar Nausheen,1 Jamal Ali Moiz,1 Shahid Raza,1 Mohammad Yakub Shareef,2 Shahnawaz Anwer,3,4 Ahmad H Alghadir3 1Centre for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 2Faculty of Dentistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India; 3Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India Background/objective: Previous studies have already reported an independent effect of light-load eccentric exercise (10% eccentric exercise contraction [EEC] and low-level laser therapy (LLLT as a protective measure against more strenuous eccentric exercise. However, the difference between these two interventions is largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the preconditioning effect of 10% EEC vs. LLLT on subjective, physiological, and biochemical markers of muscle damage in elbow flexors in collegiate men.Methods: All 36 enrolled subjects were randomly assigned to either 10% EEC or LLLT group. Subjects in 10% EEC group performed 30 repetitions of an eccentric exercise with 10% maximal voluntary contraction strength 2 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise bout, whereas subjects in LLLT group were given LLLT. All the indirect markers of muscle damage were measured pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours after the exercise-induced muscle damage protocol.Results: The muscle soreness was reduced in both groups (p = 0.024; however, soreness was attenuated more in LLLT group at 48 hours (33.5 vs. 42.7, p = 0.004. There was no significant difference between the effect of 10% EEC and LLLT groups on other markers of muscle damage like a maximum voluntary isometric contraction (p = 0.47, range of motion (p = 0.16, upper arm circumference (p = 0.70, creatine kinase (p = 0.42, and lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.08. Within-group analysis showed both interventions provided

  1. Low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Final disposal of low level wastes has been carried out for 15 years on the shallow land disposal of the Manche in the north west of France. Final participant in the nuclear energy cycle, ANDRA has set up a new waste management system from the production center (organization of the waste collection) to the disposal site including the setting up of a transport network, the development of assessment, additional conditioning, interim storage, the management of the disposal center, records of the location and characteristics of the disposed wastes, site selection surveys for future disposals and a public information Department. 80 000 waste packages representing a volume of 20 000 m 3 are thus managed and disposed of each year on the shallow land disposal. The disposal of low level wastes is carried out according to their category and activity level: - in tumuli for very low level wastes, - in monoliths, a concrete structure, of the packaging does not provide enough protection against radioactivity [fr

  2. Analgesic effects of preinjection low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT) before third molar surgery: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, Jacco G. C.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; Mertens, Ine C.; Keleş, Zühal; Lindeboom, Jérôme A. H.; Milstein, Dan M. J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on preinjection sites in patients scheduled for third molar removal. This double-blind randomized controlled trial included 163 healthy patients undergoing third molar extractions. The study participants

  3. Etiological periodontal treatment with and without low-level laser therapy on IL-1β level in gingival crevicular fluid: an in vivo multicentric pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, F; Dedola, A; Cattoni, F; Ferrini, F; Bova, F; Tatullo, M; Gherlone, E; Lo Muzio, L

    2018-01-01

    Cytokine proteins may have important roles during different human physiological and pathological processes. In the oral cavity, the bone loss and periodontal tissue pathology was related to inflammatory process activation. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of etiological periodontal therapy with and without the use of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on clinical periodontal parameters and interleukin (IL)-1β level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) from chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. Thirty non-smoker CP patients were selected from the Foggia University Dental Clinic and other 2 private dental clinics. All patients were divided into two homogeneous randomized groups: 15 patients were treated with only scaling and root planing (group 1) and 15 patients with scaling and root planing etiological treatment and LLLT (group 2). In all sites, at baseline before treatment, the periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were measured. In the PPD sites, the GCF samples were collected from 30 deep (≥5 mm) and shallow (≤3 mm) sites and IL-1β were evaluated at baseline, after 10 days and 1 month. In all the samples at baseline, the IL-1β concentration in GCF and BOP rate were significantly higher at deep PPD sites than at the shallow ones. After 10 days in all samples no PPD improvement was observed in the BOP rate but the IL-1 β level was statistically significantly improved (pdeep PPD sites, PPD and BOP improvements were observed. At same time, IL-1β levels were lower and statistically significantly (pdeep PPD sites with or with-out associated LLLT promotes periodontal health. Etiological treatment associated with LLLT, improves BOP and inflammation in periodontal disease. Moreover, the IL-1β concentration changes in GCF suggest these cytokines as a predictable marker of gingival inflammation in chronic periodontitis patients.

  4. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  5. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J.; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region.

  6. Comparing the effects of exercise program and low-level laser therapy with exercise program and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (bioptron light) on the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Pantelis, Manias; Stasinopoulou, Kalliopi

    2009-06-01

    The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light as supplements to an exercise program has been recommended for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET). To investigate whether an exercise program supplemented with LLLT is more successful than an exercise program supplemented with polarized polychromatic non-coherent light in treating LET. Patients with unilateral LET for at least 4 wk were sequentially allocated to receive either an exercise program with LLLT or an exercise program with polarized polychromatic non-coherent light. The exercise program consisted of eccentric and static stretching exercises of wrist extensors. In the LLLT group a 904-nm Ga-As laser was used in continuous mode, and the power density was 130 mW/cm(2), and the dose was 0.585 J/point. In the group receiving polarized polychromatic non-coherent light the Bioptron 2 was used to administer the dose perpendicularly to the lateral epicondyle at three points at an operating distance of 5-10 cm for 6 min at each position. The outcome measures were pain and function and were evaluated at baseline, at the end of the treatment (week 4), and 3 mo after the end of treatment (week 16). Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment there was a decline in pain and a rise in function in both groups compared with baseline (p 0.0005 on the independent t-test). The results suggest that the combination of an exercise program with LLLT or polarized polychromatic non-coherent light is an adequate treatment for patients with LET. Further research to establish the relative and absolute effectiveness of such a treatment approach is needed.

  7. Low-level effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.T.; Chaput, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Risk assignments can be made to given practices involving exposure to radiation, because sufficient data are available for the effects of high-dose, low-LET radiation and because sufficient exists in the methods of extrapolation to low doses and low dose rates. The confidence in the extrapolations is based on the fact that the risk is not expected to be overestimated, using the assumptions made (as opposed to the possibility that the extrapolations represent an accurate estimate of the risk). These risk estimates have been applied to the selection of permissible exposure levels, to show that various amounts of radiation involve no greater risk to the worker than the risk expected in another industry that is generally considered safe. The setting of standards for protection from exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation is made by expert committees at the national and international levels who weigh social factors as well as scientific factors. Data on low-level effects may be applied when assigning a ''probability of causation'' to a certain exposure of radiation. This has become a prominent method for arriving at an equitable award for damages caused by such exposure. The generation of these tables requires as many (if not more) social and political considerations as does the setting up of protection criteria. It is impossible to extract a purely scientific conclusion solely from the protection standards and other legal decisions. Sufficient information exists on low-LET radiation that safety standards for exposure can be rationally (if not scientifically) agreed upon

  8. Low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1982-05-01

    It is known that the normal incidence of cancer in human populations is increased by exposure to moderately high doses of ionizing radiation. At background radiation levels or at radiation levels which are 100 times greater, the potential health risks are considered to be directly proportional to the total accumulated dose of radiation. Some of the uncertainties associated with this assumption and with the accepted risk estimates have been critically reviewed in this document. The general scientific consensus at present suggests that the accepted risk estimates may exaggerate the actual risk of low levels of sparsely ionizing radiations (beta-, gamma- or X-rays) somewhat but are unlikely to overestimate the actual risks of densely ionizing radiations (fast neutrons, alpha-particles). At the maximum permissible levels of exposure for radiation workers in nuclear power stations, the potential health hazards in terms of life expectancy would be comparable to those encountered in transportation and public utilities or in the construction industry. At the average radiation exposures received by these workers in practice, the potential health hazards are similar to those associated with safe categories of industries. Uranium mining remains a relativly hazardous occupation. In terms of absolute numbers, the genetic hazards, which are less well established, are thought to be smaller than the carcinogenic hazards of radiation when only the first generation is considered but to be of the same order of magnitude as the carcinogenic hazards when the total number of induced genetic disorders is summed over all generations

  9. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  10. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Low-Level Airborne 2-Propanol and Trichloroethylene over Titania Irradiated with Bulb-Type Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wan-Kuen

    2013-01-18

    This study examined the photocatalytic oxidation of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE) and 2-propanol, at indoor levels, over titanium dioxide (TiO₂) irradiated with light-emitting diodes (LED) under different operational conditions. TiO₂ powder baked at 450 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic decomposition efficiency (PDE) for TCE, while all photocatalysts baked at different temperatures showed similar PDEs for 2-propanol. The average PDEs of TCE over a three hour period were four, four, five, and 51% for TiO₂ powders baked at 150, 250, 350, and 450 °C, respectively. The average PDEs of 2-propanol were 95, 97, 98, and 96% for TiO₂ powders baked at 150, 250, 350, and 450 °C, respectively. The ratio of anatase at 2θ = 25.2° to rutile at 2θ = 27.4° was lowest for the TiO₂ powder baked at 450 °C. Although the LED-irradiated TiO₂ system revealed lower PDEs of TCE and 2-propanol when compared to those of the eight watt, black-light lamp-irradiated TiO₂ system, the results for the PDEs normalized to the energy consumption were reversed. Other operational parameters, such as relative humidity, input concentrations, flow rate, and feeding type were also found to influence the photocatalytic performance of the UV LED-irradiated TiO₂ system when applied to the cleaning of TCE and 2-propanol at indoor air levels.

  11. Photocatalytic Oxidation of Low-Level Airborne 2-Propanol and Trichloroethylene over Titania Irradiated with Bulb-Type Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Kuen Jo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the photocatalytic oxidation of gas-phase trichloroethylene (TCE and 2-propanol, at indoor levels, over titanium dioxide (TiO2 irradiated with light-emitting diodes (LED under different operational conditions. TiO2 powder baked at 450 °C exhibited the highest photocatalytic decomposition efficiency (PDE for TCE, while all photocatalysts baked at different temperatures showed similar PDEs for 2-propanol. The average PDEs of TCE over a three hour period were four, four, five, and 51% for TiO2 powders baked at 150, 250, 350, and 450 °C, respectively. The average PDEs of 2-propanol were 95, 97, 98, and 96% for TiO2 powders baked at 150, 250, 350, and 450 °C, respectively. The ratio of anatase at 2θ = 25.2° to rutile at 2θ = 27.4° was lowest for the TiO2 powder baked at 450 °C. Although the LED-irradiated TiO2 system revealed lower PDEs of TCE and 2-propanol when compared to those of the eight watt, black-light lamp-irradiated TiO2 system, the results for the PDEs normalized to the energy consumption were reversed. Other operational parameters, such as relative humidity, input concentrations, flow rate, and feeding type were also found to influence the photocatalytic performance of the UV LED-irradiated TiO2 system when applied to the cleaning of TCE and 2-propanol at indoor air levels.

  12. Low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the current situation in the United States and a look to the future of low-level waste management are presented. Current problems and challenges are discussed, such as: the need of additional disposal sites in the future; risks and costs involved in transport of low-level wastes; reduction of low-level waste volume through smelting, incineration, and storage for wastes containing nuclides with short half lives; development of a national policy for the management of low-level waste, and its implementation through a sensible system of regulations. Establishing a success with low-level waste management should provide the momentum and public confidence needed to continue on and to resolve the technical and politically more difficult low-level waste problems

  13. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  14. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination and low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain and improve the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are reported

  15. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  16. Low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references

  17. Low level photoneutron detection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhang Yuqin; Li Yuansui

    1991-01-01

    A low level photoneutron detection equipment has been developed. The photoneutrons produced by interaction of 226 Ra gamma quanta and deutron (D) target are detected with n-n discrimination detector made up of 3 He proportional counter array. The D-content information in the target can be obtained from the measured photoneutron counts. The equipment developed is mainly used for nondestructive D-content measurement of D-devices

  18. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  19. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  20. Low-Level Laser and Light-Emitting Diode Therapy for Pain Control in Hyperglycemic and Normoglycemic Patients Who Underwent Coronary Bypass Surgery with Internal Mammary Artery Grafts: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study with Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andréa Conceição Gomes; Fernandes, Gilderlene Alves; Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse; de Barros Araújo, Raimundo; de Oliveira, Rauirys Alencar; Nicolau, Renata Amadei

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for reducing pain in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery with internal mammary artery grafts. This study was conducted on 120 volunteers who underwent elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The volunteers were randomly allocated to four different groups of equal size (n = 30): control, placebo, LLLT [λ = 640 nm and spatial average energy fluence (SAEF) = 1.06 J/cm(2)], and LED (λ = 660 ± 20 nm and SAEF = 0.24 J/cm(2)). Participants were also divided into hyperglycemic and normoglycemic subgroups, according to their fasting blood glucose test result before surgery. The outcome assessed was pain during coughing by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. The patients were followed for 1 month after the surgery. The LLLT and LED groups showed a greater decrease in pain, with similar results, as indicated by both the VAS and the McGill questionnaire (p ≤ 0.05), on the 6th and 8th postoperative day compared with the placebo and control groups. The outcomes were also similar between hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients. One month after the surgery, almost no individual reported pain during coughing. LLLT and LED had similar analgesic effects in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic patients, better than placebo and control groups.

  1. Very low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Linsley, G.; Elert, M.

    1993-01-01

    Man's environment contains naturally occurring radionuclides and doses from exposures to these radionuclides mostly cannot be avoided. Consequently, almost everything may be considered as very low level radioactive material. In practical terms, management and the selection of different routes for low level material is confined to material which was subject to industrial processing or which is under a system of radiological control. Natural radionuclides with concentrations reaching reporting or notification levels will be discussed below; nevertheless, the main body of this paper will be devoted to material, mainly of artificial origin, which is in the system involving notification, registration and licensing of practices and sources. It includes material managed in the nuclear sector and sources containing artificially produced radionuclides used in hospitals, and in industry. Radioactive materials emit ionising radiations which are harmful to man and his environment. National and international regulations provide the frame for the system of radiation protection. Nevertheless, concentrations, quantities or types of radionuclide may be such, that the material presents a very low hazard, and may therefore be removed from regulatory control, as it would be a waste of time and effort to continue supervision. These materials are said to be exempted from regulatory control. Material exempted in a particular country is no longer distinguishable from ''ordinary'' material and may be moved from country to country. Unfortunately, criteria for exempting radioactive materials differ strongly between countries and free trade. Therefore there is a necessity for an international approach to be developed for exemption levels

  2. Light Emission Requires Exposure to the Atmosphere in Ex Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Inoue

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of organs bearing luciferase activity by in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is often difficult, and ex vivo imaging of excised organs plays a complementary role. This study investigated the importance of exposure to the atmosphere in ex vivo BLI. Mice were inoculated with murine pro-B cell line Ba/F3 transduced with firefly luciferase and p190 BCR-ABL. They were killed following in vivo BLI, and whole-body imaging was done after death and then after intraperitoneal air injection. In addition, the right knee was exposed and imaged before and after the adjacent bones were cut. Extensive light signals were seen on in vivo imaging. The luminescence disappeared after the animal was killed, and air injection restored the light emission from the abdomen only, suggesting a critical role of atmospheric oxygen in luminescence after death. Although no substantial light signal at the right knee was seen before bone cutting, light emission was evident after cutting. In conclusion, in ex vivo BLI, light emission requires exposure to the atmosphere. Bone destruction is required to demonstrate luciferase activity in the bone marrow after death.

  3. Understanding low-level radioactive waste. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Chapters are devoted to: background and policymaking for low-level waste management; commercial low-level waste generation; Department of Energy low-level waste generation; low-level waste treatment; packaging and transportation; commercial low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste disposal; Department of Energy low-level waste management program; and laws and regulations

  4. Low-level radwaste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughton, M.D.; Miller, C.C.; Nelson, R.A.; Tucker, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of ''Advanced Low-Level Radioactive Waste Treatment Systems'' conducted under an EPRI contract. The object of the study is to identify advanced lowlevel radwaste treatment systems that are commercially available or are expected to be in the near future. The current state-ofthe-art in radwaste solidification technology is presented. Related processing technologies, such as the compaction of dry active waste (DAW), containers available for radwaste disposal, and the regulatory aspects of radwaste transportation and solidification, are described. The chemical and physical properties of the currently acceptable solidification agents, as identified in the Barnwell radwaste burial site license, are examined. The solidification agents investigated are hydraulic cements, thermoplastic polymers, and thermosetting polymers. It is concluded that solidification processes are complex and depend not only on the chemical and physical properties of the binder material and the waste, but also on how these materials are mixed

  5. Low-level therapy in ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, O. P.

    1999-07-01

    Extremely slow introduction of low-level laser therapy into the practice of ophthalmologists is restricted by the lack of good methodological recommendation and modern equipment adopted to the needs of ophthalmology. The most perspective is considered to be further improvement of the methods and the elaboration of the medical equipment, working in several wave bands, combined with magnetotherapy and working with the use of various modes of the modulation of the intensity of the luminous flux. It may be asserted that unlike the mode of continuous radiation, in some cases, the effectiveness of the treatment increases when the modulated light with the frequency of one to a few tens HZ is used. Moreover, the methods are being elaborated, when the modulation frequency of laser light and the biorhythms of man physiologic parameters are synchronized. Very perspective seems the computerization of the treatment process with the simultaneous electrophysiological control of the condition of visual functions.

  6. The LHC Low Level RF

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, Philippe; Molendijk, John Cornelis; Olsen, Ragnar; Rohlev, Anton; Rossi, Vittorio; Stellfeld, Donat; Valuch, Daniel; Wehrle, Urs

    2006-01-01

    The LHC RF consists of eight 400 MHz superconducting cavities per ring, with each cavity independently powered by a 300 kW klystron, via a circulator. The challenge for the Low Level is to cope with very high beam current (more than 1 A RF component) and achieve excellent beam lifetime (emittance growth time in excess of 25 hours). Each cavity has an associated Cavity Controller rack consisting of two VME crates which implement high gain RF Feedback, a Tuner Loop with a new algorithm, a Klystron Ripple Loop and a Conditioning system. In addition each ring has a Beam Control system (four VME crates) which includes a Frequency Program, Phase Loop, Radial Loop and Synchronization Loop. A Longitudinal Damper (dipole and quadrupole mode) acting via the 400 MHz cavities is included to reduce emittance blow-up due to filamentation from phase and energy errors at injection. Finally an RF Synchronization system implements the bunch into bucket transfer from the SPS into each LHC ring. When fully installed in 2007, the...

  7. Instrument for fluorescence sensing of circulating cells with diffuse light in mice in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Zettergren, Eric; Vickers, Dwayne; Runnels, Judith; Murthy, Shashi K.; Lin, Charles P.; Niedre, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations in mice is important in many areas of preclinical biomedical research. Normally, this is done either by extraction and analysis of small blood samples or, more recently, by using microscopy-based in vivo fluorescence flow cytometry. We describe a new technological approach to this problem using detection of diffuse fluorescent light from relatively large blood vessels in vivo. The diffuse fluorescence flow cytometer (DFFC) uses a laser t...

  8. In vivo observation of transient photoreceptor movement correlated with oblique light stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yiming; Liu, Changgeng; Yao, Xincheng

    2018-02-01

    Rod-dominated transient retinal phototropism (TRP) has been observed in freshly isolated retinas, promising a noninvasive biomarker for high resolution assessment of retinal physiology. However, in vivo mapping of TRP is challenging due to its fast time course and sub-cellular signal magnitude. By developing a line-scanning and virtually structured detection based super-resolution ophthalmoscope, we report here in vivo observation of TRP in frog retina. In vivo characterization of TRP time course and magnitude were implemented by using variable light stimulus intensities.

  9. Comparison of in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with gold standard in vivo mouse neutralization test for the detection of low level antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Cemile; Coplu, Nilay; Gozalan, Aysegul; Akin, Lutfu; Esen, Berrin

    2017-06-01

    Detection of anti-tetanus antibody levels is necessary for both determination of the immune status of individuals and also for planning preventive measures. ELISA is the preferred test among in vitro tests however it can be affected by the cross reacting antibodies. A previously developed in-house ELISA test was found not reliable for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A new method was developed to detect low antibody levels correctly. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test with the in vivo mouse neutralization test, for the antibody levels ≤1.0IU/ml. A total of 54 serum samples with the antibody levels of three different levels, =0.01IU/ml, 0.01-0.1IU/ml, 0.1-1IU/ml, which were detected by in vivo mouse neutralization test were studied by the newly developed in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test. Test was validated by using five different concentrations (0.01IU/ml, 0.06IU/ml, 0.2IU/ml, 0.5IU/ml, 1.0IU/ml). A statistically significant correlation (r 2 =0.9967 p=0,001) between in vivo mouse neutralization test and in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, was observed. For the tested concentrations intra-assay, inter-assay, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and coefficients of variations were determined as ≤15%. In-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test can be an alternative method to in vivo mouse neutralization method for the detection of levels ≤1.0IU/ml. By using in-house biotin-avidin tetanus IgG ELISA test, individuals with non protective levels, will be reliably detected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  11. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  12. Light-guiding hydrogels for cell-based sensing and optogenetic synthesis in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Seonghoon; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2013-12-01

    Polymer hydrogels are widely used as cell scaffolds for biomedical applications. Although the biochemical and biophysical properties of hydrogels have been investigated extensively, little attention has been paid to their potential photonic functionalities. Here, we report cell-integrated polyethylene glycol-based hydrogels for in vivo optical-sensing and therapy applications. Hydrogel patches containing cells were implanted in awake, freely moving mice for several days and shown to offer long-term transparency, biocompatibility, cell viability and light-guiding properties (loss of nanotoxicity of cadmium-based bare and shelled quantum dots (CdTe; CdSe/ZnS) in vivo.

  13. Blue light irradiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo via ROS generation in rat gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Shiotsu-Ogura, Yukako; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Toyama, Toshizo; Yoshino, Fumihiko

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is induced by blue light irradiation to a living body. Only limited research has been reported in dental field on the dangers of blue light, mostly focusing on cytotoxicity associated with heat injury of dental pulp. We thus performed an in vivo study on oral tissue exposed to blue light. ROS generated upon blue light irradiation of flavin adenine dinucleotide were measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. After blue light irradiation, the palatal gingiva of Wistar rats were isolated. Collected samples were subjected to biochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and glutathione. Singlet oxygen was generated by blue light irradiation, but was significantly quenched in an N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) concentration-dependent manner. Blue light significantly accelerated oxidative stress and increased the oxidized glutathione levels in gingival tissue. These effects were also inhibited by NAC pre-administration. The results suggest that blue light irradiation at clinical levels of tooth bleaching treatment may enhance lipid peroxidation by the induction of oxidative stress and the consumption of a significant amount of intracellular glutathione. In addition, NAC might be an effective supplement for the protection of oral tissues against blue light irradiation-induced oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite

  15. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strindehag, O.

    1965-03-01

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a β-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10 -12 input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10 -12 to 10 -9 input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses

  16. Photomultiplier tubes for Low Level Cerenkov Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strindehag, O

    1965-03-15

    Tube backgrounds of several 2-inch photomultiplier types having S11, 'S' , S13 and S20 cathodes are compared by measuring signal and background pulse height distributions at pulse heights corresponding to a few photo-electrons. The reference signal is generated by means of a {beta}-source and a plexiglass radiator. It is found that comparatively good results are obtained with selected tubes of the EMI types 6097B and 9514B having equivalent dark current dc values down to 10{sup -12} input lumens. Special interest is devoted to the correlation between the measured tube backgrounds and the dark current dc values of the tubes, as a good correlation between these parameters simplifies the selection of photomultiplier tubes. The equivalent dark currents of the tested tubes extend over the range 10{sup -12} to 10{sup -9} input lumens. Although the investigation deals with photomultiplier tubes intended for use in low level Cerenkov detectors it is believed that the results could be valuable in other fields where photomultiplier tubes are utilized for the detection of weak light pulses.

  17. Human exposure to low level ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paix, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the low-level radiation sources and their effects on human populations, from a global perspective. 'Low-level' means exposures in the range of the natural background to which everybody is exposed. The quoted values are whole-world averages, but individual variations are mentioned in a few cases. (author). 22 refs

  18. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the spring meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: state and compact reports; New York's challenge to the constitutionality of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Amendments Act of 1985; DOE technical assistance for 1993; interregional import/export agreements; Department of Transportation requirements; superfund liability; nonfuel bearing components; NRC residual radioactivity criteria

  19. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the

  20. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoten, Eert

    1998-01-01

    Perspectives for Risk Assessment''. The central question was the extent to which the sometimes fast-growing knowledge about molecular and cellular effects offers the desired basis for extrapolation. Against this setting, a number of more specific questions which have been hotly debated for some time were also addressed. One of the primary questions concerned the traditional but increasingly questioned division between stochastic and non-stochastic working agents, and the corresponding division between exposure-effect relations without a threshold and with a threshold. Thoughts were also exchanged on what is often referred to as hormesis: the notion that low levels of exposure could actually improve health. For the purpose of illuminating the many aspects of these issues, experts from a number of areas were invited. In addition to this, three agents were selected to serve as points of crystallization for the general debate: ionizing radiation, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and dioxins. The present report calls attention to a selection of issues which emerged during the discussions on the above-mentioned central topic. Various more detailed questions and the wider context of the points considered are described at greater length in the enclosed conference report and in the background documents attached to the report. What follows is a series of considerations regarding the scientific basis for the derivation of recommended exposure levels, viewed in the light of current procedures and against the background of the work of the Health Council. In the preparation of the following comments and recommendations, various Dutch experts have been consulted

  1. In vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Matthew Allen

    This thesis research presents the development of a non-invasive diagnostic technique for distinguishing between skin cancer, moles, and normal skin using polarized and multiple scattered light spectroscopy. Polarized light incident on the skin is single scattered by the epidermal layer and multiple scattered by the dermal layer. The epidermal light maintains its initial polarization while the light from the dermal layer becomes randomized and multiple scattered. Mie theory was used to model the epidermal light as the scattering from the intercellular organelles. The dermal signal was modeled as the diffusion of light through a localized semi-homogeneous volume. These models were confirmed using skin phantom experiments, studied with in vitro cell cultures, and applied to human skin for in vivo testing. A CCD-based spectroscopy system was developed to perform all these experiments. The probe and the theory were tested on skin phantoms of latex spheres on top of a solid phantom. We next extended our phantom study to include in vitro cells on top of the solid phantom. Optical fluorescent microscope images revealed at least four distinct scatterers including mitochondria, nucleoli, nuclei, and cell membranes. Single scattering measurements on the mammalian cells consistently produced PSD's in the size range of the mitochondria. The clinical portion of the study consisted of in vivo measurements on cancer, mole, and normal skin spots. The clinical study combined the single scattering model from the phantom and in vitro cell studies with the diffusion model for multiple scattered light. When parameters from both layers were combined, we found that a sensitivity of 100% and 77% can be obtained for detecting cancers and moles, respectively, given the number of lesions examined.

  2. Engineering Designed Proteins for Light Capture, Energy Transfer, and Emissive Sensing In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Joshua A.

    Proteins that are used for photosynthetic light harvesting and biological signaling are critical to life. These types of proteins act as scaffolds that hold small, sometimes metal-containing organic molecules in precise locations for light absorption and successive use. For signaling proteins, this energy can be used to induce a photoisomerization of the small molecule that can turn on or off a signaling cascade that controls the physiology of an organism. Alternatively, photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins funnel this energy in a directional manner towards a charge separating catalytic component that can change this light energy into chemical energy. The protein environment also serves to tune the photophysical properties of the small molecules. This is seen extensively with the linear tetrapyrroles that are used in both photosynthetic and signaling proteins. Many efforts have been made to harness these natural proteins for societal use, including improving photophysical properties and interfacing capabilities with manmade catalytic components. Several methods of achieving improvement have entailed structurally guided mutation and directed evolution. However, these methods all have their limitations due to the inherent complexity and fragility of the natural proteins. This work presents an alternative more robust method to natural proteins. My thesis states: that man-made proteins, known as maquettes, employing basic rules of protein folding, can be designed to become light harvesting and signaling proteins that can be assembled fully in vivo providing an alternative, robust, and versatile platform for meeting the diverse array of societal "green chemistry" and biomedical needs. This in vivo assembly is carried out by interacting with cyanobacterial protein and pigment machinery, both as stand-alone units and as protein fusions with natural antenna complexes. Additionally, this work offers insight for fast and tight binding of circular and linear tetrapyrroles

  3. The Drigg low-level waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Safe disposal of waste is a vital aspect of any industrial operation whether it be production of plastics, steel or chemicals or handling of radioactive materials. Appropriate methods must be used in every case. Radioactive waste falls into three distinct categories - high, intermediate and low-level. It is the solid low-level waste making up over 90% of the total which this booklet discusses. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) operates a site for the disposal of solid low-level waste at Driggs, some six kilometres south of Sellafield in West Cumbria. The daily operations and control of the site, the responsibility of the BNFL Waste Management Unit is described. (author)

  4. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage

  5. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the summer meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: responsibility for nonfuel component disposal; state experiences in facility licensing; and volume projections

  6. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage

  7. Landfill disposal of very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2009-01-01

    The radioactivities of very low level wastes are very low. VLLW can be disposed by simple and economic burial process. This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide. The disposal of VLLW in China is also briefly discussed and suggested here. (author)

  8. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Banks, C.J.; Humphreys, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  9. Low-level-waste-treatment handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinton, S.D.; Goeller, H.E.; Holladay, D.W.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    The initial draft of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook has been prepared and submitted to the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for review and comment. A revised draft is scheduled to be delivered to DOE Headquarters in December 1982. The Handbook is designed to be useful to all individuals and groups concerned with low-level wastes. It is one of several volumes that will ultimately comprise a Low-Level Waste Technology Handbook. The objective of the Low-Level Waste Treatment Handbook is to present an overview of current practices related to the segregation, classification, volume reduction, solidification, handling, packaging, and transportation of LLW for disposal in a shallow land burial facility. The Handbook is intended to serve as a guide to individuals interested in the treatment and handling of low-level radioactive waste. The Handbook will not explicitly tell the user how to design and operate LLW treatment facilities, but rather will identify (1) kinds of information required to evaluate the options, (2) methods that may be used to evaluate these options, and (3) limitations associated with the selection of the treatment options. The focus of the Handbook is providing guidance on how to do waste treatment for disposal by shallow land burial

  10. Low-level radioactive waste, mixed low-level radioactive waste, and biomedical mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the proceedings of a workshop entitled: Low-Level Radioactive Waste, Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Biomedical Mixed Waste presented by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the University of Florida, October 17-19, 1994. The topics covered during the workshop include technical data and practical information regarding the generation, handling, storage and disposal of low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. A description of low-level radioactive waste activities in the United States and the regional compacts is presented

  11. In Vivo Lighted Fluorescence via Fenton Reaction: Approach for Imaging of Hydrogen Peroxide in Living Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhui; Chen, Weiju; Qing, Zhihe; Zheng, Jing; Xiao, Yue; Yang, Sheng; Wang, Lili; Li, Yinhui; Yang, Ronghua

    2016-04-05

    By virtue of its high sensitivity and rapidity, Fenton reaction has been demonstrated as a powerful tool for in vitro biochemical analysis; however, in vivo applications of Fenton reaction still remain to be exploited. Herein, we report, for the first time, the design, formation and testing of Fenton reaction for in vivo fluorescence imaging of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). To realize in vivo fluorescence imaging of H2O2 via Fenton reaction, a functional nanosphere, Fc@MSN-FDNA/PTAD, is fabricated from mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN), a Fenton reagent of ferrocene (Fc), ROX-labeled DNA (FDNA), and a cationic perylene derivative (PTAD). The ferrocene molecules are locked in the pore entrances of MSN, and exterior of MSN is covalently immobilized with FDNA. As a key part, PTAD acts as not only the gatekeeper of MSN but also the efficient quencher of ROX. H2O2 can permeate into the nanosphere and react with ferrocene to product hydroxyl radical (·OH) via Fenton reaction, which cleaves FDNA to detach ROX from PTAD, thus in turn, lights the ROX fluorescence. Under physiological condition, H2O2 can be determined from 5.0 nM to 1.0 μM with a detection limit of 2.4 nM. Because of the rapid kinetics of Fenton reaction and high specificity for H2O2, the proposed method meets the requirement for real applications. The feasibility of Fc@MSN-FDNA/PTAD for in vivo applications is demonstrated for fluorescence imaging of exogenous and endogenous H2O2 in cells and mice. We expect that this work will not only contribute to the H2O2-releated studies but also open up a new way to exploit in vivo Fenton reaction for biochemical research.

  12. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  13. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  14. The low-level radioactive waste crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bord, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    According to the author, the goals of the 1980 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act have not been met. That act stipulated that regional disposal sites were to be established by 1986. To date, no new sites have been established and none are anywhere near the construction phase. Congress, responding to existing impasse, has extended the deadline to the end of 1992 with the passage of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act. The reasons for the impasse are no mystery: local intransigence regarding waste of any kind, public fears of radiation hazards, and politicians' anxieties about their constituents' fears. The focus of this paper is the viability of ongoing attempts to overcome public intransigence in the case of disposal siting for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW)

  15. Processing of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Although low-level wastes have been generated and have required processing for more than two decades now, it is noteworthy that processing methods are continuing to change. The changes are not only attributable to improvements in technology, but are also the result of changing regulations and economics and uncertainties regarding the future availabilities of burial space for disposal. Indeed, because of the changes which have and are taking place in the processing of low-level waste, an overview of the current situation is in order. This presentation is a brief overview of the processing methods generally employed to treat the low-level wastes generated from both fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle sources. The presentation is far too brief to deal with the processing technologies in a comprehensive fashion, but does provide a snapshot of what the current or typical processing methods are and what changes are occurring and why

  16. Instrument for fluorescence sensing of circulating cells with diffuse light in mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, Eric; Vickers, Dwayne; Runnels, Judith; Murthy, Shashi K; Lin, Charles P; Niedre, Mark

    2012-03-01

    Accurate quantification of circulating cell populations in mice is important in many areas of preclinical biomedical research. Normally, this is done either by extraction and analysis of small blood samples or, more recently, by using microscopy-based in vivo fluorescence flow cytometry. We describe a new technological approach to this problem using detection of diffuse fluorescent light from relatively large blood vessels in vivo. The diffuse fluorescence flow cytometer (DFFC) uses a laser to illuminate a mouse limb and an array of optical fibers coupled to a high-sensitivity photomultiplier tube array operating in photon counting mode to detect weak fluorescence signals from cells. We first demonstrate that the DFFC instrument is capable of detecting fluorescent microspheres and Vybrant-DiD-labeled cells in a custom-made optical flow phantom with similar size, optical properties, linear flow rates, and autofluorescence as a mouse limb. We also present preliminary data demonstrating that the DFFC is capable of detecting circulating cells in nude mice in vivo. In principle, this device would allow interrogation of the whole blood volume of a mouse in minutes, with sensitivity improvement by several orders of magnitude compared to current approaches. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  17. Dynamic light scattering in ophthalmology: results of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fankhauser, Franz

    2006-01-01

    To calibrate new dynamic light scattering (DLS) devices in defined solutions and post mortem porcine and human eyes. To examine all segments of the eye and to become familiar with the usage of the technique in living subjects. METHODS, DESIGN: Three new DLS devices for the usage in patients were developed. Mono-disperse solutions, poly-disperse solutions, gels, post mortem porcine and human eyes as well as healthy volunteers were studied. The detected signals were inverted into autocorrelation functions. We constructed three DLS devices appropriate for in vitro as well as in vivo examinations. In mono disperse solution precise disintegration rates could be calculated. In poly-disperse solutions, in gel and in the vitreous the results did not correlate with movements of individual particles but we could calculate characteristics of the complete scattering system. In vivo measurements demonstrated that DLS can be used in all human eye segments. DLS is a unique technique. With DLS the molecular composition of eye segments can be studied in living subjects. This can be used to understand the molecular basis of severe eye diseases. The presented data demonstrate that DLS delivers reproducible data from all eye segments. It is possible to study the molecular structures of eye segments in living subjects. The developed devices were proved successfully in vitro as well as in vivo. Limitations are the low specificity of DLS and its sensitivity to background noise. Now clinical studies are necessary to demonstrate potential diagnostic benefits of DLS in specific eye diseases.

  18. Low-level waste workshops. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 specifies that each state is responsible for the disposal of the low-level waste which is generated within its boundaries. The Act states that such wastes can be most safely and efficiently managed on a regional basis through compacts. It also defines low-level waste as waste which is not classified as high-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or by-product material as defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. The Policy Act also stipulates that regional agreements or compacts shall not be applicable to the transportation, management, or disposal of low-level radioactive waste from atomic energy defense activities or federal research and development activities. It also specifies that agreements or compacts shall take affect on January 1, 1986, upon Congressional approval. In February 1983, the US Department of Energy awarded a grant to the Council of State Governments' Midwestern Office. The grant was to be used to fund workshops for legislation on low-level radioactive waste issues. The purpose of the workshops was to provide discussion specifically on the Midwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste. Legislators from the states which were eligible to join the compact were invited: Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Virginia, Kansas and Nebraska were also eligible but had joined other compacts. Consequently, they weren't invited to the workshops. The Governor's office of West Virginia expressed interest in the compact, and its legislators were invited to attend a workshop. Two workshops were held in March. This report is a summary of the proceedings which details the concerns of the compact and expresses the reasoning behind supporting or not supporting the compact

  19. Reasons for Low Levels of Interactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The interactivity levels of online CSR communication are typically low. This study explores the reasons for the low levels of interactivity in the popular social media tool Twitter. An analysis of 41,864 Twitter messages (tweets) from the thirty most central corporate accounts in a CSR Twitter...... network is conducted. Comparisons (t-test) between CSR tweets and general tweets and between specialized CSR Twitter accounts and general accounts reveal that the low levels of interactivity are due to a reactive interaction approach and a lack of specialization....

  20. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    The generation of low-level radioactive waste is a natural consequence of the societal uses of radioactive materials. These uses include the application of radioactive materials to the diagnosis and treatment of human disease and to research into the causes of human disease and their prevention. Currently, low level radioactive wastes are disposed of in one of three shallow land-burial disposal sites located in Washington, Nevada, and South Carolina. With the passage in December 1980 of Public Law 96-573, The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, the disposal of low-level wastes generated in each state was identified as a responsibility of the state. To fulfill this responsibility, states were encouraged to form interstate compacts for radioactive waste disposal. At the present time, only 37 states have entered into compact agreements, in spite of the clause in Public Law 96-573 that established January 1, 1986, as a target date for implementation of state responsibility for radioactive wastes. Recent action by Congress has resulted in postponement of the implementation date to January 1, 1993

  1. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report

  2. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides the results of the winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Discussions were held on the following topics: new developments in states and compacts; adjudicatory hearings; information exchange on siting processes, storage surcharge rebates; disposal after 1992; interregional access agreements; and future tracking and management issues

  3. IEN Low-level-radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The control, treatment and disposal of the low-level radioactive waste produced in the units of IEN-CNEN, in Brazil are presented, in details. These wastes are generated from a particle accelerator (CV-28 cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). (Author) [pt

  4. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the October 1990 meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics of discussion included: a special session on liability and financial assurance needs; proposal to dispose of mixed waste at federal facilities; state plans for interim storage; and hazardous materials legislation.

  5. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  6. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards.

  7. Analysis of Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 63-63 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  8. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 25-30 ISSN 1801-5603 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) SVV-2012-264513 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak areas * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/5/Slovak_en.pdf

  9. Stochastic Models for Low Level DNA Mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, Dalibor; Zvárová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 28-28 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : forensic DNA interpretation * low level samples * allele peak heights * dropout probability Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  10. Siting a low-level waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    In processes to site disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste, volunteerism and incentives packages hold more promise for attracting host communities than they have for attracting host states. But volunteerism and incentives packages can have disadvantages as well as advantages. This paper discusses their pros and cons and summarizes the different approaches that states are using in their relationships with local governments

  11. Low-level radiation risks in people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloman, M.; Filjushkin, V. lgor

    1993-01-01

    Using the limited human data plus the relationships derived from the laboratory, a leukemia risk model has been developed as well as a suggested model for other cancers in people exposed to low levels of radiation. Theoretical experimental and epidemiological evidence will be presented in an integrated stochastic model for projection of radiation-induced cancer risks

  12. Characteristics of monsoon low level jet (MLLJ)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature and wind data are used to describe variation in the strength of the Monsoon Low Level Jet (MLLJ) from an active phase of the monsoon to a break phase. Also estimated are the characteristics of turbulence above and below MLLJ.

  13. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides highlights from the 1995 summer meeting of the Low Level radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: new developments in state and compacts; federal waste management; DOE plans for Greater-Than-Class C waste management; mixed wastes; commercial mixed waste management; international export of rad wastes for disposal; scintillation cocktails; license termination; pending legislation; federal radiation protection standards

  14. Low-level radioactive waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the non-technical problems associated with the social and political obstacles to the secure disposal of low level radioactive waste. The author reviews thirty years' experience managing non-military wastes. The merits of available options are considered

  15. Management of low level waste generated from ISER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizushina, Tomoyuki

    1987-01-01

    Low level wastes are generated during nuclear power plant operation. In the case of ISER, low level wastes from the reactor are basically the same as of existing light water reactors. Various low level wastes, including solid, liquid and gaseous, are listed and discussed. In normal operation, high-activity wastes are not subjected to any treatment. For contaminated equipment or reactor parts, it may be desirable to transfer most of the activity to liquid phase through an appropriate decontamination procedure. Highly active solid wastes are usually fixed in a solid form through incorporation into either concrete or asphalt as containment material. Decantation and filtration treatments are usually sufficient before dilution and release of liquid wastes into the environment. Except for ordinary gas filtration, there in normally no other treatment. Under certain circumstances, however, it may be important to apply the decay storage before release to the atmosphere. In accidental circumstances, specific filtration is recommended or even sometimes needed. There are some alternatives for storage and-or disposal of low level wastes. In many cases, shallow land burial is chosen as a realistic method for storage and-or disposal of solid waste. In chosing a disposal method, the radiation dose rate from solid wastes or the specific activity should be taken into account. Boric acid is a retarder for cement setting. This effect of boric acid is inhibited by adding a complexing agent before mixing the waste with cement. (Nogami, K.)

  16. In vivo Microscale Measurements of Light and Photosynthesis during Coral Bleaching: Evidence for the Optical Feedback Loop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Holm, Jacob B; Larkum, Anthony W D; Pernice, Mathieu; Ralph, Peter J; Suggett, David J; Kühl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Climate change-related coral bleaching, i.e., the visible loss of zooxanthellae from the coral host, is increasing in frequency and extent and presents a major threat to coral reefs globally. Coral bleaching has been proposed to involve accelerating light stress of their microalgal endosymbionts via a positive feedback loop of photodamage, symbiont expulsion and excess in vivo light exposure. To test this hypothesis, we used light and O 2 microsensors to characterize in vivo light exposure and photosynthesis of Symbiodinium during a thermal stress experiment. We created tissue areas with different densities of Symbiodinium cells in order to understand the optical properties and light microenvironment of corals during bleaching. Our results showed that in bleached Pocillopora damicornis corals, Symbiodinium light exposure was up to fivefold enhanced relative to healthy corals, and the relationship between symbiont loss and light enhancement was well-described by a power-law function. Cell-specific rates of Symbiodinium gross photosynthesis and light respiration were enhanced in bleached P. damicornis compared to healthy corals, while areal rates of net photosynthesis decreased. Symbiodinium light exposure in Favites sp. revealed the presence of low light microniches in bleached coral tissues, suggesting that light scattering in thick coral tissues can enable photoprotection of cryptic symbionts. Our study provides evidence for the acceleration of in vivo light exposure during coral bleaching but this optical feedback mechanism differs between coral hosts. Enhanced photosynthesis in relation to accelerating light exposure shows that coral microscale optics exerts a key role on coral photophysiology and the subsequent degree of radiative stress during coral bleaching.

  17. Light-triggered in vivo activation of adhesive peptides regulates cell adhesion, inflammation and vascularization of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ted T.; García, José R.; Paez, Julieta I.; Singh, Ankur; Phelps, Edward A.; Weis, Simone; Shafiq, Zahid; Shekaran, Asha; Del Campo, Aránzazu; García, Andrés J.

    2015-03-01

    Materials engineered to elicit targeted cellular responses in regenerative medicine must display bioligands with precise spatial and temporal control. Although materials with temporally regulated presentation of bioadhesive ligands using external triggers, such as light and electric fields, have recently been realized for cells in culture, the impact of in vivo temporal ligand presentation on cell-material responses is unknown. Here, we present a general strategy to temporally and spatially control the in vivo presentation of bioligands using cell-adhesive peptides with a protecting group that can be easily removed via transdermal light exposure to render the peptide fully active. We demonstrate that non-invasive, transdermal time-regulated activation of cell-adhesive RGD peptide on implanted biomaterials regulates in vivo cell adhesion, inflammation, fibrous encapsulation, and vascularization of the material. This work shows that triggered in vivo presentation of bioligands can be harnessed to direct tissue reparative responses associated with implanted biomaterials.

  18. A low-level needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Y.; Taguchi, Y.; Imamura, M.; Inoue, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1977-01-01

    A small end-window type gas-flow counter which has a sharpened needle (anode) against the end-window plane (cathode) was developed for low-level counting of β particles to the amount of less than one count per hour in solid sources of relatively high specific activity. The advantage of the needle counter for low-level work is that being of a conical shape the active volume as against the window area is small. The background count rate of 0.0092+-0.0005 cpm was obtained for a 10 mm dia needle counter operating in GM mode and in anticoincidence with a well-type NaI(Tl) guard crystal with massive shields. The counter design and the counter characteristics are presented in detail. The needle counter is simple in design, low-cost and stable in long time operation. (author)

  19. Low-level radiation waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubofcik, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a low-level radiation waste container set for use in conjunction with an open-topped receptacle. It comprises: a receptacle liner having a closed end and an open end, the receptacle liner sized for deployment as an inserted liner in an open-topped receptacle for collecting low-level radiation waste material within the receptacle liner within the open-topped receptacle; a cover sized and shaped to fit over the open top of the open-topped receptacle and the receptacle liner therein with the cover is in a closed position. The cover having a depending skirt which, when the cover is in the closed position, extends downwardly to overlap the open-topped receptacle adjacent the open top thereof and a portion of the receptacle liner received therein; and the receptacle liner and cover being fabricated of flexible radiation shielding material

  20. Low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, T [Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1980-08-01

    In the development and utilization of nuclear energy, variety of radioactive wastes arise. A largest part is low level radioactive wastes. In Japan, they are concentrated and solidified, and stored in drums. However, no low level wastes have yet been finally disposed of; there are now about 260,000 drums of such wastes stored on the sites. In Japan, the land is narrow, and its structure is geologically unstable, so that the sea disposal is sought. On the other hand, the development of technology for the ground disposal has lagged behind the sea disposal until recently because of the law concerned. The following matters are described: for the sea disposal, preparatory technology studies, environment safety assessment, administrative measures, and international control; for the ground disposal, experiments, surveys, disposal site selection, and the concept of island repositories.

  1. IRMM low level underground laboratory in HADES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouchel, D [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Wordel, R [CEC-JRC, Inst. for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium)

    1997-03-01

    The operation of low background HPGe detectors at a depth of 225 m, reduced the background by two orders of magnitude; a large amount of the remaining background is still attributable to the cosmic rays. The selection of radiopure materials, the characterization of reference matrices and the measurements of low radioactivities in environmental samples are performed. Coupling the low level spectrometry with additional techniques, e.g. neutron activation, will allow to measure extremely low radioactivities. (orig.)

  2. Low-level waste certification plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalph, W.O.

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the organization and methodology for the certification of solid low-level waste (LLW) and mixed-waste (MW) generated at any of the facilities or major work activities of the Engineered Process Application (EPA) organization. The primary LLW and MW waste generating facility operated by EPA is the 377 Building. This plan does not cover the handling of hazardous or non-regulated waste, though they are mentioned at times for completeness

  3. Low-level waste disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    A design has been proposed for a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that should provide the desired isolation under all foreseeable conditions. Although slightly more costly than current practices; this design provides additional reliability. This reliability is desirable to contribute to the closure of the fuel cycle and to demonstrate the responsible management of the uranium cycle by reestablishing confidence in the system

  4. Pigment specific in vivo light absorption of phytoplankton from estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stæhr, A.; Markager, S.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of phytoplankton photoacclimation and adaptation to natural growth conditions on the chlorophyll a-specific in vivo absorption coefficient (a* ph) was evaluated for samples collected in estuarine, coastal and oceanic waters. Despite an overall gradient in the physio......-chemical environment from estuaries, over coastal, to oceanic waters, no clear relationships were found between a* ph and the prevailing light, temperature, salinity and nutrient concentrations, indicating that short-term cellular acclimation was of minor importance for the observed variability in a* ph. The clear...... decline in a* ph from oceanic, over coastal, to estuarine waters was, however, strongly correlated with an increase in cell size and intracellular chlorophyll a (chl a) content of the phytoplankton, and a reduction of photosynthetic carotenoids relative to chl a. Variations in photoprotective carotenoids...

  5. State compacts and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1979, for the first time, low-level waste (LLW) was brought to the attention of policy makers in most states. For several decades, technical personnel had regulated and managed LLW, but elected officials and their staff had been largely ignorant of the origins and destination of low-level radioactive materials. Events in the fall of 1979 set in motion a sequence of events that has compelled the continuing attention of policy makers in every state in the nation. In December 1979, the Executive Committee of the National Governors' Association appointed an eight-member task force, chaired by Governor Bruce Babbitt of Arizona, to review low-level waste management and to formulate state policy by July 1980. The principal findings were as follows: 1. LLW could be managed most efficiently, both technically and politically, at the state level. 2. Each state should take responsibility for its own waste. 3. The creation of a regional waste management system by means of interstate compacts offered the best promise of creating new disposal capacity. 4. Regions should be allowed to exclude waste generated outside their borders after a specified date

  6. Low-level-waste-disposal methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, M.L.; Dragonette, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report covers the followng: (1) history of low level waste disposal; (2) current practice at the five major DOE burial sites and six commercial sites with dominant features of these sites and radionuclide content of major waste types summarized in tables; (3) site performance with performance record on burial sites tabulated; and (4) proposed solutions. Shallow burial of low level waste is a continuously evolving practice, and each site has developed its own solutions to the handling and disposal of unusual waste forms. There are no existing national standards for such disposal. However, improvements in the methodology for low level waste disposal are occurring on several fronts. Standardized criteria are being developed by both the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and by DOE. Improved techniques for shallow burial are evolving at both commercial and DOE facilities, as well as through research sponsored by NRC, DOE, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Alternatives to shallow burial, such as deeper burial or the use of mined cavities is also being investigated by DOE

  7. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, D.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Reichel, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  8. Update on low-level waste compacts and state agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenan, M.; Rabbe, D.; Thompson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This article updates information on the following agencies involved in low-level radioactive wastes: Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Central Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Commission; Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Compact; Massachusetts Low-Level radioactive Waste Management Board; Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority; Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission; Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact; Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Board; Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management;Southwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  9. In-vivo data on the influence of tobacco smoke and UV light on murine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlou, P; Rallis, M; Deliconstantinos, G; Papaioannou, G; Grando, S A

    2009-01-01

    Inhaled tobacco smoke comes in direct contact with few organs such as mouth, lungs, and stomach. Cigarette smoke (CS) in lungs has been extensively studied. However, limited data exist on its effect on skin, and there are no long-term experimental studies suggesting toxic effects on skin. Even though it is generally accepted that CS is among the main factors of skin aging, the number of experimental studies showing this aging effect is limited. We hereby studied the effect of long-term exposure to CS on the skin of hairless mice in combination with or without ultraviolet (UV) light. In addition, we investigated potential skin protection by a potent antioxidant namely procyanidine-rich French maritime pine bark extract (PBE) pycnogenol. Male and female hairless SKH-2 mice were exposed for 10 months to tobacco smoke and/or UV light in vivo, and their effects on skin were investigated. Some biophysical parameters such as development of erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin elasticity were measured. The results show that UV and CS may be acting synergistically, as shown by the enhanced TEWL, erythema values, epitheliomas, and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) observed, whereas PBE seems to protect skin against SCC.

  10. Method for continuous exposure of blood in vitro and in vivo to light, radiation or gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kook-Hyun (Seoul National Univ. (Republic of Korea). Coll. of Medicine); Takeshita, Jiro; Kushiyama, Sanzo; Morioka, Tohru

    1989-07-01

    Various medical treatments with extracorporeal circulation have increased the opportunities of exposing blood to light, radiation, or gas. In this paper, several simple methods of exposing blood to these bioactive exogenic agents are introduced. In in vitro method, blood is divided into two cylindrical glass bottles which have openings on both ends. After the bottles are connected with a vinyl tube to make a circuit, they are mounted parallel on the axis of a rotating rod. The air (or laboratory gas) is circulated by a vibration pump incorporated into this gas circuit to equalize the temperature in the two bottles. When the rod is rotated, a thin film of blood is formed over the internal surface of the bottles. This method permits blood to be in contact with the gas inside and to be exposed to light from the outside of the bottle. In in vitro method, blood is divided into two thin-walled, transparent, rectangular bags placed parallel on a tilting board. When the board is tilted intermittently, a thin blood layer is formed in each bag. If the bags are installed with inlet and outlet tubes and connected with blood accesses to either animals or humans, this device will become a circuit for an in vivo study. When one of the two bottles or bags is covered with metal foil to shield it from light or radiation, it can be used as a control. These devices will offer a laboratory method to study the effects of the exposure of blood to some exogenous bioactive agents as well as a new therapeutic method with such agents. (author).

  11. Low-level memory processes in vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, S

    2000-06-01

    Psychophysical studies of the short-term memory for attributes or dimensions of the visual stimulus that are known to be important in early visual processing (spatial frequency, orientation, contrast, motion and color) identify a low-level perceptual memory mechanism. This proposed mechanism is located early in the visual processing stream, prior to the structural description system responsible for shape priming but beyond primary visual cortex (V1); it is composed of a series of parallel, special-purpose perceptual mechanisms with independent but limited processing resources. Each mechanism is devoted to the analysis of a single dimension and is coupled to a memory store.

  12. Adaptive response after low level irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelevina, I I; Afanasjev, G G; JaGotlib, V; Tereschenko, D G; Tronov, V A; Serebrjany, A M [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Chemical Physics

    1996-02-01

    The experiments conducted on cultured HeLa (tissue culture) cells revealed that there is a limit of dose above which adaptive response was not observed and a limit of dose below which this response was not induced. The exposure of cells in the territories with elevated radiation background leads to genome instability which results in enhanced radiosensitivity. Investigations on the blood lymphocytes of people living in contaminated regions revealed that adaptive response was more significant in children whereas in adults there was slight increase. Acute irradiation serves as a tool revealing the changes that took place in DNA during chronic low level irradiations after Chernobyl disaster. (author).

  13. IEN low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-09-01

    The low-level radioactive waste produced in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is generated basically from three distinct modes: a particle accelerator (CV-28 Cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and the operation of a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). In the Cyclotron unit, all water flow from hot labs as well as from the decontamination laundry is retained in special tank with homogenizing system and a remote control, that signalizes when the tank gets a pre-specified level. Samples homogenized from the tank are colected for previous analysis. (Author) [pt

  14. Network Communication for Low Level RF Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiqing; Yin Chengke; Zhang Tongxuan; Fu Zechuan; Liu Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    Low Level RF (LLRF) control system for storage ring of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) has been built by digital technology. The settings of parameters and the feedback loop status are carried out through the network communication interface, and the local oscillation and clock, which is the important component of the digital LLRF control system, are also configured through network communication. NIOS II processor was employed as a core to build the embedded system with a real-time operating system MicroC/OS-II, finally Lightweight TCP/IP (LwIP) was used to achieve the communication interface. The communication network is stable after a long-term operation. (authors)

  15. Applications of low level liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Low level liquid scintillation counting is reviewed in terms of its present use and capabilities for measuring low activity samples. New areas of application of the method are discussed with special interest directed to the food industry and environmental monitoring. Advantages offered in the use of a low background liquid scintillation counter for the nuclear power industry and nuclear navy are discussed. Attention is drawn to the need for commercial development of such instrumentation to enable wider use of the method. A user clientele is suggested as is the required technology to create such a counter

  16. Onsite storage facility for low level radwaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has designed and constructed an onsite storage facility for low level radwaste (LLRW) at its Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in northern Alabama. The paper addresses the function of this facility and provides a complete description of the reinforced concrete storage modules which are the principal structural elements of the facility. The loads and loading combinations for the design of the storage modules are defined to include the foundation design parameters. Other aspects of the modules that are addressed are; the structural roof elements that provide access to the modules, shielding requirements for the LLRW, and tornado missile considerations

  17. Can low-level radiation cause cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosko, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Health in a multicellular organism is maintained by homeostatic processes. Disruption of these homeostatic controls at the molecular, biochemical, cellular, and organ systems levels can be brought about by irreversible changes in the genetic material (mutagenesis), cell death (cytotoxicity), or reversible changes in the expression of genes at the transcriptional, translational, or posttranslational levels (epigenesis). While radiation is known to induce DNA damage/mutations, cell, death and epigenetic changes, in addition to cancers that are found in radiation-exposed animals, experimentally, and in humans, epidemiologically, the question is, At low-level exposure, what is the risk that cancers are open-quotes causedclose quotes by the radiation?

  18. Solid low-level waste certification strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of the Solid Low-Level Waste (SLLW) Certification Program is to provide assurance that SLLW generated at the ORNL meets the applicable waste acceptance criteria for those facilities to which the waste is sent for treatment, handling, storage, or disposal. This document describes the strategy to be used for certification of SLLW or ORNL. The SLLW Certification Program applies to all ORNL operations involving the generation, shipment, handling, treatment, storage and disposal of SLLW. Mixed wastes, containing both hazardous and radioactive constituents, and transuranic wastes are not included in the scope of this document. 13 refs., 3 figs

  19. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date in Edgemont, South Dakota are discussed. By using past and present experience the author sets forth the major problem, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are covered. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  20. Low-level siting, Edgemont, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The siting of a low-level radwaste disposal facility and characterization activities to date, at Edgemont, South Dakota are given. Using past and present experience setting forth the major problem as viewed by the author, the social and political considerations, community acceptance, media and public officials' attitudes, criteria for acceptance and significance of countywide vote in support of facility are presented. Characterization activities, site selection planning and criteria, above-grade and below-grade technical evaluation, NRC interface, 10 CFR Part 61 related to technical work, as well as community acceptance and license application are included. The paper deals with specific problems, solutions and ongoing activities

  1. Liquid low level waste management expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Abraham, T.J.; Jackson, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    An expert system has been developed as part of a new initiative for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) systems analysis program. This expert system will aid in prioritizing radioactive waste streams for treatment and disposal by evaluating the severity and treatability of the problem, as well as the final waste form. The objectives of the expert system development included: (1) collecting information on process treatment technologies for liquid low-level waste (LLLW) that can be incorporated in the knowledge base of the expert system, and (2) producing a prototype that suggests processes and disposal technologies for the ORNL LLLW system. 4 refs., 9 figs

  2. A digital retina-like low-level vision processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertoguno, S; Bourbakis, N G

    2003-01-01

    This correspondence presents the basic design and the simulation of a low level multilayer vision processor that emulates to some degree the functional behavior of a human retina. This retina-like multilayer processor is the lower part of an autonomous self-organized vision system, called Kydon, that could be used on visually impaired people with a damaged visual cerebral cortex. The Kydon vision system, however, is not presented in this paper. The retina-like processor consists of four major layers, where each of them is an array processor based on hexagonal, autonomous processing elements that perform a certain set of low level vision tasks, such as smoothing and light adaptation, edge detection, segmentation, line recognition and region-graph generation. At each layer, the array processor is a 2D array of k/spl times/m hexagonal identical autonomous cells that simultaneously execute certain low level vision tasks. Thus, the hardware design and the simulation at the transistor level of the processing elements (PEs) of the retina-like processor and its simulated functionality with illustrative examples are provided in this paper.

  3. Low level tank waste disposal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-09-29

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site.

  4. Health effects of low level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Sadao [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted `Radiation Hormesis` on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm `is it true or not?` After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey`s claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  5. Health effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  6. Russian low-level waste disposal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, L. [L. Lehman and Associates, Inc., Burnsville, MN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The strategy for disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Russia differs from that employed in the US. In Russia, there are separate authorities and facilities for wastes generated by nuclear power plants, defense wastes, and hospital/small generator/research wastes. The reactor wastes and the defense wastes are generally processed onsite and disposed of either onsite, or nearby. Treating these waste streams utilizes such volume reduction techniques as compaction and incineration. The Russians also employ methods such as bitumenization, cementation, and vitrification for waste treatment before burial. Shallow land trench burial is the most commonly used technique. Hospital and research waste is centrally regulated by the Moscow Council of Deputies. Plans are made in cooperation with the Ministry of Atomic Energy. Currently the former Soviet Union has a network of low-level disposal sites located near large cities. Fifteen disposal sites are located in the Federal Republic of Russia, six are in the Ukraine, and one is located in each of the remaining 13 republics. Like the US, each republic is in charge of management of the facilities within their borders. The sites are all similarly designed, being modeled after the RADON site near Moscow.

  7. Low level tank waste disposal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullally, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) contracted a team consisting of Los Alamos Technical Associates (LATA), British Nuclear Fuel Laboratories (BNFL), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and TRW through the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Technical Support Contract to conduct a study on several areas concerning vitrification and disposal of low-level-waste (LLW). The purpose of the study was to investigate how several parameters could be specified to achieve full compliance with regulations. The most restrictive regulation governing this disposal activity is the National Primary Drinking Water Act which sets the limits of exposure to 4 mrem per year for a person drinking two liters of ground water daily. To fully comply, this constraint would be met independently of the passage of time. In addition, another key factor in the investigation was the capability to retrieve the disposed waste during the first 50 years as specified in Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. The objective of the project was to develop a strategy for effective long-term disposal of the low-level waste at the Hanford site

  8. Development of digital low level rf system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michizono, Shinichiro; Anami, Shozo; Katagiri, Hiroaki; Fang, Zhigao; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Miura, Takako; Yano, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Seiya; Kobayashi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest advantages of the digital low level rf (LLRF) system is its flexibility. Owing to the recent rapid progress in digital devices (such as ADCs and DACs) and telecommunication devices (mixers and IQ modulators), digital LLRF system becomes popular in these 10 years. The J-PARC linac LLRF system adopted cPCI crates and FPGA based digital feedback system. Since the LLRF control of the normal conducting cavities are more difficult than super conducting cavities due to its lower Q values, fast processing using the FPGA was the essential to the feedback control. After the successful operation of J-PARC linac LLRF system, we developed the STF (ILC test facility in KEK) LLRF system. Since the klystron drives eight cavities in STF phase 1, we modified the FPGA board. Basic configuration and the performances of these systems are summarized. The future R and D projects (ILC and ERL) is also described from the viewpoints of LLRF. (author)

  9. Mixed low-level waste form evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.I.; Cheng, Wu-Ching; Wheeler, T.; Waters, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    A scoping level evaluation of polyethylene encapsulation and vitreous waste forms for safe storage of mixed low-level waste was performed. Maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations were estimated for 15 indicator radionuclides disposed of at the Hanford and Savannah River sites with respect to protection of the groundwater and inadvertent intruder pathways. Nominal performance improvements of polyethylene and glass waste forms relative to grout are reported. These improvements in maximum permissible radionuclide concentrations depend strongly on the radionuclide of concern and pathway. Recommendations for future research include improving the current understanding of the performance of polymer waste forms, particularly macroencapsulation. To provide context to these estimates, the concentrations of radionuclides in treated DOE waste should be compared with the results of this study to determine required performance

  10. Low level waste solidification practice in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kuribayashi, H.; Kono, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Both sea dumping and land isolation are planned to be accomplished for low level waste disposal in Japan. The conceptual design of land isolation facilities has been completed, and site selection will presently get underway. With respect to ocean dumping, safety surveys are being performed along the lines of the London Dumping Convention and the Revised Definitions and Recommendations of the IAEA, and the review of Japanese regulations and applicable criteria is being expedited. This paper discusses the present approach to waste solidification practices in Japan. It reports that the bitumen solidification process and the plastic solidification process are being increasingly used in Japan. Despite higher investment costs, both processes have advantages in operating cost, and are comparable to the cement solidification process in overall costs

  11. Low-level radioactive biomedical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casarett, G.W.

    A summary of the management and hazards of low-level radioactive biomedical wastes is presented. The volume, disposal methods, current problems, regulatory agencies, and possible solutions to disposal problems are discussed. The benefits derived from using radioactivity in medicine are briefly described. Potential health risks are discussed. The radioactivity in most of the radioactive biomedical waste is a small fraction of that contained naturally in the human body or in the natural environment. Benefit-risk-cost considerations are presented. The cost of managing these wastes is getting so high that a new perspective for comparison of radioactivity (facts, risks, costs, benefits and trade-offs) and alternate approaches to minimize the risk and cost and maximize the benefits is suggested

  12. Inheritance from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo; Inoue, Tomio; Komoda, Fumio; Maeda, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    A benefit born as an inheritance from low-level radioactive waste is considered. In the present study, a direct economic scale of application of radiation in Japanese industry, agriculture and medicine is taken as parameter for quantifying the size of benefit. In 2006, the economic scale is about 21 billion dollars (b$) for industry, 2.5b$ for agriculture and 14b$ for medicine. Economic scale covered the all fields is totaled 37b$. Due to those benefit, one can drive a car and play an internet, pleasure the dinning food. Diagnosis and treatment by nuclear medicine can possible to survive the millions of lives and resulting in improving the quality of life, decreasing pain and suffering. However, most Japanese (80%>) may not aware those benefits to date. This report is prepared for aiming at disseminating those benefits to our peoples. (author)

  13. Solid low level waste management guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1995-01-01

    In the 1980's the nuclear industry began focusing a great deal of attention on minimizing the volume of low level radioactive waste (LLW) that required disposal. This was driven by several factors including rising disposal costs, increased regulatory pressures, and increased pressure from other organizations such as INPO. In the 1990's most utilities are faced with intense competition in the electrical generation market. The survival of a utility is based on their ability to produce electricity by the most efficient and economical means available. Waste management related costs are a substantial portion of most utilities O ampersand M budgets. Disposal site access denial continues to be a major factor in waste management program decision, and the pressures to minimize waste volumes from outside organizations is greater than ever

  14. Low-level radwaste engineering economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Miller, C.C.; Young, L.G.

    1984-07-01

    This topical report on engineering economics for low-level radwaste systems details the methodologies used for economic analyses of radwaste treatment systems and provides examples of radwaste economic evaluations. All of the parameters and cost items used in an evaluation are defined. Examples of the present-value-of-revenue-requirements method, levelized-revenue-requirements method, and the equivalent-capital-investment method are provided. Also, the calculation to determine the maximum justifiable capital expenditure for a radwaste system is illustrated. The report also provides examples of economic evaluations for many current radwaste treatment options. These options include evaporation versus demineralization, dewatering resins versus solidification of resins, and several volume reduction systems. 15 figures, 6 tables

  15. Low level processing of diode spectrometry results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippot, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Systematic measurements in gamma spectrometry on slightly radioactive samples have led to study low levels existing in the spectra and to develop suitable processing methods. These methods and the advance that they represent in reading sensitivity are now applicable to all types of spectrum. The principles of this automatic reading are briefly summarized, leading to a description of the modifications which proved necessary to increase sensitivity. Three sample spectra are used to illustrate the arguments employed to achieve this result. The conclusions from the corresponding measurements provide a clearer understanding of the quality of the responses obtained during the initial reading. The application of these methods to systematic measurements is considered in the case of atmospheric aerosols. The owerall results obtained since 1969 are presented [fr

  16. Draft low level waste technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, W.J.; Benar, C.J.; Certa, P.J.; Eiholzer, C.R.; Kruger, A.A.; Norman, E.C.; Mitchell, D.E.; Penwell, D.E.; Reidel, S.P.; Shade, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an outline of the Hanford Site Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal program, what it has accomplished, what is being done, and where the program is headed. This document may be used to provide background information to personnel new to the LLW management/disposal field and to those individuals needing more information or background on an area in LLW for which they are not familiar. This document should be appropriate for outside groups that may want to learn about the program without immediately becoming immersed in the details. This document is not a program or systems engineering baseline report, and personnel should refer to more current baseline documentation for critical information

  17. Only lasers can be used for low level laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvin, Sergey Vladimirovich

    2017-12-01

    The question of lasers' exclusivity, as well as the degree of influence of special properties of low-intensity laser illumination (LILI), such as coherence, polarity and monochromaticity, on the effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) continues to cause arguments. The study analyzes publications from 1973 to 2016, in which laser and conventional light sources are compared, and the following conclusions are drawn. First, there are a lot of publications with incorrect comparison or unfounded statements. Secondly, other sources of light are often meant by LILI without any justification. Thirdly, all studies, in which the comparison is carried out correctly and close parameters of the impact and the model are used, have a firm conclusion that laser light is much more effective. Fourthly, it is uniquely identified that the most important parameter that determines the efficiency of lasers is monochromaticity, i.e., a much narrower spectral width than for all other light sources. Only laser light sources can be used for LLLT! © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  18. Low level radwaste packaging: why not cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past several years many words have been expended in a quest to define a variety of competing radioactive waste immobilization technologies. With the more recent recognition of the technical pitfalls of urea-formaldehyde (UF) a liquid chemical binder considered as optimum less than two years ago, utilities, architect-engineers and systems vendors find themselves in a technology void, awaiting the inevitable breakthrough which will identify the perfect immobilization agent. The culmination of these pressures has brought about the introduction of new immobilization technologies including: one which offers both volume reduction and immobilization in yet another new binder agent; the costly development of highly sophisticated volume reduction systems, the highly-concentrated products from which may pose as-yet unknown immobilization problems; and, the marketing of several new more expensive liquid chemical binders which are reputed to have eliminated the kinds of problems associated with urea-formaldehyde. This paper addresses these issues by coming full circle and arriving back at the initial approach employed for low level radwaste immobilization, the use of cement. Based on an evaluation of the three principal competing immobilization approaches, liquid chemical, bitumen and cement, the merits and drawbacks of each is examined. As will be described, an objective assessment of these competing technologies has resulted in a somewhat surprising conclusion that, while none of the approaches is without disadvantages, cement can be shown to offer the most reliable, versatile long-term solution to today's needs

  19. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  20. Polyethylene solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1985-02-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive waste in polyethylene. Waste streams selected for this study included those which result from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Four types of commercially available low-density polyethylenes were employed which encompass a range of processing and property characteristics. Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste and polyethylene type. Property evaluation testing was performed on laboratory-scale specimens to assess the potential behavior of actual waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste form property tests included water immersion, deformation under compressive load, thermal cycling and radionuclide leaching. Recommended waste loadings of 70 wt % sodium sulfate, 50 wt % boric acid, 40 wt % incinerator ash, and 30 wt % ion exchange resins, which are based on process control and waste form performance considerations are reported. 37 refs., 33 figs., 22 tabs

  1. Low-level wastes pathways at EDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmoine, R.; Casseau, L.Ph.

    1999-01-01

    First, what are, for EDF, the main issues dealing with the future management of low level wastes (LLW) will be recalled; and followed by a description of what are the implications of implementing these management principles: areas zoning, set up of pathways, traceability of the wastes and associated controls. The origin of the wastes will then be described using both qualitative and quantitative approaches; the description will specifically address the spreading of wastes production in time. LLW management at EDF will then be envisaged: storage in a specific discharge, pathways for treatment and elimination of wastes with acceptable radiological impact and costs. The example of LLW oils will be developed: particularly as far as hypothesis and results concerning the radiological impacts are concerned. The choice of incineration will then be justified, however expected difficulties to implement it industrially will be pointed out. Other on going studies and their main results will be mentioned: the present time is a turning point on that issue between thought and action; to be on going dismantling must take into account the emerging principles and give rise to good communication. (author)

  2. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  3. Transitional millisecond pulsars in the low-level accretion state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaodard, Amruta D.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Archibald, Anne; Bogdanov, Slavko; Deller, Adam; Hernandez Santisteban, Juan; Patruno, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Caroline; Bassa, Cees; Amruta Jaodand

    2018-01-01

    In the canonical pulsar recycling scenario, a slowly spinning neutron star can be rejuvenated to rapid spin rates by the transfer of angular momentum and mass from a binary companion star. Over the last decade, the discovery of three transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) has allowed us to study recycling in detail. These systems transition between accretion-powered (X-ray) and rotation-powered (radio) pulsar states within just a few days, raising questions such as: what triggers the state transition, when does the recycling process truly end, and what will the radio pulsar’s final spin rate be? Systematic multi-wavelength campaigns over the last decade have provided critical insights: multi-year-long, low-level accretion states showing coherent X-ray pulsations; extremely stable, bi-modal X-ray light curves; outflows probed by radio continuum emission; a surprising gamma-ray brightening during accretion, etc. In my thesis I am trying to bring these clues together to understand the low-level accretion process that recycles a pulsar. For example, recently we timed PSR J1023+0038 in the accretion state and found it to be spinning down ~26% faster compared to the non-accreting radio pulsar state. We are currently conducting simultaneous multi-wavelength campaigns (XMM, HST, Kepler and VLA) to understand the global variability of the accretion flow, as well as high-energy Fermi-LAT observations to probe the gamma-ray emission mechanism. I will highlight these recent developments, while also presenting a broad overview of tMSPs as exciting new laboratories to test low-level accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  4. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid1 receptor antagonist, protects against light-induced retinal degeneration in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomoyo; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Yuki; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Ohno, Yuta; Ogami, Shiho; Yamane, Shinsaku; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-05-15

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. An endogenous constellation of proteins related to cannabinoid 1 receptor signaling, including free fatty acids, diacylglycerol lipase, and N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase, are localized in the murine retina. Moreover, the expression levels of endogenous agonists of cannabinoid receptors are changed in the vitreous fluid. However, the role of the endocannabinoid system in the retina, particularly in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration, remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated involvement of the cannabinoid 1 receptor in light-induced retinal degeneration using in vitro and in vivo models. To evaluate the effect of cannabinoid 1 receptors in light irradiation-induced cell death, the mouse retinal cone-cell line (661W) was treated with a cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant. Time-dependent changes of expression and localization of retinal cannabinoid 1 receptors were measured using Western blot and immunostaining. Retinal damage was induced in mice by exposure to light, followed by intravitreal injection of rimonabant. Electroretinograms and histologic analyses were performed. Rimonabant suppressed light-induced photoreceptor cell death. Cannabinoid 1 receptor expression was upregulated by light exposure. Treatment with rimonabant improved both a- and b-wave amplitudes and the thickness of the outer nuclear layer. These results suggest that the cannabinoid 1 receptor is involved in light-induced retinal degeneration and it may represent a therapeutic target in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Secondary Low-Level Waste Treatment Strategy Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.M. LaRue

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify and review potential options for processing and disposing of the secondary low-level waste (LLW) that will be generated through operation of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). An estimate of annual secondary LLW is generated utilizing the mechanism established in ''Secondary Waste Treatment Analysis'' (Reference 8.1) and ''Secondary Low-Level Waste Generation Rate Analysis'' (Reference 8.5). The secondary LLW quantities are based on the spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) arrival schedule as defined in the ''Controlled Design Assumptions Document'' (CDA) (Reference 8.6). This analysis presents estimates of the quantities of LLW in its various forms. A review of applicable laws, codes, and standards is discussed, and a synopsis of those applicable laws, codes, and standards and their impacts on potential processing and disposal options is presented. The analysis identifies viable processing/disposal options in light of the existing laws, codes, and standards, and then evaluates these options in regard to: (1) Process and equipment requirements; (2) LLW disposal volumes; and (3) Facility requirements

  6. Low-level laser irradiation protects the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane from UV cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami Amira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy or photobiomodulation is the medical use of a very low intensity light in the red to near infrared (wavelengths in the range of 630-940 nm. The present work was conducted to explore the effects of both UV and low-level laser irradiation (LLLI on microcirculation using the in vivo model of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM. The effects were assessed by measuring lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity. Cell cytotoxicity, survival and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS of the CAM were also evaluated. We found that UV irradiation induced alterations of the vessels, leading to bleeding and extravasation. This effect was intensified after 60 min of exposure to UV irradiation, leading to marked edema. UVA irradiation increased cell cytotoxicity as assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release (56.23% of control and reduced cell viability as assessed by decreased fluorescein diacetate (FDA fluorescence (56.23% of control. Pretreatment with LLLI prior to UV exposure protected the CAM tissue from UV-mediated cell death. This protective effect was supported by the observation of significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation (from 0.3±0.004 for UV, to 0.177±0.012 after LLLI pretreatment, ROS and O2 -production, as indicated by respective dihydrorhodamine (DHR and dihydroethidium (DHE intensities (from 132.78% of control for UVA, to 95.90% of control for L-UV (DHR, and from 127.34% of control for UVA, to 82.03% of control for L-UV (DHE, and by preventing the increase in oxidative activities. LLLI efficiently protected CAM cells from UV-induced oxidative stress and appeared as a safe protective pretreatment against UV irradiation.

  7. Low-level radioactive waste treatment technology. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Each generator of low-level radioactive waste must consider three sequential questions: (1) can the waste in its as-generated form be packaged and shipped to a disposal facility; (2) will the packaged waste be acceptable for disposal; and (3) if so, is it cost effective to dispose of the waste in its as-generated form. These questions are aimed at determining if the waste form, physical and chemical characteristics, and radionuclide content collectively are suitable for shipment and disposal in a cost-effective manner. If not, the waste management procedures will involve processing operations in addition to collection, segregation, packaging, shipment, and disposal. This handbook addresses methods of treating and conditioning low-level radioactive waste for shipment and disposal. A framework is provided for selection of cost-effective waste-processing options for generic categories of low-level radioactive waste. The handbook is intended as a decision-making guide that identifies types of information required to evaluate options, methods of evaluation, and limitations associated with selection of any of the processing options

  8. Protective Effect of Proanthocyanidins from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae Rhamnoides L. Seed against Visible Light-Induced Retinal Degeneration in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary proanthocyanidins (PACs as health-protective agents have become an important area of human nutrition research because of their potent bioactivities. We investigated the retinoprotective effects of PACs from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. seed against visible light-induced retinal degeneration in vivo. Pigmented rabbits were orally administered sea buckthorn seed PACs (50 and 100 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days of pre-illumination and seven consecutive days of post-illumination. Retinal function was quantified via electroretinography 7 days after light exposure. Retinal damage was evaluated by measuring the thickness of the full-thickness retina and outer nuclear layer 7 days after light exposure. Sea buckthorn seed PACs significantly attenuated the destruction of electroretinograms and maintained the retinal structure. Increased retinal photooxidative damage was expressed by the depletion of glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities, the decrease of total antioxidant capacity level and the increase of malondialdehyde level. Light exposure induced a significant increase of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 and angiogenesis (VEGF levels in retina. Light exposure upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. However, sea buckthorn seed PACs ameliorated these changes induced by light exposure. Sea buckthorn seed PACs mediated the protective effect against light-induced retinal degeneration via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms.

  9. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  10. DOE low-level waste long term technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barainca, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program is to provide a low-level waste management system by 1986. Areas of concentration are defined as: (1) Waste Generation Reduction Technology, (2) Process and Handling Technology, (3) Environmental Technology, (4) Low-Level Waste Disposal Technology. A program overview is provided with specific examples of technical development. 2 figures

  11. Low level radioactive waste management and discharge policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, T.; Oezdemir, C.; Uslu, I.

    2005-01-01

    The legal infrastructure in Turkey for the management of low-level radioactive waste covers the liquid, solid and gaseous wastes. Management of these radioactive wastes is briefly described in this paper. Moreover, delay and decay tank systems that are used to collect and store the low level radioactive wastes as a part of low-level radioactive effluent discharge policy are introduced. (author)

  12. In vivo flow cytometry for blood cell analysis using differential epi-detection of forward scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Hari P.; Jung, Yookyung; Raphael, Anthony; Alt, Clemens; Wu, Juwell; Runnels, Judith; Lin, Charles P.

    2018-02-01

    The present standard of blood cell analysis is an invasive procedure requiring the extraction of patient's blood, followed by ex-vivo analysis using a flow cytometer or a hemocytometer. We are developing a noninvasive optical technique that alleviates the need for blood extraction. For in-vivo blood analysis we need a high speed, high resolution and high contrast label-free imaging technique. In this proceeding report, we reported a label-free method based on differential epi-detection of forward scattered light, a method inspired by Jerome Mertz's oblique back-illumination microscopy (OBM) (Ford et al, Nat. Meth. 9(12) 2012). The differential epi-detection of forward light gives phase contrast image at diffraction-limited resolution. Unlike reflection confocal microscopy (RCM), which detects only sharp refractive index variation and suffers from speckle noise, this technique is suitable for detection of subtle variation of refractive index in biological tissue and it provides the shape and the size of cells. A custom built high speed electronic detection circuit board produces a real-time differential signal which yields image contrast based on phase gradient in the sample. We recorded blood flow in-vivo at 17.2k lines per second in line scan mode, or 30 frames per second (full frame), or 120 frame per second (quarter frame) in frame scan mode. The image contrast and speed of line scan data recording show the potential of the system for noninvasive blood cell analysis.

  13. Disposal of low-level and mixed low-level radioactive waste during 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Isotopic inventories and other data are presented for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed LLW disposed (and occasionally stored) during calendar year 1990 at commercial disposal facilities and Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Detailed isotopic information is presented for the three commercial disposal facilities located near Barnwell, SC, Richland, WA, and Beatty, NV. Less information is presented for the Envirocare disposal facility located near Clive, UT, and for LLW stored during 1990 at the West Valley site. DOE disposal information is included for the Savannah River Site (including the saltstone facility), Nevada Test Site, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Hanford Site, Y-12 Site, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Summary information is presented about stored DOE LLW. Suggestions are made about improving LLW disposal data

  14. The effects of low level laser therapy on both HIV-1 infected and uninfected TZM-bl cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lugongolo, Masixole Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available that would completely eradicate the virus in infected individuals, the quest for new therapies continues. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) involves the exposure of cells to low levels of red or infrared light. LLLT has been widely used in different medical...

  15. Leaching studies of low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayal, R.; Arora, H.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.

    1985-01-01

    A research program has been underway at the Brookhaven National Laboratory to investigate the release of radionuclides from low-level waste forms under laboratory conditions. This paper describes the leaching behavior of Cs-137 from two major low-level waste streams, that is, ion exchange bead resin and boric acid concentrate, solidified in Portland cement. The resultant leach data are employed to evaluate and predict the release behavior of Cs-137 from low-level waste forms under field burial conditions

  16. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990

  17. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  18. Assessment of LANL solid low-level waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.B.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Danna, J.G.; Davis, K.D.; Rutz, A.C.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section's capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans and procedures and identify particular areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management, Chapter III sets forth the requirements and guidelines for preparation and implementation of criteria, plans and procedures to be utilized in the management of solid low-level waste. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Waste Recordkeeping Procedures. Suggested outlines for these documents are presented as Appendix A

  19. Low-Level Waste (LLW) forum meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  20. A nationwide low-level waste management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The National Governors' Association, in conjunction with the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program, invited various representatives of states, regions, and federal agencies to comment on their perceptions of what major features would constitute a nationwide low-level waste management system. Three meetings were conducted and this report summarizes results of those meetings. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 placed primary responsibility on the states for disposal of low-level waste. Although initial efforts of states have been directed toward establishing compacts, it is evident that a successful long term system requires significant cooperation and communication among states, regions, federal agencies, and Congress

  1. Low-level radioactive wastes in subsurface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes will continue to be buried in shallow-land waste disposal sites. Several of the burial sites have been closed because of the problems that developed as a result of poor site characteristics, types of waste buried, and a number of other environmental factors. Some of the problems encountered can be traced to the activities of microorganisms. These include microbial degradation of waste forms resulting in trench cover subsidence, production of radioactive gases, and production of microbial metabolites capable of complexation, solubilization, and bioaccumulation of radionuclides. Improvements in disposal technology are being developed to minimize these problems. These include waste segregation, waste pretreatment, incineration, and solidification. Microorganisms are also known to enhance and inhibit the movement of metals. Little is known about the role of autotrophic microbial transformations of radionuclides. Such microbial processes may be significant in light of improved disposal procedures, which may result in reductions in the organic content of the waste disposed of at shallow-land sites. 102 references, 5 figures, 19 tables

  2. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  3. In vivo viability of stored red blood cells derived from riboflavin plus ultraviolet light-treated whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancelas, Jose A; Rugg, Neeta; Fletcher, Dana; Pratt, P Gayle; Worsham, D Nicole; Dunn, Susan K; Marschner, Susanne; Reddy, Heather L; Goodrich, Raymond P

    2011-07-01

    A novel system using ultraviolet (UV) light and riboflavin (Mirasol System, CaridianBCT Biotechnologies) to fragment nucleic acids has been developed to treat whole blood (WB), aiming at the reduction of potential pathogen load and white blood cell inactivation. We evaluated stored red blood cell (RBC) metabolic status and viability, in vitro and in vivo, of riboflavin/UV light-treated WB (IMPROVE study). The study compared recovery and survival of RBCs obtained from nonleukoreduced WB treated using three different UV light energies (22, 33, or 44 J/mL(RBC)). After treatment, WB from 12 subjects was separated into components and tested at the beginning and end of component storage. After 42 days of storage, an aliquot of RBCs was radiolabeled and autologously reinfused into subjects for analysis of 24-hour recovery and survival of RBCs. Eleven subjects completed the in vivo study. No device-related adverse events were observed. By Day 42 of storage, a significant change in the concentrations of sodium and potassium was observed. Five subjects had a 24-hour RBC recovery of 75% or more with no significant differences among the energy groups. RBC t(1/2) was 24 ± 9 days for the combined three groups. Significant correlations between 24-hour RBC recovery and survival, hemolysis, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and CO(2) levels were observed. This study shows that key RBC quality variables, hemolysis, and ATP concentration may be predictive of their 24-hour recovery and t(1/2) survival. These variables will now be used to assess modifications to the system including storage duration, storage temperature, and appropriate energy dose for treatment. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  4. In vivo photoinactivation of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside reductase by near-ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, J.

    1977-01-01

    Some experimental work is described showing that near-U.V. irradiation of E.coli cells selectively destroys RDP-reductase (ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase) activity in vivo are providing evidence relating the loss of RDP-reductase to loss of cellular visibility and the inactivity of irrdiated cells to support the replication of DNA phages. The data are consistent with the interpretation that the principal cause in the killing of exponentially growing E.coli cells by near-U.V., and the loss of ability of irradiated host cells to support the replication of DNA phages, is the photoinactivation of the RDP-reductase complex. (U.K.)

  5. In vivo photoinactivation of Escherichia coli ribonucleoside reductase by near-ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J [California Univ., Irvine (USA)

    1977-06-09

    Some experimental work is described showing that near-uv irradiation of E.coli cells selectively destroys RDP-reductase (ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase) activity in vivo are providing evidence relating the loss of RDP-reductase to loss of cellular visibility and the inactivity of irrdiated cells to support the replication of DNA phages. The data are consistent with the interpretation that the principal cause in the killing of exponentially growing E.coli cells by near-uv, and the loss of ability of irradiated host cells to support the replication of DNA phages, is the photoinactivation of the RDP-reductase complex.

  6. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  7. Low level GAMMA0 spectrometry by beta-gamma coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, E.L.; Luca, A.; Razdolescu, A.C.; Ivan, C.

    1999-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry has a wide application, especially in environmental monitoring. Two variants, based on a beta-gamma coincidence technique, were studied. The equipment was composed of a beta detector and a Ge(Li) gamma detector (6% - relative efficiency), with the associated electronics. The gamma rays are recorded by the multichannel analyzer (4096 channels) only if the associated beta particles, which precede the gamma transitions, are registered in coincidence. Two types of beta detectors were used: plastic and liquid scintillators. In both cases, an external lead shield of 5 cm thick was used. The integral gamma background (50-1700 KeV) was reduced about 85 and 50 times, respectively. The corresponding MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) values decreased about 1.5 and (3-7) times, respectively. The 2π sr plastic beta detector was placed on top the Ge(Li). The sample was inserted between the two detectors. The measurement time was 10 4 s. A 4π sr detector, built of the same material, was also studied, but it proved to be less advantageous because the background was reduced only 16 times; for a MDA reduction similar with that of the 2π sr variant, a longer measurement was needed (3.10 4 s). The other type of beta detector used, was a liquid scintillator. The dissolving of the samples in scintillator ensures a 4π sr measurement geometry. The vials with scintillator (10 ml volume) were placed on top the Ge(Li) and visualised by the photocathode of a phototube. This setup was surrounded by an enclosure which prevent the light penetration. The measurement time was 10 4 s. The only difficulty encountered in this low level measurement method is the accurate determination of the beta efficiency. A limitation is the possibility to measure only small mass samples. These variants are more simple and cheaper than others, previously studied. The advantage of the method is obvious when, instead of low MDA values, shorter measurement times are preferred. The

  8. Photosynthesis in a different light : Spectro-microscopy for in vivo characterization of chloroplasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, Sébastien; Zell, Martina B.; Blum, Christian; Stuhl, Alexander; Elgass, Kirstin; Sackrow, Marcus; Subramaniam, Vinod; Meixner, Alfred J.; Harter, Klaus; Maurino, Veronica G.; Schleifenbaum, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    During photosynthesis, energy conversion at the two photosystems is controlled by highly complex and dynamic adaptation processes triggered by external factors such as light quality, intensity, and duration, or internal cues such as carbon availability. These dynamics have remained largely concealed

  9. Engineering a light-activated caspase-3 for precise ablation of neurons in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Ashley D; Pache, Roland A; Thomsen, Nathan D; Kortemme, Tanja; Davis, Graeme W; Wells, James A

    2017-09-26

    The circuitry of the brain is characterized by cell heterogeneity, sprawling cellular anatomy, and astonishingly complex patterns of connectivity. Determining how complex neural circuits control behavior is a major challenge that is often approached using surgical, chemical, or transgenic approaches to ablate neurons. However, all these approaches suffer from a lack of precise spatial and temporal control. This drawback would be overcome if cellular ablation could be controlled with light. Cells are naturally and cleanly ablated through apoptosis due to the terminal activation of caspases. Here, we describe the engineering of a light-activated human caspase-3 (Caspase-LOV) by exploiting its natural spring-loaded activation mechanism through rational insertion of the light-sensitive LOV2 domain that expands upon illumination. We apply the light-activated caspase (Caspase-LOV) to study neurodegeneration in larval and adult Drosophila Using the tissue-specific expression system (UAS)-GAL4, we express Caspase-LOV specifically in three neuronal cell types: retinal, sensory, and motor neurons. Illumination of whole flies or specific tissues containing Caspase-LOV-induced cell death and allowed us to follow the time course and sequence of neurodegenerative events. For example, we find that global synchronous activation of caspase-3 drives degeneration with a different time-course and extent in sensory versus motor neurons. We believe the Caspase-LOV tool we engineered will have many other uses for neurobiologists and others for specific temporal and spatial ablation of cells in complex organisms.

  10. The semi-empirical low-level background statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Manh Toan; Nguyen Trieu Tu

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical low-level background statistics was proposed. The one can be applied to evaluated the sensitivity of low background systems, and to analyse the statistical error, the 'Rejection' and 'Accordance' criteria for processing of low-level experimental data. (author). 5 refs, 1 figs

  11. Responses to the low-level-radiation controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    Some data sets dealing with the hazards of low-level radiation are discussed. It is concluded that none of these reports, individually or collectively, changes appreciably or even significantly the evaluations of possible low-level radiation effects that have been made by several authoritative national and international groups

  12. Guidelines for interim storage of low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.; Castagnacci, A.; Clymer, G.; Kelly, J.; Naughton, M.; Saunders, P.; Stoner, P.; Walker, N.; Cazzolli, R.; Dettenmeier, R.; Loucks, L.; Rigsby, M.; Spall, M.; Strum, M.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents an overview of on-site storage of Low Level Waste while providing guidelines for using the complete Interim On-Site Storage of Low Level Waste report series. Overall, this report provides a methodology for planning and implementing on-site storage

  13. Low level cloud motion vectors from Kalpana-1 visible images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In this paper, an attempt has been made to retrieve low-level cloud motion vectors using Kalpana-1 visible (VIS) images at every half an hour. The VIS channel provides better detection of low level clouds, which remain obscure in thermal IR ...

  14. Elementary study on γ analysis software for low level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The difficulty in using fashion γ analysis software in low level measurement is discussed. The ROI report file of ORTEC operation system has been chosen as interface file to write γ analysis software for low-level measurement. The author gives software flowchart and applied example and discusses the existent problems

  15. Fluorescence imaging with near-infrared light: new technological advances that enable in vivo molecular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Bremer, Christoph; Weissleder, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    A recent development in biomedical imaging is the non-invasive mapping of molecular events in intact tissues using fluorescence. Underpinning to this development is the discovery of bio-compatible, specific fluorescent probes and proteins and the development of highly sensitive imaging technologies for in vivo fluorescent detection. Of particular interest are fluorochromes that emit in the near infrared (NIR), a spectral window, whereas hemoglobin and water absorb minimally so as to allow photons to penetrate for several centimetres in tissue. In this review article we concentrate on optical imaging technologies used for non-invasive imaging of the distribution of such probes. We illuminate the advantages and limitations of simple photographic methods and turn our attention to fluorescence-mediated molecular tomography (FMT), a technique that can three-dimensionally image gene expression by resolving fluorescence activation in deep tissues. We describe theoretical specifics, and we provide insight into its in vivo capacity and the sensitivity achieved. Finally, we discuss its clinical feasibility. (orig.)

  16. The Role of Low-Level Laser in Periodontal Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobouti, Farhad; Khatami, Maziar; Heydari, Mohaddase; Barati, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Treatment protocols with low-level Laser (also called ‘soft laser therapy) have been used in health care systems for more than three decades. Bearing in mind the suitable sub-cellular absorption and the cellular-vascular impacts, low-level laser may be a treatment of choice for soft tissues. Low-level lasers have played crucial and colorful roles in performing periodontal surgeries. Their anti-inflammatory and painless effects have been variously reported in in-vitro studies. In this present review article, searches have been made in Pub Med, Google Scholar, and Science Direct, focusing on the studies which included low-level lasers, flap-periodontal surgeries, gingivectomy, and periodontal graft. The present study has sought to review the cellular impacts of low-level lasers and its role on reducing pain and inflammation following soft tissue surgical treatments. PMID:25987968

  17. Effect of low level doping of boron and phosphorus on the properties of amorphous silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.T.; Epstein, K.A.; Grimmer, D.P.; Vernstrom, G.D.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of the low level doping of boron and phosphorus on the properties of amorphous silicon films (a-Si:H) were studied. Doping level of both boron and phosphorus was in the range of 10/sup 17/ atoms/cm/sup 3/. Apparent improvement in the stability of dark and photoconductivity of a-Si: films upon low level doping does not result from the elimination of light-induced defects. The stability of the dark and photoconductivity upon doping is an indication of pinning of the Fermi level

  18. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  19. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided

  20. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  1. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, S.R.; Goldstein, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  2. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  3. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  4. Twelfth annual US DOE low-level waste management conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this document comprise the proceedings of the Department of Energy's Twelfth Annual Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference, which was held in Chicago, Illinois, on August 28 and 29, 1990. General subjects addressed during the conference included: mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste tracking and transportation, public involvement, performance assessment, waste stabilization, financial assurance, waste minimization, licensing and environmental documentation, below-regulatory-concern waste, low-level radioactive waste temporary storage, current challenges, and challenges beyond 1990.

  5. Treatment of uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.; Rao, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainties arise from a number of different sources in low-level waste performance assessment. In this paper the types of uncertainty are reviewed, and existing methods for quantifying and reducing each type of uncertainty are discussed. These approaches are examined in the context of the current low-level radioactive waste regulatory performance objectives, which are deterministic. The types of uncertainty discussed in this paper are model uncertainty, uncertainty about future conditions, and parameter uncertainty. The advantages and disadvantages of available methods for addressing uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment are presented. 25 refs

  6. Development of a low-level radon reference chamber; Entwicklung einer Low-Level-Radon-Referenzkammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linzmaier, Diana

    2013-01-04

    The naturally occurring, radioactive noble gas radon-222 exists worldwide in different activity concentrations in the air. During the decay of radon-222, decay products are generated which are electrically charged and attach to aerosols in the air. Together with the aerosols, the radon is inhaled and exhaled by humans. While the radon is nearly completely exhaled, ca. 20 % of the inhaled aerosols remain in the lungs in one breath cycle. Due to ionizing radiation, in a chain of events, lung cancer might occur. Consequently, radon and its decay products are according to the current findings the second leading cause of lung cancer. At the workplace and in the home measurements of radon activity concentration are performed to determine the radiation exposition of humans. All measurement devices for the determination of radon activity concentration are calibrated above 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}, even though the mean value of the present investigation in Germany shows only 50 Bq/m{sup 3}. For the calibration of measurement devices in the range below 1000 Bq/m{sup 3} over a long time period, the generation of a stable reference atmosphere is presented in this work. Due to a long term calibration (t>5 days) of the measurement devices, smaller uncertainties result for the calibration factor. For the calibration procedure, a so-called low-level radon reference chamber was set up and started operation. The generation of a stable reference atmosphere is effected by means of emanation sources which consist of a radium-226 activity standard. On the basis of {gamma}-spectrometry, the effective emanation coefficient ofthe emanation sources is determined. The traceability of the activity concentration in the reference volume is realized via the activity ofthe radium-226, the emanation coefficient and the volume. With the emanation sources produced, stable reference atmospheres within the range of 150 Bq/m{sup 3} to 1900 Bq/m{sup 3} are achieved. For the realization, maintenance and

  7. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options

  8. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Viana, R.; Vianna Mariano, N.; Antonio do Amaral, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  9. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  10. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  11. Conflict resolution in low-level waste facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Siting a low-level waste facility is only one part of the low-level waste management process. But it is a crucial part, a prism that focuses many of the other issues in low-level waste management. And, as the 1990 and 1992 milestones approach, siting has a urgency that makes the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) techniques especially appropriate, to avoid protracted and expensive litigation and to reach creative and durable solutions. Drawing upon literature in the ADR field, this paper discusses ADR techniques as they apply to low-level waste management and the groundwork that must be laid before they can be applied. It also discusses questions that can arise concerning the terms under which negotiations are carried out. The paper then give suggestions for achieving win/win negotiations. Potential objections to negotiated agreements and potential answers to those objections are reviewed, and some requisites for negotiation are given

  12. Mixed Low-Level Radioactive Waste (MLLW) Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. E. Schwinkendorf

    1999-04-01

    This document presents a general overview of mixed low-level waste, including the regulatory definitions and drivers, the manner in which the various kinds of mixed waste are regulated, and a discussion of the waste treatment options.

  13. Status of vitrification for DOE low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, R.F.; Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Vitrification is being considered by the Department of Energy for solidification of many low-level mixed waste streams. Some of the advantages, requirements, and potential problem areas are described. Recommendations for future efforts are presented

  14. Institutional options for state management of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper concerns ''institutional'' (legal, organizational, and political) aspects of low-level radioactive waste management. Its point of departure is the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. With federal law and political consensus now behind the policy of state responsibility for low level waste, the question becomes, how is this new policy to be implemented. The questions of policy implementation are essentially institutional: What functions must a regional low level waste management system perform. What entities are capable of performing them. How well might various alternatives or combinations of alternatives work. This paper is a preliminary effort to address these questions. It discusses the basic functions that must be performed, and identifies the entities that could perform them, and discusses the workability of various alternative approaches

  15. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This document is a consensus report of the Low-Level Waste Strategy Task Force. It covers system-wide issues; generation, treatment, and packaging; transportation; and disposal. Recommendations are made

  16. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  17. Risks of low-level radiation - the evidence of epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloag, D.

    1980-01-01

    The difficulties involved in estimating risks from very low levels of radiation and the use of dose-response models for cancer incidence are discussed with reference to the third BEIR Committee report on the Effects on Populations of Exposure to low levels of Ionizing Radiation (1980). Cancer risk estimates derived from different epidemiological studies are reviewed. They include atom bomb survivors, medically irradiated groups and occupational groups. (36 references). (author)

  18. Low level waste management at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, A.D.; Truitt, D.J.; Logan, J.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1986-02-01

    EG and G Idaho, Inc. is the lead contractor for the Department of Energy (DOE) National Low Level Waste Management Program, established in 1979. In this role, the company uses its waste management expertise to provide management and technical direction to support the disposal of low-level waste (LLW) in a manner that protects the environment and the public health and safety while improving efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Program activities are divided into two areas: defense-related and commercial nuclear reactor programs. The defense program was established to develop technology improvements, provide technology transfer, and to ensure a more efficient and uniform system for low level waste disposal. To achieve the program's goals, it is necessary to improve, document, and, where necessary, develop new methods for waste generation reduction, waste treatment, shallow-land burial, greater confinement disposal, and measures to correct existing site deficiencies. The commercial low level waste management program provides support to assist the states in developing an effective national low level waste management system and provides technical assistance for siting of regional commercial LLW disposal sites. The program provides technical and informational support to state officials, low level waste generators, managers, and facility operators to resolve low level waste problems and to improve the systems' overall effectiveness. Procedures are developed and documented and made available to commercial users through this program. Additional work is being conducted to demonstrate the stabilization and closure of low level radioactive waste disposal sites and develop the criteria and procedures for acceptance of such sites by the Department of Energy after closure has been completed. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Assessment of LANL solid low-level mixed waste documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.; Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    DOE Order 5820.2A requires that a system performance assessment be conducted to assure efficient and compliant management of all radioactive waste. The objective of this report is to determine the present status of the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section capabilities regarding preparation and maintenance of appropriate criteria, plans, and procedures. Additionally, a comparison is made which identifies areas where these documents are not presently in existence or being fully implemented. The documents being assessed in this report are: Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Criteria, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Characterization Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed waste Certification Plan, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Acceptance Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste characterization Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Certification Procedures, Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Training Procedures, and Solid Low-Level Mixed Waste Recordkeeping Requirements. This report compares the current status of preparation and implementation, by the Radioactive Waste Operations Section and the Chemical Waste Operations Section, of these documents to the requirements of DOE 5820.2A,. 40 CFR 260 to 270, and to recommended practice. Chapters 2 through 9 of the report presents the results of the comparison in tabular form for each of the documents being assessed, followed by narrative discussion of all areas which are perceived to be unsatisfactory or out of compliance with respect to the availability and content of the documents. The final subpart of each of the following chapters provides recommendations where documentation practices may be improved to achieve compliance or to follow the recommended practice

  20. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  1. A method for continuous exposure of blood in vitro and in vivo to light, radiation or gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kook-Hyun; Takeshita, Jiro; Kushiyama, Sanzo; Morioka, Tohru.

    1989-01-01

    Various medical treatments with extracorporeal circulation have increased the opportunities of exposing blood to light, radiation, or gas. In this paper, several simple methods of exposing blood to these bioactive exogenic agents are introduced. In in vitro method, blood is divided into two cylindrical glass bottles which have openings on both ends. After the bottles are connected with a vinyl tube to make a circuit, they are mounted parallel on the axis of a rotating rod. The air (or laboratory gas) is circulated by a vibration pump incorporated into this gas circuit to equalize the temperature in the two bottles. When the rod is rotated, a thin film of blood is formed over the internal surface of the bottles. This method permits blood to be in contact with the gas inside and to be exposed to light from the outside of the bottle. In in vitro method, blood is divided into two thin-walled, transparent, rectangular bags placed parallel on a tilting board. When the board is tilted intermittently, a thin blood layer is formed in each bag. If the bags are installed with inlet and outlet tubes and connected with blood accesses to either animals or humans, this device will become a circuit for an in vivo study. When one of the two bottles or bags is covered with metal foil to shield it from light or radiation, it can be used as a control. These devices will offer a laboratory method to study the effects of the exposure of blood to some exogenous bioactive agents as well as a new therapeutic method with such agents. (author)

  2. Effect of light-curable fluoride varnish on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets: an in-vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Anurag; Paramshivam, Ganesh; Chugh, Vinay Kumar; Singh, Surjit; Halkai, Sudha; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this in-vivo study was to evaluate the effect of a single application of Clinpro XT (3M ESPE, Pymble, New South Wales, Australia), a light-curable fluoride varnish, on enamel demineralization adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Thirty-eight patients (152 teeth) whose orthodontic treatment involved extraction of 4 first premolars were recruited. Two premolars each were assigned to the control group (no treatment) and the experimental group (received fluoride varnish application). The study was designed as a nonrandomized split-mouth study in which diagonally opposite quadrants received the same treatment. After the bonding procedures, a sectional T-loop was ligated into each bracket to serve as a site for plaque retention for enhanced demineralization. Clinpro XT was applied on the buccal surfaces adjacent to the brackets on all teeth in the experimental group only. Teeth in both groups were extracted after 15 days (n = 30), 30 days (n = 30), 45 days (n = 30), 90 days (n = 18), and 120 days (n = 18). Buccolingual sections were then evaluated under polarized light microscopy. After we excluded the dropouts, the mean depth of the demineralized enamel lesions was measured in final sample of 126 teeth. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparison of the groups. In the control group, the depths of the demineralized enamel lesions increased from 30 to 120 days, whereas in the experimental group no sign of demineralization was noted throughout the observation period except for 3 teeth. Significant differences in the depths of demineralized lesions were found between the study groups. Clinpro XT light-curable fluoride varnish may be a reasonable alternative in the reduction of enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets, especially in noncompliant and high-risk patients. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  4. Photosynthesis in a different light: Spectro-microscopy for in vivo characterisation of chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien ePeter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During photosynthesis, energy conversion at the two photosystems is controlled by highly complex and dynamic adaptation processes triggered by external factors such as light quality, intensity, and duration, or internal cues such as carbon availability. These dynamics have remained largely concealed so far, because current analytical techniques are based on the investigation of isolated chloroplasts lacking full adaptation ability and are performed at non-physiologically low temperatures. Here, we use non-invasive in planta spectro-microscopic approaches to investigate living chloroplasts in their native environment at ambient temperatures. This is a valuable approach to study the complex function of these systems, because an intrinsic property – the fluorescence emission – is exploited and no additional external perturbations are introduced. Our analysis demonstrates a dynamic adjustment of not only the photosystemI/photosystemII (PSI/PSII intensity ratio in the chloroplasts but also of the capacity of the LHCs for energy transfer in response to environmental and internal cues.

  5. Low-Level Radioactive Waste temporary storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 gave responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste to the States. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 attached additional requirements for specific State milestones. Compact regions were formed and host States selected to establish disposal facilities for the waste generated within their borders. As a result of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the existing low-level radioactive waste disposal sites will close at the end of 1992; the only exception is the Richland, Washington, site, which will remain open to the Northwest Compact region only. All host States are required to provide for disposal of low-level radioactive waste by January 1, 1996. States also have the option of taking title to the waste after January 1, 1993, or taking title by default on January 1, 1996. Low-level radioactive waste disposal will not be available to most States on January 1, 1993. The most viable option between that date and the time disposal is available is storage. Several options for storage can be considered. In some cases, a finite storage time will be permitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the generator site, not to exceed five years. If disposal is not available within that time frame, other options must be considered. There are several options that include some form of extension for storage at the generator site, moving the waste to an existing storage site, or establishing a new storage facility. Each of these options will include differing issues specific to the type of storage sought

  6. Effect of low-level laser-treated mesenchymal stem cells on myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gammal, Zaynab H; Zaher, Amr M; El-Badri, Nagwa

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Although cardiac transplantation is considered the most effective therapy for end-stage cardiac diseases, it is limited by the availability of matching donors and the complications of the immune suppressive regimen used to prevent graft rejection. Application of stem cell therapy in experimental animal models was shown to reverse cardiac remodeling, attenuate cardiac fibrosis, improve heart functions, and stimulate angiogenesis. The efficacy of stem cell therapy can be amplified by low-level laser radiation. It is well established that the bio-stimulatory effect of low-level laser is influenced by the following parameters: wavelength, power density, duration, energy density, delivery time, and the type of irradiated target. In this review, we evaluate the available experimental data on treatment of myocardial infarction using low-level laser. Eligible papers were characterized as in vivo experimental studies that evaluated the use of low-level laser therapy on stem cells in order to attenuate myocardial infarction. The following descriptors were used separately and in combination: laser therapy, low-level laser, low-power laser, stem cell, and myocardial infarction. The assessed low-level laser parameters were wavelength (635-804 nm), power density (6-50 mW/cm 2 ), duration (20-150 s), energy density (0.96-1 J/cm 2 ), delivery time (20 min-3 weeks after myocardial infarction), and the type of irradiated target (bone marrow or in vitro-cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells). The analysis focused on the cardioprotective effect of this form of therapy, the attenuation of scar tissue, and the enhancement of angiogenesis as primary targets. Other effects such as cell survival, cell differentiation, and homing are also included. Among the evaluated protocols using different parameters, the best outcome for treating myocardial infarction was achieved by treating the bone marrow by one dose of low-level

  7. Low-level radioactive waste management technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Although reviews of disposal practices and site performance indicated that there were no releases to the environment that would affect public health and safety, it became clear that: (a) several burial grounds were not performing as expected; (b) long-term maintenance of closed trenches could be a costly problem, and (c) more cost-effective methods could be developed for the treatment, packing, and disposal of low-level waste. As a result of these reviews, the Department of Energy developed the Low-level Waste Management Program to seek improvements in existing practices, correct obvious deficiencies, and develop site closure techniques that would avoid expensive long-term maintenance and monitoring. Such technology developments provide a better understanding of the physical and technical mechanisms governing low-level waste treatment and disposal and lead to improvement in the performance of disposal sites. The primary means of disposal of low-level waste has been the accepted and regulated practice of shallow land disposal, i.e., placement of low-level waste in trenches 5 to 10 meters deep with several meters of special soil cover. Department of Energy waste is primarily disposed at six major shallow land disposal sites. Commercial waste is currently disposed of at three major sites in the nation - Barnwell, South Carolina; Richland, Washington; and Beatty, Nevada. In the late 1970's public concern arose regarding the management practices of sites operated by the civilian sector and by the Department of Energy

  8. Illinois perspective on low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etchison, D.

    1984-01-01

    Illinois is a big generator of low level radioactive waste. It has had extensive experience with controversial waste disposal and storage facilities. This experience makes it difficult for the public and political leaders in Illinois to support the establishment of new disposal facilities in the state. Yet, with extensive debates and discussions concerning the Low Level Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the proposed Midwest Compact, political leaders and the public are facing up to the fact that they must be responsible for the disposal of the low level radioactive waste generated in the state. The Governor and many political leaders from Illinois support the regional approach and believe it can be an innovative and progressive way for the state to deal with the range of low level waste management and disposal problems. A version of the Midwest Interstate Low Level Waste Compact has become Illinois law, but it has significant differences from the one adopted by five other states. Like other states in the midwest and northeast, Illinois is opposed to Congressional consent of the four pending compacts before the remaining two compacts, the northeast and midwest are sent to Washington and interregional agreements are negotiated between the sited and non-sited regions. A new national system must be established before access to existing commercial disposal becomes restricted

  9. The French centralized low level radwaste treatment centre named CENTRACO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.; Sixou, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Socodei, a subsidiary company of EdF and Cogema is commissioned to design, finance, build and operate two low level radwaste treatment facilities: a contaminated scrap metal melting unit, and a solid and liquid waste incinerator. These units frame a low level radwaste treatment centre named Centraco, located near Marcoule in the south of France, and will receive in 1998 waste coming from dismantling, maintenance and operating works of French and foreign nuclear sites. The decision to create this centre is due to the low density and large variety of low level radwaste which take a volume out of proportion with their activity, specially in the surface storage centre. Up to now, all low level radwaste were sent and stored with no treatment optimization in surface storage centres. Socodei proposes in one single site, to optimize low level radwaste management and reduce the volume of ultimate waste to be stored: in a ratio of one to ten by casting ingots coming from melting contaminated scrap metals; in a ratio of one to twenty by encapsulating earth ashes and ashes resulting from incineration of solid and liquid waste. This is a centralized treatment centre and that's why Centraco is a new waste management system. Getting together all means in one place reduces costs, avoids mismanagement and risk increase, and allows consistency in safety, environmental impact, transport and personnel radioprotection. (author)

  10. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas have been selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting

  11. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  12. Remote-Handled Low Level Waste Disposal Project Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Duncan

    2010-10-01

    This report identifies, evaluates, and compares alternatives for meeting the U.S. Department of Energy’s mission need for management of remote-handled low-level waste generated by the Idaho National Laboratory and its tenants. Each alternative identified in the Mission Need Statement for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Treatment Project is described and evaluated for capability to fulfill the mission need. Alternatives that could meet the mission need are further evaluated and compared using criteria of cost, risk, complexity, stakeholder values, and regulatory compliance. The alternative for disposal of remote-handled low-level waste that has the highest confidence of meeting the mission need and represents best value to the government is to build a new disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory Site.

  13. Shallow ground burial of low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, A.; Cooper, M.B.; Hargrave, N.J.; Munslow-Davies, L.

    1989-01-01

    Acceptance criteria for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes are presented for adoption throughout Australia, a continent in which there are readily available areas in arid, sparsely inhabited places, likely to be suitable as sites for shallow ground burial. Drawing upon overseas practices and experiences, criteria have been developed for low-level waste disposal and are intended to be applicable and relevant to the Australian situation. Concentration levels have been derived for a shallow ground burial facility assuming a realistic institutional control period of 200 years. A comparison is made between this period and institutional control for 100 years and 300 years. Longer institutional control periods enable the acceptance of higher concentrations of radionuclides of intermediate half-lives. Scenarios, which have been considered, include current Australian pastoral practices and traditional Aboriginal occupancy. The derived radionuclide concentration levels for the disposal of low level wastes are not dissimilar to those developed in other countries. 17 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  15. Successfully burying low-level waste for fun and profit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, T.R.; Kirner, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    The state of Washington, now receiving more than half the nation's waste, is here to provide a practical review of the benefits of having a low-level waste disposal site and to provide our perspective on how the state of Washington carries out its responsibilities through regulation of that disposal site. This information is offered in the hope that it may be useful to other states when they accept their responsibility to provide for the disposal of their low-level radioactive waste. The 1980 Low-Level Waste Policy Act very directly gave the responsibility for finding and developing new waste disposal capacity to the states. Through the process of compacting, the states have begun to accept this responsibility. From Washington's perspective, however, the progress shown to date, especially in some states generating very large amounts of waste, has not been adequate to meet the 1986 deadline

  16. Incineration of low level and mixed wastes: 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The University of California at Irvine, in cooperation with the Department of Energy, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, and chapters of the Health Physics Society, coordinated this conference on the Incineration of Low-Level Radioactive and Mixed Wastes, with the guidance of professionals active in the waste management community. The conference was held in April 22-25, 1986 at Sheraton airport hotel Charlotte, North Carolina. Some of the papers' titles were: Protection and safety of different off-gas treatment systems in radioactive waste incineration; performance assessment of refractory samples in the Los Alamos controlled-Air incinerator; incineration systems for low-level and mixed wastes; incineration of low-level radioactive waste in Switzerland-operational experience and future activities

  17. Scenarios of the TWRS low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    As a result of past Department of Energy (DOE) weapons material production operations, Hanford now stores nuclear waste from processing facilities in underground tanks on the 200 Area plateau. An agreement between the DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington state Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party Agreement, or TPA) establishes an enforceable schedule and a technical framework for recovering, processing, solidifying, and disposing of the Hanford tank wastes. The present plan includes retrieving the tank waste, pretreating the waste to separate into low level and high level streams, and converting both streams to a glass waste form. The low level glass will represent by far the largest volume and lowest quantity of radioactivity (i.e., large volume of waste chemicals) of waste requiring disposal. The low level glass waste will be retrievably stored in sub-surface disposal vaults for several decades. If the low level disposal system proves to be acceptable, the disposal site will be closed with the low level waste in place. If, however, at some time the disposal system is found to be unacceptable, then the waste can be retrieved and dealt with in some other manner. WHC is planning to emplace the waste so that it is retrievable for up to 50 years after completion of the tank waste processing. Acceptability of disposal of the TWRS low level waste at Hanford depends on technical, cultural, and political considerations. The Performance Assessment is a major part of determining whether the proposed disposal action is technically defensible. A Performance Assessment estimates the possible future impact to humans and the environment for thousands of years into the future. In accordance with the TPA technical strategy, WHC plans to design a near-surface facility suitable for disposal of the glass waste

  18. Low-level waste disposal site selection demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of recent studies undertaken at EPRI related to low-level waste disposal technology. The initial work provided an overview of the state of the art including an assessment of its influence upon transportation costs and waste form requirements. The paper discusses work done on the overall system design aspects and computer modeling of disposal site performance characteristics. The results of this analysis are presented and provide a relative ranking of the importance of disposal parameters. This allows trade-off evaluations to be made of factors important in the design of a shallow land burial facility. To help minimize the impact of a shortage of low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, EPRI is closely observing the development of bellweather projects for developing new sites. The purpose of this activity is to provide information about lessons learned in those projects in order to expedite the development of additional disposal facilities. This paper describes most of the major stems in selecting a low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas. It shows how the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority started with a wide range of potential siting areas in Texas and narrowed its attention down to a few preferred sites. The parameters used to discriminate between large areas of Texas and, eventually, 50 candidate disposal sites are described, along with the steps in the process. The Texas process is compared to those described in DOE and EPRI handbooks on site selection and to pertinent NRC requirements. The paper also describes how an inventory of low-level waste specific to Texas was developed and applied in preliminary performance assessments of two candidate sites. Finally, generic closure requirements and closure operations for low-level waste facilities in arid regions are given

  19. Low-level waste injury: liability, insurance, and indemnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    It would be worth developing compatible policies to address the issues involving third-party liabilities which remain unanswered before the different states and interstate compact agreements implementing the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act develop a range of approaches. A plan that draws resources from a number of states would have economic and technological benefits, and could help ensure public confidence in the management of low level radioactive wastes. Interstate cooperation and coordination to produce such a plan would benefit from a Congressional mandate. An appendix arranged alphabetically by state illustrates the range of immunity/waiver, insurance, and limits that already exist

  20. Depleted uranium determination at the Novi Sad low level facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Slivka, J.; Krmar, M.; Veskovic, M.; Conkic, Lj.; Varga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Natural uranium determination in environmental samples at the low-level gamma-spectroscopy laboratory of the Faculty of Science in Novi Sad has more than 20 years long tradition. When the issue of depleted uranium emerged the experimental advantages of the measuring equipment (GMX type of HPGe detector with enhanced efficiency below 100 keV, and iron low level shielding) where fully exploited. A detection technique selective for depleted uranium was developed. The details of this method together with the results for about 100 samples (soil, plants, water, food) are presented, and discussed. (author)

  1. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-01-01

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC

  2. Low-level radioactive waste treatment systems in northern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, R.

    1987-08-01

    In the United States, the use of low-level waste (LLW) treatment systems by low level waste generators can be expected to expand with increasing costs for disposal and continuing uncertainty over the availability of disposal space. This development increases the need for performance information and operational data and has prompted the US Department of Energy to commission several compilations of LLW systems experience. The present paper summarizes some of the know-how from Northern Europe where the incentive for LLW treatment and volume reduction is very high since deposition space has not been available for many years. 65 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E. (comps.)

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop.

  4. Vitrification of low-level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.R.; Bates, J.K.; Feng, Xiangdong.

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and nuclear utilities have large quantities of low-level and mixed wastes that must be treated to meet repository performance requirements, which are likely to become even more stringent. The DOE is developing cost-effective vitrification methods for producing durable waste forms. However, vitrification processes for high-level wastes are not applicable to commercial low-level wastes containing large quantities of metals and small amounts of fluxes. New vitrified waste formulations are needed that are durable when buried in surface repositories

  5. Low-level nuclear waste in Washington State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, H.

    1986-01-01

    A commercial disposal site for low-level nuclear wastes opened at Hanford in 1965. By 1971 a total of six were in operation: Hanford, Nevada, South Carolina, Kentucky, New York State, and Illinois. The history of the operation of these sites is described. Only the first three listed are still open. The effects of the large volumes of waste expected from Three Mile Island are described. This paper examines the case history of Hanford operations with low-level waste disposal for lessons that might apply in other states being considered for disposal sites

  6. Low level neutron monitoring using high pressure 3He detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszona, S.

    1995-01-01

    Three detectors, two spherical proportional counters and an ionisation chamber, all filled with 3 He to pressures of 160 kPa, 325 kPa and 1 MPa respectively have been experimentally studied with respect to their use for low level neutron monitoring. The ambient dose equivalent responses and the energy resolutions of these detectors have been determined. It is shown that spectral analysis of the signals from these detectors not only gives high sensitivity with regard to ambient dose equivalent but also improves the quality of the measurements. A special instrumentation for low level neutron monitoring is described in which a quality control method has been implemented. (Author)

  7. Immobilized low-level waste disposal options configuration study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    This report compiles information that supports the eventual conceptual and definitive design of a disposal facility for immobilized low-level waste. The report includes the results of a joint Westinghouse/Fluor Daniel Inc. evaluation of trade-offs for glass manufacturing and product (waste form) disposal. Though recommendations for the preferred manufacturing and disposal option for low-level waste are outside the scope of this document, relative ranking as applied to facility complexity, safety, remote operation concepts and ease of retrieval are addressed

  8. GRABGAM Analysis of Ultra-Low-Level HPGe Gamma Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, W.G.

    1999-07-28

    The GRABGAM code has been used successfully for ultra-low level HPGe gamma spectrometry analysis since its development in 1985 at Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). Although numerous gamma analysis codes existed at that time, reviews of institutional and commercial codes indicated that none addressed all features that were desired by SRTC. Furthermore, it was recognized that development of an in-house code would better facilitate future evolution of the code to address SRTC needs based on experience with low-level spectra. GRABGAM derives its name from Gamma Ray Analysis BASIC Generated At MCA/PC.

  9. Concept development for saltstone and low level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1987-03-01

    A low-level alkaline salt solution will be a byproduct in the processing of high-level waste at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). This solution will be incorporated into a cement wasteform, saltstone, and placed in surface vaults. Laboratory and field testing and mathematical modeling have demonstrated the predictability of contaminant release from cement wasteforms. Saltstone disposal in surface vaults will meet drinking water standards in shallow groundwater at the disposal area boundary. Planning for new Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal could incorporate concepts developed for saltstone disposal

  10. Modeling and low-level waste management: an interagency workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, C.A.; Stratton, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    The interagency workshop on Modeling and Low-Level Waste Management was held on December 1-4, 1980 in Denver, Colorado. Twenty papers were presented at this meeting which consisted of three sessions. First, each agency presented its point of view concerning modeling and the need for models in low-level radioactive waste applications. Second, a larger group of more technical papers was presented by persons actively involved in model development or applications. Last of all, four workshops were held to attempt to reach a consensus among participants regarding numerous waste modeling topics. Abstracts are provided for the papers presented at this workshop

  11. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  12. Transportation and disposal configuration for DOE-managed low-level and mixed low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, T.

    1993-06-01

    This report briefly examines the current U.S. Department of Energy complex-wide configuration for transportation and disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and also retraces the historical sequence of events and rationale that has guided its development. The study determined that Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site are the only two sites that currently provide substantial disposal services for offsite low-level waste generators. It was also determined that mixed low-level waste shipments are infrequent and are generally limited to shipments to offsite commercial treatment facilities or other Department of Energy sites for storage. The current alignment of generator to disposal site for low-level waste shipments is generally consistent with the programmatic mission of the generator; that is, defense-generated waste is shipped to the Nevada Test Site and research-generated waste is transported to the Hanford Site. The historical development of the current configuration was resurrected by retrieving Department of Energy documentation and interviewing both current and former department and contractor personnel. According to several accounts, the basic framework of the system was developed during the late 1970s, and was reportedly based on the ability of the disposal site to manage a given waste form. Documented evidence to support this reasoning, however, could not be uncovered

  13. Photocatalysis-Based Nanoprobes Using Noble Metal-Semiconductor Heterostructure for Visible Light-Driven in Vivo Detection of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Lihua; Zeng, Xiaofan; Wang, Hao; Hai, Jun; Yang, Xiangliang; Wang, Baodui; Zhu, Yanhong

    2017-07-18

    The development of sensitive and reliable methods to monitor the presence of mercuric ions in cells and organisms is of great importance to biological research and biomedical applications. In this work, we propose a strategy to construct a solar-driven nanoprobe using a 3D Au@MoS 2 heterostructure as a photocatalyst and rhodamine B (RB) as a fluorescent and color change reporter molecule for monitoring Hg 2+ in living cells and animals. The sensing mechanism is based on the photoinduced electron formation of gold amalgam in the 3D Au@MoS 2 heterostructure under visible light illumination. This formation is able to remarkably inhibit the photocatalytic activity of the heterostructure toward RB decomposition. As a result, "OFF-ON" fluorescence and color change are produced. Such characteristics enable this new sensing platform to sensitively and selectively detect Hg 2+ in water by fluorescence and colorimetric methods. The detection limits of the fluorescence assay and colorimetric assay are 0.22 and 0.038 nM for Hg 2+ , respectively; these values are well below the acceptable limits in drinking water standards (10 nM). For the first time, such photocatalysis-based sensing platform is successfully used to monitor Hg 2+ in live cells and mice. Our work therefore opens a promising photocatalysis-based analysis methodology for highly sensitive and selective in vivo Hg 2+ bioimaging studies.

  14. In vivo and in vitro effects of imidacloprid on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus): a light and electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, H; D'Haese, J; Mencke, N; Hansen, O

    2001-04-01

    The effects of imidacloprid (Advantage) on sheep keds (Melophagus ovinus Linne 1758) were studied in vivo and in vitro by means of direct observation (monitored on video tape) and by light and electron microscopy. It was found that: 1. Imidacloprid acted rapidly on all motile stages of the sheep keds. Within 3-4 min after exposure they became immobile and their legs and the abdomen started tetanic trembling movements for 15-30 min, leading to death. 2. The compound is apparently taken up by the body, since it also acted on those sheep keds that had been exclusively exposed to imidacloprid-contaminated filter papers. 3. The compound is available and active for more than 1 month in the wool of sheep; even rainfall does not reduce its efficacy. Body contact between treated mother sheep and their lambs protects them from infestation with these ectoparasites. 4. The compound initiates an ultimately lethal destruction of the ganglia, nerve chords and related muscle fibers, as can be seen in electron micrographs.

  15. Development of a low-level radioactive waste shipper model. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    During 1982, Inter/Face Associates, Inc., conducted a low-level radioactive waste management survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees in Massachusetts for the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program. In the process of conducting the survey, a model was developed, based on existing NRC license classification systems, that would identify licensees who ship low-level waste for disposal. This report presents the model and documents the procedures used in developing and testing it. After the model was tested, several modifications were developed with the goal of determining the model's ability to identify waste shippers under different parameters. The report includes a discussion of the modifications

  16. No indications of an enhanced UV-light-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in splenocytes of mice following a low-dose irradiation in vivo or in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, A.; Seemayer, C.A.; Mueller, W.U.; Streffer, C.

    1995-01-01

    One of the open questions regarding the adaptive response to ionizing radiation is whether it can be induced in G 0 lymphocytes. In the majority of experiments in which an adaptive response in G 0 lymphocytes was observed, the adapting dose was applied in vivo. In order to investigate whether there is some in vivo component of adaptive response, mouse splenocytes of the C57BL/6 strain were irradiated with 0.1 Gy x-rays either in vivo or in vitro, and their UV-light-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) levels were determined autoradiographically. An augmented UV-light-induced UDS following an adapting dose applied in vivo has previously been described by several authors in splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice, indicating that the adapting dose enhanced the DNA repair capacity of lymphocytes. In the present investigation, however, no evidence of an adaptive response could be seen regardless of whether the adapting dose was given in vivo or in vitro. Those results present a further indication for the fact that the adaptive response to ionizing radiation is not always inducible, even in lymphocytes of an inbred mouse strain in which its existence has been reported before. (orig.)

  17. Talk about disposal for very low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the significance of segregation of very low level waste (VLLW), the current VLLW-definition and its limit value, and presents an introduction of four VLLW-disposing approaches operated world wide, as well as disposal of VLLW in China are also briefly discussed and suggested. (authors)

  18. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Stanton, C.; Patterson, R.G.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 2 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics of technetium-99. This report also includes discussions about waste streams in which technetium-99 can be found, waste forms that contain technetium-99, and technetium-99's behavior in the environment and in the human body

  19. A Climatology of Nocturnal Low-Level Jets at Cabauw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; Baltink, H.K.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A climatology of nocturnal low-level jets (LLJs) is presented for the topographically flat measurement site at Cabauw, the Netherlands. LLJ characteristics are derived from a 7-yr half-hourly database of wind speed profiles, obtained from the 200-m mast and a wind profiler. Many LLJs at Cabauw

  20. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component 'fingerprints' stemming from both phonemes and speaker. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...... 'voiceprints' are found at time scales around 1000 msec. The analysis is based on homomorphic filtering features and energy based sparsification....

  1. NTP monograph on health effects of low-level lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Although reductions in lead (Pb) exposure for the U.S. population have resulted in lower blood Pb levels over time, epidemiological studies continue to provide evidence of health effects at lower and lower blood Pb levels. Low-level Pb was selected for evaluation by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) because of (1) the availability of a large number of epidemiological studies of Pb, (2) a nomination by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health for an assessment of Pb at lower levels of exposure, and (3) public concern for effects of Pb in children and adults. This evaluation summarizes the evidence in humans and presents conclusions on health effects in children and adults associated with low-level Pb exposure as indicated by less than 10 micrograms of Pb per deciliter of blood (Monograph on Health Effects of Low-Level Lead. The document and appendices are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/evals. This document provides background on Pb exposure and includes a review of the primary epidemiological literature for evidence that low-level Pb is associated with neurological, immunological, cardiovascular, renal, and/or reproductive and developmental effects. The NTP Monograph presents specific conclusions for each health effect area. Overall, the NTP concludes that there is sufficient evidence that blood Pb levels Monograph on November 17-18, 2011 (http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/37090.

  2. Effect of Low Level Cadmium Exposure on Superoxide Dismutase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of low level cadmium (Cd) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase ... cancer, aging and a diversity of diseases [5]. Superoxide .... responsible for the long biological half-life of cadmium [12]. ... indicator of the balance between the damaging effects and the ... Scand J Work Environ.

  3. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  4. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds that are located in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit

  5. Commission administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report is one in a series of commission option documents prepared for the US Department of Energy, designed to assist regional low-level waste compact commissions in their organization, administration and efforts to effectively manage waste within their regions. In particular, this report addresses topics related to commission administrative procedures, personnel, procurement and finance

  6. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. The engineering studies, initiated in July 1991, identified 37 mixed waste streams, and 55 low-level waste streams. This report documents the waste stream information and potential treatment strategies, as well as the regulatory requirements for the Department of Energy-owned treatment facility option. The total report comprises three volumes and two appendices. This report consists of Volume 1, which explains the overall program mission, the guiding assumptions for the engineering studies, and summarizes the waste stream and regulatory information, and Volume 2, the Waste Stream Technical Summary which, encompasses the studies conducted to identify the INEL's waste streams and their potential treatment strategies

  7. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Chapters are devoted to the following: introduction; a brief description of low-level radioactive wastes and their management; system-side issues; waste reduction and packaging; transportation; disposal; issues for further study; and summary of recommendations. Nine appendices are included

  8. Low-level waste packaging--a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Hebbard, L.B. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This paper emphasizes managerial responsibility for assuring that facility waste is properly packaged. Specifically, existing packaging regulations are summarized, several actual violations are reviewed and, lastly, some recommendations are made to assist managerial personnel in fulfilling their responsibility to ensure that low-level waste is packaged safely and properly before shipment to the disposal site

  9. Effects of low levels of radiation on humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed

  10. Facility for low-level solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Miyamoto, H.

    1987-01-01

    A facility for low-level solid waste compaction, encapsulation and storage is described. Solid wastes are compacted in 200 l drums and stored over concrete platforms covered with canvas, for decay or for interim storage before transport to the final disposal site. (Author) [pt

  11. Low level radioactive liquid waste treatment at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.A.; Lasher, L.C.

    1977-01-01

    A new Process Waste Treatment Plant has been constructed at ORNL. The wastes are processed through a precipitation-clarification step and then through an ion exchange step to remove the low-level activity in the waste before discharge into White Oak Creek

  12. Do low levels of physical activity in female adolescents cause ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Mokabane et al. asserted that black female periurban adolescents exhibited low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviour, and that there is a causal, unidirectional, inverse relationship between physical activity and adiposity.[1] However, contrary to their conclusions, the data they presented ...

  13. The storage center of very-low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The low level radioactive wastes have a radioactivity level as same as the natural radioactivity. This wastes category and their storage has been taken into account by the french legislation. This document presents the storage principles of the site, containment, safety and the Center organization. (A.L.B.)

  14. Waste analysis plan for the low-level burial grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, C.R.

    1996-09-19

    This waste analysis plan (WAP) has been prepared for the Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBG) which are located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington. This WAP documents the methods used to characterize, and obtain and analyze representative samples of waste managed at this unit.

  15. Low-level radioactive wastes: Their treatment, handling, disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straub, Conrad P [Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center, Radiological Health Research Activities, Cincinnati, OH(United States)

    1964-07-01

    The release of low level wastes may result in some radiation exposure to man and his surroundings. This book describes techniques of handling, treatment, and disposal of low-level wastes aimed at keeping radiation exposure to a practicable minimum. In this context, wastes are considered low level if they are released into the environment without subsequent control. This book is concerned with practices relating only to continuous operations and not to accidental releases of radioactive materials. It is written by use for those interested in low level waste disposal problems and particularly for the health physicist concerned with these problems in the field. It should be helpful also to water and sewage works personnel concerned with the efficiency of water and sewage treatment processes for the removal of radioactive materials; the personnel engaged in design, construction, licensing, and operation of treatment facilities; and to student of nuclear technology. After an introduction the following areas are discussed: sources, quantities and composition of radioactive wastes; collection, sampling and measurement; direct discharge to the water, soil and air environment; air cleaning; removal of radioactivity by water-treatment processes and biological processes; treatment on site by chemical precipitation , ion exchange and absorption, electrodialysis, solvent extraction and other methods; treatment on site including evaporation and storage; handling and treatment of solid wastes; public health implications. Appendices include a glossary; standards for protection against radiation; federal radiation council radiation protection guidance for federal agencies; site selection criteria for nuclear energy facilities.

  16. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 3 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of carbon-14. The report also discusses waste streams that contain carbon-14, waste forms that contain carbon-14, and carbon-14 behavior in the environment and in the human body

  17. Low-level waste management at the Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanez, O.; Blanco, D.; Vallarino, V.; Calisto, W.

    1986-01-01

    A general overview of low-level radioactive waste management at the Nuclear Investigation Centre (CIN) of Uruguay is presented. The CIN is a pilot centre of research and development of techniques for implementing measurements for radioactive waste storage and control. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. Characteristics of medically related low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, G.J. Jr.; Teele, B.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes a survey that identified the current sources of medically generated radioactive wastes. Included are recommendations on how to reduce the volume of medically-related material classified as low-level radioactive wastes, to improve handling techniques for long-lived radioisotopes, and for options for the use of radioactive materials in medical studies. 8 refs., 11 tabs

  19. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Low-level and mixed waste incinerator survey report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.C.

    1988-10-01

    The Low-Level and Mixed Waste Survey Task was initiated to investigate and document current and planned incinerator facilities in the Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE-DP) system. A survey was mailed to the DOE field offices requesting information regarding existing or planned incinerator facilities located under their jurisdiction. The information requested included type, capacities, uses, costs, and mechanical description of the incinerators. The results of this survey are documented in this report. Nine sites responded to the survey, with eight sites listing nine incineration units in several stages of operations. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory listed two operational facilities. There are four incinerators that are planned for start-up in 1991. Of the existing incinerators, three are used mostly for low-level wastes, while the planned units will be used for low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. This report documents the current state of the incineration facilities in the DOE-DP system and provides a preliminary strategy for management of low-level wastes and a basis for implementing this strategy. 5 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs

  1. Low-level radioactive waste management: French and foreign regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes radioactive waste management regulations applied in USA, CANADA, SCANDINAVIA and FRANCE. For low level radioactive wastes, it is necessary to adapt waste management regulations which were firt definite for high level radioactive wastes. So the exemption concept is a simplification method of regulations applied to low radiation sources

  2. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, President Carter established the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG) to review the nation's plans and progress in managing radioactive wastes. In its final report, issued in March 1979, the group recommended that the Department of Energy (DOE) assume responsibility for developing a national plan for the management of low-level wastes. Toward this end, DOE directed that a strategy be developed to guide federal and state officials in resolving issues critical to the safe management of low-level wastes. EG and G Idaho, Inc. was selected as the lead contractor for the Low-Level Waste Management Program and was given responsibility for developing the strategy. A 25 member task force was formed which included individuals from federal agencies, states, industry, universities, and public interest groups. The task force identified nineteen broad issues covering the generation, treatment, packaging, transportation, and disposal of low-level wastes. Alternatives for the resolution of each issue were proposed and recommendations were made which, taken together, form the draft strategy. These recommendations are summarized in this document

  3. Champagne for France's second low level [radioactive] waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevrier, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    Located in the southern Champagne region, France's new million m 3 low level radioactive waste near surface repository, the Centre de l'Aube, will by 1995 completely take over from the country's first repository, Centre de la Manche (capacity 500 000 m 3 ), which has been operating since 1969. The design of the repository is described. (Author)

  4. Champagne for France's second low level [radioactive] waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrier, G P [ANDRA, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1992-10-01

    Located in the southern Champagne region, France's new million m[sup 3] low level radioactive waste near surface repository, the Centre de l'Aube, will by 1995 completely take over from the country's first repository, Centre de la Manche (capacity 500 000 m[sup 3]), which has been operating since 1969. The design of the repository is described. (Author).

  5. Low level liquid scintillation analysis for environmental and biomedical quantitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the past five years low level liquid scintillation counting has become increasing popular because of the large number of applications which can be performed using this technique. These applications include environmental monitoring ( 3 H, 90 Sr/ 90 Y, etc.), radiocarbon dating (for age determination to 50,000 years), food adulteration studies (alcohol and beverage industries), radon monitoring (air/water), nuclear power plant monitoring (low level 3 H) and metabolism studies (pharmaceutical research). These applications can be performed with either a dedicated low level LSC or using a standard liquid scintillation counter in conjunction with the new technique of time-resolved LSC (TR-LSC). This technique when used on a standard LSC reduces the instrument background without substantially effecting the background, thus increasing the performance (E 2 /B) of the LSC. Data will be presented for each of the applications mentioned above, comparing the standard LSC and the new TR-LSC techniques. The optimization of the samples for each of these applications will be explored in detail with experimental results. In conclusion, by using the TR-LSC technique in conjunction with a standard LSC the performance of the standard LSC can be increased substantially without dedicating the LSC to doing only low level samples

  6. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) study of blood flow changes during low level laser therapy (LLLT): a preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Sagar; Wang, Xinlong; Liu, Hanli; Tian, Fenghua

    2017-02-01

    Photobiomodulation with low-power, high-fluence light in the near-infrared range (600-1100nm), also known as low level laser therapy (LLLT), has been used for promoting healing of wounds, reducing pain, and so on. Understanding its physiological effect is essential for treatment optimization and evaluation. In this study, we used diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to investigate the changes of regional blood flow in skeletal muscle induced by a single session of LLLT. DCS is an emerging optical modality to probe microvascular blood flow in human tissues in vivo. We have developed a software-based autocorrelator system with the benefits such as flexibility in raw photon count data processing, portability and low cost. LLLT was administered at the human forearm with a 1064-nm, continuous-wave laser. The emitting power was 3.4 W in an area of 13.6 cm2, corresponding to 0.25W/cm2 irradiance. The emitting duration was 10 minutes. Eight healthy adults of any ethnic background, in an age range of 18-40 years old were included. The results indicate that LLLT causes reliable changes in regional blood flow. However, it remains unclear whether these changes are physiological or attributed to the heating effect of the stimulation laser.

  7. Siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was established by the 67th Legislature to assure safe and effective disposal of the state's low-level radioactive waste. The Authority operates under provisions of the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority Act, VACS 4590f-1. In Texas, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material that has a half-life of 35 years or less or that has less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics, and may include radioactive material not excluded by this definition with a half-life or more than 35 years if special disposal criteria are established. Prior to beginning the siting study, the Authority developed both exclusionary and inclusionary criteria. Major requirements of the siting guidelines are that the site shall be located such that it will not interfere with: (1) existing or near-future industrial use, (2) sensitive environmental and ecological areas, and (3) existing and projected population growth. Therefore, the site should be located away from currently known recoverable mineral, energy and water resources, population centers, and areas of projected growth. This would reduce the potential for inadvertent intruders, increasing the likelihood for stability of the disposal site after closure. The identification of potential sites for disposal of low-level radioactive waste involves a phased progression from statewide screening to site-specific exploration, using a set of exclusionary and preferential criteria to guide the process. This methodology applied the criteria in a sequential manner to focus the analysis on progressively smaller and more favorable areas. The study was divided into three phases: (1) statewide screening; (2) site identification; and (3) preliminary site characterization

  8. Low-level laser therapy to the mouse femur enhances the fungicidal response of neutrophils against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils (PMN play a central role in host defense against the neglected fungal infection paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, which is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. PCM is of major importance, especially in Latin America, and its treatment relies on the use of antifungal drugs. However, the course of treatment is lengthy, leading to side effects and even development of fungal resistance. The goal of the study was to use low-level laser therapy (LLLT to stimulate PMN to fight Pb in vivo. Swiss mice with subcutaneous air pouches were inoculated with a virulent strain of Pb or fungal cell wall components (Zymosan, and then received LLLT (780 nm; 50 mW; 12.5 J/cm2; 30 seconds per point, giving a total energy of 0.5 J per point on alternate days at two points on each hind leg. The aim was to reach the bone marrow in the femur with light. Non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The number and viability of the PMN that migrated to the inoculation site was assessed, as well as their ability to synthesize proteins, produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and their fungicidal activity. The highly pure PMN populations obtained after 10 days of infection were also subsequently cultured in the presence of Pb for trials of protein production, evaluation of mitochondrial activity, ROS production and quantification of viable fungi growth. PMN from mice that received LLLT were more active metabolically, had higher fungicidal activity against Pb in vivo and also in vitro. The kinetics of neutrophil protein production also correlated with a more activated state. LLLT may be a safe and non-invasive approach to deal with PCM infection.

  9. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  10. Land disposal alternatives for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, P.; Lindeman, R.; Saulnier, G.; Adam, J.; Sutherland, A.; Gruhlke, J.; Hung, C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop data regarding the effectiveness and costs of the following options for disposing of specific low-level nuclear waste streams; sanitary landfill; improved shallow land burial; intermediate depth disposal; deep well injection; conventional shallow land burial; engineered surface storage; deep geological disposal; and hydrofracturing. This will be accomplished through the following steps: (1) characterize the properties of the commercial low-level wastes requiring disposal; (2) evaluate the various options for disposing of this waste, characterize selected representative waste disposal sites and design storage facilities suitable for use at those sites; (3) calculate the effects of various waste disposal options on population health risks; (4) estimate the costs of various waste disposal options for specific sites; and (5) perform trade-off analyses of the benefits of various waste disposal options against the costs of implementing these options. These steps are described. 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. The future of very low level radioactive wastes in question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignes, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled that nuclear plants produce various radioactive wastes, that the Cigeo project is the proposed solution to store these radioactive wastes, this article more particularly addresses the issue of very low level radioactive wastes which are now the main matter of concern for the IRSN as their quantity is expected to increase during the years to come (notably in relationship with nuclear reactor lifetime extension), and as present storage capacities will soon be saturated. The author first outlines that these wastes are not very dangerous but very cumbersome. Among these so-defined 'very low level' wastes, 30 to 50 per cent could be considered as harmless, but are now processed as dangerous wastes through costly processes. Various possibilities are then envisaged such as a diversification of storage options

  12. Improved gamma spectrometry of very low level radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineira, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Today, many laboratories face the need to perform measurements of very low level activities using gamma spectroscopy. The techniques in use are identical to those applicable for higher levels of activities, but there is a need to use better adapted materials and modify the measurement conditions to minimize the background noise around the area. This paper presents the design of a very low level activity laboratory which has addressed the laboratory itself, the measuring chamber and the detector. The lab is constructed underground using specially selected materials of construction. The lab atmosphere is filtered and recycled with frequent changeovers. The rate of make-up fresh air is reduced and is sampled high above ground and filtered

  13. A model for a national low level waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenhorn, James A.

    2009-01-01

    A national program for the management of low level waste is essential to the success of environmental clean-up, decontamination and decommissioning, current operations and future missions. The value of a national program is recognized through procedural consistency and a shared set of resources. A national program requires a clear waste definition and an understanding of waste characteristics matched against available and proposed disposal options. A national program requires the development and implementation of standards and procedures for implementing the waste hierarchy, with a specitic emphasis on waste avoidance, minimization and recycling. It requires a common set of objectives for waste characterization based on the disposal facility's waste acceptance criteria, regulatory and license requirements and performance assessments. Finally, a national waste certification program is required to ensure compliance. To facilitate and enhance the national program, a centralized generator services organization, tasked with providing technical services to the generators on behalf of the national program, is necessary. These subject matter experts are the interface between the generating sites and the disposal facility(s). They provide an invaluable service to the generating organizations through their involvement in waste planning prior to waste generation and through championing implementation of the waste hierarchy. Through their interface, national treatment and transportation services are optimized and new business opportunities are identified. This national model is based on extensive experience in the development and on-going management of a national transuranic waste program and management of the national repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The Low Level Program at the Savannah River Site also successfully developed and implemented the waste hierarchy, waste certification and waste generator services concepts presented below. The Savannah River Site

  14. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-01-01

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application

  15. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    CERN Document Server

    Salazar, A

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg sup - sup 1. The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author)

  16. Economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, J.; Jennrich, E.

    1983-01-01

    Regardless of who develops new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites or when, economics will play a role. To assist in this area the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a computer program, LLWECON, and data base for projecting disposal site costs. This program and its non-site specific data base can currently be used to compare the costs associated with various disposal site development, financing, and operating scenarios. As site specific costs and requirements are refined LLWECON will be able to calculate exact life cycle costs for each facility. While designed around shallow land burial, as practiced today, LLWECON is flexible and the input parameters discrete enough to be applicable to other disposal options. What the program can do is illustrated

  17. Low-level radioactive waste vitrification: effect of Cs partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.S.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) immobilization options are cementation or bituminization. Either of these options could be followed by shallow-land burial (SLB) or above-ground disposal. These rather simple LLW procedures appeared to be readily available, to meet regulatory requirements, and to satisfy cost constraints. The authorization of State Compacts, the forced closure of half of the six SLB disposal facilities of the nation, and the escalation of transportation/disposal fees diminish the viability of these options. The synergetic combination of these factors led to a reassessment of traditional methods and to an investigation of other techniques. This paper analyzes the traditional LLW immobilization options, reviews the impact of the LLW stream composition on Low-Level Waste Vitrification (LLWV), then proposes and briefly discusses several techniques to control the volatile radionuclides in a Process Improved LLWV system (PILLWV)

  18. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies.

  19. Management of very low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapalain, E.; Damoy, J.; Joly, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This document comprises 3 articles. The first article presents the concern of very low-level radioactive wastes generated in nuclear installations, the second article describes the management of the wastes issued from the dismantling operations of the ALS (linear accelerator of Saclay) and of the Saturn synchrotron both located in Saclay Cea's center. The last article presents the storage facility which is specifically dedicated to very low-level radioactive wastes. This storage facility, which is located at Morvilliers, near the 'Centre de l Aube' (used to store the low-, and medium-level, short-lived radioactive wastes), will receive the first packages next summer. Like the other storage facilities, it will be managed by ANDRA (national radioactive waste management agency)

  20. Ocean dumping of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, W.L.

    1982-10-01

    Scientific bases, developed internationally over the last 20 years, to control and restrict to acceptable levels the resultant radiation doses that potentially could occur from the dumping of low-level radioactive wastes in the deep oceans were presented. The author concluded that present evaluations of the disposal of radioactive wastes into the oceans, coastal and deep ocean, indicate that these are being conducted within the ICRP recommended dose limits. However, there are presently no international institutions or mechanisms to deal with the long-term radiation exposure at low-levels to large numbers of people on a regional basis if not a global level. Recommendations were made to deal with these aspects through the established mechanisms of NEA/OECD and the London Dumping Convention, in cooperation with ICRP, UNSCEAR and the IAEA

  1. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This volume serves as an introduction to the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series. This report includes discussions of radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha-emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than five years). Each report includes information regarding radiological and chemical characteristics of specific radionuclides. Information is also included discussing waste streams and waste forms that may contain each radionuclide, and radionuclide behavior in the environment and in the human body. Not all radionuclides commonly found at low-level radioactive waste sites are included in this report. The discussion in this volume explains the rationale of the radionuclide selection process

  2. Development of a low-level waste risk methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.E.; Falconer, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment method is presented for performance evaluation of low-level waste disposal facilities. The associated program package calculates the risk associated with postulated radionuclide release and transport scenarios. Risk is computed as the mathematical product of two statistical variables: the dose consequence of a given release scenario, and its occurrence probability. A sample risk calculation is included which demonstrates the method. This PRA method will facilitate evaluation of facility performance, including identification of high risk scenarios and their mitigation via optimization of site parameters. The method is intended to be used in facility licensing as a demonstration of compliance with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR Part 61, or in corresponding state regulations. The Low-Level Waste Risk Methodology is being developed under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  3. Acid fractionation for low level liquid waste cleanup and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombert, D. II; McIntyre, C.V.; Mizia, R.E.; Schindler, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    At the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, low level liquid wastes containing small amounts of radionuclides are concentrated via a thermosyphon evaporator for calcination with high level waste, and the evaporator condensates are discharged with other plant wastewater to a percolation pond. Although all existing discharge guidelines are currently met, work has been done to reduce all waste water discharges to an absolute minimum. In this regard, a 15-tray acid fractionation column will be used to distill the mildly acidic evaporator condensates into concentrated nitric acid for recycle in the plant. The innocuous overheads from the fractionator having a pH greater than 2, are superheated and HEPA filtered for atmospheric discharge. Nonvolatile radionuclides are below detection limits. Recycle of the acid not only displaces fresh reagent, but reduces nitrate burden to the environment, and completely eliminates routine discharge of low level liquid wastes to the environment

  4. Stochastic Model for Population Exposed to Low Level Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the stochastic model for population size, i.e. calculation of the number of deaths due to lethal stochastic health effects caused by the exposure to low level ionising radiation is presented. The model is defined for subpopulation with parameter (a, b) being fixed. Using the corresponding density function, it is possible to find all the quantities of interest by averaging over whole possible values for (a, l). All processes ar at first defined for one radionuclide, exposure pathway and the health effect under consideration. The results obtained in this paper are the basic quantities in the risk assessment, loss of life expectancy etc. The results presented in this paper are also applicable to the other sources of low level risk, not only the radiation risk

  5. Mixed and low-level waste treatment facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The technology information provided in this report is only the first step toward the identification and selection of process systems that may be recommended for a proposed mixed and low-level waste treatment facility. More specific information on each technology will be required to conduct the system and equipment tradeoff studies that will follow these preengineering studies. For example, capacity, maintainability, reliability, cost, applicability to specific waste streams, and technology availability must be further defined. This report does not currently contain all needed information; however, all major technologies considered to be potentially applicable to the treatment of mixed and low-level waste are identified and described herein. Future reports will seek to improve the depth of information on technologies

  6. On the genetic effects of low-level tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tada-aka; Nakai, Sayaka

    1976-01-01

    Genetic risk assessment for potential hazard from environmental tritium to man becomes important with increasing nuclear-power industry. The purpose of this short review is to discuss the possible genetic effects of tritium from a view of genetic risk estimation. The discussion is based mainly on our experimental results on the chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by tritium at the very low-level. The types of chromosome aberrations induced by radiation from tritium incorporated into the cells are mostly chromatid types. The most interesting finding is that the dose-response relationship observed in both tritiated-water and tritiated-thymidine is composed of two phases. The examination on the nature of two-phase dose-response relationship is very important not only for the mechanisms of chromosome aberrations, but also for the evaluation of genetic risk from low-level radiation. (auth.)

  7. Tradescantia in studies of genetic effects of low level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1976-01-01

    Tradescantia in studies on genetic effects of low level radiation is briefly introduced. Radiosensitivity, method of screening stamen hair mutation, materials in current uses, spontaneous mutation rate, and modifying factors are refered. For stamen hair mutation b values in exponential model were lower in irradiation with low dose rate at high environmental temperature. The dose response curves under these modifying conditions, when extrapolated to low dose range, well fit to the line which was obtained by Sparrow's experiment of low level irradiation. In chronic irradiation, the frequency of stamen hair mutation reaches to the constant value after 17 days from the start of irradiation, and is as much as 4 times higher than the peak value in one day irradiation at the same exposure rate. The spontaneous mutation rate of KU-7 varied with temperature. The increase with 1 0 C increment of mean temperature was -0.04%. Uses of Tradescantia in monitoring the environmental radiation is discussed. (auth.)

  8. Environment impact of a very low level waste specific landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun-Yaba, C.; Peres, J.M.; Besnus, F.

    1996-01-01

    Operating enrichment plants, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants and the decommissioning of nuclear facilities will give rise to large volumes of waste material (concrete, steel and others metals, technological wastes heat insulators...) and most of them, in term of quantities, will be categorized as very low level wastes. This paper deals with the environmental impact of a specific landfill as a final destination for the very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) with the aim of providing technical elements for safer workers practices during the operational and the monitoring phases and for a public occupation after closure of the site. This study has been made on the basis of inventories in terms of estimated quantities and spectra of the French VLLW for a set of scenarios which are representative of practices in a landfill. (author)

  9. Oak Ridge low-level waste disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Jones, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The strategic planning process that culuminates in the identification, selection, construction, and ultimate operation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for all types of low-level waste (LLW) generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted under the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. This program considered management of various concentrations of short half-life radionuclides generated principally at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and long half-life radionuclides (principally uranium) generated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant. The LLWDDD Program is still ongoing and involves four phases: (1) alternative identification and evaluation, (2) technology demonstration, (3) limited operational implementation, and (4) full operational implementation. This document provides a discussion of these phases

  10. Financing a new low-level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; McGarvey, R.S.; Lemmon, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    No new commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal site has been licensed in the past decade. During the time, inflation has wreaked havoc on the costs for the labor, equipment, and buildings that will be necessary to develop and operate new sites. The regulatory environment has become much more complex with enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the recent issuance by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of a draft set of comprehensive regulations for land disposal of low-level waste (10 CFR Part 61). Finally, the licensing process itself has become much lengthier as both the site developers and regulators respond to the public's desire to be more involved in decisions that may affect their lives

  11. Control of quality in spectrometry gamma of low level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, A.; Loria, G.

    1997-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry is a very precise technique to measure the concentration of nuclides present in different samples in Bq kg -1 . The quality control of the procedure and method used can be carried out by intercomparison exercises with world recognized institutions. During the last three years the Nuclear Physics Laboratory Of The University of Costa Rica (LAFNA) has been participating in the international quality assessment program (QAP) carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML), department of Energy, USA. The results show a very good agreement with the rest of the participant laboratories. This provides a very objective evaluation of the high precision of the methods used by LAFNA in low level spectroscopy measurements. (Author) [es

  12. Bounding Values for Low-Level-Waste Transport Exemptions and Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, K.R.; Hopper, C.M.; Lichtenwalter, J.J.; Parks, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    Characterizations and bounding computational results determined by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have been offered to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as supporting technical bases for regulatory considerations in the packaging, transport, retrievable emplacement and disposal of radioactive low-level waste contaminated with fissile materials. The fissile materials included 100 wt % U, 10 wt % U in uranium, 100 wt % U, 100 wt % Pu, or plutonium as less than 235 235 233 239 76 wt % Pu, more than 12 wt % Pu, and less than 12 wt % Pu. The considered waste matrixes 239 240 241 included silicon dioxide, carbon, light water and polyethylene, heavy water, or beryllium with summary examinations of other potential matrixes. The limiting concentrations and geometries for these bounding conjectured low-level-waste matrixes are presented in this paper

  13. Proto-object categorisation and local gist vision using low-level spatial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jaime A; Rodrigues, J M F; du Buf, J M H

    2015-09-01

    Object categorisation is a research area with significant challenges, especially in conditions with bad lighting, occlusions, different poses and similar objects. This makes systems that rely on precise information unable to perform efficiently, like a robotic arm that needs to know which objects it can reach. We propose a biologically inspired object detection and categorisation framework that relies on robust low-level object shape. Using only edge conspicuity and disparity features for scene figure-ground segregation and object categorisation, a trained neural network classifier can quickly categorise broad object families and consequently bootstrap a low-level scene gist system. We argue that similar processing is possibly located in the parietal pathway leading to the LIP cortex and, via areas V5/MT and MST, providing useful information to the superior colliculus for eye and head control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Heat sink management during CANDU low level operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liansheng

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the practice of low-level operation with opening on the main heat transport system during an outage for a Candu-6 nuclear power plant, analyses the risks of losing heat sink during this condition, and points out the safety measures and management requirement for controlling such risks. This paper can be used as a reference for improving and optimizing the heat sink management for the coming outages. (author)

  15. Long-range low-level waste management needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloyna, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    In all waste management considerations, it is necessary to establish the waste source; characterize the waste components; determine treatability; evaluate specific details that comprise a systems approach to overall waste management; and implement practical collection, packaging, storage disposal and monitoring technology. This paper evaluates management considerations by defining the source and magnitude of low-level wastes (LLW), relating LLW disposal, defining principles of LLW burial, and listing LLW burial considerations. 17 refs

  16. On Low-level Cognitive Components of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze speech for low-level cognitive features using linear component analysis. We demonstrate generalizable component ‘fingerprints’ stemming from both phonemes and speakers. Phonemes are fingerprints found at the basic analysis window time scale (20 msec), while speaker...... ‘voiceprints’ are found at time scales around 1000 msec. The analysis is based on homomorphic filtering features and energy based sparsification....

  17. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 0 --300 0 C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue. 6 claims, no drawings

  18. State and Federal activities on low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    With the passage of the Low-Level Waste Policy Act in December 1980, the states have assumed the management responsibility and the federal government has become a facilitator. State and Federal roles in regulation have not altered. This paper reviews the developments over the last two years to point out the progress made and critical steps that lie ahead. Both technological and political aspects are covered, and a conclusion is presented with a look to the future. Since compact development in the tool chosen by the politicans for low-level waste management, the author reviews the present status starting with the northwest compact which has been introduced into the House and Senate and is subject to hearings. The past two years have seen real progress in technology in the broadest sense. An information development and dissemination system was established in 1978 wih the state-by-state assessment of low-level waste disposal. Annual examinations have been made through 1981 which enables one to understand the generation of low-level wastes. Policy level planning by states can be supported by the base level of information available. Incineration of dry active waste and other non-fuel cycle waste is ready to be fully accepted. Much work has been done on volume reduction of liquids. The increased understanding of the ways to make a disposal site work represents a major technolological improvement. Within the DOE system, there is beginning to be a real understanding of the critical parameters in disposal site performance in the East

  19. Low-level radioactive waste involved in transportation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database contains information about radioactive materials transportation accidents and incidents that have occurred in the United States from 1971 through 1989. Using data from RMIR, this paper will provide detailed information on transportation accidents and incidents that have occurred with low-level radioactive wastes. Additionally, overview data on the number of transport accidents and incidents that have occurred and by what transport mode will also be provided. 4 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Waste Management Facilities cost information for low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.; Biadgi, C.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost estimates for managing low-level waste. The report`s information on treatment, storage, and disposal modules can be integrated to develop total life-cycle costs for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the US Department of Energy and its contractor personnel in the use of cost estimation data is also summarized in this report.

  1. Bioprocessing of low-level radioactive and mixed hazard wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Biologically-based treatment technologies are currently being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to aid in volume reduction and/or reclassification of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes prior to processing for disposal. The approaches taken to treat low-level radioactive and mixed wastes will reflect the physical (e.g., liquid, solid, slurry) and chemical (inorganic and/or organic) nature of the waste material being processed. Bioprocessing utilizes the diverse metabolic and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms. The application of bioadsorption and bioflocculation to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste are strategies comparable to the use of ion-exchange resins and coagulants that are currently used in waste reduction processes. Mixed hazardous waste would require organic as well as radionuclide treatment processes. Biodegradation of organic wastes or bioemulsification could be used in conjunction with radioisotope bioadsorption methods to treat mixed hazardous radioactive wastes. The degradation of the organic constituents of mixed wastes can be considered an alternative to incineration, while the use of bioemulsification may simply be used as a means to separate inorganic and organics to enable reclassification of wastes. The proposed technology base for the biological treatment of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous waste has been established. Biodegradation of a variety of organic compounds that are typically found in mixed hazardous wastes has been demonstrated, degradative pathways determined and the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms are understood. Accumulation, adsorption and concentration of heavy and transition metal species and transuranics by microorganisms is widely recognized. Work at the INEL focuses on the application of demonstrated microbial transformations to process development

  2. B Plant low level waste system integrity assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document provides the report of the integrity assessment activities for the B Plant low level waste system. The assessment activities were in response to requirements of the Washington State Dangerous Waste Regulations, Washington Administrative Code (WAC), 173-303-640. This integrity assessment report supports compliance with Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order interim milestone target action M-32-07-T03

  3. Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanoski, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards

  4. Effects of RF low levels electromagnetic fields on Paramecium primaurelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofani, S.; Testa, B.; Agnesod, G.; Tartagbino, L.; Bonazzola, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    In the last years many studies have been performed to examine biological effects of prolonged exposure at electric field low levels. This great interest is linked to a specific interaction possibility, also related to the exposure length, between electromagnetic fields and biological systems without remarkable enhancement of organism's temperature. Hence the need to investigate in vitro the possible cellular regulation mechanisms involved in these interactions, varying physical exposure parameters

  5. Multipurpose container for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.T.; Pearson, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for disposing of low-level radioactive waste, comprising the steps of (a) introducing the waste into a multipurpose container, the multipurpose container comprising a polymeric inner container disposed within a concrete outer shell, the shape of the inner container conforming substantially to the shape of the outer shell's inner surface, (b) transporting the waste in the same multipurpose container to a storage location, and (c) storing the container at the storage location

  6. Metallograph for the examination of low-level radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.H.; Shaffer, D.S.; Petty, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    A new remote-controlled metallograph was built for use in a low-level radiation background. The metallograph is low cost compared to a conventional remote-controlled metallograph. The motors that drive the stage motions and focus are commercially available and attach to the metallograph without modification. The metallograph was installed on a drawer in a blister behind a shielding door. This allows the metallograph to be reached quickly and easily for maintenance and repair

  7. Color quench correction for low level Cherenkov counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsroya, S; Pelled, O; German, U; Marco, R; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2009-05-01

    The Cherenkov counting efficiency varies strongly with color quenching, thus correction curves must be used to obtain correct results. The external (152)Eu source of a Quantulus 1220 liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system was used to obtain a quench indicative parameter based on spectra area ratio. A color quench correction curve for aqueous samples containing (90)Sr/(90)Y was prepared. The main advantage of this method over the common spectra indicators is its usefulness also for low level Cherenkov counting.

  8. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  9. Low-Level Exploitation Mitigation by Diverse Microservices

    OpenAIRE

    Otterstad , Christian; Yarygina , Tetiana

    2017-01-01

    Part 2: Microservices and Containers; International audience; This paper discusses a combination of isolatable microservices and software diversity as a mitigation technique against low-level exploitation; the effectiveness and benefits of such an architecture are substantiated. We argue that the core security benefit of microservices with diversity is increased control flow isolation. Additionally, a new microservices mitigation technique leveraging a security monitor service is introduced t...

  10. Department of Energy low-level radioactive waste disposal concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, C.; Page, L.; Morreale, B.; Owens, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy manages its low-level waste (LLW), regulated by DOE Order 5820.2A by using an overall systems approach. This systems approach provides an improved and consistent management system for all DOE LLW waste, from generation to disposal. This paper outlines six basic disposal concepts used in the systems approach, discusses issues associated with each of the concepts, and outlines both present and future disposal concepts used at six DOE sites

  11. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going

  12. Preliminary radiological assessments of low-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nancarrow, D.J.; Sumerling, T.J.; Ashton, J.

    1988-06-01

    Preliminary assessments of the post-closure radiological impact from the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in shallow engineered facilities at four sites are presented. This provides a framework to practice and refine a methodology that could be used, on behalf of the Department, for independent assessment of any similar proposal from Nirex. Information and methodological improvements that would be required are identified. (author)

  13. Recent Developments in Low-Level Software Security

    OpenAIRE

    Agten , Pieter; Nikiforakis , Nick; Strackx , Raoul; Groef , Willem ,; Piessens , Frank

    2012-01-01

    Part 1: Keynotes; International audience; An important objective for low-level software security research is to develop techniques that make it harder to launch attacks that exploit implementation details of the system under attack. Baltopoulos and Gordon have summarized this as the principle of source-based reasoning for security: security properties of a software system should follow from review of the source code and its source-level semantics, and should not depend on details of the compi...

  14. Electrochemical processing of low-level waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D.T.; Ebra, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of treating low-level Savannah River Plant (SRP) waste solutions by an electrolytic process has been demonstrated. Although the economics of the process are marginal at the current densities investigated at the laboratory scale, there are a number of positive environmental benefits. These benefits include: (1) reduction in the levels of nitrate and nitrite in the waste, (2) further decontamination of 99 Tc and 106 Ru, and (3) reduction in the volume of waste

  15. Treatment of low-level liquid radioactive wastes by electrodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DelDebbio, J.A.; Donovan, R.I.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pilot plant studies on the use of electrodialysis (ED) for the removal of radioactive and chemical contaminants from acidic low-level radioactive wastes resulting from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations. Decontamination efficiencies are reported for strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-129, ruthenium-106 and mercury. Data for contaminant adsorption on ED membranes and liquid waste volumes generated are also presented

  16. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description

  17. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  18. Current DOE direction in low-level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.; Dolenc, M.R.; Shupe, M.W.; Waldo, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing revised DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapter III of the revised order provides prescriptive requirements for managing low-level waste and is the subject of this paper. The revised order requires that all DOE low-level radioactive and mixed waste be systematically managed, using an approach that considers the combination of waste management practices used in waste generation reduction, segregation, treatment, packaging, storage, and disposal. The Order defines performance objectives for protecting groundwater, for protecting against intrusion, and for maintaining adequate operational practices. A performance assessment will be required to ensure that waste management operations comply with these performance objectives. DOE implementation of the revised Order includes work in the areas of leach testing, waste stabilization, waste certification, facility monitoring, and management of unique waste streams. This paper summarizes the status of this work and the current direction DOE is taking in managing low-level waste under DOE 5820.2A

  19. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report documents those studies so the project can continue with an evaluation of programmatic options, system tradeoff studies, and the conceptual design phase of the project. This report, appendix B, comprises the engineering design files for this project study. The engineering design files document each waste steam, its characteristics, and identified treatment strategies

  20. Siting simulation for low-level waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Rope, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The Mock Site Licensing Demonstration Project has developed the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation, a role-playing exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level waste (LLW). This paper describes the development, content, and usefulness of the siting simulation. The simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, involves 14 or more participants, and requires about eight hours to complete. The simulation consists of two sessions; in the first, participants negotiate the selection of siting criteria, and in the second, a preferred disposal site is chosen from three candidate sites. The project has sponsored two workshops (in Boston, Massachusetts and Richmond, Virginia) in which the simulation has been conducted for persons concerned with LLW management issues. It is concluded that the simulation can be valuable as a tool for disseminating information about LLW management; a vehicle that can foster communication; and a step toward consensus building and conflict resolution. The DOE National Low-Level Waste Management Program is now making the siting simulation available for use by states, regional compacts, and other organizations involved in development of LLW disposal facilities

  1. Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    Mixed and low-level wastes generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are required to be managed according to applicable State and Federal regulations, and Department of Energy Orders that provide for the protection of human health and the environment. The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project was chartered in 1991, by the Department of Energy to provide treatment capability for these mixed and low-level waste streams. The first project task consisted of conducting engineering studies to identify the waste streams, their potential treatment strategies, and the requirements that would be imposed on the waste streams and the facilities used to process them. This report, Appendix A, Environmental ampersand Regulatory Planning ampersand Documentation, identifies the regulatory requirements that would be imposed on the operation or construction of a facility designed to process the INEL's waste streams. These requirements are contained in five reports that discuss the following topics: (1) an environmental compliance plan and schedule, (2) National Environmental Policy Act requirements, (3) preliminary siting requirements, (4) regulatory justification for the project, and (5) health and safety criteria

  2. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls

  3. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  4. Low levels of extraneous agents in vaccine starting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouby, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    There are different ways to define the concept of 'low levels' of extraneous agents in vaccines and vaccine starting materials, based on the amount of extraneous agents as such, the sensitivity of the detection method and the probability approach linked to the sampling method. None of these approaches, however, is entirely satisfactory--a general definition of a 'low level' cannot be provided. Since the main point is the safety of medicinal products, the risk analysis approach to 'low level' contaminations can be considered as a way to overcome the above mentioned deadlock. But as too many variables impact the risk analysis, it cannot be properly performed either. In practice, seeds are tested to show freedom from extraneous agents, the other raw materials are inactivated through a validated method. However, there are technical and regulatory limits in both cases, and neither testing nor inactivation entirely guarantees freedom from extraneous agents. Despite this unsatisfactory situation, it should be acknowledged that no truly significant disease outbreak linked to an extraneous agent has been identified until today. Regulatory actions are mainly undertaken when a sanitary problem occurs. In the end, companies remain responsible for their products. 2010 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent progress in low-level gamma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahe, C.; Girones, Ph.; Lamadie, F.; Le Goaller, C.

    2007-01-01

    The CEA's Aladin gamma imaging system has been operated successfully for several years in nuclear plants and during decommissioning projects with additional tools such as gamma spectrometry detectors and dose rate probes. The radiological information supplied by these devices is becoming increasingly useful for establishing robust and optimized decommissioning scenarios. Recent technical improvements allow this gamma imaging system to be operated in low-level applications and with shorter acquisition times suitable for decommissioning projects. The compact portable system can be used in places inaccessible to operators. It is quick and easy to implement, notably for onsite component characterization. Feasibility trials and in situ measurements were recently carried out under low-level conditions, mainly on waste packages and glove boxes for decommissioning projects. This paper describes recent low-level in situ applications. These characterization campaigns mainly concerned gamma emitters with γ energy < 700 keV. In many cases, the localization of hot spots by gamma camera was confirmed by additional measurements such as dose rate mapping and gamma spectrometry measurements. These complementary techniques associated with advanced calculation codes (MCNP, Mercure 6.2, Visiplan and Siren) offer a mobile and compact tool for specific assessment of waste packages and glove boxes. (authors)

  6. Recovery of uranium (VI) from low level aqueous radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshrestha, Mukul

    1996-01-01

    Investigation was undertaken to evaluate the uranium (VI) removal and recovery potential of a naturally occurring, nonviable macrofungus, Ganoderma Lucidum from the simulated low level aqueous nuclear waste. These low level waste waters discharged from nuclear mine tailings and nuclear power reactors have a typical U(VI) concentration of 10-100 mg/L. It is possible to recover this uranium economically with the advent of biosorption as a viable technology. Extensive laboratory studies have revealed Ganoderma Lucidum to be a potential biosorbent with a specific uptake of 2.75 mg/g at an equilibrium U(VI) concentration of 10 mg/L at pH 4.5. To recover the sorbed U(VI), the studies indicated 0.2N Na 2 CO 3 to be an effective elutant. The kinetics of U(VI) desorption from loaded Ganoderma Lucidum with 0.2N Na 2 CO 3 as elutant, was found to be rapid with more than 75% recovery occurring in the first five minutes, the specific metal release rate being 0.102 mg/g/min. The equilibrium data fitted to a linearised Freundlich plot and exhibited a near 100% recovery of sorbed U(VI), clearly revealing a cost-effective method of recovery of precious uranium from low level wastewater. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  7. Effect of low-level laser stimulation on EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Chang, Wen-Dien; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Jiang, Joe-Air; Fang, Wei; Shan, Yi-Chia; Chang, Yang-Chyuan

    2012-01-01

    Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG) changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz) to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  8. Effect of Low-Level Laser Stimulation on EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Huah Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional laser stimulation at the acupoint can induce significant brain activation, and the activation is theoretically conveyed by the sensory afferents. Whether the insensible low-level Laser stimulation outside the acupoint could also evoke electroencephalographic (EEG changes is not known. We designed a low-level laser array stimulator (6 pcs laser diode, wavelength 830 nm, output power 7 mW, and operation frequency 10 Hz to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm. EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band were analyzed. We found that the low-level laser stimulation was able to increase the power of alpha rhythms and theta waves, mainly in the posterior head regions. These effects lasted at least 15 minutes after cessation of the laser stimulation. The amplitude power of beta activities in the anterior head regions decreased after laser stimulation. We thought these EEG changes comparable to those in meditation.

  9. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  10. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series: Low-level radioactive waste management in medical and biomedical research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Development of this handbook began in 1982 at the request of the Radhealth Branch of the California Department of Health Services. California Assembly Bill 1513 directed the DHS to ''evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of (1) reducing the volume, reactivity, and chemical and radioactive hazard of (low-level radioactive) waste and (2) substituting nonradioactive or short-lived radioactive materials for those radionuclides which require long-term isolation from the environment. A contract awarded to the University of California at Irvine-UCI (California Std. Agreement 79902), to develop a document focusing on methods for decreasing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generation in institutions was a result of that directive. In early 1985, the US Department of Energy, through EG and G Idaho, Inc., contracted with UCI to expand, update, and revise the California text for national release

  11. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. The siting process: establishing a low-level waste-disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    The siting of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility encompasses many interrelated activities and, therefore, is inherently complex. The purpose of this publication is to assist state policymakers in understanding the nature of the siting process. Initial discussion focuses on the primary activities that require coordination during a siting effort. Available options for determining site development, licensing, regulating, and operating responsibilities are then considered. Additionally, the document calls attention to technical services available from federal agencies to assist states in the siting process; responsibilities of such agencies are also explained. The appendices include a conceptual plan for scheduling siting activities and an explanation of the process for acquiring agreement state status. An agreement state takes responsibility for licensing and regulating a low-level waste facility within its borders

  12. The Department of Energy's National Disposition Strategy for the Treatment and Disposal of Low Level and Mixed Low Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.R.; Tonkay, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program is committed to the environmental remediation of DOE sites. This cleanup mission will continue to produce large amounts of Low Level Waste (LLW) and Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW). This paper reports on the development of the DOE LLW/MLLW National Disposition Strategy that maps the Department's long-range strategy to manage LLW and MLLW. Existing corporate LLW and MLLW data proved insufficient to develop this strategy. Therefore, new data requirements were developed in conjunction with waste managers. The paper will report on the results of this data collection effort, which will result in development of DOE LLW/MLLW disposition maps. (authors)

  13. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  15. Effects of chronic low-level irradiation on Gambusia affinis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1944, White Oak Lake (WOL), located on the Oak Ridge Reservation, has served as a final settling basin for low-level radioactive effluents from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Organisms inhabiting the lake have been exposed for many generations to chronic low-level radiation significantly higher than background. During the past decade, studies on Gambusia affinis from WOL have been carried out to relate estimated radiation doses to effects on the fitness of the Gambusia population. Results of studies on fecundity, temperature tolerance, and embryonic mortality have led to the conclusion that the Gambusia population in White Oak Lake has an increased frequency of deleterious and recessive lethal genes which may be attributed to the radiation exposure history. The frequency of nonviable embryos from WOL Gambusia did not change significantly from 1966 to 1978; however, it was still significantly greater than that of a control population. In July 1977, Gambusia from a control population were stocked into a 0.45-ha pond which had served as a low-level waste settling basin. The beta and gamma dose rate in this pond averaged from 37 rad/yr at the water surface, 394 rad/yr at mid-depth, and 1150 rad/yr at the surface of the sediments. Preliminary results from samples taken in August 1978 showed that although the frequency of nonviable embryos increased, the frequency was not significantly greater than that of the control parent population. Additional sampling of future generations of Gambusia in this pond will determine whether the frequency of nonviable embryos increases as succeeding generations are exposed to dose rates that are higher than the dose rates in WOL

  16. Status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1993-03-01

    The Republic of Korea has accomplished dramatic economic growth over the past three decades; demand for electricity has rapidly grown more than 15% per year. Since the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 [587 MWe, pressurized water reactor (PWR)], went into commercial operation in 1978, the nuclear power program has continuously expanded and played a key role in meeting the national electricity demand. Nowadays, Korea has nine nuclear power plants [eight PWRs and one Canadian natural uranium reactor (CANDU)] in operation with total generating capacity of 7,616 MWe. The nuclear share of total electrical capacity is about 36%; however, about 50% of actual electricity production is provided by these nine nuclear power plants. In addition, two PWRs are under construction, five units (three CANDUs and two PWRs) are under design, and three more CANDUs and eight more PWRs are planned to be completed by 2006. With this ambitious nuclear program, the total nuclear generating capacity will reach about 23,000 MWe and the nuclear share will be about 40% of the total generating capacity in the year 2006. In order to expand the nuclear power program this ambitiously, enormous amounts of work still have to be done. One major area is radioactive waste management. This paper reviews the status of low-level radioactive waste management in Korea. First, the current and future generation of low-level radioactive wastes are estimated. Also included are the status and plan for the construction of a repository for low-level radioactive wastes, which is one of the hot issues in Korea. Then, the nuclear regulatory system is briefly mentioned. Finally, the research and development activities for LLW management are briefly discussed.

  17. Centralized cement solidification technique for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Izumida, Tatsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A centralized cement solidification system has been developed to enable a single facility to solidify such low-level radioactive wastes as liquid waste, spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash, and miscellaneous solid wastes. Since the system uses newly developed high-performance cement, waste loading is raised and deterioration of waste forms after land burial prevented. This paper describes the centralized cement solidification system and the features of the high-performance cement. Results of full-scale pilot plant tests are also shown from the viewpoint of industrial applicability. (author)

  18. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Marcelo, E.A.; Junio, J.B.; Caseria, E.S.; Salom, D.S.; Alamares, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing 137 Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs

  19. Flow proportional sampling of low level liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colley, D.; Jenkins, R.

    1989-01-01

    A flow proportional sampler for use on low level radioactive liquid effluent has been developed for installation on all CEGB nuclear power stations. The sampler, operates by drawing effluent continuously from the main effluent pipeline, through a sampler loop and returning it to the pipeline. The effluent in this loop is sampled by taking small, frequent aliquots using a linear acting shuttle valve. The frequency of operation of this valve is controlled by a flowmeter installed in the effluent line; sampling rate being directly proportional to effluent flowrate. (author)

  20. Solidification of low-level wastes by inorganic binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.T.; Shimojo, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kajikawa, A.; Karasawa, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The use of an alkali activated slag binder has been studied for solidification and stabilization of low-level wastes in nuclear power stations and spent fuel processing facilities. The activated slag effectively formed waste products having good physical properties with high waste loading for sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, calcium pyrophosphate/phosphate and spent ion-exchange resins. Moreover, the results of the study suggest the slag has the ability to become a common inorganic binder for the solidification of various radioactive wastes. This paper also describes the fixation of radionuclides by the activated slag binder

  1. Demonstration tests for low level radioactive waste packaging safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, I.; Shimura, S.; Miki, T.; Tamamura, T.; Kunitomi, K.

    1993-01-01

    The transport packaging for low level radioactive waste (so-called the LLW packaging) has been developed to be utilized for transportation of LLW in 200 liter-drums from Japanese nuclear power stations to the LLW Disposal Center at Rokkashomura in Aomori Prefecture. Transportation is expected to start from December in 1992. We will explain the brief history of the development, technical features and specifications as well as two kinds of safety demonstration tests, namely one is '1.2 meter free drop test' and the other is 'ISO container standard test'. (J.P.N.)

  2. Volume reduction equipment for low-level radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Schlich, E.

    1982-01-01

    Volume reduction of low-level radwaste has been used for years in Germany to reduce the on-site storage capacity which is required until an ultimate disposal site is available. The incineration of trash is a well established cost effective method for dry active waste volume reduction and now liquid radwaste treatment is gaining the operational experience which establishes it as a routine procedure. Resin pyrolysis is a promising new development which when successfully implemented will augment the other systems by safely volume reducing a radwaste which is of increasing concern

  3. Treatment of low-level radioactive waste using Volcanic ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdezco, E M; Marcelo, E A; Junio, J B; Caseria, E S; Salom, D S; Alamares, A L [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Manila (Philippines). Radiation Protection Services

    1997-02-01

    The effective application of volcanic ash, an indigenous adsorptive material abundant in the Mt. Pinatubo area, in the removal of radioiodine from radioactive waste streams was demonstrated. Factors such as availability, low cost and comparative retention capacity with respect to activated charcoal make volcanic ash an attractive alternative in the conditioning of radioactive waste containing radioiodine. Chemical precipitation was employed in the treatment of low level aqueous waste containing {sup 137}Cs. It was shown that there exists an optimum concentration of ferric ion that promotes maximum precipitation of caesium. It was further demonstrated that complete removal of caesium can be achieved with the addition of nickel hexacyanoferrate. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs.

  4. Overview of treatment and conditioning of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.

    1986-01-01

    The consideration of alternative technologies in low-level waste management is assumed to be partly a response to current demands for lower risk in waste disposal. One of the determinants of risk in waste disposal is the set of characteristics of the materials placed into disposal cells, i.e., the products of treatment and conditioning operations. The treatment and conditioning operations that have been applied to waste streams are briefly examined. Three operations are the most important determinants of the stability that will contribute to reducing risk at the disposal cell: compaction, high-integrity containers, and solidification. The status of these three operations is reviewed

  5. Review of very low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinsheng; Guo Minli; Tian Hao; Teng Yanguo

    2005-01-01

    Very low level waste (VLLW) is a new type of radioactive wastes proposed recently. No widely acceptable definition and disposal rules have been established for it. This paper reviews the definition of VLLW in some countries where VLLW was researched early, as well as the disposal policies and methods of VLLW that the IAEA and these countries followed. In addition, the safety assessment programs for VLLW disposal are introduced. It is proved the research of VLLW is urgent and essential in china through the comparison of VLLW disposal between china and these counties. At last, this paper points out the future development of VLLW disposal research in China. (authors)

  6. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Mathematical modeling in low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.S.; Yeh, G.T.

    1978-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of moisture transport through near-surface infiltration reduction seals above low-level waste trenches may be used to aid in the evaluation of engineering design alternatives. The infiltration of rainwater must be reduced for successful radionuclide containment within a typical shallow trench. Clay admixtures offer not only long-term integrity, but the necessary durability. The use of models is exemplified in the calculation of spatial moisture content and velocity distributions in the vicinity of a near-surface seal

  8. Low-level radioactive gas monitor for natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, F.E.

    1969-11-01

    A portable radioactivity detection system for monitoring the tritium content of natural gas under field conditions has been developed. The sensing device employed is a complex proportional counting assembly operated without the use of massive shielding previously employed with such low-level radiation detectors. The practical limit of detection for the system is a tritium content of 10 -9 microcurie per cc of natural gas. All components of the system are packaged in three waterproof cases weighing slightly less than 30 kg each. Power requirement is 500 watts of 120 volt, 60 Hz current. Operation is fully automatic with a printed record produced at predetermined time intervals

  9. Low-level radioactive waste management. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious environmental problems facing Canadians. From the early industrial uses of radioactive material in the 1930s to the development of nuclear power reactors and the medical and experimental use of radioisotopes today, there has been a steady accumulation of waste products. Although the difficulties involved in radioactive waste management are considerable, responsible solutions are possible. This paper will discuss low-level radioactive waste, including its production, the amounts in storage, the rate of waste accumulation and possible strategies for its management. (author). 2 figs

  10. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  11. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived form the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the main text. This Volume contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text

  12. The NRC perspective on low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.L. Jr.; Knapp, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) actions in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act (the Act) and NRC's assistance to States and Compacts working to discharge their responsibilities under the Act. Three of NRC's accomplishments which respond explicitly to direction in the Act are highlighted. These are: development of the capability of expedited handling of petitions addressing wastes below regulatory concern (BRC); development of capability to review and process an application within fifteen months; and development of guidance on alternatives to shallow land burial. Certain NRC efforts concerning special topics related to the Act as well as NRC efforts to assist States and Compacts are summarized

  13. The Savannah River Plant low-level waste segregation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, V.B.

    1987-01-01

    To extend the life of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Radioactive Waste Burial Ground, a sitewide program has been implemented to segregate waste that is essentially free of contamination from routine radioactive waste. Much of the low-level waste disposed of as radioactive has no detectable contamination and can be buried in a sanitary landfill. A Landfill Monitoring Facility (LMF) will be constructed at SRP to house the state-of-the-art technology required to provide a final survey on the candidate waste streams that had previously been classified as radioactive. 3 figs

  14. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. (Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.); Quapp, W.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  15. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B. [Morrison Knudson Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States). Environmental Services Div.; Quapp, W.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex`s Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT&E) requirements for each of the three concepts.

  16. Low-level waste management program: technical program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrie, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    The mission of the technical program is to develop the technology component of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program and to manage research and development, demonstration, and documentation of the technical aspects of the program. Some of the major technology objectives are: develop and demonstrate techniques for waste generation reduction; develop and demonstrate waste treatment, handling and packaging techniques; develop and demonstrate the technology for greater confinement; and develop the technology for remedial action at existing sites. In addition there is the technology transfer objective which is to compile and issue a handbook documenting the technology for each of the above technology objectives

  17. Low level alpha activity measurements with pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Masayasu; Satoh, Kaneaki; Higuchi, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    Pulse shape discrimination of α and β rays with liquid scintillation counting was investigated for the purpose of low level α activity measurements. Various liquid scintillators for pulse shape discrimination were examined by means of pulse rise time analysis. A new scintillator of low cost and of superior characteristics was found. The figure of merits better than 3.5 in risetime spectrum and the energy resolution better than 9% were obtained for carefully prepared samples. The background counting rate for a sample of 10 ml was reduced to 0.013 cpm/MeV in the range of α ray energy 5 to 7 MeV. (author)

  18. Computerized low-level waste assay system operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.F.; Cowder, L.R.; Martin, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    An operation and maintenance manual for the computerized low-level waste box counter is presented, which describes routine assay techniques as well as theory of operation treated in sufficient depth so that an experienced assayist can make nonroutine assays. In addition, complete system schematics are included, along with a complete circuit description to facilitate not only maintenance and troubleshooting, but also reproduction of the instrument if desired. Complete software system descriptions are included so far as calculational algorithms are concerned, although detailed instruction listings would have to be obtained from Group R-1 at LASL in order to make machine-language code changes

  19. Genetic damage from low-level and natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oftedal, P.

    1988-01-01

    Relevant predictions that have been made of possible low level biological effects on man are reviewed, and the estimate of genetic damage is discussed. It is concluded that in spite of a number of attempts, no clear-cut case of effects in human populations of radiation at natural levels has been demonstrated. The stability of genetic material is dynamic, with damage, repair and selection running as continuous processes. Genetic materials are well protected and are conservative in the extreme, not least because evolution by genetic adaptation is an expensive process: Substitution of one allele A 1 by another A 2 means the death of the whole A 1 population

  20. Assumed genetic effects of low level irradiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.

    1976-01-01

    The significance of human genetic pathology is stated and a study is made of the assumed effect of low level ionizing radiations. The theoretical notions thus derived are compared to experimental data which are poor. A quick survey of the literature shows that is has not yet been possible to establish a direct relationship between an increase of exposure and any genetic effect on man. However, this must not lead to conclude on the innoxiousness of radiation but rather shows how such analyses are difficult in as much as the effect investigated is necessarily low [fr

  1. Final closure of a low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level radioactive waste disposal facility operated by the Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs near La Hague, France was opened in 1969 and is scheduled for final closure in 1996. The last waste package was received in June 1994. The total volume of disposed waste is approximately 525,000 m 3 . The site closure consists of covering the disposal structures with a multi-layer impervious cap system to prevent rainwater from infiltrating the waste isolation system. A monitoring system has been set up to verify the compliance of infiltration rates with hydraulic performance objectives (less than 10 liters per square meter and per year)

  2. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Guetat, P.; Garbay, H.

    1991-01-01

    The politics of radioactive waste management is a part of waste management and activity levels are one of the components of potential waste pollutions in order to assume man and environment safety. French regulations about personnel and public' radiation protection defines clearly the conditions of radioactive waste processing, storage, transport and disposal. But below some activity levels definite by radiation protection laws, any administrative procedures or processes can be applied for lack of legal regulations. So regulations context is not actually ready to allow a rational low-level radioactive waste management. 15 refs.; 4 tabs.; 3 figs

  3. Alpha low-level stored waste systems design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.; Teheranian, B.

    1992-08-01

    The Stored Waste System Design Study (SWSDS), commissioned by the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examines relative life-cycle costs associated with three system concepts for processing the alpha low-level waste (alpha-LLW) stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Transuranic Storage Area at the INEL. The three system concepts are incineration/melting; thermal treatment/solidification; and sort, treat, and repackage. The SWSDS identifies system functional and operational requirements and assesses implementability; effectiveness; cost; and demonstration, testing, and evaluation (DT ampersand E) requirements for each of the three concepts

  4. Seventh annual DOE LLWMP participants' information meeting. DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The following sessions were held: International Low-Level Waste Management Activities; Low-Level Waste Disposal; Characteristics and Treatment of Low-Level Waste; Environmental Monitoring and Performance; Greater Confinement and Alternative Disposal Methods; Low-Level Waste Management; Corrective Measures; Performance Prediction and Assessment; and Siting New Defense and Commercial Low-Level Waste Disposal Facilities

  5. Could low level laser therapy and highly active antiretroviral therapy lead to complete eradication of HIV-1 in vitro?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lugongolo, Masixole Y

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available used to treat different medical conditions such as diabetic wounds, sports injuries and others. The technique involves exposure of cells or tissue to low levels of red and near infrared laser light. Both HIV infected and uninfected cells were laser...

  6. Novel Approach to Treating Androgenetic Alopecia in Females With Photobiomodulation (Low-Level Laser Therapy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Shelly; Schnoor, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Photobiomodulation, also referred to as low-level laser therapy (LLLT), has been studied and used for (among other diseases) the promotion of hair regrowth. A clinical study was developed to define the physiologic effects that occur when the human hair follicle and surrounding tissue structures are exposed to laser light using a novel device that is fitted with an array of laser diode sources operating at 650 nm and placed inside a sports cap to promote discretion while in use. The study demonstrates that low-level laser treatment of the scalp every other day for 17 weeks using the HANDI-DOME LASER device is a safe and effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia in healthy females between the ages of 18 to 60 with Fitzpatrick skin Types I to IV and Ludwig-Savin Baldness Scale I-2 to II-2 baldness patterns. Subjects receiving LLLT at 650 nm achieved a 51% increase in hair counts as compared with sham-treated control patients in this multicenter randomized controlled trial. These results suggest that the emerging technology of low-level laser therapy may play a potentially significant role in health care providers' armamentarium for the disease androgenic alopecia.

  7. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  8. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended.

  9. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohankumar, M.N.; Jeevanram, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author)

  10. Technical responsibilities in low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.; Walker, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    North Carolina will be the host state for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility serving the Southeast Compact for 20 yr beginning in 1993. Primary responsibility for the project rests with the North Carolina Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Authority, a citizen board. The North Carolina project embodies a unique combination of factors that places the authority in a position to exercise technical leadership in the LLRW disposal field. First, the Southeast Compact is the largest in the United States in terms of area, population, and waste generation. second, it is in a humid rather than an arid region. Third, the citizens of the state are intensely interested in preserving life style, environment, and attractiveness of the region to tourists and are especially sensitive to the presence of waste facilities of any kind. Finally, disposal rules set by the Radiation Protection Commission and enforced by the Radiation Protection Section are stricter than the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's 10CFR61. These four factors support the authority's belief that development of the facility cannot be based solely on engineering and economics, but that social factors, including perceptions of human risk, concerns for the environment, and opinions about the desirability of hosting a facility, should be integral to the project. This philosophy guides the project's many technical aspects, including site selection, site characterization, technology selection and facility design, performance assessment modeling, and waste reduction policies. Each aspect presents its own unique problems

  11. Hyper-heuristics with low level parameter adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhilei; Jiang, He; Xuan, Jifeng; Luo, Zhongxuan

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the great success of hyper-heuristics applying to numerous real-world applications. Hyper-heuristics raise the generality of search methodologies by manipulating a set of low level heuristics (LLHs) to solve problems, and aim to automate the algorithm design process. However, those LLHs are usually parameterized, which may contradict the domain independent motivation of hyper-heuristics. In this paper, we show how to automatically maintain low level parameters (LLPs) using a hyper-heuristic with LLP adaptation (AD-HH), and exemplify the feasibility of AD-HH by adaptively maintaining the LLPs for two hyper-heuristic models. Furthermore, aiming at tackling the search space expansion due to the LLP adaptation, we apply a heuristic space reduction (SAR) mechanism to improve the AD-HH framework. The integration of the LLP adaptation and the SAR mechanism is able to explore the heuristic space more effectively and efficiently. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms, we choose the p-median problem as a case study. The empirical results show that with the adaptation of the LLPs and the SAR mechanism, the proposed algorithms are able to achieve competitive results over the three heterogeneous classes of benchmark instances.

  12. Effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana do Socorro da Silva Dias Andrade

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To gather and clarify the actual effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing and its most effective ways of application in human and veterinary medicine.METHODS: We searched original articles published in journals between the years 2000 and 2011, in Spanish, English, French and Portuguese languages, belonging to the following databases: Lilacs, Medline, PubMed and Bireme; Tey should contain the methodological description of the experimental design and parameters used.RESULTS: doses ranging from 3 to 6 J/cm2 appear to be more effective and doses 10 above J/cm2 are associated with deleterious effects. The wavelengths ranging from 632.8 to 1000 nm remain as those that provide more satisfactory results in the wound healing process.CONCLUSION: Low-level laser can be safely applied to accelerate the resolution of cutaneous wounds, although this fact is closely related to the election of parameters such as dose, time of exposure and wavelength.

  13. Decontamination processes for low level radioactive waste metal objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longnecker, E.F.; Ichikawa, Sekigo; Kanamori, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Disposal and safe storage of contaminated nuclear waste is a problem of international scope. Although the greatest volume of such waste is concentrated in the USA and former Soviet Union, Western Europe and Japan have contaminated nuclear waste requiring attention. Japan's radioactive nuclear waste is principally generated at nuclear power plants since it has no nuclear weapons production. However, their waste reduction, storage and disposal problems may be comparable to that of the USA on an inhabited area basis when consideration is given to population density where Japan's population, half that of the USA, lives in an area slightly smaller than that of California's. If everyone's backyard was in California, the USA might have insoluble radioactive waste reduction, storage and disposal problems. Viewing Japan's contaminated nuclear waste as a national problem requiring solutions, as well as an economic opportunity, Morikawa began research and development for decontaminating low level radioactive nuclear waste seven years ago. As engineers and manufacturers of special machinery for many years Morikawa brings special electro/mechanical/pneumatic Skills and knowledge to solving these unique problems. Genden Engineering Services and Construction Company (GESC), an affiliate of Japan Atomic Power Company, recently joined with Morikawa in this R ampersand D effort to decontaminate low level radioactive nuclear waste (LLW) and to substantially reduce the volume of such nuclear waste requiring long term storage. This paper will present equipment with both mechanical and chemical processes developed over these several years by Morikawa and most recently in cooperation with GESC

  14. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs

  15. Low Level Laser Therapy for chronic knee joint pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Ohkuni, Ikuko; Izukura, Hideaki; Harada, Takashi; Ushigome, Nobuyuki; Ohshiro, Toshio; Musha, Yoshiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Kubota, Ayako

    2014-12-27

    Chronic knee joint pain is one of the most frequent complaints which is seen in the outpatient clinic in our medical institute. In previous studies we have reported the benefits of low level laser therapy (LLLT) for chronic pain in the shoulder joints, elbow, hand, finger and the lower back. The present study is a report on the effects of LLLT for chronic knee joint pain. Over the past 5 years, 35 subjects visited the outpatient clinic with complaints of chronic knee joint pain caused by the knee osteoarthritis-induced degenerative meniscal tear. They received low level laser therapy. A 1000 mW semi-conductor laser device was used to deliver 20.1 J/cm(2) per point in continuous wave at 830nm, and four points were irradiated per session (1 treatment) twice a week for 4 weeks. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to determine the effects of LLLT for the chronic pain and after the end of the treatment regimen a significant improvement was observed (pknee joint range of motion. Discussions with the patients revealed that it was important for them to learn how to avoid postures that would cause them knee pain in everyday life in order to have continuous benefits from the treatment. The present study demonstrated that 830 nm LLLT was an effective form of treatment for chronic knee pain caused by knee osteoarthritis. Patients were advised to undertake training involving gentle flexion and extension of the knee.

  16. Long-lived radionuclides in low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.E.; Coe, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    In July 1982, the Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch of the NRC, anticipating the impact of the proposed Part 61 to 10 CFR, funded a two-year project by SAI to study the radionuclide contents of LWR generated in low-level waste. The objectives of the study are: (1) to analyze, using verified techniques, 150 archived samples for specified beta- and x-ray-emitting nuclides that had not previously been analyzed; (2) to analyze twenty new samples obtained from operating plants for all relevant nuclides and compare them to previous data to ascertain trends; (3) to develop empirical scaling factors through the use of which concentrations of hard-to-analyze nuclides can be estimated from analyses of the gamma-ray emitting nuclides. The new samples are analyzed and the results are summarized and interpreted. Over fifty archived samples have also been analyzed. We discuss scaling factor development. Factors are presented that relate 63 Ni and 59 Ni to 60 Co for PWRs and to 58 Co for BWRs, 90 Sr to 137 Cs for BWRs and 241 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 244 Cm to 144 Ce for all LWRs. 8 figures, 3 tables

  17. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  18. Properties of slag concrete for low-level waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C.A.; Wong, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Ground granulated blast furnace slag was incorporated in the concrete mix used for construction of low-level radioactive waste disposal vaults. The vaults were constructed as six 100 x 100 x 25 ft cells with each cell sharing internal walls with the two adjacent cells. The vaults were designed to contain a low-level radioactive wasteform called saltstone and to isolate the saltstone from the environment until the landfill is closed. Closure involves backfilling with native soil, installation of clay cap, and run-off control. The design criteria for the slag-substituted concrete included compressive strength, 4000 psi after 28 days; slump, 6 inch; permeability, less than 10 -7 cm/sec; and effective nitrate, chromium and technetium diffusivities of 10 -8 , 10 -12 and 10 -12 cm 2 /sec, respectively. The reducing capacity of the slag resulted in chemically reducing Cr +6 to Cr +3 and Tc +7 to Tc +4 and subsequent precipitation of the respective hydroxides in the alkaline pore solution. Consequently, the concrete vault enhances containment of otherwise mobile waste ions and contributes to the overall protection of the groundwater at the disposal site

  19. Health effects of low-level ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1979-04-01

    It is now assumed that any exposure to radiaton at low levels of dose carries some risk of deleterious effects. How low this level may be, or the probability or magnitude of the risk, still are not known. Our best scientific knowledge and advice are essential for the protection of the public health, for the effective application of new technologies in medicine and industry and for guidance in the production of nuclear energy. Unless man wishes to dispense with those activities which inevitably involve exposure to low levels of ionizing radiations, he must recognize that some degree of risk to health, however small, exists. A pragmatic appraisal of how man wishes to continue to derive the benefits of health and happiness from such activities involving ionizing radiaton in times of everchanging conditions and public attitudes in our resource-limited society is the task which lies before all of us - all men and women of our society, of science and of medicine, and of law and government - now and in the future

  20. Low-level radioactive waste: the Pennsylvania situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krett, R.E.; Dornsife, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1985, the Pennsylvania legislature adopted and Governor Thornburgh signed into law the Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. The Appalachian Compact provides for the establishment and operation of facilities for regional disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) to eligible states. Pennsylvania is designated as the initial host state to develop a regional LLRW disposal facility. The Compact legislation did not grant Pennsylvania the authority to license, permit, regulate, inspect or otherwise initiate the processes necessary to establish a LLRW disposal facility. The burden for implementing the Compact is placed on the state of Pennsylvania. The implementing legislation needed to proceed is currently in Pennsylvania's legislative process. Area Screening and Technology Performance/Design Criteria are currently being developed by D.E.R. staff in conjunction with a sixteen member public advisory committee. Upon enactment of the implementing legislation, Pennsylvania will proceed with all processes necessary to develop a regional LLRW disposal facility for the Appalachian Compact. 1 figure, 1 table

  1. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; Gladney, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause waste site failure and subsequent radionuclide transport. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatments. Plants and animals not only can transport radionuclides to the ground surface via root systems and soil excavated from the cover profile by animal burrowing activities, but they modify physical and chemical processes within the cover profile by changing the water infiltration rates, soil erosion rates and chemical composition of the soil. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and soil overburden depth. The rate of biological intrusion through the various barrier materials is being evaluated through the use of activatable stable tracers

  2. Treatment options for low-level radiologically contaminated ORNL filtercake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hom-Ti; Bostick, W.D.

    1996-04-01

    Water softening sludge (>4000 stored low level contaminated drums; 600 drums per year) generated by the ORNL Process Waste Treatment Plant must be treated, stabilized, and placed in safe storage/disposal. The sludge is primarily CaCO 3 and is contaminated by low levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs. In this study, microwave sintering and calcination were evaluated for treating the sludge. The microwave melting experiments showed promise: volume reductions were significant (3-5X), and the waste form was durable with glass additives (LiOH, fly ash). A commercial vendor using surrogate has demonstrated a melt mineralization process that yields a dense monolithic waste form with a volume reduction factor (VR) of 7.7. Calcination of the sludge at 850-900 C yielded a VR of 2.5. Compaction at 4500 psi increased the VR to 4.2, but the compressed form is not dimensionally stable. Addition of paraffin helped consolidate fines and yielded a VR of 3.5. In conclusion, microwave melting or another form of vitrification is likely to be the best method; however for immediate implementation, the calculation/compaction/waxing process is viable

  3. Biological monitors for low levels of ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohankumar, M N; Jeevanram, R K [Safety Research and Health Physics Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1996-12-31

    The biological effects of high doses of ionising radiation are well understood and the methods of measurement of these doses well established. However the effects due to extremely low doses remain by and large uncertain. This is because of the fact that at such low doses no gross symptoms are seen. In fact, at these levels the occurrence of double strand breaks leading to the formation of chromosomal aberrations like dicentrics is rare and chances of mutation due to base damage are negligible. Hence neither chromosomal aberration studies nor mutational assays are useful for detecting doses of the order of a few milligray. Results of exhaustive work done by various laboratories indicate that below 20 mGy the chromosomal aberration technique based on scoring of dicentrics cannot distinguish between a linear or a threshold model. However indirect methods like unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) appear to be promising for the detection of radiation exposures due to low levels of radiation. This report reviews the available literature on the biological effects of low levels of ionising radiation and highlights the merits and demerits of the various methods employed in the measurement of UDS and SCE. The phenomenon of radio-adaptive response (RAR) and its relation to DNA repair is also discussed. (author). 98 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Review of available options for low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    The scope of this report includes: descriptions of the options available; identification of important elements in the selection process; discussion and assessment of the relevance of the various elements for the different options; cost data indicating the relative financial importance of different parts of the systems and the general cost level of a disposal facility. An overview of the types of wastes included in low level waste categories and an approach to the LLW management system is presented. A generic description of the disposal options available and the main activities involved in implementing the different options are described. Detailed descriptions and cost information on low level waste disposal facility concepts in a number of Member States are given. Conclusions from the report are summarized. In addition, this report provides a commentary on various aspects of land disposal, based on experience gained by IAEA Member States. The document is intended to complement other related IAEA publications on LLW management and disposal. It also demonstrates that alternatives solutions for the final disposal of LLW are available and can be safely operated but the choice of an appropriate solution must be a matter for national strategy taking into account local conditions. 18 refs, 16 figs, 1 tab

  5. Modified sulfur cement solidification of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This topical report describes the results of an investigation on the solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in modified sulfur cement. The work was performed as part of the Waste Form Evaluation Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Low-Level Waste Management Program. Modified sulfur cement is a thermoplastic material developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Processing of waste and binder was accomplished by means of both a single-screw extruder and a dual-action mixing vessel. Waste types selected for this study included those resulting from advanced volume reduction technologies (dry evaporator concentrate salts and incinerator ash) and those which remain problematic for solidification using contemporary agents (ion exchange resins). Process development studies were conducted to ascertain optimal process control parameters for successful solidification. Maximum waste loadings were determined for each waste type and method of processing. Property evaluation testing was carried out on laboratory scale specimens in order to compare with waste form performance for other potential matrix materials. Waste form property testing included compressive strength, water immersion, thermal cycling and radionuclide leachability. Recommended waste loadings of 40 wt. % sodium sulfate and boric acid salts and 43 wt. % incinerator ash, which are based on processing and performance considerations, are reported. Solidification efficiencies for these waste types represent significant improvements over those of hydraulic cements. Due to poor waste form performance, incorporation of ion exchange resin waste in modified sulfur cement is not recommended

  6. Somatic and genetic effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Although the biological effects of ionizing radiation are probably better known than those of any other physical or chemical agent in the environment, our information about such effects has come from observations at doses and dose rates which are orders of magnitude higher than natural background environmental radiation levels. Whether, therefore biological effects occur in response to such low levels can be estimated only by extrapolation, based on assumptions about the dose-effect relationship and the mechanisms of the effects in question. Present knowledge suggests the possibility that several types of biological effects may result from low-level irradiation. The induction of heritable genetic changes in germ cells and carcinogenic changes in somatic cells are considered to be the most important from the standpoint of their potential threat to health. On the basis of existing data, it is possible to make only tentative upper limit estimates of the risks of these effects at low doses. The estimates imply that the frequency of such effects attributable to exposure at natural background radiation levels would constitute only a small fraction of their natural incidence. 148 references

  7. Hydrogeology of the 200 Areas low-level burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last, G.V.; Bjornstad, B.N.; Bergeron, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents information derived from the installation of 35 ground-water monitoring wells around six low-level radioactive/hazardous waste burial grounds located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. This information was collected between May 20, 1987 and August 1, 1988. The contents of this report have been divided into two volumes. This volume contains the main text. Volume 2 contains the appendixes, including data and supporting information that verify content and results found in the main text. This report documents information collected by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company. Presented in this report are the preliminary interpretations of the hydrogeologic environment of six low-level burial grounds, which comprise four waste management areas (WMAs) located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site. This information and its accompanying interpretations were derived from sampling and testing activities associated with the construction of 35 ground-water monitoring wells as well as a multitude of previously existing boreholes. The new monitoring wells were installed as part of a ground-water monitoring program initiated in 1986. This ground-water monitoring program is based on requirements for interim status facilities in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)

  8. Intercomparison of low-level tritium in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipka, V.; Zupancic, M.; Hadzisehovic, M.; Bacic, S.; Vukovic, Z.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the Section of Isotope Hydrology of the IAEA organized the fourth intercomparison for low-level tritium counting in waters. Four water samples with different 3 H concentration were sent to 85 laboratories willing to participate. The results from the different laboratories were presented in the unified questionnaires and coded. The participation in the intercomparisons for every laboratory doing low-level 3 H measurements in the waters is very important and useful. This is a best way to check the entire procedure and methods of the measurements and the reliability of the standards used. Since our laboratories are doing the natural 3 H concentration measurement in the waters for the environmental control and hydrology reasons it was necessary to take part in this intercomparison. Our standard procedure was applied. The 3 H activity in the samples was measured by liquid scintillation counting after an electrolytic enrichment. The results of our measurements of the four water samples, received from the organizers, are presented on the figures and tables presenting summary of the intercomparison. It is clear that our measurement (procedure and standards) have given satisfactory results (author)

  9. Lamar Low-Level Jet Program Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, N.; Shirazi, M.; Jager, D.; Wilde, S.; Adams, J.; Buhl, M.; Sullivan, P.; Patton, E.

    2004-01-01

    This interim report presents the results to date from the Lamar Low-Level Jet Program (LLLJP) that has been established as joint effort among the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and General Electric Wind Energy (GE Wind). The purpose of this project is to develop an understanding of the influence of nocturnal low-level jet streams on the inflow turbulence environment and the documenting of any potential operating impacts on current large wind turbines and the Low Wind Speed Turbine (LWST) designs of the future. A year's record of detailed nocturnal turbulence measurements has been collected from NREL instrumentation installed on the GE Wind 120-m tower in southeastern Colorado and supplemented with mean wind profile data collected using an acoustic wind profiler or SODAR (Sound Detection and Ranging). The analyses of measurements taken as part of a previous program conducted at the NWTC have been used to aid in the interpretation of the results of representative case studies of data collected from the GE Wind tower.

  10. Licensing procedures for Low-Level Waste disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, R.D.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the procedures applicable to siting and licensing of disposal facilities for low-level radioactive wastes. Primary emphasis is placed on those procedures which are required by regulations, but to the extent possible, non-mandatory activities which will facilitate siting and licensing are also considered. The report provides an overview of how the procedural and technical requirements for a low-level waste (LLW) disposal facility (as defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Rules 10 CFR Parts 2, 51, and 61) may be integrated with activities to reduce and resolve conflict generated by the proposed siting of a facility. General procedures are described for site screening and selection, site characterization, site evaluation, and preparation of the license application; specific procedures for several individual states are discussed. The report also examines the steps involved in the formal licensing process, including docketing and initial processing, preparation of an environmental impact statement, technical review, hearings, and decisions. It is concluded that development of effective communication between parties in conflict and the utilization of techniques to manage and resolve conflicts represent perhaps the most significant challenge for the people involved in LLW disposal in the next decade. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Low level radiation: how low can you get?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsley, M.

    1990-01-01

    Information stored on the world's largest data bank concerning the health of nuclear industry workers is to be handed over to researchers at Birmingham University by the US Department of Energy. The data bank contains detailed information on 300,000 nuclear employees, going back to the 1940s. Such a large sample size will allow the results of a previous study conducted on workers in the US nuclear industry to be verified. That study was concluded in 1978 and showed that the risk estimates set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were between 10 and 30 times too low. The current ICRP estimate allows workers up to 50mSv of exposure to low level radiation per year. Risk estimates have been derived from data relating to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. However in those cases the radiation doses were relatively high but over a short period. In the nuclear industry the doses are lower but are long term and this may account for the apparent anomalies such as the incidence of leukaemia amongst children whose fathers have worked in the nuclear industry compared with that for the children whose fathers received radiation doses from the atomic bombings. It is expected the study will show that low-level radiation is more damaging than has previously been thought. (author)

  12. Rokkasho low-level radioactive waste disposal in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited commenced the operation of the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive waste from reactor operation, in 1992 at Rokkasho site in Aomori Prefecture. JNFL is private company whose main activities within the responsibility of JNFL are: 1) Disposal of low-level radioactive waste, 2) Uranium enrichment, 3) Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, 4) Temporary storage of returned wastes from COGEMA and BNFL by reprocessing contracts, prior to disposal. JNFL selected the site for the disposal of LLW at Rokkasho in Aomori Prefecture, then bought land of 3.4 million m 2 . Among waste spectrum, LLWs from nuclear power plants, from uranium enrichment and from reprocessing are to be managed by JNFL, including dismantling of these facilities, and JNFL has plan to dispose about 600 thousand m 3 of wastes ultimately. On the middle of November 1990 JNFL got the permission of the application for 40 thousand m 3 (equivalent to 200,000 drums each with a 200-liter capacity) of reactor operating wastes which is solidified with cement, bitumen or plastics as a first stage. And after the construction work for about 2 years, the operations started at Dec. 8th, 1992. The Disposal center has already accepted about 24,000 LLW drums as of the end of February, 1994. (author)

  13. IGRIS for characterizing low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, C.W. [Nuclear Diagnostic Systems, Springfield, VA (United States); Swanson, P.J. [Concord Associates, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1993-03-01

    A recently developed neutron diagnostic probe system has the potential to noninvasively characterize low-level radioactive waste in bulk soil samples, containers such as 55-gallon barrels, and in pipes, valves, etc. The probe interrogates the target with a low-intensity beam of 14-MeV neutrons produced from the deuterium-tritium reaction in a specially designed sealed-tube neutron-generator (STNG) that incorporates an alpha detector to detect the alpha particle associated with each neutron. These neutrons interact with the nuclei in the target to produce inelastic-, capture-, and decay-gamma rays that are detected by gamma-ray detectors. Time-of-flight methods are used to separate the inelastic-gamma rays from other gamma rays and to determine the origin of each inelastic-gamma ray in three dimensions through Inelastic-Gamma Ray Imaging and Spectroscopy (IGRIS). The capture-gamma ray spectrum is measured simultaneously with the IGRIS measurements. The decay-gamma ray spectrum is measured with the STNG turned off. Laboratory proof-of-concept measurements were used to design prototype systems for Bulk Soil Assay, Barrel Inspection, and Decontamination and Decommissioning and to predict their minimum detectable levels for heavy toxic metals (As, Hg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd), uranium and transuranics, gamma-ray emitters, and elements such as chlorine, which is found in PCBs and other pollutants. These systems are expected to be complementary and synergistic with other technologies used to characterize low-level radioactive waste.

  14. Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The single dangerous waste permit identification number issued to the Hanford Site by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology is US Environmental Protection Agency/State Identification Number WA 7890008967. This identification number encompasses a number of waste management units within the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company is a major contractor to the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and serves as co-operator of the Low-Level Burial Grounds, the waste management unit addressed by this permit application. The Low-Level Burial Grounds Dangerous Waste Permit Application consists of both a Part A and a Part B Permit Application. The original Part A, submitted in November 1985, identified landfills, retrievable storage units, and reserved areas. An explanation of subsequent Part A revisions is provided at the beginning of the Part A section. Part B consists of 15 chapters addressing the organization and content of the Part B checklist prepared by the Washington State Department of Ecology

  15. Low-level radiation effects: a fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.; Adelstein, S.J.; Saenger, E.L.; Webster, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Low Level Raidation Effects: A Fact Book, prepared by the Society of Nuclear Medicine Subcommittee on the Risks of Low-Level Ionizing Radiation, attempts to examine the health effects of small doses of radiation. For immediate questions, this work provides a well-organized brief summary of recent radiologic data from refereed scientific literature and from the publications of advisory groups such as the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurement (NCRP), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Since it consists almost entirely of tables and graphs from the above-mentioned sources along with summary paragraphs, the Fact Book is very useful in the preparation of lectures. The book is divided into seven sections. Chapter One, Glossary, Units and Conversion Factors, is useful because nearly all data given in the rest of the book is in conventional units and should be converted to SI units for future technical audiences. Chapter 2, Radiobiology, covers the fundamental principles of the field. Chapter 3, Radiation Doses, can be used to help an audience appreciate the relative magnitudes of radiation exposures they may read about or encounter. Chapter 4, Late Somatic Effects of Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation, gives data concerning cancer induction and embryonic effects, and Chapter 5 provides data on genetic effects Chapter 6, Risks, Statistical Facts and Public Perception can be used to compare the risks of radiation exposure with more commonly encountered risks

  16. 207-nm UV Light-A Promising Tool for Safe Low-Cost Reduction of Surgical Site Infections. II: In-Vivo Safety Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Manuela; Stanislauskas, Milda; Ponnaiya, Brian; Bigelow, Alan W; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, Yanping; Shuryak, Igor; Smilenov, Lubomir; Owens, David M; Brenner, David J

    2016-01-01

    UVC light generated by conventional germicidal lamps is a well-established anti-microbial modality, effective against both bacteria and viruses. However, it is a human health hazard, being both carcinogenic and cataractogenic. Earlier studies showed that single-wavelength far-UVC light (207 nm) generated by excimer lamps kills bacteria without apparent harm to human skin tissue in vitro. The biophysical explanation is that, due to its extremely short range in biological material, 207 nm UV light cannot penetrate the human stratum corneum (the outer dead-cell skin layer, thickness 5-20 μm) nor even the cytoplasm of individual human cells. By contrast, 207 nm UV light can penetrate bacteria and viruses because these cells are physically much smaller. To test the biophysically-based hypothesis that 207 nm UV light is not cytotoxic to exposed mammalian skin in vivo. Hairless mice were exposed to a bactericidal UV fluence of 157 mJ/cm2 delivered by a filtered Kr-Br excimer lamp producing monoenergetic 207-nm UV light, or delivered by a conventional 254-nm UV germicidal lamp. Sham irradiations constituted the negative control. Eight relevant cellular and molecular damage endpoints including epidermal hyperplasia, pre-mutagenic UV-associated DNA lesions, skin inflammation, and normal cell proliferation and differentiation were evaluated in mice dorsal skin harvested 48 h after UV exposure. While conventional germicidal UV (254 nm) exposure produced significant effects for all the studied skin damage endpoints, the same fluence of 207 nm UV light produced results that were not statistically distinguishable from the zero exposure controls. As predicted by biophysical considerations and in agreement with earlier in vitro studies, 207-nm light does not appear to be significantly cytotoxic to mouse skin. These results suggest that excimer-based far-UVC light could potentially be used for its anti-microbial properties, but without the associated hazards to skin of conventional

  17. Stabilization and disposal of Argonne-West low-level mixed wastes in ceramicrete waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, D. B.; Singh, D.; Strain, R. V.; Tlustochowicz, M.; Wagh, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    The technology of room-temperature-setting phosphate ceramics or Ceramicretetrademark technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)-East is being used to treat and dispose of low-level mixed wastes through the Department of Energy complex. During the past year, Ceramicretetrademark technology was implemented for field application at ANL-West. Debris wastes were treated and stabilized: (a) Hg-contaminated low-level radioactive crushed light bulbs and (b) low-level radioactive Pb-lined gloves (part of the MWIR number s ign AW-W002 waste stream). In addition to hazardous metals, these wastes are contaminated with low-level fission products. Initially, bench-scale waste forms with simulated and actual waste streams were fabricated by acid-base reactions between mixtures of magnesium oxide powders and an acid phosphate solution, and the wastes. Size reduction of Pb-lined plastic glove waste was accomplished by cryofractionation. The Ceramicretetrademark process produces dense, hard ceramic waste forms. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results showed excellent stabilization of both Hg and Pb in the waste forms. The principal advantage of this technology is that immobilization of contaminants is the result of both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. Based on bench-scale studies, Ceramicretetrademark technology has been implemented in the fabrication of 5-gal waste forms at ANL-West. Approximately 35 kg of real waste has been treated. The TCLP is being conducted on the samples from the 5-gal waste forms. It is expected that because the waste forms pass the limits set by the EPAs Universal Treatment Standard, they will be sent to a radioactive-waste disposal facility

  18. Size variability of the unit building block of peripheral light-harvesting antennas as a strategy for effective functioning of antennas of variable size that is controlled in vivo by light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taisova, A S; Yakovlev, A G; Fetisova, Z G

    2014-03-01

    This work continuous a series of studies devoted to discovering principles of organization of natural antennas in photosynthetic microorganisms that generate in vivo large and highly effective light-harvesting structures. The largest antenna is observed in green photosynthesizing bacteria, which are able to grow over a wide range of light intensities and adapt to low intensities by increasing of size of peripheral BChl c/d/e antenna. However, increasing antenna size must inevitably cause structural changes needed to maintain high efficiency of its functioning. Our model calculations have demonstrated that aggregation of the light-harvesting antenna pigments represents one of the universal structural factors that optimize functioning of any antenna and manage antenna efficiency. If the degree of aggregation of antenna pigments is a variable parameter, then efficiency of the antenna increases with increasing size of a single aggregate of the antenna. This means that change in degree of pigment aggregation controlled by light-harvesting antenna size is biologically expedient. We showed in our previous work on the oligomeric chlorosomal BChl c superantenna of green bacteria of the Chloroflexaceae family that this principle of optimization of variable antenna structure, whose size is controlled by light intensity during growth of bacteria, is actually realized in vivo. Studies of this phenomenon are continued in the present work, expanding the number of studied biological materials and investigating optical linear and nonlinear spectra of chlorosomes having different structures. We show for oligomeric chlorosomal superantennas of green bacteria (from two different families, Chloroflexaceae and Oscillochloridaceae) that a single BChl c aggregate is of small size, and the degree of BChl c aggregation is a variable parameter, which is controlled by the size of the entire BChl c superantenna, and the latter, in turn, is controlled by light intensity in the course of cell

  19. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. Low level-radioactive waste disposal: currently operating commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This publication discusses three commercial facilities that receive and dispose of low-level radioactive waste. The facilities are located in Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington. All three facilities initiated operations in the 1960s. The three facilities have operated without such major problems as those which led to the closure of three other commercial disposal facilities located in the United States. The Beatty site could be closed in 1983 as a result of a Nevada Board of Health ruling that renewal of the site license would be inimical to public health and safety. The site remains open pending federal and state court hearings, which began in January 1983, to resolve the Board of Health ruling. The three sites may also be affected by NRC's 10 CFR Part 61 regulations, but the impact of those regulations, issued in December 1982, has not yet been assessed. This document provides detailed information on the history and current status of each facility. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for, establishing, and managing low-level waste disposal facilities. 12 references

  20. A performance assessment methodology for low-level waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Mattingly, P.A.

    1990-07-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This report provides a summary of background reports on the development of the methodology and an overview of the models and codes selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology and a sequential procedure for applying the methodology. Discussions are provided of models and associated assumptions that are appropriate for each phase of the methodology, the goals of each phase, data required to implement the models, significant sources of uncertainty associated with each phase, and the computer codes used to implement the appropriate models. In addition, a sample demonstration of the methodology is presented for a simple conceptual model. 64 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Creating interstate compacts for low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The implementation of the 1980 Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (LLRWPA) depends on the creation of interstate compacts. Compact formation is a public goods problem. Formation may be impeded by opposition from elements in the federal government, the inability of state governments to resolve problems of conflicting political interests, and the possiblity of extensive and unfruitful negotiations. These obstacles my be overcome if fortuitous circumstances exist and entrepreneurial behavior is applied. Guidelines that entrepreneurs may use to facilitate compact formation are relying on the exclusive character of incentives, forming compacts with a small number of members, taking advantage of inequality of interests among prospective members, using solidary incentives to promote cooperation, relying on existing regional organizations to build support, employing a game metaphor to understand the stakes of the participants, and making each party subject to an agreement feel as if it were a winner. (author)

  2. Development of chemical decontamination for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Seigo; Omata, Kazuo; Obinata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Kanamori, Osamu.

    1995-01-01

    During routine intermittent inspection and maintenance at nuclear power plants, a considerable quantity of low level radioactive waste is generated requiring release from the nuclear site or treating additionally. To decontaminate this waste for safe release from the nuclear power plant, the first step could be washing the waste in Methylene chloride, CH 2 Cl 2 , to remove most of the paint coating. However, CH 2 Cl 2 washing does not completely remove the paint coating from the waste, which in the next step is shot blasted with plastic bead media to loose and remove the remaining paint coating. Following in succession, in the third step, the waste is washed in a chelate solution, after which most waste is decontaminated and suitable to be released for recycling. The residual chelate solution may be decomposed into nontoxic carbon dioxide and water by an electrolysis process and then safely discharged into the environment. (author)

  3. Low-level radioactive waste minimization for health care institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years medical waste has been the subject of considerable public and governmental attention. This has been, in part, due to the media's attraction to unfortunate instances of environmental pollution caused by hazardous and medical wastes. While a considerable amount of information is currently available on the treatment and disposal practices for hazardous wastes, a shortfall of information exists on the subject of medical wastes. Such wastes are generated by various health care institutions. Medical waste is a wide and all encompassing term which refers to a variety of wastes. This presentation addresses medical low-level (LLW) radioactive waste; its generation, recovery and handling. The development of generic waste minimization models and greater use of alternative technologies are part of the discussion

  4. Description of the Seibersdorf incineration plant for low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.; Petschnik, G.

    1986-09-01

    After a description of the design and the construction principles of the incinerator building, the furnace and its attached auxilary devices are explained. The incinerator is layed out for low level wastes. It has a vertical furnace, operates with discontinuous feeding for trashes with heat-values between 600 and 10000 kcal/kg waste. The maximum throughput amounts 40 kg/h. The purification of the off-gas is guaranteed by a multistage filter system: 2 stages with ceramic candles, cooling column and a HEPA-filter system. The control of the off-gas cleaning is carried out by a stack instrumentation, consisting of an aerosol-, gas-, Iodine- and Tritium-monitor; the building is surveilled by doserate- and aerosolmonitors. (Author)

  5. Assessing risks from occupational exposure to low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    Currently, several epidemiological studies of workers who have been exposed occupationally to radiation are being conducted. These include workers in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada, involved in the production of both defense materials and nuclear power. A major reason for conducting these studies is to evaluate possible adverse health effects that may have resulted because of the radiation exposure received. The general subject of health effects resulting from low levels of radiation, including these worker studies, has attracted the attention of various news media, and has been the subject of considerable controversy. These studies provide a good illustration of certain other aspects of the statistician's role; namely, communication and adequate subject matter knowledge. A competent technical job is not sufficient if these other aspects are not fulfilled

  6. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing.

  7. Low Level RF Control System of J-PARC Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Fumihiko; Ezura, Eizi; Hara, Keigo; Nomura, Masahiro; Ohmori, Chihiro; Schnase, Alexander; Takagi, Akira; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yoshii, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept and the design of the low level RF (LLRF) control system of the J-PARC synchrotrons. The J-PARC synchrotrons are the rapid cycling 3-GeV synchrotron (RCS) and the 50-GeV main ring (MR) which require very precise and stable LLRF control systems to accelerate the ultra-high proton beam current. The LLRF system of the synchrotron is a full-digital system based on the direct digital synthesis (DDS). The functions of the system are (1) the multi-harmonic RF generation for the acceleration and the longitudinal bunch shaping, (2) the feedbacks for stabilizing the beam, (3) the feedforward for compensating the heavy beam loading, and (4) other miscellaneous functions such as the synchronization and chopper timing. The LLRF system of the RCS is now under construction. We present the details of the system. Also, we show preliminary results of performance tests of the control modules.

  8. Oestrogen, ocular function and low-level vision: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Walker, James A; Davidson, Colin

    2014-11-01

    Over the past 10 years, a literature has emerged concerning the sex steroid hormone oestrogen and its role in human vision. Herein, we review evidence that oestrogen (oestradiol) levels may significantly affect ocular function and low-level vision, particularly in older females. In doing so, we have examined a number of vision-related disorders including dry eye, cataract, increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In each case, we have found oestrogen, or lack thereof, to have a role. We have also included discussion of how oestrogen-related pharmacological treatments for menopause and breast cancer can impact the pathology of the eye and a number of psychophysical aspects of vision. Finally, we have reviewed oestrogen's pharmacology and suggest potential mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects, with particular emphasis on anti-apoptotic and vascular effects. © 2014 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Susceptibility of materials processing experiments to low-level accelerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The types of material processing experiments being considered for shuttle can be grouped into four categories: (1) contained solidification experiment; (2) quasicontainerless experiments; (3) containerless experiments; and (4) fluids experiments. Low level steady acceleration, compensated and uncompensated transient accelerations, and rotation induced flow factors that must be considered in the acceleration environment of a space vehicle whose importance depends on the type of experiment being performed. Some control of these factors may be exercised by the location and orientation of the experiment relative to shuttle and by the orbit vehicle attitude chosen for mission. The effects of the various residual accelerations can have serious consequence to the control of the experiment and must be factored into the design and operation of the apparatus.

  10. Issues in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbrook, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    All industry finds itself today enmeshed in a morass of regulation, political apathy and public antagonism when it comes to hazardous industrial waste. Our industry is a world-class leader on all three fronts. There are no disposal facilities in Canada for radioactive wastes and the prognosis for the future is bleak. As the industry gets older, more and more facilities will be closed and require decommissioning. New facilities require plans for the long-term management of their wastes. Indeed, one major public issue with the nuclear industry is the fate of the wastes produced. In looking at the situation in which we find ourselves today with respect to the long-term management of naturally-occurring low-level radioactive wastes, one must wonder where we are going in the future, and whether indeed is an end in sight

  11. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Using bench scale apparatus, asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth were evaluated as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80% to less than 1%. To collect the same quantity of fly ash, less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co, counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1% at moderate pressure drop

  12. Low level chronic irradiation of salmon. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershberger, W.K.; Donaldson, L.R.; Bonham, K.; Brannon, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    A question of primary importance in the use of nuclear energy is what effect the effluent from a reactor will have on the aquatic life in the water used for cooling. Of particular concern in the Pacific Northwest are the effects of chronic irradiation on salmon that use the rivers for spawning and nursery area. The present program was designed in the early days of the atomic era to address this concern, and to provide some insight into the long-term consequences of exposure of fish to chronic, low levels of irradiation. The experimental techniques are described and data are summarized on irradiation effects on the entire life cycle of the chinook salmon. Also, long-term effects transmitted to future generations were assessed in F 1 offspring of irradiated parents

  13. Low-level stored waste inspection using mobile robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.S.; Pettus, R.O.

    1996-01-01

    A mobile robot inspection system, ARIES (Autonomous Robotic Inspection Experimental System), has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy to replace human inspectors in the routine, regulated inspection of radioactive waste stored in drums. The robot will roam the three-foot aisles of drums, stacked four high, making decisions about the surface condition of the drums and maintaining a database of information about each drum. A distributed system of onboard and offboard computers will provide versatile, friendly control of the inspection process. This mobile robot system, based on a commercial mobile platform, will improve the quality of inspection, generate required reports, and relieve human operators from low-level radioactive exposure. This paper describes and discusses primarily the computer and control processes for the system

  14. Biological intrusion of low-level-waste trench covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakonson, T. E.; Gladney, E. S.

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burialsites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. The need to consider biological processes as being potentially important in reducing the integrity of waste burial site cover treatment is demonstrated. One approach to limiting biological intrusion through the waste cover is to apply a barrier within the profile to limit root and animal penetration with depth. Experiments in the Los Alamos Experimental Engineered Test Facility were initiated to develop and evaluate biological barriers that are effective in minimizing intrusion into waste trenches. The experiments that are described employ four different candidate barrier materials of geologic origin. Experimental variables that will be evaluated, in addition to barrier type, are barrier depth and sil overburden depth.

  15. Defining mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the last several months, staffs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been developing a working definition of Mixed Low-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Waste (Mixed LLW). Such wastes are currently being regulated by NRC under authority of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), as amended, and by EPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended. Development of the definition is one component of a comprehensive program to resolve differences between the regulatory programs of the two agencies pertaining to the regulation of the management and disposal of Mixed LLW. Although the definition is still undergoing legal and policy reviews in both agencies, this paper presents the current working definition, discusses a methodology that may be used by NRC licensees to identify Mixed LLW, and provides responses to anticipated questions from licensees about the definition. 3 references, 1 figure

  16. Overview of resuspension model: application to low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Resuspension is one of the potential pathways to man for radioactive or chemical contaminants that are in the biosphere. In waste management, spills or other surface contamination can serve as a source for resuspension during the operational phase. After the low-level waste disposal area is closed, radioactive materials can be brought to the surface by animals or insects or, in the long term, the surface can be removed by erosion. Any of these methods expose the material to resuspension in the atmosphere. Intrusion into the waste mass can produce resuspension of potential hazard to the intruder. Removal of items from the waste mass by scavengers or archeologists can result in potential resuspension exposure to others handling or working with the object. The ways in which resuspension can occur are wind resuspension, mechanical resuspension and local resuspension. While methods of predicting exposure are not accurate, they include the use of the resuspension factor, the resuspension rate and mass loading of the air

  17. Interpretation of low-level environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, C.C.

    1982-01-01

    Levels of radioactivity in the environment from worldwide fallout have decreased by about a factor of 10 since the early 1970's and many environmental concentrations are now less than the routine estimated lower limit of detection. To accurately represent these data and to assist in evaluating very low levels of radioactivity, each instrumental value with its statistical counting error should be reported. In some instances the background count of the instrument exceeds the sample count resulting in a value that is less than zero (a negative concentration). Evaluation of these negative numbers along with zero and positive concentrations over a suitable sample population can yield important information about concentrations that are less than routine minimum levels of detection. Actual instrumental values (negative, zero and positive) with associated statistical counting errors have been reported by the Environmental Monitoring Group at the Savannah River Plant since 1977. Methods for evaluating these data are discussed and empirical data presented to illustrate important points

  18. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin

  19. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing

  20. SNS Low-Level RF Control System Design and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hengjie; Crofford, Mark; Doolittle, Lawrence; Kasemir, Kay-Uwe; Piller, Maurice; Ratti, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    A full digital Low-Level RF controller has been developed for SNS LINAC. Its design is a good example of a modern digital implementation of the classic control theory. The digital hardware for all the control and DSP functionalities, including the final vector modulation, is implemented on a single high-density FPGA. Two models for the digital hardware have been written in VHDL and Verilog respectively, based on a very low latency control algorithm, and both have been being used for supporting the testing and commissioning the LINAC to the date. During the commissioning, the flexibility and ability for precise controls that only digital design on a larger FPGA can offer has proved to be a necessity for meeting the great challenge of a high-power pulsed SCL.

  1. Licensing the California low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; Junkert, R.

    1992-01-01

    California has made significant progress toward the issuance of a license to construct and operate the Southwestern Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. However, obstacles to completing construction and preparing to receive waste still exist. This paper will describe the technical licensing issues, EIR/S process, political events, and public interactions that have impacted on California regulators' ability to complete the license application review and reach a decision on issuing a license. Issues associated with safely and liability evaluations, finalization of the environmental impact report, and land transfer processes involving multiple state, federal, and local agencies will be identified. Major issues upon which public and political opposition is focusing will also be described. (author)

  2. Modularized system for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; DiSibio, R.

    1985-01-01

    A modularized system for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste is presented that attempts to overcome the past problems with shallow land burial and gain public acceptance. All waste received at the disposal site is packaged into reinforced concrete modules which are filled with grout, covered and sealed. The hexagonal shape modules are placed in a closely packed array in a disposal unit. The structural stability provided by the modules allow a protective cover constructed of natural materials to be installed, and the disposal units are decommissioned as they are filled. The modules are designed to be recoverable in the event remedial action is necessary. The cost of disposal with a facility of this type is comparable to current prices of shallow land burial facilities. The system is intended to address the needs of generators, regulators, communities, elected officials, licensees and future generations

  3. Savannah River Plant low-level waste incinerator demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A two-year demonstration facility was constructed at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) to incinerate suspect contaminated solid and low-level solvent wastes. Since startup in January 1984, 4460 kilograms and 5300 liters of simulated (uncontaminated) solid and solvent waste have been incinerated to establish the technical and operating data base for the facility. Combustion safeguards have been enhanced, process controls and interlocks refined, some materials handling problems identified and operating experience gained as a result of the 6 month cold run-in. Volume reductions of 20:1 for solid and 25:1 for solvent waste have been demonstrated. Stack emissions (NO 2 , SO 2 , CO, and particulates) were only 0.5% of the South Carolina ambient air quality standards. Radioactive waste processing is scheduled to begin in July 1984. 2 figures, 2 tables

  4. Summertime Low-Level Jets over the Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensrud, D.J. [NOAA/ERL/National Severe Storms Lab., Norman, OK (United States); Pfeifer, S. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The sky over the southern Great Plains Cloud and Atmospheric Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program during the predawn and early morning hours often is partially obstructed by stratocumulus, stratus fractus, or cumulus fractus that are moving rapidly to the north, even through the surface winds are weak. This cloud movement is evidence of the low-level jet (LLJ), a wind speed maximum that occurs in the lowest few kilometers of the atmosphere. Owing to the wide spacing between upper-air sounding sites and the relatively infrequent sounding launches, LLJ evolution has been difficult to observe adequately, even though the effects of LLJs on moisture flux into North America are large. Model simulation of the LLJ is described.

  5. Reliability review of the LHC collimators low level control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, A.; Donze, M.; Losito, R.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC collimators' low level control system is responsible for the positioning, with an accuracy of a few um, of more than 500 motor axes located around the entire LHC tunnel and synchronized at us level,The collimators' axes position is verified in Real Time, monitoring at 100 Hz more than 700 LVDT positioning sensors. Apart from the challenging requirements of timing and positioning accuracy, the system is characterized by a high level of reliability since the collimators have the crucial function of machine protection. In this paper we focus on the architectural and technical choices adopted to guarantee the level of reliability required by the application. We also present the tools and solutions developed to manage this huge control system making the support easier and faster for its operation. (authors)

  6. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas

  7. Effects of high vs low-level radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to appreciate adequately the various possible effects of radiation, particularly from high-level vs low-level radiation exposure (HLRE, vs LLRE), it is necessary to understand the substantial differences between (a) exposure as used in exposure-incidence curves, which are always initially linear and without threshold, and (b) dose as used in dose-response curves, which always have a threshold, above which the function is curvilinear with increasing slope. The differences are discussed first in terms of generally familiar nonradiation situations involving dose vs exposure, and then specifically in terms of exposure to radiation, vs a dose of radiation. Examples are given of relevant biomedical findings illustrating that, while dose can be used with HLRE, it is inappropriate and misleading the LLRE where exposure is the conceptually correct measure of the amount of radiation involved

  8. Dose response curves for effects of low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    The linear dose-response model used by international committees to assess the genetic and carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation appears to be the most reasonable interpretation of the available scientific data that are relevant to this topic. There are, of course, reasons to believe that this model may overestimate radiation hazards in certain instances, a fact acknowledged in recent reports of these committees. The linear model is now also being utilized to estimate the potential carcinogenic hazards of other agents such as asbestos and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This model implies that there is no safe dose for any of these agents and that potential health hazards will increase in direct proportion to total accumulated dose. The practical implication is the recommendation that all exposures should be kept 'as low as reasonably achievable, economic and social factors being taken into account'. (auth)

  9. Very Low Level Radioactive Solid Waste Management in CHINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting Jun [No. 117 Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2011-06-15

    This paper introduces the policy and regulations on very low level waste (VLLW) management in China. Given the important decommissioning and site restoration program of the old facility, it is considered necessary to create a new disposal facility dedicated to VLLW. Many general design principles are in common with to the disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste (LILW), namely the isolation of the waste by means of a multibarrier system, but using bentonite and/or high density polyethylene membranes instead of the generalized use of concrete barriers. The design of the facility is consistent with the design of disposal facilities for hazardous waste. The engineering design of two VLLW disposal facilities is introduced.

  10. Incineration systems for low level and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of technologies has emerged for incineration of combustible radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. Evaluation and selection of an incineration system for a particular application from such a large field of options are often confusing. This paper presents several current incineration technologies applicable to Low Level Waste (LLW), hazardous waste, and mixed waste combustion treatment. The major technologies reviewed include controlled-air, rotary kiln, fluidized bed, and liquid injection. Coupled with any incineration technique is the need to select a compatible offgas effluent cleaning system. This paper also reviews the various methods of treating offgas emissions for acid vapor, particulates, organics, and radioactivity. Such effluent control systems include the two general types - wet and dry scrubbing with a closer look at quenching, inertial systems, fabric filtration, gas absorption, adsorption, and various other filtration techniques. Selection criteria for overall waste incineration systems are discussed as they relate to waste characterization

  11. Low-level waste management - suggested solutions for problem wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechin, W.H.; Armstrong, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Problem wastes are those wastes which are difficult or require unusual expense to place into a waste form acceptable under the requirements of 10 CFR 61 or the disposal site operators. Brookhaven National Laboratory has been investigating the use of various solidification agents as part of the DOE Low-Level Waste Management Program for several years. Two of the leading problem wastes are ion exchange resins and organic liquids. Ion exchange resins can be solidified in Portland cement up to about 25 wt % resin, but waste forms loaded to this degree exhibit significantly reduced compressive strength and may disintegrate when immersed in water. Ion exchange resins can also be incorporated into organic agents. Mound Laboratory has been investigating the use of a joule-heated glass melter as a means of disposing of ion exchange resins and organic liquids in addition to other combustible wastes

  12. Operational experience with Seibersdorf low-level incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, G.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains information about an excess air incinerator which burned low level β and γ wastes (also α up to determined limits). The incinerator was started up in 1980 and it is clear that in a technical plant of such magnitude, some changes and alterations will be needed to be overcome according to the experiences of operation. This paper - after a short description of the incinerator plant itself - gives a summary of some of the operation and the changes which are made in the plant according to these facts. A partial redesign of the incinerator plant in the first half of 1985 resulted in a very satisfying new design, which proved its superiority during the runs in 1985 and 1986

  13. Low-level wind response to mesoscale pressure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, J. R.; Physick, W. L.

    1983-09-01

    Observations are presented which show a strong correlation between low-level wind behaviour (e.g., rotation near the surface) and the passage of mesoscale pressure systems. The latter are associated with frontal transition zones, are dominated by a pressure-jump line and a mesoscale high pressure area, and produce locally large horizontal pressure gradients. The wind observations are simulated by specifying a time sequence of perturbation pressure gradient and subsequently solving the vertically-integrated momentum equations with appropriate initial conditions. Very good agreement is found between observed and calculated winds; in particular, (i) a 360 ° rotation in wind on passage of the mesoscale high; (ii) wind-shift lines produced dynamically by the pressure-jump line; (iii) rapid linear increase in wind speed on passage of the pressure jump.

  14. Oak Ridge Low Level Waste Management Task Force summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    New facilities are required in the next five years to manage low level radioactive wastes (LLW) produced on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF) was planned to provide the needed additional facilities beginning in late 1985. The CWDF was planned as a shallow land burial facility to dispose of non-stabilized LLW. However, comments on the CWDF Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) received from the State of Tennessee, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission identified major issues related to the treatment of alternatives as required by the National Environmental Policy Act, and the potential for unacceptable groundwater contamination resulting from shallow land burial of non-stabilized waste. A series of initial and detailed evaluations are being conducted to develop the basic environmental performance and cost information needed to compare several LLW management approaches and arrive at a proposed system for development. The evaluations are targeted for completion by October

  15. Chemical hazards from decontamination solutions in low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, L.; Miller, A.; Turney, J.; Naughton, M.; IMPELL Corp., Walnut Creek, CA; Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Recent regulations are focussing more attention on the non-radioactive matrix materials associated with radioactive wastes. Decontamination of operating facilities is becoming a more significant source of low-level waste. This study reviewed the chemical and biological hazards of over 50 decontamination processes. Seventeen of the most prominent hard and soft decontamination processes were examined in detail. The chemical and biological hazards of these seventeen are presented in this paper. These hazards influence the choice of radwaste processing and packaging operations and methods. Federal, state and local regulations further impact on operations and waste disposal. Hazards to personnel, in plant and off-site, resulting from the decontamination cycle are evaluated. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  16. The development of gate monitor for low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Watanabe, Michito; Kato, Tatsuo

    1994-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated from nuclear power plants in Japan, have been deposited in the yard of each power plant. At present, it is stored in about 500,000 drum cans (200l each). These drum cans are carried to Mutsu-ogawara Port by special transport ships and then transferred to Rokkasho LLW transport trucks (special vehicles) for storage. The gate monitor is used to automatically measure the dose rate on the vehicles loaded with transport vessels from a remote location, to ensure the safe transportation from Mutsu-ogawara Port the Burying Center. It is a new system which has been developed for effective measurement of dose rate on a number of transport vessels in a short time. This system is the first in the world for measuring dose rate on vehicles. Such a system cannot be found in any country of the world. (author)

  17. Solid, low-level radioactive waste certification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, W.H.

    1991-11-01

    The Hanford Site solid waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities accept solid, low-level radioactive waste from onsite and offsite generators. This manual defines the certification program that is used to provide assurance that the waste meets the Hanford Site waste acceptance criteria. Specifically, this program defines the participation and responsibilities of Westinghouse Hanford Company Solid Waste Engineering Support, Westinghouse Hanford Company Quality Assurance, and both onsite and offsite waste generators. It is intended that waste generators use this document to develop certification plans and quality assurance program plans. This document is also intended for use by Westinghouse Hanford Company solid waste technical staff involved in providing assurance that generators have implemented a waste certification program. This assurance involves review and approval of generator certification plans, and review of generator's quality assurance program plans to ensure that they address all applicable requirements. The document also details the Westinghouse Hanford Company Waste Management Audit and Surveillance Program. 5 refs

  18. Operation of low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.C.; Drolet, T.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Campbell, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ontaro Hydro's radioactive waste incinerator designed to reduce the volume of low-level combustible wastes from nuclear generating station's was declared in-service in September 1977. Hiterto about 1500 m 3 of combustible waste have been processed in over 90 separate batches. The process has resulted in 40:1 reduction in the volume and 12.5:1 reduction in the weight of the Type 1 wastes. The ultimate volume reduction factor after storage is 23:1. Airborne emissions has been maintained at the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 % of the Derived Emission Limits. Incineration of radioactive combustible wastes has been proven feasible, and will remain as one of the most important processes in Ontario Hydro's Radioactive Waste Management Program

  19. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  20. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report

  1. Effect of interstitial low level laser stimulation in skin density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seulki; Ha, Myungjin; Lee, Sangyeob; Yu, Sungkon; Park, Jihoon; Radfar, Edalat; Hwang, Dong Hyun; Lee, Han A.; Kim, Hansung; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    As the interest in skin was increased, number of studies on skin care also have been increased. The reduction of skin density is one of the symptoms of skin aging. It reduces elasticity of skin and becomes the reason of wrinkle formation. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been suggested as one of the effective therapeutic methods for skin aging as in hasten to change skin density. This study presents the effect of a minimally invasive laser needle system (MILNS) (wavelength: 660nm, power: 20mW) in skin density. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Group 1 didn't receive any laser stimulation as a control group. Group 2 and 3 as test groups were exposed to MILNS with energy of 8J and 6J on rabbits' dorsal side once a week, respectively. Skin density of rabbits was measured every 12 hours by using an ultrasound skin scanner.

  2. Alternative techniques for low-level waste shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, G.B.; Mezga, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    Experience to date relative to the shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) indicates that the physical stability of the disposal unit and the hydrologic isolation of the waste are the two most important factors in assuring disposal site performance. Disposal unit stability can be ensured by providing stable waste packages and waste forms, compacting backfill material, and filling the void spaces between the packages. Hydrologic isolation can be achieved though a combination of proper site selection, subsurface drainage controls, internal trench drainage systems, and immobilization of the waste. A generalized design of a LLW disposal site that would provide the desired long-term isolation of the waste is discussed. While this design will be more costly than current practices, it will provide additional confidence in predicted and reliability and actual site performance

  3. Volume reduction by crystallization of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Murray, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes containing boric acid, borax, or sodium sulfate, with radioactive contaminants, are generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. These wastes require disposal, and as such, it is economically and environmentally desirable to reduce their volume. Crystallization was examined in the laboratory as a means of accomplishing this. The crystallizer was operated in both of two modes: evaporative cooling and total evaporation. A 12 wt% boric acid waste feed was concentrated to a 40 to 45 wt% slurry in both modes of operation. Using pure boric acid, a slurry containing over 60 wt% was obtained. An 18.5 wt% borax waste feed was concentrated to 50 wt% in the total evaporative mode and 70 wt% in the evaporatively cooled mode. A 22 wt% sodium sulfate feed was concentrated to a 78 wt% slurry in the total evaporative mode. For all of the feeds, this represents a 4- to 5-fold volume reduction by the crystallizer

  4. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  5. Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirovich Moskvin, Sergey; Ivanovich Apolikhin, Oleg

    2018-01-01

    In half of the cases, the infertility of the couple is due to the disorder of the male fertility. The leading factors that cause male infertility are urogenital infections, disorders of the immune system, testicular and prostate pathology, as well as endocrine disorders. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is a very effective physical therapy method, used in many areas of medicine, including obstetrics and gynaecology, andrology and urology; and it is recommended as an integral part of the complex treatment of infertility. The literature review showed that LLLT is beneficial in treating male infertility. Laser can significantly improve the survival, motility and speed of movement of spermatozoa. Laser therapy of patients with prostatitis and vesiculitis can eliminate infiltrative-exudative changes, improve reproductive and copulatory functions. Local illumination of red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra should be combined with intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) of red (635 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) (365 nm) spectra. PMID:29806585

  6. EPRI'S low-level waste management R ampersand D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornibrook, C.

    1997-01-01

    The immediate challenges facing every organization today are to improve its productivity and increase customer satisfaction. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) responded to this challenge by broadening the scope of its low-level waste (LLW) management program. EPRI offered utilities on-site assistance in evaluating and optimizing their liquid- and solid-waste management programs. The goal is to identify open-quotes cheaper, better, and easierclose quotes solutions, which are documented in a series of reports. These provide step-by-step evaluation processes and straightforward implementation methods. Utility professionals are provided with the necessary technical information and justification for informed waste management decisions. The resulting average annual savings is consistently in excess of $700,000 per facility. The program continues to grow and serves as a model for a number of existing and emerging EPRI programs

  7. WRAP low level waste (LLW) glovebox acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.J.

    1998-02-17

    In June 28, 1997, the Low Level Waste (LLW) glovebox was tested using glovebox acceptance test procedure 13031A-85. The primary focus of the glovebox acceptance test was to examine control system interlocks, display menus, alarms, and operator messages. Limited mechanical testing involving the drum ports, hoists, drum lifter, compacted drum lifter, drum tipper, transfer car, conveyors, lidder/delidder device and the supercompactor were also conducted. As of November 24, 1997, 2 of the 131 test exceptions that affect the LLW glovebox remain open. These items will be tracked and closed via the WRAP Master Test Exception Database. As part of Test Exception resolution/closure the responsible individual closing the Test Exception performs a retest of the affected item(s) to ensure the identified deficiency is corrected, and, or to test items not previously available to support testing. Test Exceptions are provided as appendices to this report.

  8. Measurement of low levels of cesium-137 in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milham, R.C.; Kantelo, M.V.

    1984-10-01

    Large volume water sampling systems were developed to measure very low levels of cesium-137 in river water and in finished water from water treatment plants. Three hundred to six hundred liters of filtered water are passed through the inorganic ion exchanger potassium cobalti-ferrocyanide to remove greater than 90% of the cesium. Measurement of cesium-137 by gamma ray spectrometry results in a sensitivity of 0.001 pCi/L. Portable as well as stationary samplers were developed to encompass a variety of applications. Results of a one year study of water from the Savannah River and from water treatment plants processing Savannah River water are presented. 3 references, 7 figures

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Commission low-level radioactive waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    It is believed that the priorities of NRC work in low-level waste management as described in this action plan are consistent with the needs of the overall national waste management program. Present licensing procedures and criteria are adequate for the short term, and priority attention is being given to the longer term, when the quantities of waste to be managed will be greater and licensing demand will increase. The plan makes use of expertise within NRC to achieve early results and is coordinated with other Federal agencies having related responsibilities. Since NRC decisions will affect industry, other governmental jurisdictions, private interest groups, and the public at large, procedures were developed to involve them in planning the program

  10. Treatment of ORNL liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Fowler, V.L.; Robinson, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Discontinuation of the hydrofracture disposal method at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has caused intensive efforts to reduce liquid waste generation. Improving the treatment of slightly radioactive liquid waste, called process waste, has reduced the volume of the resulting contaminated liquid radioactive waste effluent by 66%. Proposed processing improvements could eliminate the contaminated liquid effluent and reduce solid low-level waste by an additional one-third. The improved process meets stringent discharge limits for radionuclides. Discharge limits for radionuclides are expected to be enforced at the outfall of the treatment plant to a creek; currently, limits are enforced at the reservation boundary. Plant discharge is monitored according to the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for ORNL. 1 ref., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etoh, H. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1980-10-01

    Effects of continual irradiation for a long term on fishes and aquatic invertebrates were outlined. Effects of low-level chronic irradiation on aquatic organisms were less than acute effects induced when the same dose was irradiated once. The radiosensitivity of the genital organ to continual irradiation was high. There was a difference in radiosensitivity of the genital organ between female and male, and the degree of the difference varied according to kinds of animals. In an experiment on continual irradiation of adult killifishes, ova recovered from radiation damage, but spermatozoa did not recover. Incubation rates of eggs obtained from aquatic organisms which lived in water where radioactive sewage flowed into decreased significantly, and the frequency of reverse position of salivary gland chromosomes which were peculiar to exposed organisms increased in larvae of Chironomus tentans.

  12. Legislator's guide to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.M.; Melson, L.G.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of the guide is to provide state legislators and their staff with information on low-level radioactive waste management, issues of special concern to the states, and policy options. During 1979, producers of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) faced a crisis. Two of the three commercial disposal sites were temporarily closed and some LLW producers were running short on storage space. For hospitals, clinics, research organizations, and some industries, this meant potential curtailment of activities that produced these materials. Commercial nuclear reactors were not as hard hit during the crisis because they have larger storage areas. The two sites at Beatty, Nevada, and Hanford, Washington, reopened and the immediate crisis was averted. However, the longer term problem of shortage of disposal capacity was just beginning to be recognized. States should be concerned with this problem for several reasons. First, all states produce LLW although the volumes differ among states. Second, states have the responsibility to protect the public health and welfare of their citizens. Third, states may be given the authority to regulate LLW disposal if they enter into agreements with the federal government (Agreement States Program), and 26 states have that authority. Fourth, because of the long-term monitoring and surveillance necessary at a disposal site, states rather than private industry will be held responsible for ensuring that the disposal site is performing safely. Finally, Congress established a policy in 1980 that each state is responsible for the safe disposal of LLW generated within its borders. This policy also includes provisions that could lead to excluding states from using disposal facilities unless they have entered into regional agreements with other states. Two primary options exist for a state: developing its own disposal facility for LLW generated within its borders or joining with other states to develop a regional disposal facility

  13. Low-level radioactive waste data base management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roles, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the uses of information obtained from a national system for management of low-level waste shipment manifest information from the perspective of the NRC Division of Waste Management (DWM). A background section is first presented which briefly reviews some of the basic attributes of a workable system, as well as the existing data management systems established by the disposal facility operators. This background leads into a more detailed discussion of the major uses to which a regulatory agency would put the manifest information, including technical studies and analyses of a broad nature as well as day-to-day compliance with regulations and disposal site license conditions. The next two sections respectively summarize NRC's current data base capabilities as well as the limitations in these capabilities. The final section addresses the question: Where do we go from Here? One option under consideration is a rule making which would: (1) set forth the minimum information to be included in shipment manifests in greater detail than that currently specified in 10 CFR 20.311, and (2) require that operators of all low-level waste disposal facilities reduce the information on incoming shipment manifests to an electronic data format which would be periodically forwarded to a centralized location. However, this option would conflict with other NRC priorities and probably require considerable time to implement. Much of the groundwork for a national system has already been prepared, and NRC's preferred approach is to work with States, Compacts, disposal site operators, and DOE to upgrade these existing capabilities. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  14. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.; Jacobs, D.G.; Lee, D.W.

    1986-02-01

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  15. Considerations for alternative low-level radioactive disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    In the immediate future, there is a need for low-level radioactive disposal sites to accommodate wastes that would otherwise be placed at a later date in permanent, government sanctioned ''compact'' sites. Until these ''compact'' sites become operational, a potential, relatively low-cost alternative exists in the numerous inactive uranium processing sites that are likewise proposed for remedial action removal or stabilization operations. This paper addressed disposal from the aspects of engineering design, economics and liability of participating parties. Many uranium (and by-product) processing facilities in the western states now stand idle due to current economic conditions within the industry. Many more were previously deactivated for various reasons. All must be dealt with under the UMTRA Program Guidelines with regard to removal, reclamation or other remedial action activities. With cooperative efforts, some of these sites would appear to be suitable for disposal of small volume, low-level radioactive wastes that presently render urban properties valueless in terms of real estate and aesthetic values. Likely sites would appear to be those slated for in-place stabilization and reclamation, particularly where the urban property material has a lower level of radioactivity than the disposal site material. The resultant impacts for site stabilization and reclamation would be solely in the areas of increased material volumes (generally requiring a minimal increase in engineering design complexity) and liability. Clearly, liability will be the overriding factor in such an approach. With the complex hierarchy of regulatory agencies involved and the private sector, what appears to be a relative simple and economic approach may have extreme difficulty in achieving reality

  16. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  17. Costs of mixed low-level waste stabilization options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Cooley, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Selection of final waste forms to be used for disposal of DOE's mixed low-level waste (MLLW) depends on the waste form characteristics and total life cycle cost. In this paper the various cost factors associated with production and disposal of the final waste form are discussed and combined to develop life-cycle costs associated with several waste stabilization options. Cost factors used in this paper are based on a series of treatment system studies in which cost and mass balance analyses were performed for several mixed low-level waste treatment systems and various waste stabilization methods including vitrification, grout, phosphate bonded ceramic and polymer. Major cost elements include waste form production, final waste form volume, unit disposal cost, and system availability. Production of grout costs less than the production of a vitrified waste form if each treatment process has equal operating time (availability) each year; however, because of the lower volume of a high temperature slag, certification and handling costs and disposal costs of the final waste form are less. Both the total treatment cost and life cycle costs are higher for a system producing grout than for a system producing high temperature slag, assuming equal system availability. The treatment costs decrease with increasing availability regardless of the waste form produced. If the availability of a system producing grout is sufficiently greater than a system producing slag, then the cost of treatment for the grout system will be less than the cost for the slag system, and the life cycle cost (including disposal) may be less depending on the unit disposal cost. Treatment and disposal costs will determine the return on investment in improved system availability

  18. Low-level laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and maturation of keratinocytes during epithelial wound repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Felipe F.; Simões, Alyne; Corrêa, Luciana; Aranha, Ana Cecília C.; Giudice, Fernanda S.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Sousa, Suzana C.O.M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been extensively employed to improve epithelial wound healing, though the exact response of epithelium maturation and stratification after LLLT is unknown. Thus, this study aimed to assess the in vitro growth and differentiation of keratinocytes (KCs) and in vivo wound healing response when treated with LLLT. Human KCs (HaCaT cells) showed an enhanced proliferation with all the employed laser energy densities (3, 6 and 12 J/cm2, 660nm, 100mW), together with an increased expression of Cyclin D1. Moreover, the immunoexpression of proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation (p63, CK10, CK14) all indicated a faster maturation of the migrating KCs in the LLLT-treated wounds. In that way, an improved epithelial healing was promoted by LLLT with the employed parameters; this improvement was confirmed by changes in the expression of several proteins related to epithelial proliferation and maturation. PMID:25411997

  19. In vivo evaluation of battery-operated light-emitting diode-based photodynamic therapy efficacy using tumor volume and biomarker expression as endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidi, Srivalleesha; Mai, Zhiming; Rizvi, Imran; Hempstead, Joshua; Arnason, Stephen; Celli, Jonathan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2015-04-01

    In view of the increase in cancer-related mortality rates in low- to middle-income countries (LMIC), there is an urgent need to develop economical therapies that can be utilized at minimal infrastructure institutions. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a photochemistry-based treatment modality, offers such a possibility provided that low-cost light sources and photosensitizers are available. In this proof-of-principle study, we focus on adapting the PDT light source to a low-resource setting and compare an inexpensive, portable, battery-powered light-emitting diode (LED) light source with a standard, high-cost laser source. The comparison studies were performed in vivo in a xenograft murine model of human squamous cell carcinoma subjected to 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX PDT. We observed virtually identical control of the tumor burden by both the LED source and the standard laser source. Further insights into the biological response were evaluated by biomarker analysis of necrosis, microvessel density, and hypoxia [carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) expression] among groups of control, LED-PDT, and laser-PDT treated mice. There is no significant difference in the percent necrotic volume and CAIX expression in tumors that were treated with the two different light sources. These encouraging preliminary results merit further investigations in orthotopic animal models of cancers prevalent in LMICs.

  20. Session 35 - Panel: Remaining US Disposition Issues for Orphan or Small Volume Low Level and Low Level Mixed Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blauvelt, Richard; Small, Ken; Gelles, Christine; McKenney, Dale; Franz, Bill; Loveland, Kaylin; Lauer, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Faced with closure schedules as a driving force, significant progress has been made during the last 2 years on the disposition of DOE mixed waste streams thought previously to be problematic. Generators, the Department of Energy and commercial vendors have combined to develop unique disposition paths for former orphan streams. Recent successes and remaining issues will be discussed. The session will also provide an opportunity for Federal agencies to share lessons learned on low- level and mixed low-level waste challenges and identify opportunities for future collaboration. This panel discussion was organized by PAC member Dick Blauvelt, Navarro Research and Engineering Inc who served as co-chair along with Dave Eaton from INL. In addition, George Antonucci, Duratek Barnwell and Rich Conley, AFSC were invited members of the audience, prepared to contribute the Barnwell and DOD perspective to the issues as needed. Mr. Small provide information regarding the five year 20K M3 window of opportunity at the Nevada Test Site for DOE contractors to dispose of mixed waste that cannot be received at the Energy Solutions (Envirocare) site in Utah because of activity levels. He provided a summary of the waste acceptance criteria and the process sites must follow to be certified to ship. When the volume limit or time limit is met, the site will undergo a RCRA closure. Ms. Gelles summarized the status of the orphan issues, commercial options and the impact of the EM reorganization on her program. She also announced that there would be a follow-on meeting in 2006 to the very successful St. Louis meeting of last year. It will probably take place in Chicago in July. Details to be announced. Mr. McKenney discussed progress made at the Hanford Reservation regarding disposal of their mixed waste inventory. The news is good for the Hanford site but not good for the rest of the DOE complex since shipment for out of state of both low level and low level mixed waste will continue to be

  1. Directions in low-level radioactive-waste management. Planning state policy on low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The majority of states face a growing problem in the management of low-level radioactive waste generated within their borders. The current uncertainty regarding the availability of disposal sites for these waste products exacerbates their increasing generation rate. The purpose of this publication is to assist state governments in planning effective policy to address these problems. Background information is presented on the current situation, the responsibilities of state government, and the assistance available to states from federal agencies and national groups. The document then focuses on state policy planning, including: (a) methodology for assessing a state's current waste management status and for projecting future needs, (b) consideration of waste management options for a state, and (c) insight into the possible effects and implications of planned policies. This information is intended primarily for state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - and does not include detailed technical information on waste characteristics or handling techniques

  2. Management of low level wastes at Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, N.; Ochi, E.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP), after start-up of the commercial operation, radioactive wastes will be generated. Wastes generated from a reprocessing plant generally consist of many kinds of characteristics in view of ''activity level'', ''nuclide composition'', ''chemical properties'', ''physical properties'', and so on. For stable operation of a reprocessing plant, we should t reat , ''condition'' and ''dispose'' these wastes considering these wastes characteristics. To contribute to the nuclear fuel cycle project, it is important to evaluate technologies such as, ''Treatment'', ''Conditioning'' and ''Final Disposal'', not only for technical but also for economical aspects. Considering the final disposal in the future, the basic policy in ''Treatment'' and ''Conditioning'' at RRP is shown below: Recover and reuse chemicals (such as nitric acid and TBP, etc.) in plant; Radioactive waste shall be divided, classified and managed according to activity level, nuclide composition, the radiation level, its physical properties, chemical properties, etc.; Treat them based on ''classification'' management with proper combination; Condition them as intermediate forms in order to keep flexibility in the future disposal method; Original volume of annually generated wastes at RRP is estimated as 5600m3 except highly radioactive vitrified waste, and these wastes shall be treated in the following units, which are now under commisioning, in order to reduce and stabilize wastes. Low-level concentrated liquid waste to be treated with a ''Drying and peptization'' unit; Spent solvent to be treated with a ''Pyrolysis and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; Relatively low-level non-alfa flammable wastes to be treated with a ''Incineration and hydrothermal solidification'' unit; CB/BP (Channel Box and Burnable Poison) to be processed with a ''Cutting'' unit; Other wastes to be kept as their generated state with a ''Intermediate storage''. As a result of these

  3. Ultra Low Level Environmental Neutron Measurements Using Superheated Droplet Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A.C. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Felizardo, M.; Girard, T.A.; Kling, A.; Ramos, A.R. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Lisboa. Av. Prof. Gama Pinto, 2, 1649- 003 Lisboa (Portugal); Marques, J.G.; Prudencio, M.I.; Marques, R.; Carvalho, F.P. [Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    Through the application of superheated droplet detectors (SDDs), the SIMPLE project for the direct search for dark matter (DM) reached the most restrictive limits on the spin-dependent sector to date. The experiment is based on the detection of recoils following WIMP-nuclei interaction, mimicking those from neutron scattering. The thermodynamic operation conditions yield the SDDs intrinsically insensitive to radiations with linear energy transfer below ∼150 keVμm{sup -1} such as photons, electrons, muons and neutrons with energies below ∼40 keV. Underground facilities are increasingly employed for measurements in a low-level radiation background (DM search, gamma-spectroscopy, intrinsic soft-error rate measurements, etc.), where the rock overburden shields against cosmic radiation. In this environment the SDDs are sensitive only to α-particles and neutrons naturally emitted from the surrounding materials. Recently developed signal analysis techniques allow discrimination between neutron and α-induced signals. SDDs are therefore a promising instrument for low-level neutron and α measurements, namely environmental neutron measurements and α-contamination assays. In this work neutron measurements performed in the challenging conditions of the latest SIMPLE experiment (1500 mwe depth with 50-75 cm water shield) are reported. The results are compared with those obtained by detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the neutron background induced by {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th traces in the facility, shielding and detector materials. Calculations of the neutron energy distribution yield the following neutron fluence rates (in 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}): thermal (<0.5 eV): 2.5; epithermal (0.5 eV-100 keV): 2.2; fast (>1 MeV): 3.9. Signal rates were derived using standard cross sections and codes routinely employed in reactor dosimetry. The measured and calculated neutron count rates per unit of active mass were 0.15 ct/kgd and 0.33 ct/kg-d respectively. As the major

  4. Synaptic Correlates of Low-Level Perception in V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard-Mercier, Florian; Carelli, Pedro V; Pananceau, Marc; Troncoso, Xoana G; Frégnac, Yves

    2016-04-06

    The computational role of primary visual cortex (V1) in low-level perception remains largely debated. A dominant view assumes the prevalence of higher cortical areas and top-down processes in binding information across the visual field. Here, we investigated the role of long-distance intracortical connections in form and motion processing by measuring, with intracellular recordings, their synaptic impact on neurons in area 17 (V1) of the anesthetized cat. By systematically mapping synaptic responses to stimuli presented in the nonspiking surround of V1 receptive fields, we provide the first quantitative characterization of the lateral functional connectivity kernel of V1 neurons. Our results revealed at the population level two structural-functional biases in the synaptic integration and dynamic association properties of V1 neurons. First, subthreshold responses to oriented stimuli flashed in isolation in the nonspiking surround exhibited a geometric organization around the preferred orientation axis mirroring the psychophysical "association field" for collinear contour perception. Second, apparent motion stimuli, for which horizontal and feedforward synaptic inputs summed in-phase, evoked dominantly facilitatory nonlinear interactions, specifically during centripetal collinear activation along the preferred orientation axis, at saccadic-like speeds. This spatiotemporal integration property, which could constitute the neural correlate of a human perceptual bias in speed detection, suggests that local (orientation) and global (motion) information is already linked within V1. We propose the existence of a "dynamic association field" in V1 neurons, whose spatial extent and anisotropy are transiently updated and reshaped as a function of changes in the retinal flow statistics imposed during natural oculomotor exploration. The computational role of primary visual cortex in low-level perception remains debated. The expression of this "pop-out" perception is often assumed

  5. Pathway analysis for alternate low-level waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.R.; Kozak, M.W.; McCord, J.T.; Olague, N.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate a complete set of environmental pathways for disposal options and conditions that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) may analyze for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) license application. The regulations pertaining In the past, shallow-land burial has been used for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste. However, with the advent of the State Compact system of LLW disposal, many alternative technologies may be used. The alternative LLW disposal facilities include below- ground vault, tumulus, above-ground vault, shaft, and mine disposal This paper will form the foundation of an update of the previously developed Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/NRC LLW performance assessment methodology. Based on the pathway assessment for alternative disposal methods, a determination will be made about whether the current methodology can satisfactorily analyze the pathways and phenomena likely to be important for the full range of potential disposal options. We have attempted to be conservative in keeping pathways in the lists that may usually be of marginal importance. In this way we can build confidence that we have spanned the range of cases likely to be encountered at a real site. Results of the pathway assessment indicate that disposal methods can be categorized in groupings based on their depth of disposal. For the deep disposal options of shaft and mine disposal, the key pathways are identical. The shallow disposal options, such as tumulus, shallow-land, and below-ground vault disposal also may be grouped together from a pathway analysis perspective. Above-ground vault disposal cannot be grouped with any of the other disposal options. The pathway analysis shows a definite trend concerning depth of disposal. The above-ground option has the largest number of significant pathways. As the waste becomes more isolated, the number of significant pathways is reduced. Similar to shallow-land burial, it was found that for all

  6. LOWRAD 96. Methods and applications of low-level radioactivity measurements. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, J [ed.; Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    The newest developments in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements and new applications for existing and low-level measuring facilities are presented. The contributions mostly were devoted to basic physical aspects and applications of low-level counting. Papers on chemical separation and preparation techniques and on low-level radiation dose determinations were also presented. (DG)

  7. Alternatives generation and analysis report for immobilized low-level waste interim storage architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burbank, D.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-01

    The Immobilized Low-Level Waste Interim Storage subproject will provide storage capacity for immobilized low-level waste product sold to the U.S. Department of Energy by the privatization contractor. This report describes alternative Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architectures, evaluation criteria, and evaluation results to support the Immobilized Low-Level Waste storage system architecture selection decision process.

  8. 1986 Annual report on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report summarizes the progress of states and compact regions without low-level waste disposal sites (non-sited compact regions and nonmember states) in 1986 in siting new low-level waste disposal facilities. It also reports the volume of low-level waste received for disposal in 1986 by commercially operated low-level waste disposal facilities. 6 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Integrated software system for low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worku, G.

    1995-01-01

    In the continually changing and uncertain world of low level waste management, many generators in the US are faced with the prospect of having to store their waste on site for the indefinite future. This consequently increases the set of tasks performed by the generators in the areas of packaging, characterizing, classifying, screening (if a set of acceptance criteria applies), and managing the inventory for the duration of onsite storage. When disposal sites become available, it is expected that the work will require re-evaluating the waste packages, including possible re-processing, re-packaging, or re-classifying in preparation for shipment for disposal under the regulatory requirements of the time. In this day and age, when there is wide use of computers and computer literacy is at high levels, an important waste management tool would be an integrated software system that aids waste management personnel in conducting these tasks quickly and accurately. It has become evident that such an integrated radwaste management software system offers great benefits to radwaste generators both in the US and other countries. This paper discusses one such approach to integrated radwaste management utilizing some globally accepted radiological assessment software applications

  10. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  11. Mixed low-level waste minimization at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starke, T.P.

    1998-01-01

    During the first six months of University of California 98 Fiscal Year (July--December) Los Alamos National Laboratory has achieved a 57% reduction in mixed low-level waste generation. This has been accomplished through a systems approach that identified and minimized the largest MLLW streams. These included surface-contaminated lead, lead-lined gloveboxes, printed circuit boards, and activated fluorescent lamps. Specific waste minimization projects have been initiated to address these streams. In addition, several chemical processing equipment upgrades are being implemented. Use of contaminated lead is planned for several high energy proton beam stop applications and stainless steel encapsulated lead is being evaluated for other radiological control area applications. INEEL is assisting Los Alamos with a complete systems analysis of analytical chemistry derived mixed wastes at the CMR building and with a minimum life-cycle cost standard glovebox design. Funding for waste minimization upgrades has come from several sources: generator programs, waste management, the generator set-aside program, and Defense Programs funding to INEEL

  12. Argobots: A Lightweight Low-Level Threading and Tasking Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Sangmin; Amer, Abdelhalim; Balaji, Pavan; Bordage, Cyril; Bosilca, George; Brooks, Alex; Carns, Philip; Castello, Adrian; Genet, Damien; Herault, Thomas; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Jindal, Prateek; Kale, Laxmikant V.; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Lifflander, Jonathan; Lu, Huiwei; Meneses, Esteban; Snir, Marc; Sun, Yanhua; Taura, Kenjiro; Beckman, Pete

    2018-03-01

    In the past few decades, a number of user-level threading and tasking models have been proposed in the literature to address the shortcomings of OS-level threads, primarily with respect to cost and flexibility. Current state-of-the-art user-level threading and tasking models, however, either are too specific to applications or architectures or are not as powerful or flexible. In this paper, we present Argobots, a lightweight, low-level threading and tasking framework that is designed as a portable and performant substrate for high-level programming models or runtime systems. Argobots offers a carefully designed execution model that balances generality of functionality with providing a rich set of controls to allow specialization by end users or high-level programming models. We describe the design, implementation, and performance characterization of Argobots and present integrations with three high-level models: OpenMP, MPI, and colocated I/O services. Evaluations show that (1) Argobots, while providing richer capabilities, is competitive with existing simpler generic threading runtimes; (2) our OpenMP runtime offers more efficient interoperability capabilities than production OpenMP runtimes do; (3) when MPI interoperates with Argobots instead of Pthreads, it enjoys reduced synchronization costs and better latency-hiding capabilities; and (4) I/O services with Argobots reduce interference with colocated applications while achieving performance competitive with that of a Pthreads approach.

  13. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  14. Low level radioactive liquid waste decontamination by electrochemical way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronche, E.

    1994-10-01

    As part of the work on decontamination treatments for low level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes, the study of an electro-chemical process has been chosen by the C.E.A. at the Cadarache research centre. The first part of this report describes the main methods used for the decontamination of aqueous solutions. Then an electro-deposition process and an electro-dissolution process are compared on the basis of the decontamination results using genuine radioactive aqueous liquid waste. For ruthenium decontamination, the former process led to very high yields (99.9 percent eliminated). But the elimination of all the other radionuclides (antimony, strontium, cesium, alpha emitters) was only favoured by the latter process (90 percent eliminated). In order to decrease the total radioactivity level of the waste to be treated, we have optimized the electro-dissolution process. That is why the chemical composition of the dissolved anode has been investigated by a mixture experimental design. The radionuclides have been adsorbed on the precipitating products. The separation of the precipitates from the aqueous liquid enabled us to remove the major part of the initial activity. On the overall process some operations have been investigated to minimize waste embedding. Finally, a pilot device (laboratory scale) has been built and tested with genuine radioactive liquid waste. (author). 77 refs., 41 tabs., 55 figs., 4 appendixes

  15. Solid low level waste management guidelines: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnacci, A.; Dalton, D.; Genoa, P.

    1994-11-01

    Since 1989, the nuclear industry has been moving in the direction of greater minimization of low level radioactive waste (LLW). This has been driven in part by increasing regulatory attention, but it also is in response to the desire on the part of nuclear utilities to be more cost efficient and to be environmentally responsive. Over the past half-dozen years, LLW disposal costs have increased dramatically. In addition, improvements in LLW volume reduction technologies have substantially reduced the volume of LLW that is disposed. At the same time, utilities are implementing aggressive source reduction programs and programs to reuse materials so as to extend the useful life of many materials. Thus, there has been a dramatic change in LLW economics and LLW management practices in just the past few years. This report was developed by utility nuclear experts to provide guidance to all utilities on mechanisms for integrating the program economics, advanced volume reduction techniques, and approaches to source reduction. Thus, utilizes will be able to use this report as a guide to optimizing their LLW program economics and minimizing LLW disposal volumes to the smallest reasonable fraction. This report discusses the implementation of these guidelines, management support, waste materials and waste inventory, radioactive tool and equipment management, protective clothing management, processing and volume reduction, solid LLW tracking, outage LLW management, and interim storage of LLW

  16. Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes

  17. Characterization of radionuclude behavior in low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Kirby, L.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Abel, K.H.; Perkins, R.W.

    1982-10-01

    Our laboratory is investigating the subsurface migration of radionuclides in groundwater at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, shallow land-burial site and at a low-level aqueous waste disposal facility. At Maxey Flats, radionuclide and tracer data indicate groundwater communication between a waste trench and an adjacent experimental study area. Areal distributions of radionuclides in surface soil confirm that contamination at Maxey Flats has been largely contained on site. Of the radionuclides detected in the surface soil, only 3 H and 60 Co concentrations appear to be derived from waste. Plutonium exists in the anoxic subsurface waters at Maxey Flats as a reduced, anionic complex; some of the plutonium appears to be complexed with EDTA, whereas organic acids seem to be associated with 137 Cs and 90 Sr. At the aqueous waste disposal site, 3 H and mainly anionic species of certain radionuclides, including 60 Co, 106 Ru, 99 Tc, 131 I, and traces of 238 239 240 Pu, appear to migrate from a trench through soil adjacent to the trench. Radionuclides in the particulate and cationic forms appear to be efficiently retained by the soil. In general, observations indicate that the physicochemical form of the radionuclides mediates their subsurface migration in groundwater at both waste disposal sites

  18. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H.; Hills, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies

  19. Drumlins - Potential low-level radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    A drumlin is a subglacially produced low, streamlined elongate oval hill, mound or ridge with its long axis parallel to the direction of ice flow. It may be composed entirely of till, particularly basal till, or it may have a bedrock core and a relatively thin till outer layer. Most drumlins are less than a half mile long, 400 to 600 feet wide at their base and less than 100 feet high. There are some that are more than a mile long, 1500 to 2000 feet wide and more than 200 feet high. A drumlin has many characteristics which are advantageous to the siting of a low-level radioactive disposal facility. Most drumlins in New York State are composed of basal till which, because of its mode of deposition, may be as dense and impervious as concrete. This composition makes several disposal concepts feasible. Preliminary data and conceptualization indicates a subsurface mined repository paralleling the long axis of a drumlin would meet physical, environmental and long range public safety requirements. A drumlin site could answer many intervenor concerns such as longevity, esthetics, monitoring ability, and inadvertent entry. This paper will describe the structure, composition and engineering significant of the components of a drumlin and will present some alternative concepts for LLRW disposal using a drumlin as a host

  20. Graphics Processors in HEP Low-Level Trigger Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, Roberto; Biagioni, Andrea; Chiozzi, Stefano; Ramusino, Angelo Cotta; Cretaro, Paolo; Lorenzo, Stefano Di; Fantechi, Riccardo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Frezza, Ottorino; Lamanna, Gianluca; Cicero, Francesca Lo; Lonardo, Alessandro; Martinelli, Michele; Neri, Ilaria; Paolucci, Pier Stanislao; Pastorelli, Elena; Piandani, Roberto; Pontisso, Luca; Rossetti, Davide; Simula, Francesco; Sozzi, Marco; Vicini, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Usage of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in the so called general-purpose computing is emerging as an effective approach in several fields of science, although so far applications have been employing GPUs typically for offline computations. Taking into account the steady performance increase of GPU architectures in terms of computing power and I/O capacity, the real-time applications of these devices can thrive in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will examine the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for the synchronous low-level trigger, focusing on tests performed on the trigger system of the CERN NA62 experiment. To successfully integrate GPUs in such an online environment, latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Furthermore, it is assessed how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelized and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be essential to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup